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Sample records for aflatoxin m1 afm1

  1. Aflatoxin M1 Concentration in Various Dairy Products: Evidence for Biologically Reduced Amount of AFM1 in Yoghurt

    PubMed Central

    RAHIMIRAD, Amir; MAALEKINEJAD, Hassan; OSTADI, Araz; YEGANEH, Samal; FAHIMI, Samira

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1), a carcinogenic substance is found in milk and dairy products. The effect of season and type of dairy products on AFMi level in northern Iran was investigated in this study. Methods Three hundred samples (each season 75 samples) including raw and pasteurized milk, yoghurt, cheese, and cream samples were collected from three distinct milk producing farms. The samples were subjected to chemical and solid phase extractions and were analyzed by using HPLC technique. Recovery percentages, limit of detection and limit of quantification values were determined. Results Seventy percent and 98% were the minimum and maximum recoveries for cheese and raw milk, respectively and 0.021 and 0.063 ppb were the limit of detection and limit of quantification values for AFM1. We found that in autumn and winter the highest level (0.121 ppb) of AFM1 in cheese and cream samples and failed to detect any AFM1 in spring samples. Interestingly, our data showed that the yoghurt samples had the lowest level of AFM1 in all seasons. Conclusion There are significant differences between the AFM1 levels in dairy products in various seasons and also various types of products, suggesting spring and summer yoghurt samples as the safest products from AFM1 level point of view. PMID:25927044

  2. Efficient Conjugation of Aflatoxin M1 With Bovine Serum Albumin through Aflatoxin M1-(O-carboxymethyl) Oxime and Production of Anti-aflatoxin M1 Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Khademi, Fatemeh; Mohammadi, Masoud; Kiani, Amir; Haji Hosseini Baghdadabadi, Reza; Parvaneh, Shahram; Mostafaie, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background: Aflatoxins are the most extensively studied group of mycotoxins produced by molds, especially the Aspergillus group, which are highly toxic to animals and humans. Objectives: Since immunoassay is a simple and rapid method for the analysis of many toxic substances in comparison to the chromatographic methods, it is necessary to produce specific and sensitive antibodies for detection of Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1). The current study was conducted to produce bioconjugate of Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) with Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) as well as to generate specific antibodies against AFM1 for immunoassay of the mycotoxin. Materials and Methods: First, AFM1 was converted to AFM1-(O-carboxymethyl) oxime derivative. Then, AFM1-oxime was coupled with BSA and the product was assessed by UV-VIS spectrophotometry. In order to generate polyclonal antibodies against AFM1, rabbits were immunized with BSA-AFM1 conjugate. Produced antibodies were purified using ion exchange chromatography and BSA-Sepharose 4B affinity chromatography. The titers and specificity of the produced antibodies were determined by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Results: The results indicated that coupling of AFM1 with O-(Carboxymethyl) hydroxylamine hemihydrochloride was suitable and 12 moles of AFM1-oxime were successfully coupled to each mole of BSA. In addition, the titers and specificity of the prepared antibody were considerable compared to standard anti-AFM1 antibodies. The relative cross-reactivity of each toxin (relative to AFM1) with purified anti-AFM1 antibodies, as determined by the amount of aflatoxin necessary to cause 50% inhibition of enzyme activity, was 70, 105, 240, and 2500 ng/mL for AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, and AFG2, respectively. Conclusions: The prepared antibody can be used for the development of an ELISA kit to assay AFM1 in milk and other biological fluids. PMID:26034542

  3. Fate of aflatoxin M1 in Iranian white cheese processing.

    PubMed

    Kamkar, A; Karim, G; Aliabadi, F Shojaee; Khaksar, R

    2008-06-01

    Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is an important mycotoxin frequently found in milk and dairy products. AFM1 is a major metabolic product of Aflatoxin B1 and is usually excreted in the milk and urine of dairy cattle that have consumed aflatoxin-contaminated feed. The aim of this study was to determine the AFM1 concentration in curd and whey of Iranian white cheese. The cheese milk samples were artificially contaminated with AFM1 in six levels (0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.25, and 1.75microgL(-1)). Cheese was produced according to Iranian traditional recipe. AFM1 distribution between curd, whey and cheese was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using immunoaffinity column clean up and florescence detection. AFM1 was recovered in whey, curd and cheese in the concentrations of 0.43, 1.47 and 1.57microgL(-1),respectively. The level of Aflatoxin M1 in curd and cheese obtained 3.12- and 3.65-fold more than that in whey that shows the affinity of Aflatoxin M1 to the protein fraction of milk.

  4. Aflatoxin M1 in white cheese and butter consumed in Istanbul, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Aycicek, Hasan; Yarsan, Ender; Sarimehmetoglu, Belgin; Cakmak, Omer

    2002-10-01

    We studied the occurrence of Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in 183 sample of white cheese and butter in Istanbul, Turkey in 2001. The incidence of AFM1 in white cheese and butter samples was as high as 65 and 81, respectively. The particularly high AFM,concentrations imply that more importance should be given to routine analysis of these dairy products.

  5. Incidence of aflatoxin M1 in human and animal milk in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Omar, Sharaf S

    2012-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the presence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in animal milk. In addition, exposure of infants to aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) and lactating mothers to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) was examined using AFM1 in breast milk as a biomarker for exposure to AFB1. In total, 100 samples of fresh animal milk and fermented milk (buttermilk) and 80 samples of human breast milk were collected during the period 2011-2012. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used for the analysis of milk samples. AFM1 was detected in all animal fresh and fermented milk samples. The concentrations of AFM1 in 70 samples of fresh and fermented milk were higher than the maximum tolerance limit accepted by the European Union and the United States of 50 ng/kg. In human milk samples the average concentration of AFM1 was higher than the maximum tolerance limit accepted by the European Union and the United States of 25 ng/kg. Logistic regression analysis failed to show a correlation between AFM1 and type and amount of dairy consumption, vegetables, fruits, and meat. However, an association between AFM1 and cereal consumption was detected. This study is the first to report on the occurrence of AFM1 in milk consumed by the Jordanian population.

  6. Presence of aflatoxin M1 in raw, reconstituted, and powdered milk samples collected in Algeria.

    PubMed

    Redouane-Salah, S; Morgavi, D P; Arhab, R; Messaï, A; Boudra, H

    2015-06-01

    Aflatoxins are potent toxic metabolites produced by Aspergillus spp. Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is a metabolite of aflatoxin B1 that can be present in milk, and it is a public health concern. There is scarce information on the incidence of aflatoxin M1 contamination in milk consumed in Algeria. The presence of AFM1 was investigated in raw milk samples collected between February and October 2011 from 11 dairy farms representative of Algerian production conditions and that were located around Constantine city. Reconstituted and powdered milk samples were purchased from local supermarkets. The analysis was performed by liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection after immunoaffinity purification. AFM1 was detected in 5 out of 47 samples (11 %) at levels ranging from 9 to 103 ng/L, with one sample exceeding the limit of 50 ng/L set by European regulations. Traces of AFM1 (less than 8 ng/L) were also found in 11 other samples. The incidence of AFM1 contamination was higher in imported powdered milk (29 %) than in raw milk (5 %). Although the concentration of AFM1 in contaminated samples was low, the relatively considerable prevalence found in this exploratory study justifies more detailed and continuous monitoring to reduce consumers' exposure to AFM1.

  7. Aflatoxin M1 contamination of human breast milk in Isfahan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Jafarian-Dehkordi, Abbas; Pourradi, Nasibeh

    2013-01-01

    Background: During the last decades there has been great attention paid to aflatoxins. They are highly toxic, immunosuppressive, mutagenic, teratogenic, and carcinogenic compounds. Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1), a hydroxylated metabolite of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), is formed in the liver and excreted into the breast milk. It is considered to cause certain hygienic risks for infant health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of the AFM1 in the breast milk using AFM1 in milk as a biomarker for exposure to aflatoxin B1 and determine the level of AFM1 contamination in the lactating mothers in Isfahan, Iran. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out on 80 lactating women randomly selected from two urban health centers. Mother's milk samples and information on food intake were collected from the participants using structured food-frequency questionnaire. Breast milk samples were tested for AFM1 by a competitive ELISA technique. Results: Our findings showed that only one sample was contaminated with AFM1 with concentrations of 6.8 ng/L. However, the AFM1 level in this sample was lower than the maximum tolerable limit (25 ng/L) accepted by the European Communities and Codex Alimentarius. Conclusion: Although the concentration of AFM1 in none of the samples was higher than the acceptable level, the presence of AFM1 in only one of them confirms the need for developing strategies to reduce exposure to aflatoxin in foods and to carry out biological monitoring of aflatoxins as a food quality control measure routinely. PMID:24524032

  8. Aflatoxin M1 contamination in commercial pasteurized milk from local markets in Fariman, Iran.

    PubMed

    Riahi-Zanjani, Bamdad; Balali-Mood, Mahdi

    2013-11-01

    Contamination of milk and dairy products with aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) presents a risk for human health. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of AFM1 in pasteurized milk samples in Fariman, located in the province of Khorasan Razavi, Iran, by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Forty-five samples of pasteurized milk from different supermarkets were collected during 3 months in summer (July to September, 2012). AFM1 contamination was detected in all of milk samples. The mean concentration of aflatoxin M1 was 27.2 ng/l. The range of AFM1 content was 8.8-64 ng/l. Thirteen (28.8 %) of the samples had AFM1 levels exceeding the maximum levels (50 ng/l) accepted by the European Union. Due to the fact that milk is used by all the age groups including infants and children in Fariman city, it is necessary to minimize the health risk from AFM1 contamination in milk. For this reason, the level of its precursor, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), in dairy feeds must be reduced, requiring constant aflatoxin monitoring of relevant agricultural commodities.

  9. Development of structure switching aptamer assay for detection of aflatoxin M1 in milk sample.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Atul; Catanante, Gaëlle; Hayat, Akhtar; Istamboulie, Georges; Ben Rejeb, Ines; Bhand, Sunil; Marty, Jean Louis

    2016-09-01

    The discovery of in-vitro systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) process has considerably broaden the utility of aptamer as bio-recognition element, providing the high binding affinity and specificity against the target analytes. Recent research has focused on the development of structure switching signaling aptamer assay, transducing the aptamer- target recognition event into an easily detectable signal. In this paper, we demonstrate the development of structure switching aptamer assay for determination of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) employing the quenching-dequenching mechanism. Hybridization of fluorescein labelled anti-AFM1 aptamer (F-aptamer) with TAMRA labelled complementary sequences (Q-aptamer) brings the fluorophore and the quencher into close proximity, which results in maximum fluorescence quenching. On addition of AFM1, the target induced conformational formation of antiparallel G-quadruplex aptamer-AFM1 complex results in fluorescence recovery. Under optimized experimental conditions, the developed method showed the good linearity with limit of detection (LOD) at 5.0ngkg(-1) for AFM1. The specificity of the sensing platform was carefully investigated against aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and ochratoxin A (OTA). The developed assay platform showed the high specificity towards AFM1. The practical application of the developed aptamer assay was verified for detection of AFM1 in spiked milk samples. Good recoveries were obtained in the range from 94.40% to 95.28% (n=3) from AFM1 spiked milk sample. PMID:27343575

  10. Occurrence of Aflatoxin M1 in Dairy Products in Southern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Montagna, Maria Teresa; Napoli, Christian; De Giglio, Osvalda; Iatta, Roberta; Barbuti, Giovanna

    2008-01-01

    A screening survey of the presence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) was carried out on 265 samples of cheese made from cow, buffalo, goat, sheep, sheep-goat milk collected in the Apulia region (Southern Italy). Selected samples included unripened, medium and long-term ripened cheeses. AFM1 was found in 16.6% of the analyzed samples. The highest positive incidence was for medium and long-term ripened cheeses, especially those made from sheep-goat milk, while buffalo cheeses tested consistently negative. Our results show that the level of contamination by AFM1 in dairy products from Apulia Region are lower than in other Italian and European regions. Moreover, it is important to underline that a common European norm concerning the AFM1 threshold limits for dairy products is still lacking. PMID:19330096

  11. Fate of aflatoxin M(1) during manufacture and storage of feta cheese.

    PubMed

    Motawee, M M; McMahon, D J

    2009-06-01

    The effect of feta cheese manufacture on aflatoxin M(1) (AFM(1)) content was studied using an enzyme immunoassay technique. Feta cheese was made from milk spiked with 1 and 2 microg AFM(1) per kilogram milk. Pasteurization at 63 degrees C for 30 min caused <10% destruction of AFM(1). During cheese making, the remaining AFM(1) in milk was partitioned between curd and whey with two-thirds retained in the curd and one-third going into the whey. Cheeses were then stored for 2 mo in 8%, 10%, and 12% brine solutions at 6 and 18 degrees C. There was a 22% to 27% reduction of AFM(1) during the first 10 d of storage, with slightly more loss as salt concentration increased and when the cheese was stored at 18 degrees C. Further storage caused only slight decrease in AFM(1) and after 30 d of brining there was no difference in AFM(1) content of the cheese based upon salt concentration of the brine. At 18 degrees C, no further losses of AFM(1) occurred after 30 d, and at 6 degrees C, there was continued slight decrease in AFM(1) levels until 50 d. After 60 d of brining, there was a total loss of 25% and 29% of the AFM(1) originally present for cheese brined at 6 and 18 degrees C, respectively. Thus, the combination of pasteurization, conversion of milk into feta cheese, and at least 50 d storage of cheese in brine caused a total loss of about 50% of the AFM(1) originally present in the raw milk.

  12. Aflatoxin M1 in milk powders: processing, homogeneity and stability testing of certified reference materials.

    PubMed

    Josephs, R D; Ulberth, F; Van Egmond, H P; Emons, H

    2005-09-01

    As part of the certification campaign of three candidate reference materials for the determination of aflatoxin M1 (AfM1) in whole milk powders, homogeneity, short- and long-term stability tests of naturally contaminated milk powders have been performed. The homogeneity of two AfM1-contaminated milk powders was studied by taking samples at regular intervals of the filling sequences and analysing in triplicate for their AfM1 contents by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (LC-FLD) using random stratified sampling schemes. The homogeneity testing of an AfM1 'blank' milk powder material was performed by determining the nitrogen content because AfM1 levels were below the limit of detection of the most sensitive determination method. The short-term stability of AfM1-contaminated milk powders was evaluated at three different storage temperatures (4, 18 and 40 degrees C). After storage times of 0, 1, 2 and 4 weeks, samples were investigated using LC-FLD. The long-term stability study comprised of measurements after 0, 6, 12 and 18 months after storage at -20 and 4 degrees C. Analyses were done by LC-FLD. Based on the homogeneity tests, the materials were sufficiently homogenous to serve as certified reference materials. Corresponding uncertainty contributions of 0.23-0.89% were calculated for the homogeneity. The stability measurements showed no significant trends for both short- and long-term stability studies. The long-term stability uncertainties of the AfM1-contaminated milk powders were 7.4 and 6.3%, respectively, for a shelf-life of 6 years and storage at -20 degrees C. Supplementary stability monitoring schemes over a long period of several years are currently ongoing.

  13. Seasonal patterns of aflatoxin M1 contamination in commercial pasteurised milk from different areas in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Suriyasathaporn, Witaya; Nakprasert, Watinee

    2012-01-01

    Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) levels were determined in pasteurised milk from five commercial trademarks produced in different areas in Thailand. One hundred and twenty milk samples were collected from local markets in Chiang Mai province, Thailand, to evaluate AFM1 concentrations using immunoaffinity columns and high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The overall median AFM1 level was 0.023 µg L(-1) ranging from 0.004 to 0.293 µg L(-1). All trademarks had average AFM1 concentrations lower than 0.05 µg L(-1), with those in Trademarks 3 to 5 being higher than Trademarks 1 and 2 (P < 0.01). All trademarks had different seasonal patterns of AFM1, even though operating in the same area. However, only Trademark 3 showed significant differences of AFM1 levels between seasons. The results suggested that farm management factors, rather than environment factors, were likely to be the main cause of AFM1 contamination in dairy products.

  14. An ultra-sensitive monoclonal antibody-based fluorescent microsphere immunochromatographic test strip assay for detecting aflatoxin M1 in milk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A rapid lateral flow fluorescent microspheres immunochromatography test strip (FMs-ICTS) has been developed for the detection of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) residues in milk. For this purpose, an ultra-sensitive anti-AFM1 monoclonal antibody (MAb) 1D3 was prepared and identified. The IC50 value of the MA...

  15. Aflatoxin M1 contamination in raw bulk milk and the presence of aflatoxin B1 in corn supplied to dairy cattle in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Kei-ichi; Hiraoka, Hisaaki; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko

    2008-01-01

    Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is a hydroxylated metabolite of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), which has been found in the milk of dairy cattle fed AFB1-contaminated feeds. Since AFM1 has been evaluated as a possible human carcinogen, the cancer risk arising from AFM1 contamination in milk is a serious problem in food safety. To evaluate the risk of AFM1 contamination in milk, it is necessary to analyze the risk factors of AFB1 contamination in corn provided for concentrated feed in Japan. The AFM1 level in domestic raw bulk milk was measured at three sampling times, January, February and June in 2004. The AFB1 contamination in corn supplied to cows was determined at the same time as the sampling of raw milk. The AFM1 contamination levels in milk in January, February and June 2004 were 0.011, 0.007 and 0.005 ng/g, respectively. The AFB1 contamination level in the corn of the concentrated feed was higher from October of 2003 to February of 2004 than from April to June in 2004. This study provides evidence that AFM1 contamination level in milk is parallel to that of AFB1 in corn of concentrated feed, so monitoring of the AFB1 level in corn is important to prevent the risk of AFM1 contamination in milk in Japan.

  16. Aflatoxin M1 in pasteurized, UHT milk and milk powder commercialized in Londrina, Brazil and estimation of exposure.

    PubMed

    Santos, Joice Sifientes Dos; França, Vanessa R; Katto, Shiguedy; Santana, Elsa H W

    2015-09-01

    Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is found in milk and other excretion products after aflatoxin B1 intake. AFM1 is carcinogenic to humans, and known levels of dairy product contamination is important to understand the risks to which the population is exposed. The occurrence of AFM1 was evaluated in 42 milk samples commercialized in Londrina, Paraná State, Brazil and this rate of occurrence was used to estimate this exposure. AFM1 determination was carried out by ELISA, and was detected in 100% samples at levels ranging from 0.01 to 0.81 microg/kg (mean 0.13 microg/kg). None of the samples presented AFM1 above the maximum permitted level by Brazilian Legislation (0.5 microg/kg for fluid milk and 5 microg/kg for milk powder). The estimated daily intake (EDI) of AFM1 was evaluated, and the average intake was 0.468 ng/kg body weight (b.w.) for adolescents, 0.384 ng/kg b.w. for adults and 0.559 ng/kg b.w. for the elderly. Values of EDI of AFM1 found in Londrina pose a toxicological risk to the population investigated. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on estimated AFM1 dietary exposure from Paraná, Brazil.

  17. Aflatoxin M1 in pasteurized and ultrapasteurized milk with different fat content in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Carvajal, Magda; Bolaños, Adolfo; Rojo, Francisco; Méndez, Ignacio

    2003-10-01

    High per capita milk consumption in Mexico indicated a strong need for documentation of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) levels in milk. A survey of 580, 2-liter samples (n = 290), was conducted to quantify AFM1 using high-performance liquid chromatography, considering two maximum tolerance levels (0.05 and 0.5 microg/liter). We relate aflatoxin levels in the seven most consumed brands from different regions, with two processes (pasteurized and ultrapasteurized), different expiration dates, and different fat content: whole fat (28, 30, and 33 g), half-skimmed (10, 16, and 20 g), light (1, 2, and 4 g), and with vegetable oil. Pasteurization and ultrapasteurization did not diminish AFM1 contamination present at levels of 0 to 8.35 microg/liter in 40% of the milk samples at concentrations > or = 0.05 microg/liter and in 10% of the samples at > or = 0.5 microg/liter. Statistically significant relationships were AFM1 contamination with brand (P = 0.002 at the > or = 0.05 microg/liter level and P = 0.034 at the > or = 0.5 microg/ liter level) and higher AFM1 levels with mild or warm seasons of the year (P = 0.0003). Samples with greater fat content had slightly more probability (P = 0.067) of being contaminated by AFM1 at the > or = 0.5 microg/liter level. The milk with the lowest contamination of AFM1 was a brand imported as powder and rehydrated in Mexico. PMID:14572228

  18. A qPCR aptasensor for sensitive detection of aflatoxin M1.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaodong; Wen, Fang; Zheng, Nan; Li, Songli; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure; Wang, Jiaqi

    2016-08-01

    Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1), one of the most toxic mycotoxins, imposes serious health hazards. AFM1 had previously been classified as a group 2B carcinogen [1] and has been classified as a group 1 carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) of the World Health Organization (WHO) [2]. Determination of AFM1 thus plays an important role for quality control of food safety. In this work, a sensitive and reliable aptasensor was developed for the detection of AFM1. The immobilization of aptamer through a strong interaction with biotin-streptavidin was used as a molecular recognition element, and its complementary ssDNA was employed as the template for a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) amplification. Under optimized assay conditions, a linear relationship (ranging from 1.0 × 10(-4) to 1.0 μg L(-1)) was achieved with a limit of detection (LOD) down to 0.03 ng L(-1). In addition, the aptasensor developed here exhibits high selectivity for AFM1 over other mycotoxins and small effects from cross-reaction with structural analogs. The method proposed here has been successfully applied to quantitative determination of AFM1 in infant rice cereal and infant milk powder samples. Results demonstrated that the current approach is potentially useful for food safety analysis, and it could be extended to a large number of targets. PMID:27334718

  19. A qPCR aptasensor for sensitive detection of aflatoxin M1.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaodong; Wen, Fang; Zheng, Nan; Li, Songli; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure; Wang, Jiaqi

    2016-08-01

    Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1), one of the most toxic mycotoxins, imposes serious health hazards. AFM1 had previously been classified as a group 2B carcinogen [1] and has been classified as a group 1 carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) of the World Health Organization (WHO) [2]. Determination of AFM1 thus plays an important role for quality control of food safety. In this work, a sensitive and reliable aptasensor was developed for the detection of AFM1. The immobilization of aptamer through a strong interaction with biotin-streptavidin was used as a molecular recognition element, and its complementary ssDNA was employed as the template for a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) amplification. Under optimized assay conditions, a linear relationship (ranging from 1.0 × 10(-4) to 1.0 μg L(-1)) was achieved with a limit of detection (LOD) down to 0.03 ng L(-1). In addition, the aptasensor developed here exhibits high selectivity for AFM1 over other mycotoxins and small effects from cross-reaction with structural analogs. The method proposed here has been successfully applied to quantitative determination of AFM1 in infant rice cereal and infant milk powder samples. Results demonstrated that the current approach is potentially useful for food safety analysis, and it could be extended to a large number of targets.

  20. Cancer risks posed by aflatoxin M1.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, D P; Cullen, J M; Hsieh, L S; Shao, Y; Ruebner, B H

    1985-01-01

    The suspect milk-borne carcinogen, aflatoxin M1 (AFM), was produced and isolated from the rice culture of the fungus Aspergillus flavus NRRL3251 for confirmation and determination of the potency of its carcinogenicity in the male adult Fischer rat. The carcinogen was mixed into an agar-based, semisynthetic diet at 0, 0.5, 5, and 50 ppb (microgram/kg) and was fed to groups of animals continuously for 19-21 months. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB), of which AFM is a metabolite, at 50 ppb was used as a positive control. Hepatocarcinogenicity of AFM was detected at 50 ppb, but not at 5 or 0.5 ppb, with a potency of 2-10% that of AFB. A low incidence of intestinal adenocarcinomas was found in the AFM 50 ppb group, but not in any other groups. At 0.5 ppb, the action level enforced by the U.S.A. Food and Drug Administration, AFM induced no liver lesions in the rats but stimulated the animals' growth. On the average, the rats in the 0.5 ppb group weighed 11% (p less than 0.001) more than those in the control group. This increased growth was associated with increased feed intake. Based on the biological activity of AFM at the relevant low doses and the estimated level of human exposure to AFM through consumption of milk, the cancer risk posed by this contaminant for human adults is assessed to be very low. For infants, further studies are warranted because milk constitutes the major ingredient of the infant diet and because infant animals have been shown to be more sensitive to the carcinogenicity of AFB than adult animals.

  1. Determination of aflatoxin M1 in breast milk as a biomarker of maternal and infant exposure in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Gonzalo J; Sánchez, Marlib Paloma

    2015-01-01

    Chronic exposure to aflatoxins, and especially to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), causes hepatocellular carcinoma with prevalence 16-32 times higher in developing compared with developed countries. Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is a monohydroxylated metabolite from AFB1 that is secreted in milk and which can be used as a biomarker of AFB1 exposure. This study aimed to determine AFM1 levels in human breast milk using immunoaffinity column clean-up with HPLC and fluorescence detection. Breast milk samples were obtained from 50 nursing mothers. Volunteers filled in a questionnaire giving their consent to analyse their samples as well as details of their socioeconomic, demographic and clinical data. The possible dietary sources of aflatoxins were assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. A total of 90% of the samples tested positive for AFM1, with a mean of 5.2 ng l(-1) and a range of 0.9-18.5 ng l(-1). The study demonstrated a high frequency of exposure of mothers and neonates to AFB1 and AFM1 in Colombia, and it points out the need to regulate and monitor continuously the presence of aflatoxins in human foods. Further research is needed in order to determine the presence of other mycotoxins in foods and in human samples as well as to devise protection strategies in a country where mycotoxins in human foods are commonly found.

  2. Development of ultrasensitive direct chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay for determination of aflatoxin M1 in milk.

    PubMed

    Vdovenko, Marina M; Lu, Chuan-Chen; Yu, Feng-Yih; Sakharov, Ivan Yu

    2014-09-01

    A direct competitive chemiluminescent enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CL-ELISA) for detecting aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) was developed. To improve the sensitivity of the assay, a mixture of 3-(10'-phenothiazinyl)-propane-1-sulfonate (SPTZ) and 4-morpholinopyridine (MORPH) was used to enhance peroxidase-induced CL. The concentrations of the coating anti-AFM1 antibody and the conjugate of AFB1 with horseradish peroxidase the conditions of the chemiluminescent assay were varied to optimise the condition of the chemiluminescent assay. The lower detection limit values and dynamic working range of CL-ELISA of AFM1 were 0.001 ng mL(-1) and 0.002-0.0075 ng mL(-1), respectively. A 20-fold dilution of milk samples prevented a matrix effect of the milk and allowed measurement of AFM1 at concentrations below than the maximum acceptable limit. Values of recovery within and between assays were 81.5-117.6% and 86-110.6%, respectively. The results of using the developed CL-ELISA to analyse samples of six brands of milk that were purchased in Taiwan revealed that AFM1 was absent from all studied samples.

  3. Occurrence of aflatoxin M1 in raw milk of five dairy species in Ahvaz, Iran.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, E; Bonyadian, M; Rafei, M; Kazemeini, H R

    2010-01-01

    During November 2007 to December 2008, 311 samples of raw milk from cow, water buffalo, camel, sheep, and goat were collected in the Ahvaz (southwest Iran). All of the samples were analyzed for presence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) by competitive ELISA technique. AFM1 was found in 42.1% of the samples by average concentration of 43.3+/-43.8 ng/kg. The incidence rates of AFM1 in raw cow, water buffalo, camel, sheep, and goat milks were, 78.7%, 38.7%, 12.5%, 37.3%, and 27.1%, respectively. The concentration of AFM1 in all of the samples were lower than Iranian national standard and FDA limit (500 ng/l), but in 36% of raw cow milk, 8% water buffalo milk, 3.9% sheep milk, and 5.7% raw goat milk samples were higher than maximum tolerance limit accepted by European union/Codex Alimentarius Commission (50 ng/l). The results showed that the milk of camel, goat, and sheep is safe respect to AFM1 contamination in this area.

  4. Short communication: Occurrence of aflatoxin M1 in the Manchego cheese supply chain.

    PubMed

    Rubio, R; Licón, C C; Berruga, M I; Molina, M P; Molina, A

    2011-06-01

    The importance of ewe milk lies in the production of high quality cheeses, such as Manchego cheese with a Protected Designation of Origin, whose safety must be guaranteed. In a 2-yr study, 407 bulk tank milk samples from farms and 82 silo milk and curd samples from cheese factories were collected from southeast Spain and tested for aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) using 2 commercial ELISA tests. Of these, 99.3% of the bulk tank samples had AFM1 levels below the European Union (EU) legal limit for milk (50 ng/kg), and well below the limit adopted by the Codex Alimentarius (500 ng/kg). Moreover, 98.8% of the silo milk and curd samples from cheese factories had AFM1 levels below the EU limit for milk. When considering median AFM1 concentrations, an average 4-fold increase was found in the final curd in relation to the corresponding silo milk. Control of AFM1 in Manchega ewe milk would enhance dairy product safety by the possible detection of faults in the manufacture of Manchego cheese. PMID:21605747

  5. Spore immobilization and its analytical performance for monitoring of aflatoxin M1 in milk.

    PubMed

    Singh, V K; Singh, N A; Kumar, N; Raghu, H V; Sharma, Pradeep Kumar; Singh, K P; Yadav, Avinash

    2014-12-01

    Immobilization of Bacillus megaterium spores on Eppendorf tubes through physical adsorption has been used in the detection of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in milk within real time of 45 ± 5 min using visual observation of changes in a chromogenic substrate. The appearance of a sky-blue colour indicates the absence of AFM1 in milk, whereas no colour change indicates the presence of AFM1 in milk at a 0.5 ppb Codex maximum residue limit. The working performance of the immobilized spores was shown to persist for up to 6 months. Further, spores immobilized on 96-well black microtitre plates by physical adsorption and by entrapment on sensor disk showed a reduction in detection sensitivity to 0.25 ppb within a time period of 20 ± 5 min by measuring fluorescence using a microbiological plate reader through the addition of milk and fluorogenic substrate. A high fluorescence ratio indicated more substrate hydrolysis due to spore-germination-mediated release of marker enzymes of spores in the absence of AFM1 in milk; however, low fluorescence ratios indicated the presence of AFM1 at 0.25 ppb. Immobilized spores on 96-well microtitre plates and sensor disks have shown better reproducibility after storage at 4 °C for 6 months. Chromogenic assay showed 1.38% false-negative and 2.77% false-positive results while fluorogenic assay showed 4.16% false-positive and 2.77% false-negative results when analysed for AFM1 using 72 milk samples containing raw, pasteurized, and dried milk. Immobilization of spores makes these chromogenic and fluorogenic assays portable, selective, cost-effective for real-time detection of AFM1 in milk at the dairy farm, reception dock, and manufacturing units of the dairy industry. PMID:25387994

  6. Aflatoxin M1 cytotoxicity against human intestinal Caco-2 cells is enhanced in the presence of other mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    Gao, Y N; Wang, J Q; Li, S L; Zhang, Y D; Zheng, N

    2016-10-01

    Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1), a class 2B human carcinogen, is the only mycotoxin with established maximum residue limits (MRLs) in milk. Toxicological data for other mycotoxins in baby food, containing cereals and milk, either in isolation or in combination with AFM1, are sparse. The aim of this study was to investigate the cytotoxicity of AFM1, ochratoxin A (OTA), zearalenone (ZEA), and α-zearalenol (α-ZOL), individually and in combinations, in human Caco-2 cells. The tetrazolium salt (MTT) assay demonstrated that (i) OTA and AFM1 had similar cytotoxicity, which was higher than that of ZEA and α-ZOL, after a 72 h exposure; and (ii) the quaternary combination had the highest cytotoxicity, followed by tertiary and binary combinations and individual mycotoxins. Isobologram analysis indicated that the presence of OTA, ZEA, and/or α-ZOL with AFM1 led to additive and synergistic cytotoxicity in most combinations. The cytotoxicity of OTA was similar to that of AFM1, suggesting that OTA in food poses a health risk to consumers. Furthermore, AFM1 cytotoxicity increased dramatically in the presence of OTA, ZEA, and/or α-ZOL (p < 0.01), indicating that the established MRLs for AFM1 should be re-evaluated considering its frequent co-occurrence with other mycotoxins in baby food which contains milk and cereals. PMID:27470613

  7. Direct and ultrasensitive optofluidic-based immunosensing assay of aflatoxin M1 in dairy products using organic solvent extraction.

    PubMed

    Lou, Xuening; Zhu, Anna; Wang, Hongliang; Wu, Jun; Zhou, Liping; Long, Feng

    2016-10-12

    Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1), a highly toxic secondary metabolite, is present in a wide range of dairy products. In this study, we designed a simple, low-cost, reusable, and easy-to-operate immunosensing method for ultrasensitive detection of AFM1 in dairy products by using a portable evanescent wave-based optofluidic biosensing platform (EOBP). The developed method provides the minimum detection limit of 5 ng/L, which is below the most restrictive standard imposed by the current regulations for AFM1 in dairy products. The effect of several organic solvents, such as methanol, acetone, and acetonitrile, on the binding reaction of antibody-antigen in heterogeneous and homogeneous solutions was evaluated. Although the effect of organic solvents on the homogeneous binding reaction between antibody and antigen is more significant than that of heterogeneous binding reaction between antibody in solution and antigen immobilized onto the sensor surface, the fluorescence signal detected by EOBP is linearly dependent on AFM1 concentration. Therefore, AFM1 can be directly quantified even if the samples contain a certain organic solvent concentration. The robustness and stability of AFM1-ovalbumin conjugate allow the regeneration of modified biosensor surface for more than 200 times, thereby achieving a cost-effective and reliable AFM1 determination. The proposed method provides a rapid, ultrasensitive, and reliable AFM1 determination in dairy products without complicated sample pretreatment process. PMID:27662766

  8. Enzyme-assisted extraction for the HPLC determination of aflatoxin M1 in cheese.

    PubMed

    Pietri, Amedeo; Fortunati, Paola; Mulazzi, Annalisa; Bertuzzi, Terenzio

    2016-02-01

    The extraction of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) from cheese is generally carried out using chlorinated organic solvents. In this study, two innovative methods were developed, based on an enzyme-assisted (EA) extraction using proteolytic enzymes (pepsin or pepsin-pancreatin). After purification through an immunoaffinity column, AFM1 is determined by HPLC-FLD. A comparison between the new EA methods and an established chloroform (CH) method was carried out on 24 cheese samples. The results showed that the extraction efficiency of the EA methods was independent of ripening time of cheese, whereas the CH method was not able to fully recover AFM1 from ripened cheeses. The simpler (pepsin) of the two methods has been adopted by our laboratory for routine analysis of AFM1 in cheese. In comparison with the CH method, the pepsin-HCl (P-HCl) method is simpler, avoiding solvent evaporation, dissolution and partition in a separating funnel; moreover, it gives higher recoveries, comparable LOD and LOQ and more accurate results.

  9. A Survey on Aflatoxin M1 Content in Sheep and Goat Milk Produced in Sardinia Region, Italy (2005-2013)

    PubMed Central

    Virdis, Salvatore; Scarano, Christian; Spanu, Vincenzo; Murittu, Gavino; Ibba, Ignazio; De Santis, Enrico Pietro Luigi

    2014-01-01

    In the present work the results of a survey conducted in Sardinia Region on Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) contamination in milk of small ruminants from 2005 to 2013 are reported. A total of 517 sheep and 88 goat milk samples from bulk tank, tank trucks and silo tank milk were collected. Analyses were performed by the Regional Farmers Association laboratory using high-performance liquid chromatography following the ISO 14501:1998 standard. None of the sheep milk samples analysed during 2005-2012 showed AFM1 contamination. In sheep milk samples collected in 2013, 8 out of 172 (4.6%) were contaminated by AFM1 with a concentration (mean±SD) of 12.59±14.05 ng/L. In one bulk tank milk sample 58.82 ng/L AFM1 was detected, exceeding the EU limit. In none of goat milk samples analysed from 2010 to 2012 AFM1 was detected. In 2013, 9 out of 66 goat milk samples (13.6%) showed an AFM1 concentration of 47.21±19.58 ng/L. Two of these samples exceeded the EU limit, with concentrations of 62.09 and 138.6 ng/L. Higher contamination frequency and concentration rates were detected in bulk tank milk samples collected at farm than in bulk milk truck or silo samples, showing a dilution effect on AFM1 milk content along small ruminants supply chain. The rate and levels of AFM1 contamination in sheep and goat milk samples were lower than other countries. However, the small number of milk samples analysed for AFM1 in Sardinia Region in 2005-2013 give evidence that food business operators check programmes should be improved to ensure an adequate monitoring of AFM1 contamination in small ruminant dairy chain. PMID:27800368

  10. The transfer of aflatoxin M1 in milk of ewes fed diet naturally contaminated by aflatoxins and effect of inclusion of dried yeast culture in the diet.

    PubMed

    Battacone, G; Nudda, A; Palomba, M; Mazzette, A; Pulina, G

    2009-10-01

    An experiment was carried out to investigate 1) the transfer of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) into the milk of dairy ewes fed diets naturally contaminated with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1); 2) the effect of the addition of dried yeast culture in the diet on this transfer; and 3) the alteration of enzymatic activities in the liver of ewes fed diets contaminated with AFB1. Twenty-four Sarda dairy ewes were divided in 4 groups and fed a concentrate mix containing 4 amounts of wheat meal naturally contaminated with aflatoxins. The diet of the control group had no wheat meal, whereas that of treated groups had low, medium, or high amounts of contaminated wheat, which corresponded to 1.13, 2.30, and 5.03 microg of AFB1/kg of feed, respectively. The experiment lasted 14 d. On d 8 to 14 from the beginning of the trial, 12 g/d of a commercial dried yeast product (DYP) of Kluyveromyces lactis was added to the diet of each ewe. The AFM1 concentration in individual milk samples and the blood serum metabolites were measured periodically. The presence of AFM1 was first detected in milk on d 1 of administration, and then its concentration increased and approached a steady-state condition on d 3 simultaneously in all treated groups. The AFM1 in milk at the steady-state condition, which was linearly related to the AFB1 intake, was 39.72, 50.38, and 79.29 ng/L in the low-aflatoxin, medium-aflatoxin, and high-aflatoxin groups, respectively. The AFM1 concentration in milk of the high-aflatoxin group was approximately 1.5-fold greater than the European Commission maximum tolerance level (50 ng/kg). The addition of DYP to the diet did not affect the AFM1 concentration in milk. After the withdrawal of the contaminated concentrate mix, the AFM1 mean concentrations decreased quickly and were no longer detected after 3 d in all treated groups. Daily milk yield and composition did not differ because of aflatoxin treatment. Blood serum parameters (creatinine, glutamic oxalacetic transaminase, glutamic pyruvic

  11. Detection of aflatoxin M1 in milk, cheese and sour cream samples from Costa Rica using enzyme-assisted extraction and HPLC.

    PubMed

    Chavarría, Guadalupe; Granados-Chinchilla, Fabio; Alfaro-Cascante, Margarita; Molina, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Aflatoxins are toxic fungal metabolites, which can be found in feed. Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is excreted into milk when ruminants ingest aflatoxin B1 contaminated feedstuffs. Due to its carcinogenic potential, contamination of milk and dairy products with AFM1 may pose a risk for consumers. Hence, it is considered a public health concern. In this survey, the level of AFM1 contamination of dairy products marketed in Costa Rica was determined by enzyme-assisted extraction, immunoaffinity clean-up and high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a fluorescent detector (HPLC-FLD) in fluid milk (n = 70), fresh cheese (n = 70) and sour cream (n = 70) collected at local convenience stores and supermarkets. AFM1 concentrations in milk and fresh cheese ranged from 19 to 629 ng/L and from 31 to 276 ng/L, with mean values of 136 ng/L and 74 ng/L, respectively, whereas none of the sour cream samples analysed tested positive for this aflatoxin. In 30 milk samples, and 10 cheese samples, AFM1 concentrations surpassed threshold concentrations as established by the European Commission. Thus, sour cream and - to a lesser extent - cheese manufacturing seems to reduce the amount of AFM1 present in milk, possibly due to fraction redistribution or microbiological degradation. The survey results reveal improper quality control procedures in the Costa Rican dairy industry. Therefore, a surveillance programme for dairy products in our country is recommended. PMID:26111266

  12. Association between aflatoxin M1 excreted in human urine samples with the consumption of milk and dairy products.

    PubMed

    Mohd Redzwan, Sabran; Rosita, Jamaluddin; Mohd Sokhini, Abdul Mutalib; Nurul Aqilah, Abdul Rahman

    2012-12-01

    This study aimed to find the association between urinary aflatoxin M(1) level and milk and dairy products consumption. Of 160 morning urine samples collected, aflatoxin M(1) was detected in 61.3 % samples (n = 98) [mean ± SD = 0.0234 ± 0.0177 ng/mL; range = 0-0.0747 ng/mL]. Of these positive samples, 67.3 % (n = 66) had levels above the limit of detection. Respondents with intake of milk and dairy products above median (67.79 g/day) had significantly high level of AFM(1) compared to those with low intake. A significant and positive association (φ = 0.286) was found between milk and dairy products consumption and urinary aflatoxin M(1) level.

  13. Aflatoxin B1 and M1 Degradation by Lac2 from Pleurotus pulmonarius and Redox Mediators

    PubMed Central

    Loi, Martina; Fanelli, Francesca; Zucca, Paolo; Liuzzi, Vania C.; Quintieri, Laura; Cimmarusti, Maria T.; Monaci, Linda; Haidukowski, Miriam; Logrieco, Antonio F.; Sanjust, Enrico; Mulè, Giuseppina

    2016-01-01

    Laccases (LCs) are multicopper oxidases that find application as versatile biocatalysts for the green bioremediation of environmental pollutants and xenobiotics. In this study we elucidate the degrading activity of Lac2 pure enzyme form Pleurotus pulmonarius towards aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and M1 (AFM1). LC enzyme was purified using three chromatographic steps and identified as Lac2 through zymogram and LC-MS/MS. The degradation assays were performed in vitro at 25 °C for 72 h in buffer solution. AFB1 degradation by Lac2 direct oxidation was 23%. Toxin degradation was also investigated in the presence of three redox mediators, (2,2′-azino-bis-[3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid]) (ABTS) and two naturally-occurring phenols, acetosyringone (AS) and syringaldehyde (SA). The direct effect of the enzyme and the mediated action of Lac2 with redox mediators univocally proved the correlation between Lac2 activity and aflatoxins degradation. The degradation of AFB1 was enhanced by the addition of all mediators at 10 mM, with AS being the most effective (90% of degradation). AFM1 was completely degraded by Lac2 with all mediators at 10 mM. The novelty of this study relies on the identification of a pure enzyme as capable of degrading AFB1 and, for the first time, AFM1, and on the evidence that the mechanism of an effective degradation occurs via the mediation of natural phenolic compounds. These results opened new perspective for Lac2 application in the food and feed supply chains as a biotransforming agent of AFB1 and AFM1. PMID:27563923

  14. Exposure Assessment of Infants to Aflatoxin M1 through Consumption of Breast Milk and Infant Powdered Milk in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Angélica T.; Takabayashi-Yamashita, Cássia R.; Ono, Elisabete Y. S.; Bagatin, Artur K.; Rigobello, Fabiana F.; Kawamura, Osamu; Hirooka, Elisa Y.; Itano, Eiko N.

    2016-01-01

    Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is an important biomarker that can be used to evaluate aflatoxin exposure in both humans and animals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the exposure degree of infants to AFM1 through consumption of breast milk and infant powdered milk in Brazil. For this purpose, the estimated daily intake (EDI) for infants was calculated based on the AFM1 levels analyzed in 94 breast milk (BM) samples collected in Southern Brazil, and 16 infant powdered milk (IPM) samples commonly commercialized in Brazil. AFM1 was detected in 5.3% (n = 5) and 43.8% (n = 7) of BM and IPM samples, with mean levels of 0.003 ng/g and 0.011 ng/g, respectively. All the IPM samples showed AFM1 levels lower than those established by the Brazilian guidelines (5 ng/g), and in most of the samples (81.25%) levels were below the maximum limit tolerated by the European Commission (0.025 ng/g). The EDI of AFM1 for infants aged zero to 12 months old showed values from 0.018 to 0.069 ng/kg body weight/day for BM, and 0.078 to 0.306 ng/kg body weight/day for IPM. Hazard index (HI) values for BM and IPM were less than one, except for IPM intended for infants up to one month. In conclusion, the exposure of infants to AFM1 was low, but continuous monitoring of mycotoxin levels is essential to minimize infant health risk. PMID:27589799

  15. Detection of aflatoxin M1 in human breast milk and raw cow's milk in Istanbul, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Keskin, Yaşar; Başkaya, Ruhtan; Karsli, Seher; Yurdun, Türkan; Ozyaral, Oğuz

    2009-04-01

    This survey was undertaken to determine the extent of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) contamination in human breast milk and raw cow's milk in Istanbul, Turkey. Samples of human and raw cow's milk were collected randomly and analyzed for AFM1 using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection in which the samples were cleaned up with immunoaffinity columns. In this study, AFM, was detected in 8 (13.1%) of 61 human breast milk samples examined (mean +/- SD level, 5.68 +/- 0.62 ng/liter; range, 5.10 to 6.90 ng/liter) and 20 (33.3%) of 60 raw cow's milk samples examined (range, 5.40 to 300.20 ng/liter). Five (8.3%) of the positive raw cow's milk samples had AFM1 levels (153.52 +/- 100.60 ng/liter; range, 61.20 to 300.20 ng/liter) that were higher than the maximum tolerance limit (0.05 ppb) stipulated by regulations in Turkey and some other countries.

  16. Carry-over of aflatoxin B1 to aflatoxin M1 in high yielding Israeli cows in mid- and late-lactation.

    PubMed

    Britzi, Malka; Friedman, Shmulik; Miron, Joshua; Solomon, Ran; Cuneah, Olga; Shimshoni, Jakob A; Soback, Stefan; Ashkenazi, Rina; Armer, Sima; Shlosberg, Alan

    2013-01-01

    The potent hepatotoxin and carcinogen aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a common mycotoxin contaminant of grains used in animal feeds. Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is the major metabolite of AFB1 in mammals, being partially excreted into milk, and is a possible human carcinogen. The maximum permitted concentration of AFM1 in cows' milk is 0.05 μg/kg in Israel and the European Union. Since milk yield and the carry-over of AFB1 in the feed to AFM1 in the milk are highly correlated, it was considered important to determine the AFM1 carry-over in Israeli-Holstein dairy cows, distinguished by world record high milk production. Twelve such cows were used to determine AFM1 carry-over following daily oral administration of feed containing ~86 μg AFB1 for 7 days. The mean carry-over rate at steady-state (Days 3-7) was 5.8% and 2.5% in mid-lactation and late-lactation groups, respectively. The carry-over appears to increase exponentially with milk yield and could be described by the equation: carry-over% = 0.5154 e(0.0521 × milk yield), with r(2) = 0.6224. If these data truly reflect the carry-over in the national Israeli dairy herd, the maximum level of AFB1 in feed should not exceed 1.4 μg/kg, a value 3.6 times lower than the maximum residue level currently applied in Israel. PMID:23325299

  17. Carry-over of aflatoxin B1 to aflatoxin M1 in high yielding Israeli cows in mid- and late-lactation.

    PubMed

    Britzi, Malka; Friedman, Shmulik; Miron, Joshua; Solomon, Ran; Cuneah, Olga; Shimshoni, Jakob A; Soback, Stefan; Ashkenazi, Rina; Armer, Sima; Shlosberg, Alan

    2013-01-16

    The potent hepatotoxin and carcinogen aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a common mycotoxin contaminant of grains used in animal feeds. Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is the major metabolite of AFB1 in mammals, being partially excreted into milk, and is a possible human carcinogen. The maximum permitted concentration of AFM1 in cows' milk is 0.05 μg/kg in Israel and the European Union. Since milk yield and the carry-over of AFB1 in the feed to AFM1 in the milk are highly correlated, it was considered important to determine the AFM1 carry-over in Israeli-Holstein dairy cows, distinguished by world record high milk production. Twelve such cows were used to determine AFM1 carry-over following daily oral administration of feed containing ~86 μg AFB1 for 7 days. The mean carry-over rate at steady-state (Days 3-7) was 5.8% and 2.5% in mid-lactation and late-lactation groups, respectively. The carry-over appears to increase exponentially with milk yield and could be described by the equation: carry-over% = 0.5154 e(0.0521 × milk yield), with r(2) = 0.6224. If these data truly reflect the carry-over in the national Israeli dairy herd, the maximum level of AFB1 in feed should not exceed 1.4 μg/kg, a value 3.6 times lower than the maximum residue level currently applied in Israel.

  18. Aflatoxin M1 contamination of milk and ice cream in Abeokuta and Odeda local governments of Ogun State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Atanda, Olusegun; Oguntubo, Adenike; Adejumo, Oloyede; Ikeorah, John; Akpan, Iyang

    2007-07-01

    A survey was undertaken to determine the aflatoxin M(1) contamination of milk and some locally produced dairy products in Abeokuta and Odeda local governments of Ogun State, Nigeria. Samples of human and cow milk, yoghurt, "wara", ice cream and "nono" were collected randomly within the local governments and analysed for aflatoxin M(1) using the two-dimensional TLC. Aflatoxin M(1) contamination in the range of 2.04-4.00 microg l(-1) was noticed only in milk and ice cream. In particular, samples of human milk, cow milk and ice cream recorded high scores of 4.0 microg l(-1), 2.04 microg l(-1) and 2.23 microg l(-1), respectively in Abeokuta local governments and a score of 4.0 microg l(-1) for cow milk in Odeda local government. This indicates a high level contamination in the local governments since the weighted mean concentration of aflatoxin M1 in milk for African diet is 0.002 microg l(-1). Therefore the concentration of AFB1 in feeds which is transformed to AFM1 in milk should be reduced by good manufacturing and good storage practices. Furthermore, there is need for stringent quality control during processing and distribution of these products.

  19. Use of 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid as electron donating compound in a potentiometric aflatoxin M1-immunosensor.

    PubMed

    Rameil, Steffen; Schubert, Peter; Grundmann, Peter; Dietrich, Richard; Märtlbauer, Erwin

    2010-02-19

    We developed a potentiometric aflatoxin M(1)-immunosensor which utilizes 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid (p-HPPA) as electron donating compound for horseradish peroxidase (HRP; EC 1.11.1.7). The assay system consists of a polypyrrole-surface-working electrode coated with a polyclonal anti-M(1) antibody (pAb-AFM(1)), a Ag/AgCl reference electrode and a HRP-aflatoxin B(1) conjugate (HRP-AFB(1) conjugate). To optimize the potentiometric measuring system p-HPPA as well as related compounds serving as electron donating compounds were compared. Also the influence of different buffer systems, varying pH and substrate concentrations on signal intensity was investigated. Our results suggest that reaction conditions that favor the formation of Pummerer's type ketones lead to an increase in signal intensity rather than formation of fluorescent dye. Comparison with commercial ready-to-use HRP electron donating compounds such as 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), o-phenylenediamine (OPD) or 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) showed that only 34%, 77% and 49% of the signal intensity of p-HPPA were reached, respectively. The optimized assay had a detection limit of 40 pg mL(-1) and allowed detection of 500 pg mL(-1) (FDA action limit) aflatoxin M(1) (AFM(1)) in pasteurized milk and UHT-milk containing 0.3-3.8% fat within 10 min without any sample treatment. The working range was between 250 and 2000 pg mL(-1) AFM(1).

  20. Aflatoxicol and aflatoxins B1 and M1 in the tissues of pigs receiving aflatoxin.

    PubMed

    Trucksess, M W; Stoloff, L; Brumley, W C; Wilson, D M; Hale, O M; Sangster, L T; Miller, D M

    1982-07-01

    Aflatoxicol (AFL) and aflatoxins B1 and M1 were found in tissues (kidney, liver, and muscle) of feeder pigs given an estimated LD50 oral dose of B1 (1.0 mg/kg body weight) provided as a rice culture of Aspergillus flavus and of market-weight pigs fed a naturally contaminated feed, containing aflatoxin B1 at a level of 400 ng/g from corn, for 14 days. The residues in all tissues decreased with time after treatment in both groups, with no detectable residues (approximate detection limits, ng/g, B1 0.03, M1 0.05, AFL 0.01) in pig tissues from the feeding experiment 24 h after withdrawal of aflatoxin-contaminated feed. B1 and M1, when found in the feeding experiment, were at about the same levels in all tissues except the kidney, in which M1 was the dominant aflatoxin. The level of AFL, when detected, was about 10% of the B1 level.

  1. Short communication: investigation of aflatoxin M1 levels in infant follow-on milks and infant formulas sold in the markets of Ankara, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Er, B; Demirhan, B; Yentür, G

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxins are fungal toxins known to be carcinogenic and are classified as food contaminants. This study was performed to investigate aflatoxin (AF) M1 levels in baby foods sold in Ankara (Turkey) and to evaluate the obtained results according to the Turkish Food Codex (TFC). For this purpose, a total of 84 baby food samples (50 follow-on milks and 34 infant formulas) were obtained from different markets in Ankara and the presence of AFM1 in the samples was analyzed by ELISA. In 32 (38.1%) of 84 infant food samples, the presence of AFM1 was detected in concentrations ranging between 0.0055 and 0.0201 µg/kg. The mean level (± standard error) of AFM1 was found to be 0.0089 ± 0.0006 µg/kg in positive infant follow-on milks. Aflatoxin M1 was detected in only 1 infant formula sample (2.94%) at a concentration of 0.0061 µg/kg. The extrapolated levels of AFB1 contamination in feedstuffs were calculated based on levels of AFM1 in baby food samples. The data estimating AFB1 contamination in dairy cattle feedstuff indicate that contamination may range from 0.3410 to 1.2580 µg/kg, with the mean level (± standard error) being 0.5499 ± 0.0385 µg/kg, which is lower than the level set by the TFC and European Union regulations (5 µg/kg). According to the obtained results, the levels of AFM1 in analyzed samples were within the allowed limit (0.025 µg/kg) set in the TFC. Low levels of AFM1 in infant follow-on milks and infant formula samples obtained during the study do not pose a health risk to infants. PMID:24731644

  2. Behavior of sup 14 C aflatoxin M1 during camembert cheese making

    SciTech Connect

    Fremy, J.M.; Roiland, J.C.; Gaymard, A. )

    1990-05-01

    Camembert cheeses are made from raw milk spiked with aflatoxin M1. Three aflatoxin M1 levels (7.5 micrograms/L, 3 micrograms/L, and 0.3 micrograms/L) are used. In curds 35.6, 47.1, and 57.7% of aflatoxin M1, respectively, are recovered, and in wheys 64.4, 52.9, and 42.3%, respectively, are recovered. During the first 15 days of storage, the aflatoxin M1 content of different cheeses decreases 25, 55, and 75%, respectively. A similar experiment is made with milk contaminated with {sup 14}C labeled aflatoxin M1. The same results are obtained, except for the behavior of aflatoxin M1 in cheese; the same 14C activity is recovered during storage for 30 days.

  3. Presence of aflatoxin M1 in commercial ultra-high-temperature-treated milk.

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, J L; Domínguez, L; Gómez-Lucía, E; Garayzabal, J F; García, J A; Suárez, G

    1988-01-01

    Forty-seven samples of commercial ultra-high-temperature-treated milk from a dairy facility in the northwest part of Spain were analyzed for the presence of aflatoxin M1. A total of 14 samples (29.8%) were positive for aflatoxin M1 (4 in May, 3 in November, 3 in December, 1 in January, 1 in April, 1 in July, and 1 in August), 29 (61.7%) were negative, and 4 (8.5%) were doubtful, i.e., they showed trace quantities of aflatoxin M1. The range of aflatoxin M1 content was 0.02 to 0.1 ng/ml. PMID:3137868

  4. Effects of Milk Yield, Feed Composition, and Feed Contamination with Aflatoxin B1 on the Aflatoxin M1 Concentration in Dairy Cows’ Milk Investigated Using Monte Carlo Simulation Modelling

    PubMed Central

    van der Fels-Klerx, H. J.; Camenzuli, Louise

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the presence of aflatoxin M1 (AfM1) in dairy cows’ milk, given predefined scenarios for milk production, compound feed (CF) contamination with aflatoxin B1 (AfB1), and inclusion rates of ingredients, using Monte Carlo simulation modelling. The model simulated a typical dairy farm in the Netherlands. Six different scenarios were considered, based on two lactation and three CF composition scenarios. AfB1 contamination of the CF was based on results from the Dutch national monitoring programme for AfB1 in feed materials from 2000 until 2010. Monitoring data from feed materials used in CF production for dairy cattle in the Netherlands were used. Additionally, AfB1 contamination data from an incident in maize in 2013 were used. In each scenario, five different transfer equations of AfB1 from feed to AfM1 in the milk were used, and 1000 iterations were run for each scenario. The results showed that under these six scenarios, the weekly farm concentration of AfM1 in milk was above the EC threshold in less than 1% of the iterations, with all five transfer equations considered. However, this increased substantially in weeks when concentrations from the contaminated maize batch were included, and up to 28.5% of the iterations exceeded the EC threshold. It was also observed that an increase in the milk production had a minimal effect on the exceedance of the AfM1 threshold due to an apparent dilution effect. Feeding regimes, including the composition of CF and feeding roughages of dairy cows, should be carefully considered based on the potential AfM1 contamination of the farm’s milk. PMID:27735836

  5. Design and Optimization of SiON Ring Resonator-Based Biosensors for Aflatoxin M1 Detection

    PubMed Central

    Guider, Romain; Gandolfi, Davide; Chalyan, Tatevik; Pasquardini, Laura; Samusenko, Alina; Pucker, Georg; Pederzolli, Cecilia; Pavesi, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we designed and studied silicon oxynitride (SiON) microring-based photonic structures for biosensing applications. We designed waveguides, directional couplers, and racetrack resonators in order to measure refractive index changes smaller than 10−6 refractive index units (RIU). We tested various samples with different SiON refractive indexes as well as the waveguide dimensions for selecting the sensor with the best performance. Propagation losses and bending losses have been measured on test structures, along with a complete characterization of the resonator’s performances. Sensitivities and limit of detection (LOD) were also measured using glucose-water solutions and compared with expected results from simulations. Finally, we functionalized the resonator and performed sensing experiments with Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1). We were able to detect the binding of aflatoxin for concentrations as low as 12.5 nm. The results open up the path for designing cost-effective biosensors for a fast and reliable sensitive analysis of AFM1 in milk. PMID:26193276

  6. Effects of 3 sequestering agents on milk aflatoxin M1 concentration and the performance and immune status of dairy cows fed diets artificially contaminated with aflatoxin B1.

    PubMed

    Ogunade, I M; Arriola, K G; Jiang, Y; Driver, J P; Staples, C R; Adesogan, A T

    2016-08-01

    This study examined whether adding 3 mycotoxin-sequestering agents to diets contaminated with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) would reduce milk aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) concentration, and improve the performance and alter immune status of dairy cows. Fifteen lactating dairy cows were used in an experiment with an incomplete crossover design including four 28-d periods. Treatments included a control diet (C), a toxin diet (T; 1,725µg of AFB1/head per day; 75µg/kg), and diets containing the toxin and 20g/head per day of a proprietary mixture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product containing a low (SEQ1) or high (SEQ2) dose of a chlorophyll-based additive, or a low dose of the chlorophyll-based additive and sodium bentonite clay (SEQ3). Sequestering agents were top-dressed on the total mixed ration (TMR) daily in each period, and AFB1 was dosed orally in gelatin capsules before the TMR was fed on d 21 to 25. Milk was sampled twice daily on d 20 to 28 and plasma was sampled on d 20 and 25. Sequestering agents did not affect milk AFM1 concentration during the toxin-dosing period. However, after AFB1 was withdrawn, the sequestering agents reduced the time required (24 vs. 48h) to reduce the milk AFM1 concentration below the Food and Drug Administration action level of 0.5µg/kg. Feeding T instead of C tended to reduce milk and fat-corrected milk yields, but feeding SEQ1 prevented these effects. Red blood cell count and hemoglobin concentration were reduced by feeding T instead of C, but not by feeding SEQ1, SEQ2, or SEQ3. The mean fluorescence intensity of antibody staining for 2 leukocyte adhesion molecules, L-selectin (CD62L) and β-integrin (CD18), tended to be greatest when SEQ1 and SEQ3 were fed. Plasma acid-soluble protein concentration was decreased by feeding SEQ1, SEQ2, and SEQ3 instead of T. Sequestering agents had no effect on milk AFM1 concentration, but they reduced the time required to reduce milk AFM1 concentration to a safe level after withdrawal of AFB1 from

  7. Reduction in the urinary aflatoxin M1 biomarker as an early indicator of the efficacy of dietary interventions to reduce exposure to aflatoxins.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Nicole J; Kumi, Justice; Johnson, Natalie M; Dotse, Eunice; Marroquin-Cardona, Alicia; Wang, Jia-Sheng; Jolly, Pauline E; Ankrah, Nii-Ayi; Phillips, Timothy D

    2013-08-01

    Aflatoxin B1 is a persistent public health issue in Ghana. Assessment of AFB1 intervention efficacy is currently dependent on long-term biomarkers. This study was designed to determine whether daily AFM1 biomarker levels could be utilized as an early detection method for intervention efficacy. Participants were treated with a refined calcium montmorillonite clay (UPSN) or a placebo (calcium carbonate) in a crossover study. Urine samples were assessed for AFM1 levels daily. UPSN treatment reduced AFM1 biomarkers by 55% compared to the placebo. This is the first study to show that daily urinary AFM1 levels can be used as a biomarker of internal aflatoxin B1 exposure in short-term intervention trials to determine efficacy. PMID:23697800

  8. Transfer of dietary aflatoxin B1 to milk aflatoxin M1 and effect of inclusion of adsorbent in the diet of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Xiong, J L; Wang, Y M; Nennich, T D; Li, Y; Liu, J X

    2015-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the transfer of aflatoxin from feed to milk and to evaluate the effects of Solis Mos (SM; Novus International Inc., St. Charles, MO) on milk aflatoxin M1, plasma biochemical parameters, and ruminal fermentation of dairy cows fed varying doses of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). Three groups of 8 multiparous Holstein cows in late lactation (days in milk = 271 ± 29; milk yield = 21.6 ± 3.1 kg/d) were assigned to 1 of 3 experiments in a crossover design. Cows in experiment 1 received no aflatoxin, cows in experiment 2 received 20 µg of AFB1/kg of dry matter, and cows in experiment 3 received 40 µg of AFB1/kg of dry matter. Cows in each experiment were assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: control or 0.25% SM. Each experiment consisted of 2 consecutive periods with the first 4 d (d 1 to 4) as adaptation, followed by AFB1 challenge for 7 d (d 5 to 11), and finally clearance for 5 d (d 12 to 16) in each period. Samples of total mixed ration and milk were collected on d 1, 2, and 10 to 14 of each period. Blood samples were collected from the coccygeal vein on d 1, 11, and 14 of each period. Rumen fluid was collected by oral stomach tube 2 h after the morning feeding on d 1 and 11 of each period. Adding SM to basal or AFB1-contaminated diets at 0.25% had no effect on lactation performance, liver function, or immune response. However, addition of SM improved antioxidative status, as indicated by increased plasma concentrations of superoxide dismutase and reduced malondialdehyde regardless of dietary AFB1 level. Addition of SM to the AFB1-free diet eliminated the background AFM1 in milk and increased total ruminal volatile fatty acid (99.6 vs. 94.2 mM) concentrations. Adding SM to the AFB1-contaminated diet in experiment 2 decreased the AFM1 concentration (88.4 vs. 105.3 ng/L) and the transfer of aflatoxin to milk (0.46 vs. 0.56%), and increased total volatile fatty acid concentration (99.8 vs. 93.4 mM). Adding SM to diets with 40 µg/kg of

  9. Association between Aflatoxin M1 and Liver Disease in HBV/HCV Infected Persons in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Afum, Clarrisa; Cudjoe, Lorene; Hills, Justin; Hunt, Raymond; Padilla, Luz A.; Elmore, Sarah; Afriyie, Abena; Opare-Sem, Ohene; Phillips, Timothy; Jolly, Pauline E.

    2016-01-01

    Aflatoxins are produced by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus and are common food contaminants in tropical developing countries. Extensive aflatoxin consumption has been shown to be highly associated with liver disease. A case-control study was conducted to determine the association between aflatoxin and liver disease in Kumasi, Ghana. A questionnaire was administered to examine socio-demographic characteristics and food storage and consumption practices, and urine samples were collected to measure levels of the aflatoxin metabolite (AFM1). Two hundred and seventy-six people participated in the study; 38 had liver disease (cases), 136 had neither hepatitis B/C nor liver disease (negative controls), and 102 were hepatitis B/C positive without liver cancer (positive controls). A much higher percent of participants in each group was male (76% of cases, 88% of negative controls and 65% of positive controls). Multivariate analysis showed that age was a significant predictor for being a case when cases were compared to negative controls. The odds of being a case was 70% less for participants aged 25–34 years (odds ratios (OR) 0.30; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.10–0.88) compared to those ≥45 years. For cases; Akans were seven times more likely to have AFM1 levels below the median when compared to other ethnic groups (OR 7; CI 1.41–34.68). When cases were compared to positive controls, they were 2.29 times more likely to report awareness of aflatoxin contamination of groundnuts (95% CI 1.06–4.91). Cases were also two times more likely to report awareness of aflatoxin contamination of maize than all controls combined (95% CI 1.02–4.11). However, most cases reported that aflatoxin contamination does not cause sickness in humans. This shows that there is awareness of aflatoxin contamination without proper understanding of the serious potential adverse health impacts among these study participants. These findings indicate that educational

  10. On the occurrence of aflatoxin M1 in milk and dairy products.

    PubMed

    Prandini, A; Tansini, G; Sigolo, S; Filippi, L; Laporta, M; Piva, G

    2009-05-01

    Aflatoxins are toxic fungal metabolites found in foods and feeds. When ruminants eat AFB(1)-feedstuffs, they metabolise the toxin and excrete AFM(1) in milk. To control AFM(1) in foods it is necessary to reduce AFB(1) contamination of feeds for dairy cattle by preventing fungal growth and AFB(1) formation in agricultural commodities intended for animal use. Corn and corn-based products are one of the most contaminated feedstuffs; therefore risk factor analysis of AFB(1) contamination in corn is necessary to evaluate risk of AFM(1) contamination in milk and milk products. During the corn silage production, the aflatoxins production is mostly influenced by: harvest time; fertilization; irrigation; pest control; silage moisture; and storage practices. Due to the lower moisture at harvest and to the conservation methods, the corn grain is mostly exposed to the contamination by Aspergillus species. Therefore, it is necessary to reduce the probability of this contaminant through choice of: hybrids; seeding time and density; suitable ploughing and fertirrigation; and chemical or biological control. Grains harvested with the lowest possible moisture and conservation moisture close to or less than 14% are necessary to reduce contamination risks, as is maintaining mass to homogeneous moisture. Kernel mechanical damage, grain cleaning practices and conservation temperature are also factors which need to be carefully controlled.

  11. Magnetically assisted solid phase extraction using Fe3O4 nanoparticles combined with enhanced spectrofluorimetric detection for aflatoxin M1 determination in milk samples.

    PubMed

    Taherimaslak, Zohreh; Amoli-Diva, Mitra; Allahyary, Mehdi; Pourghazi, Kamyar

    2014-09-01

    A novel, facile and inexpensive solid phase extraction (SPE) method using ethylene glycol bis-mercaptoacetate modified 3-(trimethoxysilyl)-1-propanethiol grafted Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles coupled with spectrofluorimetric detection was proposed for determination of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in liquid milk samples. The method uses the advantage fluorescence enhancement by β-cyclodexterin complexation of AFM1 in 12% (v/v) acetonitrile-water and the remarkable properties of Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles namely high surface area and strong magnetization were utilized to achieve high enrichment factor (57) and satisfactory extraction recoveries (91-102%) using only 100 mg of magnetic adsorbent. Furthermore, fast separation time of about 15 min avoids many time-consuming column-passing procedures of conventional SPE. The main factors affecting extraction efficiency including pH value, desorption conditions, extraction/desorption time, sample volume, and adsorbent amount were evaluated and optimized. Under the optimal conditions, a wide linear range of 0.04-8 ng mL(-1) with a low detection limit of 0.015 ng mL(-1) was obtained. The developed method was applied for extraction and preconcentration of AFM1 in three commercially available milk samples and the results were compared with the official AOAC method.

  12. Aflatoxin M1 in Cow’s Milk: Method Validation for Milk Sampled in Northern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Bellio, Alberto; Bianchi, Daniela Manila; Gramaglia, Monica; Loria, Andrea; Nucera, Daniele; Gallina, Silvia; Gili, Marilena; Decastelli, Lucia

    2016-01-01

    Aflatoxins (AFs) are mycotoxins produced by some species of Aspergillus. In dairy cows, ingested AFB1 is metabolized into carcinogenic AFM1 which is eliminated through milk, thus posing a risk for consumer health. Here we describe the set, validation, and application of screening (ELISA) and confirmatory (HPLC) tests carried out on milk samples collected through official control of mycotoxin levels in northern Italy over a three-year period (2012–2014). The limit of detection (LOD) was set at 5 ppt (ng/kg) and 2 ppt for ELISA and HPLC, respectively, and the limit of quantification (LOQ) was 10 ppt for confirmatory HPLC. A total of 1668 milk samples were analyzed: ELISA identified 36 (2.2%) positive milk samples that were subsequently confirmed by HPLC. The level of AFM1 in the positive samples ranged between 18 ± 2 and 208 ± 27 ppt. Of the total samples, only eight (0.5%) were found non-compliant with the EU regulatory limit (50 ppt; range 74 ± 10 to 208 ± 27 ppt). Use of ELISA and HPLC tests in series allows for high-volume analysis of samples, thus saving time and money while guaranteeing high analytical precision and accuracy. PMID:26927175

  13. Urinary aflatoxin M1 in Port-au-Prince and a rural community in north-east Haiti.

    PubMed

    Schwartzbord, Jeremy R; Leroy, Jef L; Severe, Linda; Brown, Dan L

    2016-06-01

    Aflatoxins (AFs) are hepatocarcinogenic mycotoxins that can contaminate grains and oil seeds in tropical and sub-tropical areas and have been detected in maize and peanut products of Haiti. The first objective was to assess human exposure to AFs among Haitians at an urban hospital (GHESKIO) and a rural health centre (HCBH). The second objective was to test the association between AF exposure and reported dietary intake of potentially contaminated foods, such as maize, peanut products and milk. Measurement of urinary AFM1 by HPLC revealed that among 367 participants 14% and 22% at GHESKIO and HCBH, respectively, had detectable AFM1. The maximum and median AFM1 concentrations for all detected samples were 700 pg AFM1 ml(-1) and 11.7 pg ml(-1), respectively. Detection of AFM1 was significantly associated with peanut consumption (p < 0.05). Controlling for diet and age group in a logit model, patients who reported peanut consumption the day of the survey and patients from HCBH had greater log odds of excreting detectable AFM1 (p < 0.001 and 0.002, respectively); females had lower log odds (p = 0.020). Recalled frequency of consuming non-dairy animal-sourced foods, an indicator of diet quality, approached significance (p = 0.056) as an inverse predictor of urinary AFM1 detection. The findings augur the need for interventions that will improve food safety in Haiti and limit exposure to AFs, particularly among rural communities. PMID:27146636

  14. Occurrence of aflatoxins M(1) and M(2) in milk commercialized in Ribeirão Preto-SP, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Garrido, N S; Iha, M H; Santos Ortolani, M R; Duarte Fávaro, R M

    2003-01-01

    Aflatoxins are toxic metabolites found in foods and feeds. When ruminants eat foodstuffs containing aflatoxins B(1) and B(2), these toxins are metabolized and excreted as aflatoxin M(1) and M(2) in milk. The aim was to determine the incidence of these aflatoxins in commercial milk collected from supermarkets in Ribeirão Preto-SP, Brazil, and consisting of 60 ultrahigh temperature (UHT) milk samples and 79 pasteurized milk samples. The milk samples were analysed according to method 986.16 of AOAC International. None of the milk samples analysed were contaminated with aflatoxin M(2), and aflatoxin M(1) was detected in 29 (20.9%) of samples in the range 50-240 ng l(-1). The results show that despite a high occurrence of aflatoxin M(1) in commercial pasteurized and UHT milk sold in Ribeirão Preto in 1999 and 2000, the contamination level of these toxins could not be considered a serious public health problem according to MERCOSUR Technical Regulations. However, levels in 20.9% of the milk samples exceeded the concentration of 50 ng l(-1) permitted by the European Union. Although it is not necessary to continue monitoring the incidence and levels of aflatoxins M(1) and M(2) in milk samples, surveillance could be appropriate.

  15. In vitro study of AFB1 and AFM1 effects on human lymphoblastoid Jurkat T-cell model.

    PubMed

    Luongo, D; Russo, R; Balestrieri, A; Marzocco, S; Bergamo, P; Severino, L

    2014-10-01

    Aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) is a mycotoxin produced by Aspergillus spp. that can occur as a natural contaminant in foods and feeds of vegetable origin. Post-ingestion, AFB(1) can be metabolized in the liver of mammals into hydroxylated aflatoxin M(1) (AFM(1)) that is excreted with milk. Although several studies have been carried out to evaluate effects of AFB(1) on the immune system, studies regarding AFM(1) are moreover lacking. The aim of the current study was to investigate effects of AFB(1) and AFM(1) on immune function using a lymphoblastoid Jurkat T-cell line as an experimental model. Both AFB(1) and AFM(1) produced significant decreases in Jurkat cell proliferation, whereas only minor effects were noted on interleukin (IL)-2 and interferon (IFN)-γ cytokines mRNA expression in stimulated cells that had been pre-incubated with AFB(1) and AFM(1). Particularly, AFB(1), but not AFM(1), at the highest concentration (50 µM) induced a marked increase in IL-8 mRNA expression. The results of the current study suggested the existence of a concentration threshold for AFB(1) and AFM(1) needed to exert biological activity on cell viability and innate immunity.

  16. Asymmetric Mach–Zehnder Interferometer Based Biosensors for Aflatoxin M1 Detection

    PubMed Central

    Chalyan, Tatevik; Guider, Romain; Pasquardini, Laura; Zanetti, Manuela; Falke, Floris; Schreuder, Erik; Heideman, Rene G.; Pederzolli, Cecilia; Pavesi, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we present a study of Aflatoxin M1 detection by photonic biosensors based on Si3N4 Asymmetric Mach–Zehnder Interferometer (aMZI) functionalized with antibodies fragments (Fab′). We measured a best volumetric sensitivity of 104 rad/RIU, leading to a Limit of Detection below 5 × 10−7 RIU. On sensors functionalized with Fab′, we performed specific and non-specific sensing measurements at various toxin concentrations. Reproducibility of the measurements and re-usability of the sensor were also investigated. PMID:26751486

  17. Rapid and automated analysis of aflatoxin M1 in milk and dairy products by online solid phase extraction coupled to ultra-high-pressure-liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Campone, Luca; Piccinelli, Anna Lisa; Celano, Rita; Pagano, Imma; Russo, Mariateresa; Rastrelli, Luca

    2016-01-01

    This study reports a fast and automated analytical procedure for the analysis of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in milk and dairy products. The method is based on the simultaneous protein precipitation and AFM1 extraction, by salt-induced liquid-liquid extraction (SI-LLE), followed by an online solid-phase extraction (online SPE) coupled to ultra-high-pressure-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) analysis to the automatic pre-concentration, clean up and sensitive and selective determination of AFM1. The main parameters affecting the extraction efficiency and accuracy of the analytical method were studied in detail. In the optimal conditions, acetonitrile and NaCl were used as extraction/denaturant solvent and salting-out agent in SI-LLE, respectively. After centrifugation, the organic phase (acetonitrile) was diluted with water (1:9 v/v) and purified (1mL) by online C18 cartridge coupled with an UHPLC column. Finally, selected reaction monitoring (SRM) acquisition mode was applied to the detection of AFM1. Validation studies were carried out on different dairy products (whole and skimmed cow milk, yogurt, goat milk, and powder infant formula), providing method quantification limits about 25 times lower than AFM1 maximum levels permitted by EU regulation 1881/2006 in milk and dairy products for direct human consumption. Recoveries (86-102%) and repeatability (RSD<3, n=6) meet the performance criteria required by EU regulation N. 401/2006 for the determination of the levels of mycotoxins in foodstuffs. Moreover, no matrix effects were observed in the different milk and dairy products studied. The proposed method improves the performance of AFM1 analysis in milk samples as AFM1 determination is performed with a degree of accuracy higher than the conventional methods. Other advantages are the reduction of sample preparation procedure, time and cost of the analysis, enabling high sample throughput that meet the current concerns of food safety and the public

  18. Rapid and automated analysis of aflatoxin M1 in milk and dairy products by online solid phase extraction coupled to ultra-high-pressure-liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Campone, Luca; Piccinelli, Anna Lisa; Celano, Rita; Pagano, Imma; Russo, Mariateresa; Rastrelli, Luca

    2016-01-01

    This study reports a fast and automated analytical procedure for the analysis of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in milk and dairy products. The method is based on the simultaneous protein precipitation and AFM1 extraction, by salt-induced liquid-liquid extraction (SI-LLE), followed by an online solid-phase extraction (online SPE) coupled to ultra-high-pressure-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) analysis to the automatic pre-concentration, clean up and sensitive and selective determination of AFM1. The main parameters affecting the extraction efficiency and accuracy of the analytical method were studied in detail. In the optimal conditions, acetonitrile and NaCl were used as extraction/denaturant solvent and salting-out agent in SI-LLE, respectively. After centrifugation, the organic phase (acetonitrile) was diluted with water (1:9 v/v) and purified (1mL) by online C18 cartridge coupled with an UHPLC column. Finally, selected reaction monitoring (SRM) acquisition mode was applied to the detection of AFM1. Validation studies were carried out on different dairy products (whole and skimmed cow milk, yogurt, goat milk, and powder infant formula), providing method quantification limits about 25 times lower than AFM1 maximum levels permitted by EU regulation 1881/2006 in milk and dairy products for direct human consumption. Recoveries (86-102%) and repeatability (RSD<3, n=6) meet the performance criteria required by EU regulation N. 401/2006 for the determination of the levels of mycotoxins in foodstuffs. Moreover, no matrix effects were observed in the different milk and dairy products studied. The proposed method improves the performance of AFM1 analysis in milk samples as AFM1 determination is performed with a degree of accuracy higher than the conventional methods. Other advantages are the reduction of sample preparation procedure, time and cost of the analysis, enabling high sample throughput that meet the current concerns of food safety and the public

  19. Immunochemical assessment of aflatoxin M1 in milk powder consumed by infants in São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, C A; Germano, P M; Bird, C; Pinto, C A

    1997-01-01

    Aflatoxin M1 was surveyed in 300 samples of whole milk powder consumed by infants at municipal schools and nurseries in São Paulo, Brazil. The analyses were performed by using commercially available test systems of a direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Samples were reconstituted in water (1:8), centrifuged at 1630 x gav for 15 min, and submitted directly to the assay without clean-up procedures. Results showed 33 (11%) positive samples for aflatoxin M1 at levels of 0.10-1.00 ng/ml (mean: 0.27 +/- 0.20 ng/ml). By using data on milk consumption patterns for 4-month-old children (highest intake), a mean daily intake of 3.7 ng/kg body weight/day was estimated. The implications of these data on human health are discussed. PMID:9059577

  20. Application of dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with vortex-assisted hydrophobic magnetic nanoparticles based solid-phase extraction for determination of aflatoxin M1 in milk samples by sensitive micelle enhanced spectrofluorimetry.

    PubMed

    Amoli-Diva, Mitra; Taherimaslak, Zohreh; Allahyari, Mehdi; Pourghazi, Kamyar; Manafi, Mohammad Hanif

    2015-03-01

    An efficient, simple and fast low-density solvent based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (LDS-DLLME) followed by vortex-assisted dispersive solid phase extraction (VA-D-SPE) has been developed as a new approach for extraction and preconcentration of aflatoxin M1 in milk samples prior to its micelle enhanced spectrofluorimetic determination. In this LDS-DLLME coupled VA-D-SPE method, milk samples were first treated with methanol/water (80:20, v/v) after removing the fat layer. This solvent was directly used as the dispersing solvent in DLLME along with using 1-heptanol (as a low-density solvent with respect to water) as the extracting solvent. In VA-D-SPE approach, hydrophobic oleic acid modified Fe3O4 nanoparticles were used to retrieve the analyte from the DLLME step. It is considerably that the target of VA-D-SPE was 1-heptanol rather than the aflatoxin M1 directly. The main parameters affecting the efficiency of LDS-DLLME and VA-D-SPE procedures and signal enhancement of aflatoxin M1 were investigated and optimized. Under the optimum conditions, the method was linear in the range from 0.02 to 200 µg L(-1) with the correlation coefficient (R(2)) of 0.9989 and detection limit of 13 ng L(-1). The intra-day precision was 2.9 and 4.3% and the inter-day precision was 2.1 and 3.3% for concentration of 2 and 50 µg L(-1) respectively. The developed method was applied for extraction and preconcentration of AFM1 in three commercially available milk samples and the results were compared with the official AOAC method. PMID:25618645

  1. Application of dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with vortex-assisted hydrophobic magnetic nanoparticles based solid-phase extraction for determination of aflatoxin M1 in milk samples by sensitive micelle enhanced spectrofluorimetry.

    PubMed

    Amoli-Diva, Mitra; Taherimaslak, Zohreh; Allahyari, Mehdi; Pourghazi, Kamyar; Manafi, Mohammad Hanif

    2015-03-01

    An efficient, simple and fast low-density solvent based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (LDS-DLLME) followed by vortex-assisted dispersive solid phase extraction (VA-D-SPE) has been developed as a new approach for extraction and preconcentration of aflatoxin M1 in milk samples prior to its micelle enhanced spectrofluorimetic determination. In this LDS-DLLME coupled VA-D-SPE method, milk samples were first treated with methanol/water (80:20, v/v) after removing the fat layer. This solvent was directly used as the dispersing solvent in DLLME along with using 1-heptanol (as a low-density solvent with respect to water) as the extracting solvent. In VA-D-SPE approach, hydrophobic oleic acid modified Fe3O4 nanoparticles were used to retrieve the analyte from the DLLME step. It is considerably that the target of VA-D-SPE was 1-heptanol rather than the aflatoxin M1 directly. The main parameters affecting the efficiency of LDS-DLLME and VA-D-SPE procedures and signal enhancement of aflatoxin M1 were investigated and optimized. Under the optimum conditions, the method was linear in the range from 0.02 to 200 µg L(-1) with the correlation coefficient (R(2)) of 0.9989 and detection limit of 13 ng L(-1). The intra-day precision was 2.9 and 4.3% and the inter-day precision was 2.1 and 3.3% for concentration of 2 and 50 µg L(-1) respectively. The developed method was applied for extraction and preconcentration of AFM1 in three commercially available milk samples and the results were compared with the official AOAC method.

  2. Interlaboratory study of the Charm ROSA Safe Level Aflatoxin M1 Quantitative lateral flow test for raw bovine milk.

    PubMed

    Salter, Robert; Douglas, David; Tess, Mark; Markovsky, Bob; Saul, Steven J

    2006-01-01

    An interlaboratory study of 21 public health, state agriculture, and industry laboratories in the United States tested raw commingled bovine milk containing aflatoxin M1 using the Charm Rapid One Step Assay (ROSA) Safe Level Aflatoxin M1 Quantitative lateral flow method. Blind coded sample pairs were fortified with 0, 300, 350, 400, 450, 500, and 550 parts per trillion (ppt) aflatoxin M1. A ROSA reader quantitatively interpreted test strips with ppt readings. Readings < or = 400 ppt were interpreted as negative, and readings >400 ppt were interpreted as positive. Initial positive samples were subsequently assayed 2 additional times. If both retest results were >400 ppt, the sample was called positive/ actionable relative to U.S. and Codex levels, 500 ppt. The concentration of 400 ppt was chosen for the positive/negative interpretation to provide 90% sensitivity with 95% confidence at the 500 ppt legislative level. The combined false negative rate was <5% (4 of 83) for samples at 500 and 550 ppt. The false violatives at 0, 300, 350, 400, and 450 ppt (n = 42 at each level) were 0, 0, 21, 14, and 93%, respectively. The 90% positive concentration with 95% confidence was 503 ppt by probit analysis. The average intralaboratory repeatability was 11% and average interlaboratory reproducibility was 13% for the fortified sample pairs. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of the study samples by 5 laboratories showed 38% false negatives with the 500 and 550 ppt samples, and a 0% false-violative rate with samples less than the 500 ppt action level.

  3. Simultaneous analysis of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, M1 and ochratoxin A in breast milk by high-performance liquid chromatography/fluorescence after liquid-liquid extraction with low temperature purification (LLE-LTP).

    PubMed

    Andrade, Patricia Diniz; Gomes da Silva, Julyane Laine; Caldas, Eloisa Dutra

    2013-08-23

    The aims of this study were to optimize and validate a methodology for the simultaneous analysis of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, M1 (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2, AFM1) and ochratoxin A (OTA) in breast milk, and to analyze these mycotoxins in samples obtained from human milk banks in the Federal District, Brazil. The optimized analytical method was based on liquid-liquid extraction with low temperature purification (3.25mL of acidified acetonitrile+0.75mL of ethyl acetate), followed by analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detector (HPLC/FLD) and a photochemical post-column reactor. Limits of quantification (LOQ) ranged from 0.005 to 0.03ng/mL, recoveries from 73 to 99.5%, and relative standard deviations (RSD) from 1.8 to 17.3%. The LLE-LTP extraction method was shown to be simple and cost-effective, since no columns were needed for clean-up. Only 2 of the 224 breast milk samples analyzed were positive for the mycotoxins, both samples containing AFB2 at the LOQ level (0.005ng/mL). The identity of the mycotoxin detected was confirmed by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). This result indicates that infants who are fed with breast milk from the milk banks are not at risk from aflatoxin and ochratoxin exposure.

  4. Aflatoxin

    MedlinePlus

    ... aflatoxin may be found in the following foods: Peanuts and peanut butter Tree nuts such as pecans Corn Wheat ... the FDA tests foods that may contain aflatoxin. Peanuts and peanut butter are some of the most ...

  5. Aflatoxin M₁ in breast milk of nursing Sudanese mothers.

    PubMed

    Elzupir, Amin O; Abas, Abdel Rouf A; Fadul, M Hemmat; Modwi, Abueliz K; Ali, Nima M I; Jadian, Afaf F F; Ahmed, Nuha Abd A; Adam, Smah Y A; Ahmed, Nousiba A M; Khairy, Arwa A A; Khalil, Eltahir A G

    2012-05-01

    The presence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in the breast milk of nursing Sudanese mothers was investigated using AOAC official method 980.21 as the extraction method and HPLC with fluorescence detector for separation and detection. Following informed consent, 94 breast milk samples of mothers were collected, and 51 samples were found to be positive for AFM1, with an average concentration of 0.401 ± 0.525 ng g(-1) and a maximum level of 2.561 ng g(-1). The volunteers completed a questionnaire concerning their dietary preferences. The data collected suggest that peanut butter, vegetable oils and rice are the main sources responsible for the AFM1 burden in breast milk. The toxin levels are alarmingly high, and indicate that Sudanese infants are exposed to high levels of AFM1. A wide range of harmful effects, and consequently health problems, can be expected due AFM1 toxicity. PMID:23606051

  6. Calcium montmorillonite clay in dairy feed reduces aflatoxin concentrations in milk without interfering with milk quality, composition or yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed to determine if a calcium montmorillonite clay (Novasil Plus, NSP), can significantly reduce aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) concentrations in milk without affecting dry matter intake (DMI), milk yield, milk composition, vitamin A, or riboflavin concentrations. The study was designed us...

  7. Modelling uncertainty estimation for the determination of aflatoxin M(1) in milk by visual and densitometric thin-layer chromatography with immunoaffinity column clean-up.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, K L; Gonçalves, G A A; Lopes, A L; Santos, E A; Vargas, E A; Magalhães, W F

    2012-01-01

    The uncertainty of aflatoxin M(1) concentration in milk, determined by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) with visual and densitometric quantification of the fluorescence intensities of the spots, was estimated using the cause-and-effect approach proposed by ISO GUM (Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement) following its main four steps. The sources of uncertainties due to volume measurements, visual and densitometric TLC calibration curve, allowed range for recovery variation and intermediary precision to be taken into account in the uncertainty budget. For volume measurements the sources of uncertainties due to calibration, resolution, laboratory temperature variation and repeatability were considered. For the quantification by visual readings of the intensity of the aflatoxin M(1) in the TLC the uncertainty arising from resolution calibration curves was modelled based on the intervals of concentrations between pairs of the calibration standard solutions. The uncertainty of the densitometric TLC quantification arising from the calibration curve was obtained by weighted least square (WLS) regression. Finally, the repeatability uncertainty of the densitometric peak areas or of the visual readings for the test sample solutions was considered. For the test samples with aflatoxin M(1) concentration between 0.02 and 0.5 µg l(-1), the relative expanded uncertainties, with approximately 95% of coverage probability, obtained for visual TLC readings were between 60% and 130% of the values predicted by the Horwitz model. For the densitometric TLC determination they were about 20% lower. The main sources of uncertainties in both visual and densitometric TLC quantification were the intermediary precision, calibration curve and recovery. The main source of uncertainty in the calibration curve in the visual TLC analysis was due to the resolution of the visual readings, whereas in the densitometric analysis it was due to the peak areas of test sample solutions

  8. Multiresidue method for simultaneous analysis of aflatoxin M1, avermectins, organophosphate pesticides and milbemycin in milk by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Dos Anjos, Marianna Ramos; Castro, Izabela Miranda de; Souza, Maria de Lourdes Mendes de; de Lima, Virgínia Verônica; de Aquino-Neto, Francisco Radler

    2016-06-01

    A method developed for the simultaneous analysis of aflatoxin M1, abamectin, doramectin, eprinomectin, ivermectin, moxidectin, acephate, azinphos-ethyl, azinphos-methyl, diazinon, methamidophos, methidathion, mevinphos, pirimiphos-ethyl and pirimiphos-methyl in whole raw milk, based on the QuEChERS method for extraction and clean-up, with detection and quantification by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) is described. The method was validated according to parameters of the Analytical Quality Assurance Manual from the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture and Commission Decision 2002/657/EC, and proved suitable for analysis of these analytes within the proposed working range, with recovery values between 77% and 110%, a standard deviation lower than 20%, limits of detection between 0.05 and 0.99 µg l(-)(1), and limits of quantification between 0.15 and 1.98 µg l(-1). Samples from animals treated with abamectin, doramectin, ivermectin and diazinon were analysed by the validated method. Residues of aflatoxin M1 were also found in field samples at levels below the established maximum residue limit.

  9. Comparison of nixtamalization and extrusion processes for a reduction in aflatoxin content.

    PubMed

    Elias-Orozco, R; Castellanos-Nava, A; Gaytán-Martínez, M; Figueroa-Cárdenas, J D; Loarca-Piña, G

    2002-09-01

    Traditional nixtamalization and an extrusion method for making the dough (masa) for corn tortillas that requires using lime and hydrogen peroxide were evaluated for the detoxification of aflatoxins. The traditional nixtamalization process reduced levels of aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) by 94%, aflatoxin M(1) (AFM(1)) by 90% and aflatoxin B(1)-8,9-dihydrodiol (AFB(1)-dihydrodiol) by 93%. The extrusion process reduced levels of AFB(1) by 46%, AFM(1) by 20% and AFB(1)-dihydrodiol by 53%. Extrusion treatments with 0, 0.3 and 0.5% lime reduced AFB(1) levels by 46, 74 and 85%, respectively. The inactivation of AFB(1), AFM(1) and AFB(1)-dihydrodiol in the extrusion process using lime together with hydrogen peroxide showed higher elimination of AFB(1) than treatments with lime or hydrogen peroxide alone. The extrusion process with 0.3% lime and 1.5% hydrogen peroxide was the most effective process to detoxify aflatoxins in corn tortillas, but a high level of those reagents negatively affected the taste and aroma of the corn tortilla as compared with tortillas elaborated by the traditional nixtamalization process.

  10. Prevalence of aflatoxins in blood and urine of Egyptian infants with protein-energy malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Hatem, Nadia L; Hassab, Hoda M A; Abd Al-Rahman, Ehsan M; El-Deeb, Sami A; El-Sayed Ahmed, Rania L

    2005-03-01

    The aim of the present work was to study the presence of aflatoxins in blood and urine of infants with protein-energy malnutrition (PEM). The study was conducted on 60 infants, 30 with kwashiorkor and 30 with marasmus, with 10 age-matched healthy infants studied as a control group. Complete blood count, liver function tests, and determination of the level of aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1, G2, M1, M2, G2a, B3, GM1, P, and aflatoxicol R0) in blood and urine were carried out in all studied infants. Serum aflatoxins were detected in more infants with kwashiorkor (80%) than in those with marasmus (46.7%). The mean serum levels of total aflatoxins, AFB1, AFG1, and AFB2a, were significantly higher in infants with kwashiorkor (p <.001). Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) was the most commonly detected type. The prevalence of aflatoxin excretion in the urine of infants with kwashiorkor was 80%, a higher value than that in infants with marasmus (46.7%). The mean urinary concentration of total aflatoxins followed the same pattern of distribution (p < .052). There were no significant differences between groups in the mean urinary concentrations of AFB1, AFG1, AFB2a, AFM1, and AFG2a. Aflatoxins were not detected in any of the serum or urine samples of the control group. Aflatoxins are highly prevalent in this study population and show a high degree of correlation with severe PEM.

  11. Determination of urinary biomarkers for assessment of short-term human exposure to aflatoxins in São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Jager, Alessandra V; Tonin, Fernando G; Souto, Pollyana C M C; Privatti, Rafaela T; Oliveira, Carlos A F

    2014-07-08

    In the present study, a longitudinal assessment was carried out to evaluate the short-term human exposure to aflatoxins in Pirassununga region, São Paulo, Brazil, by determination of urinary aflatoxins by a liquid chromatography coupled to mass sprectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method. Sixteen volunteers with ages ranging from 14 to 55 years old were instructed to collect the early morning first urine four times every three months, from June 2011 to March 2012, totaling 64 samples. Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) was found in 39 samples (61%) at levels ranging from 0.19 to 12.7 pg·mg-1 creatinine (mean: 1.2 ± 2.0 pg·mg-1 creatinine). Residues of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2 and aflatoxicol were not identified in any urine sample. No significant difference was found among the AFM1 mean levels in urine samples collected in the four sampling periods. The levels of AFM1 found in urine samples indicate a low short-term exposure of the population studied to aflatoxins through the diet, although further investigations are needed to assess other long-term biomarkers of exposure to AFB1.

  12. AFM1 in Milk: Physical, Biological, and Prophylactic Methods to Mitigate Contamination

    PubMed Central

    Giovati, Laura; Magliani, Walter; Ciociola, Tecla; Santinoli, Claudia; Conti, Stefania; Polonelli, Luciano

    2015-01-01

    Aflatoxins (AFs) are toxic, carcinogenic, immunosuppressive secondary metabolites produced by some Aspergillus species which colonize crops, including many dietary staple foods and feed components. AFB1 is the prevalent and most toxic among AFs. In the liver, it is biotransformed into AFM1, which is then excreted into the milk of lactating mammals, including dairy animals. AFM1 has been shown to be cause of both acute and chronic toxicoses. The presence of AFM1 in milk and dairy products represents a worldwide concern since even small amounts of this metabolite may be of importance as long-term exposure is concerned. Contamination of milk may be mitigated either directly, decreasing the AFM1 content in contaminated milk, or indirectly, decreasing AFB1 contamination in the feed of dairy animals. Current strategies for AFM1 mitigation include good agricultural practices in pre-harvest and post-harvest management of feed crops (including storage) and physical or chemical decontamination of feed and milk. However, no single strategy offers a complete solution to the issue. PMID:26512694

  13. Cytochrome P3-450 cDNA encodes aflatoxin B1-4-hydroxylase.

    PubMed

    Faletto, M B; Koser, P L; Battula, N; Townsend, G K; Maccubbin, A E; Gelboin, H V; Gurtoo, H L

    1988-09-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), a potent hepatocarcinogen and ubiquitous dietary contaminant in some countries, is detoxified to aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) via cytochrome P-450-mediated AFB1-4-hydroxylase. Genetic studies in mice have demonstrated that the expression of AFB1-4-hydroxylase is regulated by the aryl hydrocarbon locus and suggested that different cytochrome P-450 isozymes catalyze AFB1-4-hydroxylase and aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activities. We have now examined lysates from mammalian cells infected with recombinant vaccinia viruses containing expressible cytochrome P1-450 or P3-450 cDNAs for their ability to metabolize AFB1 to AFM1. Our results show that cytochrome P3-450 cDNA specifies AFB1-4-hydroxylase. This is the first direct assignment of a specific cytochrome P-450 to an AFB1 detoxification pathway. This finding may have relevance to the dietary modulation of AFB1 hepatocarcinogenesis.

  14. Aflatoxin M₁ in raw milk from different regions of São Paulo state--Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santili, Ana Beatriz Nappi; de Camargo, Adriano Costa; Nunes, Raquel de Syllos Rosa; da Gloria, Eduardo Micotti; Machado, Paulo Fernando; Cassoli, Laerte Dagher; Dias, Carlos Tadeu dos Santos; Calori-Domingues, Maria Antonia

    2015-01-01

    A total of 635 raw milk samples from 45 dairy farms, from three regions of São Paulo state - Brazil, were evaluated during 15 months for aflatoxin M1 (AFM1). AFM1 was determined by high performance liquid chromatograph with fluorescence detection. AFM1 was detected (>0.003 µg kg(-1)) in 72.9%, 56.3% and 27.5% of the samples from Bauru, Araçatuba and Vale do Paraíba regions, respectively. The mean AFM1 contamination considering all the samples was 0.021 µg kg(-1). Furthermore, the concentration of AFM1 was quite different among Bauru (0.038 µg kg(-1)), Araçatuba (0.017 µg kg(-1)) and Vale do Paraíba (<0.01 µg kg(-1)) regions. Only three samples (0.5%) had higher contamination than the tolerated limit in Brazil (0.50 µg kg(-1)) and 64 samples (10.1%) had a higher contamination than the maximum limit as set by the European Union (0.050 µg kg(-1)). The estimated AFM1 daily intake was 0.358 and 0.120 ng kg(-1) body weight per day for children and adults, respectively.

  15. Aflatoxin M₁ in raw milk from different regions of São Paulo state--Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santili, Ana Beatriz Nappi; de Camargo, Adriano Costa; Nunes, Raquel de Syllos Rosa; da Gloria, Eduardo Micotti; Machado, Paulo Fernando; Cassoli, Laerte Dagher; Dias, Carlos Tadeu dos Santos; Calori-Domingues, Maria Antonia

    2015-01-01

    A total of 635 raw milk samples from 45 dairy farms, from three regions of São Paulo state - Brazil, were evaluated during 15 months for aflatoxin M1 (AFM1). AFM1 was determined by high performance liquid chromatograph with fluorescence detection. AFM1 was detected (>0.003 µg kg(-1)) in 72.9%, 56.3% and 27.5% of the samples from Bauru, Araçatuba and Vale do Paraíba regions, respectively. The mean AFM1 contamination considering all the samples was 0.021 µg kg(-1). Furthermore, the concentration of AFM1 was quite different among Bauru (0.038 µg kg(-1)), Araçatuba (0.017 µg kg(-1)) and Vale do Paraíba (<0.01 µg kg(-1)) regions. Only three samples (0.5%) had higher contamination than the tolerated limit in Brazil (0.50 µg kg(-1)) and 64 samples (10.1%) had a higher contamination than the maximum limit as set by the European Union (0.050 µg kg(-1)). The estimated AFM1 daily intake was 0.358 and 0.120 ng kg(-1) body weight per day for children and adults, respectively. PMID:26001270

  16. Monoclonal IgA Antibodies for Aflatoxin Immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Ertekin, Özlem; Pirinçci, Şerife Şeyda; Öztürk, Selma

    2016-01-01

    Antibody based techniques are widely used for the detection of aflatoxins which are potent toxins with a high rate of occurrence in many crops. We developed a murine monoclonal antibody of immunoglobulin A (IgA) isotype with a strong binding affinity to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), aflatoxin B2 (AFB2), aflatoxin G1 (AFG1), aflatoxin G2 (AFG2) and aflatoxin M1 (AFM1). The antibody was effectively used in immunoaffinity column (IAC) and ELISA kit development. The performance of the IACs was compatible with AOAC performance standards for affinity columns (Test Method: AOAC 991.31). The total binding capacity of the IACs containing our antibody was 111 ng, 70 ng, 114 ng and 73 ng for AFB1, AFB2, and AFG1 andAFG2, respectively. Furthermore, the recovery rates of 5 ng of each AF derivative loaded to the IACs were determined as 104.9%, 82.4%, 85.5% and 70.7% for AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2, respectively. As for the ELISA kit developed using non-oriented, purified IgA antibody, we observed a detection range of 2-50 µg/L with 40 min total test time. The monoclonal antibody developed in this research is hitherto the first presentation of quadruple antigen binding IgA monoclonal antibodies in mycotoxin analysis and also the first study of their utilization in ELISA and IACs. IgA antibodies are valuable alternatives for immunoassay development, in terms of both sensitivity and ease of preparation, since they do not require any orientation effort. PMID:27187470

  17. Monoclonal IgA Antibodies for Aflatoxin Immunoassays

    PubMed Central

    Ertekin, Özlem; Pirinçci, Şerife Şeyda; Öztürk, Selma

    2016-01-01

    Antibody based techniques are widely used for the detection of aflatoxins which are potent toxins with a high rate of occurrence in many crops. We developed a murine monoclonal antibody of immunoglobulin A (IgA) isotype with a strong binding affinity to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), aflatoxin B2 (AFB2), aflatoxin G1 (AFG1), aflatoxin G2 (AFG2) and aflatoxin M1 (AFM1). The antibody was effectively used in immunoaffinity column (IAC) and ELISA kit development. The performance of the IACs was compatible with AOAC performance standards for affinity columns (Test Method: AOAC 991.31). The total binding capacity of the IACs containing our antibody was 111 ng, 70 ng, 114 ng and 73 ng for AFB1, AFB2, and AFG1 andAFG2, respectively. Furthermore, the recovery rates of 5 ng of each AF derivative loaded to the IACs were determined as 104.9%, 82.4%, 85.5% and 70.7% for AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2, respectively. As for the ELISA kit developed using non-oriented, purified IgA antibody, we observed a detection range of 2–50 µg/L with 40 min total test time. The monoclonal antibody developed in this research is hitherto the first presentation of quadruple antigen binding IgA monoclonal antibodies in mycotoxin analysis and also the first study of their utilization in ELISA and IACs. IgA antibodies are valuable alternatives for immunoassay development, in terms of both sensitivity and ease of preparation, since they do not require any orientation effort. PMID:27187470

  18. Vaccination of lactating dairy cows for the prevention of aflatoxin B1 carry over in milk.

    PubMed

    Polonelli, Luciano; Giovati, Laura; Magliani, Walter; Conti, Stefania; Sforza, Stefano; Calabretta, Alessandro; Casoli, Claudio; Ronzi, Paola; Grilli, Ester; Gallo, Antonio; Masoero, Francesco; Piva, Gianfranco

    2011-01-01

    The potential of anaflatoxin B(1) (AnAFB(1)) conjugated to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) as a vaccine (AnAFB(1)-KLH) in controlling the carry over of the aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) metabolite aflatoxin M(1) (AFM(1)) in cow milk is reported. AFB(1) is the most carcinogenic compound in food and foodstuffs amongst aflatoxins (AFs). AnAFB(1) is AFB(1) chemically modified as AFB(1)-1(O-carboxymethyl) oxime. In comparison to AFB(1), AnAFB(1) has proven to be non-toxic in vitro to human hepatocarcinoma cells and non mutagenic to Salmonella typhimurium strains. AnAFB(1)-KLH was used for immunization of cows proving to induce a long lasting titer of anti-AFB(1) IgG antibodies (Abs) which were cross reactive with AFB(1), AFG(1), and AFG(2). The elicited anti-AFB(1) Abs were able to hinder the secretion of AFM(1) into the milk of cows continuously fed with AFB(1). Vaccination of lactating animals with conjugated AnAFB(1) may represent a solution to the public hazard constituted by milk and cheese contaminated with AFs.

  19. Effects of butylated hydroxytoluene pretreatment on the metabolism and genotoxicity of aflatoxin B1 in primary cultures of adult rat hepatocytes: selective reduction of nucleic acid binding.

    PubMed

    Salocks, C B; Hsieh, D P; Byard, J L

    1984-12-01

    To elucidate biochemical mechanisms underlying the anticarcinogenic activity of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), studies were undertaken to characterize the influence of BHT pretreatment on the metabolism and genotoxicity of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes. During a 10-day pretreatment period, adult male rats were fed either a control diet or a diet supplemented with 0.5% BHT. Hepatocytes were subsequently isolated from each animal and cultured in chemically defined medium. Cultures prepared from rats which had been fed BHT metabolized AFB1 more rapidly than did controls. BHT pretreatment also enhanced oxidation of AFB1 to aflatoxin M1 (AFM1), and accelerated the rate of AFM1 conjugation. Covalent binding to DNA and RNA in BHT-pretreated cultures was reduced by 91 and 82%, respectively, while protein binding decreased by only 29%. AFB1 did not stimulate detectable DNA repair synthesis in BHT-pretreated cultures, although stimulation of DNA repair was clearly evident in control cultures. In a separate experiment, consistently higher baseline concentrations of reduced glutathione were observed in BHT-pretreated cells, indicating that BHT pretreatment may enhance formation of detoxified glutathione conjugates of AFB1. These findings suggest that the anticarcinogenic activity of BHT is due in part to preferential enhancement of hepatic detoxification mechanisms, with the result that intracellular concentrations of reactive metabolites are reduced and fewer covalently bound adducts are formed.

  20. Butylated hydroxytoluene chemoprevention of aflatoxicosis - effects on aflatoxin B(1) bioavailability, hepatic DNA adduct formation, and biliary excretion.

    PubMed

    Guarisco, J A; Hall, J O; Coulombe, R A

    2008-12-01

    The extreme sensitivity of turkeys to aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) is associated with efficient hepatic cytochrome P-450 (P450)-mediated bioactivation, and deficient glutathione S-transferase (GST) mediated detoxification. Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) protects against AFB(1) toxicity in turkeys through mechanisms that include competitive inhibition of P450-mediated AFB(1) bioactivation. To test whether dietary BHT alters hepatic AFB(1)-DNA adduct formation, excretion, and bioavailability of AFB(1)in vivo, turkeys were given diets with BHT (4000ppm) for 10 days, given a single oral dose of [(3)H]-AFB(1) (0.05microg/g; 0.02microCi/g), then sampled at intervals up to 24h. Radiolabel in serum, red blood cells, liver, and breast meat was frequently lower in BHT-treated compared to control. Hepatic AFB(1)-DNA adducts in BHT-treated turkeys were significantly lower at 12 and 24h. BHT-fed birds had significant higher bile efflux, though biliary radiolabel excretion was not different from control. The amount of aflatoxin M(1) (AFM(1)) excreted in the bile was lower than in control, but BHT had no effect on the biliary excretion of AFB(1), aflatoxin Q(1) or glucuronide and sulfate conjugates. Thus, the chemopreventive properties of BHT may also occur through a reduction in AFB(1) bioavailability in addition to inhibition of bioactivation.

  1. The genetics of aflatoxin B1 metabolism. Association of the induction of aflatoxin B1-4-hydroxylase with the transcriptional activation of cytochrome P3-450 gene.

    PubMed

    Koser, P L; Faletto, M B; Maccubbin, A E; Gurtoo, H L

    1988-09-01

    The association between murine cytochrome P3-450 and hepatic aflatoxin B1-4-hydroxylase, a cytochrome P-450-dependent enzyme which converts aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) to aflatoxin M1 (AFM1), was examined by (a) purification of the cytochrome P-450 which preferentially metabolizes AFB1 to AFM1; (b) isolation of the specific cDNA clone; and (c) correlating induction of transcriptional activation of the specific message with the enzyme activity in the hepatic microsomes. Isolation of cytochromes P-450 from C57BL/6 mice, an Ah-responsive strain, pretreated with a 150 mg/kg dose of beta-naphthoflavone resulted in the partial purification of the cytochrome P-450 with preference for the metabolism of AFB1 to AFM1. Antibodies raised against this cytochrome P-450 were used to enrich hepatic mRNA for cDNA cloning. A cDNA library screened with a rat cytochrome P-450c gene probe yielded only two types of cDNA clones that contained inserts corresponding to cytochrome P1-450 and cytochrome P3-450. Specific restriction fragments of near full-length P1-450 cDNA and full-length P3-450 cDNA, hybridizing only with their respective messages, were isolated and used to assess transcriptional activation of these messages in liver and extrahepatic tissues from C57BL/6 mice treated with 3-methylcholanthrene, beta-naphthoflavone, indolylacetonitrile, and Aroclor-1254. Dose-dependent induction of the two messenger RNAs, when compared with the induction of specific enzyme activities, demonstrated the association of cytochrome P1-450 with aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activity and the association of cytochrome P3-450 with AFB1-4-hydroxylase activity. This supports our earlier hypothesis that AFB1-4-hydroxylase and aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase, although regulated by the Ah locus, are the products of two separate genes (Gurtoo, H.L., Dahms, R.P., Kanter, P., and Vaught, J.B. (1978) J. Biol. Chem. 253, 3952-3961). PMID:3137229

  2. [Determination of aflatoxins in cereals and oils by liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiupin; Li, Peiwu; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Wen; Zhang, Qi; Fan, Sufang; Yu, Li; Wang, Lin; Chen, Xiaomei; Li, Ying; Jiang, Jun

    2011-06-01

    The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry was applied for the determination of the aflatoxins: B1 (AFB1), B2 (AFB2), G1 (AFG1) and G2 (AFG2), in cereals and oils. The samples were first extracted by ultrasonic method. The optimized conditions of ultrasonic extraction were as follows: temperature of 50 degrees C, extraction time of 3 min, methanol-water (containing 40 g/L NaCl) (80: 20, v/v) solution as the medium and a ratio of sample to solvent of 1 : 3 (g: mL). The extracts were then purified using an immunoaffinity column. The separation was performed on a C18 column with mobile phases of 10 mmol/L ammonium acetate and methanol in gradient elution. The sensitive detection of the four AFT compounds by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) was carried out in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode with aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) as the internal standard. Under the optimized conditions, the limits of detection of AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2 were 0.002, 0.004, 0.004 and 0.012 microg/kg, respectively. The recoveries of aflatoxins in different spiked cereals and oils were in the range from 87% to 111%. The intra-day and inter-day precisions were not more than 6.7% and 5.6%, respectively. In comparison with the external standard method, this method can effectively inhibit the matrix effects, and greatly improve the accuracy.

  3. Robotic automated analysis of foods for aflatoxin.

    PubMed

    Carman, A S; Kuan, S S; Ware, G M; Umrigar, P P; Miller, K V; Guerrero, H G

    1996-01-01

    Immunoaffinity column-based sample preparation procedures for determination of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 in several food matrixes and aflatoxin M1 in milk have been automated by using flexible automation, or robotics. Components used to assemble the system were purchased commercially or developed and built in-house. A liquid-level sensor developed in-house to assist elution of the immunoaffinity column is described. After immunoaffinity column cleanup, aflatoxins are separated by reversed-phase liquid chromatography and determined by fluorescence without derivatization. Mean recoveries of aflatoxins B1, B2, and G1 added to corn and nuts at 9-36 ng/g total aflatoxins were > 85% (coefficient of variation [CV] = 16%). Recoveries of aflatoxin G2 averaged 50% (CV = 28%). Recoveries of aflatoxin M1 added to milk at 0.12-0.50 ng/mL averaged 78% (CV = 19%). The ability of the automated system to reproduce its results is demonstrated by the fact that the CV of replicate assays is generally better than 10%. Comparability between the automated procedure and the AOAC official method is demonstrated.

  4. [Distribution of orally administered aflatoxin B 1 in the tissues and organs of the goat (Capra)].

    PubMed

    Veselý, D; Veselá, D; Kusák, V; Nesnídal, P

    1978-09-01

    In the experiment the goat was administered an amount of 450 mg aflatoxin B1. The milk taken during the experiment was lyophilized and aflatoxins B1 and M1 were isolated. After the death of the goat some tissues, blood and bile of the experimental animal were analyzed to find out the aflatoxin content.

  5. Aflatoxins and kwashiorkor: clinical studies in Sudanese children.

    PubMed

    Coulter, J B; Hendrickse, R G; Lamplugh, S M; Macfarlane, S B; Moody, J B; Omer, M I; Suliman, G I; Williams, T E

    1986-01-01

    Aflatoxin analysis of blood and urine by high performance liquid chromatography in 584 Sudanese children is reported. The results in 404 malnourished children comprising 141 kwashiorkor, 111 marasmic kwashiorkor and 152 with marasmus are compared with 180 age-matched controls and correlated with clinical findings. The aflatoxin detection rate and mean concentration were higher in serum of children with kwashiorkor than the other groups. The difference between the detection rate in kwashiorkor and controls was significant (p less than 0.05). The aflatoxin detection rate in urine was highest in the marasmic kwashiorkor group and the mean concentration was higher in the marasmic kwashiorkor and marasmic groups than in the kwashiorkor and control groups. There were important differences in the detection of certain aflatoxins between the groups. Aflatoxicol was detected in the sera of 16 (11.6%) kwashiorkor, in six (6.1%) marasmic kwashiorkor, but in none of the controls and only once in marasmus. These differences are highly significant (p less than 0.0001). The ratio of AFB1 to AFM1 was higher in the sera and urines of kwashiorkors than in controls, suggesting that the normal transformation of AFB1 to AFM1 may be impaired in kwashiorkor with consequent increase in transformation of AFB1 to aflatoxicol. The study therefore provides evidence of differences in the metabolism of aflatoxins in children with kwashiorkor compared with children with other forms of malnutrition and normally nourished children and confirms the association between aflatoxins and kwashiorkor contained in a preliminary report on this work.

  6. Effects of calcium montmorillonite clay and aflatoxin exposure on dry matter intake, milk production, and milk composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fifteen primiparous crossbred dairy cows that were 114 ± 14 d in milk and weighed 533 ± 56 kg were used in a replicated 5×5 Latin square to test the efficacy of NovaSil Plus (NSP) for the reduction of aflatoxin (AF) metabolite (AFM1) in milk and the effect of NSP on milk composition. Cows were hous...

  7. Potential of lactic acid bacteria in aflatoxin risk mitigation.

    PubMed

    Ahlberg, Sara H; Joutsjoki, Vesa; Korhonen, Hannu J

    2015-08-17

    Aflatoxins (AF) are ubiquitous mycotoxins contaminating food and feed. Consumption of contaminated food and feed can cause a severe health risk to humans and animals. A novel biological method could reduce the health risks of aflatoxins through inhibiting mold growth and binding aflatoxins. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are commonly used in fermented food production. LAB are known to inhibit mold growth and, to some extent, to bind aflatoxins in different matrices. Reduced mold growth and aflatoxin production may be caused by competition for nutrients between bacterial cells and fungi. Most likely, binding of aflatoxins depends on environmental conditions and is strain-specific. Killed bacteria cells possess consistently better binding abilities for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) than viable cells. Lactobacilli especially are relatively well studied and provide noticeable possibilities in binding of aflatoxin B1 and M1 in food. It seems that binding is reversible and that bound aflatoxins are released later on (Haskard et al., 2001; Peltonen et al., 2001). This literature review suggests that novel biological methods, such as lactic acid bacteria, show potential in mitigating toxic effects of aflatoxins in food and feed.

  8. A survey of urinary aflatoxin in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Nyathi, C B; Mutiro, C F; Hasler, J A; Chetsanga, C J

    1987-12-01

    In this study, 1228 urine samples were collected from different centres in Zimbabwe and were analysed for aflatoxin contamination. The urine samples were extracted with chloroform and analysed by thin layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography. The most commonly observed contaminant was aflatoxin M1, at an average concentration of 4.2 ng/ml of urine. Although the national average of urine samples contaminated was 4.3%, there were areas in which up to 10% of the urine samples were contaminated.

  9. Fractionation of radioactivity in the milk of goats administered UC-aflatoxin B1

    SciTech Connect

    Goto, T.; Hsieh, D.P.

    1985-05-01

    A detailed fractionation of radioactivity in the milk of goats administered UC-aflatoxin B1 at low doses was performed. The milk collected in the first 24 h following dosing contained radioactivity equivalent to 0.45-1.1% of the dose given. The radioactivity in each sample was partitioned into 4 fractions: ether, protein, dichloromethane, and water-alcohol. Over 80% of the radioactivity was detected in the dichloromethane fraction, of which over 95% was attributable to aflatoxin M1. No aflatoxin B1 or other known aflatoxin metabolites were detected in any fraction. The results indicate that the major metabolite of aflatoxin B1 in goat milk is aflatoxin M1 and that other metabolites, including conjugates, are of minor significance.

  10. Aflatoxin metabolism in humans: detection of metabolites and nucleic acid adducts in urine by affinity chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Groopman, J.D.; Donahue, P.R.; Zhu, J.Q.; Chen, J.S.; Wogan, G.N.

    1985-10-01

    A high-affinity IgM monoclonal antibody specific for aflatoxins was covalently bound to Sepharose 4B and used as a preparative column to isolate aflatoxin derivatives from the urine of people and experimental animals who had been exposed to the carcinogen environmentally or under laboratory conditions. Aflatoxin levels were quantified by radioimmunoassay and high-performance liquid chromatography after elution from the affinity column. In studies on rats injected with ( UC)aflatoxin B1, the authors identified the major aflatoxin-DNA adduct, 2,3-dihydro-2-(N7-guanyl)-3-hydroxy-aflatoxin B1 (AFB1-N7-Gua), and the oxidative metabolites M1 and P1 as the major aflatoxin species present in the urine. When this methodology was applied to human urine samples obtained from people from the Guangxi Province of China exposed to aflatoxin B1 through dietary contamination, the aflatoxin metabolites detected were also AFB1-N7-Gua and aflatoxins M1 and P1. Therefore, affinity chromatography using a monoclonal antibody represents a useful and rapid technique with which to isolate this carcinogen and its metabolites in biochemical epidemiology and for subsequent quantitative measurements, providing exposure information that can be used for risk assessment.

  11. Crohn's disease & aflatoxins.

    PubMed

    Roy, R N; Russell, R I

    1992-12-01

    An investigation to examine the relationship between Crohn's disease and aflatoxins, a group of structurally related toxic and carcinogenic metabolites, was carried out on 24 patients. Extracts of serum and urine from the patients were assayed qualitatively by thin layer chromatography and the Aflatest method, and quantitatively by fluorimetry. There was evidence that some patients suffering from Crohn's Disease, together with some having coeliac disease and ulcerative colitis, did have varying amounts of aflatoxins in their serum and urine. The presence of aflatoxins may have been due to exposure to food containing these toxins or inability of the patient to excrete aflatoxins on account of some gastro-intestinal derangement. Only long-term investigation would establish the link between dietary history and the presence of aflatoxins in these patients.

  12. BOREAS AFM-1 NOAA/ATDD Long-EZ Aircraft Flux data Over the SSA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, Timothy L.; Baldocchi, Dennis; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David E. (Editor); Gunter, Laureen; Dumas, Ed; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This data set contains measurements from the Airborne Flux and Meteorology (AFM)-1 National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration/Atmospheric Turbulence and Diffusion Division (NOAA/ATDD) Long-EZ Aircraft collected during the 1994 Intensive Field Campaigns (IFCs) at the southern study area (SSA). These measurements were made from various instruments mounted on the aircraft. The data that were collected include aircraft altitude, wind direction, wind speed, air temperature, potential temperature, water mixing ratio, U and V components of wind velocity, static pressure, surface radiative temperature, downwelling and upwelling total radiation, downwelling and upwelling longwave radiation, net radiation, downwelling and upwelling photosynthectically active radiation (PAR), greenness index, CO2 concentration, O3 concentration, and CH4 concentration. There are also various columns that indicate the standard deviation, skewness, kurtosis, and trend of some of these data. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The NOAA/ATDD Long-EZ aircraft flux data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  13. Aflatoxins and disease.

    PubMed

    Patten, R C

    1981-03-01

    These days it is widely believed by experts that most cancers are caused by environment factors. The epidemiology of most of these suspected factors is still equivocal. One such factor which has been widely studied is aflatoxin, a chemical produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus. Because of the widespread distribution of this agent, its known toxicity, and its frequent ingestion by humans, aflatoxin may well be a significant cause of cancer worldwide. This paper attempts to summarize some of the historical and epidemiological evidence regarding aflatoxins and disease.

  14. Reduction of aflatoxins by Rhizopus oryzae and Trichoderma reesei.

    PubMed

    Hackbart, H C S; Machado, A R; Christ-Ribeiro, A; Prietto, L; Badiale-Furlong, E

    2014-08-01

    This study evaluated the ability of the microorganisms Rhizopus oryzae (CCT7560) and Trichoderma reesei (QM9414), producers of generally recognized as safe (GRAS) enzymes, to reduce the level of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, and M1. The variables considered to the screening were the initial number of spores in the inoculum and the culture time. The culture was conducted in contaminated 4 % potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium, and the residual mycotoxins were determined every 24 h by HPLC-FL. The fungus R. oryzae has reduced aflatoxins B1, B2, and G1 in the 96 h and aflatoxins M1 and G2 in the range of 120 h of culture by approximately 100 %. The fungus T. reesei has reduced aflatoxins B1, B2, and M1 in the 96 h and aflatoxin G1 in the range of 120 h of culture by approximately 100 %. The highest reduction occurred in the middle of R. oryzae culture.

  15. Aflatoxin M₁ in raw, UHT milk and dairy products in Sicily (Italy).

    PubMed

    Santini, Antonello; Raiola, Assunta; Ferrantelli, Vincenzo; Giangrosso, Giuseppe; Macaluso, Andrea; Bognanno, Matteo; Galvano, Fabio; Ritieni, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    A survey on 73 milk samples from different animal breeds and 24 dairy products samples from Sicily, Italy, was carried out for the presence of aflatoxin M₁ (AFM1) by LC-fluorescence detection after immunoaffinity cleanup. AFM1 was detected in 48% and 42% of the milk and dairy samples at concentration ranges between <5.0-16.0 and <5.0-18.0 ng L⁻¹, respectively. Within the raw milk samples, 92% had an AFM1 content below 5.0 ng L⁻¹, in 7% of the cases it was in the range 5.0-10.0 ng L⁻¹ and 1% was contaminated between 10.0 and 20.0 ng L⁻¹. For the dairy products, ultra-high-temperature treated (UHT) milk, milk cream and cheese, the incidence was 42%, of which 83% contained less than 5.0 ng L⁻¹ and 17% contained 10.0-20.0 ng L⁻¹ AFM1. The levels of contamination found justify continuous monitoring for public health and to reduce consumer exposure.

  16. Aflatoxins and safe storage

    PubMed Central

    Villers, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    The paper examines both field experience and research on the prevention of the exponential growth of aflatoxins during multi-month post-harvest storage in hot, humid countries. The approach described is the application of modern safe storage methods using flexible, Ultra Hermetic™ structures that create an unbreatheable atmosphere through insect and microorganism respiration alone, without use of chemicals, fumigants, or pumps. Laboratory and field data are cited and specific examples are given describing the uses of Ultra Hermetic storage to prevent the growth of aflatoxins with their significant public health consequences. Also discussed is the presently limited quantitative information on the relative occurrence of excessive levels of aflatoxin (>20 ppb) before vs. after multi-month storage of such crops as maize, rice, and peanuts when under high humidity, high temperature conditions and, consequently, the need for further research to determine the frequency at which excessive aflatoxin levels are reached in the field vs. after months of post-harvest storage. The significant work being done to reduce aflatoxin levels in the field is mentioned, as well as its probable implications on post-harvest storage. Also described is why, with some crops such as peanuts, using Ultra Hermetic storage may require injection of carbon dioxide, or use of an oxygen absorber as an accelerant. The case of peanuts is discussed and experimental data is described. PMID:24782846

  17. Distribution of aflatoxins in tissues of growing pigs fed an aflatoxin-contaminated diet amended with a high affinity aluminosilicate sorbent.

    PubMed

    Beaver, R W; Wilson, D M; James, M A; Haydon, K D; Colvin, B M; Sangster, L T; Pikul, A H; Groopman, J D

    1990-02-01

    The effect of hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (HSCAS) added to the diet of swine fed an aflatoxin-contaminated diet on tissue aflatoxin levels was investigated. Pigs were fed control (less than 10 ng/g B1 + B2), contaminated (500-600 ng/g B1 + B2), and contaminated +0.5% HSCAS diets. Tissues analyzed for the presence of aflatoxin B1, B2, and M1 residues included liver, muscle, kidney, and adipose. Addition of HSCAS to the contaminated diet significantly reduced the amount of M1 in liver, kidney, and muscle tissue. Aflatoxin B1 was not reduced in liver or kidney, but was decreased in muscle.

  18. Aflatoxin decomposition in various soils

    SciTech Connect

    Angle, J.S.

    1986-08-01

    The persistence of aflatoxin in the soil environment could potentially result in a number of adverse environmental consequences. To determine the persistence of aflatoxin in soil, /sup 14/C-labeled aflatoxin B1, was added to silt loam, sandy loam, and silty clay loam soils and the subsequent release of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ was determined. After 120 days of incubation, 8.1% of the original aflatoxin added to the silt loam soil was released as CO/sub 2/. Aflatoxin decomposition in the sandy loam soil proceeded more quickly than the other two soils for the first 20 days of incubation. After this time, the decomposition rate declined and by the end of the study, 4.9% of the aflatoxin was released as CO/sub 2/. Aflatoxin decomposition proceeded most slowly in the silty clay loam soil. Only 1.4% of aflatoxin added to the soil was released as CO/sub 2/ after 120 days incubation. To determine whether aflatoxin was bound to the silty clay loam soil, aflatoxin B1 was added to this soil and incubated for 20 days. The soil was periodically extracted and the aflatoxin species present were determined using thin layer chromatographic (TLC) procedures. After one day of incubation, the degradation products, aflatoxins B2 and G2, were observed. It was also found that much of the aflatoxin extracted from the soil was not mobile with the TLC solvent system used. This indicated that a conjugate may have formed and thus may be responsible for the lack of aflatoxin decomposition.

  19. Analysis of industry-generated data. Part 2: Risk-based sampling plan for efficient self-control of aflatoxin M₁ contamination in raw milk.

    PubMed

    Farkas, Zsuzsa; Trevisani, Marcello; Horváth, Zsuzsanna; Serraino, Andrea; Szabó, István J; Kerekes, Kata; Szeitzné-Szabó, Mária; Ambrus, Arpád

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxin M₁ (AFM1) contamination in 21,969 milk samples taken in Italy during 2005-08 and 2010 provided the basis for designing an early warning self-control plan. Additionally, 4148 AFM1 data points from the mycotoxin crisis (2003-04) represented the worst case. No parametric function provided a good fit for the skewed and scattered AFM1 concentrations. The acceptable reference values, reflecting the combined uncertainty of AFM1 measured in consignments consisting of milk from one to six farms, ranged from 40 to 16.7 ng kg(-1), respectively. Asymmetric control charts with these reference values, 40 and 50 ng kg(-1) warning and action limits are recommended to assess immediately the distribution of AFM1 concentration in incoming consignments. The moving window method, presented as a worked example including 5 days with five samples/day, enabled verification of compliance of production with the legal limit in 98% of the consignments at a 94% probability level. The sampling plan developed assumes consecutive analyses of samples taken from individual farms, which makes early detection of contamination possible and also immediate corrective actions if the AFM1 concentration in a consignment exceeds the reference value. In the latter case different control plans with increased sampling frequency should be applied depending on the level and frequency of contamination. As aflatoxin B₁ increases in feed at about the same time, therefore a coordinated sampling programme performed by the milk processing plants operating in a confined geographic area is more effective and economical then the individual ones. The applicability of the sample size calculation based on binomial theorem and the fast response rate resulting from the recommended sampling plan were verified by taking 1000-10,000 random samples with replacement from the experimental databases representing the normal, moderately and highly contaminated periods. The efficiency of the control plan could be

  20. Fluorometric assay for aflatoxins

    SciTech Connect

    Chakrabarti, A.G.

    1984-11-01

    The method that is now widely adopted by the government laboratories for the assay of individual aflatoxin components (B/sub 1/, B/sub 2/, G/sub 1/, and G/sub 2/) utilizes a TLC technique. The extraction and clean-up steps of this technique were further researched but the method is still time consuming. It is, therefore, very important to develop a rapid and accurate assay technique for aflatoxins. The current research proposes a technique which utilizes a Turner Fluorometer.

  1. The metabolism of aflatoxin B1 by hepatocytes isolated from rats following the in vivo administration of some xenobiotics

    SciTech Connect

    Metcalfe, S.A.; Neal, G.E.

    1983-01-01

    Isolated rat hepatocytes, an intact cellular system capable of performing phase I and phase II metabolism, have been used to investigate metabolism of aflatoxin B1. These cells were found to metabolise (/sup 14/C)aflatoxin B1 to aflatoxins M1 and Q1, and to radiolabelled polar material, presumably conjugates, as analysed by h.p.l.c., t.l.c. and radioactive determination. In vivo administration of the mixed function oxidase inducers, phenobarbitone and 3-methylcholanthrene, resulted in enhanced hepatocyte phase I (microsomal) metabolism of aflatoxin B1. In contrast to metabolism of AFB1 by in vitro subcellular systems increased production of polar material (conjugated metabolites) derived from (/sup 14/C)aflatoxin B1 was also detected in hepatocytes isolated from these pretreated animals. Formation of aflatoxin Q1 by isolated hepatocytes appeared to be mediated by cytochrome P450-linked enzymes whereas cytochrome P448-linked enzymes were apparently involved in aflatoxin M1 production. Chronic feeding of aflatoxin B1 to rats enhanced hepatocyte production of conjugated material only and did not elevate cellular cytochrome P450 levels, thus suggesting that aflatoxin B1 is not an inducer of its own primary metabolism.

  2. Diverse inhibitors of aflatoxin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Robert A; Boston, Rebecca S; Payne, Gary A

    2008-03-01

    Pre-harvest and post-harvest contamination of maize, peanuts, cotton, and tree nuts by members of the genus Aspergillus and subsequent contamination with the mycotoxin aflatoxin pose a widespread food safety problem for which effective and inexpensive control strategies are lacking. Since the discovery of aflatoxin as a potently carcinogenic food contaminant, extensive research has been focused on identifying compounds that inhibit its biosynthesis. Numerous diverse compounds and extracts containing activity inhibitory to aflatoxin biosynthesis have been reported. Only recently, however, have tools been available to investigate the molecular mechanisms by which these inhibitors affect aflatoxin biosynthesis. Many inhibitors are plant-derived and a few may be amenable to pathway engineering for tissue-specific expression in susceptible host plants as a defense against aflatoxin contamination. Other compounds show promise as protectants during crop storage. Finally, inhibitors with different modes of action could be used in comparative transcriptional and metabolomic profiling experiments to identify regulatory networks controlling aflatoxin biosynthesis.

  3. Aflatoxins, hydroxylated metabolites, and aflatoxicol from breast muscle of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Zaragoza, M; Carvajal-Moreno, M; Méndez-Ramírez, I; Chilpa-Galván, N C; Avila-González, E; Flores-Ortiz, C M

    2014-12-01

    Aflatoxins (AF) are toxic fungal secondary metabolites that are pathological to animals and humans. This study identified and quantified AF (AFB(1), AFB(2), AFG(1), AFG(2)) and their hydroxylated metabolites (AFM(1), AFM(2), AFP(1)) and aflatoxicol (AFL) from laying hen breast muscles. Aflatoxins pass from cereal feed to the laying hen tissues, causing economic losses, and from there to humans. To detect the passage of AF from feed to hen breast muscle tissues, an experiment that included 25 Hy-Line W36 121-wk-old hens was performed for 8 d. Hens in individual cages were distributed into 3 groups: a control group, with feed free of AFB(1), and 2 experimental groups, with feed spiked with 2 AFB(1) dosages: 30 µg·kg(-1) (low) or 500 µg·kg(-1) (high). The daily feed consumption per hen was recorded and afterward hens were euthanized and breast muscles were collected, weighed, and dried individually. Aflatoxins were extracted by 2 chemical methods and quantified by HPLC. Both methods were validated by lineality (calibration curves), recovery percentage (>80%), limit of detection, and limit of quantification. The AF (µg·kg(-1)) averages recovered in control breast muscles were as follows: AFB(1) (18); AFG(1), AFM(2), and AFL (0); AFG(2) (1.3); AFM(1) (52), and AFP1 (79). Hens fed with feed spiked with 30 µg·kg(-1) of AFB(1) had AFG(1) (16); AFG(2) (72); AFM(1) (0); AFM(2) (18); AFP(1) (145); and AFL (5 µg·kg(-1)). Hens with feed spiked with 500 µg·kg(-1) of AFB(1) had AFG(1) (512); AFG(2) (7); AFM(1) (4,775); AFM(2) (0); AFP(1) (661); and AFL (21 µg·kg(-1)). The best AF extraction method was Qian and Yang's method, modified by adding additional AF from both Supelclean LC18 SPE columns; its limit of detection (0.5 ng·mL(-1)) was lower compared with that of Koeltzow and Tanner, which was 1 ng·mL(-1).

  4. Aflatoxins, hydroxylated metabolites, and aflatoxicol from breast muscle of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Zaragoza, M; Carvajal-Moreno, M; Méndez-Ramírez, I; Chilpa-Galván, N C; Avila-González, E; Flores-Ortiz, C M

    2014-12-01

    Aflatoxins (AF) are toxic fungal secondary metabolites that are pathological to animals and humans. This study identified and quantified AF (AFB(1), AFB(2), AFG(1), AFG(2)) and their hydroxylated metabolites (AFM(1), AFM(2), AFP(1)) and aflatoxicol (AFL) from laying hen breast muscles. Aflatoxins pass from cereal feed to the laying hen tissues, causing economic losses, and from there to humans. To detect the passage of AF from feed to hen breast muscle tissues, an experiment that included 25 Hy-Line W36 121-wk-old hens was performed for 8 d. Hens in individual cages were distributed into 3 groups: a control group, with feed free of AFB(1), and 2 experimental groups, with feed spiked with 2 AFB(1) dosages: 30 µg·kg(-1) (low) or 500 µg·kg(-1) (high). The daily feed consumption per hen was recorded and afterward hens were euthanized and breast muscles were collected, weighed, and dried individually. Aflatoxins were extracted by 2 chemical methods and quantified by HPLC. Both methods were validated by lineality (calibration curves), recovery percentage (>80%), limit of detection, and limit of quantification. The AF (µg·kg(-1)) averages recovered in control breast muscles were as follows: AFB(1) (18); AFG(1), AFM(2), and AFL (0); AFG(2) (1.3); AFM(1) (52), and AFP1 (79). Hens fed with feed spiked with 30 µg·kg(-1) of AFB(1) had AFG(1) (16); AFG(2) (72); AFM(1) (0); AFM(2) (18); AFP(1) (145); and AFL (5 µg·kg(-1)). Hens with feed spiked with 500 µg·kg(-1) of AFB(1) had AFG(1) (512); AFG(2) (7); AFM(1) (4,775); AFM(2) (0); AFP(1) (661); and AFL (21 µg·kg(-1)). The best AF extraction method was Qian and Yang's method, modified by adding additional AF from both Supelclean LC18 SPE columns; its limit of detection (0.5 ng·mL(-1)) was lower compared with that of Koeltzow and Tanner, which was 1 ng·mL(-1). PMID:25352677

  5. Present and future directions of translational research on aflatoxin and hepatocellular carcinoma. A review.

    PubMed

    Wogan, Gerald N; Kensler, Thomas W; Groopman, John D

    2012-01-01

    animals indicating the carcinogenicity of naturally occurring mixtures of aflatoxins, aflatoxin B(1), G(1) and M(1). Aflatoxin biomarkers have also been used to show that primary prevention to reduce aflatoxin exposure can be achieved by low-technology approaches at the subsistence farm level in sub-Saharan Africa. Also, in residents of Qidong, China, oral dosing with chlorophyllin, a chlorophyll derivative, prior to each meal led to significant reduction in aflatoxin-DNA biomarker excretion, supporting the feasibility of preventive measures to reduce HCC risk in populations experiencing unavoidable aflatoxin exposure. The systematic, comprehensive approach used to create the total aflatoxin database justifies optimism for potential success of preventive interventions to ameliorate cancer risk attributable to aflatoxin exposure. This strategy could serve as a template for the development, validation and application of molecular and biochemical markers for other carcinogens and cancers as well as other chronic diseases resulting from environmental exposures.

  6. Development of an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Method Specific for the Detection of G-Group Aflatoxins

    PubMed Central

    Li, Peiwu; Zhou, Qian; Wang, Ting; Zhou, Haiyan; Zhang, Wen; Ding, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Zhaowei; Chang, Perng-Kuang; Zhang, Qi

    2015-01-01

    To detect and monitor G-group aflatoxins in agricultural products, we generated class-specific monoclonal antibodies that specifically recognized aflatoxins G1 and G2. Of the final three positive and stable hybridomas obtained, clone 2G6 produced a monoclonal antibody that had equal sensitivity to aflatoxins G1 and G2, and did not cross-react with aflatoxins B1, B2, or M1. Its IC50 values for aflatoxins G1 and G2 were 17.18 ng·mL−1 and 19.75 ng·mL−1, respectively. Using this new monoclonal antibody, we developed a competitive indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CI-ELISA); the method had a limit of detection of 0.06 ng·mL−1. To validate this CI-ELISA, we spiked uncontaminated peanut samples with various amounts of aflatoxins G1 and G2 and compared recovery rates with those determined by a standard HPLC method. The recovery rates of the CI-ELISA ranging from 94% to 103% were comparable to those of the HPLC (92% to 102%). We also used both methods to determine the amounts of G-group aflatoxins in five peanut samples contaminated by aflatoxin B1-positive, and their relative standard deviations ranged from 8.4% to 17.7% (under 20%), which demonstrates a good correlation between the two methods. We further used this CI-ELISA to assess the ability of 126 fungal strains isolated from peanuts or field soils to produce G-group aflatoxins. Among these, seven stains producing different amounts of G-group aflatoxins were identified. Our results showed that the monoclonal antibody 2 G6-based CI-ELISA was suitable for the detection of G-group aflatoxins present in peanuts and also those produced by fungi. PMID:26729164

  7. Development of Methods for Determination of Aflatoxins.

    PubMed

    Xie, Lijuan; Chen, Min; Ying, Yibin

    2016-12-01

    Aflatoxins can cause damage to the health of humans and animals. Several institutions around the world have established regulations to limit the levels of aflatoxins in food, and numerous analytical methods have been extensively developed for aflatoxin determination. This review covers the currently used analytical methods for the determination of aflatoxins in different food matrices, which includes sampling and sample preparation, sample pretreatment methods including extraction methods and purification methods of aflatoxin extracts, separation and determination methods. Validation for analysis of aflatoxins and safety considerations and precautions when doing the experiments are also discussed.

  8. Cytotoxicity of aflatoxin on red blood corpuscles

    SciTech Connect

    Verma, R.J.; Raval, P.J. )

    1991-09-01

    The exact mechanism of aflatoxin action is not clearly understood. In the present investigation the authors report morphological aberrations and increased rate of hemolysis caused by aflatoxins in vitro.

  9. Current Understanding on Aflatoxin Biosynthesis and Future Perspective in Reducing Aflatoxin Contamination

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jiujiang

    2012-01-01

    Traditional molecular techniques have been used in research in discovering the genes and enzymes that are involved in aflatoxin formation and genetic regulation. We cloned most, if not all, of the aflatoxin pathway genes. A consensus gene cluster for aflatoxin biosynthesis was discovered in 2005. The factors that affect aflatoxin formation have been studied. In this report, the author summarized the current status of research progress and future possibilities that may be used for solving aflatoxin contamination. PMID:23202305

  10. Aflatoxin B1 Degradation by a Pseudomonas Strain

    PubMed Central

    Sangare, Lancine; Zhao, Yueju; Folly, Yawa Minnie Elodie; Chang, Jinghua; Li, Jinhan; Selvaraj, Jonathan Nimal; Xing, Fuguo; Zhou, Lu; Wang, Yan; Liu, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), one of the most potent naturally occurring mutagens and carcinogens, causes significant threats to the food industry and animal production. In this study, 25 bacteria isolates were collected from grain kernels and soils displaying AFB1 reduction activity. Based on its degradation effectiveness, isolate N17-1 was selected for further characterization and identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. P. aeruginosa N17-1 could degrade AFB1, AFB2 and AFM1 by 82.8%, 46.8% and 31.9% after incubation in Nutrient Broth (NB) medium at 37 °C for 72 h, respectively. The culture supernatant of isolate N17-1 degraded AFB1 effectively, whereas the viable cells and intra cell extracts were far less effective. Factors influencing AFB1 degradation by the culture supernatant were investigated. Maximum degradation was observed at 55 °C. Ions Mn2+ and Cu2+ were activators for AFB1 degradation, however, ions Mg2+, Li+, Zn2+, Se2+, Fe3+ were strong inhibitors. Treatments with proteinase K and proteinase K plus SDS significantly reduced the degradation activity of the culture supernatant. No degradation products were observed based on preliminary LC-QTOF/MS analysis, indicating AFB1 was metabolized to degradation products with chemical properties different from that of AFB1. The results indicated that the degradation of AFB1 by P. aeruginosa N17-1 was enzymatic and could have a great potential in industrial applications. This is the first report indicating that the isolate of P. aeruginosa possesses the ability to degrade aflatoxin. PMID:25341538

  11. Aflatoxin in Tunisian aleppo pine nuts.

    PubMed

    Boutrif, E; Jemmali, M; Pohland, A E; Campbell, A D

    1977-05-01

    Twenty-six of 50 Aleppo pine nuts samples collected throughout Tunisia showed relatively high levels of contamination by aflatoxin. Some samples contained as much as 2000 ppb aflatoxin B1, and very few contained less than 100 ppb. Total aflatoxins as high as 7550 ppb were found. A traditional pudding, widely consumed in Tunisia, which was prepared from contaminated nuts still contained more than 80% of the aflatoxin originally present in the nuts.

  12. 7 CFR 983.150 - Aflatoxin regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA... handler shall ship for domestic human consumption, pistachios that exceed an aflatoxin level of 15 ppb... covered by an aflatoxin inspection certificate. Pistachios that fail to meet the aflatoxin...

  13. 7 CFR 983.50 - Aflatoxin regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aflatoxin regulations. 983.50 Section 983.50..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Regulations § 983.50 Aflatoxin regulations. The committee shall establish, with the approval of the Secretary, such aflatoxin sampling, analysis, and inspection...

  14. 7 CFR 983.150 - Aflatoxin regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aflatoxin regulations. 983.150 Section 983.150..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Rules and Regulations § 983.150 Aflatoxin regulations. (a) Maximum level. No handler shall ship for domestic human consumption, pistachios that exceed an aflatoxin level of 15...

  15. 7 CFR 983.150 - Aflatoxin regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aflatoxin regulations. 983.150 Section 983.150..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Rules and Regulations § 983.150 Aflatoxin regulations. (a) Maximum level. No handler shall ship for domestic human consumption, pistachios that exceed an aflatoxin level of 15...

  16. 7 CFR 983.50 - Aflatoxin regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aflatoxin regulations. 983.50 Section 983.50..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Regulations § 983.50 Aflatoxin regulations. The committee shall establish, with the approval of the Secretary, such aflatoxin sampling, analysis, and inspection...

  17. 7 CFR 983.50 - Aflatoxin regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aflatoxin regulations. 983.50 Section 983.50..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Regulations § 983.50 Aflatoxin regulations. The committee shall establish, with the approval of the Secretary, such aflatoxin sampling, analysis, and inspection...

  18. 7 CFR 983.150 - Aflatoxin regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aflatoxin regulations. 983.150 Section 983.150..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Rules and Regulations § 983.150 Aflatoxin regulations. (a) Maximum level. No handler shall ship for domestic human consumption, pistachios that exceed an aflatoxin level of 15...

  19. 7 CFR 983.150 - Aflatoxin regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aflatoxin regulations. 983.150 Section 983.150..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Rules and Regulations § 983.150 Aflatoxin regulations. (a) Maximum level. No handler shall ship for domestic human consumption, pistachios that exceed an aflatoxin level of 15...

  20. 7 CFR 983.50 - Aflatoxin regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aflatoxin regulations. 983.50 Section 983.50..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Regulations § 983.50 Aflatoxin regulations. The committee shall establish, with the approval of the Secretary, such aflatoxin sampling, analysis, and inspection...

  1. Identification and quantification of aflatoxins and aflatoxicol from poultry feed and their recovery in poultry litter.

    PubMed

    Cortés, G; Carvajal, M; Méndez-Ramírez, I; Avila-González, E; Chilpa-Galván, N; Castillo-Urueta, P; Flores, C M

    2010-05-01

    Aflatoxins (AF) are toxic fungal secondary metabolites and are known mycotoxins pathological to animals and humans. Poultry litter is frequently used as a food supplement for ruminants, and when poultry feed contains AF, the litter becomes contaminated as well, thus having an effect on livestock health. This study identified and quantified AF (AFB(1), AFB(2), AFG(1), and AFG(2)) from poultry feed and their recovery, together with their metabolites (AFM(1), AFM(2), AFP(1), and aflatoxicol) in litter. An experiment with 25 Hy-Line W-36 hens, in their second production stage, 121 wk old, was carried out. Hens were distributed in 3 groups placed in individual cages and 1 ration of 250 g of feed was given to each hen daily. Nine hens of the control group were fed with clean feed, without AFB(1); the other 2 experimental groups, with 8 hens each, were fed with 2 AFB(1) concentrations: 30 and 500 microg.kg(-1). The feed was replaced and weighed daily throughout a 7-d period to register the amount of feed consumed by the hens. Litter from each hen was collected, weighed, and dried individually. The chemical analysis of 40 g of each one of the 200 feed and 200 litter samples was chemically extracted and concentrated with immunoaffinity columns for total AF. To quantify AF, calibration curves for each AF were done by HPLC. Feed samples of the 3 groups presented significant difference with AFB(2) and AFG(2), whereas in litter samples, there were significant differences for AFG(2) in the 500 microg.kg(-1) group. Poultry litter had traces of AFM(1), AFM(2), AFP(1), and AFL with no significant differences among treatments. Aflatoxin B(1) prevalence in litter samples can cause damages in livestock because this mycotoxin reduces the digestibility of ruminant feed up to 67%.

  2. The Evolution of Aflatoxin Biosynthesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The biosynthesis of aflatoxin (AF) involves over 20 enzymatic reactions in a complex polyketide pathway that converts acetate and malonate to the intermediates sterigmatocystin (ST) and O-methylsterigmatocysin (OMST), the respective penultimate and ultimate precursors of AF. Although ST, OMST, and ...

  3. 7 CFR 983.4 - Aflatoxin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... molds Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. Aflatoxins are naturally occurring compounds produced by molds, which can be spread in improperly processed and stored nuts, dried fruits and grains....

  4. 7 CFR 983.4 - Aflatoxin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... molds Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. Aflatoxins are naturally occurring compounds produced by molds, which can be spread in improperly processed and stored nuts, dried fruits and grains....

  5. 7 CFR 983.4 - Aflatoxin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... molds Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. Aflatoxins are naturally occurring compounds produced by molds, which can be spread in improperly processed and stored nuts, dried fruits and grains....

  6. 7 CFR 983.4 - Aflatoxin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... molds Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. Aflatoxins are naturally occurring compounds produced by molds, which can be spread in improperly processed and stored nuts, dried fruits and grains....

  7. Aflatoxins in black tea in Iran.

    PubMed

    Pouretedal, Zohreh; Mazaheri, Mansooreh

    2013-01-01

    Aflatoxins (AFs) are highly toxic, and carcinogenic secondary fungal metabolites and have been detected in various food commodities. In this regard, 40 black tea samples including domestic and imported black tea were analysed for aflatoxin contamination by high-performance liquid chromatography using a post-column derivatisation procedure (Kobra cell) with fluorescence detection. Samples were randomly collected in 2010 from Tehran markets. The results revealed that 30 among 40 samples were contaminated with aflatoxins (27.5% of the total). Mean AFB1 content was 10.0 ng/g and mean of aflatoxin total was 12.07 ng/g for the 11 contaminated samples.

  8. Rapid On-Site Sensing Aflatoxin B1 in Food and Feed via a Chromatographic Time-Resolved Fluoroimmunoassay

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Du; Zhang, Qi; Li, Peiwu; Ding, Xiaoxia

    2015-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 poses grave threats to food and feed safety due to its strong carcinogenesis and toxicity, thus requiring ultrasensitive rapid on-site determination. Herein, a portable immunosensor based on chromatographic time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay was developed for sensitive and on-site determination of aflatoxin B1 in food and feed samples. Chromatographic time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay offered a magnified positive signal and low signal-to-noise ratio in time-resolved mode due to the absence of noise interference caused by excitation light sources. Compared with the immunosensing performance in previous studies, this platform demonstrated a wider dynamic range of 0.2-60 μg/kg, lower limit of detection from 0.06 to 0.12 µg/kg, and considerable recovery from 80.5% to 116.7% for different food and feed sample matrices. It was found to be little cross-reactivity with other aflatoxins (B2, G1, G2, and M1). In the case of determination of aflatoxin B1 in peanuts, corn, soy sauce, vegetable oil, and mouse feed, excellent agreement was found when compared with aflatoxin B1 determination via the conversational high-performance liquid chromatography method. The chromatographic time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay affords a powerful alternative for rapid on-site determination of aflatoxin B1 and holds a promise for food safety in consideration of practical food safety and environmental monitoring. PMID:25874803

  9. Separation of aflatoxins from filter cake

    SciTech Connect

    Ogawa, I.; Chriswell, C.D.

    1982-02-01

    Size-exclusion chromatography using silianized porous silica microspheres is used to clean up an environmental sample prior to aflatoxin analysis. B/sub 1/ and B/sub 2/ aflatoxins were found in an anaerobic digestor filter cake sample at concentrations of 1 ppb.

  10. Aflatoxins, hepatocellular carcinoma and public health.

    PubMed

    Magnussen, Arvin; Parsi, Mansour A

    2013-03-14

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the leading causes of cancer deaths worldwide, primarily affecting populations in the developing countries. Aflatoxin, a food contaminant produced by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, is a known human carcinogen that has been shown to be a causative agent in the pathogenesis of HCC. Aflatoxin can affect a wide range of food commodities including corns, oilseeds, spices, and tree nuts as well as milk, meat, and dried fruit. Many factors affect the growth of Aspergillus fungi and the level of aflatoxin contamination in food. Drought stress is one of the factors that increase susceptibility of plants to Aspergillus and thus aflatoxin contamination. A recent drought is thought to be responsible for finding of trace amounts of aflatoxin in some of the corn harvested in the United States. Although it's too soon to know whether aflatoxin will be a significant problem, since United States is the world's largest corn producer and exporter, this has raised alarm bells. Strict regulations and testing of finished foods and feeds in the United States should prevent a major health scare, and prevent human exposure to deleterious levels of aflatoxin. Unfortunately, such regulations and testing are not in place in many countries. The purpose of this editorial is to summarize the current knowledge on association of aflatoxin and HCC, encourage future research and draw attention to this global public health issue. PMID:23539499

  11. Aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway and pathway genes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus is the most economically important because it produces the toxic and carcinogenic aflatoxins. A. flavus fungus is capable of surviving on many organic nutrient sources and is one of the most abundant soil-borne molds on earth. Aflatoxins were first identified in 1960. Over the la...

  12. Incidence of Aflatoxin in California Almonds

    PubMed Central

    Schade, J. E.; McGreevy, K.; King, A. D.; Mackey, B.; Fuller, G.

    1975-01-01

    In a survey of California almonds, aflatoxin was found in 14% of 74 samples of unsorted, in-shell almonds as received by the processor in 1972, but it occurred at very low levels (below 20 parts per billion [ppb]) in 90% of the contaminated samples. The overall proportion of individual nuts contaminated was especially low and is estimated with 95% probability to have been in the range of 1 nut/55,300 nuts to 1 nut/14,700 nuts. Aflatoxin contamination is not restricted to any particular section of the almond-growing region of California. Commercial sorting procedures are effective in removing most aflatoxin-contaminated nutmeats, since none of 26 samples of processed, whole nutmeats contained aflatoxin. In contrast, 13 of 27 samples of diced almonds were contaminated, but nine of these 13 samples contained less than 20 ppb. Only one of 25 samples of sliced nutmeats contained aflatoxin (4 ppb). Thus, aflatoxin incidence in almonds varies greatly with the category of finished product. The apparent high incidence in diced nutmeats is probably due mostly to the more uniform distribution of aflatoxin occurring in this product (because of its small particle size) than that occurring in the other products. Sample size requirements for monitoring aflatoxin in almonds are discussed. PMID:1110492

  13. Aflatoxins, hepatocellular carcinoma and public health.

    PubMed

    Magnussen, Arvin; Parsi, Mansour A

    2013-03-14

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the leading causes of cancer deaths worldwide, primarily affecting populations in the developing countries. Aflatoxin, a food contaminant produced by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, is a known human carcinogen that has been shown to be a causative agent in the pathogenesis of HCC. Aflatoxin can affect a wide range of food commodities including corns, oilseeds, spices, and tree nuts as well as milk, meat, and dried fruit. Many factors affect the growth of Aspergillus fungi and the level of aflatoxin contamination in food. Drought stress is one of the factors that increase susceptibility of plants to Aspergillus and thus aflatoxin contamination. A recent drought is thought to be responsible for finding of trace amounts of aflatoxin in some of the corn harvested in the United States. Although it's too soon to know whether aflatoxin will be a significant problem, since United States is the world's largest corn producer and exporter, this has raised alarm bells. Strict regulations and testing of finished foods and feeds in the United States should prevent a major health scare, and prevent human exposure to deleterious levels of aflatoxin. Unfortunately, such regulations and testing are not in place in many countries. The purpose of this editorial is to summarize the current knowledge on association of aflatoxin and HCC, encourage future research and draw attention to this global public health issue.

  14. Aflatoxins in Iran: Nature, Hazards and Carcinogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Khoshpey, B; Farhud, DD; Zaini, F

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have shown that mycotoxin contamination of agricultural products is a challenge for individual’s health especially in developing countries. Improper production and storage of foods, prepare conditions for aflatoxin production in crops, especially rice, wheat, pistachio, walnut, almond, etc which are the main sources of foods for people. Feeding livestock by contaminated bread is another way of human exposure to mycotoxins, especially aflatoxin and because of expensive methods for detecting and analyzing aflatoxin in laboratory; it is not measured in foods. This manuscript is a review of some Iranian and nonIranian reports about aflatoxin, its exposure ways, its adverse effect on human health and nutrition, as well as methods for reducing its exposure. Based on studies on foods, aflatoxin exposure is high in Iran. Since livestock feeding by contaminated bread is one of the potential ways for milk contamination, we should control and reduce aflatoxin contamination by improving production process, storage condition and livestock feeding as soon as possible. Pistachio is one of the most important exporting products of Iran and to maintain Iran’s position in exporting of this product, specific regulations on lowering its contamination with aflatoxin should be considered seriously. Finally, effective controlling of all food and feedstuffs which are vulnerable to aflatoxin contamination is necessary to prevent its effects. PMID:23113099

  15. The Cognitive Side of M1

    PubMed Central

    Tomasino, Barbara; Gremese, Michele

    2016-01-01

    The primary motor cortex (M1) is traditionally implicated in voluntary movement control. In order to test the hypothesis that there is a functional topography of M1 activation in studies where it has been implicated in higher cognitive tasks we performed activation-likelihood-estimation (ALE) meta-analyses of functional neuroimaging experiments reporting M1 activation in relation to six cognitive functional categories for which there was a sufficient number of studies to include, namely motor imagery, working memory, mental rotation, social/emotion/empathy, language, and auditory processing. The six categories activated different sub-sectors of M1, either bilaterally or lateralized to one hemisphere. Notably, the activations found in the M1 of the left or right hemisphere detected in our study were unlikely due to button presses. In fact, all contrasts were selected in order to eliminate M1 activation due to activity related to the finger button press. In addition, we identified the M1 sub-region of Area 4a commonly activated by 4/6 categories, namely motor imagery and working memory, emotion/empathy, and language. Overall, our findings lend support to the idea that there is a functional topography of M1 activation in studies where it has been found activated in higher cognitive tasks and that the left Area 4a can be involved in a number of cognitive processes, likely as a product of implicit mental simulation processing. PMID:27378891

  16. Inhibition of aflatoxin production by selected insecticides.

    PubMed

    Draughon, F A; Ayres, J C

    1981-04-01

    The insecticide naled completed inhibition production of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 by and growth of Aspergillus parasiticus at a 100-ppm (100 microgram/ml) concentration. The insecticides dichlorvos, Landrin, pyrethrum, Sevin, malathion, and Diazinon significantly (P = 0.05) inhibited production of aflatoxins at a 100-ppm concentration. However, at a concentration of 10 ppm, significant inhibition in production of aflatoxins was found only with naled, dichlorvos, Sevin, Landrin, and pyrethrum. Dichlorvos, Landrin, Sevin, and naled inhibited growth of A. parasiticus by 28.9 , 18.9, 15.7, and 100%, respectively, at 100 ppm. Stimulation of growth was observed when diazinon was added to cultures. Aflatoxin B1 was most resistant to inhibition by insecticides, followed by G1, G2, and B2, respectively. PMID:6786222

  17. Food Safety Legislation Regarding Of Aflatoxins Contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ketney, Otto

    2015-09-01

    The main objective of the European Union (EU) is to reduce certain contaminants in foodstuffs to acceptable levels. The occurrence of aflatoxin B1 in food was considered to be one of the most important issues of global food security to protect the health of humans and animals, over 100 nations have established maximum tolerable levels for aflatoxin in food. Although EU legislation covers many aspects of food safety was not legally establish an integrated framework that could effectively combat and cover all sectors of the food chain. Monitoring and reporting levels of aflatoxins after controls are essential actions that assist to identify potential risks to human health. The review process for aflatoxin regulations is a complex activity involving many factors and stakeholders.

  18. Aflatoxins in various food from Istanbul, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Hacıbekiroğlu, I; Kolak, U

    2013-01-01

    The present work reports the total aflatoxin and aflatoxin B1 levels in 62 food samples from Istanbul, Turkey. The total aflatoxin content in dried American cucumber, squash, tomato, okra and saffron samples was found to be 1.7 μg/kg. AFB1 levels in five dried vegetables (red bell pepper, American cucumber, squash, tomato and okra), two tea (linden and jasmine flower) and three spice samples (cardamom, galangal and saffron) were 1 μg/kg. Of the tested samples, 76% exceeded legal limits of total aflatoxin. The highest levels were determined in chestnut (232.9 μg/kg), nutmeg (206.1 μg/kg) and sumac (182.5 μg/kg). These findings confirm the existing knowledge that food should be regularly and effectively controlled. PMID:24779934

  19. Aflatoxins as a cause of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kew, Michael C

    2013-09-01

    Aflatoxins, metabolites of the fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, are frequent contaminants of a number of staple foods, particularly maize and ground nuts, in subsistence farming communities in tropical and sub-tropical climates in sub-Saharan Africa, Eastern Asia and parts of South America. Contamination of foods occurs during growth and as a result of storage in deficient or inappropriate facilities. These toxins pose serious public health hazards, including the causation of hepatocellular carcinoma by aflatoxin B1. Exposure begins in utero and is life-long. The innocuous parent molecule of the fungus is converted by members of the cytochrome p450 family into mutagenic and carcinogenic intermediates. Aflatoxin-B1 is converted into aflatoxin B1-8,9 exo-epoxide, which is in turn converted into 8,9-dihydroxy-8-(N7) guanyl-9-hydroxy aflatoxin B1 adduct. This adduct is metabolized into aflatoxin B1 formaminopyrimidine adduct. These adducts are mutagenic and carcinogenic. In addition, an arginine to serine mutation at codon 249 of the p53 tumor suppressor gene is produced, abrogating the function of the tumor suppressor gene, and contributing to hepatocarcinogenesis. Aflatoxin B1 acts synergistically with hepatitis B virus in causing hepatocellular carcinoma. A number of interactions between the two carcinogens may be responsible for this action, including integration of hepatitis B virus x gene and its consequences, as well as interference with nucleotide excision repair, activation of p21waf1/cip1, generation of DNA mutations, and altered methylation of genes. But much remains to be learnt about the precise pathogenetic mechanisms responsible for aflatoxin B1-induced hepatocellular carcinoma as well as the interaction between the toxin and hepatitis B virus in causing the tumor.

  20. Aflatoxin plate kit. Performance Tested Method 081003.

    PubMed

    Trombley, Arthur; Fan, Titan; LaBudde, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The level of total aflatoxin contamination was analyzed in naturally contaminated and spiked samples of corn and peanut using the Aflatoxin Plate Kit. This kit is an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) suitable for rapid testing of grains and peanuts. The assay was evaluated for ruggedness and linearity of the standard curve. The test kit results were then statistically evaluated for accuracy, precision, and correlation to a validated HPLC method (AOAC 994.08). The results were verified by an independent laboratory.

  1. Aflatoxin Control in Maize by Trametes versicolor

    PubMed Central

    Scarpari, Marzia; Bello, Cristiano; Pietricola, Chiara; Zaccaria, Marco; Bertocchi, Luigi; Angelucci, Alessandra; Ricciardi, Maria Rosaria; Scala, Valeria; Parroni, Alessia; Fabbri, Anna A.; Reverberi, Massimo; Zjalic, Slaven; Fanelli, Corrado

    2014-01-01

    Aspergillus flavus is a well-known ubiquitous fungus able to contaminate both in pre- and postharvest period different feed and food commodities. During their growth, these fungi can synthesise aflatoxins, secondary metabolites highly hazardous for animal and human health. The requirement of products with low impact on the environment and on human health, able to control aflatoxin production, has increased. In this work the effect of the basidiomycete Trametes versicolor on the aflatoxin production by A. flavus both in vitro and in maize, was investigated. The goal was to propose an environmental loyal tool for a significant control of aflatoxin production, in order to obtain feedstuffs and feed with a high standard of quality and safety to enhance the wellbeing of dairy cows. The presence of T. versicolor, grown on sugar beet pulp, inhibited the production of aflatoxin B1 in maize by A. flavus. Furthermore, treatment of contaminated maize with culture filtrates of T. versicolor containing ligninolytic enzymes, showed a significant reduction of the content of aflatoxin B1. PMID:25525683

  2. Aflatoxins and heavy metals in animal feed in Iran.

    PubMed

    Eskandari, M H; Pakfetrat, S

    2014-01-01

    The occurrence of aflatoxin (aflatoxin B1, aflatoxin B2, aflatoxin G1 (AFG1) and aflatoxin G2 (AFG2)) and heavy metal (Pb, Cd, As and Hg) contamination was determined in 40 industrially produced animal feed samples which were collected from the southwest of Iran. The results indicated that 75% of samples were contaminated by four aflatoxins and the level of AFB1 and sum of aflatoxins were higher than the permissible maximum levels in Iran (5 and 20 µg kg(-1), respectively) in all feed samples. A positive correlation was found between four types of aflatoxins in all the tested samples (p < 0.01) and the positive correlation between AFG1 and AFG2 was significant (r(2) = 0.708). All feed samples had lead concentrations lower than the maximum EU limit, while 5%, 17% and 42.5% of feed samples had As, Cd and Hg concentrations higher than the maximum limits, respectively.

  3. Effects of calcium montmorillonite clay and aflatoxin exposure on dry matter intake, milk production, and milk composition.

    PubMed

    Maki, C R; Thomas, A D; Elmore, S E; Romoser, A A; Harvey, R B; Ramirez-Ramirez, H A; Phillips, T D

    2016-02-01

    Fifteen primiparous crossbred dairy cows that were 114±14d in milk and weighed 533±56kg were used in a replicated 5×5 Latin square to test the efficacy of a calcium montmorillonite clay, NovaSil Plus (NSP; BASF Corp., Ludwigshaven, Germany), for the reduction of aflatoxin (AF) metabolite (AFM1) in milk and the effect of NSP on milk composition. Cows were housed in a freestall barn, fed once a day and milked twice a day. The experiment consisted of five 14-d periods: d 1 through 7 were considered for data collection, and d 8 through 14 were considered a wash-out phase. In each period, cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 dietary treatments: (1) control (CON), consisting of a basal total mixed ration (TMR); (2) high-dose NSP diet (NSP-1%), consisting of TMR plus 230 g of NSP; (3) aflatoxin diet (AFD), consisting of the TMR plus AF challenge; (4) low-dose NSP with AF (NSP-0.5%+AFD), composed of TMR plus 115 g of NSP and AF challenge; and (5) high-dose NSP with AF (NSP-1%+AFD), consisting of TMR plus 230 g of NSP and AF challenge. The AF challenge consisted of top dressing a daily dose of 100 µg/kg estimated dry matter intake (DMI); similarly, NSP was fed at 1.0 or 0.5% of estimated DMI. Milk yield and DMI were similar across treatments averaging 21.1±1.33 kg/d and 19.7±0.56 kg/d, respectively. Concentration of milk fat, protein, and lactose were similar across treatments with averages of 4.91±0.20%, 3.85±0.10%, and 4.70±0.06%, respectively. Concentration of vitamin A averaged 0.28±0.03 µg/mL and riboflavin concentration averaged 1.57±0.13 µg/mL across treatments. The concentration of minerals in milk were similar for all treatments. Cows fed CON and NSP-1% yielded the lowest concentration of AFM1 in milk with 0.03 and 0.01±0.06 µg/L. Addition of NSP reduced milk AFM1 from 1.10±0.06 µg/L with the AF diet to 0.58 and 0.32±0.06 µg/L with the NSP-0.5%+AF and NSP-1%+AF diets, respectively. Excretion of AFM1 was reduced by NSP; mean values were 24.38, 11

  4. Effects of calcium montmorillonite clay and aflatoxin exposure on dry matter intake, milk production, and milk composition.

    PubMed

    Maki, C R; Thomas, A D; Elmore, S E; Romoser, A A; Harvey, R B; Ramirez-Ramirez, H A; Phillips, T D

    2016-02-01

    Fifteen primiparous crossbred dairy cows that were 114±14d in milk and weighed 533±56kg were used in a replicated 5×5 Latin square to test the efficacy of a calcium montmorillonite clay, NovaSil Plus (NSP; BASF Corp., Ludwigshaven, Germany), for the reduction of aflatoxin (AF) metabolite (AFM1) in milk and the effect of NSP on milk composition. Cows were housed in a freestall barn, fed once a day and milked twice a day. The experiment consisted of five 14-d periods: d 1 through 7 were considered for data collection, and d 8 through 14 were considered a wash-out phase. In each period, cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 dietary treatments: (1) control (CON), consisting of a basal total mixed ration (TMR); (2) high-dose NSP diet (NSP-1%), consisting of TMR plus 230 g of NSP; (3) aflatoxin diet (AFD), consisting of the TMR plus AF challenge; (4) low-dose NSP with AF (NSP-0.5%+AFD), composed of TMR plus 115 g of NSP and AF challenge; and (5) high-dose NSP with AF (NSP-1%+AFD), consisting of TMR plus 230 g of NSP and AF challenge. The AF challenge consisted of top dressing a daily dose of 100 µg/kg estimated dry matter intake (DMI); similarly, NSP was fed at 1.0 or 0.5% of estimated DMI. Milk yield and DMI were similar across treatments averaging 21.1±1.33 kg/d and 19.7±0.56 kg/d, respectively. Concentration of milk fat, protein, and lactose were similar across treatments with averages of 4.91±0.20%, 3.85±0.10%, and 4.70±0.06%, respectively. Concentration of vitamin A averaged 0.28±0.03 µg/mL and riboflavin concentration averaged 1.57±0.13 µg/mL across treatments. The concentration of minerals in milk were similar for all treatments. Cows fed CON and NSP-1% yielded the lowest concentration of AFM1 in milk with 0.03 and 0.01±0.06 µg/L. Addition of NSP reduced milk AFM1 from 1.10±0.06 µg/L with the AF diet to 0.58 and 0.32±0.06 µg/L with the NSP-0.5%+AF and NSP-1%+AF diets, respectively. Excretion of AFM1 was reduced by NSP; mean values were 24.38, 11

  5. A new mechanism of vitamin C effects on A/FM/1/47(H1N1) virus-induced pneumonia in restraint-stressed mice.

    PubMed

    Cai, Ying; Li, Yi-Fang; Tang, Lu-Ping; Tsoi, Bun; Chen, Min; Chen, Huan; Chen, Xiao-Mei; Tan, Rui-Rong; Kurihara, Hiroshi; He, Rong-Rong

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that vitamin C could protect against influenza infection, but little is known about the mechanisms. This study aimed to investigate the influence and possible mechanisms of vitamin C on pneumonia induced by influenza virus in stressed mice. Results showed that restraint stress significantly increased the mortality and the severity of pneumonia in mice caused by A/FM/1/47(H1N1) virus infection, which was attenuated by oral administration of vitamin C (125 and 250 mg/kg). Moreover, vitamin C administration significantly decreased expression of susceptibility genes, including mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS) and interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), and increased expression of NF-κB. These work in conjunction to induce type I interferons (IFNs) and elicit innate antiviral response as key factors in RIG-I-mediated signal transduction pathway. The above effects of vitamin C were further found to relate with inhibition of excess CORT synthesis by regulating steroid hydroxylating enzymes in adrenal gland. In conclusion, the protective effects of vitamin C on influenza virus-caused pneumonia might be related to its inhibition of CORT synthesis, which reduces the susceptibility to influenza viral infection in restraint-stressed mice. These findings provide a new mechanism for the effects of vitamin C on influenza virus-induced pneumonia in restraint-stressed mice.

  6. 7 CFR 983.5 - Aflatoxin inspection certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aflatoxin inspection certificate. 983.5 Section 983.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.5 Aflatoxin inspection certificate. Aflatoxin...

  7. 7 CFR 983.5 - Aflatoxin inspection certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aflatoxin inspection certificate. 983.5 Section 983.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.5 Aflatoxin inspection certificate. Aflatoxin...

  8. 7 CFR 983.5 - Aflatoxin inspection certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aflatoxin inspection certificate. 983.5 Section 983.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.5 Aflatoxin inspection certificate. Aflatoxin...

  9. 7 CFR 983.5 - Aflatoxin inspection certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aflatoxin inspection certificate. 983.5 Section 983.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.5 Aflatoxin inspection certificate. Aflatoxin...

  10. 7 CFR 996.11 - Negative aflatoxin content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Negative aflatoxin content. 996.11 Section 996.11... STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.11 Negative aflatoxin content. Negative aflatoxin content means 15 parts per billion (ppb) or less for peanuts that...

  11. 7 CFR 996.11 - Negative aflatoxin content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Negative aflatoxin content. 996.11 Section 996.11... STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.11 Negative aflatoxin content. Negative aflatoxin content means 15 parts per billion (ppb) or less for peanuts that...

  12. 7 CFR 996.11 - Negative aflatoxin content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Negative aflatoxin content. 996.11 Section 996.11... STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.11 Negative aflatoxin content. Negative aflatoxin content means 15 parts per billion (ppb) or less for peanuts that...

  13. 7 CFR 996.11 - Negative aflatoxin content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Negative aflatoxin content. 996.11 Section 996.11... STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.11 Negative aflatoxin content. Negative aflatoxin content means 15 parts per billion (ppb) or less for peanuts that...

  14. The importance of aflatoxin to the ethanol fuel industry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins are highly toxic, hepatocarcinogenic compounds produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus during infection of corn (maize), peanuts, cotton seed, and tree nuts. Aflatoxin becomes problematic when contaminated corn is used as a feedstock for ethanol production. Although aflatoxin h...

  15. Single Aflatoxin Contaminated Corn Kernel Analysis with Fluorescence Hyperspectral Image

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins are toxic secondary metabolites of the fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, among others. Aflatoxin contaminated corn is toxic to domestic animals when ingested in feed and is a known carcinogen associated with liver and lung cancer in humans. Consequently, aflatoxin leve...

  16. Developing resistance to aflatoxin in maize and cottonseed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    At this time, no “magic bullet” for solving the aflatoxin contamination problem in maize and cottonseed has been identified, so several strategies must be utilized simultaneously to ensure a healthy crop, free of aflatoxins. The most widely explored strategy for the control of aflatoxin contaminatio...

  17. Fungal Aflatoxins Reduce Respiratory Mucosal Ciliary Function.

    PubMed

    Lee, Robert J; Workman, Alan D; Carey, Ryan M; Chen, Bei; Rosen, Phillip L; Doghramji, Laurel; Adappa, Nithin D; Palmer, James N; Kennedy, David W; Cohen, Noam A

    2016-01-01

    Aflatoxins are mycotoxins secreted by Aspergillus flavus, which can colonize the respiratory tract and cause fungal rhinosinusitis or bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. A. flavus is the second leading cause of invasive aspergillosis worldwide. Because many respiratory pathogens secrete toxins to impair mucociliary immunity, we examined the effects of acute exposure to aflatoxins on airway cell physiology. Using air-liquid interface cultures of primary human sinonasal and bronchial cells, we imaged ciliary beat frequency (CBF), intracellular calcium, and nitric oxide (NO). Exposure to aflatoxins (0.1 to 10 μM; 5 to 10 minutes) reduced baseline (~6-12%) and agonist-stimulated CBF. Conditioned media (CM) from A. fumigatus, A. niger, and A. flavus cultures also reduced CBF by ~10% after 60 min exposure, but effects were blocked by an anti-aflatoxin antibody only with A. flavus CM. CBF reduction required protein kinase C but was not associated with changes in calcium or NO. However, AFB2 reduced NO production by ~50% during stimulation of the ciliary-localized T2R38 receptor. Using a fluorescent reporter construct expressed in A549 cells, we directly observed activation of PKC activity by AFB2. Aflatoxins secreted by respiratory A. flavus may impair motile and chemosensory functions of airway cilia, contributing to pathogenesis of fungal airway diseases. PMID:27623953

  18. Fungal Aflatoxins Reduce Respiratory Mucosal Ciliary Function

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Robert J.; Workman, Alan D.; Carey, Ryan M.; Chen, Bei; Rosen, Phillip L.; Doghramji, Laurel; Adappa, Nithin D.; Palmer, James N.; Kennedy, David W.; Cohen, Noam A.

    2016-01-01

    Aflatoxins are mycotoxins secreted by Aspergillus flavus, which can colonize the respiratory tract and cause fungal rhinosinusitis or bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. A. flavus is the second leading cause of invasive aspergillosis worldwide. Because many respiratory pathogens secrete toxins to impair mucociliary immunity, we examined the effects of acute exposure to aflatoxins on airway cell physiology. Using air-liquid interface cultures of primary human sinonasal and bronchial cells, we imaged ciliary beat frequency (CBF), intracellular calcium, and nitric oxide (NO). Exposure to aflatoxins (0.1 to 10 μM; 5 to 10 minutes) reduced baseline (~6–12%) and agonist-stimulated CBF. Conditioned media (CM) from A. fumigatus, A. niger, and A. flavus cultures also reduced CBF by ~10% after 60 min exposure, but effects were blocked by an anti-aflatoxin antibody only with A. flavus CM. CBF reduction required protein kinase C but was not associated with changes in calcium or NO. However, AFB2 reduced NO production by ~50% during stimulation of the ciliary-localized T2R38 receptor. Using a fluorescent reporter construct expressed in A549 cells, we directly observed activation of PKC activity by AFB2. Aflatoxins secreted by respiratory A. flavus may impair motile and chemosensory functions of airway cilia, contributing to pathogenesis of fungal airway diseases. PMID:27623953

  19. Fungal Aflatoxins Reduce Respiratory Mucosal Ciliary Function.

    PubMed

    Lee, Robert J; Workman, Alan D; Carey, Ryan M; Chen, Bei; Rosen, Phillip L; Doghramji, Laurel; Adappa, Nithin D; Palmer, James N; Kennedy, David W; Cohen, Noam A

    2016-01-01

    Aflatoxins are mycotoxins secreted by Aspergillus flavus, which can colonize the respiratory tract and cause fungal rhinosinusitis or bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. A. flavus is the second leading cause of invasive aspergillosis worldwide. Because many respiratory pathogens secrete toxins to impair mucociliary immunity, we examined the effects of acute exposure to aflatoxins on airway cell physiology. Using air-liquid interface cultures of primary human sinonasal and bronchial cells, we imaged ciliary beat frequency (CBF), intracellular calcium, and nitric oxide (NO). Exposure to aflatoxins (0.1 to 10 μM; 5 to 10 minutes) reduced baseline (~6-12%) and agonist-stimulated CBF. Conditioned media (CM) from A. fumigatus, A. niger, and A. flavus cultures also reduced CBF by ~10% after 60 min exposure, but effects were blocked by an anti-aflatoxin antibody only with A. flavus CM. CBF reduction required protein kinase C but was not associated with changes in calcium or NO. However, AFB2 reduced NO production by ~50% during stimulation of the ciliary-localized T2R38 receptor. Using a fluorescent reporter construct expressed in A549 cells, we directly observed activation of PKC activity by AFB2. Aflatoxins secreted by respiratory A. flavus may impair motile and chemosensory functions of airway cilia, contributing to pathogenesis of fungal airway diseases.

  20. Aflatoxins and kwashiorkor in Durban, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ramjee, G; Berjak, P; Adhikari, M; Dutton, M F

    1992-01-01

    The present investigation has indicated that maize seeds stored under various simulated seasonal conditions show a spectrum of fungi that appear as a succession. The aflatoxin-producing fungus, Aspergillus flavus, is favoured by storage conditions of high temperature and humidity (summer and autumn seasons). This coincides with the more frequent admission of children suffering from kwashiorkor at King Edward VIII Hospital in Durban. Aflatoxin analysis was undertaken on 74 children diagnosed at King Edward VIII Hospital in Durban as cases of kwashiorkor, marasmus or underweight (Wellcome classification). The control group consisted of 35 age-matched patients with no symptoms of protein energy malnutrition. Aflatoxins were detected in serum and/or urine from all groups, including the controls. The serum/urine ratio was significantly higher in the kwashiorkor group than in the other groups. The control group, however, had a higher proportion of urine aflatoxins than the kwashiorkor group. These findings were interpreted in terms of impaired liver function in kwashiorkor. Aflatoxins may have a rôle in the pathogenesis of kwashiorkor, although the present findings do not indicate that they are a causal factor.

  1. Transformation of adsorbed aflatoxin B1 on smectite at elevated temperatures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins cause liver damage and suppress immunity. Smectites can be used to reduce the bioavailability of aflatoxins through adsorption. To further reduce the toxicity of aflatoxins and to eliminate the treatments of aflatoxin-loaded smectites, degrading the adsorbed aflatoxin to nontoxic or less ...

  2. M1 muscarinic receptor activation mediates cell death in M1-HEK293 cells.

    PubMed

    Graham, E Scott; Woo, Kerhan K; Aalderink, Miranda; Fry, Sandie; Greenwood, Jeffrey M; Glass, Michelle; Dragunow, Mike

    2013-01-01

    HEK293 cells have been used extensively to generate stable cell lines to study G protein-coupled receptors, such as muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs). The activation of M1 mAChRs in various cell types in vitro has been shown to be protective. To further investigate M1 mAChR-mediated cell survival, we generated stable HEK293 cell-lines expressing the human M1 mAChR. M1 mAChRs were efficiently expressed at the cell surface and efficiently internalised within 1 h by carbachol. Carbachol also induced early signalling cascades similar to previous reports. Thus, ectopically expressed M1 receptors behaved in a similar fashion to the native receptor over short time periods of analysis. However, substantial cell death was observed in HEK293-M1 cells within 24 h after carbachol application. Death was only observed in HEK cells expressing M1 receptors and fully blocked by M1 antagonists. M1 mAChR-stimulation mediated prolonged activation of the MEK-ERK pathway and resulted in prolonged induction of the transcription factor EGR-1 (>24 h). Blockade of ERK signalling with U0126 did not reduce M1 mAChR-mediated cell-death significantly but inhibited the acute induction of EGR-1. We investigated the time-course of cell death using time-lapse microscopy and xCELLigence technology. Both revealed the M1 mAChR cytotoxicity occurs within several hours of M1 activation. The xCELLigence assay also confirmed that the ERK pathway was not involved in cell-death. Interestingly, the MEK blocker did reduce carbachol-mediated cleaved caspase 3 expression in HEK293-M1 cells. The HEK293 cell line is a widely used pharmacological tool for studying G-protein coupled receptors, including mAChRs. Our results highlight the importance of investigating the longer term fate of these cells in short term signalling studies. Identifying how and why activation of the M1 mAChR signals apoptosis in these cells may lead to a better understanding of how mAChRs regulate cell-fate decisions.

  3. The effect of dietary aflatoxin on wild turkey poults.

    PubMed

    Quist, C F; Bounous, D I; Kilburn, J V; Nettles, V F; Wyatt, R D

    2000-07-01

    Aflatoxins, toxic metabolites of Aspergillus flavus or Aspergillus parasiticus, cause poor feed utilization, decreased weight gains, depressed immune function, liver dysfunction, coagulation abnormalities, and death in a wide variety of species including humans. Conservationists have become concerned that increasingly popular wildlife feeding or baiting practices could expose wildlife to toxic amounts of aflatoxin-contaminated grains. In particular, the effects of aflatoxins on the wild turkey (Meleagris gallopova silvestris) are of concern because the conspecific domestic turkey is highly susceptible to aflatoxins. To evaluate the effect of dietary aflatoxin on wild turkeys, four groups of 4-mo-old wild turkeys were fed diets containing either 0, 100, 200, or 400 micrograms aflatoxin/kg feed for 2 wk in September and October 1996. Aflatoxin-fed poults had decreased feed consumption and weight gains as compared with control poults. Decreased liver-to-body weight ratios, liver enzyme alterations, slightly altered blood coagulation patterns, and mild histologic changes indicated low-level liver damage. Compromise of cell-mediated immunity was indicated by decreased lymphoblast transformation. The effects were apparent in all treatment groups to variable levels, but significant differences most often were found at 400 micrograms aflatoxin/kg feed. This study shows that short-term aflatoxin ingestion by wild turkeys can induce undesirable physiologic changes; therefore, exposure of wild turkeys to feeds containing aflatoxin levels of 100 micrograms aflatoxin/kg feed or more should be avoided.

  4. Aflatoxins in autopsy kidney specimens from children in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oyelami, O A; Maxwell, S M; Adelusola, K A; Aladekoma, T A; Oyelese, A O

    1998-11-13

    Autopsy kidney specimens from 24 children with kwashiorkor and 21 with other miscellaneous diseases, at the Obafemi Awolowo Teaching Hospital Complex, Ile-Ife, Nigeria, were analyzed for the presence of aflatoxins using high-performance liquid chromatography. Aflatoxins were detected in 14 children who died of kwashiorkor and in 13 of those who died from miscellaneous diseases. Aflatoxicol was detected in 10 specimens, 7 of which had severe gastroenteritis. Seven kidney specimens demonstrated the presence of more than one type of aflatoxin; four of these were kidneys of patients with kwashiorkor and the remaining three died from renal failure. No difference was found between the frequency of detection, type of aflatoxin detected, or mean concentrations of total aflatoxins in the kidney specimens of the kwashiorkor children when compared to the kidney specimens of children who died from miscellaneous diseases. These findings demonstrate that aflatoxins can be detected in the kidneys of children exposed to aflatoxins.

  5. Aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in maize of Punjab, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Iram, Wajiha; Anjum, Tehmina; Abbas, Mateen; Khan, Abdul Muqeet

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxin and ochratoxin levels were determined in maize samples collected from store houses of 15 districts belonging to three agro-ecological zones of Punjab, Pakistan. Toxins were extracted by Aflaochra immunoaffinity columns and analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Mean moisture content of maize kernels was recorded above the safe storage level of 15%. Results indicated that aflatoxin B1 and B2 contamination was found in 97.3% and 78.9% of the collected samples, respectively. Aflatoxin G1, aflatoxin G2 and ochratoxin A were not detected in any sample. Among positive samples, 77.3% contained aflatoxin B1 and 28% aflatoxin B2, exceeding the legal limits as set by the European Union (EU) and the United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA). It was concluded that a significant number of samples contained aflatoxin B1 and B2 above the legal limits.

  6. Transformation of Aspergillus flavus to study aflatoxin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Payne, G A; Woloshuk, C P

    1989-09-01

    Aflatoxin contamination of agricultural commodities continues to be a serious problem in the United States. Breeding for resistant genotypes has been unsuccessful and detoxification of food sources is not economically feasible. New strategies for control may become apparent once more is known about the biosynthesis and regulation of aflatoxin. Although the biosynthetic pathway of aflatoxin has been extensively studied, little is known about the regulation of the individual steps in the pathway. We have developed a genetic transformation system for Aspergillus flavus that provides a new and expedient approach to studying the biosynthesis of aflatoxin and its regulation. Through the use of this genetic transformation system, genes for aflatoxin biosynthesis can be identified and isolated by the complementation of aflatoxin negative mutants. In this paper we discuss molecular strategies for studying the regulation and biosynthesis of aflatoxin. PMID:2515438

  7. Aflatoxins in selected Thai commodities.

    PubMed

    Tansakul, Natthasit; Limsuwan, Sasithorn; Böhm, Josef; Hollmann, Manfred; Razzazi-Fazeli, Ebrahim

    2013-01-01

    Aflatoxin (AF) B1, B2, G1 and G2 were determined in 120 samples of selected Thai commodities including unpolished rice, unpolished glutinous rice, chilli powder, whole dried chilli pods and raw peanut. The mean concentrations of the total AFs for analysed samples were 0.16, 25.43, 14.18, 6.62 and 1.43 µg kg(-1) with positive incidences of 4%, 20%, 97%, 37% and 30%, respectively. Quantitative analysis was performed using HPLC equipped with post-column derivatisation and fluorescence detection. Sample clean-up was carried out using immunoaffinity columns for selective enrichment of AFs. The method was validated by using certified reference material, which showed recoveries over 85%. The limit of detections (LODs) and limit of quantifications (LOQs) were in a range between 0.01-0.11 µg kg(-1) and 0.03-0.38 µg kg(-1), respectively. The results clearly demonstrated that AFs were detectable in different matrices. Chilli powder was found to have the highest level of AFs contamination followed by chilli pods, peanut and rice, respectively. However, among the selected commodities, unpolished rice contained only trace levels of AFB1 and AFB2. With regard to the fact that AFs are a natural contaminant in commodities, this report calls to attention the regular monitoring and effective control of food commodities to prevent health hazards. PMID:24779933

  8. Aflatoxins in selected Thai commodities.

    PubMed

    Tansakul, Natthasit; Limsuwan, Sasithorn; Böhm, Josef; Hollmann, Manfred; Razzazi-Fazeli, Ebrahim

    2013-01-01

    Aflatoxin (AF) B1, B2, G1 and G2 were determined in 120 samples of selected Thai commodities including unpolished rice, unpolished glutinous rice, chilli powder, whole dried chilli pods and raw peanut. The mean concentrations of the total AFs for analysed samples were 0.16, 25.43, 14.18, 6.62 and 1.43 µg kg(-1) with positive incidences of 4%, 20%, 97%, 37% and 30%, respectively. Quantitative analysis was performed using HPLC equipped with post-column derivatisation and fluorescence detection. Sample clean-up was carried out using immunoaffinity columns for selective enrichment of AFs. The method was validated by using certified reference material, which showed recoveries over 85%. The limit of detections (LODs) and limit of quantifications (LOQs) were in a range between 0.01-0.11 µg kg(-1) and 0.03-0.38 µg kg(-1), respectively. The results clearly demonstrated that AFs were detectable in different matrices. Chilli powder was found to have the highest level of AFs contamination followed by chilli pods, peanut and rice, respectively. However, among the selected commodities, unpolished rice contained only trace levels of AFB1 and AFB2. With regard to the fact that AFs are a natural contaminant in commodities, this report calls to attention the regular monitoring and effective control of food commodities to prevent health hazards.

  9. Classification of corn kernels contaminated with aflatoxins using fluorescence and reflectance hyperspectral image analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins are secondary metabolites produced by certain fungal species of the Aspergillus genus. Aflatoxin contamination remains a problem in agricultural products due to its toxic and carcinogenic properties. Conventional chemical methods for aflatoxin detection are time-consuming and destructive....

  10. Aflatoxin biosynthesis cluster gene cypA is required for G aflatoxin formation.

    PubMed

    Ehrlich, Kenneth C; Chang, Perng-Kuang; Yu, Jiujiang; Cotty, Peter J

    2004-11-01

    Aspergillus flavus isolates produce only aflatoxins B1 and B2, while Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus nomius produce aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2. Sequence comparison of the aflatoxin biosynthesis pathway gene cluster upstream from the polyketide synthase gene, pksA, revealed that A. flavus isolates are missing portions of genes (cypA and norB) predicted to encode, respectively, a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase and an aryl alcohol dehydrogenase. Insertional disruption of cypA in A. parasiticus yielded transformants that lack the ability to produce G aflatoxins but not B aflatoxins. The enzyme encoded by cypA has highest amino acid identity to Gibberella zeae Tri4 (38%), a P450 monooxygenase previously shown to be involved in trichodiene epoxidation. The substrate for CypA may be an intermediate formed by oxidative cleavage of the A ring of O-methylsterigmatocystin by OrdA, the P450 monooxygenase required for formation of aflatoxins B1 and B2. PMID:15528514

  11. Aflatoxin levels in raw and processed hazelnuts in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Baltaci, C; Ilyasoğlu, H; Cavrar, S

    2012-01-01

    Aflatoxin levels in hazelnut samples obtained from exporter companies were monitored over a 3-year period. A total of 3188 samples of raw and processed hazelnuts were analysed using an HPLC method. The total aflatoxin content of the contaminated samples was in the range of 0.02-78.98 µg kg(-1) for hazelnut kernels, 0.07-43.59 µg kg(-1) for roasted hazelnut kernels, 0.02-39.17 µg kg(-1) for roasted sliced hazelnut kernels, and 0.02-11.20 µg kg(-1) for hazelnut purees, respectively, showing that the variations of aflatoxin contamination were very high. The results of aflatoxin analysis revealed that the aflatoxin contamination in the hazelnut samples was at a tolerable level. A total of 3147 samples were contaminated with aflatoxins, although below the legal limits. However, the aflatoxin contents of 41 samples exceeded the legal limits. Therefore, aflatoxin contents of hazelnuts should be monitored regularly to minimise the risk of aflatoxin hazard, and pre- and post-harvest strategies should be developed to prevent aflatoxin formation.

  12. 7 CFR 983.4 - Aflatoxin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aflatoxin. 983.4 Section 983.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA,...

  13. Aflatoxins in spices marketed in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Martins, M L; Martins, H M; Bernardo, F

    2001-04-01

    Seventy-nine prepackaged samples of 12 different types of spice powders (five cardamom, five cayenne pepper, eight chilli, five cloves, seven cumin, five curry) powder, five ginger, five mustard, 10 nutmeg, 12 paprika, five saffron and seven white pepper) were selected from supermarkets and ethnic shops in Lisbon (Portugal) for estimation of aflatoxins by immunoaffinity column clean-up followed by HPLC. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) was detected in 34 samples of prepackaged spices (43.0%). All of the cayenne pepper samples were contaminated with levels ranging from 2 to 32 microg AFB1/kg. Three nutmeg samples contained levels ranging from 1 to 5 microg/kg, three samples had levels ranging from 6 to 20 microg/kg, and there were two with 54 microg/kg and 58 microg/ kg. Paprika contained levels of aflatoxin B1 ranging from 1 to 20 microg/kg. Chilli, cumin, curry powder, saffron and white pepper samples had levels ranging from 1 to 5 microg/kg. Aflotoxins were not detected in cardamon, cloves, ginger and mustard. None of the samples analysed contained aflatoxins B2, G1 and G2. PMID:11339266

  14. Aflatoxins: biosynthesis, occurrence, toxicity, and remedies.

    PubMed

    Abrar, Muhammad; Anjum, Faqir Muhammad; Butt, Masood Sadiq; Pasha, Imran; Randhawa, Muhammad Atif; Saeed, Farhan; Waqas, Khalid

    2013-01-01

    Food contagion with aflatoxins is the modern concern and has received a great awareness during the last few decades. The intermittent incidence of these toxins in agricultural commodities has negative role on the economy of the affected regions where harvest and postharvest techniques for the prevention of mold growth, are seldom practiced. Aflatoxins are difuranocoumarin derivatives produced by a polyketide pathway by the fungus Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus via polyketide pathway which are highly hepatotoxic, hepatocarcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic in nature and contaminate a wide variety of important agricultural commodities before, during, and after harvest in various environmental conditions. The production of aflatoxins in innate substrates depends upon the various factors, that is, type of substrate, fungal species, moisture contents of the substrate, minerals, humidity, temperature, and physical damage of the kernels. These toxins cause several ailments such as cancer, hepatitis, mutation abnormalities, and reproduction disorders. Minimization and inactivation of aflatoxins contaminants through proper crop management at farm level and with physical, chemical, and biological techniques are the limelight of the article.

  15. Aflatoxin-Exposure of Vibrio gazogenes as a Novel System for the Generation of Aflatoxin Synthesis Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Gummadidala, Phani M.; Chen, Yung Pin; Beauchesne, Kevin R.; Miller, Kristen P.; Mitra, Chandrani; Banaszek, Nora; Velez-Martinez, Michelle; Moeller, Peter D. R.; Ferry, John L.; Decho, Alan W.; Chanda, Anindya

    2016-01-01

    Aflatoxin is a mycotoxin and a secondary metabolite, and the most potent known liver carcinogen that contaminates several important crops, and represents a significant threat to public health and the economy. Available approaches reported thus far have been insufficient to eliminate this threat, and therefore provide the rational to explore novel methods for preventing aflatoxin accumulation in the environment. Many terrestrial plants and microbes that share ecological niches and encounter the aflatoxin producers have the ability to synthesize compounds that inhibit aflatoxin synthesis. However, reports of natural aflatoxin inhibitors from marine ecosystem components that do not share ecological niches with the aflatoxin producers are rare. Here, we show that a non-pathogenic marine bacterium, Vibrio gazogenes, when exposed to low non-toxic doses of aflatoxin B1, demonstrates a shift in its metabolic output and synthesizes a metabolite fraction that inhibits aflatoxin synthesis without affecting hyphal growth in the model aflatoxin producer, Aspergillus parasiticus. The molecular mass of the predominant metabolite in this fraction was also different from the known prodigiosins, which are the known antifungal secondary metabolites synthesized by this Vibrio. Gene expression analyses using RT-PCR demonstrate that this metabolite fraction inhibits aflatoxin synthesis by down-regulating the expression of early-, middle-, and late- growth stage aflatoxin genes, the aflatoxin pathway regulator, aflR and one global regulator of secondary metabolism, laeA. Our study establishes a novel system for generation of aflatoxin synthesis inhibitors, and emphasizes the potential of the under-explored Vibrio’s silent genome for generating new modulators of fungal secondary metabolism. PMID:27375561

  16. Banana peel: an effective biosorbent for aflatoxins.

    PubMed

    Shar, Zahid Hussain; Fletcher, Mary T; Sumbal, Gul Amer; Sherazi, Syed Tufail Hussain; Giles, Cindy; Bhanger, Muhammad Iqbal; Nizamani, Shafi Muhammad

    2016-05-01

    This work reports the application of banana peel as a novel bioadsorbent for in vitro removal of five mycotoxins (aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2) and ochratoxin A). The effect of operational parameters including initial pH, adsorbent dose, contact time and temperature were studied in batch adsorption experiments. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and point of zero charge (pHpzc) analysis were used to characterise the adsorbent material. Aflatoxins' adsorption equilibrium was achieved in 15 min, with highest adsorption at alkaline pH (6-8), while ochratoxin has not shown any significant adsorption due to surface charge repulsion. The experimental equilibrium data were tested by Langmuir, Freundlich and Hill isotherms. The Langmuir isotherm was found to be the best fitted model for aflatoxins, and the maximum monolayer coverage (Q0) was determined to be 8.4, 9.5, 0.4 and 1.1 ng mg(-1) for AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2 respectively. Thermodynamic parameters including changes in free energy (ΔG), enthalpy (ΔH) and entropy (ΔS) were determined for the four aflatoxins. Free energy change and enthalpy change demonstrated that the adsorption process was exothermic and spontaneous. Adsorption and desorption study at different pH further demonstrated that the sorption of toxins was strong enough to sustain pH changes that would be experienced in the gastrointestinal tract. This study suggests that biosorption of aflatoxins by dried banana peel may be an effective low-cost decontamination method for incorporation in animal feed diets. PMID:27052947

  17. Banana peel: an effective biosorbent for aflatoxins.

    PubMed

    Shar, Zahid Hussain; Fletcher, Mary T; Sumbal, Gul Amer; Sherazi, Syed Tufail Hussain; Giles, Cindy; Bhanger, Muhammad Iqbal; Nizamani, Shafi Muhammad

    2016-05-01

    This work reports the application of banana peel as a novel bioadsorbent for in vitro removal of five mycotoxins (aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2) and ochratoxin A). The effect of operational parameters including initial pH, adsorbent dose, contact time and temperature were studied in batch adsorption experiments. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and point of zero charge (pHpzc) analysis were used to characterise the adsorbent material. Aflatoxins' adsorption equilibrium was achieved in 15 min, with highest adsorption at alkaline pH (6-8), while ochratoxin has not shown any significant adsorption due to surface charge repulsion. The experimental equilibrium data were tested by Langmuir, Freundlich and Hill isotherms. The Langmuir isotherm was found to be the best fitted model for aflatoxins, and the maximum monolayer coverage (Q0) was determined to be 8.4, 9.5, 0.4 and 1.1 ng mg(-1) for AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2 respectively. Thermodynamic parameters including changes in free energy (ΔG), enthalpy (ΔH) and entropy (ΔS) were determined for the four aflatoxins. Free energy change and enthalpy change demonstrated that the adsorption process was exothermic and spontaneous. Adsorption and desorption study at different pH further demonstrated that the sorption of toxins was strong enough to sustain pH changes that would be experienced in the gastrointestinal tract. This study suggests that biosorption of aflatoxins by dried banana peel may be an effective low-cost decontamination method for incorporation in animal feed diets.

  18. Use of Cold Atmospheric Plasma to Detoxify Hazelnuts from Aflatoxins

    PubMed Central

    Siciliano, Ilenia; Spadaro, Davide; Prelle, Ambra; Vallauri, Dario; Cavallero, Maria Chiara; Garibaldi, Angelo; Gullino, Maria Lodovica

    2016-01-01

    Aflatoxins, produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus, can contaminate different foodstuffs, such as nuts. Cold atmospheric pressure plasma has the potential to be used for mycotoxin detoxification. In this study, the operating parameters of cold atmospheric pressure plasma were optimized to reduce the presence of aflatoxins on dehulled hazelnuts. First, the effect of different gases was tested (N2, 0.1% O2 and 1% O2, 21% O2), then power (400, 700, 1000, 1150 W) and exposure time (1, 2, 4, and 12 min) were optimized. In preliminary tests on aflatoxin standard solutions, this method allowed to obtain a complete detoxification using a high power for a few minutes. On hazelnuts, in similar conditions (1000 W, 12 min), a reduction in the concentration of total aflatoxins and AFB1 of over 70% was obtained. Aflatoxins B1 and G1 were more sensitive to plasma treatments compared to aflatoxins B2 and G2, respectively. Under plasma treatment, aflatoxin B1 was more sensitive compared to aflatoxin G1. At the highest power, and for the longest time, the maximum temperature increment was 28.9 °C. Cold atmospheric plasma has the potential to be a promising method for aflatoxin detoxification on food, because it is effective and it could help to maintain the organoleptic characteristics. PMID:27128939

  19. Theoretical characterization of aflatoxins and their phototoxic reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guedes, Rita C.; Eriksson, Leif A.

    2006-05-01

    Key molecular properties are calculated for the 8 most common aflatoxins at the B3LYP/6-31 + G(d,p) level. Special attention is given the possibility of aflatoxins to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS). It is concluded that the excited triplet states of the aflatoxins have properties that make them very potent ROS generators, in addition to direct photoinduced addition reactions. The elevated toxicity of aflatoxin B1 is discussed in terms of its lower ionization potential, and the coincidence of higher lying triplet states with dominant low-lying singlet excitations, which enables rapid intersystem crossing and decay along the triplet channel to the T 1 state.

  20. Use of Cold Atmospheric Plasma to Detoxify Hazelnuts from Aflatoxins.

    PubMed

    Siciliano, Ilenia; Spadaro, Davide; Prelle, Ambra; Vallauri, Dario; Cavallero, Maria Chiara; Garibaldi, Angelo; Gullino, Maria Lodovica

    2016-04-26

    Aflatoxins, produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus, can contaminate different foodstuffs, such as nuts. Cold atmospheric pressure plasma has the potential to be used for mycotoxin detoxification. In this study, the operating parameters of cold atmospheric pressure plasma were optimized to reduce the presence of aflatoxins on dehulled hazelnuts. First, the effect of different gases was tested (N₂, 0.1% O₂ and 1% O₂, 21% O₂), then power (400, 700, 1000, 1150 W) and exposure time (1, 2, 4, and 12 min) were optimized. In preliminary tests on aflatoxin standard solutions, this method allowed to obtain a complete detoxification using a high power for a few minutes. On hazelnuts, in similar conditions (1000 W, 12 min), a reduction in the concentration of total aflatoxins and AFB₁ of over 70% was obtained. Aflatoxins B₁ and G₁ were more sensitive to plasma treatments compared to aflatoxins B₂ and G₂, respectively. Under plasma treatment, aflatoxin B₁ was more sensitive compared to aflatoxin G₁. At the highest power, and for the longest time, the maximum temperature increment was 28.9 °C. Cold atmospheric plasma has the potential to be a promising method for aflatoxin detoxification on food, because it is effective and it could help to maintain the organoleptic characteristics.

  1. Use of Cold Atmospheric Plasma to Detoxify Hazelnuts from Aflatoxins.

    PubMed

    Siciliano, Ilenia; Spadaro, Davide; Prelle, Ambra; Vallauri, Dario; Cavallero, Maria Chiara; Garibaldi, Angelo; Gullino, Maria Lodovica

    2016-01-01

    Aflatoxins, produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus, can contaminate different foodstuffs, such as nuts. Cold atmospheric pressure plasma has the potential to be used for mycotoxin detoxification. In this study, the operating parameters of cold atmospheric pressure plasma were optimized to reduce the presence of aflatoxins on dehulled hazelnuts. First, the effect of different gases was tested (N₂, 0.1% O₂ and 1% O₂, 21% O₂), then power (400, 700, 1000, 1150 W) and exposure time (1, 2, 4, and 12 min) were optimized. In preliminary tests on aflatoxin standard solutions, this method allowed to obtain a complete detoxification using a high power for a few minutes. On hazelnuts, in similar conditions (1000 W, 12 min), a reduction in the concentration of total aflatoxins and AFB₁ of over 70% was obtained. Aflatoxins B₁ and G₁ were more sensitive to plasma treatments compared to aflatoxins B₂ and G₂, respectively. Under plasma treatment, aflatoxin B₁ was more sensitive compared to aflatoxin G₁. At the highest power, and for the longest time, the maximum temperature increment was 28.9 °C. Cold atmospheric plasma has the potential to be a promising method for aflatoxin detoxification on food, because it is effective and it could help to maintain the organoleptic characteristics. PMID:27128939

  2. Aflatoxin and aflatoxicosis. III. Effect of dietary aflatoxin on the morphology of buffalo bull spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Hafez, A H; Megalla, S E; Mahmed, A A

    1982-03-19

    The main aim of this study was to determine the effect of aflatoxin on male reproduction by exposure to fodders contaminated by moulds producing toxins as a natural environmental contaminants. Semen was collected from three normal healthy buffalo bulls every ten days for one month before adding the toxin and examined for livability percentages. Moldy rice containing aflatoxin B and G was incorporated into the ration of the studied bulls in a daily amount of 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0 gm respectively for each bull for two weeks. Each gramme of the rice powder contained 15.6 ppm aflatoxin B and 9.84 ppm aflatoxin G as determined spectrophotometrically. Semen was collected in the middle of the two weeks experimental period. Moreover, one week, one month and two months later, semen was collected again and examined for the same parameters. The results showed marked decrease in the alive percentage of spermatozoa from 91.11% to 80.8% after the addition of aflatoxin. Moreover, a very high increase in the sperm abnormalities up to 54% was recorded.

  3. 12 CFR Appendix M1 to Part 226 - Repayment Disclosures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Repayment Disclosures M1 Appendix M1 to Part 226 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Pt. 226, App. M1 Appendix M1 to Part 226—Repayment Disclosures...

  4. Streptomyces-Aspergillus flavus interactions: impact on aflatoxin B accumulation.

    PubMed

    Verheecke, C; Liboz, T; Anson, P; Zhu, Y; Mathieu, F

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the potential of Streptomyces sp. as biocontrol agents against aflatoxins in maize. As such, we assumed that Streptomyces sp. could provide a complementary approach to current biocontrol systems such as Afla-guard(®) and we focused on biocontrol that was able to have an antagonistic contact with A. flavus. A previous study showed that 27 (out of 38) Streptomyces sp. had mutual antagonism in contact with A. flavus. Among these, 16 Streptomyces sp. were able to reduce aflatoxin content to below 17% of the residual concentration. We selected six strains to understand the mechanisms involved in the prevention of aflatoxin accumulation. Thus, in interaction with A. flavus, we monitored by RT-qPCR the gene expression of aflD, aflM, aflP, aflR and aflS. All the Streptomyces sp. were able to reduce aflatoxin concentration (24.0-0.2% residual aflatoxin B1). They all impacted on gene expression, but only S35 and S38 were able to repress expression significantly. Indeed, S35 significantly repressed aflM expression and S38 significantly repressed aflR, aflM and aflP. S6 reduced aflatoxin concentrations (2.3% residual aflatoxin B1) and repressed aflS, aflM and enhanced aflR expression. In addition, the S6 strain (previously identified as the most reducing pure aflatoxin B1) was further tested to determine a potential adsorption mechanism. We did not observe any adsorption phenomenon. In conclusion, this study showed that Streptomyces sp. prevent the production of (aflatoxin gene expression) and decontamination of (aflatoxin B1 reduction) aflatoxins in vitro. PMID:25632796

  5. Molecular Characterization of Atoxigenic Strains for Biological Control of Aflatoxins in Nigeria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins are highly toxic, carcinogens produced by several species in Aspergillus section Flavi. Strains of A. flavus that do not produce aflatoxins, called atoxigenic strains, have been used commercially in North America as tools for limiting aflatoxin contamination. A similar aflatoxin manage...

  6. Effect of supplementation of fermented milk drink containing probiotic Lactobacillus casei Shirota on the concentrations of aflatoxin biomarkers among employees of Universiti Putra Malaysia: a randomised, double-blind, cross-over, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Mohd Redzwan, Sabran; Abd Mutalib, Mohd Sokhini; Wang, Jia-Sheng; Ahmad, Zuraini; Kang, Min-Su; Abdul Rahman, Nurul 'Aqilah; Nikbakht Nasrabadi, Elham; Jamaluddin, Rosita

    2016-01-14

    Human exposure to aflatoxin is through the diet, and probiotics are able to bind aflatoxin and prevent its absorption in the small intestine. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of a fermented milk drink containing Lactobacillus casei Shirota (LcS) (probiotic drink) to prevent aflatoxin absorption and reduce serum aflatoxin B1-lysine adduct (AFB1-lys) and urinary aflatoxin M1 concentrations. The present study was a randomised, double-blind, cross-over, placebo-controlled study with two 4-week intervention phases. In all, seventy-one subjects recruited from the screening stage were divided into two groups--the Yellow group and the Blue group. In the 1st phase, one group received probiotic drinks twice a day and the other group received placebo drinks. Blood and urine samples were collected at baseline, 2nd and 4th week of the intervention. After a 2-week wash-out period, the treatments were switched between the groups, and blood and urine samples were collected at the 6th, 8th and 10th week (2nd phase) of the intervention. No significant differences in aflatoxin biomarker concentrations were observed during the intervention. A within-group analysis was further carried out. Aflatoxin biomarker concentrations were not significantly different in the Yellow group. Nevertheless, ANOVA for repeated measurements indicated that AFB1-lys concentrations were significantly different (P=0·035) with the probiotic intervention in the Blue group. The 2nd week AFB1-lys concentrations (5·14 (SD 2·15) pg/mg albumin (ALB)) were significantly reduced (P=0·048) compared with the baseline (6·24 (SD 3·42) pg/mg ALB). Besides, the 4th week AFB1-lys concentrations were significantly lower (P<0·05) with probiotic supplementation than with the placebo. Based on these findings, a longer intervention study is warranted to investigate the effects of continuous LcS consumption to prevent dietary aflatoxin exposure.

  7. Effect of almond processing on levels and distribution of aflatoxins in finished products and byproducts.

    PubMed

    Zivoli, Rosanna; Gambacorta, Lucia; Perrone, Giancarlo; Solfrizzo, Michele

    2014-06-18

    The fate of aflatoxins during processing of contaminated almonds into nougat, pastries, and almond syrup was evaluated by testing the effect of each processing step (blanching, peeling, roasting, caramelization, cooking, and water infusion) on the distribution and levels of aflatoxins. Blanching and peeling did not reduce total aflatoxins that were distributed between peeled almonds (90-93%) and skins (7-10%). Roasting of peeled almonds reduced up to 50% of aflatoxins. Up to 70% reduction of aflatoxins was observed during preparation and cooking of almond nougat in caramelized sugar. Aflatoxins were substantially stable during preparation and cooking of almond pastries. The whole process of almond syrup preparation produced a marked increase of total aflatoxins (up to 270%) that were distributed between syrup (18-25%) and spent almonds (75-82%). The increase of total aflatoxins was probably due to the activation of almond enzymes during the infusion step that released free aflatoxins from masked aflatoxins.

  8. 7 CFR 996.11 - Negative aflatoxin content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MINIMUM QUALITY AND HANDLING STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.11 Negative aflatoxin content. Negative aflatoxin content means 15 parts per billion (ppb) or less for peanuts that...

  9. Aflatoxins B and g contamination and aflatoxigenic fungi in nutmeg.

    PubMed

    Okano, Kiyoshi; Tomita, Tsuneyoshi; Ohzu, Yuji; Takai, Mitsuhiro; Ose, Ayaka; Kotsuka, Akiko; Ikeda, Naoko; Sakata, Junko; Kumeda, Yuko; Nakamura, Nobuya; Ichinoe, Masakatsu

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the distribution of aflatoxigenic fungi in 25 imported Indonesian nutmeg samples contaminated with aflatoxins Bs or Bs and Gs. The incidence of aflatoxigenic fungi in the samples contaminated with high levels of aflatoxin was significantly higher than that in the samples with low levels of the toxins(r=0.752). The aflatoxin production of isolates from the samples in cultures of YES broth was examined by means of TLC and HPLC analyses. The ability of isolates to produce aflatoxins did not necessarily correlate with the contamination levels of aflatoxin in the samples. We isolated aflatoxins B and G-producing fungi from 3 samples contaminated with the high levels of aflatoxins B and G. The aflatoxigenic isolates were identified as Aspergillus nomius and A. bombycis based on morphological characters, growth rates at 37°C and 42°C and also molecular-genetic methods. Our results indicate that these two species are mainly responsible for aflatoxin G contamination in nutmeg products.

  10. Cost-Effectiveness of Aflatoxin Control Methods: Economic Incentives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multiple sectors in U.S. crop industries – growers, elevators, handlers/shellers, processors, distributors, and consumers – are affected by aflatoxin contamination of commodities, and have the potential to control it. Aflatoxin control methods at both preharvest and postharvest levels have been dev...

  11. The Molecular Epidemiology of Chronic Aflatoxin Driven Impaired Child Growth

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Paul Craig

    2013-01-01

    Aflatoxins are toxic secondary fungal metabolites that contaminate dietary staples in tropical regions; chronic high levels of exposure are common for many of the poorest populations. Observations in animals indicate that growth and/or food utilization are adversely affected by aflatoxins. This review highlights the development of validated exposure biomarkers and their use here to assess the role of aflatoxins in early life growth retardation. Aflatoxin exposure occurs in utero and continues in early infancy as weaning foods are introduced. Using aflatoxin-albumin exposure biomarkers, five major studies clearly demonstrate strong dose response relationships between exposure in utero and/or early infancy and growth retardation, identified by reduced birth weight and/or low HAZ and WAZ scores. The epidemiological studies include cross-sectional and longitudinal surveys, though aflatoxin reduction intervention studies are now required to further support these data and guide sustainable options to reduce the burden of exposure. The use of aflatoxin exposure biomarkers was essential in understanding the observational data reviewed and will likely be a critical monitor of the effectiveness of interventions to restrict aflatoxin exposure. Given that an estimated 4.5 billion individuals live in regions at risk of dietary contamination the public health concern cannot be over stated. PMID:24455429

  12. Aflatoxin production and oxidative stress in Aspergillus flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The colonization of crops by Aspergillus flavus results in the production of aflatoxins. Aflatoxin production is also exacerbated by abiotic stresses in the field. Here, we investigated the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which accumulate in plant tissues in response to drought and heat stres...

  13. Experimental aflatoxin production in Manchego-type cheese.

    PubMed

    Blanco, J L; Domínguez, L; Gómez-Lucía, E; Garayzabal, J F; Goyache, J; Suárez, G

    1988-01-01

    Manchego-type cheese, a typical Spanish cheese, was inoculated in various ways with an aflatoxigenic organism, Aspergillus parasiticus NRRL 2999, to study the production of aflatoxin. When the original milk was contaminated with a spore suspension, aflatoxin was not detected in paraffin-covered cheeses although it was present in the top layer of non-paraffin-covered cheeses after ripening at 15 degrees C for 60 d. When the cheese surface was inoculated, no aflatoxins were detected in paraffin-covered cheeses after ripening for 60 d although they were found when the cheeses were ripened for 30 d. In non-paraffin-covered cheeses aflatoxins were detected only in the top layer and in the second 10 mm layer when cheeses were incubated after the normal ripening at 28 degrees C for 30 d. When the centre of the cheese was inoculated, no aflatoxins were detected although Aspergillus grew slightly along the inoculation area. When cheese portions were inoculated, fungal growth was evident after incubation at 28 degrees and 15 degrees C for 6 d but there was no growth at 10 degrees C after 50 d. At 28 degrees C aflatoxins were detected at a concentration of 132 micrograms/g after 13 d, the highest level obtained. In cheese paste at 28 degrees and 15 degrees C, growth was intense, but the level of aflatoxins detected was lower than in cheese portions. At 10 degrees C the growth was heavy, but aflatoxins were not detected. PMID:3350782

  14. Strategies for the prevention of preharvest aflatoxin contamination of maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxin contamination of maize by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus poses serious health hazards to humans and animals worldwide. This alarming fact, along with the institution of regulations in many countries to control the occurrence of aflatoxins in foods and feed, have stimulate...

  15. Interaction of aflatoxin B1 and cyclopiazonic acid toxicities.

    PubMed

    Yates, I E; Cole, R J; Giles, J L; Dorner, J W

    1987-01-01

    Toxic properties of the mycotoxins cyclopiazonic acid and aflatoxin B1 have been analyzed separately and in combination by monitoring their effects on luminescence in the marine bacterium Photobacterium phosphoreum, Strain NCMB 844. Genotoxicity was analyzed with a dark mutant of this organism whose reversion to the bioluminescent condition is stimulated by compounds attacking guanine sites in deoxyribonucleic acids. In this assay, cyclopiazonic acid, unlike aflatoxin B1, is not enhanced by cyclopiazonic acid when the two mycotoxins are assayed in combination. Cytotoxicity was assessed by the diminution of bioluminescence in a separate assay system with strain NRRLB-1177 of P. phosphoreum. Cyclopiazonic acid is more cytotoxic than aflatoxin B1, and concentrations of cyclopiazonic acid required for cytotoxicity decreases with time, whereas aflatoxin B1 cytotoxic expression does not change significantly with time under most assay conditions. Aflatoxin B1 and cyclopiazonic acid assayed as a dose pair indicate that these mycotoxins elicit their effects by independent modes of action.

  16. Survey of aflatoxins in maize tortillas from Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Urueta, Pável; Carvajal, Magda; Méndez, Ignacio; Meza, Florencia; Gálvez, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    In Mexico, maize tortillas are consumed on a daily basis, leading to possible aflatoxin exposure. In a survey of 396 2-kg samples, taken over four sampling days in 2006 and 2007 from tortilla shops and supermarkets in Mexico City, aflatoxin levels were quantified by HPLC. In Mexico, the regulatory limit is 12 µg kg⁻¹ total aflatoxins for maize tortillas. In this survey, 17% of tortillas contained aflatoxins at levels of 3-385 µg kg⁻¹ or values below the limit of quantification (12 µg kg⁻¹ and 87% were below the regulatory limit. Average aflatoxin concentrations in 56 contaminated samples were: AFB1 (12.1 µg kg⁻¹); AFB2 (2.7 µg kg⁻¹); AFG1 (64.1 µg kg⁻¹) and AFG2 (3.7 µg kg⁻¹), and total AF (20.3 µg kg⁻¹).

  17. Patulin & ergosterol: new quality parameters together with aflatoxins in hazelnuts.

    PubMed

    Ekinci, Raci; Otağ, Mustafa; Kadakal, Çetin

    2014-05-01

    Hazelnuts of three different categories, mouldy, hidden mould and sound (undamaged), were investigated for their contents of aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1 and G2), patulin, and ergosterol. Samples were obtained from five hazelnut processing plants located in a major hazelnut producing area in the Black Sea region in Turkey. All aflatoxins, patulin and ergosterol were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Sound hazelnuts were contaminated with trace or zero amounts of aflatoxins, patulin and ergosterol, so they posed no risk for the consumer when national and/or international regulatory limits were considered. Mouldy and hidden mould hazelnuts were contaminated with high (246-510ppb; 141-422ppb) aflatoxin levels, respectively. Aflatoxin B1 content was significantly correlated with the patulin and ergosterol contents in mouldy and hidden mould hazelnuts. However, there was no significant correlation between patulin and ergosterol contents of mouldy and hidden mould hazelnuts.

  18. Occurrence of aflatoxins in human foodstuffs in South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Loetter, L.H.; Kroehm, H.J.

    1988-02-01

    Aflatoxins are toxic metabolites of Aspergillus spp and have been reported as contaminants in a number of foodstuffs, namely corn, rice, peanuts, and cereals. In the Republic of South Africa, aflatoxin levels in human foodstuffs are limited to a maximum of 10 ..mu..g/kg for the total and 5 ..mu..g/kg for aflatoxin B/sub 1/. During 1985 and 1986, samples of sorghum beer, sorghum cereal, peanuts, peanut butter and maize meal were purchased from supermarkets in Johannesburg and analyzed for aflatoxins. A total of 414 samples were analyzed during the survey. In 1985, roughly a third of the samples were contaminated with aflatoxins, with no levels in excess of the legal limit. In 1986 the percentage of contaminated samples rose significantly, but the levels of contamination remained low, with only one sample exceeding the legal maximum.

  19. Protective Effects of Bacillus subtilis ANSB060 on Serum Biochemistry, Histopathological Changes and Antioxidant Enzyme Activities of Broilers Fed Moldy Peanut Meal Naturally Contaminated with Aflatoxins.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yu; Zhao, Lihong; Ji, Cheng; Li, Xiaoying; Jia, Ru; Xi, Lin; Zhang, Jianyun; Ma, Qiugang

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the toxic effects of aflatoxins and evaluate the effectiveness of Bacillus subtilis ANSB060 in detoxifying aflatoxicosis in broilers. A total of 360 one-week-old male broilers (Ross 308) were assigned to six dietary treatments for five weeks. The treatment diets were: C0 (basal diet); C1.0 (C0 + 1.0 g B. subtilis ANSB060/kg diet); M0 (basal diet formulated with moldy peanut meal); M0.5, M1.0 and M2.0 (M0 + 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 g B. subtilis ANSB060/kg diet, respectively). The contents of aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2 in the diets formulated with moldy peanut meal were 70.7 ± 1.3, 11.0 ± 1.5, 6.5 ± 0.8 and 2.0 ± 0.3 µg/kg, respectively. The results showed that aflatoxins increased (p < 0.05) serum aspartate transaminase activity, decreased (p < 0.05) serum glutathione peroxidase activity, and enhanced (p < 0.05) malondialdehyde contents in both the serum and liver. Aflatoxins also caused gross and histological changes in liver tissues, such as bile duct epithelium hyperplasia, vacuolar degeneration and lymphocyte infiltration. The supplementation of ANSB060 reduced aflatoxin levels in the duodenum and counteracted the negative effects of aflatoxins, leading to the conclusion that ANSB060 has a protective effect against aflatoxicosis and this protection is dose-related. PMID:26308053

  20. Protective Effects of Bacillus subtilis ANSB060 on Serum Biochemistry, Histopathological Changes and Antioxidant Enzyme Activities of Broilers Fed Moldy Peanut Meal Naturally Contaminated with Aflatoxins

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Yu; Zhao, Lihong; Ji, Cheng; Li, Xiaoying; Jia, Ru; Xi, Lin; Zhang, Jianyun; Ma, Qiugang

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the toxic effects of aflatoxins and evaluate the effectiveness of Bacillus subtilis ANSB060 in detoxifying aflatoxicosis in broilers. A total of 360 one-week-old male broilers (Ross 308) were assigned to six dietary treatments for five weeks. The treatment diets were: C0 (basal diet); C1.0 (C0 + 1.0 g B. subtilis ANSB060/kg diet); M0 (basal diet formulated with moldy peanut meal); M0.5, M1.0 and M2.0 (M0 + 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 g B. subtilis ANSB060/kg diet, respectively). The contents of aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2 in the diets formulated with moldy peanut meal were 70.7 ± 1.3, 11.0 ± 1.5, 6.5 ± 0.8 and 2.0 ± 0.3 µg/kg, respectively. The results showed that aflatoxins increased (p < 0.05) serum aspartate transaminase activity, decreased (p < 0.05) serum glutathione peroxidase activity, and enhanced (p < 0.05) malondialdehyde contents in both the serum and liver. Aflatoxins also caused gross and histological changes in liver tissues, such as bile duct epithelium hyperplasia, vacuolar degeneration and lymphocyte infiltration. The supplementation of ANSB060 reduced aflatoxin levels in the duodenum and counteracted the negative effects of aflatoxins, leading to the conclusion that ANSB060 has a protective effect against aflatoxicosis and this protection is dose-related. PMID:26308053

  1. Protective Effects of Bacillus subtilis ANSB060 on Serum Biochemistry, Histopathological Changes and Antioxidant Enzyme Activities of Broilers Fed Moldy Peanut Meal Naturally Contaminated with Aflatoxins.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yu; Zhao, Lihong; Ji, Cheng; Li, Xiaoying; Jia, Ru; Xi, Lin; Zhang, Jianyun; Ma, Qiugang

    2015-08-21

    The aim of this study was to investigate the toxic effects of aflatoxins and evaluate the effectiveness of Bacillus subtilis ANSB060 in detoxifying aflatoxicosis in broilers. A total of 360 one-week-old male broilers (Ross 308) were assigned to six dietary treatments for five weeks. The treatment diets were: C0 (basal diet); C1.0 (C0 + 1.0 g B. subtilis ANSB060/kg diet); M0 (basal diet formulated with moldy peanut meal); M0.5, M1.0 and M2.0 (M0 + 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 g B. subtilis ANSB060/kg diet, respectively). The contents of aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2 in the diets formulated with moldy peanut meal were 70.7 ± 1.3, 11.0 ± 1.5, 6.5 ± 0.8 and 2.0 ± 0.3 µg/kg, respectively. The results showed that aflatoxins increased (p < 0.05) serum aspartate transaminase activity, decreased (p < 0.05) serum glutathione peroxidase activity, and enhanced (p < 0.05) malondialdehyde contents in both the serum and liver. Aflatoxins also caused gross and histological changes in liver tissues, such as bile duct epithelium hyperplasia, vacuolar degeneration and lymphocyte infiltration. The supplementation of ANSB060 reduced aflatoxin levels in the duodenum and counteracted the negative effects of aflatoxins, leading to the conclusion that ANSB060 has a protective effect against aflatoxicosis and this protection is dose-related.

  2. Value Added Processing of Aflatoxin Contaminated Peanut Meal: Aflatoxin Sequestration During Protein Extraction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficacy of a bentonite clay, Astra-Ben 20A (AB20A), to sequester aflatoxin from contaminated (~110 ppb) peanut meal during protein extraction was studied. Aqueous peanut meal dispersions (10% w/w) were prepared varying pH, temperature, enzymatic hydrolysis conditions, and concentrations of AB2...

  3. 26 CFR 1.167(m)-1 - Class lives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Class lives. 1.167(m)-1 Section 1.167(m)-1...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations § 1.167(m)-1 Class lives. (a) For rules regarding the election to use the class life system authorized by section 167(m),...

  4. 26 CFR 1.167(m)-1 - Class lives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Class lives. 1.167(m)-1 Section 1.167(m)-1...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations § 1.167(m)-1 Class lives. (a) For rules regarding the election to use the class life system authorized by section 167(m),...

  5. 26 CFR 1.167(m)-1 - Class lives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Class lives. 1.167(m)-1 Section 1.167(m)-1...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations § 1.167(m)-1 Class lives. (a) For rules regarding the election to use the class life system authorized by section 167(m),...

  6. Stochasticity and the m = 1 mode in tokamaks. [Sawtooth oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Izzo, R.; Monticello, D.A.; Stodiek, W.; Park, W.

    1986-05-01

    It has recently been proposed that stochasticity resulting from toroidal coupling could lead to a saturation of the m = 1 internal mode in tokamaks. We present results from the nonlinear evolution of the m = 1 mode with toroidal coupling that show that stochasticity is not enough to cause saturation of the m = 1 mode.

  7. 26 CFR 1.167(m)-1 - Class lives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Class lives. 1.167(m)-1 Section 1.167(m)-1...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations § 1.167(m)-1 Class lives. (a) For rules regarding the election to use the class life system authorized by section 167(m),...

  8. 26 CFR 1.167(m)-1 - Class lives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Class lives. 1.167(m)-1 Section 1.167(m)-1...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations § 1.167(m)-1 Class lives. (a) For rules regarding the election to use the class life system authorized by section 167(m),...

  9. Quantitative Scrutinization of Aflatoxins in Different Spices from Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Kashif, Aiza; Kanwal, Kinza; Khan, Abdul Muqeet; Abbas, Mateen

    2016-01-01

    The current research work aimed to access the contamination level of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 in the household spices that are widely consumed in huge amounts. 200 different spice samples, 100 packed and 100 unpacked, were analyzed for the aflatoxins profile by HPLC with an incidence of 61.5% contamination out of which 53.66% samples exceed the EU limit. The results disclosed that the unpacked samples are more contaminated as compared to the packed samples except for white cumin seeds. Among packed and unpacked samples of spices, the maximum value of aflatoxins was detected in fennel, that is, 27.93 μg/kg and 67.04 μg/kg, respectively. The lowest concentration of aflatoxin was detected in cinnamon in packed form (0.79 μg/kg) and in the unpacked samples of white cumin seeds which is 1.75 μg/kg. Caraway seeds and coriander in its unpacked form showed positive results whereas black pepper (packed and unpacked) was found free from aflatoxins. This is the first report on the occurrence of aflatoxins in packed and unpacked samples of spices from Pakistan. To ensure safe consumption of spices, there should be constant monitoring of aflatoxin and more studies need to be executed with the intention of preventing mycotoxin accretion in this commodity. PMID:27781067

  10. Aflatoxins, patulin and ergosterol contents of dried figs in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Karaca, H; Nas, S

    2006-05-01

    Dried figs of three different categories, palatable, fluorescent, and cull, were investigated for their contents of aflatoxins (B(1), B(2), G(1) and G(2)), patulin, and ergosterol. Samples were obtained from four fig processing plants located in a major fig producing area in the Aegean Region in Turkey. Affinity column clean-up methods were employed for aflatoxins. All aflatoxins, patulin, and ergosterol were determined using high performance liquid chromatography. Palatable figs contaminated with trace amounts of aflatoxins, patulin, and ergosterol, so they posed no risk for the consumer when national and/or international regulatory limits were considered. Fluorescent figs were contaminated with high (117.9-471.9 ppb) aflatoxin levels and cull figs with high patulin (39.3-151.6 ppb) and ergosterol (4.5-18 ppm) levels. The total aflatoxins content was significantly correlated with the patulin content (r(2) = 0.813, p < 0.002) and the ergosterol content (r(2) = 0.920, p < 0.002) only in fluorescent figs. However there was no significant correlation between patulin and ergosterol contents of fluorescent figs. Furthermore, there were no significant correlations between the contents of any two of the three substances in cull figs. This is the first report on the presence of patulin and its co-occurrence with aflatoxin in dried figs.

  11. Occurrence of aflatoxin B1 in natural products.

    PubMed

    Prado, Guilherme; Altoé, Aline F; Gomes, Tatiana C B; Leal, Alexandre S; Morais, Vanessa A D; Oliveira, Marize S; Ferreira, Marli B; Gomes, Mateus B; Paschoal, Fabiano N; von S Souza, Rafael; Silva, Daniela A; Cruz Madeira, Jovita E G

    2012-10-01

    The media claims for the consumption of natural resource-based food have gradually increased in both developing and developed countries. The interest in the safety of these products is partially due to the possible presence of toxigenic fungi acting as mycotoxin producers, such as aflatoxins produced during the secondary metabolism of Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus and A. nomius. Aflatoxins, mainly aflatoxin B1, are directly associated with liver cancer in human beings. This paper is aimed at evaluating the presence of aflatoxin B1 in a few vegetable drugs, dried plant extracts and industrialized products traded in 2010 in the city of Belo Horizonte, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The method used for the quantification of aflatoxin B1 was based on extraction through acetone:water (85:15), immunoaffinity column purification followed by separation and detection in high efficiency liquid chromatography. Under the conditions of analysis, the Limits of Detection and Quantification were 0.6 µg kg(-1) and 1.0 µg kg(-1) respectively. The complete sets of analyses were carried out in duplicate. Aflatoxin B1 was noticed in a single sample (< 1.0 µg kg(-1)). The results revealed low aflatoxin B1 contamination in the products under analysis. However, it is required to establish a broad monitoring program in order to obtain additional data and check up on the actual extension of contamination. PMID:24031973

  12. Occurrence of aflatoxin B1 in natural products

    PubMed Central

    Prado, Guilherme; Altoé, Aline F.; Gomes, Tatiana C. B.; Leal, Alexandre S.; Morais, Vanessa A. D.; Oliveira, Marize S.; Ferreira, Marli B.; Gomes, Mateus B.; Paschoal, Fabiano N.; von S. Souza, Rafael; Silva, Daniela A.; Cruz Madeira, Jovita E. G.

    2012-01-01

    The media claims for the consumption of natural resource-based food have gradually increased in both developing and developed countries. The interest in the safety of these products is partially due to the possible presence of toxigenic fungi acting as mycotoxin producers, such as aflatoxins produced during the secondary metabolism of Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus and A. nomius. Aflatoxins, mainly aflatoxin B1, are directly associated with liver cancer in human beings. This paper is aimed at evaluating the presence of aflatoxin B1 in a few vegetable drugs, dried plant extracts and industrialized products traded in 2010 in the city of Belo Horizonte, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The method used for the quantification of aflatoxin B1 was based on extraction through acetone:water (85:15), immunoaffinity column purification followed by separation and detection in high efficiency liquid chromatography. Under the conditions of analysis, the Limits of Detection and Quantification were 0.6 µg kg-1 and 1.0 µg kg-1 respectively. The complete sets of analyses were carried out in duplicate. Aflatoxin B1 was noticed in a single sample (< 1.0 µg kg-1). The results revealed low aflatoxin B1 contamination in the products under analysis. However, it is required to establish a broad monitoring program in order to obtain additional data and check up on the actual extension of contamination. PMID:24031973

  13. Developing Resistance to Aflatoxin in Maize and Cottonseed

    PubMed Central

    Cary, Jeffrey W.; Rajasekaran, Kanniah; Brown, Robert L.; Luo, Meng; Chen, Zhi-Yuan; Bhatnagar, Deepak

    2011-01-01

    At this time, no “magic bullet” for solving the aflatoxin contamination problem in maize and cottonseed has been identified, so several strategies must be utilized simultaneously to ensure a healthy crop, free of aflatoxins. The most widely explored strategy for the control of aflatoxin contamination is the development of preharvest host resistance. This is because A. flavus infects and produces aflatoxins in susceptible crops prior to harvest. In maize production, the host resistance strategy has gained prominence because of advances in the identification of natural resistance traits. However, native resistance in maize to aflatoxin contamination is polygenic and complex and, therefore, markers need to be identified to facilitate the transfer of resistance traits into agronomically viable genetic backgrounds while limiting the transfer of undesirable traits. Unlike maize, there are no known cotton varieties that demonstrate enhanced resistance to A. flavus infection and aflatoxin contamination. For this reason, transgenic approaches are being undertaken in cotton that utilize genes encoding antifungal/anti-aflatoxin factors from maize and other sources to counter fungal infection and toxin production. This review will present information on preharvest control strategies that utilize both breeding and native resistance identification approaches in maize as well as transgenic approaches in cotton. PMID:22069734

  14. Developing resistance to aflatoxin in maize and cottonseed.

    PubMed

    Cary, Jeffrey W; Rajasekaran, Kanniah; Brown, Robert L; Luo, Meng; Chen, Zhi-Yuan; Bhatnagar, Deepak

    2011-06-01

    At this time, no "magic bullet" for solving the aflatoxin contamination problem in maize and cottonseed has been identified, so several strategies must be utilized simultaneously to ensure a healthy crop, free of aflatoxins. The most widely explored strategy for the control of aflatoxin contamination is the development of preharvest host resistance. This is because A. flavus infects and produces aflatoxins in susceptible crops prior to harvest. In maize production, the host resistance strategy has gained prominence because of advances in the identification of natural resistance traits. However, native resistance in maize to aflatoxin contamination is polygenic and complex and, therefore, markers need to be identified to facilitate the transfer of resistance traits into agronomically viable genetic backgrounds while limiting the transfer of undesirable traits. Unlike maize, there are no known cotton varieties that demonstrate enhanced resistance to A. flavus infection and aflatoxin contamination. For this reason, transgenic approaches are being undertaken in cotton that utilize genes encoding antifungal/anti-aflatoxin factors from maize and other sources to counter fungal infection and toxin production. This review will present information on preharvest control strategies that utilize both breeding and native resistance identification approaches in maize as well as transgenic approaches in cotton. PMID:22069734

  15. Aflatoxins, patulin and ergosterol contents of dried figs in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Karaca, H; Nas, S

    2006-05-01

    Dried figs of three different categories, palatable, fluorescent, and cull, were investigated for their contents of aflatoxins (B(1), B(2), G(1) and G(2)), patulin, and ergosterol. Samples were obtained from four fig processing plants located in a major fig producing area in the Aegean Region in Turkey. Affinity column clean-up methods were employed for aflatoxins. All aflatoxins, patulin, and ergosterol were determined using high performance liquid chromatography. Palatable figs contaminated with trace amounts of aflatoxins, patulin, and ergosterol, so they posed no risk for the consumer when national and/or international regulatory limits were considered. Fluorescent figs were contaminated with high (117.9-471.9 ppb) aflatoxin levels and cull figs with high patulin (39.3-151.6 ppb) and ergosterol (4.5-18 ppm) levels. The total aflatoxins content was significantly correlated with the patulin content (r(2) = 0.813, p < 0.002) and the ergosterol content (r(2) = 0.920, p < 0.002) only in fluorescent figs. However there was no significant correlation between patulin and ergosterol contents of fluorescent figs. Furthermore, there were no significant correlations between the contents of any two of the three substances in cull figs. This is the first report on the presence of patulin and its co-occurrence with aflatoxin in dried figs. PMID:16644598

  16. Aflatoxins and kwashiorkor: a study in Sudanese children.

    PubMed

    Hendrickse, R G; Coulter, J B; Lamplugh, S M; Macfarlane, S B; Williams, T E; Omer, M I; Suliman, G I

    1982-09-25

    Blood and urine samples from 252 Sudanese children were investigated for their aflatoxin content by high-performance liquid chromatography. The children comprised 44 with kwashiorkor, 32 with marasmic kwashiorkor, 70 with marasmus, and 106 age-matched, normally nourished controls. Aflatoxins were detected more often and at higher concentrations in sera from children with kwashiorkor than in the other malnourished and control groups. Aflatoxicol, a metabolite of aflatoxins B1 and B2, was detected in the sera of children with kwashiorkor and marasmic kwashiorkor but not in the controls and only once in a marasmic child. The difference between children with kwashiorkor or marasmic kwashiorkor and those in the control or marasmus groups was significant. Urinary aflatoxin was most often detected in children with kwashiorkor but their mean concentration was lower than in the other groups. Aflatoxicol was not detected in urine in any group. These findings suggest either that the children with kwashiorkor have a greater exposure to aflatoxins or that their ability to transport and excrete aflatoxins is impaired by the metabolic derangements associated with kwashiorkor. The presence of aflatoxicol in the sera of children with kwashiorkor but not in the others suggests a difference in metabolism between the two groups. Further studies are needed, and measurement of aflatoxins in the food eaten by these children is already underway.

  17. Occurrence of aflatoxins in herbal medicine distributed in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Shim, Won-Bo; Kim, Kyeongyeol; Ofori, Jack A; Chung, Young-Chul; Chung, Duck-Hwa

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the occurrence of aflatoxins in herbal medicines distributed in South Korea. A total of 700 herbal medicine samples (10 samples each for 70 types of herbal medicine) were analyzed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)), and levels of total aflatoxins were quantified and confirmed by liquid chromatography combined with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The levels of recovery of the methods were 84.30 to 102.68% (ELISA for AFB(1)) and 72.17 to 90.92% (LC-MS/MS for total aflatoxins). Fifty-eight (8.29%) of 700 samples were AFB(1) positive by ELISA, and 17 (2.43%) of them were finally confirmed as positive for total aflatoxins by LC-MS/MS. Total aflatoxin levels in the herbal medicines were from 4.51 to 108.42 μg/kg. Among the 17 samples, the AFB(1) content of 6 samples (11.95 to 73.27 μg/kg) and the total aflatoxin content of 10 (12.12 to 108.42 μg/kg) samples exceeded the legal limits set by the Korea Food and Drug Administration for AFB(1) (10 μg/kg) and by the European Commission for total aflatoxins (10 μg/kg), respectively. These results demonstrate the risk to consumers of herbal medicine contamination by aflatoxins and encourage further studies to investigate the transfer rate of mycotoxins to decoction, which is the final product for consumption.

  18. Effects of Zinc Chelators on Aflatoxin Production in Aspergillus parasiticus

    PubMed Central

    Wee, Josephine; Day, Devin M.; Linz, John E.

    2016-01-01

    Zinc concentrations strongly influence aflatoxin accumulation in laboratory media and in food and feed crops. The presence of zinc stimulates aflatoxin production, and the absence of zinc impedes toxin production. Initial studies that suggested a link between zinc and aflatoxin biosynthesis were presented in the 1970s. In the present study, we utilized two zinc chelators, N,N,N′,N′-tetrakis (2-pyridylmethyl) ethane-1,2-diamine (TPEN) and 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanesulfonic acid (DMPS) to explore the effect of zinc limitation on aflatoxin synthesis in Aspergillus parasiticus. TPEN but not DMPS decreased aflatoxin biosynthesis up to six-fold depending on whether A. parasiticus was grown on rich or minimal medium. Although we observed significant inhibition of aflatoxin production by TPEN, no detectable changes were observed in expression levels of the aflatoxin pathway gene ver-1 and the zinc binuclear cluster transcription factor, AflR. Treatment of growing A. parasiticus solid culture with a fluorescent zinc probe demonstrated an increase in intracellular zinc levels assessed by increases in fluorescent intensity of cultures treated with TPEN compared to controls. These data suggest that TPEN binds to cytoplasmic zinc therefore limiting fungal access to zinc. To investigate the efficacy of TPEN on food and feed crops, we found that TPEN effectively decreases aflatoxin accumulation on peanut medium but not in a sunflower seeds-derived medium. From an application perspective, these data provide the basis for biological differences that exist in the efficacy of different zinc chelators in various food and feed crops frequently contaminated by aflatoxin. PMID:27271668

  19. Effects of aflatoxins in young ponies.

    PubMed

    Aller, W W; Edds, G T; Asquith, R L

    1981-12-01

    Sixteen clinically normal, healthy ponies were randomly assigned to 4 groups and given aflatoxin B1 in doses of 0.045, 0.030, 0.015, and 0 (control) mg/kg of body weight per day for 21 days (or total doses of 0.945, 0.630, 0.315, and 0 mg/kg). The animals were allowed to recover for 3 months and then were reassigned to 4 treatment groups such that each group during the 2nd trial included a pony from each of the groups of the 1st trial. The animals in the new groups were intubated and were given aflatoxin in doses of 0.4, 0.2, 0.1, and 0 (control) mg/kg/day for 5 days ( or total doses of 2.0, 1.0, 0.5, and 0 mg/kg). Venous blood samples were drawn every other day to monitor for toxicosis; examinations were made for RBC and WBC counts, hemoglobin concentration, PCV, serum urea nitrogen, prothrombin time, and serum concentrations of aspartate aminotransferase, iditol dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, albumin, gamma-glutamyl transferase, and arginase. There were no significant differences between treatment groups and controls (given no aflatoxin) in the toxicologic values examined for during the 1st trial. During the 2nd experiment, 2 of the ponies in the large-dose treatment gorup (2.0 mg/kg) demonstrated increased serum enzyme activities. These animals had been in the large-dose (0.945 mg/kg) and median-dose (0.63 mg/kg) groups during the 1st trial. Arginase, iditol dehydrogenase, and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activities became increased on the 4th day of treatment and continued to increase until the 6th day of the experiment (1 day after treatment was terminated). These enzymes approached control group values at 10 days after cessation of treatment. These increases were indicative of hepatocellular toxicity. It was concluded that the possibility of equine aflatoxicosis exists although ponies given high quality rations appear to be less susceptible than some other species. Prior exposure to aflatoxins may predispose to clinical toxicity on subsequent exposure

  20. MYCOTOXINS: AFLATOXIN ISOLATED FROM PENICILLIUM PUBERULUM.

    PubMed

    HODGES, F A; ZUST, J R; SMITH, H R; NELSON, A A; ARMBRECHT, B H; CAMPBELL, A D

    1964-09-25

    Penicillium puberulum Bainer was found growing on a sample of moldy peanuts. It also grows on shredded wheat, potatoes, and laboratory culture media such as wort, potato dextrose, and Sabouraud agars, and synthesizes aflatoxin on these substrates. Thin-layer chromatograms of the chloroform-soluble toxin produced by the mold when grown on shredded wheat show fluorescent bands with R(F) values identical with those of the fractions B(1), B(2), G(1), and G(2) of the toxin produced by Aspergillus flavus. This extract produces typical bile duct proliferation type of liver damage in 2-to 3-day-old Peking white ducklings.

  1. Aflatoxins and kwashiorkor in Kenya: a hospital based study in a rural area of Kenya.

    PubMed

    de Vries, H R; Lamplugh, S M; Hendrickse, R G

    1987-12-01

    Aflatoxin analyses were undertaken on sera and urines of 41 children admitted to a rural hospital in Kenya with kwashiorkor, marasmus, marasmic kwashiorkor or normal nutrition (Wellcome Classification). Aflatoxins were detected most frequently and at highest concentrations in the sera of kwashiorkors who, conversely, showed aflatoxins least frequently in their urine and in concentrations that were disproportionately low compared with serum/urine aflatoxin levels in other groups. These findings indicate altered aflatoxin metabolism in kwashiorkor and support the hypothesis that there are special relationships between aflatoxins and kwashiorkor.

  2. Calcium montmorillonite clay reduces AFB1 and FB1 biomarkers in rats exposed to single and co-exposures of aflatoxin and fumonisin

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Nicole J.; Xue, Kathy S.; Lin, Shuhan; Marroquin-Cardona, Alicia; Brown, Kristal A.; Elmore, Sarah E.; Tang, Lili; Romoser, Amelia; Gelderblom, Wentzel C. A.; Wang, Jia-Sheng; Phillips, Timothy D.

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxins (AFs) and fumonisins (FBs) can co-contaminate foodstuffs and have been associated with hepatocellular and esophageal carcinomas in humans at high risk for exposure. One strategy to reduce exposure (and toxicity) from contaminated foodstuffs is the dietary inclusion of a montmorillonite clay (UPSN) that binds AFs and FBs in the GI tract. In this study, the binding capacity of UPSN was evaluated for AFB1, FB1 and a combination thereof in Fischer-344 rats. Rats were pre-treated with different dietary levels of UPSN (0.25 or 2%) for 1 week. Rats were gavaged with a single dose of either 0.125 mg AFB1 or 25 mg FB1/kg b.w. and a combination thereof in the presence and absence of an aqueous solution of UPSN. The kinetics of mycotoxin excretion were monitored by analyzing serum AFB1-albumin, urinary AF (AFM1), and FB1 biomarkers over a period of 72 hr. UPSN decreased AFM1 excretion by 88-97%, indicating highly effective binding. FB1 excretion was reduced, to a lesser extent, ranging between 45 to 85%. When in combination, both AFB1 and FB1 binding occurred, but capacity was decreased by almost half. In the absence of UPSN, the combined AFB1 and FB1 treatment decreased the urinary biomarkers by 67 and 45% respectively, but increased levels of AFB1-albumin, presumably by modulating its cytochrome metabolism. UPSN significantly reduced bioavailability of both AFB1 and FB1 when in combination; suggesting that it can be utilized to reduce levels below their respective thresholds for affecting adverse biological effects. PMID:24193864

  3. Calcium montmorillonite clay reduces AFB1 and FB1 biomarkers in rats exposed to single and co-exposures of aflatoxin and fumonisin.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Nicole J; Xue, Kathy S; Lin, Shuhan; Marroquin-Cardona, Alicia; Brown, Kristal A; Elmore, Sarah E; Tang, Lili; Romoser, Amelia; Gelderblom, Wentzel C A; Wang, Jia-Sheng; Phillips, Timothy D

    2014-07-01

    Aflatoxins (AFs) and fumonisins (FBs) can co-contaminate foodstuffs and have been associated with hepatocellular and esophageal carcinomas in humans at high risk for exposure. One strategy to reduce exposure (and toxicity) from contaminated foodstuffs is the dietary inclusion of a montmorillonite clay (UPSN) that binds AFs and FBs in the gastrointestinal tract. In this study, the binding capacity of UPSN was evaluated for AFB1, FB1 and a combination thereof in Fischer 344 rats. Rats were pre-treated with different dietary levels of UPSN (0.25% or 2%) for 1 week. Rats were gavaged with a single dose of either 0.125 mg AFB1 or 25 mg FB1 per kg body weight and a combination thereof in the presence and absence of an aqueous solution of UPSN. The kinetics of mycotoxin excretion were monitored by analyzing serum AFB1 -albumin, urinary AF (AFM1) and FB1 biomarkers over a period of 72 h. UPSN decreased AFM1 excretion by 88-97%, indicating highly effective binding. FB1 excretion was reduced, to a lesser extent, ranging from 45% to 85%. When in combination, both AFB1 and FB1 binding occurred, but capacity was decreased by almost half. In the absence of UPSN, the combined AFB1 and FB1 treatment decreased the urinary biomarkers by 67% and 45% respectively, but increased levels of AFB1 -albumin, presumably by modulating its cytochrome metabolism. UPSN significantly reduced bioavailability of both AFB1 and FB1 when in combination; suggesting that it can be utilized to reduce levels below their respective thresholds for affecting adverse biological effects. PMID:24193864

  4. Aflatoxins in animal feed in Iran.

    PubMed

    Beheshti, Hamed Reza; Asadi, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    One hundred and forty-six samples of animal feed (barley, n = 60; wheat bran, n = 22; wheat dry pulp, n = 29; and canola meal, n = 35) were collected in 2011 from Mashhad (Khorasan, Iran). Aflatoxins (AFs) were determined in these samples after immunoaffinity column clean-up by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) contamination was found in 28 samples: in five of the barley samples (8.3%) at a mean level of 0.48 µg·kg(-1), in two wheat bran samples (9.0%) at a mean level of 0.88 µg·kg(-1), in 10 wheat dry pulp samples (34.5%) at a mean level of 0.30 µg·kg(-1) and in 11 canola meal samples (31.4%) at a mean level of 0.92 µg·kg(-1). AFB1 levels were below the maximum levels of Iran regulations (5 µg·kg(-1)) and the EU maximum limit (5 µg·kg(-1)).

  5. Phytochemicals reduce aflatoxin-induced toxicity in chicken embryos

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins (AF) are toxic metabolites produced by molds, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasicitus, which frequently contaminate chicken feed ingredients. Ingestion of AF-contaminated feed by chickens leads to deleterious effects, including decreased chicken performance and reduced egg producti...

  6. Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Aflatoxin B 1 from Soil

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research describes the development of a Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) method to recover aflatoxin B1 from fortified soil. The effects of temperature, pressure, modifier (identity and percentage), and extraction type were assessed. Using the optimized SFE conditions, ...

  7. Nanoparticle-based immunosensors and immunoassays for aflatoxins.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Niessner, Reinhard; Tang, Dianping; Knopp, Dietmar

    2016-03-17

    Aflatoxins are naturally existing mycotoxins produced mainly by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, present in a wide range of food and feed products. Because of their extremely high toxicity and carcinogenicity, strict control of maximum residue levels of aflatoxins in foodstuff is set by many countries. In daily routine, different chromatographic methods are used almost exclusively. As supplement, in several companies enzyme immunoassay-based sample testing as primary screening is performed. Recently, nanomaterials such as noble metal nanoparticles, magnetic particles, carbon nanomaterials, quantum dots, and silica nanomaterials are increasingly utilized for aflatoxin determination to improve the sensitivity and simplify the detection. They are employed either as supports for the immobilization of biomolecules or as electroactive or optical labels for signal transduction and amplification. Several nanoparticle-based electrochemical, piezoelectric, optical, and immunodipstick assays for aflatoxins have been developed. In this review, we summarize these recent advances and illustrate novel concepts and promising applications in the field of food safety.

  8. Aflatoxin in detannin coffee and tea and its destruction.

    PubMed

    Hasan, H A H

    2002-05-01

    The aflatoxins produced byAspergillus parasiticus var. globosus IMI 12090 in detannin-caffeinated coffee and black tea were five times more concentrated than in regular coffee and tea. The activity of caffeine and tannin on the fungus growth and aflatoxin production in liquid broth was tested at three levels: viz. 0.1, 0.3, and 0.6%. Tannin and caffeine induced 95% inhibition in aflatoxins at 0.3% and 0.6%, respectively. The antiaflatoxigenic properties of regular coffee and tea appear to be due to tannin, followed by caffeine. The roasting of contaminated coffee beans at 200 degrees C for 20 min is effective in the destruction of aflatoxins.

  9. Effects of Aflatoxin on Germination and Growth of Lettuce

    PubMed Central

    Crisan, Eli V.

    1973-01-01

    The relative susceptibility of 30 cultivars of lettuce to inhibition by aflatoxin was studied. Seed germination was not inhibited by concentrations as high as 1,000 μg/ml in cultivar Imperial 44 or by 100 μg/ml in the remaining cultivars. Hypocotyl elongation was inhibited by 46 to 68% at a concentration of 100 μg of aflatoxin per ml. Seedlings exposed to aflatoxin did not become chlorotic. The similarity between the morphological reaction of plants to coumarin and aflatoxin suggests a common mode of action, but further studies of the physiological basis for the inhibitory reactions induced by these compounds will be necessary before such conclusions will be valid. PMID:4698861

  10. Reduced Carcinogenic Effects of Aflatoxin in Rats Given Phenobarbitone

    PubMed Central

    McLean, A. E. M.; Marshall, Anne

    1971-01-01

    Rats were fed a diet containing 50 per cent peanut meal contaminated with aflatoxins (Rosetti meal) for a period of 9 weeks. All the survivors developed liver tumours in the next 2 yr. Rats given the same diet plus phenobarbitone showed a much delayed appearance of tumours, the malignant characteristics of the tumours were diminished and the premalignant histological changes in the liver were reduced. We suggest that phenobarbitone induces liver hydroxylation enzymes that metabolise aflatoxins to noncarcinogenic products. PMID:5090689

  11. Bioremediation of aflatoxins by some reference fungal strains.

    PubMed

    El-Shiekh, Hussein H; Mahdy, Hesham M; El-Aaser, Mahmoud M

    2007-01-01

    Aspergillus parasiticus RCMB 002001 (2) producing four types of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 was used in this study as an aflatoxin-producer. Penicillium griseofulvum, P. urticae, Paecilomyces lilacinus, Trichoderma viride, Candida utilis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae as well as a non-toxigenic strain of Aspergillus flavus were found to be able to exhibit growth on aflatoxin B1-containing medium up to a concentration of 500 ppb. It was also found that several fungal strains exhibited the growth in co-culture with A. parasiticus, natural aflatoxins producer, and were able to decreased the total aflatoxin concentration, resulting in the highest inhibition percentage of 67.2% by T viride, followed by P. lilacinus, P. griseofulvum, S. cerevisiae, C. utilis, P. urticae, Rhizopus nigricans and Mucor rouxii with total aflatoxin inhibition percentage of 53.9, 52.4, 52, 51.7, 44, 38.2 and 35.4%, respectively. The separation of bioremediation products using GC/MS revealed that the toxins were degraded into furan moieties.

  12. Interactions of Aflatoxin with Histones and DNA 1

    PubMed Central

    Black, Homer S.; Jirgensons, Bruno

    1967-01-01

    The interactions of aflatoxin B1 with certain histone fractions and DNA were investigated by means of viscosity measurements and equilibrium dialysis. Two main histone fractions (F2b and F1), both lysine-rich, were examined after treatment with the toxin. Fraction 2b and 1 differ in amino acid composition and behave differently, in regard to gross conformation, in the presence of electrolytes. Aflatoxin increased the viscosity of fraction 2b but affected the viscosity of fraction 1 only slightly. Equilibrium dialysis experiments showed that aflatoxin was bound to both histone fractions. Aflatoxin also increased the viscosity of DNA and equilibrium dialysis showed that 1 molecule of the toxin was bound to approximately every 5 nucleotides of the nucleic acid. Binding constants for the aflatoxin complexes were calculated as 1000 for F2b, 700 for F1, and 5500 for DNA. The biological implications of these data, in regard to the effect aflatoxin has on the information-transcription process, are discussed. PMID:6039901

  13. Aflatoxin Production in Peanut Varieties by aspergillus flavus Link and Aspergillus parasiticus Speare

    PubMed Central

    Nagarajan, V.; Bhat, Ramesh V.

    1973-01-01

    Levels of aflatoxin produced in peanuts differed with the genetic variety of plant and with the species and strain of invading fungus. Possibilities for identifying groundnut varieties partially resistant to aflatoxin production are discussed. PMID:4632857

  14. Identification of resistance-associated proteins in closely-related maize lines varying in aflatoxin accumulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus infection of maize and subsequent contamination with carcinogenic aflatoxins poses serious health concerns, especially in developing countries. Maize lines resistant to A. flavus infection have been identified; however, the development of commercially-useful aflatoxin-resistant ma...

  15. Use of Selected Essential Oils to Control Aflatoxin Contaminated Stored Cashew and Detection of Aflatoxin Biosynthesis Gene

    PubMed Central

    Abd El-Aziz, Abeer R. M.; Mahmoud, Mohamed A.; Al-Othman, Monira R.; Al-Gahtani, Munirah F.

    2015-01-01

    Aspergillus spp. associated with cashew from the regions of Riyadh, Dammam, and Abha were isolated and three different culture media were used to qualitatively measure aflatoxin production by Aspergillus via UV light (365 nm), which was expressed as positive or negative. The obtained data showed that six isolates of A. flavus and four isolates of A. parasiticus were positive for aflatoxin production, while all isolates of A. niger were negative. Five commercially essential oils (thyme, garlic, cinnamon, mint, and rosemary) were tested to determine their influence on growth and aflatoxin production in A. flavus and A. parasiticus by performing high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results showed that the tested essential oils caused highly significant inhibition of fungal growth and aflatoxin production in A. flavus and A. parasiticus. The extent of the inhibition of fungal growth and aflatoxin production was dependent on the type and concentration of essential oils applied. The results indicate that cinnamon and thyme oils show strong antimicrobial potential. PCR was used with four sets of primer pairs for nor-1, omt-1, ver-1, and aflR genes, enclosed in the aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway. The interpretation of the results revealed that PCR is a rapid and sensitive method. PMID:25705718

  16. Use of selected essential oils to control aflatoxin contaminated stored cashew and detection of aflatoxin biosynthesis gene.

    PubMed

    Abd El-Aziz, Abeer R M; Mahmoud, Mohamed A; Al-Othman, Monira R; Al-Gahtani, Munirah F

    2015-01-01

    Aspergillus spp. associated with cashew from the regions of Riyadh, Dammam, and Abha were isolated and three different culture media were used to qualitatively measure aflatoxin production by Aspergillus via UV light (365 nm), which was expressed as positive or negative. The obtained data showed that six isolates of A. flavus and four isolates of A. parasiticus were positive for aflatoxin production, while all isolates of A. niger were negative. Five commercially essential oils (thyme, garlic, cinnamon, mint, and rosemary) were tested to determine their influence on growth and aflatoxin production in A. flavus and A. parasiticus by performing high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results showed that the tested essential oils caused highly significant inhibition of fungal growth and aflatoxin production in A. flavus and A. parasiticus. The extent of the inhibition of fungal growth and aflatoxin production was dependent on the type and concentration of essential oils applied. The results indicate that cinnamon and thyme oils show strong antimicrobial potential. PCR was used with four sets of primer pairs for nor-1, omt-1, ver-1, and aflR genes, enclosed in the aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway. The interpretation of the results revealed that PCR is a rapid and sensitive method. PMID:25705718

  17. Use of selected essential oils to control aflatoxin contaminated stored cashew and detection of aflatoxin biosynthesis gene.

    PubMed

    Abd El-Aziz, Abeer R M; Mahmoud, Mohamed A; Al-Othman, Monira R; Al-Gahtani, Munirah F

    2015-01-01

    Aspergillus spp. associated with cashew from the regions of Riyadh, Dammam, and Abha were isolated and three different culture media were used to qualitatively measure aflatoxin production by Aspergillus via UV light (365 nm), which was expressed as positive or negative. The obtained data showed that six isolates of A. flavus and four isolates of A. parasiticus were positive for aflatoxin production, while all isolates of A. niger were negative. Five commercially essential oils (thyme, garlic, cinnamon, mint, and rosemary) were tested to determine their influence on growth and aflatoxin production in A. flavus and A. parasiticus by performing high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results showed that the tested essential oils caused highly significant inhibition of fungal growth and aflatoxin production in A. flavus and A. parasiticus. The extent of the inhibition of fungal growth and aflatoxin production was dependent on the type and concentration of essential oils applied. The results indicate that cinnamon and thyme oils show strong antimicrobial potential. PCR was used with four sets of primer pairs for nor-1, omt-1, ver-1, and aflR genes, enclosed in the aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway. The interpretation of the results revealed that PCR is a rapid and sensitive method.

  18. [Determination of five aflatoxins in Chinese patent medicines and medicinal herbs by immunoaffinity extraction coupled with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Han, Shen; Liu, Ying; Lu, Meiling; Li, Jianzhong; Wang, Jinhua

    2011-07-01

    A method for the determination of five aflatoxins (B1 , B2, G1 , G2, M1 ) in Chinese patent medicines and medicinal herbs by immunoaffinity extraction coupled with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) was developed. The samples were extracted with 80% (v/v) methanol-water solution, followed by stepwise purification using an immunoaffinity column. The target compounds were then eluted with methanol. The extract was filtered then analyzed. With the gradient elution using a binary mobile phase containing of 0.1% formic acid-5 mmol/L ammonium acetate solution and methanol, the five aflatoxins were separated on an UHPLC BEH C18 column, followed by positive electrospray ionization and multi-reaction monitoring (MRM) provided by a triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer. The limits of detection for the standard solution of aflatoxins ranged from 0.05-0.3 microg/L. The linear response was observed in the spiked concentration range of 0.5-100 microg/L with the correlation coefficients higher than 0.99. The spiked recoveries were within 62.3%-82.4% at the spiked levels of 1.0 microg/kg and 5.0 microg/kg for all the five aflatoxins with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) below 10% (n = 6). The developed method is sensitive, accurate, and reproducible with the reasonable recoveries, and can be applied to the determination of the 5 aflatoxins in the Chinese traditional patent medicines, medicinal herbs as well as other similar complex matrices.

  19. Penetration of aflatoxins through isolated human epidermis

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, R.T.; Kemppainen, B.W.; Norred, W.P.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) could penetrate through isolated human epidermis (stratum corneum plus viable epidermis). ( UC)AFB1 (7.5-9.3 micrograms) was applied to the stratum corneum of epidermal disks mounted in Teflon diffusion cells. ( UC)AFB1 penetrated chemically unaltered through the isolated epidermis. Chloroform-extractable radioactivity accounted for 82.5 +/- 3.7% of the total penetrating radioactivity in the receptor fluid of the diffusion cells. The rate of penetration was very slow when experiments were conducted under nonoccluded conditions, but was approximately 40 times greater under conditions of occlusion. Penetration after 46 h was less than 0.05% and 3.41% of the applied dose under nonoccluded and occluded conditions, respectively. Total recovery expressed as a percentage of the applied radioactivity was 98.6 +/- 6.4%.

  20. Aflatoxin B₁ degradation by a Pseudomonas strain.

    PubMed

    Sangare, Lancine; Zhao, Yueju; Folly, Yawa Minnie Elodie; Chang, Jinghua; Li, Jinhan; Selvaraj, Jonathan Nimal; Xing, Fuguo; Zhou, Lu; Wang, Yan; Liu, Yang

    2014-10-23

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), one of the most potent naturally occurring mutagens and carcinogens, causes significant threats to the food industry and animal production. In this study, 25 bacteria isolates were collected from grain kernels and soils displaying AFB1 reduction activity. Based on its degradation effectiveness, isolate N17-1 was selected for further characterization and identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. P. aeruginosa N17-1 could degrade AFB₁, AFB₂ and AFM₁ by 82.8%, 46.8% and 31.9% after incubation in Nutrient Broth (NB) medium at 37 °C for 72 h, respectively. The culture supernatant of isolate N17-1 degraded AFB₁ effectively, whereas the viable cells and intra cell extracts were far less effective. Factors influencing AFB1 degradation by the culture supernatant were investigated. Maximum degradation was observed at 55 °C. Ions Mn²⁺ and Cu²⁺ were activators for AFB1 degradation, however, ions Mg²⁺, Li⁺, Zn²⁺, Se²⁺, Fe³⁺ were strong inhibitors. Treatments with proteinase K and proteinase K plus SDS significantly reduced the degradation activity of the culture supernatant. No degradation products were observed based on preliminary LC-QTOF/MS analysis, indicating AFB₁ was metabolized to degradation products with chemical properties different from that of AFB₁. The results indicated that the degradation of AFB₁ by P. aeruginosa N17-1 was enzymatic and could have a great potential in industrial applications. This is the first report indicating that the isolate of P. aeruginosa possesses the ability to degrade aflatoxin.

  1. 7 CFR 93.14 - Fees for aflatoxin analysis and fees for testing of other mycotoxins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fees for aflatoxin analysis and fees for testing of... Nuts, Corn and Other Oilseeds § 93.14 Fees for aflatoxin analysis and fees for testing of other mycotoxins. (a) The fee charged for any laboratory analysis for aflatoxins and other mycotoxins shall...

  2. 7 CFR 93.14 - Fees for aflatoxin analysis and fees for testing of other mycotoxins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fees for aflatoxin analysis and fees for testing of... Nuts, Corn and Other Oilseeds § 93.14 Fees for aflatoxin analysis and fees for testing of other mycotoxins. (a) The fee charged for any laboratory analysis for aflatoxins and other mycotoxins shall...

  3. Degeneration of aflatoxin gene cluster in Aspergillus flavus from Africa and North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus is the primary causal agent of food and feed contamination with the toxic fungal metabolites aflatoxins. Aflatoxin-producing potential of A. flavus is known to vary among isolates. The genes involved in aflatoxin biosynthesis are clustered together and the order of genes within th...

  4. Laboratory screening of a peanut recombinant inbred line population for aflatoxin resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxin is considered to be serious impediment for crop production in the Southern US resulting from infection by Aspergillus flavus. Aflatoxin contamination is a health concern. To date, the only successful methods of remediating aflatoxin contamination include proper storage conditions for har...

  5. Susceptibility to aflatoxin contamination among maize landraces from Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Beltran, Alejandro; Guerrero-Herrera, Manuel D J; Ortega-Corona, Alejandro; Vidal-Martinez, Victor A; Cotty, Peter J

    2014-09-01

    Maize, the critical staple food for billions of people, was domesticated in Mexico about 9,000 YBP. Today, a great array of maize landraces (MLRs) across rural Mexico is harbored in a living library that has been passed among generations since before the establishment of the modern state. MLRs have been selected over hundreds of generations by ethnic groups for adaptation to diverse environmental settings. The genetic diversity of MLRs in Mexico is an outstanding resource for development of maize cultivars with beneficial traits. Maize is frequently contaminated with aflatoxins by Aspergillus flavus, and resistance to accumulation of these potent carcinogens has been sought for over three decades. However, MLRs from Mexico have not been evaluated as potential sources of resistance. Variation in susceptibility to both A. flavus reproduction and aflatoxin contamination was evaluated on viable maize kernels in laboratory experiments that included 74 MLR accessions collected from 2006 to 2008 in the central west and northwest regions of Mexico. Resistant and susceptible MLR accessions were detected in both regions. The most resistant accessions accumulated over 99 % less aflatoxin B1 than did the commercial hybrid control Pioneer P33B50. Accessions supporting lower aflatoxin accumulation also supported reduced A. flavus sporulation. Sporulation on the MLRs was positively correlated with aflatoxin accumulation (R = 0.5336, P < 0.0001), suggesting that resistance to fungal reproduction is associated with MLR aflatoxin resistance. Results of the current study indicate that MLRs from Mexico are potentially important sources of aflatoxin resistance that may contribute to the breeding of commercially acceptable and safe maize hybrids and/or open pollinated cultivars for human and animal consumption. PMID:25198847

  6. Pulmonary aspergillosis and aflatoxins in chronic lung diseases.

    PubMed

    Ali, Sana; Malik, Abida; Shahid, Mohd; Bhargava, Rakesh

    2013-10-01

    Fungal infections of lung have become increasingly common during the last few decades. Aspergillosis and the role of aflatoxins in various chronic lung diseases have not been extensively studied. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples and sera from 40 patients of chronic lung diseases were analyzed for galactomannan antigen (GM) and aflatoxin by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Direct microscopy and culture of BAL samples were also done to detect the Aspergillus species. Results revealed that 15 (37.5 %) of the 40 patients had growth of Aspergillus on BAL culture. Out of these culture-positive cases, 13 (86.7 %) patients were positive for galactomannan antigen also. About 62.5 % cases did not show growth of Aspergillus in BAL culture. However, galactomannan antigen could be detected in 20 % of these patients. Overall, 20 % patients were diagnosed as proven invasive fungal disease (IFD), 32.5 % were of probable IFD, 17.5 % of possible IFD. Aspergillus growth was observed in 100 % of proven and 53.8 % of probable IFD cases. Galactomannan antigen was found in 100 % cases of proven and 76.9 % of probable IFD. Ten (25 %) patients were found to be positive for aflatoxins. It was detected in 6 (40 %) of culture-positive cases. About 62.5 % of the cases with proven IFD and 46.1 % of probable IFD had aflatoxin in their samples. Aflatoxin positivity was found to be more in patients with proven IFD than in probable IFD, and higher level of aflatoxins was detected in cases with proven IFD. Significant difference was observed in aflatoxin positivity among food grain workers when compared to other occupations.

  7. Susceptibility to aflatoxin contamination among maize landraces from Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Beltran, Alejandro; Guerrero-Herrera, Manuel D J; Ortega-Corona, Alejandro; Vidal-Martinez, Victor A; Cotty, Peter J

    2014-09-01

    Maize, the critical staple food for billions of people, was domesticated in Mexico about 9,000 YBP. Today, a great array of maize landraces (MLRs) across rural Mexico is harbored in a living library that has been passed among generations since before the establishment of the modern state. MLRs have been selected over hundreds of generations by ethnic groups for adaptation to diverse environmental settings. The genetic diversity of MLRs in Mexico is an outstanding resource for development of maize cultivars with beneficial traits. Maize is frequently contaminated with aflatoxins by Aspergillus flavus, and resistance to accumulation of these potent carcinogens has been sought for over three decades. However, MLRs from Mexico have not been evaluated as potential sources of resistance. Variation in susceptibility to both A. flavus reproduction and aflatoxin contamination was evaluated on viable maize kernels in laboratory experiments that included 74 MLR accessions collected from 2006 to 2008 in the central west and northwest regions of Mexico. Resistant and susceptible MLR accessions were detected in both regions. The most resistant accessions accumulated over 99 % less aflatoxin B1 than did the commercial hybrid control Pioneer P33B50. Accessions supporting lower aflatoxin accumulation also supported reduced A. flavus sporulation. Sporulation on the MLRs was positively correlated with aflatoxin accumulation (R = 0.5336, P < 0.0001), suggesting that resistance to fungal reproduction is associated with MLR aflatoxin resistance. Results of the current study indicate that MLRs from Mexico are potentially important sources of aflatoxin resistance that may contribute to the breeding of commercially acceptable and safe maize hybrids and/or open pollinated cultivars for human and animal consumption.

  8. Aflatoxin exposure during the first 1000 days of life in rural South Asia assessed by aflatoxin B₁-lysine albumin biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Groopman, John D; Egner, Patricia A; Schulze, Kerry J; Wu, Lee S-F; Merrill, Rebecca; Mehra, Sucheta; Shamim, Abu A; Ali, Hasmot; Shaikh, Saijuddin; Gernand, Alison; Khatry, Subarna K; LeClerq, Steven C; West, Keith P; Christian, Parul

    2014-12-01

    Aflatoxin B1 is a potent carcinogen, occurring from mold growth that contaminates staple grains in hot, humid environments. In this investigation, aflatoxin B1-lysine albumin biomarkers were measured by mass spectrometry in rural South Asian women, during the first and third trimester of pregnancy, and their children at birth and at two years of age. These subjects participated in randomized community trials of antenatal micronutrient supplementation in Sarlahi District, southern Nepal and Gaibandha District in northwestern Bangladesh. Findings from the Nepal samples demonstrated exposure to aflatoxin, with 94% detectable samples ranging from 0.45 to 2939.30 pg aflatoxin B1-lysine/mg albumin during pregnancy. In the Bangladesh samples the range was 1.56 to 63.22 pg aflatoxin B1-lysine/mg albumin in the first trimester, 3.37 to 72.8 pg aflatoxin B1-lysine/mg albumin in the third trimester, 4.62 to 76.69 pg aflatoxin B1-lysine/mg albumin at birth and 3.88 to 81.44 pg aflatoxin B1-lysine/mg albumin at age two years. Aflatoxin B1-lysine adducts in cord blood samples demonstrated that the fetus had the capacity to convert aflatoxin into toxicologically active compounds and the detection in the same 2-year-old children illustrates exposure over the first 1000 days of life.

  9. Aflatoxin exposure during the first 1000 days of life in rural South Asia assessed by aflatoxin B1-lysine albumin biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Groopman, John D.; Egner, Patricia A.; Schulze, Kerry J.; Wu, Lee S-F; Merrill, Rebecca; Mehra, Sucheta; Shamim, Abu A.; Ali, Hasmot; Shaikh, Saijuddin; Gernand, Alison; Khatry, Subarna K.; LeClerq, Steven C.; West, Keith P.; Christian, Parul

    2015-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 is a potent carcinogen, occurring from mold growth that contaminates staple grains in hot, humid environments. In this investigation, aflatoxin B1-lysine albumin biomarkers were measured by mass spectrometry in rural South Asian women, during the first and third trimester of pregnancy, and their children at birth and at two years of age. These subjects participated in randomized community trials of antenatal micronutrient supplementation in Sarlahi District, southern Nepal and Gaibandha District in northwestern Bangladesh. Findings from the Nepal samples demonstrated exposure to aflatoxin, with 94% detectable samples ranging from 0.45 to 2939.30 pg aflatoxin B1-lysine/mg albumin during pregnancy. In the Bangladesh samples the range was 1.56 to 63.22 pg aflatoxin B1-lysine/mg albumin in the first trimester, 3.37 to 72.8 pg aflatoxin B1-lysine/mg albumin in the third trimester, 4.62 to 76.69 pg aflatoxin B1-lysine/mg albumin at birth and 3.88 to 81.44 pg aflatoxin B1-lysine/mg albumin at age two years. Aflatoxin B1-lysine adducts in cord blood samples demonstrated that the fetus had the capacity to convert aflatoxin into toxicologically active compounds and the detection in the same 2-year-old children illus trates exposure over the first 1000 days of life. PMID:25308602

  10. The potential effects of Zataria multiflora Boiss essential oil on growth, aflatoxin production and transcription of aflatoxin biosynthesis pathway genes of toxigenic Aspergillus parasiticus

    PubMed Central

    Yahyaraeyat, R.; Khosravi, A.R.; Shahbazzadeh, D.; Khalaj, V.

    2013-01-01

    This study aims at evaluating the effects of Zataria multiflora (Z. multiflora) essential oil (EO) on growth, aflatoxin production and transcription of aflatoxin biosynthesis pathway genes. Total RNAs of Aspergillus parasiticus (A.parasiticus) ATCC56775 grown in yeast extract sucrose (YES) broth medium treated with Z. multiflora EO were subjected to reverse transcription- polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Specific primers of nor-1, ver-1, omt-A and aflR genes were used. In parallel mycelial dry weight of samples were measured and all the media were assayed by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) for aflatoxinB1 (AFB1), aflatoxinB2 (AFB2), aflatoxinG1 (AFG1), aflatoxinG2 (AFG2) and aflatoxin total (AFTotal) production. The results showed that mycelial dry weight and aflatoxin production reduce in the presence of Z. multiflora EO (100 ppm) on day 5 of growth. It was found that the expression of nor-1, ver-1, omt-A and aflR genes was correlated with the ability of fungus to produce aflatoxins on day 5 in YES medium. RT-PCR showed that in the presence of Z.multiflora EO (100 ppm) nor-1, ver-1 and omtA genes expression was reduced. It seems that toxin production inhibitory effects of Z. multiflora EO on day 5 may be at the transcription level and this herb may cause reduction in aflatoxin biosynthesis pathway genes activity. PMID:24294264

  11. Induction of forkhead box M1 (FoxM1) by EGF through ERK signaling pathway promotes trophoblast cell invasion.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yunpeng; Cui, Dan; Sui, Linlin; Xu, Yuefei; Zhang, Ningning; Ma, Yanni; Li, Yinghua; Kong, Ying

    2015-11-01

    Successful placentation depends on the proper invasion of extravillous trophoblast (EVT) cells into maternal tissues. Previous reports have demonstrated that FoxM1 is oncogenic and plays important roles in angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. However, little is known about the roles of FoxM1 in the invasion of EVT cells. EGF, as a growth factor (epidermal growth factor), has been studied extensively in reproduction. JAR cells are a reliable model for studying early invasive trophoblast regulation. We have observed the relationship between EGF and FoxM1 in JAR cells by using specific inhibitors for the intervention in and study of potential signal pathways. We have also tested the ability of JAR cells to be influenced by the expression of FoxM1. Our data indicate that EGF promotes FoxM1 expression through the ERK signal pathway. Over-FoxM1 expression upregulates the ability of JAR cells to migrate and invade and vice versa. Our investigation of FoxM1 should provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms of EVT invasion. PMID:26022336

  12. Aspirination of α-Aminoalcohol (Sarpogrelate M1).

    PubMed

    Park, Sunhwa; Lee, Jiyun; Shin, Kye Jung; Seo, Jae Hong

    2016-01-01

    Aspirination of α-aminoalcohol (sarpogrelate M1) has been performed under various general esterification conditions. In most cases, the desired aspirinate ester was obtained at a low yield with unexpected byproducts, the formation of which was mostly derived from the chemical properties of the tertiary α-amino group. After systematic analysis of those methods, the aspirinated sarpogrelate M1 was prepared using a two-step approach combining salicylate ester formation and acetylation. PMID:27571053

  13. Aflatoxin: A 50-Year Odyssey of Mechanistic and Translational Toxicology

    PubMed Central

    Kensler, Thomas W.; Roebuck, Bill D.; Wogan, Gerald N.; Groopman, John D.

    2011-01-01

    Since their discovery 50 years ago, the aflatoxins have become recognized as ubiquitous contaminants of the human food supply throughout the economically developing world. The adverse toxicological consequences of these compounds in populations are quite varied because of a wide range of exposures leading to acute effects, including rapid death, and chronic outcomes such as hepatocellular carcinoma. Furthermore, emerging studies describe a variety of general adverse health effects associated with aflatoxin, such as impaired growth in children. Aflatoxin exposures have also been demonstrated to multiplicatively increase the risk of liver cancer in people chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) illustrating the deleterious impact that even low toxin levels in the diet can pose for human health. The public health impact of aflatoxin exposure is pervasive. Aflatoxin biomarkers of internal and biologically effective doses have been integral to the establishment of the etiologic role of this toxin in human disease through better estimates of exposure, expanded knowledge of the mechanisms of disease pathogenesis, and as tools for implementing and evaluating preventive interventions. PMID:20881231

  14. Immobilization of anti-aflatoxin B1 antibody by UV polymerization of aniline and aflatoxin B1 detection via electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Dinçkaya, Erhan; Kinik, Özer; Sezgintürk, Mustafa Kemal; Altuğ, Çağri; Akkoca, Aylin

    2012-12-01

    In the study, we investigated the practicality of the UV polymerization of aniline for anti-aflatoxin B1 antibody immobilization, and utilization of the resulting biosensor in the impedimetric determination of aflatoxin B1. The anti-aflatoxin B 1 antibody was physically immobilized on gold electrodes by UV polymerization of aniline at a fixed wavelength. The biosensor was based on specific interaction anti-aflatoxin B1 - aflatoxin B1 recognition and investigation of this recognition event by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. A calibration curve was obtained in a linear detection range 1-20 ng/mL aflatoxin B1. Finally, the biosensor was applied to analysis of a real food sample.

  15. Anatomy of a Discovery: M1 and M2 Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Charles Dudley

    2015-01-01

    M1 and M2 macrophage-type responses kill or repair in vivo. The unique ability of macrophages to make these polar opposite type of responses provides primary host protection and maintains tissue homeostasis throughout the animal kingdom. In humans and other higher animals, M1 and M2-type macrophage responses also initiate and direct T cells/adaptive immunity to provide additional protection such as Th1 (cytotoxic) or Th2 (antibody-mediated) type responses. Hence, macrophages were renamed M1 and M2 to indicate the central role of macrophages/innate immunity in immune systems. These findings indicate that the long held notion that adaptive immunity controls innate immunity was backward: a sea change in understanding how immune responses occur. The clinical impact of M1/kill and M2/repair responses is immense playing pivotal roles in curing (or causing) many diseases including infections, cancer, autoimmunity, and atherosclerosis. How M1/M2 came to be is an interesting story that, like life, involved Direction, Determination, Discouragement, and Discovery. PMID:25999950

  16. Natural co-occurrence of aflatoxins and deoxynivalenol in poultry feed in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Shar, Z H; Sumbal, G A; Sherazi, S T H; Bhanger, M I; Nizamani, S M

    2014-01-01

    Two hundred and fifteen broiler poultry feed samples were analysed over the time period of one year for the co-occurrence of aflatoxins and deoxynivalenol (DON). These were determined by GC-MS and ELISA, respectively. LOD values for aflatoxins and DON were 0.5 and 5 µg/kg, respectively. From all investigated 215 poultry feed samples, aflatoxins and DON co-occurred in 100 samples (46%). DON was detected in 114 samples while 100 samples also were positive for aflatoxins. Mean concentrations of positive samples for aflatoxins and DON were 18 and 807 µg/kg, respectively. Twenty-one DON-positive and 42 aflatoxin positive samples were contaminated above the EU maximum legal limits of 1000 µg/kg and 20 µg/kg, respectively. The present study provided useful data on aflatoxin and DON contamination, which may be helpful for future strategies to control contamination and to formulate standards in poultry feeds.

  17. Aflatoxin levels in foodstuffs in Fiji and Tonga islands.

    PubMed

    Lovelace, C E; Aalbersberg, W G

    1989-12-01

    Fungal growth is a major problem of food storage in humid environments, as occur in South Pacific countries for parts of the year. Major crops, including edible nuts, copra and root crops, are susceptible to Aspergillus growth and therefore potential contamination with aflatoxin. Liver cancer occurs in Fiji and Tonga, with the occurrence in Fijians being significantly higher than in the Indian population. Thirty-three peanut samples from farmers were analysed for aflatoxin and 50% of the samples from Fiji were positive but only 9% from Tonga, reflecting different storage practices. Local copra, cassava, and maize samples were found contaminated, with only the maize at a serious level. Twenty-five plate food samples from Fiji showed low contamination. When starch foods from the Fijian diet left after cooking were analysed to follow potential aflatoxin development only sweet potatoes showed some contamination.

  18. Determination of aflatoxins in food products by chromatography.

    PubMed

    Holcomb, M; Wilson, D M; Trucksess, M W; Thompson, H C

    1992-10-30

    Several chromatographic methods for the determination of aflatoxins in agricultural and food products are reviewed. During the past two decades, identification and determination of aflatoxins were done by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) because it was easy, fast and inexpensive. However, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using fluorescence detection is now the method of choice for determining aflatoxins and is also growing in popularity for their identification. The reasons for selecting HPLC over TLC can be summarized as the ability to analyze for a wide variety of compounds, including compounds that are easily degraded by heat, light or air, the ease of adaptation to confirmatory procedures, the potential for automation and the dramatic improvement in instrumentation, including the development of increasingly sensitive fluorescence and electrochemical detectors and short, high-resolution, reversed-phase columns.

  19. Aflatoxin in corn: ammonia inactivation and bioassay with rainbow trout.

    PubMed Central

    Brekke, O L; Sinnhuber, R O; Peplinski, A J; Wales, J H; Putnam, G B; Lee, D J; Ciegler, A

    1977-01-01

    Four samples of corn were compared with respect to their hepatocarcinogenicity in rainbow trout. One corn sample was found by chemical analysis to contain no detectable aflatoxin. A second sample was contaminated with aflatoxins at a level of 180 microgram/kg. Each of the above-mentioned samples was divided, and one-half of each was ammoniated. These four samples were added to a semipurified basal diet and fed to a sensitive strain of rainbow trout. It was found that ammoniation inactivated the aflatoxins and reduced the carcinogenicity of the contaminated corn to a level that was not significantly different from that with the basal control diet. It was also found that the ammoniation process did not reduce the nutritive value of the corn. PMID:196548

  20. Rapamycin unbalances the polarization of human macrophages to M1.

    PubMed

    Mercalli, Alessia; Calavita, Ines; Dugnani, Erica; Citro, Antonio; Cantarelli, Elisa; Nano, Rita; Melzi, Raffaella; Maffi, Paola; Secchi, Antonio; Sordi, Valeria; Piemonti, Lorenzo

    2013-10-01

    Plasticity is a hallmark of macrophages, and in response to environmental signals these cells undergo different forms of polarized activation, the extremes of which are called classic (M1) and alternative (M2). Rapamycin (RAPA) is crucial for survival and functions of myeloid phagocytes, but its effects on macrophage polarization are not yet studied. To address this issue, human macrophages obtained from six normal blood donors were polarized to M1 or M2 in vitro by lipopolysaccharide plus interferon-γ or interleukin-4 (IL-4), respectively. The presence of RAPA (10 ng/ml) induced macrophage apoptosis in M2 but not in M1. Beyond the impact on survival in M2, RAPA reduced CXCR4, CD206 and CD209 expression and stem cell growth factor-β, CCL18 and CCL13 release. In contrast, in M1 RAPA increased CD86 and CCR7 expression and IL-6, tumour necrosis factor-α and IL-1β release but reduced CD206 and CD209 expression and IL-10, vascular endothelial growth factor and CCL18 release. In view of the in vitro data, we examined the in vivo effect of RAPA monotherapy (0·1 mg/kg/day) in 12 patients who were treated for at least 1 month before islet transplant. Cytokine release by Toll-like receptor 4-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells showed a clear shift to an M1-like profile. Moreover, macrophage polarization 21 days after treatment showed a significant quantitative shift to M1. These results suggest a role of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) into the molecular mechanisms of macrophage polarization and propose new therapeutic strategies for human M2-related diseases through mTOR inhibitor treatment.

  1. M1-like Macrophage Polarization Promotes Orthodontic Tooth Movement.

    PubMed

    He, D; Kou, X; Yang, R; Liu, D; Wang, X; Luo, Q; Song, Y; Liu, F; Yan, Y; Gan, Y; Zhou, Y

    2015-09-01

    Macrophages play a crucial role in inflammatory-mediated bone loss. Orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) is associated with inflammatory bone remodeling. However, whether and how macrophages contribute to mechanical force-induced OTM remains unknown. In this study, we hypothesized that polarization of M1-like macrophages may contribute to the OTM. Orthodontic nickel-titanium springs were applied to the upper first molars of rats or mice to induce OTM. The distance of OTM gradually increased after mechanical force was applied to the rats for 5 and 10 d. M1-like macrophage polarization and expression of M1 cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α also increased after force application. More importantly, monocyte/macrophage depletion in mice by injection of clodronate liposomes decreased the distance of OTM and the number of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive osteoclasts and CD68(+) macrophages, accompanied by reduced expressions of M1 markers TNF-α and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), whereas systemic transfusion of M1 macrophages in mice increased them. Further experiments showed that injection of recombinant TNF-α increased the distance of OTM and the number of TRAP-positive osteoclasts and CD68(+) macrophages, as well as upregulated the expression of TNF-α and iNOS. Blockage of TNF-α by etanercept injection reduced the distance of OTM and the number of TRAP-positive osteoclasts and CD68(+) macrophages, as well as decreased the levels of TNF-α and iNOS. These data suggest that M1-like macrophage polarization promotes alveolar bone resorption and consequent OTM after mechanical force application.

  2. COSTAR FOC M1/M2 Mirror Arm Deployment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacinski, John

    1997-07-01

    The COSTAR's FOC M1/M2 arms will be returned to their pre-servicing mission positions. WFPC-2's shutter is required to remain closed during and for 30 minutes after the deployment of the FOC COSTAR arms. The FOC arm deployment activities will be executed with a combinations of R/T and SPC commanding. FOC M1/M2 arm deployments will not be executed until FOC baseline observations have been performed. The activities in this proposal involve many COSTAR CARD items. This proposal requires careful attention during proposal implementation and execution to ensure the CARD is correctly implemented.

  3. Molecular basis of aflatoxin-induced mutagenesis—role of the aflatoxin B1-formamidopyrimidine adduct

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ying-Chih; Li, Liang; Makarova, Alena V.; Burgers, Peter M.; Stone, Michael P.; Lloyd, R. Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a known carcinogen associated with early-onset hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and is thought to contribute to over half a million new HCCs per year. Although some of the fundamental risk factors are established, the molecular basis of AFB1-induced mutagenesis in primate cells has not been rigorously investigated. To gain insights into genome instability that is produced as a result of replicating DNAs containing AFB1 adducts, site-specific mutagenesis assays were used to establish the mutagenic potential of the persistent ring-opened AFB1 adduct, AFB1-formamidopyrimidine (AFB1-FAPY). This lesion was highly mutagenic, yielding replication error frequencies of 97%, with the predominant base substitution being a G to T transversion. This transversion is consistent with previous mutational data derived from aflatoxin-associated HCCs. In vitro translesion synthesis assays demonstrated that polymerase (pol) ζ was the most likely candidate polymerase that is responsible for the G to T mutations induced by this adduct. PMID:24398669

  4. A mini review on aflatoxin exposure in Malaysia: past, present and future

    PubMed Central

    Mohd-Redzwan, Sabran; Jamaluddin, Rosita; Abd.-Mutalib, Mohd Sokhini; Ahmad, Zuraini

    2013-01-01

    This mini review article described the exposure of aflatoxin in Malaysia, including its presence in the foodstuffs and the detection of aflatoxin biomarkers in human biological samples. Historically, the exposure of aflatoxin in Malaysia can be dated in 1960s where an outbreak of disease in pig farms caused severe liver damage to the animals. Later, an aflatoxicosis case in Perak in 1988 was reported and caused death to 13 children, as up to 3 mg of aflatoxin was present in a single serving of contaminated noodles. Since then, extensive research on aflatoxin has been conducted in Malaysia. The food commodities such as peanuts, cereals, spices, and their products are the main commodities commonly found to be contaminated with aflatoxin. Surprisingly, some of the contaminated foods had levels greater than the permissible limit adopted by the Malaysian Food Regulation 1985. Besides, exposure assessment through the measurement of aflatoxin biomarkers in human biological samples is still in its infancy stage. Nevertheless, some studies had reported the presence of these biomarkers. In fact, it is postulated that Malaysians are moderately exposed to aflatoxin compared to those high risk populations, where aflatoxin contamination in the diets is prevalent. Since the ingestion of aflatoxin could be the integral to the development of liver cancer, the incidence of cancer attributable by dietary aflatoxin exposure in Malaysia has also been reported and published in the literatures. Regardless of these findings, the more important task is to monitor and control humans from being exposed to aflatoxin. The enforcement of law is insufficient to minimize human exposure to aflatoxin. Preventive strategies include agricultural, dietary, and clinical measures should be implemented. With the current research on aflatoxin in Malaysia, a global networking for research collaboration is needed to expand the knowledge and disseminate the information to the global scientific community

  5. A mini review on aflatoxin exposure in Malaysia: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Mohd-Redzwan, Sabran; Jamaluddin, Rosita; Abd-Mutalib, Mohd Sokhini; Ahmad, Zuraini

    2013-11-13

    This mini review article described the exposure of aflatoxin in Malaysia, including its presence in the foodstuffs and the detection of aflatoxin biomarkers in human biological samples. Historically, the exposure of aflatoxin in Malaysia can be dated in 1960s where an outbreak of disease in pig farms caused severe liver damage to the animals. Later, an aflatoxicosis case in Perak in 1988 was reported and caused death to 13 children, as up to 3 mg of aflatoxin was present in a single serving of contaminated noodles. Since then, extensive research on aflatoxin has been conducted in Malaysia. The food commodities such as peanuts, cereals, spices, and their products are the main commodities commonly found to be contaminated with aflatoxin. Surprisingly, some of the contaminated foods had levels greater than the permissible limit adopted by the Malaysian Food Regulation 1985. Besides, exposure assessment through the measurement of aflatoxin biomarkers in human biological samples is still in its infancy stage. Nevertheless, some studies had reported the presence of these biomarkers. In fact, it is postulated that Malaysians are moderately exposed to aflatoxin compared to those high risk populations, where aflatoxin contamination in the diets is prevalent. Since the ingestion of aflatoxin could be the integral to the development of liver cancer, the incidence of cancer attributable by dietary aflatoxin exposure in Malaysia has also been reported and published in the literatures. Regardless of these findings, the more important task is to monitor and control humans from being exposed to aflatoxin. The enforcement of law is insufficient to minimize human exposure to aflatoxin. Preventive strategies include agricultural, dietary, and clinical measures should be implemented. With the current research on aflatoxin in Malaysia, a global networking for research collaboration is needed to expand the knowledge and disseminate the information to the global scientific community.

  6. Effects of a Calcium Bentonite Clay in Diets Containing Aflatoxin when Measuring Liver Residues of Aflatoxin B₁ in Starter Broiler Chicks.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Justin; Li, Wei; Bailey, Christopher

    2015-09-01

    Research has shown success using clay-based binders to adsorb aflatoxin in animal feeds; however, no adsorbent has been approved for the prevention or treatment of aflatoxicosis. In this study, growth and relative organ weights were evaluated along with a residue analysis for aflatoxin B₁ in liver tissue collected from broiler chickens consuming dietary aflatoxin (0, 600, 1200, and 1800 µg/kg) both with and without 0.2% of a calcium bentonite clay additive (TX4). After one week, only the combined measure of a broiler productivity index was significantly affected by 1800 µg/kg aflatoxin. However, once birds had consumed treatment diets for two weeks, body weights and relative kidney weights were affected by the lowest concentration. Then, during the third week, body weights, feed conversion, and the productivity index were affected by the 600 µg/kg level. Results also showed that 0.2% TX4 was effective at reducing the accumulation of aflatoxin B₁ residues in the liver and improving livability in birds fed aflatoxin. The time required to clear all residues from the liver was less than one week. With evidence that the liver's ability to process aflatoxin becomes relatively efficient within three weeks, this would imply that an alternative strategy for handling aflatoxin contamination in feed could be to allow a short, punctuated exposure to a higher level, so long as that exposure is followed by at least a week of a withdrawal period on a clean diet free of aflatoxin. PMID:26343723

  7. Single aflatoxin contaminated corn kernel analysis with fluorescence hyperspectral image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Haibo; Hruska, Zuzana; Kincaid, Russell; Ononye, Ambrose; Brown, Robert L.; Cleveland, Thomas E.

    2010-04-01

    Aflatoxins are toxic secondary metabolites of the fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, among others. Aflatoxin contaminated corn is toxic to domestic animals when ingested in feed and is a known carcinogen associated with liver and lung cancer in humans. Consequently, aflatoxin levels in food and feed are regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the US, allowing 20 ppb (parts per billion) limits in food and 100 ppb in feed for interstate commerce. Currently, aflatoxin detection and quantification methods are based on analytical tests including thin-layer chromatography (TCL) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). These analytical tests require the destruction of samples, and are costly and time consuming. Thus, the ability to detect aflatoxin in a rapid, nondestructive way is crucial to the grain industry, particularly to corn industry. Hyperspectral imaging technology offers a non-invasive approach toward screening for food safety inspection and quality control based on its spectral signature. The focus of this paper is to classify aflatoxin contaminated single corn kernels using fluorescence hyperspectral imagery. Field inoculated corn kernels were used in the study. Contaminated and control kernels under long wavelength ultraviolet excitation were imaged using a visible near-infrared (VNIR) hyperspectral camera. The imaged kernels were chemically analyzed to provide reference information for image analysis. This paper describes a procedure to process corn kernels located in different images for statistical training and classification. Two classification algorithms, Maximum Likelihood and Binary Encoding, were used to classify each corn kernel into "control" or "contaminated" through pixel classification. The Binary Encoding approach had a slightly better performance with accuracy equals to 87% or 88% when 20 ppb or 100 ppb was used as classification threshold, respectively.

  8. Antidepressant therapies inhibit inflammation and microglial M1-polarization.

    PubMed

    Kalkman, Hans O; Feuerbach, Dominik

    2016-07-01

    Macrophages and their counterparts in the central nervous system, the microglia, detect and subsequently clear microbial pathogens and injured tissue. These phagocytic cells alter and adapt their phenotype depending on their prime activity, i.e., whether they participate in acute defence against pathogenic organisms ('M1'-phenotype) or in clearing damaged tissues and performing repair activities ('M2'-phenotype). Stimulation of pattern recognition receptors by viruses (vaccines), bacterial membrane components (e.g., LPS), alcohol, or long-chain saturated fatty acids promotes M1-polarization. Vaccine or LPS administration to healthy human subjects can result in sickness symptoms and low mood. Alcohol abuse and abdominal obesity are recognized as risk factors for depression. In the M1-polarized form, microglia and macrophages generate reactive oxygen and nitrogen radicals to eradicate microbial pathogens. Inadvertently, also tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) may become oxidized. This is an irreversible reaction that generates neopterin, a recognized biomarker for depression. BH4 is a critical cofactor for the synthesis of dopamine, noradrenaline, and serotonin, and its loss could explain some of the symptoms of depression. Based on these aspects, the suppression of M1-polarization would limit the inadvertent catabolism of BH4. In the current review, we evaluate the evidence that antidepressant treatments (monoamine reuptake inhibitors, PDE4 inhibitors, lithium, valproate, agomelatine, tianeptine, electroconvulsive shock, and vagus nerve stimulation) inhibit LPS-induced microglia/macrophage M1-polarization. Consequently, we propose that supplementation with BH4 could limit the reduction in central monoamine synthesis and might represent an effective treatment for depressed mood. PMID:27101921

  9. Antidepressant therapies inhibit inflammation and microglial M1-polarization.

    PubMed

    Kalkman, Hans O; Feuerbach, Dominik

    2016-07-01

    Macrophages and their counterparts in the central nervous system, the microglia, detect and subsequently clear microbial pathogens and injured tissue. These phagocytic cells alter and adapt their phenotype depending on their prime activity, i.e., whether they participate in acute defence against pathogenic organisms ('M1'-phenotype) or in clearing damaged tissues and performing repair activities ('M2'-phenotype). Stimulation of pattern recognition receptors by viruses (vaccines), bacterial membrane components (e.g., LPS), alcohol, or long-chain saturated fatty acids promotes M1-polarization. Vaccine or LPS administration to healthy human subjects can result in sickness symptoms and low mood. Alcohol abuse and abdominal obesity are recognized as risk factors for depression. In the M1-polarized form, microglia and macrophages generate reactive oxygen and nitrogen radicals to eradicate microbial pathogens. Inadvertently, also tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) may become oxidized. This is an irreversible reaction that generates neopterin, a recognized biomarker for depression. BH4 is a critical cofactor for the synthesis of dopamine, noradrenaline, and serotonin, and its loss could explain some of the symptoms of depression. Based on these aspects, the suppression of M1-polarization would limit the inadvertent catabolism of BH4. In the current review, we evaluate the evidence that antidepressant treatments (monoamine reuptake inhibitors, PDE4 inhibitors, lithium, valproate, agomelatine, tianeptine, electroconvulsive shock, and vagus nerve stimulation) inhibit LPS-induced microglia/macrophage M1-polarization. Consequently, we propose that supplementation with BH4 could limit the reduction in central monoamine synthesis and might represent an effective treatment for depressed mood.

  10. Genome-wide transcriptome analysis of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) identifies candidate gene signatures in response to aflatoxin producing fungus Aspergillus flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins are toxic metabolites and potent carcinogen produced from asexual fungi Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. Aflatoxins can contaminate cottonseed under conducive preharvest and postharvest conditions. U.S. federal regulations restrict the use of aflatoxin contaminated cottonseed at >20...

  11. Effect of supplementation of fermented milk drink containing probiotic Lactobacillus casei Shirota on the concentrations of aflatoxin biomarkers among employees of Universiti Putra Malaysia: a randomised, double-blind, cross-over, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Mohd Redzwan, Sabran; Abd Mutalib, Mohd Sokhini; Wang, Jia-Sheng; Ahmad, Zuraini; Kang, Min-Su; Abdul Rahman, Nurul 'Aqilah; Nikbakht Nasrabadi, Elham; Jamaluddin, Rosita

    2016-01-14

    Human exposure to aflatoxin is through the diet, and probiotics are able to bind aflatoxin and prevent its absorption in the small intestine. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of a fermented milk drink containing Lactobacillus casei Shirota (LcS) (probiotic drink) to prevent aflatoxin absorption and reduce serum aflatoxin B1-lysine adduct (AFB1-lys) and urinary aflatoxin M1 concentrations. The present study was a randomised, double-blind, cross-over, placebo-controlled study with two 4-week intervention phases. In all, seventy-one subjects recruited from the screening stage were divided into two groups--the Yellow group and the Blue group. In the 1st phase, one group received probiotic drinks twice a day and the other group received placebo drinks. Blood and urine samples were collected at baseline, 2nd and 4th week of the intervention. After a 2-week wash-out period, the treatments were switched between the groups, and blood and urine samples were collected at the 6th, 8th and 10th week (2nd phase) of the intervention. No significant differences in aflatoxin biomarker concentrations were observed during the intervention. A within-group analysis was further carried out. Aflatoxin biomarker concentrations were not significantly different in the Yellow group. Nevertheless, ANOVA for repeated measurements indicated that AFB1-lys concentrations were significantly different (P=0·035) with the probiotic intervention in the Blue group. The 2nd week AFB1-lys concentrations (5·14 (SD 2·15) pg/mg albumin (ALB)) were significantly reduced (P=0·048) compared with the baseline (6·24 (SD 3·42) pg/mg ALB). Besides, the 4th week AFB1-lys concentrations were significantly lower (P<0·05) with probiotic supplementation than with the placebo. Based on these findings, a longer intervention study is warranted to investigate the effects of continuous LcS consumption to prevent dietary aflatoxin exposure. PMID:26490018

  12. The influence of aflatoxins on child health in the tropics with particular reference to kwashiorkor.

    PubMed

    Hendrickse, R G

    1984-01-01

    Aflatoxins are common environmental hazards in all the underdeveloped countries of the tropics where they commonly contaminate food. They are toxic to most species of animals and are among the most powerful carcinogenic agents known. The liver is the principal target for toxicity. Metabolic derangements caused by aflatoxins include depression of protein and enzyme synthesis, disorder of lipid metabolism and immunological suppression. The aetiology and pathogenesis of kwashiorkor remains somewhat obscure. Similarities in the geographical and climatic prevalence of kwashiorkor and aflatoxins and similarities in the metabolic derangements caused by aflatoxins and those observed in kwashiorkor, prompted investigation of the relationship between aflatoxin and kwashiorkor in the Sudan and elsewhere in Africa. Analysis of foods from markets and in homes revealed widespread aflatoxin contamination. Aflatoxins were found more frequently and at higher concentrations in the serum of children with kwashiorkor than in those with other types of malnutrition or in normal children. Aflatoxicol, a metabolite of aflatoxin B1 was detected in serum in kwashiorkor and marasmic kwashiorkor but not in normally nourished children and only once in marasmus. Autopsy liver samples from West and Southern Africa have shown aflatoxins in all cases of kwashiorkor but not in marasmus. These findings establish relationships between aflatoxin and kwashiorkor the nature of which remains obscure but includes the possibility of a causal association.

  13. A beta-glucuronidase reporter gene construct for monitoring aflatoxin biosynthesis in Aspergillus flavus.

    PubMed Central

    Flaherty, J E; Weaver, M A; Payne, G A; Woloshuk, C P

    1995-01-01

    Aflatoxins are toxic and carcinogenic secondary metabolites produced by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. Current research is directed at the elimination of these compounds in important food sources. The objective of this research was to develop a method to study the induction and regulation of aflatoxin biosynthesis by examining the expression of one aflatoxin pathway gene, ver1. The promoter region of ver1 was fused to the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) gene (uidA) from Escherichia coli to form the reporter construct, GAP13. A. flavus 656-2 was transformed with this construct. Aflatoxin production, GUS activity, and transcript accumulation were determined in transformants after shifting the cultures from a nonconducive medium to a medium conducive to aflatoxin biosynthesis. Transformants harboring GAP13 displayed GUS expression only when aflatoxin was detected in culture. Further, the transcription of the uidA gene driven by the ver1 promoter followed the same profile as for the ver1 genes. The results show that the GAP13 construct may be useful as a genetic tool to study the induction of aflatoxin in situ and to identify substances that affect the expression of genes involved in aflatoxin biosynthesis. The utility of this construct to detect inducers of aflatoxin biosynthesis in maize kernels was tested in a bioassay. A heat-stable inducer of aflatoxin with a molecular size of less than 10 kDa was detected in extracts from maize kernels colonized by A. flavus. PMID:7618859

  14. Aflatoxin Regulations and Global Pistachio Trade: Insights from Social Network Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bui-Klimke, Travis R.; Guclu, Hasan; Kensler, Thomas W.; Yuan, Jian-Min; Wu, Felicia

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxins, carcinogenic toxins produced by Aspergillus fungi, contaminate maize, peanuts, and tree nuts in many regions of the world. Pistachios are the main source of human dietary aflatoxins from tree nuts worldwide. Over 120 countries have regulations for maximum allowable aflatoxin levels in food commodities. We developed social network models to analyze the association between nations’ aflatoxin regulations and global trade patterns of pistachios from 1996–2010. The main pistachio producing countries are Iran and the United States (US), which together contribute to nearly 75% of the total global pistachio market. Over this time period, during which many nations developed or changed their aflatoxin regulations in pistachios, global pistachio trade patterns changed; with the US increasingly exporting to countries with stricter aflatoxin standards. The US pistachio crop has had consistently lower levels of aflatoxin than the Iranian crop over this same time period. As similar trading patterns have also been documented in maize, public health may be affected if countries without aflatoxin regulations, or with more relaxed regulations, continually import crops with higher aflatoxin contamination. Unlike the previous studies on maize, this analysis includes a dynamic element, examining how trade patterns change over time with introduction or adjustment of aflatoxin regulations. PMID:24670581

  15. Aflatoxin regulations and global pistachio trade: insights from social network analysis.

    PubMed

    Bui-Klimke, Travis R; Guclu, Hasan; Kensler, Thomas W; Yuan, Jian-Min; Wu, Felicia

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxins, carcinogenic toxins produced by Aspergillus fungi, contaminate maize, peanuts, and tree nuts in many regions of the world. Pistachios are the main source of human dietary aflatoxins from tree nuts worldwide. Over 120 countries have regulations for maximum allowable aflatoxin levels in food commodities. We developed social network models to analyze the association between nations' aflatoxin regulations and global trade patterns of pistachios from 1996-2010. The main pistachio producing countries are Iran and the United States (US), which together contribute to nearly 75% of the total global pistachio market. Over this time period, during which many nations developed or changed their aflatoxin regulations in pistachios, global pistachio trade patterns changed; with the US increasingly exporting to countries with stricter aflatoxin standards. The US pistachio crop has had consistently lower levels of aflatoxin than the Iranian crop over this same time period. As similar trading patterns have also been documented in maize, public health may be affected if countries without aflatoxin regulations, or with more relaxed regulations, continually import crops with higher aflatoxin contamination. Unlike the previous studies on maize, this analysis includes a dynamic element, examining how trade patterns change over time with introduction or adjustment of aflatoxin regulations.

  16. Aflatoxin regulations and global pistachio trade: insights from social network analysis.

    PubMed

    Bui-Klimke, Travis R; Guclu, Hasan; Kensler, Thomas W; Yuan, Jian-Min; Wu, Felicia

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxins, carcinogenic toxins produced by Aspergillus fungi, contaminate maize, peanuts, and tree nuts in many regions of the world. Pistachios are the main source of human dietary aflatoxins from tree nuts worldwide. Over 120 countries have regulations for maximum allowable aflatoxin levels in food commodities. We developed social network models to analyze the association between nations' aflatoxin regulations and global trade patterns of pistachios from 1996-2010. The main pistachio producing countries are Iran and the United States (US), which together contribute to nearly 75% of the total global pistachio market. Over this time period, during which many nations developed or changed their aflatoxin regulations in pistachios, global pistachio trade patterns changed; with the US increasingly exporting to countries with stricter aflatoxin standards. The US pistachio crop has had consistently lower levels of aflatoxin than the Iranian crop over this same time period. As similar trading patterns have also been documented in maize, public health may be affected if countries without aflatoxin regulations, or with more relaxed regulations, continually import crops with higher aflatoxin contamination. Unlike the previous studies on maize, this analysis includes a dynamic element, examining how trade patterns change over time with introduction or adjustment of aflatoxin regulations. PMID:24670581

  17. Aflatoxin Contamination in Wheat Flour Samples from Golestan Province, Northeast of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Taheri, N; Semnani, S; Roshandel, G; Namjoo, M; Keshavarzian, H; Chogan, AG; Kebria, F Ghasemi; Joshaghani, H

    2012-01-01

    Background: Due to the high toxicity of aflatoxin and its effects on public health, determination of aflatoxin level in Wheat flour samples in the Golestan province, north of Iran was investigated. To examine the effect of seasonal changes, summer and winter sampling was performed with standard sampling methods. Methods: A total of 200 flour samples were collected from 25 factories. HPLC method with immunoaffinity chromatography was used to measure aflatoxin types (G2, G1, B2 and B1). Statistical analysis was performed by the Pearson correlation test, One-way ANOVA and multivariate regression analysis. Results: Mean total aflatoxin levels of samples were 0.82 and 1.99 ng/g in summer and winter, respectively. Aflatoxin B1 levels were detected in 3.1%, 7.4% over permissible limits by worldwide regulations in samples collected in summer and winter, respectively. Aflatoxins in winter were higher than summer. The highest frequency of aflatoxin contamination in winter was B2 (98%) and in summer G1 (51%). The relationship between humidity and rate of aflatoxin B1 and total aflatoxin was significant in winter. Results of multivariate regression were showed the strongest relationship with humidity and aflatoxin level. Despite the contamination of flour samples, there was no contamination higher than the standard limit of Iran Standard Institute. But it was significantly higher than similar studies from other regions. Conclusions: Therefore, with regard to negative impacts of aflatoxin on health, aflatoxin contamination should be considered in future programs. Decrease of aflatoxin contamination may be made practical through reducing wheat storage duration and controlling humidity. PMID:23193505

  18. COSTAR FOC M1/M2 Mirror Arm Deployment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troeltzsch, John

    1994-01-01

    The following activities will take place during this proposal. 1. Deploy the FOC M2 Mirror Arm. 2. Deploy the FOC M1 Mirror Arm. This test requires a mix of real-time activities performed by the STOCC and stored command activities performed by the STSCI via SMS commanding. The activities in this proposal involve many COSTAR CARD items. This proposal requires careful attention during proposal implementation and execution to ensure the CARD is correctly implemented.

  19. 7 CFR 983.5 - Aflatoxin inspection certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aflatoxin inspection certificate. 983.5 Section 983.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN...

  20. Two distinct O-methyltransferases in aflatoxin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Yabe, K; Ando, Y; Hashimoto, J; Hamasaki, T

    1989-09-01

    The substances belonging to the sterigmatocystin group bear a close structural relationship to aflatoxins. When demethylsterigmatocystin (DMST) was fed to Aspergillus parasiticus NIAH-26, which endogenously produces neither aflatoxins nor precursors in YES medium, aflatoxins B1 and G1 were produced. When dihydrodemethylsterigmatocystin (DHDMST) was fed to this mutant, aflatoxins B2 and G2 were produced. Results of the cell-free experiment with S-adenosyl-[methyl-3H]methionine showed that first the C-6-OH groups of DMST and DHDMST are methylated to produce sterigmatocystin and dihydrosterigmatocystin (O-methyltransferase I) and then the C-7-OH groups are methylated to produce O-methylsterigmatocystin (OMST) and dihydro-O-methylsterigmatocystin (DHOMST) (O-methyltransferase II). However, no methyltransferase activity was observed when either OMST, DHOMST, 5,6-dimethoxysterigmatocystin, 5-methoxysterigmatocystin, or sterigmatin was incubated with the cell extract. Treatment of the cell extract with N-ethylmaleimide inhibited O-methyltransferase I activity but not that of O-methyltransferase II. Furthermore, these O-methyltransferases were different in their protein molecules and were involved in both the reactions from DMST to OMST and DHDMST to DHOMST. The reactions described in this paper were not observed when the same mold had been cultured in YEP medium.

  1. Use of Probiotics to Control Aflatoxin Production in Peanut Grains.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Juliana Fonseca Moreira; Peluzio, Joenes Mucci; Prado, Guilherme; Madeira, Jovita Eugênia Gazzinelli Cruz; Silva, Marize Oliveira; de Morais, Paula Benevides; Rosa, Carlos Augusto; Pimenta, Raphael Sanzio; Nicoli, Jacques Robert

    2015-01-01

    Probiotic microorganisms (Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii, S. cerevisiae UFMG 905, and Lactobacillus delbrueckii UFV H2b20) were evaluated as biological control agents to reduce aflatoxin and spore production by Aspergillus parasiticus IMI 242695 in peanut. Suspensions containing the probiotics alone or in combinations were tested by sprinkling on the grains followed by incubation for seven days at 25°C. All probiotic microorganisms, in live and inactivated forms, significantly reduced A. parasiticus sporulation, but the best results were obtained with live cells. The presence of probiotics also altered the color of A. parasiticus colonies but not the spore morphology. Reduction in aflatoxin production of 72.8 and 65.8% was observed for S. boulardii and S. cerevisiae, respectively, when inoculated alone. When inoculated in pairs, all probiotic combinations reduced significantly aflatoxin production, and the best reduction was obtained with S. boulardii plus L. delbrueckii (96.1%) followed by S. boulardii plus S. cerevisiae and L. delbrueckii plus S. cerevisiae (71.1 and 66.7%, resp.). All probiotics remained viable in high numbers on the grains even after 300 days. The results of the present study suggest a different use of probiotics as an alternative treatment to prevent aflatoxin production in peanut grains. PMID:26221629

  2. AFLATOXIN B2: CHEMICAL IDENTITY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY.

    PubMed

    CHANG, S B; ABDEL-KADER, M M; WICK, E L; WOGAN, G N

    1963-11-29

    Aflatoxin B(2), a blue-fluorescent metabolite of Aspergillus flavus, was isolated from cultures grown on crushed wheat. Chemical structure of the compound was elucidated as dihydroaflatoxin B(1). Biological activity was determined in day-old male white Pekin ducklings. The criteria of activity were reduction in growth and liver size and the extent of bile-duct hyperplasia.

  3. Aflatoxins ingestion and canine mammary tumors: There is an association?

    PubMed

    Frehse, M S; Martins, M I M; Ono, E Y S; Bracarense, A P F R L; Bissoqui, L Y; Teixeira, E M K; Santos, N J R; Freire, R L

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the presence of mycotoxins on dogs feed and to explore the potential association between mycotoxins exposure and the chance of mamary tumors in a case-control study. The study included 256 female dogs from a hospital population, 85 with mammary tumors (case group) and 171 without mammary tumors (control group). An epidemiological questionnaire was applied to both groups, and the data were analyzed by the EpiInfo statistical package. For the study, 168 samples of the feed offered to dogs were analyzed for the presence of aflatoxins, fumonisins and zearalenone by high-performance liquid chromatography. Mycotoxins were found in 79 samples (100%) in the case group and 87/89 (97.8%) in the control group. Mycotoxins were detected in all types of feed, regardless feed quality. Level of aflatoxin B1 (p = 0.0356, OR = 2.74, 95%, CI 1.13 to 6.60), aflatoxin G1 (AFG1) (p = 0.00007, OR = 4.60, 95%, CI = 2.16 to 9.79), and aflatoxin G2 (AFG2) (p = 0.0133, OR = 9.91, 95%, CI 1.21 to 81.15) were statistically higher in case of mammary cancer. In contrast, neutering was a protective factor for mammary cancer (p = 0.0004, OR = 0.32, 95%, CI = 0.17 to 0.60).

  4. Aflatoxin B1 in poultry: toxicology, metabolism and prevention.

    PubMed

    Rawal, Sumit; Kim, Ji Eun; Coulombe, Roger

    2010-12-01

    Aflatoxins (AF) are ubiquitous in corn-based animal feed and causes hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic effects. The most important AF in terms of toxic potency and occurrence is aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). Poultry, especially turkeys, are extremely sensitive to the toxic and carcinogenic action of AFB1, resulting in millions of dollars in annual losses to producers due to reduced growth rate, increased susceptibility to disease, reduced egg production and other adverse effects. The extreme sensitivity of turkeys and other poultry to AFB1 is associated with efficient hepatic cytochrome P450-mediated bioactivation and deficient detoxification by glutathione S-transferases (GST). Discerning the biochemical and molecular mechanisms of this extreme sensitivity of poultry to AFB1, will contribute in the development of novel strategies to increase aflatoxin resistance. Since AFB1 is an unavoidable contaminant of corn-based poultry feed, chemoprevention strategies aimed at reducing AFB1 toxicity in poultry and in other animals have been the subject of numerous studies. This brief review summarizes many of the key recent findings regarding the action of aflatoxins in poultry.

  5. Aflatoxin resistance in maize: what have we learned lately?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxin contamination of maize grain is a huge economic and health problem, causing death and increased disease burden in much of the developing world and income loss in the developed world. Despite the gravity of the problem, deployable solutions are still being sought. In the past 15 years, much...

  6. Extracts of Agave americana inhibit aflatoxin production in Aspergillus parasiticus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxigenic fungi invade crops prior to harvest as well as during storage and produce harmful, even carcinogenic toxins such as aflatoxins. Since consumers demand safe commodities, and due to enhanced public awareness of the dangers of many synthetic fungicides, the importance of investigating alterna...

  7. Identifying and developing maize germplasm with resistance to aflatoxin contamination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxin, produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus, occurs naturally in maize, Zea mays L. It is the most potent carcinogen found in nature, and it is toxic to both humans and animals. Although first identified and recognized as a threat to animals when 100,000 turkeys died in England in 1961, afl...

  8. Use of Probiotics to Control Aflatoxin Production in Peanut Grains

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Juliana Fonseca Moreira; Peluzio, Joenes Mucci; Prado, Guilherme; Madeira, Jovita Eugênia Gazzinelli Cruz; Silva, Marize Oliveira; de Morais, Paula Benevides; Rosa, Carlos Augusto; Pimenta, Raphael Sanzio; Nicoli, Jacques Robert

    2015-01-01

    Probiotic microorganisms (Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii, S. cerevisiae UFMG 905, and Lactobacillus delbrueckii UFV H2b20) were evaluated as biological control agents to reduce aflatoxin and spore production by Aspergillus parasiticus IMI 242695 in peanut. Suspensions containing the probiotics alone or in combinations were tested by sprinkling on the grains followed by incubation for seven days at 25°C. All probiotic microorganisms, in live and inactivated forms, significantly reduced A. parasiticus sporulation, but the best results were obtained with live cells. The presence of probiotics also altered the color of A. parasiticus colonies but not the spore morphology. Reduction in aflatoxin production of 72.8 and 65.8% was observed for S. boulardii and S. cerevisiae, respectively, when inoculated alone. When inoculated in pairs, all probiotic combinations reduced significantly aflatoxin production, and the best reduction was obtained with S. boulardii plus L. delbrueckii (96.1%) followed by S. boulardii plus S. cerevisiae and L. delbrueckii plus S. cerevisiae (71.1 and 66.7%, resp.). All probiotics remained viable in high numbers on the grains even after 300 days. The results of the present study suggest a different use of probiotics as an alternative treatment to prevent aflatoxin production in peanut grains. PMID:26221629

  9. RNAi control of aflatoxins in peanut plants, a multifactorial system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    RNA-interference (RNAi)-mediated control of aflatoxin contamination in peanut plants is a multifactorial and hyper variable system. The use of RNAi biotechnology to silence single genes in plants has inherently high-variability among transgenic events. Also the level of expression of small interfe...

  10. Single corn kernel aflatoxin B1 extraction and analysis method

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins are highly carcinogenic compounds produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus. Aspergillus flavus is a phytopathogenic fungus that commonly infects crops such as cotton, peanuts, and maize. The goal was to design an effective sample preparation method and analysis for the extraction of afla...

  11. Use of Probiotics to Control Aflatoxin Production in Peanut Grains.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Juliana Fonseca Moreira; Peluzio, Joenes Mucci; Prado, Guilherme; Madeira, Jovita Eugênia Gazzinelli Cruz; Silva, Marize Oliveira; de Morais, Paula Benevides; Rosa, Carlos Augusto; Pimenta, Raphael Sanzio; Nicoli, Jacques Robert

    2015-01-01

    Probiotic microorganisms (Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii, S. cerevisiae UFMG 905, and Lactobacillus delbrueckii UFV H2b20) were evaluated as biological control agents to reduce aflatoxin and spore production by Aspergillus parasiticus IMI 242695 in peanut. Suspensions containing the probiotics alone or in combinations were tested by sprinkling on the grains followed by incubation for seven days at 25°C. All probiotic microorganisms, in live and inactivated forms, significantly reduced A. parasiticus sporulation, but the best results were obtained with live cells. The presence of probiotics also altered the color of A. parasiticus colonies but not the spore morphology. Reduction in aflatoxin production of 72.8 and 65.8% was observed for S. boulardii and S. cerevisiae, respectively, when inoculated alone. When inoculated in pairs, all probiotic combinations reduced significantly aflatoxin production, and the best reduction was obtained with S. boulardii plus L. delbrueckii (96.1%) followed by S. boulardii plus S. cerevisiae and L. delbrueckii plus S. cerevisiae (71.1 and 66.7%, resp.). All probiotics remained viable in high numbers on the grains even after 300 days. The results of the present study suggest a different use of probiotics as an alternative treatment to prevent aflatoxin production in peanut grains.

  12. Correlation of aflatoxin contamination with zinc content of chicken feed

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, F.T.; Hagler, W.M. Jr.; Hamilton, P.B.

    1984-03-01

    Feed samples from chicken houses in five commercial chicken operations were analyzed for Zn, Mn, Fe, Cu, Cd, and aflatoxin content. Mean aflatoxin content of these samples was 14 ppb (14 ng/g) as opposed to 1.2 ppb in samples taken when the feed was made. Aflatoxin content of the feed samples correlated significantly with Zn content but not with Mn, Fe, or Cu, all of which correlated significantly with Zn. Zn content of unamended feed (<20 ppm (20 ..mu..g/g) is normally supplemented with a mineral premix containing Zn, Mn, Fe, and Cu to meet the nutrient requirements of chickens (40 ppm of Zn). The mean zinc concentration of the feed samples (117 ppm) was about threefold greater than the nutrient requirement and ranged from 58 to 162 ppm in individual samples. These field survey results parallel earlier reports of augmented production of aflatoxin in monocultures of aflatoxigenic fungi in corn and other ingredients supplemented with Zn. These results suggest that stricter control of Zn levels during manufacture could reduce aflatoxing contamination of feed consumed by chickens.

  13. Flux-driven algebraic damping of m = 1 diocotron mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chim, Chi Yung; O'Neil, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    Recent experiments with pure electron plasmas in a Malmberg-Penning trap have observed the algebraic damping of m = 1 diocotron modes. Transport due to small field asymmetries produce a low density halo of electrons moving radially outward from the plasma core, and the mode damping begins when the halo reaches the resonant radius rres, where f = mfE × B (rres) . The damping rate is proportional to the flux of halo particles through the resonant layer. The damping is related to, but distinct from spatial Landau damping, in which a linear wave-particle resonance produces exponential damping. This poster explains with analytic theory and simulations the new algebraic damping due to both mobility and diffusive fluxes. As electrons are swept around the ``cat's eye'' orbits of resonant wave-particle interaction, they form a dipole (m = 1) density distribution, and the electric field from this distribution produces an E × B drift of the core back to the axis, i.e. damps the m = 1 mode. Supported by National Science Foundation Grant PHY-1414570.

  14. Microglial M1/M2 polarization and metabolic states.

    PubMed

    Orihuela, Ruben; McPherson, Christopher A; Harry, Gaylia Jean

    2016-02-01

    Microglia are critical nervous system-specific immune cells serving as tissue-resident macrophages influencing brain development, maintenance of the neural environment, response to injury and repair. As influenced by their environment, microglia assume a diversity of phenotypes and retain the capability to shift functions to maintain tissue homeostasis. In comparison with peripheral macrophages, microglia demonstrate similar and unique features with regards to phenotype polarization, allowing for innate immunological functions. Microglia can be stimulated by LPS or IFN-γ to an M1 phenotype for expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines or by IL-4/IL-13 to an M2 phenotype for resolution of inflammation and tissue repair. Increasing evidence suggests a role of metabolic reprogramming in the regulation of the innate inflammatory response. Studies using peripheral immune cells demonstrate that polarization to an M1 phenotype is often accompanied by a shift in cells from oxidative phosphorylation to aerobic glycolysis for energy production. More recently, the link between polarization and mitochondrial energy metabolism has been considered in microglia. Under these conditions, energy demands would be associated with functional activities and cell survival and thus, may serve to influence the contribution of microglia activation to various neurodegenerative conditions. This review examines the polarization states of microglia and their relationship to mitochondrial metabolism. Additional supporting experimental data are provided to demonstrate mitochondrial metabolic shifts in primary microglia and the BV-2 microglia cell line induced under LPS (M1) and IL-4/IL-13 (M2) polarization.

  15. Flux-driven algebraic damping of m = 1 diocotron mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chim, Chi Yung; O'Neil, Thomas M.

    2016-07-01

    Recent experiments with pure electron plasmas in a Malmberg-Penning trap have observed the algebraic damping of m = 1 diocotron modes. Transport due to small field asymmetries produces a low density halo of electrons moving radially outward from the plasma core, and the mode damping begins when the halo reaches the resonant radius r = Rw at the wall of the trap. The damping rate is proportional to the flux of halo particles through the resonant layer. The damping is related to, but distinct from, spatial Landau damping, in which a linear wave-particle resonance produces exponential damping. This paper explains with analytic theory the new algebraic damping due to particle transport by both mobility and diffusion. As electrons are swept around the "cat's eye" orbits of the resonant wave-particle interaction, they form a dipole (m = 1) density distribution. From this distribution, the electric field component perpendicular to the core displacement produces E × B-drift of the core back to the axis, that is, damps the m = 1 mode. The parallel component produces drift in the azimuthal direction, that is, causes a shift in the mode frequency.

  16. Aflatoxin conducive and non-conducive growth conditions reveal new gene associations with aflatoxin production.

    PubMed

    Price, Michael S; Conners, Shannon B; Tachdjian, Sabrina; Kelly, Robert M; Payne, Gary A

    2005-06-01

    Research on aflatoxin (AF) production has traditionally focused on defining the AF biosynthetic pathway with the goal of identifying potential targets for intervention. To understand the effect of nitrogen source, carbon source, temperature, and pH on the regulation of AF biosynthesis, a targeted cDNA microarray consisting of genes associated with AF production over time was employed. Expression profiles for genes involved in AF biosynthesis grouped into five clades. A putative regulon was identified consisting of 20 genes that were induced in the conducive nitrogen and pH treatments and the non-conducive carbon and temperature treatments, as well as four other putative regulons corresponding to each of the four variables studied. Seventeen genes exhibited consistent induction/repression profiles across all the experiments. One of these genes was consistently downregulated with AF production. Overexpression of this gene resulted in repression of AF biosynthesis. The cellular function of this gene is currently unresolved.

  17. Analysis of cocoa products for ochratoxin A and aflatoxins.

    PubMed

    Turcotte, Anne-Marie; Scott, Peter M; Tague, Brett

    2013-08-01

    Eighty-five samples of cocoa products sampled in Canada were analysed for ochratoxin A (OTA) and aflatoxins in 2011-2012. Inclusion of the aflatoxins in this survey required additional method development. Chocolate was extracted with methanol-water plus NaCl, while for cocoa two successive extractions with methanol and methanol-water were made. Extracts were cleaned on an AflaOchra immunoaffinity column (IAC). Determination was by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Detection of the aflatoxins was with a post-column photochemical reactor and of OTA by fluorescence detection. Mean limits of quantification (LOQ) of chocolate and cocoa powders were 0.16 ng/g (OTA) and 0.07 ng/g (aflatoxin B1), respectively. Survey results showed that the incidences of OTA above the LOQ in natural cocoa were 15/15 (mean 1.17 ng/g), 20/21 for alkalized cocoa (mean 1.06 ng/g), 9/9 for baking chocolate (mean 0.49 ng/g), 20/20 for dark chocolate (mean 0.39 ng/g), 7/10 for milk chocolate (mean 0.19 ng/g), 5/5 for cocoa liquor (mean 0.43 ng/g), and 0/5 for cocoa butter. These results confirm our previous work with OTA. In the same samples, incidences of aflatoxin B1 above the LOQ were 14/15 for natural cocoa (mean 0.86 ng/g), 20/21 for alkalized cocoa (mean 0.37 ng/g), 7/9 for baking chocolate (mean 0.22 ng/g), 16/20 for dark chocolate (mean 0.19 ng/g), 7/10 for milk chocolate (mean 0.09 ng/g), 4/5 for cocoa liquor (mean 0.43 ng/g), and 0/5 for cocoa butter. Both aflatoxins and OTA were confirmed by HPLC-MS/MS when OTA or aflatoxin levels found were above 2 ng/g in cocoa.

  18. How Peroxisomes Affect Aflatoxin Biosynthesis in Aspergillus Flavus

    PubMed Central

    Reverberi, Massimo; Punelli, Marta; Smith, Carrie A.; Zjalic, Slaven; Scarpari, Marzia; Scala, Valeria; Cardinali, Giorgia; Aspite, Nicaela; Pinzari, Flavia; Payne, Gary A.; Fabbri, Anna A.; Fanelli, Corrado

    2012-01-01

    In filamentous fungi, peroxisomes are crucial for the primary metabolism and play a pivotal role in the formation of some secondary metabolites. Further, peroxisomes are important site for fatty acids β-oxidation, the formation of reactive oxygen species and for their scavenging through a complex of antioxidant activities. Oxidative stress is involved in different metabolic events in all organisms and it occurs during oxidative processes within the cell, including peroxisomal β-oxidation of fatty acids. In Aspergillus flavus, an unbalance towards an hyper-oxidant status into the cell is a prerequisite for the onset of aflatoxin biosynthesis. In our preliminary results, the use of bezafibrate, inducer of both peroxisomal β-oxidation and peroxisome proliferation in mammals, significantly enhanced the expression of pex11 and foxA and stimulated aflatoxin synthesis in A. flavus. This suggests the existence of a correlation among peroxisome proliferation, fatty acids β-oxidation and aflatoxin biosynthesis. To investigate this correlation, A. flavus was transformed with a vector containing P33, a gene from Cymbidium ringspot virus able to induce peroxisome proliferation, under the control of the promoter of the Cu,Zn-sod gene of A. flavus. This transcriptional control closely relates the onset of the antioxidant response to ROS increase, with the proliferation of peroxisomes in A. flavus. The AfP33 transformant strain show an up-regulation of lipid metabolism and an higher content of both intracellular ROS and some oxylipins. The combined presence of a higher amount of substrates (fatty acids-derived), an hyper-oxidant cell environment and of hormone-like signals (oxylipins) enhances the synthesis of aflatoxins in the AfP33 strain. The results obtained demonstrated a close link between peroxisome metabolism and aflatoxin synthesis. PMID:23094106

  19. The toxicology of aflatoxins as a basis for public health decisions.

    PubMed

    Wild, C P; Turner, P C

    2002-11-01

    Aflatoxins have been extensively studied with respect to their mechanisms of toxicity. An understanding of metabolism, DNA adduct induction, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity has been paralleled by the development of biomarkers of aflatoxin exposure and biological effects (e.g. mutations) applied to human populations. The improvements in exposure assessment and their application in prospective epidemiological studies and the demonstration of a specific mutation in the TP53 gene in hepatocellular carcinomas from areas of high aflatoxin exposure have contributed significantly to the classification of aflatoxins as human carcinogens. In addition to establishing the carcinogenicity of aflatoxins in humans, understanding molecular mechanisms of action has provided the scientific rationale for prevention strategies, including primary and chemoprevention approaches. Overall, integrated, multidisciplinary research on aflatoxins has provided the platform on which to base decisions regarding acceptable exposures and priorities for interventions to reduce human risk in a public health context.

  20. Effect of ozone on aflatoxins detoxification and nutritional quality of peanuts.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ran; Ma, Fei; Li, Pei-Wu; Zhang, Wen; Ding, Xiao-Xia; Zhang, Qi; Li, Min; Wang, Yan-Ru; Xu, Bao-Cheng

    2014-03-01

    Aflatoxins are a group of secondary metabolites produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus with carcinogenicity, teratogenicity, and mutagenicity. Aflatoxins may be found in a wide range of agri-products, especially in grains, oilseeds, corns, and peanuts. In this study, the conditions for detoxifying peanuts by ozonation were optimised. Aflatoxins in peanuts at moisture content of 5% (w/w) were sensitive to ozone and easily degraded when reacted with 6.0mg/l of ozone for 30min at room temperature. The detoxification rates of the total aflatoxins and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) were 65.8% and 65.9%, respectively. The quality of peanut samples was also evaluated in this research. No significant differences (P>0.05) were found in the polyphenols, resveratrol, acid value (AV), and peroxide value (PV) between treated and untreated samples. The results suggested that ozonation was a promising method for aflatoxin detoxification in peanuts.

  1. Aflatoxin levels in corn available as wild turkey feed in Georgia.

    PubMed

    Schweitzer, S H; Ouist, C F; Grimes, G L; Forest, D L

    2001-07-01

    Samples of corn available as wildlife feed from retailers throughout Georgia (USA) were collected during April 1997 and analyzed for aflatoxin to determine if levels harmful to wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) were present. Three of 31 (10%) samples collected from a 40-country area were positive. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay qualitatively determined that two samples contained from 0 to 20 ppb aflatoxin. A chromatography analysis of a third sample measured 380 ppb total aflatoxin. A small percentage of our sample of wildlife feed collected during one season contained levels of aflatoxin that may cause harm to turkeys, especially poults. However, because aflatoxin levels ranging from 100 to 400 ppb may cause liver dysfunction and immunosuppression in turkey poults and other wildlife, grains known to be contaminated with aflatoxin at levels unacceptable for domestic animal feeds (> or =100 ppb) should not be sold as wildlife feed. Further analyses of grains sold as wildlife feed should be conducted to address this potential problem.

  2. Product identification and safety evaluation of aflatoxin B1 decontaminated by electrolyzed oxidizing water.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Ke; Liu, Hai jie; Li, Li te

    2012-09-26

    In this study with aflatoxin-contaminated peanuts, the effectiveness of electrolyzed oxidizing water (EOW) in the decontamination of aflatoxin B(1) was investigated. The aflatoxin B(1) content was markedly reduced upon treatment with EOW, particularly with neutral electrolyzed oxidizing water (NEW). The conversion product of EOW treatment was isolated and identified as 8-chloro-9-hydroxy aflatoxin B(1) (compound 1), which is an amphiphilic molecule, in contrast to fat-soluble aflatoxin B(1). A mutagenic response study revealed that the number of revertants per plate after treatment of bacterial strains TA-97, TA-98, TA-100, and TA-102 with NEW was within the standard value range. The HepG2 cell viability assay yielded an IC(50) value of compound 1 approximately 150 mM. This study indicates that EOW had the ability to decontaminate aflatoxin B(1), and the conversion product, compound 1, did not exhibit mutagenic activity or cytotoxic effects.

  3. Effect of the radial plasma nonuniformity on the propagation of guided m = + 1 and m = - 1 modes in helicon discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliev, Yu. M.; Krämer, M.

    2016-10-01

    Theoretical as well as numerical analyses of the full set of Maxwell's equations is carried out to study non-axisymmetric ( m ≠ 0 ) guided modes in radially nonuniform helicon (HE) discharges. Unlike the axisymmetric (m = 0) modes, these modes reveal a non-reciprocal behavior with respect to the azimuthal direction. We develop the conditions for propagation and non-propagation of the various modes in the helicon parameter range, thereby focussing on the important role of the radial density gradient. Three types of modes occurring in different parameter ranges are described, i.e., the helicon (HE) mode, the electrostatic (ES) or Trivelpiece-Gould mode, and the locally coupled (LC) mode that is characterized by mode coupling (MC) in a certain region of the plasma density profile. In contrast to m = + 1 modes, the parameter range of m = - 1 modes is much more restricted as rather high densities are needed for the propagation of the helicon and LC modes. An important issue of the investigations is the rf power coupling and absorption via the various modes. Computations based on a simple antenna-plasma model show that the axial wavenumber of the antenna determines decisively which type of mode is excited. In case of LC mode excitation, the dominant role of the MC layer for the absorption is demonstrated. Finally, the rf power coupling to helicon modes is studied. The density limit for m = - 1 helicon mode propagation and the narrow magnetic field profiles of these modes are the main reasons why the rf power absorption in helicon discharges occurs via m = + 1 helicon modes.

  4. Quantitative Determination of Aflatoxin by High Performance Liquid Chromatography in Wheat Silos in Golestan Province, North of Iran

    PubMed Central

    NAMJOO, Mohadeseh; SALAMAT, Faezeh; RAJABLI, Niloofar; HAJIHOSEEINI, Reza; NIKNEJAD, Farhad; KOHSAR, Faramarz; JOSHAGHANI, Hamidreza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Aflatoxins are the most common mycotoxins that contaminate crops. They are produced by fungi such as Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. Wheat (Tricitumaestivum) is one of the most important staple foods used in Iran, and the environmental conditions in the north of Iran are favorable to fungal growth. This study was designed in order to determine the aflatoxin concentration in wheat samples from silos in Golestan Province north of Iran. Methods: Samples were collected from three silos of Golestan province. First, aflatoxins were isolated using immunoaffinity chromatography. Then the aflatoxin concentrations were determined by High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method and fluorescence detector. Results: Ten out of 34 samples (29.4% of samples) were contaminated by aflatoxins.No concentration was found above permitted aflatoxin levels in Iran (15 ng/g). In one sample (2.9%), aflatoxin B1 was seen over the permissible limits in Iran. The highest level found in samples for total aflatoxin, aflatoxin B1, aflatoxin B2, aflatoxin G1 and aflatoxin G2 were 7.08 ng/g, 6.91 ng/g, 0.29 ng/g, 1.37 ng/g and 0.23 ng/g, respectively. No correlation was found between humidity levels in wheat samples contained aflatoxin and wheat samples without aflatoxin. Conclusion: Despite the total aflatoxins determined in samples were below the permissible limits in Iran, the 29% aflatoxin contamination rate can negatively affect health factors and it should not be neglected. So, it is predictable that if the storage duration of samples increases, the aflatoxin contamination levels will increase. PMID:27516997

  5. Improved method of screening for aflatoxin with a coconut agar medium.

    PubMed

    Davis, N D; Iyer, S K; Diener, U L

    1987-07-01

    Nine isolates of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus were screened for aflatoxin production on a coconut extract agar medium. Aflatoxin-producing colonies were detected under long-wave UV light (365 nm) by blue fluorescence on the reverse side after 2 to 5 days of growth. Aflatoxin production was verified by chemical analysis. Several types of shredded coconut available in the United States were tested and found to be satisfactory. No additives were required. Various parameters affecting the test were investigated.

  6. Survey for aflatoxins and Zearalenone in canned and frozen sweet corn.

    PubMed

    Stoloff, L; Francis, O J

    1980-03-01

    Aflatoxins and zearalenone were determined in 263 samples of canned or frozen sweet corn, collected from packing plants during the 1976 and 1977 packing seasons. As anticipated from geographic, agronomic, and microbiological considerations, no aflatoxin or zearalenone was found. Based on this sampling, the highest incidence of detectable aflatoxin that could be statistically anticipated in the major packing areas is 1.5%. PMID:6448835

  7. A recent review of non-biological remediation of aflatoxin-contaminated crops.

    PubMed

    Womack, Erika D; Brown, Ashli E; Sparks, Darrell L

    2014-07-01

    Aflatoxins are highly toxic, mutagenic, teratogenic and carcinogenic compounds produced predominantly as secondary metabolites by certain species of fungi belonging to the Aspergillus genus. Owing to the significant health risks and economic impacts associated with the presence of aflatoxins in agricultural commodities, a considerable amount of research has been directed at finding methods to prevent toxicity. This review compiles the recent literature of methods for the detoxification and management of aflatoxin in post-harvest agricultural crops using non-biological remediation.

  8. Field accumulation of aflatoxin in cottonseed as influenced by irrigation termination dates and pink bollworm infestation.

    PubMed Central

    Russell, T E; Watson, T F; Ryan, G F

    1976-01-01

    Aflatoxin accumulation in Deltapine 16 cottonseed, grown in Yuma, Ariz., in a 3-year study, was significantly influenced by the timing of irrigation terminations and by level of pink bollworm infestations. In 1971 and 1972, termination of irrigations by early August resulted in significantly less aflatoxin than in plots where two additional irrigations were applied. Significantly less aflatoxin also was found in the 1971 and 1973 plots where low levels of pink bollworm infestations were maintained. PMID:818957

  9. Quadrupole decay strength of the M1 scissors mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, T.; Beller, J.; Derya, V.; Gayer, U.; Isaak, J.; Löher, B.; Mertes, L.; Pietralla, N.; Ries, P.; Romig, C.; Savran, D.; Scheck, M.; Tornow, W.; Weller, H. R.; Werner, V.; Zweidinger, M.

    2015-10-01

    The E2/M1 multipole mixing ratio δ1→2 of the 1sc +→21+ transition of Gd was determined using results from high-statistics photon scattering. This provides a possibility for a new approach on the search of Jsc + members of the rotational band built on the scissors mode. By application of Alaga's rule, which is justifiable as 156Gd is a well-deformed rotor with good K quantum number, a transition strength of B (E 2 ;2sc +→01+)=0.034 (13 ) W.u. is estimated.

  10. Effects of ammoniation on the 'carry-over' of aflatoxins into bovine milk.

    PubMed

    Fremy, J M; Gautier, J P; Herry, M P; Terrier, C; Calet, C

    1988-01-01

    Two experiments were performed using lactating cows fed various treated and non-treated commodities from AFB1 contaminated peanut cakes. Treatment with ammonia gas by an autoclaving process was used for detoxification. Two methods were used for AFM1 determination in every milk sample: a TLC procedure recognized by AOAC and IDF and an HPLC method with a detection limit of 0.100 and 0.010 microgram/l, respectively. In a first experiment, lactating cows were fed treated and untreated meals during periods separated by uncontaminated soya meals phases. The total excreted AFM1 was 2.6% of the total ingested AFB1 from untreated feed contaminated at 1100 micrograms/kg. During periods receiving treated meals in the diet, AFM1 contents in milk were below 0.1 microgram/l. However, by using AFM1 data obtained using the HPLC method, an AFM1/AFB1 ratio of 4.6% was found from treated feed contaminated at 40 micrograms AFB1/kg. In a second experiment, a herd of 50 lactating cows was used for a long term (16 months) feeding of mixed commodities containing 30% ammoniated peanut cakes. AFB1 residues in the treated diet were below 10 micrograms/kg, the EEC action level, and no AFM1 residue was found up to 0.1 microgram/l in collected milk throughout this experiment.

  11. Aflatoxin contamination in foods and foodstuffs in Tokyo: 1986-1990.

    PubMed

    Tabata, S; Kamimura, H; Ibe, A; Hashimoto, H; Iida, M; Tamura, Y; Nishima, T

    1993-01-01

    Aflatoxins were determined in 3054 samples of foods or foodstuffs, including cereals, nuts, beans, spices, dairy products, dry fruits, and edible oil. Samples were collected in Tokyo from 1986 to 1990. Aflatoxins were found in rice products, adlay, corn, crude sugar, peanut products, pistachio nuts, brazil nuts, sesame products, butter beans, white pepper, red pepper, paprika, nutmeg, and mixed spices. The highest incidence of aflatoxin contamination was observed in nutmeg (80%), and the highest level of aflatoxin B1 was observed in pistachio nuts (1382 ppb). PMID:8448440

  12. Correlation between aflatoxin contamination and various USDA grade categories of shelled almonds.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, Thomas B; Slate, Andy; Birmingham, Tim; Adams, Julie; Jacobs, Merle; Gray, Gary

    2010-01-01

    The California almond industry is interested in determining if there is a correlation between aflatoxin contamination and almonds classified into various U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) grades. A 12 000 g sample was taken from each of 50 lots of shelled almonds. The almonds in each sample were then partitioned into five USDA grades: high quality (HQ), insect damage (ID), mold damage (MOD), mechanical damage (MED), and other defects (OD). Across all 50 samples, kernels in the HQ grade accounted for 83.7% of the kernel mass and 3.2% of the aflatoxin mass. Conversely, kernels in the remaining four damage grades (ID, MOD, MED, and OD) accounted for 16.3% of the kernel mass and 96.8% of the aflatoxin mass. ID kernels had the highest risk for aflatoxin contamination. Almonds in the ID grade accounted for 76.3% of the total aflatoxin mass and 7.2% of the kernel mass. Regression equations were developed to predict the aflatoxin concentration in each 12 000 g sample by measuring the aflatoxin mass in one or more of the four damage grades. Regression equations demonstrated that aflatoxin mass only in the insect damaged kernels was also an effective way to predict the aflatoxin concentration in each 12 000 g sample.

  13. Substrate suitability of different genotypes of sorghum in relation to Aspergillus infection and aflatoxin production.

    PubMed

    Ratnavathi, C V; Sashidhar, R B

    2003-05-21

    Grain sorghum is often damaged by rain in the field and severely infected by grain mold, which includes Aspergillus infection and aflatoxin production. The objective of the study is to investigate the extent of aflatoxin production with Aspergillus infection in vitro in different sorghum genotypes with different pericarps, red, yellow, and white, the physical and chemical characteristics of grain during infection, and the changes in grain polyphenols and phytic acid in comparison to maize and groundnut. The physical characters and biochemical composition of sorghum grain contribute to make it less susceptible to Aspergillus infection and aflatoxin contamination compared to maize and groundnut. The lowest amounts of aflatoxin and ergosterol were observed in genotypes with red pericarp, whereas higher amounts of aflatoxin and ergosterol were found in white genotypes followed by maize and groundnut. All of the red genotypes differ in polyphenol composition and aflatoxin produced, showing resistance to mold damage. Another indication of resistance in red genotypes was the delayed peaking of aflatoxin production (9 days after infection). In red sorghum genotypes there was a significant, positive correlation existing between polyphenol content and aflatoxin produced at 3 and 6 days after infection, the r values being 0.589 and 0.513, respectively. The starch content decreased whereas the protein content in all sorghum genotypes increased during infection. Maximum phytic acid was observed in white sorghum genotypes. Phytic acid in yellow genotypes was found to have a significant negative correlation (r = -0.569) with aflatoxin produced.

  14. Effect of aluminosilicates and bentonite on aflatoxin-induced developmental toxicity in rat.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Wahhab, M A; Nada, S A; Amra, H A

    1999-01-01

    Numerous studies have established that aflatoxin is a potent developmental toxin in animals. Previous research has demonstrated that a phyllosilicate clay, hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (HSCAS or Novasil), tightly binds and immobilizes aflatoxins in the gastrointestinal tract of animals and markedly reduces the bioavailability and toxicity of aflatoxin. Our objective in this study was to utilize the pregnant rat as an in vivo model to compare the potential of HSCAS and bentonite to prevent the developmental toxicity of aflatoxin. Aluminosilicates (HSCAS) and bentonite were added to the diet at a level of 0.5% (w/w) and fed to the pregnant rat throughout pregnancy (i.e. days 0-20). Test animals were fed an aflatoxin-contaminated diet (2.5 mg kg(-1) diet) with or without sorbents during gestation days 6-15. Evaluations of toxicity were performed on day 20. These included maternal (mortality, body weights, feed intake and litter weights), developmental (embryonic resorptions and fetal body weights) and biochemical (ALT, AST and AP) evaluations. Sorbents alone were not toxic and aflatoxin alone resulted in significant maternal and developmental toxicity. Animals treated with phyllosilicate (plus aflatoxin) were comparable to controls following evaluations for resorptions, live fetuses and fetal body weights, as well as biochemical parameters. While bentonite plus aflatoxin resulted in significant reduction in fetal body weight, none of the fetuses from HSCAS or bentonite plus aflatoxin-treated groups had any gross, internal soft tissue or major skeletal malformations.

  15. Degeneration of aflatoxin gene clusters in Aspergillus flavus from Africa and North America.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Bishwo N; Bandyopadhyay, Ranajit; Cotty, Peter J

    2016-12-01

    Aspergillus flavus is the most common causal agent of aflatoxin contamination of food and feed. However, aflatoxin-producing potential varies widely among A. flavus genotypes with many producing no aflatoxins. Some non-aflatoxigenic genotypes are used as biocontrol agents to prevent contamination. Aflatoxin biosynthesis genes are tightly clustered in a highly conserved order. Gene deletions and presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in aflatoxin biosynthesis genes are often associated with A. flavus inability to produce aflatoxins. In order to identify mechanisms of non-aflatoxigenicity in non-aflatoxigenic genotypes of value in aflatoxin biocontrol, complete cluster sequences of 35 A. flavus genotypes from Africa and North America were analyzed. Inability of some genotypes to produce aflatoxin resulted from deletion of biosynthesis genes. In other genotypes, non-aflatoxigenicity originated from SNP formation. The process of degeneration differed across the gene cluster; genes involved in early biosynthesis stages were more likely to be deleted while genes involved in later stages displayed high frequencies of SNPs. Comparative analyses of aflatoxin gene clusters provides insight into the diversity of mechanisms of non-aflatoxigenicity in A. flavus genotypes used as biological control agents. The sequences provide resources for both diagnosis of non-aflatoxigenicity and monitoring of biocontrol genotypes during biopesticide manufacture and in the environment. PMID:27576895

  16. A quantitative method for determination of aflatoxin B in roasted corn.

    PubMed

    Shannon, G M; Shotwell, O L

    1975-07-01

    Roasting aflatoxin-contaminated corn will reduce toxin levels. A quantitative analysis for aflatoxin in roasted corn has been developed by modifying a cleanup technique for green coffee extracts approved as official first action by the AOAC. A chloroform extract is partially purified on a Florisil column, and thin layer chromatographic (TLC) plates are developed with methylene chloride-chloroform-isoamyl alcohol-formic acid (81+15+3+1). Recoveries average 101% and the sensitivity limit is 5 ppb aflatoxin B1. A 2-dimensional TLC procedure can also be used to separate the aflatoxins from background interferences. PMID:1150613

  17. Dietary Factors and Hepatoma in Rainbow Trout (Salmo gairdneri). I. Aflatoxins in Vegetable Protein Feedstuffs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sinnhuber, R.O.; Wales, J.H.; Ayers, J.L.; Engebrecht, R.H.; Amend, D.F.

    1968-01-01

    Aflatoxins (toxic metabolites of the mold Aspergillus flavus) were present in a commercial trout ration causing hepatoma in rainbow trout. Cottonseed meal and solvent extracts of cottonseed meal and of rations containing cottonseed meal and peanut meal were found by chemical assay and confirmed by duckling assay to contain aflatoxins. Diets containing these materials and a purified test diet to which aflatoxins had been added produced microscopic tumors in 6 months and gross lesions of hepatocarcinoma in 9 months. Similar diets without aflatoxin were negative.

  18. Automated Aflatoxin Analysis Using Inline Reusable Immunoaffinity Column Cleanup and LC-Fluorescence Detection.

    PubMed

    Rhemrev, Ria; Pazdanska, Monika; Marley, Elaine; Biselli, Scarlett; Staiger, Simone

    2015-01-01

    A novel reusable immunoaffinity cartridge containing monoclonal antibodies to aflatoxins coupled to a pressure resistant polymer has been developed. The cartridge is used in conjunction with a handling system inline to LC with fluorescence detection to provide fully automated aflatoxin analysis for routine monitoring of a variety of food matrixes. The handling system selects an immunoaffinity cartridge from a tray and automatically applies the sample extract. The cartridge is washed, then aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 are eluted and transferred inline to the LC system for quantitative analysis using fluorescence detection with postcolumn derivatization using a KOBRA® cell. Each immunoaffinity cartridge can be used up to 15 times without loss in performance, offering increased sample throughput and reduced costs compared to conventional manual sample preparation and cleanup. The system was validated in two independent laboratories using samples of peanuts and maize spiked at 2, 8, and 40 μg/kg total aflatoxins, and paprika, nutmeg, and dried figs spiked at 5, 20, and 100 μg/kg total aflatoxins. Recoveries exceeded 80% for both aflatoxin B1 and total aflatoxins. The between-day repeatability ranged from 2.1 to 9.6% for aflatoxin B1 for the six levels and five matrixes. Satisfactory Z-scores were obtained with this automated system when used for participation in proficiency testing (FAPAS®) for samples of chilli powder and hazelnut paste containing aflatoxins. PMID:26651571

  19. Aspergillus flavus diversity on crops and in the environment can be exploited to reduce aflatoxin exposure and improve health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Humans and animals are exposed to aflatoxins, toxic carcinogenic fungal metabolites, through consumption of contaminated food and feed. Aspergillus flavus, the primary causal agent of crop aflatoxin contamination, is composed of phenotypically and genotypically diverse vegetative compatibility group...

  20. Screening method for the detection of aflatoxins in mixed feeds and other agricultural commodities with subsequent confirmation and quantitative measurement of aflatoxins in positive samples.

    PubMed

    Romer, T R

    1975-05-01

    The method described will detect total aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1, and G2) in mixed feeds, grains nuts, and fruit products in samples containing as little as 5-15 mug/kg. In addition, the presence of aflatoxins in the positive samples can be confirmed and the toxins can be quantitatively measured, using the same extract as that used for the screening method. In the screening method, aflatoxins are extracted with acetone-water (85+15), and interferences are removed by adding cupric carbonate and ferric chloride gel. The aflatoxins are extracted from the aqueous phase with chloroform and the chloroform extract is washed with a basic aqueous solution. A Velasco-type minicolumn is used to further purify the extract and capture the aflatoxins in a tight band. The screening method has been successfully applied to 24 different agricultural commodities. Quantitative thin layer chromatography was also performed with extracts of each of these commodities. An average recovery of 94% B1, 108% B2, 130% G1, and 103% G2 was obtained compared to the official final action AOAC method for cottonseed products, 26.048-26.056. Within-laboratory coefficients of variation of 10-15% were obtained for each of the aflatoxins and total aflatoxins in a sample of peanut meal naturally contaminated with 11 mug B1+3 mug B2+11 mug G1+5 mug G2/kg.

  1. Effects of Bacillus subtilis ANSB060 on growth performance, meat quality and aflatoxin residues in broilers fed moldy peanut meal naturally contaminated with aflatoxins.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yu; Zhao, Lihong; Ma, Qiugang; Li, Xiaoying; Shi, Huiqin; Zhou, Ting; Zhang, Jianyun; Ji, Cheng

    2013-09-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the toxic effects of aflatoxins and the efficacy of Bacillus subtilis ANSB060 for the amelioration of aflatoxicosis in broiler chickens. Six replicates of ten broilers each were assigned to one of seven dietary treatments, which were labeled C0 (basal diet); M0 (basal diet containing moldy peanut meal); C500 and C1000 (C0+500 or 1000 g/t aflatoxin biodegradation preparations, composed mainly of ANSB060); and M500, M1000 and M2000 (M0+500, 1000 or 2000 g/t aflatoxin biodegradation preparations). The concentrations of aflatoxin B₁, B₂, G₁ and G₂ in the moldy diets (M0, M500, M100 and M2000) fluctuated around 70.7±1.3, 11.0±1.5, 6.5±0.8 and 2.0±0.3 μg/kg, respectively. The results showed that the M0 diet caused a significant decrease in average daily weight gain and increased feed requirements, with a gain ratio increasing from d 8 to 42, deterioration in meat quality and aflatoxin residues in broilers' livers as compared with the C0 diet. The addition of ANSB060 to the aflatoxin-contaminated diets offset these negative effects, leading to the conclusion that ANSB060 has a protective effect on growth performance and meat quality while reducing the amount of aflatoxin residues in the livers of broilers fed naturally moldy peanut meal.

  2. Reduction of Aflatoxins in Apricot Kernels by Electronic and Manual Color Sorting.

    PubMed

    Zivoli, Rosanna; Gambacorta, Lucia; Piemontese, Luca; Solfrizzo, Michele

    2016-01-19

    The efficacy of color sorting on reducing aflatoxin levels in shelled apricot kernels was assessed. Naturally-contaminated kernels were submitted to an electronic optical sorter or blanched, peeled, and manually sorted to visually identify and sort discolored kernels (dark and spotted) from healthy ones. The samples obtained from the two sorting approaches were ground, homogenized, and analysed by HPLC-FLD for their aflatoxin content. A mass balance approach was used to measure the distribution of aflatoxins in the collected fractions. Aflatoxin B₁ and B₂ were identified and quantitated in all collected fractions at levels ranging from 1.7 to 22,451.5 µg/kg of AFB₁ + AFB₂, whereas AFG₁ and AFG₂ were not detected. Excellent results were obtained by manual sorting of peeled kernels since the removal of discolored kernels (2.6%-19.9% of total peeled kernels) removed 97.3%-99.5% of total aflatoxins. The combination of peeling and visual/manual separation of discolored kernels is a feasible strategy to remove 97%-99% of aflatoxins accumulated in naturally-contaminated samples. Electronic optical sorter gave highly variable results since the amount of AFB₁ + AFB₂ measured in rejected fractions (15%-18% of total kernels) ranged from 13% to 59% of total aflatoxins. An improved immunoaffinity-based HPLC-FLD method having low limits of detection for the four aflatoxins (0.01-0.05 µg/kg) was developed and used to monitor the occurrence of aflatoxins in 47 commercial products containing apricot kernels and/or almonds commercialized in Italy. Low aflatoxin levels were found in 38% of the tested samples and ranged from 0.06 to 1.50 μg/kg for AFB₁ and from 0.06 to 1.79 μg/kg for total aflatoxins.

  3. Human aflatoxin exposure in Kenya, 2007: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Yard, Ellen E; Daniel, Johnni H; Lewis, Lauren S; Rybak, Michael E; Paliakov, Ekaterina M; Kim, Andrea A; Montgomery, Joel M; Bunnell, Rebecca; Abudo, Mamo Umuro; Akhwale, Willis; Breiman, Robert F; Sharif, Shahnaaz K

    2013-01-01

    Aflatoxins contaminate approximately 25% of agricultural products worldwide. They can cause liver failure and liver cancer. Kenya has experienced multiple aflatoxicosis outbreaks in recent years, often resulting in fatalities. However, the full extent of aflatoxin exposure in Kenya has been unknown. Our objective was to quantify aflatoxin exposure across Kenya. We analysed aflatoxin levels in serum specimens from the 2007 Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey - a nationally representative, cross-sectional serosurvey. KAIS collected 15,853 blood specimens. Of the 3180 human immunodeficiency virus-negative specimens with ≥1 mL sera, we randomly selected 600 specimens stratified by province and sex. We analysed serum specimens for aflatoxin albumin adducts by using isotope dilution MS/MS to quantify aflatoxin B1-lysine, and normalised with serum albumin. Aflatoxin concentrations were then compared by demographic, socioeconomic and geographic characteristics. We detected serum aflatoxin B1-lysine in 78% of serum specimens (range = Aflatoxin exposure did not vary by sex, age group, marital status, religion or socioeconomic characteristics. Aflatoxin exposure varied by province (p < 0.05); it was highest in Eastern (median = 7.87 pg/mg albumin) and Coast (median = 3.70 pg/mg albumin) provinces and lowest in Nyanza (median = aflatoxin exposure is a public health problem throughout Kenya, and it could be substantially impacting human health. Wide-scale, evidence-based interventions are urgently needed to decrease exposure and subsequent health effects.

  4. Reduction of Aflatoxins in Apricot Kernels by Electronic and Manual Color Sorting

    PubMed Central

    Zivoli, Rosanna; Gambacorta, Lucia; Piemontese, Luca; Solfrizzo, Michele

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy of color sorting on reducing aflatoxin levels in shelled apricot kernels was assessed. Naturally-contaminated kernels were submitted to an electronic optical sorter or blanched, peeled, and manually sorted to visually identify and sort discolored kernels (dark and spotted) from healthy ones. The samples obtained from the two sorting approaches were ground, homogenized, and analysed by HPLC-FLD for their aflatoxin content. A mass balance approach was used to measure the distribution of aflatoxins in the collected fractions. Aflatoxin B1 and B2 were identified and quantitated in all collected fractions at levels ranging from 1.7 to 22,451.5 µg/kg of AFB1 + AFB2, whereas AFG1 and AFG2 were not detected. Excellent results were obtained by manual sorting of peeled kernels since the removal of discolored kernels (2.6%–19.9% of total peeled kernels) removed 97.3%–99.5% of total aflatoxins. The combination of peeling and visual/manual separation of discolored kernels is a feasible strategy to remove 97%–99% of aflatoxins accumulated in naturally-contaminated samples. Electronic optical sorter gave highly variable results since the amount of AFB1 + AFB2 measured in rejected fractions (15%–18% of total kernels) ranged from 13% to 59% of total aflatoxins. An improved immunoaffinity-based HPLC-FLD method having low limits of detection for the four aflatoxins (0.01–0.05 µg/kg) was developed and used to monitor the occurrence of aflatoxins in 47 commercial products containing apricot kernels and/or almonds commercialized in Italy. Low aflatoxin levels were found in 38% of the tested samples and ranged from 0.06 to 1.50 μg/kg for AFB1 and from 0.06 to 1.79 μg/kg for total aflatoxins. PMID:26797635

  5. Determination of aflatoxin risk components for in-shell Brazil nuts.

    PubMed

    Vargas, E A; dos Santos, E A; Whitaker, T B; Slate, A B

    2011-09-01

    A study was conducted on the risk from aflatoxins associated with the kernels and shells of Brazil nuts. Samples were collected from processing plants in Amazonia, Brazil. A total of 54 test samples (40 kg) were taken from 13 in-shell Brazil nut lots ready for market. Each in-shell sample was shelled and the kernels and shells were sorted in five fractions: good kernels, rotten kernels, good shells with kernel residue, good shells without kernel residue, and rotten shells, and analysed for aflatoxins. The kernel:shell ratio mass (w/w) was 50.2/49.8%. The Brazil nut shell was found to be contaminated with aflatoxin. Rotten nuts were found to be a high-risk fraction for aflatoxin in in-shell Brazil nut lots. Rotten nuts contributed only 4.2% of the sample mass (kg), but contributed 76.6% of the total aflatoxin mass (µg) in the in-shell test sample. The highest correlations were found between the aflatoxin concentration in in-shell Brazil nuts samples and the aflatoxin concentration in all defective fractions (R(2)=0.97). The aflatoxin mass of all defective fractions (R(2)=0.90) as well as that of the rotten nut (R(2)=0.88) were also strongly correlated with the aflatoxin concentration of the in-shell test samples. Process factors of 0.17, 0.16 and 0.24 were respectively calculated to estimate the aflatoxin concentration in the good kernels (edible) and good nuts by measuring the aflatoxin concentration in the in-shell test sample and in all kernels, respectively.

  6. Reduction of Aflatoxins in Apricot Kernels by Electronic and Manual Color Sorting.

    PubMed

    Zivoli, Rosanna; Gambacorta, Lucia; Piemontese, Luca; Solfrizzo, Michele

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy of color sorting on reducing aflatoxin levels in shelled apricot kernels was assessed. Naturally-contaminated kernels were submitted to an electronic optical sorter or blanched, peeled, and manually sorted to visually identify and sort discolored kernels (dark and spotted) from healthy ones. The samples obtained from the two sorting approaches were ground, homogenized, and analysed by HPLC-FLD for their aflatoxin content. A mass balance approach was used to measure the distribution of aflatoxins in the collected fractions. Aflatoxin B₁ and B₂ were identified and quantitated in all collected fractions at levels ranging from 1.7 to 22,451.5 µg/kg of AFB₁ + AFB₂, whereas AFG₁ and AFG₂ were not detected. Excellent results were obtained by manual sorting of peeled kernels since the removal of discolored kernels (2.6%-19.9% of total peeled kernels) removed 97.3%-99.5% of total aflatoxins. The combination of peeling and visual/manual separation of discolored kernels is a feasible strategy to remove 97%-99% of aflatoxins accumulated in naturally-contaminated samples. Electronic optical sorter gave highly variable results since the amount of AFB₁ + AFB₂ measured in rejected fractions (15%-18% of total kernels) ranged from 13% to 59% of total aflatoxins. An improved immunoaffinity-based HPLC-FLD method having low limits of detection for the four aflatoxins (0.01-0.05 µg/kg) was developed and used to monitor the occurrence of aflatoxins in 47 commercial products containing apricot kernels and/or almonds commercialized in Italy. Low aflatoxin levels were found in 38% of the tested samples and ranged from 0.06 to 1.50 μg/kg for AFB₁ and from 0.06 to 1.79 μg/kg for total aflatoxins. PMID:26797635

  7. Fungal Biodeterioration, Aflatoxin Contamination, and Nutrient Value of “Suya Spices”

    PubMed Central

    Jonathan, Segun Gbolagade; Adeniyi, Mary Adejoke; Asemoloye, Michael Dare

    2016-01-01

    This work aimed to analyze the nutrient values, examine the biodeteriorating fungi biota, and analyze the mycotoxin contents of “Suya spices.” Fungi with highest percentage occurrence on all the samples are Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus, Aspergillus ochraceus, Fusarium sp., Rhizopus stolonifer, yeast, and Trichoderma koningii. Nutrient composition of the samples is significantly different statistically (P < 0.05) with high protein (9.53% to 13.17%), fiber (9.27 to 13.17%), carbohydrate (46.27% to 50.90%), and ash (8.47% to 9.70%) contents but low moisture (9.03% to 9.47%) and fat (9.77% to 13.53%) contents. Aflatoxin analysis of the samples revealed that they all contain aflatoxin in varying amount but no detectible aflatoxin content in the control. 59.54% of the detected aflatoxin is aflatoxin B1 with highest recorded in Agbowo, Mokola, and Sango samples (i.e., 28.03, 22.44, and 13.8 μg/kg, resp.). 4.78% of the aflatoxin is aflatoxin B2 which is only found in Sango and Mokola samples (3.59 and 2.6 μg/kg, resp.). 32.76% of aflatoxin is aflatoxin G1 with the highest found in Agbowo and Mokola samples (i.e., 18.63 and 10.41 μg/kg, resp.). 2.93% of the aflatoxin is aflatoxin G2 which is only detected in Sango and Agbowo samples (i.e., 1.19 and 2.65 μg/kg, resp.). PMID:27092289

  8. Diversity of aflatoxin-producing fungi and their impact on food safety in sub-Saharan Africa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crops frequently contaminated by aflatoxins are important sources of revenue and daily nourishment in many portions of sub-Saharan Africa. In recent years, reports have associated aflatoxins with diminished human health and export opportunities in many African Nations. Aflatoxins are highly carcinog...

  9. Sampling hazelnuts for aflatoxin: Effects of sample size and accetp/reject limit on reducing risk of misclassifying lots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    About 100 countries have established regulatory limits for aflatoxin in food and feeds. Because these limits vary widely among regulating countries, the Codex Committee on Food Additives and Contaminants (CCFAC) began work in 2004 to harmonize aflatoxin limits and sampling plans for aflatoxin in alm...

  10. Effects of a Calcium Bentonite Clay in Diets Containing Aflatoxin when Measuring Liver Residues of Aflatoxin B1 in Starter Broiler Chicks

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, Justin; Li, Wei; Bailey, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown success using clay-based binders to adsorb aflatoxin in animal feeds; however, no adsorbent has been approved for the prevention or treatment of aflatoxicosis. In this study, growth and relative organ weights were evaluated along with a residue analysis for aflatoxin B1 in liver tissue collected from broiler chickens consuming dietary aflatoxin (0, 600, 1200, and 1800 µg/kg) both with and without 0.2% of a calcium bentonite clay additive (TX4). After one week, only the combined measure of a broiler productivity index was significantly affected by 1800 µg/kg aflatoxin. However, once birds had consumed treatment diets for two weeks, body weights and relative kidney weights were affected by the lowest concentration. Then, during the third week, body weights, feed conversion, and the productivity index were affected by the 600 µg/kg level. Results also showed that 0.2% TX4 was effective at reducing the accumulation of aflatoxin B1 residues in the liver and improving livability in birds fed aflatoxin. The time required to clear all residues from the liver was less than one week. With evidence that the liver’s ability to process aflatoxin becomes relatively efficient within three weeks, this would imply that an alternative strategy for handling aflatoxin contamination in feed could be to allow a short, punctuated exposure to a higher level, so long as that exposure is followed by at least a week of a withdrawal period on a clean diet free of aflatoxin. PMID:26343723

  11. QuickTox™ Kit for QuickScan Aflatoxin FREE.

    PubMed

    Polakowski, Sergiusz; Roberts, Russell W; Tanguay, Keith; Bailey, Cheryl; Davis, Alan H; Gow, Brendan

    2015-01-01

    The QuickTox Kit for QuickScan Aflatoxin FREE uses competitive lateral flow technology and a reader based system for quantitative determination of total aflatoxins in varied matrixes. Aqueous based extraction protocols are used for corn and wheat, reducing use of solvents. Fifty percent ethanol (Reagent Alcohol) extraction is used for oats, sorghum, and barley. Eighty percent ethanol (Reagent Alcohol) extraction is used for whole peanut, peanut seed, and peanut hull samples. Matrix specific assay procedures and calibration curves are used to enable analyses across multiple sample types. The performance of this assay was examined using naturally contaminated aflatoxin corn samples and spiked samples of barley, oats, sorghum, wheat, whole peanut, peanut seed, and peanut hull samples. All data were judged against previously established acceptance criteria. Performance was evaluated in linearity, selectivity, matrix, lot consistency, and robustness experiments in the sponsor's laboratory. Results produced in all studies except robustness were within acceptable ranges. Out of range robustness study results reflected simultaneous deviation in sample volume and assay development time compared to the standard assay procedures. Aflatoxin B1, B2, and G1 were detected with approximately equal sensitivity; sensitivity for G2 was 64% that of B1. The presence of other common mycotoxins did not interfere with the assay. Matrix studies in an independent laboratory examined corn and barley to challenge both aqueous and ethanol based extraction procedures. All data points in these studies fell within the ranges defined in the acceptance criteria. The assay exhibited a linear dose response over the range tested, 0-100 ppb, with R(2) values exceeding 0.93 and RSDr values for results ranging from 2.27 to 23.84%. PMID:26651570

  12. Aflatoxin regulations in a network of global maize trade.

    PubMed

    Wu, Felicia; Guclu, Hasan

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide, food supplies often contain unavoidable contaminants, many of which adversely affect health and hence are subject to regulations of maximum tolerable levels in food. These regulations differ from nation to nation, and may affect patterns of food trade. We soughtto determine whether there is an association between nations' food safety regulations and global food trade patterns, with implications for public health and policymaking. We developed a network model of maize trade around the world. From maize import/export data for 217 nations from 2000-2009, we calculated basic statistics on volumes of trade; then examined how regulations of aflatoxin, a common contaminant of maize, are similar or different between pairs of nations engaging in significant amounts of maize trade. Globally, market segregation appears to occur among clusters of nations. The United States is at the center of one cluster; European countries make up another cluster with hardly any maize trade with the US; and Argentina, Brazil, and China export maize all over the world. Pairs of nations trading large amounts of maize have very similar aflatoxin regulations: nations with strict standards tend to trade maize with each other, while nations with more relaxed standards tend to trade maize with each other. Rarely among the top pairs of maize-trading nations do total aflatoxin standards (standards based on the sum of the levels of aflatoxins B(1), B(2), G(1), and G(2)) differ by more than 5 µg/kg. These results suggest that, globally, separate maize trading communities emerge; and nations tend to trade with other nations that have very similar food safety standards.

  13. Occurrence of aflatoxins in milk thistle herbal supplements.

    PubMed

    Tournas, V H; Sapp, C; Trucksess, M W

    2012-01-01

    Milk thistle (MT) dietary supplements are widely consumed due to their possible liver-health-promoting properties. As botanicals they can be contaminated with a variety of fungi and their secondary metabolites, mycotoxins. The aflatoxigenic fungus Aspergillus flavus has been previously isolated from these commodities. Currently, there is no published method for determining aflatoxins (AFs) in MT. Therefore, a liquid chromatography (LC) method validated for aflatoxin analysis in botanicals was evaluated and applied to MT. The method consisted of acetonitrile/water extraction, immunoaffinity column clean-up, LC separation, post-column photochemical reaction derivatisation and fluorescence detection. The average recoveries for AFs added to MT seeds, herb, oil-based liquid extract and alcohol-based liquid extract were 76% or higher. The mean relative standard deviation was <10%. The limit of detection (LOD) was 0.01 µg kg(-1) and the limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.03 µg kg(-1). The method was used to conduct a small survey. A total of 83 MT samples from the US market were analysed. AFs were detected in 19% of the samples with levels ranging from 0.04 to 2.0 µg kg(-1). Additionally, an aflatoxigenic A. flavus strain from ATTC and an A. parasiticus strain isolated from MT herb powder were found to produce high amounts of aflatoxins (11,200 and 49,100 µg kg(-1), respectively) when cultured in MT seed powder. This is the first study reporting on aflatoxin contamination of MT botanical supplements and identifying methodology for AF analysis of these commodities.

  14. Cancer risk and occupational exposure to aflatoxins in Denmark.

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, J. H.; Dragsted, L.; Autrup, H.

    1988-01-01

    A study of cancer risk among male employees at 241 livestock feed processing companies in Denmark was conducted on the basis of a data linkage system for detailed investigation of occupational cancer providing employment histories back until 1964, established at the Danish Cancer Registry. Crops imported for feed production have often been contaminated with highly variable concentrations of aflatoxins; an estimated average concentration of at least 140 micrograms aflatoxin B1 kg-1 prepared mixed cattle feed prevailed in the past, yielding a daily intake for workers via the respiratory route of approximately 170 ng. Risk was established on the basis of cancer cases among male workers, whose employment in one of the companies was the job they had held for the longest time since 1964. Elevated risks for liver cancer and for cancers of the biliary tract were observed, which increased by two- to three-fold significance after a 10-year latency. Exposure to aflatoxins in the imported crops was judged to be the most probable explanation for these findings, although the influence of lifestyle factors, e.g. alcohol consumption on the results cannot be fully disregarded. Increased risks for salivary gland tumours and multiple myeloma were also detected. However, due to multiple comparisons carried out in this study these new associations must await further confirmation. A decreased risk for lung cancer was observed; despite possible negative confounding due to the smoking habits of the employees, the lung does not seem to be a target organ for the carcinogenic effect of inhaled aflatoxins in humans. PMID:3179193

  15. Hepatocellular carcinoma and dietary aflatoxin in Mozambique and Transkei.

    PubMed Central

    Van Rensburg, S. J.; Cook-Mozaffari, P.; Van Schalkwyk, D. J.; Van der Watt, J. J.; Vincent, T. J.; Purchase, I. F.

    1985-01-01

    Estimations of the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) for the period 1968-74 in the Province of Inhambane, Mozambique, have been calculated and together with rates observed in South Africa among mineworkers from the same Province indicate very high levels of incidence in certain districts of Inhambane. Exceptionally high incidence levels in adolescents and young adults are not sustained at older ages and suggest the existence of a subgroup of highly susceptible individuals. A sharp decline in incidence occurred during the period of study. Concurrently with the studies of incidence, 2183 samples of prepared food were randomly collected from 6 districts of Inhambane as well as from Manhica-Magude, a region of lower HCC incidence to the south. A further 623 samples were taken during 1976-77 in Transkei, much further south, where an even lower incidence had been recorded. The mean aflatoxin dietary intake values for the regions studied were significantly related to HCC rates. Furthermore, data on aflatoxin B1 contamination of prepared food from 5 different countries showed overall a highly significant relationship with crude HCC rates. In view of the evidence that chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection may be a prerequisite for the development of virtually all cases of HCC and given the merely moderate prevalence of carrier status that has been observed in some high incidence regions, it is likely that an interaction between HBV and aflatoxin is responsible for the exceptionally high rates evident in parts of Africa and Asia. Various indications from Mozambique suggest that aflatoxin may have a late stage effect on the development of HCC. This points to avenues for intervention that could be more rapidly implemented than with vaccination alone. PMID:2986667

  16. Aflatoxin regulations in a network of global maize trade.

    PubMed

    Wu, Felicia; Guclu, Hasan

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide, food supplies often contain unavoidable contaminants, many of which adversely affect health and hence are subject to regulations of maximum tolerable levels in food. These regulations differ from nation to nation, and may affect patterns of food trade. We soughtto determine whether there is an association between nations' food safety regulations and global food trade patterns, with implications for public health and policymaking. We developed a network model of maize trade around the world. From maize import/export data for 217 nations from 2000-2009, we calculated basic statistics on volumes of trade; then examined how regulations of aflatoxin, a common contaminant of maize, are similar or different between pairs of nations engaging in significant amounts of maize trade. Globally, market segregation appears to occur among clusters of nations. The United States is at the center of one cluster; European countries make up another cluster with hardly any maize trade with the US; and Argentina, Brazil, and China export maize all over the world. Pairs of nations trading large amounts of maize have very similar aflatoxin regulations: nations with strict standards tend to trade maize with each other, while nations with more relaxed standards tend to trade maize with each other. Rarely among the top pairs of maize-trading nations do total aflatoxin standards (standards based on the sum of the levels of aflatoxins B(1), B(2), G(1), and G(2)) differ by more than 5 µg/kg. These results suggest that, globally, separate maize trading communities emerge; and nations tend to trade with other nations that have very similar food safety standards. PMID:23049773

  17. Aflatoxin Regulations in a Network of Global Maize Trade

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Felicia; Guclu, Hasan

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide, food supplies often contain unavoidable contaminants, many of which adversely affect health and hence are subject to regulations of maximum tolerable levels in food. These regulations differ from nation to nation, and may affect patterns of food trade. We soughtto determine whether there is an association between nations' food safety regulations and global food trade patterns, with implications for public health and policymaking. We developed a network model of maize trade around the world. From maize import/export data for 217 nations from 2000–2009, we calculated basic statistics on volumes of trade; then examined how regulations of aflatoxin, a common contaminant of maize, are similar or different between pairs of nations engaging in significant amounts of maize trade. Globally, market segregation appears to occur among clusters of nations. The United States is at the center of one cluster; European countries make up another cluster with hardly any maize trade with the US; and Argentina, Brazil, and China export maize all over the world. Pairs of nations trading large amounts of maize have very similar aflatoxin regulations: nations with strict standards tend to trade maize with each other, while nations with more relaxed standards tend to trade maize with each other. Rarely among the top pairs of maize-trading nations do total aflatoxin standards (standards based on the sum of the levels of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2) differ by more than 5 µg/kg. These results suggest that, globally, separate maize trading communities emerge; and nations tend to trade with other nations that have very similar food safety standards. PMID:23049773

  18. Aflatoxins in Rice Artificially Contaminated with Aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus flavus under Natural Storage in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sugihara, Satoshi; Doi, Hiroyuki; Kato, Masahiko; Mitoh, Yoshihiro; Tsuda, Toshihide; Ikeda, Satoru

    2016-06-01

    Aflatoxin (AFT) contamination is frequent in foods grown in tropical regions, including rice. Although AFTs are generally not found in temperate-region foods, global warming has affected typical temperate-region climates, potentially permitting the contamination of foods with AFT-producing Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus). Here we investigated the AFT production in rice during storage under natural climate conditions in Japan. We examined AFTs in brown rice and rough rice artificially contaminated with A. flavus for 1 year in Japan, and we subjected AFTs in white rice to the same treatment in airtight containers and examined the samples in warm and cold seasons, simulating the storage of white rice in general households. In the brown rice, AFTs increased after 2 months (March) and peaked after 9 months (October). The AFT contamination in the rough rice was minimal. After the polishing and cooking of the brown rice, AFTs were undetectable. In the white rice stored in airtight containers, AFTs increased after 1 month (August) and peaked after 2 months (September). Minimal AFTs were detected in the cold season. Thus, AFT contamination in rice may occur in temperate regions following A. flavus contamination. The storage of rice as rough rice could provide be useful for avoiding AFT contamination.

  19. Aflatoxin B₁ and aflatoxins in ground red chilli pepper after drying.

    PubMed

    Özkan, Ali; Bindak, Recep; Erkmen, Osman

    2015-01-01

    In this study, 180 red chilli pepper (RCP) berry samples were obtained from two different croplands of Gaziantep and Kahramanmaraş (Turkey) in August, September and October. RCP berry samples were dried under sunlight and grinded. Ground red chilli pepper (GRCP) samples were analysed for aflatoxins (AFs, sum of B1, B2, G1 and G2) and AFB1 contamination. According to the results, in 49 of 180 samples, AFB1 and in 37 samples, AFs were higher than legal limits. The lowest amounts of AFs and AFB1 were obtained in August and the highest amounts in October. χ(2) analysis showed that there were no significant differences (p > 0.05) between cities among 3 months according to number of samples with AFs and AFB1 above legal limits. According to the Duncan multiple-range test, there was no significant difference between all months. Strict measures are necessary to produce high-quality GRCP. RCP berry must be treated to reduce moulds before production of GRCP.

  20. Monolithic molecularly imprinted polymeric capillary columns for isolation of aflatoxins.

    PubMed

    Szumski, Michał; Grzywiński, Damian; Prus, Wojciech; Buszewski, Bogusław

    2014-10-17

    Monolithic molecularly imprinted polymers extraction columns have been prepared in fused-silica capillaries by UV or thermal polymerization in a two-step process. First, a poly-(trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate) (polyTRIM) core monolith was synthesized either by UV or thermal polymerization. Then it was grafted with the mixture of methacrylic acid (MAA) as a functional monomer, ethylene dimethacrylate (EDMA) as a cross-linking agent, 5,7-dimethoxycoumarin (DMC) as an aflatoxin-mimicking template, toluene as a porogen solvent and 2,2-azobis-(2-methylpropionitrile) (AIBN) as an initiator of the polymerization reaction. Different thermal condition of the photografting and different concentrations of the grafting mixture were tested during polymerization. The extraction capillary columns were evaluated in the terms of their hydrodynamic and chromatographic properties. Retention coefficients for aflatoxin B1 and DMC were used for assessment of the selectivity and imprinting factor. The obtained results indicate that the temperature of photografting and concentration of the grafting mixture are key parameters that determine the quality of the prepared MIPs. From the MIP columns characterized by the highest permeability the column of the highest imprinting factor was applied for isolation of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 from the model aqueous sample followed by on-line chromatographic separation. The process was performed using a micro-MISPE-microLC-LIF system of a novel design, which allowed for detection of the eluates from the sample preparation part as well as from the chromatographic separation.

  1. Pulmonary interstitial fibrosis with evidence of aflatoxin B1 in lung tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Dvorackova, I.; Pichova, V.

    1986-01-01

    Three cases of pulmonary interstitial fibrosis, two in agricultural workers and one in a textile worker, are reported. In lung samples of all three patients the presence of aflatoxin B1 was demonstrated by radioimmunoassay (RIA). A possible occupational risk of aflatoxin exposure via the respiratory tract is suggested.

  2. Determination of aflatoxins in raw grain and seeds at ppt levels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A chemical cleanup procedure for low-level quantitative determination of aflatoxins in major economically important agricultural commodities using HPLC has been developed. Samples were extracted and the extracts were purified on a minicolumn packed with Florisil. Aflatoxins were quantified by HPLC w...

  3. A model of interaction: aflatoxins and hepatitis viruses in liver cancer aetiology and prevention.

    PubMed

    Wild, Christopher P; Montesano, Ruggero

    2009-12-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide and has an extremely poor prognosis. The majority of cases occur in south-east Asia and sub-Saharan Africa where the major risk factors are chronic infection with hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV and HCV) as well as dietary exposure to aflatoxins. Aflatoxin B1, the most commonly occurring and potent of the aflatoxins is associated with a specific AGG to AGT transversion mutation at codon 249 of the p53 gene in human HCC, providing mechanistic support to a causal link between exposure and disease. Prospective epidemiological studies have shown a more than multiplicative interaction between HBV and aflatoxins in terms of HCC risk. However, the biology underlying this statistical interaction is not fully understood. There are a number of potential mechanisms including, among others: the fixation of AFB1-induced mutations in the presence of liver regeneration and hyperplasia induced by chronic HBV infection; the predisposition of HBV-infected hepatocytes to aflatoxin-induced DNA damage; an increase in susceptibility to chronic HBV infection in aflatoxin-exposed individuals; and oxidative stress exacerbated by co-exposure to aflatoxins and chronic hepatitis infection. Priorities for prevention are global HBV vaccination, primary and secondary prevention strategies against aflatoxin and the avoidance of transmission of HCV through good hygiene practices.

  4. Combining genomic approaches to understand genetic control of aflatoxin contamination in peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxin contamination in peanut is more prevalent under rainfed conditions making produce unfit for human and animal consumption, affecting the international trade adversely. Although the losses in yield and quality due to aflatoxin contamination is higher than realized, there are limited resistan...

  5. Cowpeas as growth substrate do not support the production of aflatoxin byAspergillus sp.

    PubMed

    Houssou, P A; Schmidt-Heydt, M; Geisen, R; Fandohan, P; Ahohuendo, B C; Hounhouigan, D J; Jakobsen, M

    2008-06-01

    A number of 21Aspergillus sp. strains isolated from cowpeas from Benin (Africa) were characterized by RAPD methodology. Seven of these strains grouped withA. flavus in the dendrogram generated with the RAPD data. Only three were able to produce aflatoxin in significant amounts. Twelve other isolates grouped withA. parasiticus. All of these strains except 3 produced aflatoxin. Two additional strains neither fit with theA. flavus group, nor theA. parasiticus group according to their RAPD pattern. Both did not produce aflatoxin in measurable amounts.Generally the aflatoxin positive strains produced high amounts of aflatoxin after growth on YES medium. However after growth on cowpea based medium aflatoxin biosynthesis was strongly ceased, albeit the growth of the colony was only partly reduced. This was true for media made either with the whole cowpea seed or with cowpea seed without seed coat. Interestingly when the cowpea medium was heat sterilized the fungus was able to produce high amounts of aflatoxin. This, however, was not the case after the use of gamma irradiation as sterilization method for the medium. The expression of thenor- 1 gene, which is one of the early genes involved in aflatoxin biosynthesis, was significantly repressed after growth on gamma irradiated cowpea medium in contrast to YES medium. PMID:23604687

  6. 7 CFR 93.14 - Fees for aflatoxin analysis and fees for testing of other mycotoxins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fees for aflatoxin analysis and fees for testing of other mycotoxins. 93.14 Section 93.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... mycotoxins. (a) The fee charged for any laboratory analysis for aflatoxins and other mycotoxins shall...

  7. Occurrence of aflatoxin in three maize genotypes over five years in northern Mississippi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins are produced as secondary metabolites under conducive climatic conditions by Aspergillus flavus. The incidence of aflatoxin varies with environmental conditions, genotype and location. The objectives are to evaluate three maize genotypes (Pioneer Brand 3223, Mo18W×Mp313E and Mp313E×Mp42...

  8. Atoxigenic Aspergillus flavus endemic to Italy for biocontrol of aflatoxins in maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effective biological control of aflatoxin­producing Aspergillus flavus with atoxigenic members of that species requires suitable A. flavus well adapted to and resident in target agroecosystems. Eighteen atoxigenic isolates of A. flavus endemic in Italy were compared for ability to reduce aflatoxin c...

  9. Maize aflatoxin accumulation segregates with early maturing selections from an S2 breeding cross population.

    PubMed

    Henry, W Brien

    2013-01-01

    Maize breeders continue to seek new sources of aflatoxin resistance, but most lines identified as resistance sources are late maturing. The vast difference in flowering time makes it hard to cross these lines with proprietary commercial lines that mature much earlier and often subjects the reproductive phase of these resistant lines to the hottest and driest portion of the summer, making silking, pollination and grain fill challenging. Two hundred crosses from the GEM Project were screened for aflatoxin accumulation at Mississippi State in 2008, and a subset of these lines were screened again in 2009. The breeding cross UR13085:S99g99u was identified as a potential source of aflatoxin resistance, and maturity-based selections were made from an S2 breeding population from this same germplasm source: UR13085:S99g99u-B-B. The earliest maturing selections performed poorly for aflatoxin accumulation, but later maturing selections were identified with favorable levels of aflatoxin accumulation. These selections, while designated as "late" within this study, matured earlier than most aflatoxin resistant lines presently available to breeders. Two selections from this study, designated S5_L7 and S5_L8, are potential sources of aflatoxin resistance and will be advanced for line development and additional aflatoxin screening over more site years and environments. PMID:23322131

  10. Transport via xylem and accumulation of aflatoxin in seeds of groundnut plant.

    PubMed

    Snigdha, M; Hariprasad, P; Venkateswaran, G

    2015-01-01

    Aflatoxin contamination in groundnut seeds in the absence of any aflatoxigenic fungi leads to a hypothesis that aflatoxins are present naturally in soil and is transferred to seeds through uptake by roots. A survey was conducted on the natural occurrence of aflatoxins in agricultural soils, among nine main groundnut-growing regions of Karnataka state, India. All 71 soil samples collected in this survey were contaminated with aflatoxins esp. AFB1. An in vitro xylem sap experiment proved the ability of groundnut plant roots to absorb AFB1, and transport to aerial plant parts via the xylem. Hydroponics experiment also proved the uptake of AFB1 by the roots and their translocation to shoot. Uptake was affected by the initial concentration of toxin and pH of the medium. Among the 14 varieties screened, GPBD4 and MLT.K.107 (III) recorded highest and least AFB1 uptake, respectively. The above results were validated using a greenhouse experiment. Here, the aflatoxin absorbed by root gradually transferred to shoot that was later found in seeds towards the end of experiment. Thus, the groundnut seeds can also get contaminated with aflatoxin by direct uptake of aflatoxin through conducting tissue in addition to fungal infection. The present study revealed the novel mode of aflatoxin contamination in groundnut seeds without fungal infection.

  11. The potential role of oxidative stress in Aspergillus flavus survivability and aflatoxin biosynthesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxin contamination of food and feed occurs due to growth of Aspergillus flavus. This poses a serious health risk because of aflatoxin’s toxic and carcinogenic properties which negatively impact human and livestock health. Colonization and subsequent aflatoxin production by A. flavus is typicall...

  12. Aflatoxin excretion in children with kwashiorkor or marasmic kwashiorkor--a clinical investigation.

    PubMed

    de Vries, H R; Maxwell, S M; Hendrickse, R G

    1990-04-01

    A group of five children with kwashiorkor, seven with marasmic kwashiorkor and one underweight child were given an aflatoxin-free diet consisting of maize meal and milk powder. Blood specimens were collected on admission; on day 4 and 10, 24 hour urine and stool samples were collected for the first ten days. Serum, urine and stool samples were analysed for aflatoxins using high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescent detection, after various extraction and clean-up procedures. The children with kwashiorkor and marasmic kwashiorkor excreted aflatoxins in stools for up to 9 and 6 days after admission respectively. No aflatoxins were detected in the stools or urine of the underweight child. In kwashiorkor, urinary excretion ceased after 2 days, while in marasmic kwashiorkor urinary excretion persisted for 4 days. In stools, B1 was the type of aflatoxin detected most frequently in kwashiorkor and least frequently in marasmic kwashiorkor. Aflatoxin M2 was frequently detected in the stools of both groups of children. Estimates of the total amount of aflatoxin excreted by kwashiorkor and marasmic kwashiorkor indicate that these children were harbouring up to 4 micrograms/kg body weight at the time of admission. These findings establish that aflatoxins accumulate in body fluids and tissues in kwashiorkor and marasmic kwashiorkor which is only slowly eliminated.

  13. Maize Aflatoxin Accumulation Segregates with Early Maturing Selections from an S2 Breeding Cross Population

    PubMed Central

    Henry, W. Brien

    2013-01-01

    Maize breeders continue to seek new sources of aflatoxin resistance, but most lines identified as resistance sources are late maturing. The vast difference in flowering time makes it hard to cross these lines with proprietary commercial lines that mature much earlier and often subjects the reproductive phase of these resistant lines to the hottest and driest portion of the summer, making silking, pollination and grain fill challenging. Two hundred crosses from the GEM Project were screened for aflatoxin accumulation at Mississippi State in 2008, and a subset of these lines were screened again in 2009. The breeding cross UR13085:S99g99u was identified as a potential source of aflatoxin resistance, and maturity-based selections were made from an S2 breeding population from this same germplasm source: UR13085:S99g99u-B-B. The earliest maturing selections performed poorly for aflatoxin accumulation, but later maturing selections were identified with favorable levels of aflatoxin accumulation. These selections, while designated as “late” within this study, matured earlier than most aflatoxin resistant lines presently available to breeders. Two selections from this study, designated S5_L7 and S5_L8, are potential sources of aflatoxin resistance and will be advanced for line development and additional aflatoxin screening over more site years and environments. PMID:23322131

  14. Sampling Almonds for Aflatoxin, Part II: Estimating Risks Associated with Various Sampling Plans Designs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    About 100 nations have established regulatory limits for aflatoxin in food and feeds. Because these limits vary widely from one country to another, FAO/WHO working through the Codex Committee on Food Additives and Contaminants (CCFAC) has initiated work to harmonize aflatoxin limits and sampling pla...

  15. Assessment of Adoption Gaps in Management of Aflatoxin Contamination of Groundnut ("Arachis Hypogaea" L.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, G. D. S.; Popat, M. N.

    2010-01-01

    One of the major impediments for diversification of groundnut ("Arachis Hypogaea" L.) as food crop is aflatoxin contamination. The study was conducted with an objective to assess the adoption gaps in aflatoxin management practices of groundnut (AMPG) and the farmer's characteristics influencing these gaps. The study used an expost-facto research…

  16. Dothistroma pini, a Forest Pathogen, Contains Homologs of Aflatoxin Biosynthetic Pathway Genes

    PubMed Central

    Bradshaw, Rosie E.; Bhatnagar, Deepak; Ganley, Rebecca J.; Gillman, Carmel J.; Monahan, Brendon J.; Seconi, Janet M.

    2002-01-01

    Homologs of aflatoxin biosynthetic genes have been identified in the pine needle pathogen Dothistroma pini. D. pini produces dothistromin, a difuranoanthraquinone toxin with structural similarity to the aflatoxin precursor versicolorin B. Previous studies with purified dothistromin suggest a possible role for this toxin in pathogenicity. By using an aflatoxin gene as a hybridization probe, a genomic D. pini clone was identified that contained four dot genes with similarity to genes in aflatoxin and sterigmatocystin gene clusters with predicted activities of a ketoreductase (dotA), oxidase (dotB), major facilitator superfamily transporter (dotC), and thioesterase (dotD). A D. pini dotA mutant was made by targeted gene replacement and shown to be severely impaired in dothistromin production, confirming that dotA is involved in dothistromin biosynthesis. Accumulation of versicolorin A (a precursor of aflatoxin) by the dotA mutant confirms that the dotA gene product is involved in an aflatoxin-like biosynthetic pathway. Since toxin genes have been found to be clustered in fungi in every case analyzed so far, it is speculated that the four dot genes may comprise part of a dothistromin biosynthetic gene cluster. A fifth gene, ddhA, is not a homolog of aflatoxin genes and could be at one end of the dothistromin cluster. These genes will allow comparative biochemical and genetic studies of the aflatoxin and dothistromin biosynthetic pathways and may also lead to new ways to control Dothistroma needle blight. PMID:12039746

  17. Aflatoxin production and environmental oxidative stress in Aspergillus flavus: Implications forhost resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The contamination of maize kernel tissues with aflatoxin is of major concern in global food production, particularly in developing countries. Resistance to aflatoxin is negatively influenced by environmental stress, namely drought stress. Given that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are known to accumul...

  18. RNA interference reduces aflatoxin accumulation by Aspergillus flavus in peanut seeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins are among the most powerful carcinogens in nature. They are produced by the fungal pathogen Aspergillus flavus Link and other Aspergillus species. Aflatoxins accumulate in many crops, including rice, wheat, oats, pecans, pistachios, soybean, cassava, almonds, peanuts, beans, corn and cot...

  19. Evaluation of African-bred maize germplasm lines for resistance to aflatoxin accumulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins, produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus, contaminate maize grain and threatens human food and feed safety. Plant resistance is considered the best strategy for reducing aflatoxin accumulation. Six maize germplasm lines, TZAR101-TZAR106, were released by the IITA-SRRC maize breeding col...

  20. Identification of gene markers in aflatoxin-resistant maize germplasm for marker-assisted breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The discovery of maize lines with natural resistance to Aspergillus flavus infection and/or aflatoxin production has aided host resistance in becoming a viable approach for the elimination of aflatoxin contamination of maize. Further breeding involving resistant lines is developing sources of resist...

  1. Efficacy of water dispersible formulations of biocontrol strains of Aspergillus flavus for aflatoxin management in corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field experiments were conducted in 2011 and 2012 to evaluate the efficacy of water dispersible granule (WDG) formulations of biocontrol strains of Aspergillus flavus in controlling aflatoxin contamination of corn. In 2011, when aflatoxin was present at very high levels, no WDG treatment provided s...

  2. Transport via xylem and accumulation of aflatoxin in seeds of groundnut plant.

    PubMed

    Snigdha, M; Hariprasad, P; Venkateswaran, G

    2015-01-01

    Aflatoxin contamination in groundnut seeds in the absence of any aflatoxigenic fungi leads to a hypothesis that aflatoxins are present naturally in soil and is transferred to seeds through uptake by roots. A survey was conducted on the natural occurrence of aflatoxins in agricultural soils, among nine main groundnut-growing regions of Karnataka state, India. All 71 soil samples collected in this survey were contaminated with aflatoxins esp. AFB1. An in vitro xylem sap experiment proved the ability of groundnut plant roots to absorb AFB1, and transport to aerial plant parts via the xylem. Hydroponics experiment also proved the uptake of AFB1 by the roots and their translocation to shoot. Uptake was affected by the initial concentration of toxin and pH of the medium. Among the 14 varieties screened, GPBD4 and MLT.K.107 (III) recorded highest and least AFB1 uptake, respectively. The above results were validated using a greenhouse experiment. Here, the aflatoxin absorbed by root gradually transferred to shoot that was later found in seeds towards the end of experiment. Thus, the groundnut seeds can also get contaminated with aflatoxin by direct uptake of aflatoxin through conducting tissue in addition to fungal infection. The present study revealed the novel mode of aflatoxin contamination in groundnut seeds without fungal infection. PMID:25112578

  3. Effect of contamination of diets with aflatoxins on growing ducks and chickens.

    PubMed

    Ostrowski-Meissner, H T

    1983-08-01

    Growing Alabio ducks and White Leghorn chickens were used in a growth study in which diets containing either soybean meal (SBM), peanut meal (PNM) or fish meal (FM) as protein sources were contaminated with the fungus Aspergillus flavus providing the following aflatoxin levels: 0, 50, 100 and 200 micrograms aflatoxin B1 equivalent per kg ration. There were no differences in responses of growing ducks and chickens (at age of 28 days) to the various protein sources at the zero aflatoxin level. However diets contaminated with Aspergillus flavus and containing 50 micrograms/kg aflatoxin B1 equivalent or more significantly reduced body weight gain and utilisation of dietary protein in ducks as compared with chickens. The higher the aflatoxin content above 50 micrograms/kg the greater was the difference in performance between ducks and chickens. Dietary aflatoxins caused liver damage in ducks while no damage was recorded in chickens. Ducks fed diets containing SBM or PNM were more affected by the same concentration of aflatoxins than those fed diets with FM. When intensification of duck husbandry is envisaged, particularly in humid tropical regions, measures to avoid the deleterious ill effects of aflatoxins are needed.

  4. Oral administration of piperine for the control of aflatoxin intoxication in rats

    PubMed Central

    Gagini, Thalita B.; Silva, Robson E.; Castro, Isabela S.; Soares, Breno A.; Lima, Marco E.F.; Brito, Marilene F.; Mazur, Carlos; Direito, Glória M.; Danelli, Maria das Graças M.

    2010-01-01

    Aflatoxins are mycotoxins that have important toxic effects on human and animal health, even if consumed at low doses. The oral administration of piperine (1.12 mg/kg) during 23 days in rats seemingly interfered with the toxicity of aflatoxins, decreasing hepatic injuries and the leukocyte depletion in experimentally intoxicated animals. PMID:24031502

  5. Sexuality generates diversity in the aflatoxin gene cluster: evidence on a global scale

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The worldwide costs associated with aflatoxin monitoring and crop losses are in the hundreds of millions of dollars. Aflatoxins also account for considerable health risks, even in countries where food contamination is regulated. Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus are the most common agents of af...

  6. Application of biotechnology towards the enhancement of maize resistance to aflatoxin contamination by Aspergillus flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Contamination of maize with aflatoxins by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus poses serious health hazards to humans and animals worldwide. This important fact and the regulations instituted in many countries to control the occurrence of aflatoxins in foods and feed have stimulated rese...

  7. Thermoelectric waste heat recovery from an M1 Abrams tank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stokes, C. David; Thomas, Peter M.; Baldasaro, Nicholas G.; Mantini, Michael J.; Venkatasubramanian, Rama; Barton, Michael D.; Cardine, Christopher V.; Walker, Grayson W.

    2012-06-01

    The addition of advanced sensors, targeting systems and electronic countermeasures to military vehicles has created a strategic need for additional electric power. By incorporating a thermoelectric (TE) waste heat recovery system to convert available exhaust heat to electricity, increased electric power needs can be met without reducing the energy efficiency of the vehicle. This approach allows existing vehicles to be upgraded without requiring a complete re-design of the engine and powertrain to support the integration of advanced electronic sensors and systems that keep the performance at the state of the art level. RTI has partnered with General Dynamics Land Systems and Creare, Inc. under an Army Research Lab program to develop a thermoelectric exhaust waste heat recovery system for the M1 Abrams tank. We have designed a reduced-scale system that was retrofitted to the tank and generated 80W of electric power on the vehicle operating on a test track by capturing a portion of the exhaust heat from the Honeywell/Lycoming AGT-1500 gas turbine engine.

  8. M1 bands and intruder bands in {sup 113}In

    SciTech Connect

    Chakrawarthy, R.S.; Pillay, R.G.

    1997-01-01

    High spin states in {sup 113}In have been established up to 6.2 MeV in excitation energy and to a tentative spin of (43/2{sup {minus}}) through the reaction {sup 110}Pd({sup 7}Li, 4n){sup 113}In at a beam energy of 40 MeV. In-beam measurements involved {gamma}-{gamma} coincidences, angular distribution of emitted gamma rays, and directional correlation of oriented states. M1 bands consisting of {Delta}I=1 dipole transitions have been observed. Possible quasiparticle configurations suggest that these bands are similar to the shears bands observed in Pb nuclei. Two intruder bands based on the {pi}h{sub 11/2} orbital and {pi}g{sub 7/2} orbital have been observed. Results of the total Routhian surface and cranked shell model calculations are compared with the experimental data. Alignment features of the intruder bands in the N=62 and 64 isotones are discussed. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  9. UV emission from he M1 supergiant TV Gem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michalitsianos, A. G.; Kafatos, M.

    1982-01-01

    Low and high dispersion ultraviolet spectra were obtained of the M1 supergiant TV Gem with IUE. Previous IUE observations of this late type supergiant revealed unexpected UV continuum emission, perhaps arising from an early B companion. Low resolution spectra obtained approximately one year apart suggest that the strong Si III in combination perhaps with O I at wavelengths approximately 1300 A varies considerably with time. Large variation in the column density is required to explain these changes. Sporadic mass expulsion with mass loss rates dM/dt approximately 0.00001 solar mass yr minus 1st power from the M supergiant could lead to a dense circumstellar wind near the hot early companion, and thus could account for these observed variations in equivalent width. The high resolution spectrum in the 2000 to 3200 A wavelength range is characterized by narrow absorption lines primarily due to Fe II, Mn II and Mg II (h and k), which are skewed in profile with an extended red wing. This profile structure is tentatively attributed to interstellar absorption and an intervening differentially moving cloud in the direction of Gem OB1, of which TV Gem is a known association member.

  10. Evaluating the skill of seasonal weather forecasts in predicting aflatoxin contamination of groundnut in Senegal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brak, B.; Challinor, A.

    2011-12-01

    Aflatoxins, a group of toxic secondary metabolites produced by some strains of a number of species within Aspergillus section Flavi, contaminate a range of crops grown at latitudes between 40N° and 40S° of the equator. Digestion of food products derived from aflatoxin-contaminated crops may result in acute and chronic health problems in human beings. Countries in sub-Saharan Africa in particular have seen large percentages of the human population exposed to aflatoxin. A recent study showed that over 98% of subjects in West Africa tested positive for aflatoxin biomarkers. According to other research, every year 250,000 people die from hepato-cellular carcinoma related causes due to aflatoxin ingestion in parts of West Africa. Strict aflatoxin levels set by importing countries in accordance with the WTO Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS Agreement) also impair the value of agricultural trade. Over the last thirty years this has led to a reduction of African exports of groundnut by 19% despite the consumption of groundnut derived food products going up by 209%. The occurrence of aflatoxin on crops is strongly influenced by weather. Empirical studies in the US have shown that pre-harvest, aflatoxin contamination of groundnuts is induced by conditions of drought stress in combination with soil temperatures between 25°C and 31°C. Post-harvest, aflatoxin production of stored, Aspergillus-contaminated groundnuts is exacerbated in conditions where relative humidity is above 83%. The GLAM crop model was extended to include a soil temperature subroutine and subroutines containing pre- and post-harvest aflatoxin algorithms. The algorithms used to estimate aflatoxin contamination indices are based on findings from multiple empirical studies and the pre-harvest aflatoxin model has been validated for Australian conditions. Hence, there was sufficient scope to use GLAM with these algorithms to answer the foremost research question: Is the

  11. Evaluation of XPC and prototypes on aflatoxin-challenged broilers.

    PubMed

    Osweiler, G D; Jagannatha, S; Trampel, D W; Imerman, P M; Ensley, S M; Yoon, I; Moore, D T

    2010-09-01

    Various products and prototypes were added to poultry diets during an aflatoxin challenge on growth and histological parameters. Male broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 8 treatment groups with 8 replicates/treatment and 3 birds/replicate. Treatments were as follows: 1) negative control containing no aflatoxin (NC); 2) positive control containing aflatoxin (PC); 3) 0.1% glucomannan mycotoxin standard industry ameliorator (STD); 4) 0.1% prototype A, a proprietary mixture of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae product and diatomaceous clay; 5) 0.2% prototype A; 6) 0.15% prototype B, a proprietary mixture of a S. cerevisiae product and diatomaceous clay (PB); 7) 0.0625% XPC (S. cerevisiae fermentation product); and 8) 0.125% XPC (XPC2). All treatments except NC contained 2,280 +/- 102 ng/g of aflatoxin and were fed for 28 d. Body weight and feed intake were measured weekly. Livers were collected on d 28, weighed, and used for histopathological evaluation. Beginning weights were similar across treatments, but BW were lower (P /= 0.05) different among the treatment groups. Liver weights relative to BW were higher (P /= 0.05) compared with NC. Overall, BW gain in treatment groups PB and XPC2 was not different from NC and that corresponded to protective effects against liver lesions. Benefits observed during an aflatoxin challenge when broilers were supplemented with XPC, a fermentation product that does not contain any adsorbents, may be attributed to something other than adsorption as a primary

  12. Effect of dietary acids on the formation of aflatoxin B2a as a means to detoxify aflatoxin B1.

    PubMed

    Rushing, Blake R; Selim, Mustafa I

    2016-09-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a class 1 carcinogen and a common food contaminant worldwide with widely uncontrolled human exposure. The ability of organic acids to transform AFB1 into a known detoxified form, aflatoxin B2a (AFB2a), was investigated using high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation-time of flight mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI/TOF/MS). The identity of the transformation product was confirmed by accurate mass measurement, chromatographic separation from other aflatoxins, H(1)-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and infrared (IR) spectroscopy. Of the weak acids tested, citric acid was found to be the most effective for AFB2a formation. At room temperature, 1 M citric acid was able to convert > 97% of AFB1 to AFB2a over 96 h of treatment. Up to 98% transformation was achieved by boiling AFB1 in the presence of citric acid for 20 min. AFB1 hydration after ingestion was explored by spiking AFB1 into simulated gastric fluid containing citric acid. Under these conditions, > 71% of AFB1 was hydrated to AFB2a and did not show any reversion to the parent compound after being transferred to a neutral solution. These results provide a basis for a practical and effective method for detoxification of AFB1 in contaminated foods.

  13. Effect of dietary acids on the formation of aflatoxin B2a as a means to detoxify aflatoxin B1.

    PubMed

    Rushing, Blake R; Selim, Mustafa I

    2016-09-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a class 1 carcinogen and a common food contaminant worldwide with widely uncontrolled human exposure. The ability of organic acids to transform AFB1 into a known detoxified form, aflatoxin B2a (AFB2a), was investigated using high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation-time of flight mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI/TOF/MS). The identity of the transformation product was confirmed by accurate mass measurement, chromatographic separation from other aflatoxins, H(1)-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and infrared (IR) spectroscopy. Of the weak acids tested, citric acid was found to be the most effective for AFB2a formation. At room temperature, 1 M citric acid was able to convert > 97% of AFB1 to AFB2a over 96 h of treatment. Up to 98% transformation was achieved by boiling AFB1 in the presence of citric acid for 20 min. AFB1 hydration after ingestion was explored by spiking AFB1 into simulated gastric fluid containing citric acid. Under these conditions, > 71% of AFB1 was hydrated to AFB2a and did not show any reversion to the parent compound after being transferred to a neutral solution. These results provide a basis for a practical and effective method for detoxification of AFB1 in contaminated foods. PMID:27467853

  14. An empirical evaluation of three vibrational spectroscopic methods for detection of aflatoxins in maize.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung-Min; Davis, Jessica; Herrman, Timothy J; Murray, Seth C; Deng, Youjun

    2015-04-15

    Three commercially available vibrational spectroscopic techniques, including Raman, Fourier transform near infrared reflectance (FT-NIR), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) were evaluated to help users determine the spectroscopic method best suitable for aflatoxin analysis in maize (Zea mays L.) grain based on their relative efficiency and predictive ability. Spectral differences of Raman and FTIR spectra were more marked and pronounced among aflatoxin contamination groups than those of FT-NIR spectra. From the observations and findings in our current and previous studies, Raman and FTIR spectroscopic methods are superior to FT-NIR method in terms of predictive power and model performance for aflatoxin analysis and they are equally effective and accurate in predicting aflatoxin concentration in maize. The present study is considered as the first attempt to assess how spectroscopic techniques with different physical processes can influence and improve accuracy and reliability for rapid screening of aflatoxin contaminated maize samples.

  15. Aflatoxin Production and Degradation by Aspergillus flavus in 20-Liter Fermentors

    PubMed Central

    Ciegler, A.; Peterson, R. E.; Lagoda, A. A.; Hall, H. H.

    1966-01-01

    Yields of from 200 to 300 mg per liter of aflatoxins B1 and G1 were produced by two strains of Aspergillus flavus in 20-liter fermentors under proper conditions of inoculum (well-dispersed growth) and aeration (0.5 volume per volume per min of air, 300 rev/min, 30 psi back pressure, baffles). Peak yields were usually attained in 72 hr, after which the aflatoxin concentration declined rapidly. Degradation of aflatoxin depended primarily on mycelial lysis and high-aeration conditions. Cultures previously reported not to degrade aflatoxin could be induced to do so under these conditions. The percentage and rate of toxin degradation were independent of toxin concentration, and appeared to be nonenzymatic and nonspecific. Degradation simulating that occurring in the fermentor was achieved by reacting aflatoxin with peroxidized methyl esters of vegetable oil; initial degradation was rapid and appeared to involve a complex series of reactions. PMID:5970470

  16. Mycoflora and natural aflatoxin contamination in dried quince seeds from Jammu, India.

    PubMed

    Bala, Pinky; Gupta, Dimple; Sharma, Y P

    2016-01-01

    Eighty two samples of dried quince seeds, obtained from the markets of Jammu province, were examined for mycoflora by different isolation techniques. A total of 27 fungal species belonging to 11 genera were recovered and identified from these samples. The predominant fungal genera encountered were Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium. In view of the predominance of Aspergillus flavus, a known producer of aflatoxins, screening of the fungal contaminated samples was carried out for total aflatoxin levels using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Twenty one aflatoxin positive samples contained 8.07-33.45 μg g(-1) and 0.05-3946.97 μg g(-1) AFB1 and AFB2 respectively. These results suggest that biochemical composition of dried quince seeds, along with climatic conditions of the region seem to be very favourable for aflatoxin production by toxigenic strains of A. flavus. Therefore, monitoring of aflatoxins in dried quince seeds is recommended for this region. PMID:26930866

  17. Mycoflora and natural aflatoxin contamination in dried quince seeds from Jammu, India.

    PubMed

    Bala, Pinky; Gupta, Dimple; Sharma, Y P

    2016-01-01

    Eighty two samples of dried quince seeds, obtained from the markets of Jammu province, were examined for mycoflora by different isolation techniques. A total of 27 fungal species belonging to 11 genera were recovered and identified from these samples. The predominant fungal genera encountered were Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium. In view of the predominance of Aspergillus flavus, a known producer of aflatoxins, screening of the fungal contaminated samples was carried out for total aflatoxin levels using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Twenty one aflatoxin positive samples contained 8.07-33.45 μg g(-1) and 0.05-3946.97 μg g(-1) AFB1 and AFB2 respectively. These results suggest that biochemical composition of dried quince seeds, along with climatic conditions of the region seem to be very favourable for aflatoxin production by toxigenic strains of A. flavus. Therefore, monitoring of aflatoxins in dried quince seeds is recommended for this region.

  18. Safety and efficacy evaluation of aqueous citric acid to degrade B-aflatoxins in maize.

    PubMed

    Méndez-Albores, A; Arámbula-Villa, G; Loarca-Piña, M G F; Castaño-Tostado, E; Moreno-Martínez, E

    2005-02-01

    Chemical inactivation of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and aflatoxin B2 (AFB2) in maize grain by means of 1N aqueous citric acid was confirmed by the AFLATEST immunoaffinity column method, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the Ames test (Salmonella-microsomal screening system). The AFLATEST assay showed that aflatoxins in the maize grain with an initial concentration of 29 ng/g were completely degraded and 96.7% degradation occurred in maize contaminated with 93 ng/g when treated with the aqueous citric acid. Aflatoxin fluorescence strength of acidified samples was much weaker than untreated samples as observed in HPLC chromatograms. On the other hand, the Ames test results indicated that the mutagenic activity of acidified samples was greatly reduced compared with that of untreated samples based on his- --> his+ reversions in the Salmonella TA100 strain. Chemical inactivation appears to be a promising method of removing aflatoxin from food commodities.

  19. Analysis of aflatoxins in poultry and pig feeds and feedstuffs used in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Céspedes, A E; Diaz, G J

    1997-01-01

    Feedstuffs and mixed feeds used for poultry and pig nutrition in Colombia were analyzed for aflatoxins by using a liquid chromatographic technique with a limit of detection of 1 microgram/kg for each aflatoxin (B1, B2, G1, and G2). Samples of grain sorghum, maize, processed soybean, rice meal, cottonseed meal, and poultry and pig feeds, representative of Colombian production for the 1995-1996 harvest, were taken from feed-manufacturing plants in various cities. Aflatoxins were detected in 11 of 45 samples of sorghum, 4 of 33 samples of maize, 8 of 22 samples of rice meal, 15 of 17 samples of cottonseed meal, 1 of 12 samples of other feedstuffs, 12 of 30 samples of poultry feed, and 7 of 16 samples of pig feed. Aflatoxins were not detected in soybean. Only 9 of 58 positive samples contained total aflatoxin levels exceeding maximum tolerable limits in Colombia. PMID:9419861

  20. The toxic effects of combined aflatoxins and zearalenone in naturally contaminated diets on laying performance, egg quality and mycotoxins residues in eggs of layers and the protective effect of Bacillus subtilis biodegradation product.

    PubMed

    Jia, Ru; Ma, Qiugang; Fan, Yu; Ji, Cheng; Zhang, Jianyun; Liu, Tao; Zhao, Lihong

    2016-04-01

    The toxic effect of aflatoxins (AF) and zearalenone (ZEA) and their combination on laying performance, egg quality and toxins residues in eggs, as well as the efficacy of Bacillus subtilis biodegradation product (BDP) for ameliorating these effects in layers were evaluated. Layers were submitted to a two phase experiment. The first phase was an intoxication period (18-23 wk) with birds fed 7 (3 × 2 + 1) diets (3 treatments with mycotoxins: AF (123.0 μg/kg), ZEA (260.2 μg/kg), or AF + ZEA (123.0 + 260.2 μg/kg); 2 treatments with or without BDP (1000 g/t); and a control group contained no toxins nor BDP). The next phase was a recovery period (24-29 wk) in which birds were fed a toxin-free diet. In the intoxication period, AF and AF + ZEA groups exhibited lower egg production, feed intake and shell thickness, and higher AFB1, AFB2 and AFM1 residues as compared with the control group. In addition, AF and ZEA exerted synergistic effects on egg production and feed intake. Moreover, AF alone or combined with ZEA had a continuous toxic effect on laying performance in the recovery phase. Addition of BDP offset these negative effects, showing that BDP has a protective effect on layers fed contaminated diets. PMID:26891816

  1. The toxic effects of combined aflatoxins and zearalenone in naturally contaminated diets on laying performance, egg quality and mycotoxins residues in eggs of layers and the protective effect of Bacillus subtilis biodegradation product.

    PubMed

    Jia, Ru; Ma, Qiugang; Fan, Yu; Ji, Cheng; Zhang, Jianyun; Liu, Tao; Zhao, Lihong

    2016-04-01

    The toxic effect of aflatoxins (AF) and zearalenone (ZEA) and their combination on laying performance, egg quality and toxins residues in eggs, as well as the efficacy of Bacillus subtilis biodegradation product (BDP) for ameliorating these effects in layers were evaluated. Layers were submitted to a two phase experiment. The first phase was an intoxication period (18-23 wk) with birds fed 7 (3 × 2 + 1) diets (3 treatments with mycotoxins: AF (123.0 μg/kg), ZEA (260.2 μg/kg), or AF + ZEA (123.0 + 260.2 μg/kg); 2 treatments with or without BDP (1000 g/t); and a control group contained no toxins nor BDP). The next phase was a recovery period (24-29 wk) in which birds were fed a toxin-free diet. In the intoxication period, AF and AF + ZEA groups exhibited lower egg production, feed intake and shell thickness, and higher AFB1, AFB2 and AFM1 residues as compared with the control group. In addition, AF and ZEA exerted synergistic effects on egg production and feed intake. Moreover, AF alone or combined with ZEA had a continuous toxic effect on laying performance in the recovery phase. Addition of BDP offset these negative effects, showing that BDP has a protective effect on layers fed contaminated diets.

  2. Dual effects of phloretin on aflatoxin B1 metabolism: activation and detoxification of aflatoxin B1.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shang Shang; Chen, Xiao Yan; Zhu, Ri Zhe; Choi, Byung-Min; Kim, Sun Jun; Kim, Bok-Ryang

    2012-01-01

    Typically, chemopreventive agents involve either induction of phase II detoxifying enzymes and/or inhibition of cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) that are required for the activation of procarcinogens. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of phloretin against aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) activation to the ultimate carcinogenic intermediate, AFB(1)-8, 9-epoxide (AFBO), and its subsequent detoxification. Phloretin markedly inhibited formation of the epoxide with human liver microsomes in a dose-dependent manner. Phloretin also inhibited the activities of nifedipine oxidation and ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) in human liver microsomes. These data show that phloretin strongly inhibits CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 activities, which are involved in the activation of AFB1. Phloretin increased glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity of alpha mouse liver 12 (AML 12) cells in a dose-dependent manner. GST activity toward AFBO in cell lysates treated with 20 μM phloretin was 23-fold that of untreated control cell lysates. The expression of GSTA3, GSTA4, GSTM1, GSTP1 and GSTT1 was induced by phloretin in a dose-dependent manner in AML 12 cells. GSTP1, GSTM1, and GSTT1 were able to significantly increase the conjugation of AFBO with glutathione. Concurrently, induction of the GST isozyme genes was partially associated with the Nrf2/ARE pathway. Taken together, the results demonstrate that phloretin has a strong chemopreventive effect against AFB1 through its inhibitory effect on CYP1A2, CYP3A4, and its inductive effect on GST activity. PMID:22253071

  3. Modeling of human M1 aminopeptidases for in silico screening of potential Plasmodium falciparum alanine aminopeptidase (PfA-M1) specific inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Sahi, Shakti; Rai, Sneha; Chaudhary, Meenakshi; Nain, Vikrant

    2014-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum alanine M1-aminopeptidase (PfA-M1) is a validated target for anti-malarial drug development. Presence of significant similarity between PfA-M1 and human M1-aminopeptidases, particularly within regions of enzyme active site leads to problem of non-specificity and off-target binding for known aminopeptidase inhibitors. Molecular docking based in silico screening approach for off-target binding has high potential but requires 3D-structure of all human M1-aminopeptidaes. Therefore, in the present study 3D structural models of seven human M1-aminopeptidases were developed. The robustness of docking parameters and quality of predicted human M1-aminopeptidases structural models was evaluated by stereochemical analysis and docking of their respective known inhibitors. The docking scores were in agreement with the inhibitory concentrations elucidated in enzyme assays of respective inhibitor enzyme combinations (r2≈0.70). Further docking analysis of fifteen potential PfA-M1 inhibitors (virtual screening identified) showed that three compounds had less docking affinity for human M1-aminopeptidases as compared to PfA-M1. These three identified potential lead compounds can be validated with enzyme assays and used as a scaffold for designing of new compounds with increased specificity towards PfA-M1.

  4. Biosorption of B-aflatoxins Using Biomasses Obtained from Formosa Firethorn [Pyracantha koidzumii (Hayata) Rehder].

    PubMed

    Ramales-Valderrama, Rosa Adriana; Vázquez-Durán, Alma; Méndez-Albores, Abraham

    2016-07-13

    Mycotoxin adsorption onto biomaterials is considered as a promising alternative for decontamination without harmful chemicals. In this research, the adsorption of B-aflatoxins (AFB₁ and AFB₂) using Pyracantha koidzumii biomasses (leaves, berries and the mixture of leaves/berries) from aqueous solutions was explored. The biosorbent was used at 0.5% (w/v) in samples spiked with 100 ng/mL of B-aflatoxin standards and incubated at 40 °C for up to 24 h. A standard biosorption methodology was employed and aflatoxins were quantified by an immunoaffinity column and UPLC methodologies. The biosorbent-aflatoxin interaction mechanism was investigated from a combination of zeta potential (ζ), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The highest aflatoxin uptakes were 86% and 82% at 6 h using leaves and the mixture of leaves/berries biomasses, respectively. A moderate biosorption of 46% was attained when using berries biomass. From kinetic studies, the biosorption process is described using the first order adsorption model. Evidence from FTIR spectra suggests the participation of hydroxyl, amine, carboxyl, amide, phosphate and ketone groups in the biosorption and the mechanism was proposed to be dominated by the electrostatic interaction between the negatively charged functional groups and the positively charged aflatoxin molecules. Biosorption by P. koidzumii biomasses has been demonstrated to be an alternative to conventional systems for B-aflatoxins removal.

  5. Biosorption of B-aflatoxins Using Biomasses Obtained from Formosa Firethorn [Pyracantha koidzumii (Hayata) Rehder

    PubMed Central

    Ramales-Valderrama, Rosa Adriana; Vázquez-Durán, Alma; Méndez-Albores, Abraham

    2016-01-01

    Mycotoxin adsorption onto biomaterials is considered as a promising alternative for decontamination without harmful chemicals. In this research, the adsorption of B-aflatoxins (AFB1 and AFB2) using Pyracantha koidzumii biomasses (leaves, berries and the mixture of leaves/berries) from aqueous solutions was explored. The biosorbent was used at 0.5% (w/v) in samples spiked with 100 ng/mL of B-aflatoxin standards and incubated at 40 °C for up to 24 h. A standard biosorption methodology was employed and aflatoxins were quantified by an immunoaffinity column and UPLC methodologies. The biosorbent-aflatoxin interaction mechanism was investigated from a combination of zeta potential (ζ), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The highest aflatoxin uptakes were 86% and 82% at 6 h using leaves and the mixture of leaves/berries biomasses, respectively. A moderate biosorption of 46% was attained when using berries biomass. From kinetic studies, the biosorption process is described using the first order adsorption model. Evidence from FTIR spectra suggests the participation of hydroxyl, amine, carboxyl, amide, phosphate and ketone groups in the biosorption and the mechanism was proposed to be dominated by the electrostatic interaction between the negatively charged functional groups and the positively charged aflatoxin molecules. Biosorption by P. koidzumii biomasses has been demonstrated to be an alternative to conventional systems for B-aflatoxins removal. PMID:27420096

  6. Boric acid: a potential chemoprotective agent against aflatoxin b1 toxicity in human blood

    PubMed Central

    Geyikoglu, Fatime

    2010-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 is the most potent pulmonary and hepatic carcinogen. Since the eradication of Aflatoxin B1 contamination in agricultural products has been difficult, the use of natural or synthetic free radical scavengers could be a potential chemopreventive strategy. Boric acid is the major component of industry and its antioxidant role has recently been reported. The present study assessed, for the first time, the effectiveness of boric acid following exposure to Aflatoxin B1 on human whole blood cultures. The biochemical characterizations of glutathione and some enzymes have been carried out in erythrocytes. Alterations in malondialdehyde level were determined as an index of oxidative stress. The sister-chromatid exchange and micronucleus tests were performed to assess DNA damages in lymphocytes. Aflatoxin B1 treatment significantly reduced the activities of antioxidants by increasing malondialdehyde level (30.53 and 51.43%) of blood, whereas, the boric acid led to an increased resistance of DNA to oxidative damage induced by Aflatoxin B1 in comparison with control values (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the support of boric acid was especially useful in Aflatoxin-toxicated blood. Thus the risk on tissue targeting of Aflatoxin B1 could be reduced ensuring early recovery from its toxicity. PMID:20431944

  7. Inhibitory Activities of Alkyl Syringates and Related Compounds on Aflatoxin Production.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Tomohiro; Iimura, Kurin; Kimura, Taichi; Yamamoto, Toshiyoshi; Sakuda, Shohei

    2016-06-07

    Inhibitors of aflatoxin production of aflatoxigenic fungi are useful for preventing aflatoxin contamination in crops. As methyl syringate weakly inhibits aflatoxin production, aflatoxin production inhibitory activities of additional alkyl syringates with alkyl chains from ethyl to octyl were examined. Inhibitory activity toward aflatoxin production of Aspergillus flavus became stronger as the length of the alkyl chains on the esters became longer. Pentyl, hexyl, heptyl, and octyl syringates showed strong activity at 0.05 mM. Heptyl and octyl parabens, and octyl gallate also inhibited aflatoxin production as strongly as octyl syringate. Alkyl parabens and alkyl gallates inhibit the complex II activity of the mitochondrial respiration chain; thus, whether alkyl syringates inhibit complex II activity was examined. Inhibitory activities of alkyl syringates toward complex II also became stronger as the length of the alkyl chains increased. The complex II inhibitory activity of octyl syringate was comparable to that of octyl paraben and octyl gallate. These results suggest that alkyl syringates, alkyl parabens, and alkyl gallates, including commonly used food additives, are useful for aflatoxin control.

  8. Reduction of aflatoxin B1 in stored peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) using Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Prado, G; Madeira, J E G Cruz; Morais, V A D; Oliveira, M S; Souza, R A; Peluzio, J M; Godoy, I J; Silva, J F M; Pimenta, R S

    2011-06-01

    Aflatoxin B(1) is a toxigenic and carcinogenic compound produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. To inhibit aflatoxin contamination of peanuts, seeds of two peanut breeds, IAC Caiapó and IAC Runner 886, were inoculated with A. parasiticus (1.0 × 10(6) spores per ml) and the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (3.2 × 10(7) cells per ml) and incubated at 25°C for 7 and 15 days. Two experiments were conducted for each incubation period separately. The treatments were completely randomized, with three replications per treatment. Treatments included the two cultivars and three types of inoculation (pathogen alone, yeast and pathogen, and yeast 3 h before pathogen). Aflatoxin B(1) was quantified with a densitometer at 366 nm after thin layer chromatography. Aflatoxin B(1) contamination in peanuts was reduced after the addition of S. cerevisiae. The concentration of aflatoxin B(1) decreased by 74.4 and 55.9% after 7 and 15 days, respectively. The greatest aflatoxin reduction was observed when S. cerevisiae was inoculated 3 h before the pathogen in IAC Caiapó seeds and incubated for 7 days at 25°C. The use of S. cerevisiae is a promising strategy for biological control of aflatoxin contamination in peanuts. PMID:21669081

  9. Biosorption of B-aflatoxins Using Biomasses Obtained from Formosa Firethorn [Pyracantha koidzumii (Hayata) Rehder].

    PubMed

    Ramales-Valderrama, Rosa Adriana; Vázquez-Durán, Alma; Méndez-Albores, Abraham

    2016-01-01

    Mycotoxin adsorption onto biomaterials is considered as a promising alternative for decontamination without harmful chemicals. In this research, the adsorption of B-aflatoxins (AFB₁ and AFB₂) using Pyracantha koidzumii biomasses (leaves, berries and the mixture of leaves/berries) from aqueous solutions was explored. The biosorbent was used at 0.5% (w/v) in samples spiked with 100 ng/mL of B-aflatoxin standards and incubated at 40 °C for up to 24 h. A standard biosorption methodology was employed and aflatoxins were quantified by an immunoaffinity column and UPLC methodologies. The biosorbent-aflatoxin interaction mechanism was investigated from a combination of zeta potential (ζ), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The highest aflatoxin uptakes were 86% and 82% at 6 h using leaves and the mixture of leaves/berries biomasses, respectively. A moderate biosorption of 46% was attained when using berries biomass. From kinetic studies, the biosorption process is described using the first order adsorption model. Evidence from FTIR spectra suggests the participation of hydroxyl, amine, carboxyl, amide, phosphate and ketone groups in the biosorption and the mechanism was proposed to be dominated by the electrostatic interaction between the negatively charged functional groups and the positively charged aflatoxin molecules. Biosorption by P. koidzumii biomasses has been demonstrated to be an alternative to conventional systems for B-aflatoxins removal. PMID:27420096

  10. Global Risk Assessment of Aflatoxins in Maize and Peanuts: Are Regulatory Standards Adequately Protective?

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Felicia

    2013-01-01

    The aflatoxins are a group of fungal metabolites that contaminate a variety of staple crops, including maize and peanuts, and cause an array of acute and chronic human health effects. Aflatoxin B1 in particular is a potent liver carcinogen, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk is multiplicatively higher for individuals exposed to both aflatoxin and chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV). In this work, we sought to answer the question: do current aflatoxin regulatory standards around the world adequately protect human health? Depending upon the level of protection desired, the answer to this question varies. Currently, most nations have a maximum tolerable level of total aflatoxins in maize and peanuts ranging from 4 to 20ng/g. If the level of protection desired is that aflatoxin exposures would not increase lifetime HCC risk by more than 1 in 100,000 cases in the population, then most current regulatory standards are not adequately protective even if enforced, especially in low-income countries where large amounts of maize and peanuts are consumed and HBV prevalence is high. At the protection level of 1 in 10,000 lifetime HCC cases in the population, however, almost all aflatoxin regulations worldwide are adequately protective, with the exception of several nations in Africa and Latin America. PMID:23761295

  11. Assessment of Aflatoxin and Fumonisin Contamination of Maize in Western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Mutiga, S K; Hoffmann, V; Harvey, J W; Milgroom, M G; Nelson, R J

    2015-09-01

    We conducted a survey of aflatoxin and fumonisin in maize in western Kenya. In a regional survey of aflatoxin conducted in 2009 across three agroecological zones within three administrative regions, milled maize samples were collected from 985 patrons of 26 hammer mills. Aflatoxin contamination was detected in 49% of samples and was above the regulatory (10 ppb) in 15% of the samples overall; 65% of samples from a drought-prone area were over the limit. In a detailed survey in Bungoma County, we investigated aflatoxin and fumonisin contamination in four popular maize varieties at harvest and after 2 and 4 months of storage. We collected whole-grain samples from farmers' storage sheds and milled samples from patrons of local mills. Mean aflatoxin contamination was identical for storage sheds and mills at 2.3 ppb. In all, 41% of the samples from mills had detectable aflatoxin, with 4% over the regulatory limit, whereas 87% had detectable fumonisin, with 50% over the regulatory limit (1 ppm). Mean contamination levels did not change during storage. Maize varieties differed in fumonisin contamination, with the most popular varieties vulnerable to both mycotoxins and weevils, which are potential factors in exacerbating mycotoxin contamination. Mycotoxin surveillance is important not just in areas known previously for aflatoxin contamination and acute poisoning but also is needed in all maize-producing regions.

  12. Biotechnological advances for combating Aspergillus flavus and aflatoxin contamination in crops.

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar-Mathur, Pooja; Sunkara, Sowmini; Bhatnagar-Panwar, Madhurima; Waliyar, Farid; Sharma, Kiran Kumar

    2015-05-01

    Aflatoxins are toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic and immunosuppressive byproducts of Aspergillus spp. that contaminate a wide range of crops such as maize, peanut, and cotton. Aflatoxin not only affects crop production but renders the produce unfit for consumption and harmful to human and livestock health, with stringent threshold limits of acceptability. In many crops, breeding for resistance is not a reliable option because of the limited availability of genotypes with durable resistance to Aspergillus. Understanding the fungal/crop/environment interactions involved in aflatoxin contamination is therefore essential in designing measures for its prevention and control. For a sustainable solution to aflatoxin contamination, research must be focused on identifying and improving knowledge of host-plant resistance factors to aflatoxin accumulation. Current advances in genetic transformation, proteomics, RNAi technology, and marker-assisted selection offer great potential in minimizing pre-harvest aflatoxin contamination in cultivated crop species. Moreover, developing effective phenotyping strategies for transgenic as well as precision breeding of resistance genes into commercial varieties is critical. While appropriate storage practices can generally minimize post-harvest aflatoxin contamination in crops, the use of biotechnology to interrupt the probability of pre-harvest infection and contamination has the potential to provide sustainable solution. PMID:25804815

  13. Inhibitory Activities of Alkyl Syringates and Related Compounds on Aflatoxin Production.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Tomohiro; Iimura, Kurin; Kimura, Taichi; Yamamoto, Toshiyoshi; Sakuda, Shohei

    2016-01-01

    Inhibitors of aflatoxin production of aflatoxigenic fungi are useful for preventing aflatoxin contamination in crops. As methyl syringate weakly inhibits aflatoxin production, aflatoxin production inhibitory activities of additional alkyl syringates with alkyl chains from ethyl to octyl were examined. Inhibitory activity toward aflatoxin production of Aspergillus flavus became stronger as the length of the alkyl chains on the esters became longer. Pentyl, hexyl, heptyl, and octyl syringates showed strong activity at 0.05 mM. Heptyl and octyl parabens, and octyl gallate also inhibited aflatoxin production as strongly as octyl syringate. Alkyl parabens and alkyl gallates inhibit the complex II activity of the mitochondrial respiration chain; thus, whether alkyl syringates inhibit complex II activity was examined. Inhibitory activities of alkyl syringates toward complex II also became stronger as the length of the alkyl chains increased. The complex II inhibitory activity of octyl syringate was comparable to that of octyl paraben and octyl gallate. These results suggest that alkyl syringates, alkyl parabens, and alkyl gallates, including commonly used food additives, are useful for aflatoxin control. PMID:27338472

  14. The case for aflatoxins in the causal chain of gallbladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Foerster, Claudia; Koshiol, Jill; Guerrero, Ariel R; Kogan, Marcelo J; Ferreccio, Catterina

    2016-01-01

    Chronic aflatoxin exposure has long been related to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Recently, its association with gallbladder cancer (GBC) was postulated. Here we present the data supporting this hypothesis in Chile, the country with the highest GBC mortality worldwide with age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) of 10.3 in women and 5.04 in men. The highest GBC rates occur in Southern Chile (ASMR=18), characterized by: high Amerindian ancestry, associated with high bile acid synthesis and gallstones; high poverty and high cereal agriculture, both associated with aflatoxin exposure. Aflatoxins have been detected in imported and locally grown foods items. We estimated population dietary exposure ranging from 0.25 to 35.0 ng/kg-body weight/day. The only report on human exposure in Chile found significantly more aflatoxin biomarkers in GBC than in controls (Odds Ratio=13.0). The hypothesis of aflatoxin-GBC causal link in the Chilean population is supported by: genetically-determined rapid cholesterol excretion and high gallstones prevalence (49.4%); low prevalence of HCC (ASMR=4.9) and low HBV infection (0.15%) the main co-factor of aflatoxins in HCC risk. If the association between aflatoxins and GBC were confirmed, public health interventions based on food regulation could have a substantial public health impact. PMID:26804596

  15. Global risk assessment of aflatoxins in maize and peanuts: are regulatory standards adequately protective?

    PubMed

    Wu, Felicia; Stacy, Shaina L; Kensler, Thomas W

    2013-09-01

    The aflatoxins are a group of fungal metabolites that contaminate a variety of staple crops, including maize and peanuts, and cause an array of acute and chronic human health effects. Aflatoxin B1 in particular is a potent liver carcinogen, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk is multiplicatively higher for individuals exposed to both aflatoxin and chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV). In this work, we sought to answer the question: do current aflatoxin regulatory standards around the world adequately protect human health? Depending upon the level of protection desired, the answer to this question varies. Currently, most nations have a maximum tolerable level of total aflatoxins in maize and peanuts ranging from 4 to 20ng/g. If the level of protection desired is that aflatoxin exposures would not increase lifetime HCC risk by more than 1 in 100,000 cases in the population, then most current regulatory standards are not adequately protective even if enforced, especially in low-income countries where large amounts of maize and peanuts are consumed and HBV prevalence is high. At the protection level of 1 in 10,000 lifetime HCC cases in the population, however, almost all aflatoxin regulations worldwide are adequately protective, with the exception of several nations in Africa and Latin America.

  16. Detoxification of Aflatoxin-Contaminated Maize by Neutral Electrolyzed Oxidizing Water

    PubMed Central

    Jardon-Xicotencatl, Samantha; Díaz-Torres, Roberto; Marroquín-Cardona, Alicia; Villarreal-Barajas, Tania; Méndez-Albores, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    Aflatoxins, a group of extremely toxic mycotoxins produced by Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus and A. nomius, can occur as natural contaminants of certain agricultural commodities, particularly maize. These toxins have been shown to be hepatotoxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic and cause severe human and animal diseases. The effectiveness of neutral electrolyzed oxidizing water (NEW) on aflatoxin detoxification was investigated in HepG2 cells using several validation methodologies such as the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, the induction of lipid peroxidation, the oxidative damage by means of glutathione modulation, the Ames test and the alkaline Comet assay. Our results showed that, after the aflatoxin-contaminated maize containing 360 ng/g was soaked in NEW (60 mg/L available chlorine, pH 7.01) during 15 min at room temperature, the aflatoxin content did not decrease as confirmed by the immunoaffinity column and ultra performance liquid chromatography methods. Aflatoxin fluorescence strength of detoxified samples was similar to untreated samples. However, aflatoxin-associated cytotoxicity and genotoxicity effects were markedly reduced upon treatment. According to these results, NEW can be effectively used to detoxify aflatoxin-contaminated maize. PMID:26512692

  17. Detoxification of Aflatoxin-Contaminated Maize by Neutral Electrolyzed Oxidizing Water.

    PubMed

    Jardon-Xicotencatl, Samantha; Díaz-Torres, Roberto; Marroquín-Cardona, Alicia; Villarreal-Barajas, Tania; Méndez-Albores, Abraham

    2015-10-23

    Aflatoxins, a group of extremely toxic mycotoxins produced by Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus and A. nomius, can occur as natural contaminants of certain agricultural commodities, particularly maize. These toxins have been shown to be hepatotoxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic and cause severe human and animal diseases. The effectiveness of neutral electrolyzed oxidizing water (NEW) on aflatoxin detoxification was investigated in HepG2 cells using several validation methodologies such as the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5- diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, the induction of lipid peroxidation, the oxidative damage by means of glutathione modulation, the Ames test and the alkaline Comet assay. Our results showed that, after the aflatoxin-contaminated maize containing 360 ng/g was soaked in NEW (60 mg/L available chlorine, pH 7.01) during 15 min at room temperature, the aflatoxin content did not decrease as confirmed by the immunoaffinity column and ultra performance liquid chromatography methods. Aflatoxin fluorescence strength of detoxified samples was similar to untreated samples. However, aflatoxin-associated cytotoxicity and OPEN ACCESS Toxins 2015, 7 4295 genotoxicity effects were markedly reduced upon treatment. According to these results, NEW can be effectively used to detoxify aflatoxin-contaminated maize.

  18. Inhibitory Activities of Alkyl Syringates and Related Compounds on Aflatoxin Production

    PubMed Central

    Furukawa, Tomohiro; Iimura, Kurin; Kimura, Taichi; Yamamoto, Toshiyoshi; Sakuda, Shohei

    2016-01-01

    Inhibitors of aflatoxin production of aflatoxigenic fungi are useful for preventing aflatoxin contamination in crops. As methyl syringate weakly inhibits aflatoxin production, aflatoxin production inhibitory activities of additional alkyl syringates with alkyl chains from ethyl to octyl were examined. Inhibitory activity toward aflatoxin production of Aspergillus flavus became stronger as the length of the alkyl chains on the esters became longer. Pentyl, hexyl, heptyl, and octyl syringates showed strong activity at 0.05 mM. Heptyl and octyl parabens, and octyl gallate also inhibited aflatoxin production as strongly as octyl syringate. Alkyl parabens and alkyl gallates inhibit the complex II activity of the mitochondrial respiration chain; thus, whether alkyl syringates inhibit complex II activity was examined. Inhibitory activities of alkyl syringates toward complex II also became stronger as the length of the alkyl chains increased. The complex II inhibitory activity of octyl syringate was comparable to that of octyl paraben and octyl gallate. These results suggest that alkyl syringates, alkyl parabens, and alkyl gallates, including commonly used food additives, are useful for aflatoxin control. PMID:27338472

  19. Integrated optic sensor for measuring aflatoxin-B1 in corn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boiarski, Anthony A.; Busch, James R.; Brody, R. S.; Ridgway, Richard W.; Altman, Wolf P.; Golden, C.

    1996-03-01

    An integrated optic refractometer device was developed to perform a rapid one-step, homogeneous immunoassay. The device measures refractive index changes at the surface of a planar, singlemode, ion-exchange waveguide using difference interferometry. Anti-aflatoxin- B1 antibodies were attached to the waveguide surface to provide a bioselective coating for detecting and quantifying the aflatoxin-B1 antigen level in a sample. The detection limit of this small antigen must be determined using a competitive assay format. To determine feasibility of the competitive assay, we determined the biosensor response to a larger molecular weight competing antigen, namely HRP-labeled aflatoxin-B1. This labeled antigen will compete with unlabeled aflatoxin for binding sites on the sensor surface. Increased sample aflatoxin levels will result in a decreased time-dependent phase change of the helium-neon laser light beam. Phase change data were determined for various concentration levels of HRP-labeled aflatoxin- B1 antigen. The assay measurements were made over a 5-minute time period. Results indicated that a competitive assay is feasible. Future assay efforts should be able to demonstrate measurement of aflatoxin-B levels found in contaminated corn samples.

  20. Detoxification of Aflatoxin-Contaminated Maize by Neutral Electrolyzed Oxidizing Water.

    PubMed

    Jardon-Xicotencatl, Samantha; Díaz-Torres, Roberto; Marroquín-Cardona, Alicia; Villarreal-Barajas, Tania; Méndez-Albores, Abraham

    2015-10-01

    Aflatoxins, a group of extremely toxic mycotoxins produced by Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus and A. nomius, can occur as natural contaminants of certain agricultural commodities, particularly maize. These toxins have been shown to be hepatotoxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic and cause severe human and animal diseases. The effectiveness of neutral electrolyzed oxidizing water (NEW) on aflatoxin detoxification was investigated in HepG2 cells using several validation methodologies such as the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5- diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, the induction of lipid peroxidation, the oxidative damage by means of glutathione modulation, the Ames test and the alkaline Comet assay. Our results showed that, after the aflatoxin-contaminated maize containing 360 ng/g was soaked in NEW (60 mg/L available chlorine, pH 7.01) during 15 min at room temperature, the aflatoxin content did not decrease as confirmed by the immunoaffinity column and ultra performance liquid chromatography methods. Aflatoxin fluorescence strength of detoxified samples was similar to untreated samples. However, aflatoxin-associated cytotoxicity and OPEN ACCESS Toxins 2015, 7 4295 genotoxicity effects were markedly reduced upon treatment. According to these results, NEW can be effectively used to detoxify aflatoxin-contaminated maize. PMID:26512692

  1. The case for aflatoxins in the causal chain of gallbladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Foerster, Claudia; Koshiol, Jill; Guerrero, Ariel R; Kogan, Marcelo J; Ferreccio, Catterina

    2016-01-01

    Chronic aflatoxin exposure has long been related to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Recently, its association with gallbladder cancer (GBC) was postulated. Here we present the data supporting this hypothesis in Chile, the country with the highest GBC mortality worldwide with age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) of 10.3 in women and 5.04 in men. The highest GBC rates occur in Southern Chile (ASMR=18), characterized by: high Amerindian ancestry, associated with high bile acid synthesis and gallstones; high poverty and high cereal agriculture, both associated with aflatoxin exposure. Aflatoxins have been detected in imported and locally grown foods items. We estimated population dietary exposure ranging from 0.25 to 35.0 ng/kg-body weight/day. The only report on human exposure in Chile found significantly more aflatoxin biomarkers in GBC than in controls (Odds Ratio=13.0). The hypothesis of aflatoxin-GBC causal link in the Chilean population is supported by: genetically-determined rapid cholesterol excretion and high gallstones prevalence (49.4%); low prevalence of HCC (ASMR=4.9) and low HBV infection (0.15%) the main co-factor of aflatoxins in HCC risk. If the association between aflatoxins and GBC were confirmed, public health interventions based on food regulation could have a substantial public health impact.

  2. Determination of aflatoxin B1 in medical herbs: interlaboratory study.

    PubMed

    Arranz, Isabel; Sizoo, Eric; van Egmond, Hans; Kroeger, Katy; Legarda, Teresa M; Burdaspal, Pedro; Reif, Klaus; Stroka, Joerg

    2006-01-01

    A method was developed for the determination of aflatoxin B1 in medical herbs (senna pods, botanical name Cassia angustifolia; devil's claw, botanical name Harpagophytum procumbens; and ginger roots, botanical name Zingiber officinale). The method, which was tested in a mini-collaborative study by 4 laboratories, is based on an immunoaffinity cleanup followed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography separation and fluorescence detection after post-column derivatization. It allows the quantitation of aflatoxin B1 at levels lower than 2 ng/g. A second extractant (acetone-water) was tested and compared to the proposed methanol-water extractant. Several post-column derivatization options (electrochemically generated bromine, photochemical reaction, and chemical bromination) as well as different integration modes (height versus area) were also investigated. No differences were found depending on the choice of derivatization system or the signal integration mode used. The method was tested for 3 different matrixes: senna pods, ginger root, and devil's claw. Performance characteristics were established from the results of the study and resulted in HorRat values ranging from 0.12 to 0.75 with mean recoveries from 78 to 91% for the extraction with methanol-water and HorRat values ranging from 0.10-1.03 with mean recoveries from 98 to 103% for the extraction with acetone-water. As a result, the method, with all tested variations, was found to be fit-for-purpose for the determination of aflatoxin B1 in medical herbs at levels of 1 microg/kg and above. PMID:16792057

  3. Sulforaphane induces glutathione S-transferase isozymes which detoxify aflatoxin B(1)-8,9-epoxide in AML 12 cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shang Shang; Chen, Xiao Yan; Zhu, Ri Zhe; Choi, Byung-Min; Kim, Bok-Ryang

    2010-01-01

    The aflatoxin B(1)-8,9-epoxide (AFBO) is hepatocarcinogenic intermediate of aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) and is detoxified by glutathione S-transferases (GSTs). In this study, we investigated whether sulforaphane (SFN) could increase the rate of conjugation between AFBO and glutathione (GSH) as well as which of the GST isozymes were involved in the conjugation reaction. The conjugation potential was inhibited dose dependently with curcumin, an inhibitor of GSTs. SFN induced the expression of GST A3, GST A4, GST M1, GST P1, and GST T1 in alpha mouse line (AML) 12 cells. The cells treated with SFN (10 microM) for 12 h showed a 35-fold increase in conjugation potential of AFBO with GSH compared with the vehicle-treated cell. The conjugation potential was blocked partially by transfection of cells with siRNAs against each of the GST isozymes. The activity of GST A3 had the strongest effect on the conjugation potential. SFN treatment also increased total GST activity detected with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) up to 4.3-fold. The induction fold was much lower than that detected with AFBO. These results suggest that the chemopreventive effect of SFN on the decomposition of AFBO is related to the upregulation of several GST isozymes genes. The increase of GST activity by SFN was extremely specific toward the conjugation reaction of AFBO compared with CDNB. Therefore, this system for detecting GST activity seems to be an excellent method for screening chemopreventive compounds toward AFB(1) toxicity. PMID:20818711

  4. Potential economic losses to the US corn industry from aflatoxin contamination.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Nicole J; Bowers, Erin; Hurburgh, Charles; Wu, Felicia

    2016-01-01

    Mycotoxins, toxins produced by fungi that colonise food crops, can pose a heavy economic burden to the US corn industry. In terms of economic burden, aflatoxins are the most problematic mycotoxins in US agriculture. Estimates of their market impacts are important in determining the benefits of implementing mitigation strategies within the US corn industry, and the value of strategies to mitigate mycotoxin problems. Additionally, climate change may cause increases in aflatoxin contamination in corn, greatly affecting the economy of the US Midwest and all sectors in the United States and worldwide that rely upon its corn production. We propose two separate models for estimating the potential market loss to the corn industry from aflatoxin contamination, in the case of potential near-future climate scenarios (based on aflatoxin levels in Midwest corn in warm summers in the last decade). One model uses the probability of acceptance based on operating characteristic (OC) curves for aflatoxin sampling and testing, while the other employs partial equilibrium economic analysis, assuming no Type 1 or Type 2 errors, to estimate losses due to proportions of lots above the US Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) aflatoxin action levels. We estimate that aflatoxin contamination could cause losses to the corn industry ranging from US$52.1 million to US$1.68 billion annually in the United States, if climate change causes more regular aflatoxin contamination in the Corn Belt as was experienced in years such as 2012. The wide range represents the natural variability in aflatoxin contamination from year to year in US corn, with higher losses representative of warmer years. PMID:26807606

  5. Assessment of hot peppers for aflatoxin and mold proliferation during storage.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Qumer; Amjad, Muhammad; Asi, Muhammad Rafique; Ariño, Agustin

    2011-05-01

    Aflatoxin contamination and mold proliferation in three hot pepper hybrids (Sky Red, Maha, and Wonder King) were studied during 5 months of storage at three temperatures (20, 25, and 30°C) and under different packaging conditions (low-density polyethylene bags and jute bags). The presence of aflatoxins in hot pepper samples was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with a UV-Vis detector. Sampling for analysis of aflatoxins, total mold counts, and Aspergillus counts was carried out at 0, 50, 100, and 150 days of storage. Hot peppers packed in jute bags were more susceptible to aflatoxin contamination than those packed in polyethylene bags; aflatoxin concentrations were 75% higher in peppers stored in jute bags. The effect of storage temperature resulted in aflatoxin concentrations that were 61% higher in hot peppers stored at 25 and 30°C than in those stored at 20°C. Of the three pepper hybrids, Wonder King was more susceptible to aflatoxin contamination, with a maximum of 1.50 μg/kg when packed in jute bags and stored at 25°C for 150 days. However, no sample exceeded the maximum permitted level for total aflatoxins in spices established by European Union regulations (10 μg/kg). Total mold counts and Aspergillus counts increased with storage duration, but all counts were significantly lower in peppers stored in polyethylene bags. A gradual increase in temperature during prolonged storage of hot peppers in combination with aeration may be the main reasons for increases in fungal biomass and Aspergillus proliferation with the subsequent aflatoxin production. PMID:21549057

  6. Determination of Aflatoxin B1 in Smokeless Tobacco Products by Use of UHPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Zitomer, Nicholas; Rybak, Michael E; Li, Zhong; Walters, Matthew J; Holman, Matthew R

    2015-10-21

    This work developed a UHPLC-MS/MS method for the detection and quantitation of aflatoxins in smokeless tobacco products, which was then used to determine aflatoxin B1 concentrations in 32 smokeless tobacco products commercially available in the United States. Smokeless tobacco products were dried, milled, and amended with (13)C17-labeled internal standards, extracted in water/methanol solution in the presence of a surfactant, isolated through use of immunoaffinity column chromatography, and reconstituted in mobile phase prior to UHPLC-MS/MS analysis. The method was capable of baseline separation of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 in a 2.5 min run by use of a fused core C18 column and a water/methanol gradient. MS/MS transition (m/z) 313.3 → 241.2 was used for aflatoxin B1 quantitation, with 313.3 → 285.1 used for confirmation. The limit of detection (LOD) for aflatoxin B1 was 0.007 parts per billion (ppb). Method imprecision for aflatoxin B1 (expressed as coefficient of variation) ranged from 5.5 to 9.4%. Spike recoveries were 105-111%. Aflatoxin B1 concentrations in the smokeless tobacco products analyzed ranged from Aflatoxin B1 was most frequently detected in dry snuffs and chews, whereas all moist snuff products tested were below LOD. The amounts of aflatoxin B1 detected were low relative to the 20 ppb regulatory limit established by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for foods and feeds.

  7. [Adsorption of aflatoxin on montmorillonite modified by low-molecular-weight humic acids].

    PubMed

    Yao, Jia-Jia; Kang, Fu-Xing; Gao, Yan-Zheng

    2012-03-01

    The adsorption of a typical biogenic toxin aflatoxin B1 on montmorillonite modified by low-molecular-weight humic acids (M(r) < 3 500) was investigated. The montmorillonite rapidly adsorbed the aflatoxin B1 until amounting to the maximal capacity, and then the adsorbed aflatoxin B1 slowly released into solution and reached the sorption equilibrium state after 12 h. The sorption isotherm of aflatoxin B1 by montmorillonite could be well described by Langmiur model, while the sorption isotherm by humic acid-modified montmorillonite was well fitted by using the Freundlich model. The modification of the montmorillonite with humic acids obviously enhanced its adsorption capacity for aflatoxin B1, and the amounts of aflatoxin adsorbed by modified montmorillonite were obviously higher than those by montmorillonite. The sorption enhancement by humic acid modification was attributed to (1) the enlarged adsorption sites which owed to the surface collapse of crystal layers induced by organic acids, and (2) the binding of aflatoxin with the humic acid sorbed on mineral surface. In addition, the adsorption amounts of aflatoxin by montmorillonite and modified montmorillonite increased with the increase of pH values in solution, and more significant enhancement was observed for the latter than the former, which attributed to the release of humic acids from the modified montmorillonite with the high pH values in solution. This indicates that increasing the pH values resulted in the enhanced hydrophilic property and the release of the organic acids presented in modified montmorillonite, and more sorption sites were available for aflatoxin on the modified montmorillonite. Results of this work would strengthen our understanding of the behavior and fate of biological contaminants in the environment.

  8. Population structure and aflatoxin production by Aspergillus Sect. Flavi from maize in Nigeria and Ghana.

    PubMed

    Perrone, Giancarlo; Haidukowski, Miriam; Stea, Gaetano; Epifani, Filomena; Bandyopadhyay, Ranajit; Leslie, John F; Logrieco, Antonio

    2014-08-01

    Aflatoxins are highly toxic carcinogens that contaminate crops worldwide. Previous studies conducted in Nigeria and Ghana found high concentrations of aflatoxins in pre- and post-harvest maize. However, little information is available on the population structure of Aspergillus Sect. Flavi in West Africa. We determined the incidence of Aspergillus Sect. Flavi and the level of aflatoxin contamination in 91 maize samples from farms and markets in Nigeria and Ghana. Aspergillus spp. were recovered from 61/91 maize samples and aflatoxins B1 and/or B2 occurred in 36/91 samples. Three samples from the farms also contained aflatoxin G1 and/or G2. Farm samples were more highly contaminated than were samples from the market, in terms of both the percentage of the samples contaminated and the level of mycotoxin contamination. One-hundred-and-thirty-five strains representative of the 1163 strains collected were identified by using a multilocus sequence analysis of portions of the genes encoding calmodulin, β-tubulin and actin, and evaluated for aflatoxin production. Of the 135 strains, there were 110 - Aspergillus flavus, 20 - Aspergillus tamarii, 2 - Aspergillus wentii, 2 - Aspergillus flavofurcatus, and 1 - Aspergillus parvisclerotigenus. Twenty-five of the A. flavus strains and the A. parvisclerotigenus strain were the only strains that produced aflatoxins. The higher contamination of the farm than the market samples suggests that the aflatoxin exposure of rural farmers is even higher than previously estimated based on reported contamination of market samples. The relative infrequency of the A. flavus SBG strains, producing small sclerotia and high levels of both aflatoxins (B and G), suggests that long-term chronic exposure to this mycotoxin are a much higher health risk in West Africa than is the acute toxicity due to very highly contaminated maize in east Africa.

  9. Aflatoxin B1 metabolism by 3-methylcholanthrene-induced hamster hepatic cytochrome P-450s.

    PubMed

    Lai, T S; Chiang, J Y

    1990-01-01

    We have studied the activation of aflatoxin B1 by hamster liver microsomes and purified hamster cytochrome P-450 isozymes using a umu mutagen test. The hamster liver microsomes or S-9 fractions were much more active than rat liver microsomes or S-9 fractions in the activation of umu gene expression by aflatoxin B1 metabolites. 3-Methyl-cholanthrene treatment increased aflatoxin B1 activation by hamster liver microsomes. Two major 3-methylcholanthrene-inducible cytochrome P-450 isozymes, P-450 MC1 (IIA) and P-450 MC4 (IA2), were purified from 3-methylcholanthrene-treated hamster liver microsomes, and the metabolism of aflatoxin B1 by these two cytochromes was studied. In the reconstituted enzyme system, both P-450 MC1 and P-450 MC4 were highly active in the activation of aflatoxin B1, and antibodies against these P-450s specifically inhibited these activities. Antibody against P-450 MC1 inhibited the activation of aflatoxin B1 by 20% in the presence of 3-methyl-cholanthrene-treated hamster liver microsomes. In contrast, antibody against P-450 MC4 stimulated the activity by 175%. These results indicated that hamster P-450 MC1 might convert aflatoxin B1 to more toxic metabolite(s), whereas P-450 MC4 might convert aflatoxin B1 to less toxic metabolite(s), than aflatoxin B1 in liver microsomes. The metabolite(s) produced by both hamster cytochrome P-450 MC1 and MC4 were genotoxic in the umu mutagen test. PMID:2126562

  10. Understanding the genetics of regulation of aflatoxin production and Aspergillus flavus development.

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar, Deepak; Cary, Jeffrey W; Ehrlich, Kenneth; Yu, Jiujiang; Cleveland, Thomas E

    2006-09-01

    Aflatoxins are polyketide-derived, toxic, and carcinogenic secondary metabolites produced primarily by two fungal species, Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus, on crops such as corn, peanuts, cottonseed, and treenuts. Regulatory guidelines issued by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) prevent sale of commodities if contamination by these toxins exceeds certain levels. The biosynthesis of these toxins has been extensively studied. About 15 stable precursors have been identified. The genes involved in encoding the proteins required for the oxidative and regulatory steps in the biosynthesis are clustered in a 70 kb portion of chromosome 3 in the A. flavus genome. With the characterization of the gene cluster, new insights into the cellular processes that govern the genes involved in aflatoxin biosynthesis have been revealed, but the signaling processes that turn on aflatoxin biosynthesis during fungal contamination of crops are still not well understood. New molecular technologies, such as gene microarray analyses, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and chromatin immunoprecipitation are being used to understand how physiological stress, environmental and soil conditions, receptivity of the plant, and fungal virulence lead to episodic outbreaks of aflatoxin contamination in certain commercially important crops. With this fundamental understanding, we will be better able to design improved non-aflatoxigenic biocompetitive Aspergillus strains and develop inhibitors of aflatoxin production (native to affected crops or otherwise) amenable to agricultural application for enhancing host-resistance against fungal invasion or toxin production. Comparisons of aflatoxin-producing species with other fungal species that retain some of the genes required for aflatoxin formation is expected to provide insight into the evolution of the aflatoxin gene cluster, and its role in fungal physiology. Therefore, information on how and why the fungus makes the toxin will

  11. Development of greenhouse screening for resistance to Aspergillus parasiticus infection and preharvest aflatoxin contamination in peanut.

    PubMed

    Anderson, W F; Holbrook, C C; Wilson, D M

    1996-01-01

    Aspergillus flavus Link ex Fries and A. parasiticus Speare can invade peanut kernels and under certain environmental conditions produce unacceptable levels of the mycotoxin aflatoxin. A concerted effort is underway to reduce aflatoxin contamination in peanut and peanut products. A potentially effective method of control in peanut is the discovery and use of genes for resistance to either fungal invasion or aflatoxin formation. The objective of the present experimental study was to develop an effective and efficient procedure for screening individual plants or pods of single plants for resistance to invasion by the aflatoxigenic fungi and subsequent aflatoxin production. Methods of obtaining adequate drought-stress and fungal infection were developed through this series of experiments. By completely isolating the pods from the root zone and imposing drought-stress only on pegs and pods, high levels of fungal infection were observed. High amounts of preharvest aflatoxin accumulation were also produced by completely isolating the pods from the root zone. Mid-bloom inoculation with A. parasiticus-contaminated cracked corn and drought-stress periods of 40 to 60 days were the most effective procedures. This technique was used to assess peanut genotypes previously identified as being partially resistant to A. parasiticus infection or aflatoxin contamination, and segregating populations from four crosses. Variability in aflatoxin contamination was found among the 11 genotypes evaluated, however, none were significantly lower than the standard cultivars. Broad-sense heritability of four crosses was estimated through evaluation of seed from individual plants in the F2 generation. The heritability estimates of crosses GFA-2 x NC-V11 and Tifton-8 X NC-V11 were 0.46 and 0.29, respectively, but mean aflatoxin contamination levels were high (73,295 and 27,305 ppb). This greenhouse screening method could be an effective tool when genes for superior aflatoxin resistance are

  12. Decrease of aflatoxin B1 in yoghurt and acidified milks.

    PubMed

    Rasić, J L; Skrinjar, M; Markov, S

    1991-02-01

    Fermentation of yoghurt and acidified milks containing aflatoxin B1 (AB1) were studied. AB1 added to milk before fermentation at concentrations of 600, 1000 and 1400 micrograms/kg was reduced in yoghurts (pH 4.0) by 97, 91 and 90%, respectively. Coagulation time was approximately the same as in the controls. Streptococci had longer chains than those in the controls. The main decrease of AB1 occurred during the milk fermentation. A decrease of AB1 (conc. 1000 micrograms/kg) in milks acidified with citric, lactic and acetic acids (pH 4.0) was 90, 84 and 73%, respectively.

  13. Carryover of aflatoxin B/sub 1/ in contaminated substrate corn into Nigerian native beer

    SciTech Connect

    Okoye, Z.S.C.

    1986-10-01

    Aflatoxins, the toxic secondary metabolites of Aspergillus flavus and Asp. parasiticus, constitute a serious food contamination problem in Nigeria and have been detected in the blood of healthy rural blood donors and primary liver cancer patients from the Guinea savannah region where traditionally brewed cereal beer is popular. A recent survey of traditional breweries in the Jos metropolis has shown a high incidence of aflatoxin B/sub 1/ contamination of their products. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficiency of the traditional brewing in destroying aflatoxins in mould-infected substrate grains.

  14. Aflatoxin production on high moisture corn and sorghum with a limited incubation.

    PubMed

    Winn, R T; Lane, G T

    1978-06-01

    Samples of ground, cracked, or whole kernels of sorghum or corn were inoculated with Aspergillus flavus no. 15546. The samples were incubated at 25 or 30 C and 90% relative humidity for 48 or 72 h. In all treatments, the 72-h samples contained more aflatoxins B1 and B2 than the 48-h samples. Cracked sorghum at 30 C for 72 h and whole sorghum at 25 C for 72 h contained more aflatoxins than any other treatment. Even in these short incubation periods, enough aflatoxin could be produced to be harmful to livestock. PMID:99461

  15. Aflatoxin is not a probably human carcinogen: the published evidence is sufficient.

    PubMed

    Stoloff, L

    1989-12-01

    Since the early 1960s, when aflatoxin, the mold-produced contaminant of a number of important food commodities, was found to be a potent hepatocarcinogen for laboratory rats, there has been a sustained search for evidence to support the regulatory presumption that aflatoxin is a probable human carcinogen. The developing laboratory evidence of differences between species in metabolism of aflatoxin and susceptibility to its oncogenic effects indicated that humans were probably refractory to aflatoxin carcinogenesis, but the early epidemiological evidence indicated otherwise. That epidemiological evidence, however, contained flaws so that Working Groups of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) meeting in 1970, 1976, and 1982, although ignoring the biochemical evidence, did consider the available epidemiological evidence insufficient for a conclusion of human carcinogenicity. During the 1970s and 1980s, studies on the connection between chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and primary liver cell cancer (PLC), the expected lesion from aflatoxin exposure, had established a very strong etiological relationship between HBV and PLC. Since all the epidemiological studies of aflatoxin and PLC conducted prior to 1982 had been of populations with endemic HBV infection, and, in addition to other flaws, had not been controlled for this confounding factor, there was a solid basis for their rejection. Most epidemiological studies in the 1980s of aflatoxin and PLC were either in the United States, where HBV-infected groups could be excluded from the study, or, when in areas of chronic HBV infection, attempts were made to include that factor. The study of U.S. populations showed no difference in mortality rates from PLC that could be attributed to aflatoxin exposure. The studies of populations with endemic HBV infection produced no convincing evidence to support a primary role for aflatoxin in the induction of human PLC, although an accessory role to HBV

  16. Use of gamma irradiation to prevent aflatoxin B 1 production in smoked dried fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogbadu, G. H.

    Smoked dried fish bought from the Nigerian market was inoculated with spores of barAspergillus flavus (U.I. 81) and irradiated with doses of 0.625, 1.25, 2.50 and 5.00 KGy gamma irradiation. The effect of aflatoxin B 1 production on subsequent incubation for 8 days as stationary cultures was measured. The amount of aflatoxin B 1 produced was found to decrease with increased gamma irradiation dose levels. While the non-irradiated control produced significantly (at 1% level) greater amounts of aflatoxin B 1 as compared to the treated cultures.

  17. Aflatoxin contamination of red chili pepper from Bolivia and Peru, countries with high gallbladder cancer incidence rates.

    PubMed

    Asai, Takao; Tsuchiya, Yasuo; Okano, Kiyoshi; Piscoya, Alejandro; Nishi, Carlos Yoshito; Ikoma, Toshikazu; Oyama, Tomizo; Ikegami, Kikuo; Yamamoto, Masaharu

    2012-01-01

    Chilean red chili peppers contaminated with aflatoxins were reported in a previous study. If the development of gallbladder cancer (GBC) in Chile is associated with a high level of consumption of aflatoxin-contaminated red chili peppers, such peppers from other countries having a high GBC incidence rate may also be contaminated with aflatoxins. We aimed to determine whether this might be the case for red chili peppers from Bolivia and Peru. A total of 7 samples (3 from Bolivia, 4 from Peru) and 3 controls (2 from China, 1 from Japan) were evaluated. Aflatoxins were extracted with acetonitrile:water (9:1, v/v) and eluted through an immuno-affinity column. The concentrations of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and then the detected aflatoxins were identified using HPLC-mass spectrometry. In some but not all of the samples from Bolivia and Peru, aflatoxin B1 or aflatoxins B1 and B2 were detected. In particular, aflatoxin B1 or total aflatoxin concentrations in a Bolivian samples were above the maximum levels for aflatoxins in spices proposed by the European Commission. Red chili peppers from Bolivia and Peru consumed by populations having high GBC incidence rates would appear to be contaminated with aflatoxins. These data suggest the possibility that a high level of consumption of aflatoxin-contaminated red chili peppers is related to the development of GBC, and the association between the two should be confirmed by a case-control study.

  18. Aflatoxin contamination of red chili pepper from Bolivia and Peru, countries with high gallbladder cancer incidence rates.

    PubMed

    Asai, Takao; Tsuchiya, Yasuo; Okano, Kiyoshi; Piscoya, Alejandro; Nishi, Carlos Yoshito; Ikoma, Toshikazu; Oyama, Tomizo; Ikegami, Kikuo; Yamamoto, Masaharu

    2012-01-01

    Chilean red chili peppers contaminated with aflatoxins were reported in a previous study. If the development of gallbladder cancer (GBC) in Chile is associated with a high level of consumption of aflatoxin-contaminated red chili peppers, such peppers from other countries having a high GBC incidence rate may also be contaminated with aflatoxins. We aimed to determine whether this might be the case for red chili peppers from Bolivia and Peru. A total of 7 samples (3 from Bolivia, 4 from Peru) and 3 controls (2 from China, 1 from Japan) were evaluated. Aflatoxins were extracted with acetonitrile:water (9:1, v/v) and eluted through an immuno-affinity column. The concentrations of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and then the detected aflatoxins were identified using HPLC-mass spectrometry. In some but not all of the samples from Bolivia and Peru, aflatoxin B1 or aflatoxins B1 and B2 were detected. In particular, aflatoxin B1 or total aflatoxin concentrations in a Bolivian samples were above the maximum levels for aflatoxins in spices proposed by the European Commission. Red chili peppers from Bolivia and Peru consumed by populations having high GBC incidence rates would appear to be contaminated with aflatoxins. These data suggest the possibility that a high level of consumption of aflatoxin-contaminated red chili peppers is related to the development of GBC, and the association between the two should be confirmed by a case-control study. PMID:23244129

  19. Inhibitory Effect of Cinnamaldehyde, Citral, and Eugenol on Aflatoxin Biosynthetic Gene Expression and Aflatoxin B1 Biosynthesis in Aspergillus flavus.

    PubMed

    Liang, Dandan; Xing, Fuguo; Selvaraj, Jonathan Nimal; Liu, Xiao; Wang, Limin; Hua, Huijuan; Zhou, Lu; Zhao, Yueju; Wang, Yan; Liu, Yang

    2015-12-01

    In order to reveal the inhibitory effects of cinnamaldehyde, citral, and eugenol on aflatoxin biosynthesis, the expression levels of 5 key aflatoxin biosynthetic genes were evaluated by real-time PCR. Aspergillus flavus growth and AFB1 production were completely inhibited by 0.80 mmol/L of cinnamaldehyde and 2.80 mmol/L of citral. However, at lower concentration, cinnamaldehyde (0.40 mmol/L), eugenol (0.80 mmol/L), and citral (0.56 mmol/L) significantly reduced AFB1 production with inhibition rate of 68.9%, 95.4%, and 41.8%, respectively, while no effect on fungal growth. Real-time PCR showed that the expressions of aflR, aflT, aflD, aflM, and aflP were down-regulated by cinnamaldehyde (0.40 mmol/L), eugenol (0.80 mmol/L), and citral (0.56 mmol/L). In the presence of cinnamaldehyde, AflM was highly down-regulated (average of 5963 folds), followed by aflP, aflR, aflD, and aflT with the average folds of 55, 18, 6.5, and 5.8, respectively. With 0.80 mmol/L of eugenol, aflP was highly down-regulated (average of 2061-folds), followed by aflM, aflR, aflD, and aflT with average of 138-, 15-, 5.2-, and 4.8-folds reduction, respectively. With 0.56 mmol/L of citral, aflT was completely inhibited, followed by aflM, aflP, aflR, and aflD with average of 257-, 29-, 3.5-, and 2.5-folds reduction, respectively. These results suggest that the reduction in AFB1 production by cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, and citral at low concentration may be due to the down-regulations of the transcription level of aflatoxin biosynthetic genes. Cinnamaldehyde and eugenol may be employed successfully as a good candidate in controlling of toxigenic fungi and subsequently contamination with aflatoxins in practice.

  20. Anti-CD47 Treatment Stimulates Phagocytosis of Glioblastoma by M1 and M2 Polarized Macrophages and Promotes M1 Polarized Macrophages In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Kahn, Suzana A.; Azad, Tej D.; Gholamin, Sharareh; Xu, Chelsea Y.; Liu, Jie; Achrol, Achal S.; Richard, Chase; Sommerkamp, Pia; Schoen, Matthew Kenneth; McCracken, Melissa N.; Majeti, Ravi; Weissman, Irving; Mitra, Siddhartha S.; Cheshier, Samuel H.

    2016-01-01

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) represent an important cellular subset within the glioblastoma (WHO grade IV) microenvironment and are a potential therapeutic target. TAMs display a continuum of different polarization states between antitumorigenic M1 and protumorigenic M2 phenotypes, with a lower M1/M2 ratio correlating with worse prognosis. Here, we investigated the effect of macrophage polarization on anti-CD47 antibody-mediated phagocytosis of human glioblastoma cells in vitro, as well as the effect of anti-CD47 on the distribution of M1 versus M2 macrophages within human glioblastoma cells grown in mouse xenografts. Bone marrow-derived mouse macrophages and peripheral blood-derived human macrophages were polarized in vitro toward M1 or M2 phenotypes and verified by flow cytometry. Primary human glioblastoma cell lines were offered as targets to mouse and human M1 or M2 polarized macrophages in vitro. The addition of an anti-CD47 monoclonal antibody led to enhanced tumor-cell phagocytosis by mouse and human M1 and M2 macrophages. In both cases, the anti-CD47-induced phagocytosis by M1 was more prominent than that for M2. Dissected tumors from human glioblastoma xenografted within NOD.Cg-Prkdcscid Il2rgtm1Wjl/SzJ mice and treated with anti-CD47 showed a significant increase of M1 macrophages within the tumor. These data show that anti-CD47 treatment leads to enhanced tumor cell phagocytosis by both M1 and M2 macrophage subtypes with a higher phagocytosis rate by M1 macrophages. Furthermore, these data demonstrate that anti-CD47 treatment alone can shift the phenotype of macrophages toward the M1 subtype in vivo. PMID:27092773

  1. Anti-CD47 Treatment Stimulates Phagocytosis of Glioblastoma by M1 and M2 Polarized Macrophages and Promotes M1 Polarized Macrophages In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Michael; Hutter, Gregor; Kahn, Suzana A; Azad, Tej D; Gholamin, Sharareh; Xu, Chelsea Y; Liu, Jie; Achrol, Achal S; Richard, Chase; Sommerkamp, Pia; Schoen, Matthew Kenneth; McCracken, Melissa N; Majeti, Ravi; Weissman, Irving; Mitra, Siddhartha S; Cheshier, Samuel H

    2016-01-01

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) represent an important cellular subset within the glioblastoma (WHO grade IV) microenvironment and are a potential therapeutic target. TAMs display a continuum of different polarization states between antitumorigenic M1 and protumorigenic M2 phenotypes, with a lower M1/M2 ratio correlating with worse prognosis. Here, we investigated the effect of macrophage polarization on anti-CD47 antibody-mediated phagocytosis of human glioblastoma cells in vitro, as well as the effect of anti-CD47 on the distribution of M1 versus M2 macrophages within human glioblastoma cells grown in mouse xenografts. Bone marrow-derived mouse macrophages and peripheral blood-derived human macrophages were polarized in vitro toward M1 or M2 phenotypes and verified by flow cytometry. Primary human glioblastoma cell lines were offered as targets to mouse and human M1 or M2 polarized macrophages in vitro. The addition of an anti-CD47 monoclonal antibody led to enhanced tumor-cell phagocytosis by mouse and human M1 and M2 macrophages. In both cases, the anti-CD47-induced phagocytosis by M1 was more prominent than that for M2. Dissected tumors from human glioblastoma xenografted within NOD.Cg-Prkdcscid Il2rgtm1Wjl/SzJ mice and treated with anti-CD47 showed a significant increase of M1 macrophages within the tumor. These data show that anti-CD47 treatment leads to enhanced tumor cell phagocytosis by both M1 and M2 macrophage subtypes with a higher phagocytosis rate by M1 macrophages. Furthermore, these data demonstrate that anti-CD47 treatment alone can shift the phenotype of macrophages toward the M1 subtype in vivo.

  2. Aflatoxins in hazelnuts and dried figs: Occurrence and exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Kabak, Bulent

    2016-11-15

    A total of 300 samples of hazelnuts and dried fig were analysed for the incidence of any aflatoxins (AFs). High-performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) method was used to quantify the amounts of AFs. The limit of quantification varied from 0.21 to 0.30μgkg(-1). No AFs were detected in shells of the hazelnuts, while six raw hazelnut kernel samples (12%) and five roasted hazelnut kernel samples (8.3%) contained AFs ranging from 0.09 to 11.3μgkg(-1) and from 0.17 to 11.2μgkg(-1), respectively. Sixteen dried fig samples (12.3%) contained AFs ranging from 0.1 to 28.2μgkg(-1) and a mean value of 3.8μgkg(-1). Three hazelnuts and six dried fig samples exceeded the European maximum limits (MLs) of 5 and 2μgkg(-1) for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), respectively. The contribution of hazelnuts to AFs exposure is higher than that of dried figs.

  3. Effects of aflatoxin on lymphoid cells of weanling rat.

    PubMed

    Raisuddin; Singh, K P; Zaidi, S I; Saxena, A K; Ray, P K

    1990-08-01

    Aflatoxin (AF), the hepatocarcinogenic food contaminant produced by the Aspergillus flavus group of fungi, is known to interact with various vital processes, including the immune function. Effects of long-term treatment of three dose levels of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) on lymphoid cells of weanling rats were studied. AFB1 treatment caused a reduction in body weight gain, significantly (P less than 0.01) at the 700 microgram level. There was also a significant decrease in the weight of spleen and thymus in AFB1-treated animals in comparison to control. Similarly, AFB1 depleted cell populations of thymus and bone marrow and WBC and RBC counts. There was a marked reduction in the population and phagocytic capacity of macrophages due to AFB1 administration at dose levels of 350 and 700 micrograms kg-1 body weight. Macromolecular synthesis of DNA, RNA and protein in macrophages was affected, as there was significant inhibition in the incorporation of [3H]-thymidine, [3H]-uridine and [3H]-leucine. The hampered functioning of macrophages may be due to the cytotoxic action of AFB1.

  4. Aflatoxin B1 binding to sorbents in bovine ruminal fluid.

    PubMed

    Spotti, M; Fracchiolla, M L; Arioli, F; Caloni, F; Pompa, G

    2005-08-01

    A recent approach to the problem of contamination of agricultural products by aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) is to add non-nutritional adsorbents to animal diets in order to sequester ingested aflatoxins. We conducted in vitro experiments to develop a rapid and cheap model using ruminal fluid to assess the ability of sorbent materials to bind AFB(1). Seven sorbents (hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate; clinoptilolite; zeolite; two types of bentonite; sepiolite; and PHIL 75), commonly added to bovine diets were incubated in water and ruminal fluid in the presence of AFB(1). Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate, sepiolite and one of the bentonites bound 100% of the AFB(1) in the presence of both ruminal fluid and water; clinoptilolite bound about 80% of AFB(1) in both liquids; whereas the affinities for the mycotoxin of zeolite (50%) and the other sample of bentonite (60%) in water seem to be increased by about 40% in ruminal fluid incubations. PHIL 75 had the poorest binding ability: about 30% in water and 45% in ruminal fluid. In view of the differences in toxin binding in water and ruminal fluid, it is preferable to use the ruminal fluid model for the in vitro pre-screening of sorbent materials potentially useful as adjuvants to ruminant feeds. PMID:16215841

  5. Aflatoxins in hazelnuts and dried figs: Occurrence and exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Kabak, Bulent

    2016-11-15

    A total of 300 samples of hazelnuts and dried fig were analysed for the incidence of any aflatoxins (AFs). High-performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) method was used to quantify the amounts of AFs. The limit of quantification varied from 0.21 to 0.30μgkg(-1). No AFs were detected in shells of the hazelnuts, while six raw hazelnut kernel samples (12%) and five roasted hazelnut kernel samples (8.3%) contained AFs ranging from 0.09 to 11.3μgkg(-1) and from 0.17 to 11.2μgkg(-1), respectively. Sixteen dried fig samples (12.3%) contained AFs ranging from 0.1 to 28.2μgkg(-1) and a mean value of 3.8μgkg(-1). Three hazelnuts and six dried fig samples exceeded the European maximum limits (MLs) of 5 and 2μgkg(-1) for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), respectively. The contribution of hazelnuts to AFs exposure is higher than that of dried figs. PMID:27283601

  6. Aflatoxins in Food Products in Iran: a Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Hedayati, Mohammad Taghi; Mahdavi Omran, Saeid; Soleymani, Abbas; Taghizadeh Armaki, Mojtaba

    2016-01-01

    Context Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by certain toxigenic fungi and the most of them are aflatoxins, fumonisins, trichothecenes, ochratoxin A, patulin, and zearalenone. Evidence Acquisition In consideration of the consumption of certain farm products for animal feed and the prevalence of toxigenic fungi and mycotoxins in food, the present study was performed to evaluate this situation in Iran with a review of the literature using search engines. All published articles were selected using Iran Medex, Magiran, PubMed NCBI, and Google Scholar. Results Aflatoxins have been found in many food products in Iran. Conclusions It is necessary to detect aflatoxins in foods and food products as early as possible, before they enter human or animal bodies. There is a high consumption of milk and dairy products in Iran, and the proper management of animal foods can help to decrease the aflatoxins in milk.

  7. Molecular biomarkers for aflatoxins and their application to human liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Scholl, P; Musser, S M; Kensler, T W; Groopman, J D

    1995-01-01

    The rationale for developing molecular biomarkers to monitor and assess risk from human exposure to aflatoxins have been justified by the association of these carcinogens with human liver cancer, a disease that causes at least 250000 deaths world-wide each year. The goal of our research has been the development of aflatoxin biomarkers based upon the knowledge of the biochemistry and toxicology of aflatoxins gleaned from both experimental and human studies. These biomarkers have been subsequently utilized in experimental chemoprotection models to provide data on the modulation of these markers under different situations of disease risk. Several of the aflatoxin specific biomarkers have been validated in epidemiologic studies and are now available to use as intermediate biomarkers in chemoprotection trials. This systematic approach provides encouragement for preventive interventions and should serve as a template for the development, validation and application of other chemical-specific biomarkers to cancer or other chronic diseases.

  8. Blocking aflatoxins in corn by using non-toxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are over 500 previously reported mycotoxins. However, only a few have been identified as important for food safety, including aflatoxins, fumonisins, cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), trichothecenes, zearalenone, ochratoxins, and patulin. Mycotoxins contaminate plant materials, causing acute and ch...

  9. Determination of aflatoxins in food by use of an automatic work station.

    PubMed

    Niedwetzki, G; Lach, G; Geschwill, K

    1994-02-11

    An automated HPLC method with postcolumn derivatization is described for the determination of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 after an immunoaffinity column clean-up. It can be used for the determination of aflatoxins in a variety of foodstuffs such as nuts, nut-like products (pistachios, almonds, etc.) and dried fruit. The aflatoxins are extracted with methanol-water, followed by a filtration step. Dilution of the extract, mixing, immunoaffinity column clean-up, elution of the aflatoxins and optional on-line HPLC are performed by an automatic work station (Zymark BenchMate). The subsequent HPLC analysis includes a postcolumn derivatization step with iodine solution and fluorimetric detection. The method compared well with manual techniques and another automated method.

  10. Survey of aflatoxins in retail samples of whole and ground black and white peppercorns.

    PubMed

    Adzahan, N; Jalili, M; Jinap, S

    2009-01-01

    A total of 126 local and imported samples of commercial white and black pepper in Malaysia were analysed for aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2) content using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a fluorescence detector (FD). An acetonitrile-methanol-water (17 : 29 : 54; v/v) mixture was used as a mobile phase and clean-up was using an immunoaffinity column (IAC). Seventy out of 126 (55.5%) samples were contaminated with total aflatoxins, although only low levels of aflatoxins were found ranging from 0.1 to 4.9 ng g(-1). Aflatoxin B1 showed the highest incidence of contamination and was found in all contaminated samples. There was a significant difference between type of samples and different brands (p < 0.05). The results showed black peppers were more contaminated than white peppers. PMID:24785182

  11. Comparison of the efficiency between two sampling plans for aflatoxins analysis in maize.

    PubMed

    Mallmann, Adriano Olnei; Marchioro, Alexandro; Oliveira, Maurício Schneider; Rauber, Ricardo Hummes; Dilkin, Paulo; Mallmann, Carlos Augusto

    2014-01-01

    Variance and performance of two sampling plans for aflatoxins quantification in maize were evaluated. Eight lots of maize were sampled using two plans: manual, using sampling spear for kernels; and automatic, using a continuous flow to collect milled maize. Total variance and sampling, preparation, and analysis variance were determined and compared between plans through multifactor analysis of variance. Four theoretical distribution models were used to compare aflatoxins quantification distributions in eight maize lots. The acceptance and rejection probabilities for a lot under certain aflatoxin concentration were determined using variance and the information on the selected distribution model to build the operational characteristic curves (OC). Sampling and total variance were lower at the automatic plan. The OC curve from the automatic plan reduced both consumer and producer risks in comparison to the manual plan. The automatic plan is more efficient than the manual one because it expresses more accurately the real aflatoxin contamination in maize.

  12. Relative severity of aflatoxin contamination of cereal crops in West Africa.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, Ranajit; Kumar, Manjula; Leslie, John F

    2007-10-01

    Aflatoxins are a common contaminant of cereals that can cause cancer, liver disease, immune suppression, retarded growth and development, and death, depending on the level and duration of exposure. Maize is an introduced crop to Africa and there have been efforts over the last 20 years or so to replace traditional cereal crops, such as sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum), with maize. We found that maize was significantly more heavily colonized by aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus spp. than either sorghum or millet, with overall aflatoxin levels being correspondingly higher. On average, Nigerians consume 138 kg cereals annually. If the primary cereal is sorghum instead of maize, then the risk of aflatoxin-related problems is reduced 4-fold; if it is pearl millet, then the risks are reduced 8-fold. Development programs and other ventures to increase maize production in marginal cropping areas of Africa should be reconsidered and, instead, efforts to improve/maintain traditional crops encouraged.

  13. Survey of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in stored tubers of Cyperus esculentus L.

    PubMed

    Adebajo, L O

    1993-10-01

    The mold incidence, moisture contents, pH and levels of mycotoxins (aflatoxins B1, G1 and ochratoxin A) on/of/in rootstock snack (tubers of Cyperus esculentus L.) samples were monitored during a 150-day storage period. Whereas the mold incidence, moisture and mycotoxin levels increased with storage time, the pH declined during the same period. Altogether, 12 fungal species, mostly toxigenic, including Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus and A. ochraceus were isolated. At collection period only 3 of the 9 snack samples analysed contained trace amounts of aflatoxins. By 120th day, all the 9 samples were contaminated and the average levels were 454 and 80 ppb for aflatoxin B1 and aflatoxin G1 respectively on the 150th day. Ochratoxin A was not detected before 120th day and then only at low levels, occurring in a maximum of four-samples and ranging between 10 and 80 ppb. PMID:8159216

  14. Characterization of the Aspergillus ochraceoroseus aflatoxin/sterigmatocystin biosynthetic gene cluster

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Production of the carcinogenic aflatoxins has been reported from members of Aspergillus section Flavi, Aspergillus section Nidulantes, and a newly proposed section, Aspergillus section Ochraceorosei that consists of Aspergillus ochraceoroseus and A. rambellii. Unlike members of section Flavi, A. oc...

  15. Comparison of the efficiency between two sampling plans for aflatoxins analysis in maize

    PubMed Central

    Mallmann, Adriano Olnei; Marchioro, Alexandro; Oliveira, Maurício Schneider; Rauber, Ricardo Hummes; Dilkin, Paulo; Mallmann, Carlos Augusto

    2014-01-01

    Variance and performance of two sampling plans for aflatoxins quantification in maize were evaluated. Eight lots of maize were sampled using two plans: manual, using sampling spear for kernels; and automatic, using a continuous flow to collect milled maize. Total variance and sampling, preparation, and analysis variance were determined and compared between plans through multifactor analysis of variance. Four theoretical distribution models were used to compare aflatoxins quantification distributions in eight maize lots. The acceptance and rejection probabilities for a lot under certain aflatoxin concentration were determined using variance and the information on the selected distribution model to build the operational characteristic curves (OC). Sampling and total variance were lower at the automatic plan. The OC curve from the automatic plan reduced both consumer and producer risks in comparison to the manual plan. The automatic plan is more efficient than the manual one because it expresses more accurately the real aflatoxin contamination in maize. PMID:24948911

  16. Evaluation of ELISA screening test for detecting aflatoxin in biogenic dust samples

    SciTech Connect

    Durant, J.T.

    1996-05-01

    Aflatoxin is a carcinogenic chemical that is sometimes produced when agricultural commodities are infested by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and A. Parasiticus. Aflatoxin has been found to be present in air samples taken around persons handling materials likely to be contaminated. The purpose of this investigation was to demonstrate the feasibility of using an Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) test kit that was developed to screen for aflatoxin in bulk agricultural commodities, to an air sample. Samples were taken from two environments likely to be contaminated with aflatoxin, a dairy farm feed mixing operation and a peanut bagging operation. The dust collected from these environments was considered to be biogenic, in that it originated primarily from biological materials.

  17. [Aflatoxins in food: tests of decontamination of peanut cakes by ionizing treatment].

    PubMed

    Diop, Y M; Ndiaye, B; Diouf, A; Fall, M; Thiam, A; Ciss, M; Hasselmann, C; Ba, D

    1999-01-01

    The efficacy of ionising treatment for decontaminating peanut cakes was tested. The influence of cakes water content and the effect of ionisation dose rate were studied. The results obtained after a reverse phase liquid chromatographic determination of B1, B2, G1 and G2 aflatoxins have revealed an important contamination of the peanut cakes (up to 1000 ppb of total aflatoxin's contents). After ionising treatment at 25 kGy, the aflatoxins degradation in peanut cake's was less important in dried samples (about 5-10% at 0.55 water activity: aw) than in the humid ones (40-60% degradation at 0.95 water activity). At this dose, any indicative difference of the degradation rate of aflatoxins, with regard to the ionising process was observed. The efficacy of ionising treatment for decontaminating peanut cakes could probably be improved, however the economic interest of such process as alternative of the treatment with ammonia is questionable.

  18. Aflatoxins in Food Products in Iran: a Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Hedayati, Mohammad Taghi; Mahdavi Omran, Saeid; Soleymani, Abbas; Taghizadeh Armaki, Mojtaba

    2016-01-01

    Context Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by certain toxigenic fungi and the most of them are aflatoxins, fumonisins, trichothecenes, ochratoxin A, patulin, and zearalenone. Evidence Acquisition In consideration of the consumption of certain farm products for animal feed and the prevalence of toxigenic fungi and mycotoxins in food, the present study was performed to evaluate this situation in Iran with a review of the literature using search engines. All published articles were selected using Iran Medex, Magiran, PubMed NCBI, and Google Scholar. Results Aflatoxins have been found in many food products in Iran. Conclusions It is necessary to detect aflatoxins in foods and food products as early as possible, before they enter human or animal bodies. There is a high consumption of milk and dairy products in Iran, and the proper management of animal foods can help to decrease the aflatoxins in milk. PMID:27679702

  19. Efficacy of water-dispersible formulations of biological control strains of Aspergillus flavus for aflatoxin management in corn.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Mark A; Abbas, Hamed K; Jin, Xixuan; Elliott, Brad

    2016-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted in 2011 and 2012 to evaluate the efficacy of water-dispersible granule (WDG) formulations of biocontrol strains of Aspergillus flavus in controlling aflatoxin contamination of corn. In 2011, when aflatoxin was present at very high levels, there was no WDG treatment that could provide significant protection against aflatoxin contamination. The following year a new WDG formulation was tested that resulted in 100% reduction in aflatoxin in one field experiment and ≥ 49% reduction in all five WDG treatments with biocontrol strain 21882. Large sampling error, however, limited the resolution of various treatment effects. Corn samples were also subjected to microbial analysis to understand better the mechanisms of successful biocontrol. In the samples examined here, the size of the A. flavus population on the grain was associated with the amount of aflatoxin, but the toxigenic status of that population was a poor predictor of aflatoxin concentration.

  20. Development of a ten-signature classifier using a support vector machine integrated approach to subdivide the M1 stage into M1a and M1b stages of nasopharyngeal carcinoma with synchronous metastases to better predict patients' survival.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Rou; You, Rui; Pei, Xiao-Qing; Zou, Xiong; Zhang, Meng-Xia; Wang, Tong-Min; Sun, Rui; Luo, Dong-Hua; Huang, Pei-Yu; Chen, Qiu-Yan; Hua, Yi-Jun; Tang, Lin-Quan; Guo, Ling; Mo, Hao-Yuan; Qian, Chao-Nan; Mai, Hai-Qiang; Hong, Ming-Huang; Cai, Hong-Min; Chen, Ming-Yuan

    2016-01-19

    The aim of this study was to develop a prognostic classifier and subdivided the M1 stage for nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients with synchronous metastases (mNPC). A retrospective cohort of 347 mNPC patients was recruited between January 2000 and December 2010. Thirty hematological markers and 11 clinical characteristics were collected, and the association of these factors with overall survival (OS) was evaluated. Advanced machine learning schemes of a support vector machine (SVM) were used to select a subset of highly informative factors and to construct a prognostic model (mNPC-SVM). The mNPC-SVM classifier identified ten informative variables, including three clinical indexes and seven hematological markers. The median survival time for low-risk patients (M1a) as identified by the mNPC-SVM classifier was 38.0 months, and survival time was dramatically reduced to 13.8 months for high-risk patients (M1b) (P < 0.001). Multivariate adjustment using prognostic factors revealed that the mNPC-SVM classifier remained a powerful predictor of OS (M1a vs. M1b, hazard ratio, 3.45; 95% CI, 2.59 to 4.60, P < 0.001). Moreover, combination treatment of systemic chemotherapy and loco-regional radiotherapy was associated with significantly better survival outcomes than chemotherapy alone (the 5-year OS, 47.0% vs. 10.0%, P < 0.001) in the M1a subgroup but not in the M1b subgroup (12.0% vs. 3.0%, P = 0.101). These findings were validated by a separate cohort. In conclusion, the newly developed mNPC-SVM classifier led to more precise risk definitions that offer a promising subdivision of the M1 stage and individualized selection for future therapeutic regimens in mNPC patients.

  1. Natural occurrence of aflatoxins in peanuts and peanut butter from Bulawayo, Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Mupunga, I; Lebelo, S L; Mngqawa, P; Rheeder, J P; Katerere, D R

    2014-10-01

    Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by filamentous fungi that may contaminate food and pose a health risk, especially in developing countries, where there is a lack of food security and quality is subsumed by food insufficiency. Aflatoxins are the most toxic known mycotoxins and are a significant risk factor for liver and kidney cancer, teratogenicity, undernutrition, and micronutrient malabsorption in both humans and animals. The main aim of the study was to determine the extent of fungal and aflatoxin contamination in peanuts and peanut butter being sold in both the formal and informal markets in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe. Eighteen peanut samples and 11 peanut butter samples were purchased from retail shops and the informal market. Fungal contamination was determined using standard mycology culture methods, while aflatoxin contamination was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection. Four of the six peanut samples tested for fungal contamination were infected with Aspergillus flavus/parasiticus, ranging from 3 to 20% of the kernels examined, while 27% (3 of 11) of the peanut butter samples were infected with A. flavus/parasiticus. Ninety-one percent (10 of 11) of the peanut butter samples were contaminated with aflatoxins (mean, 75.66 ng/g, and range, 6.1 to 247 ng/g), and aflatoxin B1 was the most prevalent (mean, 51.0 ng/g, and range, 3.7 to 191 ng/g). Three of the 18 peanut samples were contaminated with aflatoxins (range, 6.6 to 622 ng/g). The commercial peanut butter samples had very high aflatoxin levels, and manufacturers should be sensitized to the detrimental effects of aflatoxins and measures to reduce contamination. PMID:25285504

  2. Fungi, aflatoxins, and cyclopiazonic acid associated with peanut retailing in Botswana.

    PubMed

    Mphande, Fingani A; Siame, Bupe A; Taylor, Joanne E

    2004-01-01

    Peanuts are important food commodities, but they are susceptible to fungal infestation and mycotoxin contamination. Raw peanuts were purchased from retail outlets in Botswana and examined for fungi and mycotoxin (aflatoxins and cyclopiazonic acid) contamination. Zygomycetes were the most common fungi isolated; they accounted for 41% of all the isolates and were found on 98% of the peanut samples. Among the Zygomycetes, Absidia corymbifera and Rhizopus stolonifer were the most common. Aspergillus spp. accounted for 35% of all the isolates, with Aspergillus niger being the most prevalent (20.4%). Aspergillus flavus/parasiticus were also present and accounted for 8.5% of all the isolates, with A. flavus accounting for the majority of the A. flavus/parasiticus identified. Of the 32 isolates of A. flavus screened for mycotoxin production, 11 did not produce detectable aflatoxins, 8 produced only aflatoxins B1 and B2, and 13 produced all four aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1, and G2) in varying amounts. Only 6 of the A. flavus isolates produced cyclopiazonic acid at concentrations ranging from 1 to 55 microg/kg. The one A. parasiticus isolate screened also produced all the four aflatoxins (1,200 microg/kg) but did not produce cyclopiazonic acid. When the raw peanut samples (n = 120) were analyzed for total aflatoxins, 78% contained aflatoxins at concentrations ranging from 12 to 329 microg/kg. Many of the samples (49%) contained total aflatoxins at concentrations above the 20 microg/kg limit set by the World Health Organization. Only 21% (n = 83) of the samples contained cyclopiazonic acid with concentrations ranging from 1 to 10 microg/kg. The results show that mycotoxins and toxigenic fungi are common contaminants of peanuts sold at retail in Botswana. PMID:14717358

  3. Natural occurrence of aflatoxins in peanuts and peanut butter from Bulawayo, Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Mupunga, I; Lebelo, S L; Mngqawa, P; Rheeder, J P; Katerere, D R

    2014-10-01

    Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by filamentous fungi that may contaminate food and pose a health risk, especially in developing countries, where there is a lack of food security and quality is subsumed by food insufficiency. Aflatoxins are the most toxic known mycotoxins and are a significant risk factor for liver and kidney cancer, teratogenicity, undernutrition, and micronutrient malabsorption in both humans and animals. The main aim of the study was to determine the extent of fungal and aflatoxin contamination in peanuts and peanut butter being sold in both the formal and informal markets in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe. Eighteen peanut samples and 11 peanut butter samples were purchased from retail shops and the informal market. Fungal contamination was determined using standard mycology culture methods, while aflatoxin contamination was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection. Four of the six peanut samples tested for fungal contamination were infected with Aspergillus flavus/parasiticus, ranging from 3 to 20% of the kernels examined, while 27% (3 of 11) of the peanut butter samples were infected with A. flavus/parasiticus. Ninety-one percent (10 of 11) of the peanut butter samples were contaminated with aflatoxins (mean, 75.66 ng/g, and range, 6.1 to 247 ng/g), and aflatoxin B1 was the most prevalent (mean, 51.0 ng/g, and range, 3.7 to 191 ng/g). Three of the 18 peanut samples were contaminated with aflatoxins (range, 6.6 to 622 ng/g). The commercial peanut butter samples had very high aflatoxin levels, and manufacturers should be sensitized to the detrimental effects of aflatoxins and measures to reduce contamination.

  4. Household dietary exposure to aflatoxins from maize and maize products in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kilonzo, Robert M; Imungi, Jasper K; Muiru, William M; Lamuka, Peter O; Njage, Patrick M Kamau

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxicosis has repeatedly affected Kenyans, particularly in the eastern region, due to consumption of contaminated maize. However, save for the cases of acute toxicity, the levels of sub-lethal exposure have not been adequately assessed. It is believed that this type of exposure does exist even during the seasons when acute toxicity does not occur. This study, therefore, was designed to assess the exposure of households to aflatoxins through consumption of maize and maize products. Twenty samples each of maize kernels, muthokoi and maize meal were randomly sampled from households in Kibwezi District of Makueni County in Eastern Kenya and analysed for aflatoxin contamination. The samples were quantitatively analysed for aflatoxin contamination using HPLC. The uncertainty and variability in dietary exposure was quantitatively modelled in Ms Excel using Monte Carlo simulation in @Risk software. Aflatoxins were found in 45% of maize kernels at between 18 and 480 μg kg⁻¹, 20% of muthokoi at between 12 and 123 μg kg⁻¹, and 35% of maize meal at between 6 and 30 μg kg⁻¹. The mean dietary exposure to aflatoxin in maize kernels was 292 ± 1567 ng kg⁻¹ body weight day⁻¹, while the mean dietary exposure to aflatoxin in maize meal and muthokoi were 59 ± 62 and 27 ± 154 ng kg⁻¹ body weight day⁻¹ respectively. The results showed that the amount and frequency of consumption of the three foods is the more important contributing factor than the mean aflatoxin concentration levels, to the risk of dietary exposure to aflatoxins.

  5. Real-time PCR assays for detection and quantification of aflatoxin-producing molds in foods.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Alicia; Rodríguez, Mar; Luque, M Isabel; Martín, Alberto; Córdoba, Juan J

    2012-08-01

    Aflatoxins are among the most toxic mycotoxins. Early detection and quantification of aflatoxin-producing species is crucial to improve food safety. In the present work, two protocols of real-time PCR (qPCR) based on SYBR Green and TaqMan were developed, and their sensitivity and specificity were evaluated. Primers and probes were designed from the o-methyltransferase gene (omt-1) involved in aflatoxin biosynthesis. Fifty-three mold strains representing aflatoxin producers and non-producers of different species, usually reported in food products, were used as references. All strains were tested for aflatoxins production by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). The functionality of the proposed qPCR method was demonstrated by the strong linear relationship of the standard curves constructed with the omt-1 gene copy number and Ct values for the different aflatoxin producers tested. The ability of the qPCR protocols to quantify aflatoxin-producing molds was evaluated in different artificially inoculated foods. A good linear correlation was obtained over the range 4 to 1 log cfu/g per reaction for all qPCR assays in the different food matrices (peanuts, spices and dry-fermented sausages). The detection limit in all inoculated foods ranged from 1 to 2 log cfu/g for SYBR Green and TaqMan assays. No significant effect was observed due to the different equipment, operator, and qPCR methodology used in the tests of repeatability and reproducibility for different foods. The proposed methods quantified with high efficiency the fungal load in foods. These qPCR protocols are proposed for use to quantify aflatoxin-producing molds in food products. PMID:22475946

  6. Reduction of aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus in interaction with Streptomyces.

    PubMed

    Verheecke, C; Liboz, T; Anson, P; Diaz, R; Mathieu, F

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate aflatoxin gene expression during Streptomyces-Aspergillus interaction. Aflatoxins are carcinogenic compounds produced mainly by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. A previous study has shown that Streptomyces-A. flavus interaction can reduce aflatoxin content in vitro. Here, we first validated this same effect in the interaction with A. parasiticus. Moreover, we showed that growth reduction and aflatoxin content were correlated in A. parasiticus but not in A. flavus. Secondly, we investigated the mechanisms of action by reverse-transcriptase quantitative PCR. As microbial interaction can lead to variations in expression of household genes, the most stable [act1, βtub (and cox5 for A. parasiticus)] were chosen using geNorm software. To shed light on the mechanisms involved, we studied during the interaction the expression of five genes (aflD, aflM, aflP, aflR and aflS). Overall, the results of aflatoxin gene expression showed that Streptomyces repressed gene expression to a greater level in A. parasiticus than in A. flavus. Expression of aflR and aflS was generally repressed in both Aspergillus species. Expression of aflM was repressed and was correlated with aflatoxin B1 content. The results suggest that aflM expression could be a potential aflatoxin indicator in Streptomyces species interactions. Therefore, we demonstrate that Streptomyces can reduce aflatoxin production by both Aspergillus species and that this effect can be correlated with the repression of aflM expression.

  7. Lab-on-a-chip based biosensor for the real-time detection of aflatoxin.

    PubMed

    Uludag, Yıldız; Esen, Elif; Kokturk, Guzin; Ozer, Hayrettin; Muhammad, Turghun; Olcer, Zehra; Basegmez, H Imge Oktay; Simsek, Senay; Barut, Serkan; Gok, M Yagmur; Akgun, Mete; Altintas, Zeynep

    2016-11-01

    Polymers were synthesized and utilized for aflatoxin detection coupled with a novel lab-on-a-chip biosensor: MiSens and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Non-imprinted polymers (NIPs) were preferred to be designed and used due to the toxic nature of aflatoxin template and also to avoid difficult clean-up protocols. Towards an innovative miniaturized automated system, a novel biochip has been designed that consists of 6 working electrodes (1mm diameter) with shared reference and counter electrodes. The aflatoxin detection has been achieved by a competition immunoassay that has been performed using the new biochips and the automated MiSens electrochemical biosensor device. For the assay, aflatoxin antibody has been captured on the Protein A immobilized electrode. Subsequently the sample and the enzyme-aflatoxin conjugate mixture has been injected to the electrode surfaces. The final injection of the enzyme substrate results in an amperometric signal. The sensor assays for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in different matrices were also performed using enzyme link immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and HPLC for confirmation. High recovery was successfully achieved in spiked wheat samples using NIP coupled HPLC and NIP coupled MiSens biosensor [2ppb of aflatoxin was determined as 1.86ppb (93% recovery), 1.73ppb (86.5% recovery), 1.96ppb (98% recovery) and 1.88ppb (94.0% recovery) for immunoaffinity column (IAC)-HPLC, NIP-HPLC, Supel™ Tox SPE Cartridges (SUP)-HPLC and NIP-MiSens, respectively]. Aflatoxin detection in fig samples were also investigated with MiSens biosensor and the results were compared with HPLC method. The new biosensor allows real-time and on-site detection of AFB1 in foods with a rapid, sensitive, fully automated and miniaturized system and expected to have an immense economic impact for food industry. PMID:27591628

  8. Relationship between Aflatoxin Contamination and Physiological Responses of Corn Plants under Drought and Heat Stress

    PubMed Central

    Kebede, Hirut; Abbas, Hamed K.; Fisher, Daniel K.; Bellaloui, Nacer

    2012-01-01

    Increased aflatoxin contamination in corn by the fungus Aspergillus flavus is associated with frequent periods of drought and heat stress during the reproductive stages of the plants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between aflatoxin contamination and physiological responses of corn plants under drought and heat stress. The study was conducted in Stoneville, MS, USA under irrigated and non-irrigated conditions. Five commercial hybrids, P31G70, P33F87, P32B34, P31B13 and DKC63-42 and two inbred germplasm lines, PI 639055 and PI 489361, were evaluated. The plants were inoculated with Aspergillus flavus (K-54) at mid-silk stage, and aflatoxin contamination was determined on the kernels at harvest. Several physiological measurements which are indicators of stress response were determined. The results suggested that PI 639055, PI 489361 and hybrid DKC63-42 were more sensitive to drought and high temperature stress in the non-irrigated plots and P31G70 was the most tolerant among all the genotypes. Aflatoxin contamination was the highest in DKC63-42 and PI 489361 but significantly lower in P31G70. However, PI 639055, which is an aflatoxin resistant germplasm, had the lowest aflatoxin contamination, even though it was one of the most stressed genotypes. Possible reasons for these differences are discussed. These results suggested that the physiological responses were associated with the level of aflatoxin contamination in all the genotypes, except PI 639055. These and other physiological responses related to stress may help examine differences among corn genotypes in aflatoxin contamination. PMID:23202322

  9. Real-time PCR assays for detection and quantification of aflatoxin-producing molds in foods.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Alicia; Rodríguez, Mar; Luque, M Isabel; Martín, Alberto; Córdoba, Juan J

    2012-08-01

    Aflatoxins are among the most toxic mycotoxins. Early detection and quantification of aflatoxin-producing species is crucial to improve food safety. In the present work, two protocols of real-time PCR (qPCR) based on SYBR Green and TaqMan were developed, and their sensitivity and specificity were evaluated. Primers and probes were designed from the o-methyltransferase gene (omt-1) involved in aflatoxin biosynthesis. Fifty-three mold strains representing aflatoxin producers and non-producers of different species, usually reported in food products, were used as references. All strains were tested for aflatoxins production by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). The functionality of the proposed qPCR method was demonstrated by the strong linear relationship of the standard curves constructed with the omt-1 gene copy number and Ct values for the different aflatoxin producers tested. The ability of the qPCR protocols to quantify aflatoxin-producing molds was evaluated in different artificially inoculated foods. A good linear correlation was obtained over the range 4 to 1 log cfu/g per reaction for all qPCR assays in the different food matrices (peanuts, spices and dry-fermented sausages). The detection limit in all inoculated foods ranged from 1 to 2 log cfu/g for SYBR Green and TaqMan assays. No significant effect was observed due to the different equipment, operator, and qPCR methodology used in the tests of repeatability and reproducibility for different foods. The proposed methods quantified with high efficiency the fungal load in foods. These qPCR protocols are proposed for use to quantify aflatoxin-producing molds in food products.

  10. Biodiversity of Aspergillus section Flavi in Europe in relation to the management of aflatoxin risk

    PubMed Central

    Perrone, Giancarlo; Gallo, Antonia; Logrieco, Antonio F.

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxins and the producing fungi Aspergillus section Flavi are widely known as the most serious and dangerous mycotoxin issue in agricultural products. In Europe, before the outbreak of aflatoxins on maize (2003–2004) due to new climatic conditions, their contamination was confined to imported foods. Little information is available on molecular biodiversity and population structure of Aspergillus section Flavi in Europe. Preliminary reports evidenced the massive presence of Aspergillus flavus L -morphotype as the predominant species in maize field, no evidence of the highly toxigenic S-morphotype and of other aflatoxigenic species are reported. The risk of a shift in traditional occurrence areas for aflatoxins is expected in the world and in particular in South East of Europe due to the increasing average temperatures. Biological control of aflatoxin risk in the field by atoxigenic strains of A. flavus starts to be widely used in Africa and USA. Studies are necessary on the variation of aflatoxin production in populations of A. flavus to characterize stable atoxigenic A. flavus strains. The aim of present article is to give an overview on biodiversity and genetic variation of Aspergillus section Flavi in Europe in relation to the management of aflatoxins risk in the field. PMID:25101075

  11. Performance of turkey poults fed different doses of aflatoxins in the diet.

    PubMed

    Rauber, R H; Dilkin, P; Giacomini, L Z; Araújo de Almeida, C A; Mallmann, C A

    2007-08-01

    This work was conduced to determine the performance parameters of initial-phase turkey poults fed 7 different doses of aflatoxins in the diet. Three hundred thirty-six 1-d-old male turkey poults were used in this research. Turkeys were divided into 7 treatments according to aflatoxin doses (T1 = control; T2 = 20 ppb aflatoxins; T3 = 50 ppb; T4 = 100 ppb; T5 = 200 ppb; T6 = 500 ppb; T7 = 1,000 ppb). Birds were killed in 2 periods: half of them after 21 d of experiment and the remaining birds after 42 d of experiment. In both periods, the evaluated parameters were as follows: feed consumption, BW, relative weights of organs (liver, gizzard, heart, and bursa of Fabricius) and meat (breast and thighs), and clinical biochemistry parameters (total plasmatic proteins, albumin, uric acid, cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase). At 21 d of experiment, both feed consumption and BW were significantly affected by the aflatoxins present in the diet. Nevertheless, gizzard relative weight, total plasmatic proteins, and cholesterol levels were also affected. At the 42-d evaluation, besides feed consumption and BW, gizzard and liver relative weights and cholesterol levels were also affected by the presence of aflatoxins in the diet. Turkey poults are very sensitive to aflatoxin poisoning, because they are at least 3 to 6 times more sensitive to these contaminants than broilers.

  12. Determination of Aflatoxins in Peanut Products in the Northeast Region of São Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Carlos A. F.; Gonçalves, Natália B.; Rosim, Roice E.; Fernandes, Andrezza M.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine aflatoxin levels in peanut products traded in the Northeast region of São Paulo, Brazil. To this end, 240 samples of peanut products traded in the cities of Araras, Leme, Pirassununga and Porto Ferreira were collected from June 2006 to May 2007. The samples were analyzed for aflatoxins (AF) B1, B2, G1 and G2 by high performance liquid chromatography. Results showed 44.2% samples positive for AF at levels of 0.5 to 103.8 μg·kg−1. Nine of the positive samples (3.7% of the analysed samples) had total aflatoxin concentrations (B1+B2+G1+G2) higher than the limit established by Brazilian regulations (20 μg·kg−1). Based on the above data, the probable mean daily intake (PDIM) of aflatoxins from peanut products in the Northeast region of São Paulo was estimated to be 0.23 ng kg b.w. day−1. Although this PDIM value was relatively low, results indicate that aflatoxin contamination of peanut products may be a public health concern in Brazil, when considering the potential exposure of highly susceptible consumers. For example, it should be emphasized that children are potentially exposed to aflatoxins, since they consume large quantities of peanut candies, and these products had the highest number of samples positive for AFB1. PMID:19333440

  13. Effect of climate change on Aspergillus flavus and aflatoxin B1 production

    PubMed Central

    Medina, Angel; Rodriguez, Alicia; Magan, Naresh

    2014-01-01

    This review considers the available information on the potential impact of key environmental factors and their interactions on the molecular ecology, growth and aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus in vitro and in maize grain. The recent studies which have been carried out to examine the impact of water activity × temperature on aflatoxin biosynthesis and phenotypic aflatoxin production are examined. These have shown that there is a direct relationship between the relative expression of key regulatory and structural genes under different environmental conditions which correlate directly with aflatoxin B1 production. A model has been developed to integrate the relative expression of 10 biosynthetic genes in the pathway, growth and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) production which was validated under elevated temperature and water stress conditions. The effect of interacting conditions of aw × temperature × elevated CO2 (2 × and 3 × existing levels) are detailed for the first time. This suggests that while such interacting environmental conditions have little effect on growth they do have a significant impact on aflatoxin biosynthetic gene expression (structural aflD and regulatory aflR genes) and can significantly stimulate the production of AFB1. While the individual factors alone have an impact, it is the combined effect of these three abiotic factors which have an impact on mycotoxin production. This approach provides data which is necessary to help predict the real impacts of climate change on mycotoxigenic fungi. PMID:25101060

  14. Natural co-occurrence of ochratoxin A, ochratoxin B and aflatoxins in Sicilian red wines.

    PubMed

    Di Stefano, Vita; Avellone, Giuseppe; Pitonzo, Rosa; Capocchiano, Valentina Giusi; Mazza, Alessia; Cicero, Nicola; Dugo, Giacomo

    2015-01-01

    The natural occurrence of ochratoxin A, ochratoxin B, aflatoxin B1, aflatoxin B2, aflatoxin G1 and aflatoxin G2 (OTA, OTB, AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2) in red wines was investigated by HPLC/FLD after immunoaffinity column clean-up in 57 market samples produced in Sicily (Italy). The results showed a very low incidence of these mycotoxins in analysed samples, confirming the high degree of quality and safety of Sicilian red wines. The results indicated 71.9% and 64.9% positive samples for OTA and OTB respectively, with an average level of 0.13 μg l(-1), well below the European maximum permitted levels (MLs). The aflatoxin most frequently detected in the samples was AFG1, present in 57.9% of samples, while the other aflatoxins were rarely present. Recovery experiments were carried out on eight mycotoxin-free red wines spiked with OTA, OTB, AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2 at two different levels. The limits of detection (LODs) in wines were 0.02 µg l(-1) for OTA, 0.04 µg l(-1) for OTB, 0.03 µg l(-1) for AFG1, AFG2 and AFB2, and 0.05 µg l(-1) for AFB1. A good correlation was found, with good performances in term of precision for the method.

  15. Feasibility of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for rapid detection of aflatoxins in maize.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung-Min; Herrman, Timothy J; Bisrat, Yordanos; Murray, Seth C

    2014-05-14

    Rapid and sensitive surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) for aflatoxin detection was employed for development of the models to classify and quantify aflatoxin levels in maize at concentrations of 0 to 1,206 μg/kg. Highly effective SERS substrate (Ag nanosphere) was prepared and mixed with a sample extract for SERS measurement. Strong Raman bands associated with aflatoxins and changes in maize kernels induced by aflatoxin contamination were observed in different SERS spectroscopic regions. The k-nearest neighbors (KNN) classification model yielded high classification accuracy and lower prediction error with no misclassification of contaminated samples as aflatoxin negative. The multiple linear regression (MLR) models showed a higher predictive accuracy with stronger correlation coefficients (r = 0.939-0.967) and a higher sensitivity with lower limits of detection (13-36 μg/kg) and quantitation (44-121 μg/kg) over other quantification models. Paired sample t test exhibited no statistically significant difference between the reference values and the predicted values of SERS in most chemometric models. The proposed SERS method would be a more effective and efficient analytical tool with a higher accuracy and lower constraints for aflatoxin analysis in maize compared to other existing spectroscopic methods and conventional Raman spectroscopy.

  16. Toxicity of aflatoxin B1 towards the vitamin D receptor (VDR).

    PubMed

    Costanzo, Paola; Santini, Antonello; Fattore, Luigi; Novellino, Ettore; Ritieni, Alberto

    2015-02-01

    This research describes an unexpected toxicity of the aflatoxin B1 towards the vitamin D receptors. Rickets is a childhood disease, and calcium deficiency is the aetiological cause in Africa, being primarily associated with nutritional problems; in this research the contribution of aflatoxin B1 exposure during the early months of life is an interesting factor to deepen in order to prevent liver damages or the development of rickets. The results show that the expression of vitamin D receptor in osteosarcoma cell line SAOS-2 is significantly down-modulated by exposure to aflatoxin B1. This seems to suggest that Aflatoxin B1, toxic towards the vitamin D receptor, interferes with the actions of the vitamin D on calcium binding gene expression in the kidney and intestine. Experimental data indicate a 58% and 86% decrease if the cells are exposed to 5 ng/mL and 50 ng/mL of aflatoxin B1, respectively. These results seem to indicate that natural occurrence of the aflatoxin B1 and allelic variant of vitamin D receptor on (F allele) increase the risk of developing rickets of African children.

  17. Identification of Aspergillus species in Central Europe able to produce G-type aflatoxins.

    PubMed

    Baranyi, Nikolett; Despot, Daniela Jakšić; Palágyi, Andrea; Kiss, Noémi; Kocsubé, Sándor; Szekeres, András; Kecskeméti, Anita; Bencsik, Ottó; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Klarić, Maja Šegvić; Varga, János

    2015-09-01

    The occurrence of potential aflatoxin producing fungi was examined in various agricultural products and indoor air in Central European countries including Hungary, Serbia and Croatia. For species identification, both morphological and sequence based methods were applied. Aspergillus flavus was detected in several samples including maize, cheese, nuts, spices and indoor air, and several isolates were able to produce aflatoxins. Besides, three other species of Aspergillus section Flavi, A. nomius, A. pseudonomius and A. parasiticus were also isolated from cheese, maize and indoor air, respectively. This is the first report on the occurrence of A. nomius and A. pseudonomius in Central Europe. All A. nomius, A. pseudonomius and A. parasiticus isolates were able to produce aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2. The A. nomius isolate came from cheese produced very high amounts of aflatoxins (above 1 mg ml⁻¹). All A. nomius, A. pseudonomius and A. parasiticus isolates produced much higher amounts of aflatoxin G1 then aflatoxin B1. Further studies are in progress to examine the occurrence of producers of these highly carcinogenic mycotoxins in agricultural products and indoor air in Central Europe.

  18. 26 CFR 301.6103(m)-1 - Disclosure of taxpayer identity information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Disclosure of taxpayer identity information. 301.6103(m)-1 Section 301.6103(m)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Returns and Records § 301.6103(m)-1 Disclosure of taxpayer identity information. (a) Definition....

  19. 26 CFR 301.6103(m)-1 - Disclosure of taxpayer identity information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Disclosure of taxpayer identity information. 301.6103(m)-1 Section 301.6103(m)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Returns and Records § 301.6103(m)-1 Disclosure of taxpayer identity information. (a) Definition....

  20. 26 CFR 301.6103(m)-1 - Disclosure of taxpayer identity information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Disclosure of taxpayer identity information. 301.6103(m)-1 Section 301.6103(m)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Returns and Records § 301.6103(m)-1 Disclosure of taxpayer identity information. (a) Definition....

  1. 26 CFR 301.6103(m)-1 - Disclosure of taxpayer identity information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disclosure of taxpayer identity information. 301.6103(m)-1 Section 301.6103(m)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Returns and Records § 301.6103(m)-1 Disclosure of taxpayer identity information. (a) Definition....

  2. 12 CFR Appendix M1 to Part 226 - Generic Repayment Estimates

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Generic Repayment Estimates M1 Appendix M1 to... Estimates Effective Date Note: At 74 FR 5441, Jan. 29, 2009, appendix M1 to part 226 was added, effective July 1, 2010. (a) Calculating generic repayment estimates. (1) Definitions. (i) “Retail credit...

  3. Identification of O-methylsterigmatocystin as an aflatoxin B1 and G1 precursor in Aspergillus parasiticus.

    PubMed Central

    Bhatnagar, D; McCormick, S P; Lee, L S; Hill, R A

    1987-01-01

    An isolate of Aspergillus parasiticus CP461 (SRRC 2043) produced no detectable aflatoxins, but accumulated O-methylsterigmatocystin (OMST). When sterigmatocystin (ST) was fed to this isolate in a low-sugar medium, there was an increase in the accumulation of OMST, without aflatoxin synthesis. When radiolabeled [14C]OMST was fed to resting mycelia of a non-aflatoxin-, non-ST-, and non-OMST-producing mutant of A. parasiticus AVN-1 (SRRC 163), 14C-labeled aflatoxins B1 and G1 were produced; 10 nmol of OMST produced 7.8 nmol of B1 and 1.0 nmol of G1, while 10 nmol of ST produced 6.4 nmol of B1 and 0.6 nmol of G1. A time course study of aflatoxin synthesis in ST feeding experiments with AVN-1 revealed that OMST is synthesized by the mold during the onset of aflatoxin synthesis. The total amount of aflatoxins recovered from OMST feeding experiments was higher than from experiments in which ST was fed to the resting mycelia. These results suggest that OMST is a true metabolite in the aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway between sterigmatocystin and aflatoxins B1 and G1 and is not a shunt metabolite, as thought previously. PMID:3111363

  4. Construction and preliminary evaluation of an Aspergillus flavus reporter gene construct as a potential tool for screening aflatoxin resistance.

    PubMed

    Brown, Robert L; Brown-Jenco, Carmen S; Bhatnagar, Deepak; Payne, Gary A

    2003-10-01

    Effective preharvest strategies to eliminate aflatoxin accumulation in crops are not presently available. The molecular biology of aflatoxin biosynthesis has been extensively studied, and genetic and molecular tools such as reporter gene systems for the measurement of fungal growth have been developed. A reporter construct containing the Aspergillus flavus beta-tubulin gene promoter fused to Escherichia coli beta-glucuronidase (GUS) has been shown to be a reliable tool for the indirect measurement of fungal growth in maize kernels. Since cost-saving alternative methods for the direct measurement of aflatoxin levels are needed to facilitate more widespread field and laboratory screening of maize lines, a new reporter gene construct involving the promoter region of the omtA gene of the aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway was constructed and tested. Expression of GUS activity by this construct (omtA::GUS) was correlated with aflatoxin accumulation in culture. In the fungal transformant GAP26-1, which harbors this construct, aflatoxin production and GUS expression on sucrose-containing medium showed the same temporal pattern of toxin induction. Furthermore, GUS expression by GAP26-1 was shown to be associated with aflatoxin accumulation in maize kernels inoculated with this strain. Our results suggest that this and other reporter gene pathway promoter constructs may provide superior alternatives to direct aflatoxin quantification with respect to time, labor, and materials for the screening of maize lines for resistance to aflatoxin accumulation. PMID:14572235

  5. Construction and preliminary evaluation of an Aspergillus flavus reporter gene construct as a potential tool for screening aflatoxin resistance.

    PubMed

    Brown, Robert L; Brown-Jenco, Carmen S; Bhatnagar, Deepak; Payne, Gary A

    2003-10-01

    Effective preharvest strategies to eliminate aflatoxin accumulation in crops are not presently available. The molecular biology of aflatoxin biosynthesis has been extensively studied, and genetic and molecular tools such as reporter gene systems for the measurement of fungal growth have been developed. A reporter construct containing the Aspergillus flavus beta-tubulin gene promoter fused to Escherichia coli beta-glucuronidase (GUS) has been shown to be a reliable tool for the indirect measurement of fungal growth in maize kernels. Since cost-saving alternative methods for the direct measurement of aflatoxin levels are needed to facilitate more widespread field and laboratory screening of maize lines, a new reporter gene construct involving the promoter region of the omtA gene of the aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway was constructed and tested. Expression of GUS activity by this construct (omtA::GUS) was correlated with aflatoxin accumulation in culture. In the fungal transformant GAP26-1, which harbors this construct, aflatoxin production and GUS expression on sucrose-containing medium showed the same temporal pattern of toxin induction. Furthermore, GUS expression by GAP26-1 was shown to be associated with aflatoxin accumulation in maize kernels inoculated with this strain. Our results suggest that this and other reporter gene pathway promoter constructs may provide superior alternatives to direct aflatoxin quantification with respect to time, labor, and materials for the screening of maize lines for resistance to aflatoxin accumulation.

  6. The Pathogen-Derived Aminoglycoside Resistance 16S rRNA Methyltransferase NpmA Possesses Dual m1A1408/m1G1408 Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Zelinskaya, Natalia; Witek, Marta A.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical modification of 16S rRNA can confer exceptionally high-level resistance to a diverse set of aminoglycoside antibiotics. Here, we show that the pathogen-derived enzyme NpmA possesses dual m1A1408/m1G1408 activity, an unexpected property apparently unique among the known aminoglycoside resistance 16S rRNA (m1A1408) methyltransferases. Although the biological significance of this activity remains to be determined, such mechanistic variation in enzymes acquired by pathogens has significant implications for development of inhibitors of these emerging resistance determinants. PMID:26416864

  7. Predicted Roles of the Uncharacterized Clustered Genes in Aflatoxin Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Ehrlich, Kenneth C.

    2009-01-01

    Biosynthesis of the toxic and carcinogenic aflatoxins (AFs) requires the activity of more than 27 enzymes. The roles in biosynthesis of newly described enzymes are discussed in this review. We suggest that HypC catalyzes the oxidation of norsolorinic acid anthrone; AvfA (AflI), the ring-closure step in formation of hydroxyversicolorone; HypB, the second oxidation step in conversion of O-methylsterigmatocystin to AF; and HypE and NorA (AflE), the final two steps in AFB1 formation. HypD, an integral membrane protein, affects fungal development and lowers AF production while AflJ (AflS), has a partial methyltransferase domain that may be important in its function as a transcriptional co-activator. PMID:22069531

  8. Sequence specificity in aflatoxin B1--DNA interactions.

    PubMed Central

    Muench, K F; Misra, R P; Humayun, M Z

    1983-01-01

    The activated form of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) causes covalent modification primarily of guanine residues, leading to alkali-labile sites in DNA. A simple extension of the Maxam-Gilbert procedure for sequence analysis permits the identification of alkali-labile sites induced by AFB1 and determination of the frequency of alkali-labile AFB1 modifications at particular sites on a DNA fragment of known sequence. Using this strategy, we have investigated the influence of flanking nucleotide sequences on AFB1 modification in a number of DNA fragments of known sequence. Our results show that certain guanine residues in double-stranded DNA are preferentially attacked by AFB1 over others in a manner predictable from a knowledge of vicinal nucleotide sequences. The observed in vitro sequence specificity is independent of a number of tested parameters and is likely to occur in vivo. Images PMID:6218504

  9. Stability of Aflatoxin B1 and Ochratoxin A in Brewing

    PubMed Central

    Chu, F. S.; Chang, C. C.; Ashoor, Samy H.; Prentice, N.

    1975-01-01

    The stability of aflatoxin B1 and ochratoxin A in brewing was investigated by adding the purified toxins to the raw materials at 1 and 10 μg/g levels during mashing in a conventional micro-brewing process. The results indicate that both toxins are stable to heat and are insensitive to cooker mash treatment. Both mycotoxins were partially removed in the mashing and brewing processes. About 14 to 18% and 27 to 28% of the added toxins were found in the final beers brewed from starting materials containing 1 and 10 μg, respectively, of either toxin per g. The possible route of transmission of mycotoxins into beer is discussed. PMID:1115503

  10. Survey of fungal counts and natural occurrence of aflatoxins in Malaysian starch-based foods.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, N; Nawawi, A; Othman, I

    1998-01-01

    In a survey of starch-based foods sampled from retail outlets in Malaysia, fungal colonies were mostly detected in wheat flour (100%), followed by rice flour (74%), glutinous rice grains (72%), ordinary rice grains (60%), glutinous rice flour (48%) and corn flour (26%). All positive samples of ordinary rice and glutinous rice grains had total fungal counts below 10(3) cfu/g sample, while among the positive rice flour, glutinous rice flour and corn flour samples, the highest total fungal count was more than 10(3) but less than 10(4) cfu/g sample respectively. However, in wheat flour samples total fungal count ranged from 10(2) cfu/g sample to slightly more than 10(4) cfu/g sample. Aflatoxigenic colonies were mostly detected in wheat flour (20%), followed by ordinary rice grains (4%), glutinous rice grains (4%) and glutinous rice flour (2%). No aflatoxigenic colonies were isolated from rice flour and corn flour samples. Screening of aflatoxin B1, aflatoxin B2, aflatoxin G1 and aflatoxin G2 using reversed-phase HPLC were carried out on 84 samples of ordinary rice grains and 83 samples of wheat flour. Two point four percent (2.4%) of ordinary rice grains were positive for aflatoxin G1 and 3.6% were positive for aflatoxin G2. All the positive samples were collected from private homes at concentrations ranging from 3.69-77.50 micrograms/kg. One point two percent (1.2%) of wheat flour samples were positive for aflatoxin B1 at a concentration of 25.62 micrograms/kg, 4.8% were positive for aflatoxin B2 at concentrations ranging from 11.25-252.50 micrograms/kg, 3.6% were positive for aflatoxin G1 at concentrations ranging from 25.00-289.38 micrograms/kg and 13.25% were positive for aflatoxin G2 at concentrations ranging from 16.25-436.25 micrograms/kg. Similarly, positive wheat flour samples were mostly collected from private homes. PMID:10205885

  11. Modelling Aspergillus flavus growth and aflatoxins production in pistachio nuts.

    PubMed

    Marín, Sonia; Ramos, Antonio J; Sanchis, V

    2012-12-01

    Aflatoxins (AFs) are the main contaminants in pistachio nuts. AFs production in pistachio has been attributed to Aspergillus flavus. The aim of this study was to apply existing models to predict growth and AFs production by an A. flavus isolated from pistachios as a function of moisture content and storage temperature of pistachios in order to test their usefulness and complementarities. A full factorial design was used: the moisture content levels assayed were 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30% and incubation temperatures were 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 37 and 42 °C. Both kinetic and probability models were built to predict growth of the strain under the assayed conditions. Among the assayed models, cardinal ones gave a good quality fit for radial growth rate data. Moreover, the progressive approach, which was developed based on a reduced number of experimental points led to an improved prediction in the validation step. This is quite significant as may allow for improved experimental designs, less costly than full factorial ones. Probability model proved to be concordant in 91% of the calibration set observations. Even though the validation set included conditions around the growth/no-growth interface, there was a 100% agreement in the predictions from the data set (n = 16, cut off = 0.5) after 60 days. Similarly, the probability for AF presence was rightly predicted in 89% of the cases. According to our results EC maximum aflatoxin levels would be surpassed in a period as short as 1 month if pistachio nuts reach 20 °C, unless %mc is ≤10%.

  12. Occurrence of Aflatoxins Contamination in Brown Rice from Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    ASGHAR, Muhammad Asif; IQBAL, Javed; AHMED, Aftab; KHAN, Mobeen Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background The objective of this study was to determine the distribution of an economically–important class of mycotoxins, the aflatoxins (AFs) in Pakistani Brown Rice. Methods A total of 262 of brown rice samples were collected from different vendors during July 2006 to June 2011. Samples were analyzed for the occurrence of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), B2 (AFB2), G1 (AFG1) and G2 (AFG2) by thin layer chromatography (TLC) technique. Results AFB1 was detected in 250 (95.4%) samples, whereas AFB2 was detected in 20 (7.6%) samples. Furthermore, AFG1 and AFG2 were not found in any sample. The contamination range of AFB1 and AFB2 was found 1.07–24.65 μg/kg and 0.52–2.62 μg/kg, respectively. Total AFs were quantified in 250 (95.4%) samples with an average of 3.89 μg/kg and contamination range was noted to be between 1.07–27.27 μg/kg. The overall results indicated that in 12 (4.6%) samples, AFs were not found within detectable limits. Furthermore, in 188 (71.7%) samples, AFs level was found below than maximum tolerated levels (MTL) as recommended by the European Union (4 μg/kg). Moreover, in 61 (23.3%) samples, AFs range was found between 4–20 μg/kg, which were fit for human consumption as per MTL (20 μg/kg) assigned by USA (FDA and FAO) and Pakistan (PSQCA). While only one sample (27.27 μg/kg) exceeded the above mention regulation limits. Conclusion Low level of AFs occurs frequently in brown rice, and can be improved using proper harvesting practices, storage and transportation conditions. The small quantities of AFs warrant performing further investigation, monitoring and routine analysis on regular basis. PMID:25988088

  13. Development of an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Method Specific for the Detection of G-Group Aflatoxins.

    PubMed

    Li, Peiwu; Zhou, Qian; Wang, Ting; Zhou, Haiyan; Zhang, Wen; Ding, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Zhaowei; Chang, Perng-Kuang; Zhang, Qi

    2015-12-28

    To detect and monitor G-group aflatoxins in agricultural products, we generated class-specific monoclonal antibodies that specifically recognized aflatoxins G₁ and G₂. Of the final three positive and stable hybridomas obtained, clone 2G6 produced a monoclonal antibody that had equal sensitivity to aflatoxins G₁ and G₂, and did not cross-react with aflatoxins B₁, B₂, or M₁. Its IC50 values for aflatoxins G₁ and G₂ were 17.18 ng·mL(-1) and 19.75 ng·mL(-1), respectively. Using this new monoclonal antibody, we developed a competitive indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CI-ELISA); the method had a limit of detection of 0.06 ng·mL(-1). To validate this CI-ELISA, we spiked uncontaminated peanut samples with various amounts of aflatoxins G₁ and G₂ and compared recovery rates with those determined by a standard HPLC method. The recovery rates of the CI-ELISA ranging from 94% to 103% were comparable to those of the HPLC (92% to 102%). We also used both methods to determine the amounts of G-group aflatoxins in five peanut samples contaminated by aflatoxin B₁-positive, and their relative standard deviations ranged from 8.4% to 17.7% (under 20%), which demonstrates a good correlation between the two methods. We further used this CI-ELISA to assess the ability of 126 fungal strains isolated from peanuts or field soils to produce G-group aflatoxins. Among these, seven stains producing different amounts of G-group aflatoxins were identified. Our results showed that the monoclonal antibody 2 G6-based CI-ELISA was suitable for the detection of G-group aflatoxins present in peanuts and also those produced by fungi.

  14. Genetic or Pharmacologic Activation of Nrf2 Signaling Fails to Protect Against Aflatoxin Genotoxicity in Hypersensitive GSTA3 Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kensler, Kevin H.; Slocum, Stephen L.; Chartoumpekis, Dionysios V.; Dolan, Patrick M.; Johnson, Natalie M.; Ilic, Zoran; Crawford, Dana R.; Sell, Stewart; Groopman, John D.; Kensler, Thomas W.; Egner, Patricia A.

    2014-01-01

    Mice are resistant to aflatoxin hepatotoxicity, primarily due to high expression of glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), and in particular the GSTA3 subunit. Nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling, which controls a broad-based cytoprotective response, was activated either genetically or pharmacologically in an attempt to rescue GSTA3 knockout mice from aflatoxin genotoxicity. Genetic activation of Nrf2 signaling was attained in a GSTA3: hepatocyte-specific Keap1 double knockout (DKO) mouse whereas pharmacologic activation of Nrf2 was achieved through pretreatment of mice with the triterpenoid 1-[2-cyano-3-,12-dioxoleana-1,9(11)-dien-28-oyl] imidazole (CDDO-Im) prior to aflatoxin B1 exposure. Following oral treatment with aflatoxin, urine was collected from mice for 24 h and hepatic and urinary aflatoxin metabolites then quantified using isotope dilution-mass spectrometry. Although Nrf2 was successfully activated genetically and pharmacologically, neither means affected the response of GSTA3 knockout mice to chemical insult with aflatoxin. Hepatic aflatoxin B1-N7-guanine levels were elevated 120-fold in GSTA3 knockout mice compared with wild-type and levels were not attenuated by the interventions. This lack of effect was mirrored in the urinary excretion of aflatoxin B1-N7-guanine. By contrast, urinary excretion of aflatoxin B1-N-acetylcysteine was >200-fold higher in wild-type mice compared with the single GSTA3 knockout or DKO mouse. The inability to rescue GSTA3 knockout mice from aflatoxin genotoxicity through the Nrf2 transcriptional program indicates that Gsta3 is unilaterally responsible for the detoxication of aflatoxin in mice. PMID:24675090

  15. Activation of Muscarinic M1 Acetylcholine Receptors Induces Long-Term Potentiation in the Hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Siobhan H; Pasqui, Francesca; Colvin, Ellen M; Sanger, Helen; Mogg, Adrian J; Felder, Christian C; Broad, Lisa M; Fitzjohn, Steve M; Isaac, John T R; Mellor, Jack R

    2016-01-01

    Muscarinic M1 acetylcholine receptors (M1Rs) are highly expressed in the hippocampus, and their inhibition or ablation disrupts the encoding of spatial memory. It has been hypothesized that the principal mechanism by which M1Rs influence spatial memory is by the regulation of hippocampal synaptic plasticity. Here, we use a combination of recently developed, well characterized, selective M1R agonists and M1R knock-out mice to define the roles of M1Rs in the regulation of hippocampal neuronal and synaptic function. We confirm that M1R activation increases input resistance and depolarizes hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons and show that this profoundly increases excitatory postsynaptic potential-spike coupling. Consistent with a critical role for M1Rs in synaptic plasticity, we now show that M1R activation produces a robust potentiation of glutamatergic synaptic transmission onto CA1 pyramidal neurons that has all the hallmarks of long-term potentiation (LTP): The potentiation requires NMDA receptor activity and bi-directionally occludes with synaptically induced LTP. Thus, we describe synergistic mechanisms by which acetylcholine acting through M1Rs excites CA1 pyramidal neurons and induces LTP, to profoundly increase activation of CA1 pyramidal neurons. These features are predicted to make a major contribution to the pro-cognitive effects of cholinergic transmission in rodents and humans. PMID:26472558

  16. In vitro dissection of the membrane and RNP binding activities of influenza virus M1 protein.

    PubMed

    Baudin, F; Petit, I; Weissenhorn, W; Ruigrok, R W

    2001-03-01

    Spontaneous proteolysis of influenza virus M1 protein during crystallisation has defined an N-terminal domain of amino acids 1--164. Full-length M1, the N-terminal domain, and the C-terminal part of M1 (residues 165--252) were produced in Escherichia coli. In vitro tests showed that only full-length M1 and its N-terminal domain bind to negatively charged liposomes and that only full-length M1 and its C-terminal part bind to RNP. However, only full-length M1 had transcription inhibition activity. Several independent experimental approaches indicate that in vitro transcription inhibition occurs through polymerisation/aggregation of M1 onto RNP, or of M1 onto M1 already bound to RNP, rather than by binding to a specific active site on the nucleoprotein or the polymerase. The structure/function of influenza virus M1 will be compared with that of the Ebola virus matrix protein, VP40. PMID:11222100

  17. Potential of essential oils for protection of grains contaminated by aflatoxin produced by Aspergillus flavus

    PubMed Central

    Esper, Renata H.; Gonçalez, Edlayne; Marques, Marcia O. M.; Felicio, Roberto C.; Felicio, Joana D.

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a highly toxic and carcinogenic metabolite produced by Aspergillus species on food and agricultural commodities. Inhibitory effects of essential oils of Ageratum conyzoides (mentrasto) and Origanum vulgare (oregano) on the mycelial growth and aflatoxin B1 production by Aspergillus flavus have been studied previously in culture medium. The aim of this study was to evaluate aflatoxin B1 production by Aspergillus flavus in real food systems (corn and soybean) treated with Ageratum conyzoides (mentrasto) and Origanum vulgare (oregano) essential oils. Samples with 60 g of the grains were treated with different volumes of essential oils, 200, 100, 50, and 10 μL for oregano and 50, 30, 15, and 10 μL for mentrasto. Fungal growth was evaluated by disk diffusion method. Aflatoxin B1 production was evaluated inoculating suspensions of A. flavus containing 1.3 × 105 spores/mL in 60 g of grains (corn and soybeans) after adjusting the water activity at 0.94. Aflatoxin was quantified by photodensitometry. Fungal growth and aflatoxin production were inhibited by essential oils, but the mentrasto oil was more effective in soybeans than that of oregano. On the other hand, in corn samples, the oregano essential oil was more effective than that of mentrasto. Chemical compositions of the essential oils were also investigated. The GC/MS oils analysis showed that the main component of mentrasto essential oil is precocene I and of the main component of oregano essential oil is 4-terpineol. The results indicate that both essential oils can become an alternative for the control of aflatoxins in corn and soybeans. PMID:24926289

  18. Inhibition by the bioflavonoid ternatin of aflatoxin B1-induced lipid peroxidation in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Souza, M F; Tomé, A R; Rao, V S

    1999-02-01

    Aflatoxin B1, a metabolite of Aspergillus flavus is a potent hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic mycotoxin. Lipid peroxidation and oxidative DNA damage are the principal manifestations of aflatoxin B1-induced toxicity which could be mitigated by antioxidants. Many plant constituents, e.g. flavonoids, lignans and spice principles (capsaicin, curcumin, eugenol, etc.) have been reported to prevent liver damage associated with lipid peroxidation. In this study we investigated ternatin, a tetramethoxyflavone isolated from Egletes viscosa, for possible protection against liver injury induced by aflatoxin B1 in rats. Seventy two hours after a single intraperitoneal dose of aflatoxin B1 (1 mg kg(-1)), the concentration of malondialdehyde, the product of lipid peroxidation in liver homogenates, and serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were significantly elevated (P<0.001). Subcutaneous ternatin (25 mg kg(-1)) pretreatment greatly reduced aflatoxin B1-induced increases in the levels of serum enzymes (ALT from 5071+/-763 to 293+/-66 international units L(-1) and AST from 4241+/-471 to 449+/-108 international units L(-1)) and elevated malondialdehyde levels (from 11.37+/-1.27 to 0.79+/-0.22 nmol (mg wet tissue)(-1)) in a manner similar to oral vitamin E (300 mg kg(-1)), a standard antioxidant. Further, histological changes induced by aflatoxin B1 such as hepatocellular necrosis and bile-duct proliferation were markedly inhibited in animals pretreated with ternatin or vitamin E. These data provide evidence that ternatin inhibits lipid peroxidation and affords protection against liver damage induced by aflatoxin B1. Ternatin might, therefore, be a suitable candidate for the chemoprevention of aflatoxicosis associated liver cancer.

  19. Two new aflatoxin producing species, and an overview of Aspergillus section Flavi

    PubMed Central

    Varga, J.; Frisvad, J.C.; Samson, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    Aspergillus subgenus Circumdati section Flavi includes species with usually biseriate conidial heads, in shades of yellow-green to brown, and dark sclerotia. Several species assigned to this section are either important mycotoxin producers including aflatoxins, cyclopiazonic acid, ochratoxins and kojic acid, or are used in oriental food fermentation processes and as hosts for heterologous gene expression. A polyphasic approach was applied using morphological characters, extrolite data and partial calmodulin, β-tubulin and ITS sequences to examine the evolutionary relationships within this section. The data indicate that Aspergillus section Flavi involves 22 species, which can be grouped into seven clades. Two new species, A. pseudocaelatus sp. nov. and A. pseudonomius sp. nov. have been discovered, and can be distinguished from other species in this section based on sequence data and extrolite profiles. Aspergillus pseudocaelatus is represented by a single isolate collected from Arachis burkartii leaf in Argentina, is closely related to the non-aflatoxin producing A. caelatus, and produces aflatoxins B & G, cyclopiazonic acid and kojic acid, while A. pseudonomius was isolated from insects and soil in the USA. This species is related to A. nomius, and produces aflatoxin B1 (but not G-type aflatoxins), chrysogine and kojic acid. In order to prove the aflatoxin producing abilities of the isolates, phylogenetic analysis of three genes taking part in aflatoxin biosynthesis, including the transcriptional regulator aflR, norsolonic acid reductase and O-methyltransferase were also carried out. A detailed overview of the species accepted in Aspergillus section Flavi is presented. PMID:21892243

  20. Non-aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus to prevent aflatoxin contamination in crops: advantages and limitations

    PubMed Central

    Ehrlich, Kenneth C.

    2014-01-01

    Aspergillus flavus is a diverse assemblage of strains that include aflatoxin-producing and non-toxigenic strains with cosmopolitan distribution. The most promising strategy currently being used to reduce preharvest contamination of crops with aflatoxin is to introduce non-aflatoxin (biocontrol) A. flavus into the crop environment. Whether or not introduction of biocontrol strains into agricultural fields is enough to reduce aflatoxin contamination to levels required for acceptance of the contaminated food as fit for consumption is still unknown. There is no question that biocontrol strains are able to reduce the size of the populations of aflatoxin-producing strains but the available data suggests that at most only a four- to five-fold reduction in aflatoxin contamination is achieved. There are many challenges facing this strategy that are both short term and long term. First, the population biology of A. flavus is not well understood due in part to A. flavus’s diversity, its ability to form heterokaryotic reproductive forms, and its unknown ability to survive for prolonged periods after application. Second, biocontrol strains must be selected that are suitable for the environment, the type of crop, and the soil into which they will be introduced. Third, there is a need to guard against inadvertent introduction of A. flavus strains that could impose an additional burden on food safety and food quality, and fourth, with global warming and resultant changes in the soil nutrients and concomitant microbiome populations, the biocontrol strategy must be sufficiently flexible to adapt to such changes. Understanding genetic variation within strains of A. flavus is important for developing a robust biocontrol strategy and it is unlikely that a “one size fits all” strategy will work for preharvest aflatoxin reduction. PMID:24575088

  1. Common African cooking processes do not affect the aflatoxin binding efficacy of refined calcium montmorillonite clay

    PubMed Central

    Elmore, Sarah E.; Mitchell, Nicole; Mays, Travis; Brown, Kristal; Marroquin-Cardona, Alicia; Romoser, Amelia; Phillips, Timothy D.

    2013-01-01

    Aflatoxins are common contaminants of staple crops, such as corn and groundnuts, and a significant cause of concern for food safety and public health in developing countries. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) has been implicated in the etiology of acute and chronic disease in humans and animals, including growth stunting, liver cancer and death. Cost effective and culturally acceptable intervention strategies for the reduction of dietary AFB1 exposure are of critical need in populations at high risk for aflatoxicosis. Fermented gruels consisting of cornmeal are a common source for such exposure and are consumed by both children and adults in many countries with a history of frequent, high-level aflatoxin exposure. One proposed method to reduce aflatoxins in the diet is to include a selective enterosorbent, Uniform Particle Size NovaSil (UPSN), as a food additive in contaminated foods. For UPSN to be effective in this capacity, it must be stable in complex, acidic mixtures that are often exposed to heat during the process of fermented gruel preparation. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to test the ability of UPSN to sorb aflatoxin while common cooking conditions were applied. The influence of fermentation, heat treatment, acidity, and processing time were investigated with and without UPSN. Analyses were performed using the field-practical Vicam assay with HPLC verification of trends. Our findings demonstrated that UPSN significantly reduced aflatoxin levels (47-100%) in cornmeal, regardless of processing conditions. Upon comparison of each element tested, time appeared to be the primary factor influencing UPSN efficacy. The greatest decreases in AFB1 were reported in samples allowed to incubate (with or without fermentation) for 72 hrs. This data suggests that addition of UPSN to staple corn ingredients likely to contain aflatoxins would be a sustainable approach to reduce exposure. PMID:24311894

  2. Surveillance of Aflatoxin and Microbiota Related to Brewer's Grain Destined for Swine Feed in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Gerbaldo, Gisela A.; Pereyra, Carina M.; Cavaglieri, Lilia R.; Ruiz, Francisco; Pascual, Liliana; Dalcero, Ana M.; Barberis, Isabel L.

    2011-01-01

    Córdoba province in the center of Argentina is an important area of swine production. The use of industry by-product (brewer's grain) as feedstuff for swine is a regular practice and increases animal performance on these animals production. The occurrence of aflatoxin contamination is global, causing severe problems especially in developing countries. No reports on aflatoxin B1 production, micoflora, and potential aflatoxin B1 producing microorganism from brewer's grain are available. The aims of this study were (1) to isolate the microbiota species from brewer's grain, (2) to determine aflatoxin B1 natural contamination levels, and (3) to determine the ability of Aspergillus section Flavi isolates to produce aflatoxins in vitro. Physical properties, total fungal counts, lactic acid bacteria, and fungal genera distribution were determined on this substrate. In 65% of the samples, fungal counts were higher than recommended by GMP, and lactic bacterium counts ranged from 1.9 × 105 to 4.4 × 109 CFU g−1. Aspergillus spp. prevailed over other fungal genera. Aspergillus flavus was the prevalent species followed by A. fumigatus. Aflatoxin B1 levels in the samples were higher than the recommended limits (20 ng g−1) for complementary feedstuffs. Several Aspergillus section Flavi strains were able to produce aflatoxin B1  in vitro. Inadequate storage conditions promote the proliferation of mycotoxin-producing fungal species. Regular monitoring of feeds is required in order to prevent chronic and acute toxic syndromes related to this kind of contamination. PMID:21547231

  3. Examining B(M1) staggering as a fingerprint for chiral doublet bands

    SciTech Connect

    Qi, B.; Yao, J. M.; Zhang, S. Q.; Wang, S. Y.; Meng, J.

    2009-04-15

    The electromagnetic transitions of the doublet bands with different triaxiality parameter {gamma} are discussed in the particle rotor model with {pi}h{sub 11/2} x {nu}h{sub 11/2}{sup -1} configuration. It is found that B(M1) staggering as well as the resulting B(M1)/B(E2) and B(M1){sub in}/B(M1){sub out} staggering are sensitive to the triaxiality parameter {gamma}, and they associate strongly with the characters of nuclear chirality for 15 deg. {<=}{gamma}{<=}30 deg., i.e., the staggering is weak in the chiral vibration region while strong in the static chirality region. For partner bands with near degenerate energy spectra and similar B(M1) and B(E2) transitions, the strong B(M1) staggering can be used as a fingerprint for the static chirality.

  4. Reciprocal Interareal Connections to Corticospinal Neurons in Mouse M1 and S2

    PubMed Central

    Suter, Benjamin A.

    2015-01-01

    Primary motor (M1) and secondary somatosensory (S2) cortices, although anatomically and functionally distinct, share an intriguing cellular component: corticospinal neurons (CSP) in layer 5B. Here, we investigated the long-range circuits of CSPs in mouse forelimb-M1 and S2. We found that interareal projections (S2 → M1 and M1 → S2) monosynaptically excited pyramidal neurons across multiple layers, including CSPs. Area-specific differences were observed in the relative strengths of inputs to subsets of CSPs and other cell types, but the general patterns were similar. Furthermore, subcellular mapping of the dendritic distributions of these corticocortical excitatory synapses onto CSPs in both areas also showed similar patterns. Because layer 5B is particularly thick in M1, but not S2, we studied M1-CSPs at different cortical depths, quantifying their dendritic morphology and mapping inputs from additional cortical (M2, contralateral M1, and local layer 2/3) and thalamic (VL nucleus) sources. These results indicated that CSPs exhibit area-specific modifications on an otherwise conserved synaptic organization, and that different afferents innervate M1-CSP dendritic domains in a source-specific manner. In the cervical spinal cord, CSP axons from S2 and M1 partly converged on middle layers, but S2-CSP axons extended further dorsally, and M1-CSP axons ventrally. Thus, our findings identify many shared features in the circuits of M1 and S2 and show that these areas communicate via mutual projections that give each area monosynaptic access to the other area's CSPs. These interareally yoked CSP circuits may enable M1 and S2 to operate in a coordinated yet differentiated manner in the service of sensorimotor integration. PMID:25698734

  5. Development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method specific for the detection of G-group aflatoxins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To detect and monitor G-group aflatoxins in agricultural products, we generated class-specific monoclonal antibodies that specifically recognized aflatoxins G1 and G2. Of the final three positive and stable hybridomas obtained, hybridoma 2G6 produced a monoclonal antibody that did not cross-react wi...

  6. Determination of the aflatoxin AFB1 from corn by direct analysis in real time-mass spectrometry (DART-MS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Direct analysis in real time (DART) ionization coupled to a high resolution mass spectrometer (MS) was used for screening of aflatoxins from a variety of surfaces and the rapid quantitative analysis of a common form of aflatoxin, AFB1, extracted from corn. Sample preparation procedure and instrument...

  7. Analysis of the aflatoxin AFB1 from corn by direct analysis in real time - mass spectrometry (DART-MS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Direct analysis in real time (DART) ionization coupled to a high resolution mass spectrometer (MS) was used for screening of aflatoxins from a variety of surfaces and the rapid quantitative analysis of aflatoxins extracted from corn. Sample preparation procedure and instrument parameter settings wer...

  8. Integration of fluorescence and reflectance visible near-infrared (VNIR) hyperspectral images for detection of aflatoxins in corn kernels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxin contamination in agricultural products has been an important and long-standing problem around the world. Produced by certain fungal species of the Aspergillus genus, aflatoxins are highly toxic and carcinogenic. This study investigated the integration of fluorescence and reflectance visibl...

  9. Non-linear relationships between aflatoxin B1 levels and the biological response of monkey kidney vero cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxin (AF)-producing fungi contaminate food and feed during preharvest, storage and processing periods. Once consumed, AF accumulates in tissues, causing illnesses in animals and humans. At least 20 different types of AFs have been identified, and of these, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is the most ubiqui...

  10. Differential accumulation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in maize lines with contrasting drought tolerance and aflatoxin resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Abiotic stresses such as drought stress can exacerbate aflatoxin contamination of maize kernels. Previous studies showed that maize lines resistance to aflatoxin contamination tend to exhibit enhanced drought tolerance and accumulate lower levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitrogen species...

  11. Thiazole Antibiotics Target FoxM1 and Induce Apoptosis in Human Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Uppoor G.; Halasi, Marianna; Gartel, Andrei L.

    2009-01-01

    Forkhead box M1 (FoxM1) oncogenic transcription factor represents an attractive therapeutic target in the fight against cancer, because it is overexpressed in a majority of human tumors. Recently, using a cell-based assay system we identified thiazole antibiotic Siomycin A as an inhibitor of FoxM1 transcriptional activity. Here, we report that structurally similar thiazole antibiotic, thiostrepton also inhibits the transcriptional activity of FoxM1. Furthermore, we found that these thiopeptides did not inhibit the transcriptional activity of other members of the Forkhead family or some non-related transcription factors. Further experiments revealed that thiazole antibiotics also inhibit FoxM1 expression, but not the expression of other members of the Forkhead box family. In addition, we found that the thiazole antibiotics efficiently inhibited the growth and induced potent apoptosis in human cancer cell lines of different origin. Thiopeptide-induced apoptosis correlated with the suppression of FoxM1 expression, while overexpression of FoxM1 partially protected cancer cells from the thiazole antibiotic-mediated cell death. These data suggest that Siomycin A and thiostrepton may specifically target FoxM1 to induce apoptosis in cancer cells and FoxM1 inhibitors/thiazole antibiotics could be potentially developed as novel anticancer drugs against human neoplasia. PMID:19440351

  12. Effect of taxol on the expression of FoxM1 ovarian cancer-associated gene

    PubMed Central

    LIU, ZENG; XIAO, YU; NING, SIQING; LI, ZHAO YUAN; ZHU, YUANYUAN; HU, GANG

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of ovarian cancer in women has been on the increase in recent years. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of taxol on the expression of ovarian cancer-associated gene forkhead box transcription factor M1 (FoxM1) and its therapeutic effects for ovarian cancer. The expression of FoxM1 gene was examined in patients with or without ovarian cancer. RNA and protein levels of FoxM1 gene of ovarian cancer patients were detected at different time periods (1, 3, 6, 8, 12 and 24 months) after treatment with taxol. The results showed that the mRNA level of FoxM1 gene in patients with ovarian cancer was significantly higher than that in normal women (P<0.05). With time and progression of the disease, the expression of FoxM1 gene significantly increased in the patients not being administered taxol, whereas the expression of FoxM1 in the patients administered taxol was significantly lower comparatively (P<0.05). In conclusion, an asssociation was identified between the FoxM1 gene and ovarian cancer. The FoxM1 gene therefore promotes the generation and deterioration of ovarian cancer, whereas taxol reduces it. These findings provide a certain theoretical basis for the later treatment of ovarian cancer disease. PMID:27313736

  13. Monocyte Differentiation towards Protumor Activity Does Not Correlate with M1 or M2 Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Chimal-Ramírez, G. Karina; Espinoza-Sánchez, Nancy Adriana; Chávez-Sánchez, Luis; Arriaga-Pizano, Lourdes

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages facilitate breast cancer progression. Macrophages were initially classified as M1 or M2 based on their distinct metabolic programs and then expanded to include antitumoral (M1) and protumoral (M2) activities. However, it is still uncertain what markers define the pro- and antitumoral phenotypes and what conditions lead to their formation. In this study, monocytic cell lines and primary monocytes were subjected to commonly reported protocols of M1/M2 polarization and conditions known to engage monocytes into protumoral functions. The results showed that only IDO enzyme and CD86 M1 markers were upregulated correlating with M1 polarization. TNF-α, CCR7, IL-10, arginase I, CD36, and CD163 were expressed indistinguishably from M1 or M2 polarization. Similarly, protumoral engaging resulted in upregulation of both M1 and M2 markers, with conditioned media from the most aggressive breast cancer cell line promoting the greatest changes. In spite of the mixed phenotype, M1-polarized macrophages exhibited the highest expression/secretion of inflammatory mediators, many of which have previously been associated with breast cancer aggressiveness. These data argue that although the existence of protumoral macrophages is unquestionable, their associated phenotypes and the precise conditions driving their formation are still unclear, and those conditions may need both M1 and M2 stimuli. PMID:27376091

  14. The aflatoxin B1 isolating potential of two lactic acid bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Hamidi, Adel; Mirnejad, Reza; Yahaghi, Emad; Behnod, Vahid; Mirhosseini, Ali; Amani, Sajad; Sattari, Sara; Darian, Ebrahim Khodaverdi

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine lactic acid bacteria's capability to enhance the process of binding and isolating aflatoxin B1 and to utilize such lactic acid bacteria as a food supplement or probiotic products for preventing absorption of aflatoxin B1 in human and animal bodies. Methods In the present research, the bacteria were isolated from five different sources. For surveying the capability of the bacteria in isolating aflatoxin B1, ELISA method was implemented, and for identifying the resultant strains through 16S rRNA sequencing method, universal primers were applied. Results Among the strains which were isolated, two strains of Lactobacillus pentosus and Lactobacillus beveris exhibited the capability of absorbing and isolating aflatoxin B1 by respectively absorbing and discharging 17.4% and 34.7% of the aforementioned toxin existing in the experiment solution. Conclusions Strains of Lactobacillus pentosus and Lactobacillus beveris were isolated from human feces and local milk samples, respectively. And both strains has the ability to isolate or bind with aflatoxin B1. PMID:23998015

  15. Role of Oxidative Stress in Sclerotial Differentiation and Aflatoxin B1 Biosynthesis in Aspergillus flavus

    PubMed Central

    Grintzalis, Konstantinos; Vernardis, Spyros I.; Klapa, Maria I.

    2014-01-01

    We show here that oxidative stress is involved in both sclerotial differentiation (SD) and aflatoxin B1 biosynthesis in Aspergillus flavus. Specifically, we observed that (i) oxidative stress regulates SD, as implied by its inhibition by antioxidant modulators of reactive oxygen species and thiol redox state, and that (ii) aflatoxin B1 biosynthesis and SD are comodulated by oxidative stress. However, aflatoxin B1 biosynthesis is inhibited by lower stress levels compared to SD, as shown by comparison to undifferentiated A. flavus. These same oxidative stress levels also characterize a mutant A. flavus strain, lacking the global regulatory gene veA. This mutant is unable to produce sclerotia and aflatoxin B1. (iii) Further, we show that hydrogen peroxide is the main modulator of A. flavus SD, as shown by its inhibition by both an irreversible inhibitor of catalase activity and a mimetic of superoxide dismutase activity. On the other hand, aflatoxin B1 biosynthesis is controlled by a wider array of oxidative stress factors, such as lipid hydroperoxide, superoxide, and hydroxyl and thiyl radicals. PMID:25002424

  16. Moisture content and its impact on aflatoxin levels in ready-to-use red chillies.

    PubMed

    Sahar, Najmus; Arif, Saqib; Iqbal, Sajid; Afzal, Qurat Ul Ain; Aman, Sahar; Ara, Jahan; Ahmed, Mubarik

    2015-01-01

    Moisture content (MC) and aflatoxin contamination were analysed to determine Red Chilli quality. A wide range (9.1-19.8%) of MC with a mean value of 11.4 ± 2.4% was found. Of 116 chilli samples, about 37% had low MC (<10%), 29.4% had medium-low MC (10-12%), 18.9% had medium-high MC (12 < MC < 14%) and 14.7% were above 14%. These four chilli groups had average aflatoxin levels of 2.1 ± 1.1, 5.3 ± 4.2, 8.9 ± 5.9 and 37 ± 20 µg/Kg, respectively. A direct relationship between moisture and aflatoxin content was found. The data best fitted a polynomial trend (R² = 0.89). The obtained equation could be utilised to assess aflatoxin levels based on MC. This study highlights the importance of using properly dried chillies with low MC, that is, ≤10%, to minimise health hazards associated with aflatoxin contamination.

  17. Aflatoxin contaminated chili pepper detection by hyperspectral imaging and machine learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atas, Musa; Yardimci, Yasemin; Temizel, Alptekin

    2011-06-01

    Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by fungi. They have been demonstrated to cause various health problems in humans, including immunosuppression and cancer. A class of mycotoxins, aflatoxins, has been studied extensively because they have caused many deaths particularly in developing countries. Chili pepper is also prone to aflatoxin contamination during harvesting, production and storage periods. Chemical methods to detect aflatoxins are quite accurate but expensive and destructive in nature. Hyperspectral and multispectral imaging are becoming increasingly important for rapid and nondestructive testing for the presence of such contaminants. We propose a compact machine vision system based on hyperspectral imaging and machine learning for detection of aflatoxin contaminated chili peppers. We used the difference images of consecutive spectral bands along with individual band energies to classify chili peppers into aflatoxin contaminated and uncontaminated classes. Both UV and halogen illumination sources were used in the experiments. The significant bands that provide better discrimination were selected based on their neural network connection weights. Higher classification rates were achieved with fewer numbers of spectral bands. This selection scheme was compared with an information-theoretic approach and it demonstrated robust performance with higher classification accuracy.

  18. Aflatoxin B1 contamination in maize in Europe increases due to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battilani, P.; Toscano, P.; van der Fels-Klerx, H. J.; Moretti, A.; Camardo Leggieri, M.; Brera, C.; Rortais, A.; Goumperis, T.; Robinson, T.

    2016-04-01

    Climate change has been reported as a driver for emerging food and feed safety issues worldwide and its expected impact on the presence of mycotoxins in food and feed is of great concern. Aflatoxins have the highest acute and chronic toxicity of all mycotoxins; hence, the maximal concentration in agricultural food and feed products and their commodities is regulated worldwide. The possible change in patterns of aflatoxin occurrence in crops due to climate change is a matter of concern that may require anticipatory actions. The aim of this study was to predict aflatoxin contamination in maize and wheat crops, within the next 100 years, under a +2 °C and +5 °C climate change scenario, applying a modelling approach. Europe was virtually covered by a net, 50 × 50 km grids, identifying 2254 meshes with a central point each. Climate data were generated for each point, linked to predictive models and predictions were run consequently. Aflatoxin B1 is predicted to become a food safety issue in maize in Europe, especially in the +2 °C scenario, the most probable scenario of climate change expected for the next years. These results represent a supporting tool to reinforce aflatoxin management and to prevent human and animal exposure.

  19. Aflatoxin B1 contamination in maize in Europe increases due to climate change

    PubMed Central

    Battilani, P.; Toscano, P.; Van der Fels-Klerx, H. J.; Moretti, A.; Camardo Leggieri, M.; Brera, C.; Rortais, A.; Goumperis, T.; Robinson, T.

    2016-01-01

    Climate change has been reported as a driver for emerging food and feed safety issues worldwide and its expected impact on the presence of mycotoxins in food and feed is of great concern. Aflatoxins have the highest acute and chronic toxicity of all mycotoxins; hence, the maximal concentration in agricultural food and feed products and their commodities is regulated worldwide. The possible change in patterns of aflatoxin occurrence in crops due to climate change is a matter of concern that may require anticipatory actions. The aim of this study was to predict aflatoxin contamination in maize and wheat crops, within the next 100 years, under a +2 °C and +5 °C climate change scenario, applying a modelling approach. Europe was virtually covered by a net, 50 × 50 km grids, identifying 2254 meshes with a central point each. Climate data were generated for each point, linked to predictive models and predictions were run consequently. Aflatoxin B1 is predicted to become a food safety issue in maize in Europe, especially in the +2 °C scenario, the most probable scenario of climate change expected for the next years. These results represent a supporting tool to reinforce aflatoxin management and to prevent human and animal exposure. PMID:27066906

  20. Potential of Chitinolytic Serratia marcescens Strain JPP1 for Biological Control of Aspergillus parasiticus and Aflatoxin

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kai; Yan, Pei-sheng; Cao, Li-xin; Ding, Qing-long; Shao, Chi; Zhao, Teng-fei

    2013-01-01

    Serratia marcescens strain JPP1 was isolated from peanut hulls in Huai'an city, Jiangsu Province, China. Its potential to inhibit the mycelial growth of Aspergillus parasiticus and the subsequent aflatoxin production was evaluated. The strain JPP1 could produce chitinase to degrade fungal cell walls, which was the main mechanism of strain JPP1 for biocontrol. Scanning electron microscopy of fungi treated with the crude chitinase revealed abnormal morphological changes. While the strain was grown in the peanut hulls-based medium, the chitinase activity reached 7.39 units. RT-PCR analysis showed that the crude chitinase repressed the transcription of genes involved in the aflatoxin gene cluster, such as aflR, aflC (pksL1), and aflO (dmtA) genes. By visual agar plate assay and tip culture method, the strain JPP1 exhibited remarkable inhibitory effect on mycelia growth (antifungal ratio >95%) and subsequent aflatoxin production (antiaflatoxigenic ratio >98%). An in vitro assay with seed coating agent of bacterial suspension showed that strain JPP1 effectively reduced fungal growth and subsequent aflatoxin production on peanut seeds, and its antagonistic effect was superior to the common agricultural fungicide of carbendazim. These characteristics suggest that S. marcescens JPP1 strain could potentially be utilized for the biological control of phytopathogenic fungi and aflatoxin in Chinese peanut main producing areas. PMID:23865052