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Sample records for aflatoxin-producing aspergillus spp

  1. Occurrence of Aflatoxins and Aflatoxin-Producing Strains of Aspergillus spp. in Soybeans 1

    PubMed Central

    Bean, George A.; Schillinger, John A.; Klarman, William L.

    1972-01-01

    Above average rainfall in Maryland during August, September, and October 1971 resulted in heavy mold growth in soybeans while still in the field. Of 28 samples of soybean seed, aflatoxins were found in 14, 2 of which had been used in poultry feed. Aflatoxins were identified by thin-layer chromatography, spectrophotometry, and chicken embryo bioassay. Aspergillus spp. were isolated from 11 samples, and 5 of these isolates produced aflatoxins when grown in liquid culture. PMID:4673021

  2. Sexual reproduction in aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus nomius

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sexual reproduction was examined in the aflatoxin-producing fungus Aspergillus nomius. Crosses between sexually compatible strains resulted in the formation of multiple nonostiolate ascocarps within stromata, which places the teleomorph in the genus Petromyces. Ascocarp and ascospore morphology in...

  3. Two new aflatoxin producing species, and an overview of Aspergillus section Flavi

    PubMed Central

    Varga, J.; Frisvad, J.C.; Samson, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    Aspergillus subgenus Circumdati section Flavi includes species with usually biseriate conidial heads, in shades of yellow-green to brown, and dark sclerotia. Several species assigned to this section are either important mycotoxin producers including aflatoxins, cyclopiazonic acid, ochratoxins and kojic acid, or are used in oriental food fermentation processes and as hosts for heterologous gene expression. A polyphasic approach was applied using morphological characters, extrolite data and partial calmodulin, β-tubulin and ITS sequences to examine the evolutionary relationships within this section. The data indicate that Aspergillus section Flavi involves 22 species, which can be grouped into seven clades. Two new species, A. pseudocaelatus sp. nov. and A. pseudonomius sp. nov. have been discovered, and can be distinguished from other species in this section based on sequence data and extrolite profiles. Aspergillus pseudocaelatus is represented by a single isolate collected from Arachis burkartii leaf in Argentina, is closely related to the non-aflatoxin producing A. caelatus, and produces aflatoxins B & G, cyclopiazonic acid and kojic acid, while A. pseudonomius was isolated from insects and soil in the USA. This species is related to A. nomius, and produces aflatoxin B1 (but not G-type aflatoxins), chrysogine and kojic acid. In order to prove the aflatoxin producing abilities of the isolates, phylogenetic analysis of three genes taking part in aflatoxin biosynthesis, including the transcriptional regulator aflR, norsolonic acid reductase and O-methyltransferase were also carried out. A detailed overview of the species accepted in Aspergillus section Flavi is presented. PMID:21892243

  4. A Survey of Aflatoxin-Producing Aspergillus sp. from Peanut Field Soils in Four Agroecological Zones of China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chushu; Selvaraj, Jonathan Nimal; Yang, Qingli; Liu, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Peanut pods are easily infected by aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus sp.ecies from field soil. To assess the aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus sp. in different peanut field soils, 344 aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus strains were isolated from 600 soil samples of four agroecological zones in China (the Southeast coastal zone (SEC), the Yangtze River zone (YZR), the Yellow River zone (YR) and the Northeast zone (NE)). Nearly 94.2% (324/344) of strains were A. flavus and 5.8% (20/344) of strains were A. parasiticus. YZR had the highest population density of Aspergillus sp. and positive rate of aflatoxin production in isolated strains (1039.3 cfu·g−1, 80.7%), the second was SEC (191.5 cfu·g−1, 48.7%), the third was YR (26.5 cfu·g−1, 22.7%), and the last was NE (2.4 cfu·g−1, 6.6%). The highest risk of AFB1 contamination on peanut was in YZR which had the largest number of AFB1 producing isolates in 1g soil, followed by SEC and YR, and the lowest was NE. The potential risk of AFB1 contamination in peanuts can increase with increasing population density and a positive rate of aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus sp. in field soils, suggesting that reducing aflatoxigenic Aspergillus sp. in field soils could prevent AFB1 contamination in peanuts. PMID:28117685

  5. A Survey of Aflatoxin-Producing Aspergillus sp. from Peanut Field Soils in Four Agroecological Zones of China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chushu; Selvaraj, Jonathan Nimal; Yang, Qingli; Liu, Yang

    2017-01-20

    Peanut pods are easily infected by aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus sp.ecies from field soil. To assess the aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus sp. in different peanut field soils, 344 aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus strains were isolated from 600 soil samples of four agroecological zones in China (the Southeast coastal zone (SEC), the Yangtze River zone (YZR), the Yellow River zone (YR) and the Northeast zone (NE)). Nearly 94.2% (324/344) of strains were A. flavus and 5.8% (20/344) of strains were A. parasiticus . YZR had the highest population density of Aspergillus sp. and positive rate of aflatoxin production in isolated strains (1039.3 cfu·g -1 , 80.7%), the second was SEC (191.5 cfu·g -1 , 48.7%), the third was YR (26.5 cfu·g -1 , 22.7%), and the last was NE (2.4 cfu·g -1 , 6.6%). The highest risk of AFB₁ contamination on peanut was in YZR which had the largest number of AFB₁ producing isolates in 1g soil, followed by SEC and YR, and the lowest was NE. The potential risk of AFB₁ contamination in peanuts can increase with increasing population density and a positive rate of aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus sp. in field soils, suggesting that reducing aflatoxigenic Aspergillus sp. in field soils could prevent AFB₁ contamination in peanuts.

  6. Potential of essential oils for protection of grains contaminated by aflatoxin produced by Aspergillus flavus

    PubMed Central

    Esper, Renata H.; Gonçalez, Edlayne; Marques, Marcia O. M.; Felicio, Roberto C.; Felicio, Joana D.

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a highly toxic and carcinogenic metabolite produced by Aspergillus species on food and agricultural commodities. Inhibitory effects of essential oils of Ageratum conyzoides (mentrasto) and Origanum vulgare (oregano) on the mycelial growth and aflatoxin B1 production by Aspergillus flavus have been studied previously in culture medium. The aim of this study was to evaluate aflatoxin B1 production by Aspergillus flavus in real food systems (corn and soybean) treated with Ageratum conyzoides (mentrasto) and Origanum vulgare (oregano) essential oils. Samples with 60 g of the grains were treated with different volumes of essential oils, 200, 100, 50, and 10 μL for oregano and 50, 30, 15, and 10 μL for mentrasto. Fungal growth was evaluated by disk diffusion method. Aflatoxin B1 production was evaluated inoculating suspensions of A. flavus containing 1.3 × 105 spores/mL in 60 g of grains (corn and soybeans) after adjusting the water activity at 0.94. Aflatoxin was quantified by photodensitometry. Fungal growth and aflatoxin production were inhibited by essential oils, but the mentrasto oil was more effective in soybeans than that of oregano. On the other hand, in corn samples, the oregano essential oil was more effective than that of mentrasto. Chemical compositions of the essential oils were also investigated. The GC/MS oils analysis showed that the main component of mentrasto essential oil is precocene I and of the main component of oregano essential oil is 4-terpineol. The results indicate that both essential oils can become an alternative for the control of aflatoxins in corn and soybeans. PMID:24926289

  7. Taxonomic comparison of three different groups of aflatoxin producers and a new efficient producer of aflatoxin B1, sterigmatocystin and 3-O-methylsterigmatocystin, Aspergillus rambellii sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Frisvad, Jens C; Skouboe, Pernille; Samson, Robert A

    2005-07-01

    Accumulation of the carcinogenic mycotoxin aflatoxin B, has been reported from members of three different groups of Aspergilli (4) Aspergillus flavus, A. flavus var. parvisclerotigenus, A. parasiticus, A. toxicarius, A. nomius, A. pseudotamarii, A. zhaoqingensis, A. bombycis and from the ascomycete genus Petromyces (Aspergillus section Flavi), (2) Emericella astellata and E. venezuelensis from the ascomycete genus Emericella (Aspergillus section Nidulantes) and (3) Aspergillus ochraceoroseus from a new section proposed here: Aspergillus section Ochraceorosei. We here describe a new species, A. rambellii referable to Ochraceorosei, that accumulates very large amounts of sterigmatocystin, 3-O-methylsterigmatocystin and aflatoxin B1, but not any of the other known extrolites produced by members of Aspergillus section Flavi or Nidulantes. G type aflatoxins were only found in some of the species in Aspergillus section Flavi, while the B type aflatoxins are common in all three groups. Based on the cladistic analysis of nucleotide sequences of ITS1 and 2 and 5.8S, it appears that type G aflatoxin producers are paraphyletic and that section Ochraceorosei is a sister group to the sections Flavi, Circumdati and Cervini, with Emericella species being an outgroup to these sister groups. All aflatoxin producing members of section Flavi produce kojic acid and most species, except A. bombycis and A. pseudotamarii, produce aspergillic acid. Species in Flavi, that produce B type aflatoxins, but not G type aflatoxins, often produced cyclopiazonic acid. No strain was found which produce both G type aflatoxins and cyclopiazonic acid. It was confirmed that some strains of A. flavus var. columnaris produce aflatoxin B2, but this extrolite was not detected in the ex type strain of that variety. A. flavus var. parvisclerotigenus is raised to species level based on the specific combination of small sclerotia, profile of extrolites and rDNA sequence differences. A. zhaoqingensis is regarded

  8. LAMP-based group specific detection of aflatoxin producers within Aspergillus section Flavi in food raw materials, spices, and dried fruit using neutral red for visible-light signal detection.

    PubMed

    Niessen, Ludwig; Bechtner, Julia; Fodil, Sihem; Taniwaki, Marta H; Vogel, Rudi F

    2018-02-02

    Aflatoxins can be produced by 21 species within sections Flavi (16 species), Ochraceorosei (2), and Nidulantes (3) of the fungal genus Aspergillus. They pose risks to human and animal health due to high toxicity and carcinogenicity. Detecting aflatoxin producers can help to assess toxicological risks associated with contaminated commodities. Species specific molecular assays (PCR and LAMP) are available for detection of major producers, but fail to detect species of minor importance. To enable rapid and sensitive detection of several aflatoxin producing species in a single analysis, a nor1 gene-specific LAMP assay was developed. Specificity testing showed that among 128 fungal species from 28 genera, 15 aflatoxigenic species in section Flavi were detected, including synonyms of A. flavus and A. parasiticus. No cross reactions were found with other tested species. The detection limit of the assay was 9.03pg of A. parasiticus genomic DNA per reaction. Visual detection of positive LAMP reactions under daylight conditions was facilitated using neutral red to allow unambiguous distinction between positive and negative assay results. Application of the assay to the detection of A. parasiticus conidia revealed a detection limit of 211 conidia per reaction after minimal sample preparation. The usefulness of the assay was demonstrated in the analysis of aflatoxinogenic species in samples of rice, nuts, raisins, dried figs, as well as powdered spices. Comparison of LAMP results with presence/absence of aflatoxins and aflatoxin producing fungi in 50 rice samples showed good correlation between these parameters. Our study suggests that the developed LAMP assay is a rapid, sensitive and user-friendly tool for surveillance and quality control in our food industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Genome-Wide Transcriptome Analysis of Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) Identifies Candidate Gene Signatures in Response to Aflatoxin Producing Fungus Aspergillus flavus.

    PubMed

    Bedre, Renesh; Rajasekaran, Kanniah; Mangu, Venkata Ramanarao; Sanchez Timm, Luis Eduardo; Bhatnagar, Deepak; Baisakh, Niranjan

    2015-01-01

    Aflatoxins are toxic and potent carcinogenic metabolites produced from the fungi Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. Aflatoxins can contaminate cottonseed under conducive preharvest and postharvest conditions. United States federal regulations restrict the use of aflatoxin contaminated cottonseed at >20 ppb for animal feed. Several strategies have been proposed for controlling aflatoxin contamination, and much success has been achieved by the application of an atoxigenic strain of A. flavus in cotton, peanut and maize fields. Development of cultivars resistant to aflatoxin through overexpression of resistance associated genes and/or knocking down aflatoxin biosynthesis of A. flavus will be an effective strategy for controlling aflatoxin contamination in cotton. In this study, genome-wide transcriptome profiling was performed to identify differentially expressed genes in response to infection with both toxigenic and atoxigenic strains of A. flavus on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) pericarp and seed. The genes involved in antifungal response, oxidative burst, transcription factors, defense signaling pathways and stress response were highly differentially expressed in pericarp and seed tissues in response to A. flavus infection. The cell-wall modifying genes and genes involved in the production of antimicrobial substances were more active in pericarp as compared to seed. The genes involved in auxin and cytokinin signaling were also induced. Most of the genes involved in defense response in cotton were highly induced in pericarp than in seed. The global gene expression analysis in response to fungal invasion in cotton will serve as a source for identifying biomarkers for breeding, potential candidate genes for transgenic manipulation, and will help in understanding complex plant-fungal interaction for future downstream research.

  10. Influences of climate on aflatoxin producing fungi and aflatoxin contamination.

    PubMed

    Cotty, Peter J; Jaime-Garcia, Ramon

    2007-10-20

    Aflatoxins are potent mycotoxins that cause developmental and immune system suppression, cancer, and death. As a result of regulations intended to reduce human exposure, crop contamination with aflatoxins causes significant economic loss for producers, marketers, and processors of diverse susceptible crops. Aflatoxin contamination occurs when specific fungi in the genus Aspergillus infect crops. Many industries frequently affected by aflatoxin contamination know from experience and anecdote that fluctuations in climate impact the extent of contamination. Climate influences contamination, in part, by direct effects on the causative fungi. As climate shifts, so do the complex communities of aflatoxin-producing fungi. This includes changes in the quantity of aflatoxin-producers in the environment and alterations to fungal community structure. Fluctuations in climate also influence predisposition of hosts to contamination by altering crop development and by affecting insects that create wounds on which aflatoxin-producers proliferate. Aflatoxin contamination is prevalent both in warm humid climates and in irrigated hot deserts. In temperate regions, contamination may be severe during drought. The contamination process is frequently broken down into two phases with the first phase occurring on the developing crop and the second phase affecting the crop after maturation. Rain and temperature influence the phases differently with dry, hot conditions favoring the first and warm, wet conditions favoring the second. Contamination varies with climate both temporally and spatially. Geostatistics and multiple regression analyses have shed light on influences of weather on contamination. Geostatistical analyses have been used to identify recurrent contamination patterns and to match these with environmental variables. In the process environmental conditions with the greatest impact on contamination are identified. Likewise, multiple regression analyses allow ranking of

  11. 21 CFR 866.3040 - Aspergillus spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aspergillus spp. serological reagents. 866.3040 Section 866.3040 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3040 Aspergillus...

  12. 21 CFR 866.3040 - Aspergillus spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aspergillus spp. serological reagents. 866.3040 Section 866.3040 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3040 Aspergillus...

  13. 21 CFR 866.3040 - Aspergillus spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aspergillus spp. serological reagents. 866.3040 Section 866.3040 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3040 Aspergillus...

  14. 21 CFR 866.3040 - Aspergillus spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aspergillus spp. serological reagents. 866.3040 Section 866.3040 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3040 Aspergillus...

  15. 21 CFR 866.3040 - Aspergillus spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aspergillus spp. serological reagents. 866.3040 Section 866.3040 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3040 Aspergillus...

  16. Three new species of Aspergillus section Flavi isolated from almonds and maize in Portugal

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Three new aflatoxin-producing species belonging to Aspergillus section Flavi are described, Aspergillus mottae, Aspergillus sergii and Aspergillus transmontanensis. These species were isolated from Portuguese almonds and maize. An investigation examining morphology, extrolites and molecular data was...

  17. Trichocomaceae: biodiversity of Aspergillus spp and Penicillium spp residing in libraries.

    PubMed

    Leite, Diniz Pereira; Yamamoto, Ana Caroline Akeme; Amadio, Janaína Vasconcellos Ribeiro de Souza; Martins, Evelin Rodrigues; do Santos, Fábio Alexandre Leal; Simões, Sara de Almeida Alves; Hahn, Rosane Christine

    2012-10-19

    Atmospheric air is the most common vehicle for the dispersion of fungi. Fungi belonging to the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium are cosmopolitan and are classified in the family Trichocomaceae. Species of the genera are commonly found in soil, decaying organic materials, animal feed, stored grains, and other materials. This study aimed to determine the taxonomic diversity of airborne fungi of the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium residing in the dust of library environments to contribute to current knowledge of these characteristic genera. Three libraries in the city of Cuiaba, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil, were selected as the study areas. A total of 168 samples were collected at randomized sites within each library in areas containing journals, archives, in study rooms, and in collection storage areas in two different periods, the dry season (n = 42)  and the rainy season (n = 42). Samples were collected by exposing Petri dishes containing Sabouraud agar with chloramphenicol to the environmental air. Additional samples were collected with sterile swabs which were rubbed over the surface of randomly chosen books on the shelves; the swabs were subsequently incubated in the laboratory. The genus Aspergillus was highlighted as one of the principal airborne fungi present in indoor environments. Aspergillus spp was identified in 1,277 (89.6%) samples and Penicillium spp in 148 (10.4%). The dry period exhibited a greater number of isolates of the two taxons.

  18. In vitro activity of disinfectants against Aspergillus spp

    PubMed Central

    Mattei, A.S.; Madrid, I.M.; Santin, R.; Schuch, L.F.D.; Meireles, M.C.A.

    2013-01-01

    Fungi of the Aspergillus genus are widespread and contaminate the environment. Thousands of conidia are released from each phialide and dispersed in the air every day. These fungi are considered important mycose-causing agents in hospitals. Due to this, research to determine prevalent fungi from the Aspergillus genus in hospital environments, and an adequate disinfection program in these areas is are needed. This study evaluated the susceptibility of Aspergillus spp. isolated from a veterinary environment against four disinfectants. Successive dilutions of disinfectants (log2) were used according to CLSI M38-A2 microdilution technique adapted to chemical agents against 18 isolates of this genus. After 72 hours of incubation, the Minimum Inhibiting Concentration and Minimum Fungicidal Concentration capable of inhibiting 50% and 90% of the isolates were determined. Chlorexidine-cetrimine, benzalconium chloride and a chlorophenol derivative proved to be effective against all isolates with a lower MIC than that suggested by the manufacturer, except for the A. flavus strain. Sodium hypochlorite was ineffective against three A. fumigatus, three A. flavus and one A. niger isolate. These results demonstrated that all studied disinfectants were effective against environmental isolates, with the exception of sodium hypochlorite, which showed lower effectiveness. PMID:24294243

  19. Aflatoxin-producing fungi in maize field soils from sea level to over 2000 masl: a three year study in Sonora, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Beltran, Alejandro; Jaime, Ramon; Cotty, Peter J

    2015-04-01

    Aflatoxins, highly toxic carcinogens produced by several members of Aspergillus section Flavi, contaminate crops in temperate zones. In the state of Sonora, Mexico, maize is cultivated from 0 to 2100 masl with diverse cultivation practices. This is typical of the nation. In order to design better sampling strategies across Mexico, aflatoxin-producing fungal communities associated with maize production during 2006, 2007, and 2008 in Sonora were investigated in four agro-ecological zones (AEZ) at varying elevation. Fungal communities were dominated by the Aspergillus flavus L strain morphotype (46%), but variation occurred between years and among AEZ. Several atoxigenic isolates with potential to be used as biocontrol agents for aflatoxin mitigation were detected in all AEZ. The characteristics of each AEZ had minimal influences on fungal community structure and should not be a major consideration for future sampling designs for Mexico. Insights into the dynamics and stability of aflatoxin-producing fungal communities across AEZ are discussed. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Environmental contamination by Aspergillus spp. in laying hen farms and associated health risks for farm workers.

    PubMed

    Cafarchia, Claudia; Camarda, Antonio; Iatta, Roberta; Danesi, Patrizia; Favuzzi, Vincenza; Di Paola, Giancarlo; Pugliese, Nicola; Caroli, Anna; Montagna, Maria Teresa; Otranto, Domenico

    2014-03-01

    Data on the occurrence and epidemiology of Aspergillus spp. in laying hens farms are scant. With the aims of determining levels of airborne contamination in laying hen farms and evaluating the potential risk of infection for workers and animals, 57 air samples from 19 sheds (Group I), 69 from faeces (Group II), 19 from poultry feedstuffs (Group III) and 60 from three anatomical sites (i.e. nostrils, pharynx, ears) of 20 farm workers (Group IV) were cultured. The Aspergillus spp. prevalence in samples ranged from 31.6% (Group III) to 55.5% (Group IV), whereas the highest conidia concentration was retrieved in Group II (1.2 × 10(4) c.f.u. g(-1)) and in Group III (1.9 × 10(3) c.f.u. g(-1)). The mean concentration of airborne Aspergillus spp. conidia was 70 c.f.u. m(-3) with Aspergillus fumigatus (27.3%) being the most frequently detected species, followed by Aspergillus flavus (6.3%). These Aspergillus spp. were also isolated from human nostrils (40%) and ears (35%) (P<0.05) (Group IV). No clinical aspergillosis was diagnosed in hens. The results demonstrate a relationship between the environmental contamination in hen farms and presence of Aspergillus spp. on animals and humans. Even if the concentration of airborne Aspergillus spp. conidia (i.e. 70 c.f.u. m(-3)) herein detected does not trigger clinical disease in hens, it causes human colonization. Correct management of hen farms is necessary to control environmental contamination by Aspergillus spp., and could lead to a significant reduction of animal and human colonization.

  1. Occupational exposure to airborne fungi among rice mill workers with special reference to aflatoxin producing A. flavus strains.

    PubMed

    Desai, Manisha Rajib; Ghosh, Sandip

    2003-01-01

    A study was undertaken on environmental mycoflora of rice mills situated in Bawla town, Ahmedabad district. The airborne fungal communities were isolated and identified quantitatively by using Andersen-6-stage viable sampler, midget impinger and high volume samplers (Cone and Hexhlet for total and respirable dusts respectively). Of all the isolates, genus Aspergillus was predominant and among the Aspergillus species, A. flavus was the common isolate, irrespective of the method applied for sample collection. Number of isolates recovered from the working place was significantly greater (p < 0.01) compared to control. Total percentage of aflatoxin positive strains of A. flavus was 8 %. These aflatoxin producing strains were identified on various media, such as Czapek agar (Cz) with 0.05 % anisaldehyde, APA and CAM. Surface morphology of aflatoxin positive strains was studied by SEM. Highly significant total and respirable dust concentrations were found in the work place (p < 0.01) whereas in the store, only the total dust concentration was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than the control site. The study indicates that the rice mill workers are occupationally exposed to airborne aflatoxin producing strains of A. flavus. Thus, they require protective mask for their safety.

  2. Enhanced diversity and aflatoxigenicity in interspecific hybrids of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus are two of the most important aflatoxin-producing species that contaminate agricultural commodities worldwide. Both species are heterothallic and undergo sexual reproduction in laboratory crosses. Here, we examine the possibility of interspecific matings betwe...

  3. Recent advances in reconstructing microbial secondary metabolites biosynthesis in Aspergillus spp.

    PubMed

    He, Yi; Wang, Bin; Chen, Wanping; Cox, Russell J; He, Jingren; Chen, Fusheng

    High throughput genome sequencing has revealed a multitude of potential secondary metabolites biosynthetic pathways that remain cryptic. Pathway reconstruction coupled with genetic engineering via heterologous expression enables discovery of novel compounds, elucidation of biosynthetic pathways, and optimization of product yields. Apart from Escherichia coli and yeast, fungi, especially Aspergillus spp., are well known and efficient heterologous hosts. This review summarizes recent advances in heterologous expression of microbial secondary metabolite biosynthesis in Aspergillus spp. We also discuss the technological challenges and successes in regard to heterologous host selection and DNA assembly behind the reconstruction of microbial secondary metabolite biosynthesis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Global population structure and adaptive evolution of aflatoxin-producing fungi.

    PubMed

    Moore, Geromy G; Olarte, Rodrigo A; Horn, Bruce W; Elliott, Jacalyn L; Singh, Rakhi; O'Neal, Carolyn J; Carbone, Ignazio

    2017-11-01

    Aflatoxins produced by several species in Aspergillus section Flavi are a significant problem in agriculture and a continuous threat to human health. To provide insights into the biology and global population structure of species in section Flavi , a total of 1,304 isolates were sampled across six species ( A. flavus, A. parasiticus, A. nomius, A. caelatus, A. tamarii, and A. alliaceus ) from single fields in major peanut-growing regions in Georgia (USA), Australia, Argentina, India, and Benin (Africa). We inferred maximum-likelihood phylogenies for six loci, both combined and separately, including two aflatoxin cluster regions ( aflM/alfN and aflW/aflX ) and four noncluster regions ( amdS, trpC, mfs and MAT ), to examine population structure and history. We also employed principal component and STRUCTURE analysis to identify genetic clusters and their associations with six different categories (geography, species, precipitation, temperature, aflatoxin chemotype profile, and mating type). Overall, seven distinct genetic clusters were inferred, some of which were more strongly structured by G chemotype diversity than geography. Populations of A. flavus S in Benin were genetically distinct from all other section Flavi species for the loci examined, which suggests genetic isolation. Evidence of trans-speciation within two noncluster regions, whereby A. flavus S BG strains from Australia share haplotypes with either A. flavus or A. parasiticus , was observed. Finally, while clay soil and precipitation may influence species richness in Aspergillus section Flavi , other region-specific environmental and genetic parameters must also be considered.

  5. Workflow to study genetic biodiversity of aflatoxigenic Aspergillus spp. in Georgia, USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Peanut seeds were sampled from the entire state of Georgia in 2014. More than 600 isolates of Aspergillus spp. were collected using modified-dichloran rose Bengal (MDRB) medium, 240 of those isolates were fingerprinted with 25 InDel markers within the aflatoxin-biosynthesis gene cluster (ABC). Clust...

  6. Triazole Resistance in Aspergillus spp.: A Worldwide Problem?

    PubMed Central

    Rivero-Menendez, Olga; Alastruey-Izquierdo, Ana; Mellado, Emilia; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Since the first description of an azole-resistant A. fumigatus strain in 1997, there has been an increasing number of papers describing the emergence of azole resistance. Firstly reported in the USA and soon after in Europe, it has now been described worldwide, challenging the management of human aspergillosis. The main mechanism of resistance is the modification of the azole target enzyme: 14-α sterol demethylase, encoded by the cyp51A gene; although recently, other resistance mechanisms have also been implicated. In addition, a shift in the epidemiology has been noted with other Aspergillus species (mostly azole resistant) increasingly being reported as causative agents of human disease. This paper reviews the current situation of Aspergillus azole resistance and its implications in the clinical setting. PMID:29376938

  7. Genome Sequences of Eight Aspergillus flavus spp. and One A. parasiticus sp., Isolated From Peanut Seeds in Georgia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus fungi, carcinogen-mycotoxins producers, infect peanut seeds, causing considerable impact on both human health and the economy. Here we report 9 genome sequences of Aspergillus spp. isolated from peanut seeds. The information obtained will allow conducting biodiv...

  8. In vitro susceptibility testing of Aspergillus spp. against voriconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole, amphotericin B and caspofungin.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jun-yan; Xu, Ying-chun; Shi, Yi; Lü, Huo-xiang; Liu, Yong; Zhao, Wang-sheng; Chen, Dong-mei; Xi, Li-yan; Zhou, Xin; Wang, He; Guo, Li-na

    2010-10-01

    During recent years, the incidence of serious infections caused by opportunistic fungi has increased dramatically due to alterations of the immune status of patients with hematological diseases, malignant tumors, transplantations and so forth. Unfortunately, the wide use of triazole antifungal agents to treat these infections has lead to the emergence of Aspergillus spp. resistant to triazoles. The present study was to assess the in vitro activities of five antifungal agents (voriconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole, amphotericin B and caspofungin) against different kinds of Aspergillus spp. that are commonly encountered in the clinical setting. The agar-based Etest MIC method was employed. One hundred and seven strains of Aspergillus spp. (5 species) were collected and prepared according to Etest Technique Manuel. Etest MICs were determined with RPMI agar containing 2% glucose and were read after incubation for 48 hours at 35°C. MIC(50), MIC(90) and MIC range were acquired by Whonet 5.4 software. The MIC(90) of caspofungin against A. fumigatus, A. flavus and A. nidulans was 0.094 µg/ml whereas the MIC(90) against A. niger was 0.19 µg/ml. For these four species, the MIC(90) of caspofungin was the lowest among the five antifungal agents. For A. terrus, the MIC(90) of posaconazole was the lowest. For A. fumigatus and A. flavus, the MIC(90) in order of increasing was caspofungin, posaconazole, voriconazole, itraconazole, and amphotericin B. The MIC of amphotericin B against A. terrus was higher than 32 µg/ml in all 7 strains tested. The in vitro antifungal susceptibility test shows the new drug caspofungin, which is a kind of echinocandins, has good activity against the five species of Aspergillus spp. and all the triazoles tested have better in vitro activity than traditional amphotericin B.

  9. 10 years of prophylaxis with nebulized liposomal amphotericin B and the changing epidemiology of Aspergillus spp. infection in lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Peghin, Maddalena; Monforte, Victor; Martin-Gomez, Maria-Teresa; Ruiz-Camps, Isabel; Berastegui, Cristina; Saez, Berta; Riera, Jordi; Ussetti, Piedad; Solé, Juan; Gavaldá, Joan; Roman, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the outcome and tolerability of prophylactic nebulized liposomal amphotericin B (n-LAB) in lung transplant recipients (LTR) and the changing epidemiology of Aspergillus spp. infection and colonization. We performed an observational study including consecutive LTR recipients (2003-2013) undergoing n-LAB prophylaxis lifetime. A total of 412 patients were included (mean postoperative follow-up 2.56 years; IQR 1.01-4.65). Fifty-three (12.8%) patients developed 59 Aspergillus spp. infections, and 22 invasive aspergillosis (overall incidence 5.3%). Since 2009, person-time incidence rates of Aspergillus spp. colonization and infection decreased (2003-2008, 0.19; 2009-2014, 0.09; P = 0.0007), but species with reduced susceptibility or resistance to amphotericin significantly increased (2003-2008, 38.1% vs 2009-2014, 58.1%; P = 0.039). Chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD) was associated with Aspergillus spp. colonization and infection (HR 24.4, 95% CI 14.28-41.97; P = 0.00). Only 2.9% of patients presented adverse effects, and 1.7% required discontinuation. Long-term administration of prophylaxis with n-LAB has proved to be tolerable and can be used for preventing Aspergillus spp. infection in LTR. Over the last years, the incidence of Aspergillus spp. colonization and infection has decreased, but species with reduced amphotericin susceptibility or resistance are emerging. CLAD is associated with Aspergillus spp. colonization and infection. © 2015 Steunstichting ESOT.

  10. In vitro synergy of natamycin and voriconazole against clinical isolates of Fusarium, Candida, Aspergillus and Curvularia spp.

    PubMed

    Sradhanjali, Swatishree; Yein, Bandana; Sharma, Savitri; Das, Sujata

    2018-01-01

    To determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of voriconazole and natamycin, alone and in combination, against the clinical isolates of Fungus and to evaluate the synergy between the drugs in an experimental in vitro study. In an experimental in vitro study, clinical isolates of Fusarium , Aspergillus , Candida and Curvularia spp were maintained on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar and used for the study. The MICs of natamycin and voriconazole, used alone and in combination, were evaluated by checkerboard microdilution technique based on the standard protocol proposed by the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute. The interactions were assessed using the fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) Index model. Tested with all the clinical isolates, the MICs ranged between 0.125 and 8 µg/mL both for natamycin and voriconazole. In descending order, maximum synergism (FIC ≤0.5) was observed in Candida spp (33.3%) followed by Curvularia spp and Fusarium spp (23.1%). Synergism was least for Aspergillus spp (22.2%). However, at 61.5% (8/13), maximum additive effect (>0.5-1) was observed in Aspergillus spp and minimum (33.3%, 2/6) in Candida spp. Indifference (FIC value >1 and≤4) was observed in 22.2% (2/9) of Aspergillus spp, 15.4% (2/13) of Fusarium spp, 33.3% (2/6) of Candida spp and 23.1% (3/13) of Curvularia spp. No cases of antagonism (FIC >4) were observed. Natamycin and voriconazole in combination demonstrated more effective antifungal activity than single-use in vitro treatment in all species tested, which implies that these combinations may be helpful in treating fungal keratitis. There was no antagonism between these two drugs. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. Real-time PCR assays for detection and quantification of aflatoxin-producing molds in foods.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Alicia; Rodríguez, Mar; Luque, M Isabel; Martín, Alberto; Córdoba, Juan J

    2012-08-01

    Aflatoxins are among the most toxic mycotoxins. Early detection and quantification of aflatoxin-producing species is crucial to improve food safety. In the present work, two protocols of real-time PCR (qPCR) based on SYBR Green and TaqMan were developed, and their sensitivity and specificity were evaluated. Primers and probes were designed from the o-methyltransferase gene (omt-1) involved in aflatoxin biosynthesis. Fifty-three mold strains representing aflatoxin producers and non-producers of different species, usually reported in food products, were used as references. All strains were tested for aflatoxins production by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). The functionality of the proposed qPCR method was demonstrated by the strong linear relationship of the standard curves constructed with the omt-1 gene copy number and Ct values for the different aflatoxin producers tested. The ability of the qPCR protocols to quantify aflatoxin-producing molds was evaluated in different artificially inoculated foods. A good linear correlation was obtained over the range 4 to 1 log cfu/g per reaction for all qPCR assays in the different food matrices (peanuts, spices and dry-fermented sausages). The detection limit in all inoculated foods ranged from 1 to 2 log cfu/g for SYBR Green and TaqMan assays. No significant effect was observed due to the different equipment, operator, and qPCR methodology used in the tests of repeatability and reproducibility for different foods. The proposed methods quantified with high efficiency the fungal load in foods. These qPCR protocols are proposed for use to quantify aflatoxin-producing molds in food products. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [Respiratory infections caused by Aspergillus spp. in critically ill patients admitted to the intensive care units].

    PubMed

    Álvarez Lerma, F; Olaechea Astigarraga, P; Palomar Martínez, M; Rodríguez Carvajal, M; Machado Casas, J F; Jiménez Quintana, M M; Esteve Urbano, F; Ballesteros Herráez, J C; Zavala Zegarra, E

    2015-04-01

    The presence of respiratory fungal infection in the critically ill patient is associated with high morbidity and mortality. To assess the incidence of respiratory infection caused by Aspergillus spp. independently of the origin of infection in patients admitted to Spanish ICUs, as well as to describe the rates, characteristics, outcomes and prognostic factors in patients with this type of infection. An observational, retrospective, open-label and multicenter study was carried out in a cohort of patients with respiratory infection caused by Aspergillus spp. admitted to Spanish ICUs between 2006 and 2012 (months of April, May and June), and included in the ENVIN-HELICS registry (108,244 patients and 825,797 days of ICU stay). Variables independently related to in-hospital mortality were identified by multiple logistic regression analysis. A total of 267 patients from 79 of the 198 participating ICUs were included (2.46 cases per 1000 ICU patients and 3.23 episodes per 10,000 days of ICU stay). From a clinical point of view, infections were classified as ventilator-associated pneumonia in 93 cases (34.8%), pneumonia unrelated to mechanical ventilation in 120 cases (44.9%), and tracheobronchitis in 54 cases (20.2%). The study population included older patients (mean 64.8±17.1 years), with a high severity level (APACHE II score 22.03±7.7), clinical diseases (64.8%) and prolonged hospital stay before the identification of Aspergillus spp. (median 11 days), transferred to the ICU mainly from hospital wards (58.1%) and with high ICU (57.3%) and hospital (59.6%) mortality rates, exhibiting important differences depending on the type of infection involved. Independent mortality risk factors were previous admission to a hospital ward (OR=7.08, 95%CI: 3.18-15.76), a history of immunosuppression (OR=2.52, 95%CI: 1.24-5.13) and severe sepsis or septic shock (OR=8.91, 95%CI: 4.24-18.76). Respiratory infections caused by Aspergillus spp. in critically ill patients admitted to

  13. Sequence of host contact influences the outcome of competition among Aspergillus flavus isolates during host tissue invasion

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Biological control of aflatoxin contamination by Aspergillus flavus is achieved by competitive exclusion of aflatoxin producers by atoxigenic strains. However, factors dictating the extent to which competitive displacement occurs during host infection are unknown. The role of preemptive exclusion in...

  14. Aspergillus korhogoensis, a novel aflatoxin producing species from the Côte d’Ivoire

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Based on examination of four isolates, this new species is described using a polyphasic approach. A concatenated alignment comprised of nine genes (ITS, benA, cmdA, mcm7, amdS, rpb1, preB, ppgA, preA) was subjected to phylogenetic analysis, and resulted in all four strains being inferred as a distin...

  15. [Clinical factors associated with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in patients with chronic pneumopathies and respiratory isolation of Aspergillus spp].

    PubMed

    Castón, Juan José; Linares, María José; Rivero, Antonio; Casal, Manuel; Torre-Cisneros, Julián

    2012-12-15

    To determine clinical variables to distinguish invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) from colonization in patients with chronic pneumopathies with positive culture of Aspergillus spp. in respiratory samples. Retrospective cohort study including patients with respiratory isolations of Aspergillus spp. during a period of 10 years. IPA was evaluated according to the Bulpa criteria. Clinical variables were collected and a multiple logistic regression analysis was carried out. Eighty-three patients with isolation of Aspergillus spp. from respiratory samples were included; 68.7% (n=57) of the patients had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 18% (n=15) pulmonary fibrosis and 13.3% (n=11) bronchial asthma. Twenty-two patients (26.6%) had IPA. The use of fluconazole (OR 4.49; CI 95% 1.5-13.4; P=.007), severe respiratory failure (OR 4.64; CI 95% 1.46-14.72; P=.009) and hospitalization time (OR 1.05; CI 95% 1.01-1.1; P=.006) were associated with IPA. Prior use of fluconazole, severe respiratory failure and hospitalization time are associated with IPA in patients with chronic pneumopathies with respiratory isolation of Aspergillus spp. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  16. Disinfection efficacy of chlorine and peracetic acid alone or in combination against Aspergillus spp. and Candida albicans in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Sisti, Maurizio; Brandi, Giorgio; De Santi, Mauro; Rinaldi, Laura; Schiavano, Giuditta F

    2012-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the fungicidal activity of chlorine and peracetic acid in drinking water against various pathogenic Aspergillus spp. and Candida albicans strains. A. nidulans exhibited the greatest resistance, requiring 10 ppm of chlorine for 30 min contact time for a complete inactivation. Under the same experimental conditions, peracetic acid was even less fungicidal. In this case, A. niger proved to be the most resistant species (50 ppm for 60 min for complete inactivation). All Aspergillus spp. were insensitive to 10 ppm even with extended exposure (>5 h). The combination of chlorine and peracetic acid against Aspergillus spp. did not show synergistic effects except in the case of A. flavus. Complete growth inhibition of C. albicans was observed after about 3 h contact time with 0.2 ppm. C. albicans was less sensitive to peracetic acid. Hence the concentrations of chlorine that are usually present in drinking water distribution systems are ineffective against several Aspergillus spp. and peracetic acid cannot be considered an alternative to chlorine for disinfecting drinking water. The combination of the two biocides is not very effective in eliminating filamentous fungi at the concentrations permitted for drinking water disinfection.

  17. Clonality and sex impact aflatoxigenicity in Aspergillus populations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Species in Aspergillus section Flavi commonly infect agricultural staples such as corn, peanuts, cottonseed, and tree nuts and produce an array of mycotoxins, the most potent of which are aflatoxins. Aspergillus flavus is the dominant aflatoxin-producing species in the majority of crops. Populatio...

  18. Ultraviolet irradiation: An effective inactivation method of Aspergillus spp. in water for the control of waterborne nosocomial aspergillosis.

    PubMed

    Nourmoradi, H; Nikaeen, M; Stensvold, C R; Mirhendi, H

    2012-11-15

    Invasive aspergillosis is the second most common cause of nosocomial fungal infections and occurring mainly by Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, and Aspergillus niger. There is evidence that nosocomial aspergillosis may be waterborne. This study was conducted to evaluate the ultraviolet (UV) irradiation efficiency in terms of inactivating the most important Aspergillus species in water since these are potential sources for nosocomial aspergillosis. A continuous flow UV reactor which could be used as a point-of-use (POU) system was used to survey Aspergillus inactivation by UV irradiation. The inactivation efficiency of UV fluence (4.15-25 mJ/cm(2)) was measured by determination of fungal density in water before and after radiation. Because turbidity and iron concentration are two major water quality factors impacting UV disinfection effectiveness, the potential influence of these factors on UV inactivation of Aspergillus spp. was also measured. The 4 log inactivation for A. fumigatus, A. niger and A. flavus at a density of 1000 cfu/ml was achieved at UV fluences of 12.45 mJ/cm(2), 16.6 mJ/cm(2) and 20.75 mJ/cm(2), respectively. The inactivation efficiency for lower density (100 cfu/ml) was the same as for the higher density except for A. flavus. The removal efficiency of Aspergillus spp. was decreased by increasing the turbidity and iron concentration. UV disinfection could effectively inactivate Aspergillus spores from water and eliminate potential exposure of high-risk patients to fungal aerosols by installation of POU UV systems. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Aspergillus spp. prevalence in different Portuguese occupational environments: What is the real scenario in high load settings?

    PubMed

    Viegas, Carla; Faria, Tiago; Caetano, Liliana Aranha; Carolino, Elisabete; Gomes, Anita Quintal; Viegas, Susana

    2017-10-01

    The genus Aspergillus is one of the most prevalent regarding fungi in several highly contaminated occupational environments. The goal of the current study was to assess the prevalence of Aspergillus spp. in different settings, focusing on those where a higher load of fungal contamination is expected according to the European Agency for Safety and Health at Work. A specific protocol to ensure a more accurate assessment of the exposure to Aspergillus spp. is proposed aimed at allowing a detailed risk characterization and management. Two wastewater treatment plants, one wastewater elevation plant, four waste treatment plants, three cork industries, five slaughter houses, four feed industries, one poultry pavilion, and two swineries, all located in the outskirts of Lisbon, were assessed. In total, 125 air samples and 125 surface samples were collected and analysed by culture-based methods. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to detect fungal presence in 100 samples, targeting the Aspergillus sections Circumdati, Flavi, and Fumigati. The highest prevalence of Aspergillus spp. was found in wastewater treatment plants (69.3%; 31.1%), waste treatment plants (34.8%; 73.6%), and poultry feed industry (6.3%; 26.1%), in air and surfaces, respectively. Aspergillus spp. was also prevalent in cork industry (0.9%; 23.4%), slaughter houses (1.6%; 17.7%), and swineries (7.4%; 9.5%), in air and surfaces, respectively. The Aspergillus sections more prevalent in the air and surfaces of all the assessed settings were the Nigri section (47.46%; 44.71%, respectively), followed by Fumigati (22.28%; 27.97%, respectively) and Flavi (10.78%; 11.45%, respectively) sections. Aspergillus section Fumigati was successfully amplified by qPCR in 18 sampling sites where the presence of this fungal species had not been identified by conventional methods. It should be highlighted that the occupational exposure burden is due not only to the Aspergillus load, but also to the toxigenic

  20. Occurrence of Aspergillus spp. and aflatoxin B1 in Malaysian foods used for human consumption.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Kasa R N; Farhana, Nazira I; Salleh, Baharuddin

    2011-05-01

    Malaysian population widely consumes the cereal-based foods, oilseeds, nuts, and spices in their daily diet. Mycotoxigenic fungi are well known to invade food products under storage conditions and produce mycotoxins that have threat to human and animal health. Therefore, determining toxigenic fungi and aflatoxin B(1) (AFB1) in foods used for human consumption is of prime importance to develop suitable management strategies and to minimize risk. Ninety-five food products marketed in Penang, Malaysia were randomly collected from different supermarkets and were analyzed for presence of Aspergillus spp. by agar plate assay and AFB1 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A. flavus was the dominant fungi in all foods followed by A. niger. Fifty-five A. flavus strains were tested for their ability to produce aflatoxins on rice grain substrate. Thirty-six (65.4%) strains out of 55 produced AFB1 ranging from 1700 to 4400 μg/kg and 17 strains (31%) produced AFB2 ranging from 620 to 1670 μg/kg. Natural occurrence of AFB1 could be detected in 72.6% food products ranging from 0.54 to 15.33 μg/kg with a mean of 1.95 μg/kg. Maximum AFB1 levels were detected in peanut products ranging from 1.47 to 15.33 μg/kg. AFB1 levels detected in all food products were below the Malaysian permissible limits (<35 μg/kg). Aspergillus spp. and AFB1 was not detected in any cookies tested. Although this survey was not comprehensive, it provides valuable information on aflatoxin levels in foods marketed in Malaysia. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. The sexual state of Aspergillus parasiticus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The sexual state of Aspergillus parasiticus, a potent aflatoxin-producing fungus within section Flavi, is described. The production of nonostiolate ascocarps surrounded by a separate peridium within the stroma places the teleomorph in the genus Petromyces. Petromyces parasiticus differs from P. a...

  2. Notable fibrolytic enzyme production by Aspergillus spp. isolates from the gastrointestinal tract of beef cattle fed in lignified pastures

    PubMed Central

    Abrão, Flávia Oliveira; Pessoa, Moisés Sena; dos Santos, Vera Lúcia; de Freitas Júnior, Luiz Fernando; Barros, Katharina de Oliveira; Hughes, Alice Ferreira da Silva; Silva, Thiago Dias; Rodriguez, Norberto Mário

    2017-01-01

    Fungi have the ability to degrade vegetal cell wall carbohydrates, and their presence in the digestive tract of ruminants can minimize the effects of lignified forage on ruminal fermentation. Here, we evaluated enzyme production by Aspergillus spp. isolates from the digestive tracts of cattle grazed in tropical pastures during the dry season. Filamentous fungi were isolated from rumen and feces by culture in cellulose-based medium. Ninety fungal strains were isolated and identified by rDNA sequence analysis, microculture, or both. Aspergillus terreus was the most frequently isolated species, followed by Aspergillus fumigatus. The isolates were characterized with respect to their cellulolytic, xylanolytic, and lignolytic activity through qualitative evaluation in culture medium containing a specific corresponding carbon source. Carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase) activity was quantified by the reducing sugar method. In the avicel and xilan degradation test, the enzyme activity (EA) at 48 h was significantly higher other periods (P < 0.05). Intra- and inter-specific differences in EA were verified, and high levels of phenoloxidases, which are crucial for lignin degradation, were observed in 28.9% of the isolates. Aspergillus terreus showed significantly higher EA for avicelase (3.96 ±1.77) and xylanase (3.13 ±.091) than the other Aspergillus species at 48 h of incubation. Isolates AT13 and AF69 showed the highest CMCase specific activity (54.84 and 33.03 U mg-1 protein, respectively). Selected Aspergillus spp. isolates produced remarkable levels of enzymes involved in vegetal cell wall degradation, suggesting their potential as antimicrobial additives or probiotics in ruminant diets. PMID:28850605

  3. Notable fibrolytic enzyme production by Aspergillus spp. isolates from the gastrointestinal tract of beef cattle fed in lignified pastures.

    PubMed

    Abrão, Flávia Oliveira; Duarte, Eduardo Robson; Pessoa, Moisés Sena; Santos, Vera Lúcia Dos; Freitas Júnior, Luiz Fernando de; Barros, Katharina de Oliveira; Hughes, Alice Ferreira da Silva; Silva, Thiago Dias; Rodriguez, Norberto Mário

    2017-01-01

    Fungi have the ability to degrade vegetal cell wall carbohydrates, and their presence in the digestive tract of ruminants can minimize the effects of lignified forage on ruminal fermentation. Here, we evaluated enzyme production by Aspergillus spp. isolates from the digestive tracts of cattle grazed in tropical pastures during the dry season. Filamentous fungi were isolated from rumen and feces by culture in cellulose-based medium. Ninety fungal strains were isolated and identified by rDNA sequence analysis, microculture, or both. Aspergillus terreus was the most frequently isolated species, followed by Aspergillus fumigatus. The isolates were characterized with respect to their cellulolytic, xylanolytic, and lignolytic activity through qualitative evaluation in culture medium containing a specific corresponding carbon source. Carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase) activity was quantified by the reducing sugar method. In the avicel and xilan degradation test, the enzyme activity (EA) at 48 h was significantly higher other periods (P < 0.05). Intra- and inter-specific differences in EA were verified, and high levels of phenoloxidases, which are crucial for lignin degradation, were observed in 28.9% of the isolates. Aspergillus terreus showed significantly higher EA for avicelase (3.96 ±1.77) and xylanase (3.13 ±.091) than the other Aspergillus species at 48 h of incubation. Isolates AT13 and AF69 showed the highest CMCase specific activity (54.84 and 33.03 U mg-1 protein, respectively). Selected Aspergillus spp. isolates produced remarkable levels of enzymes involved in vegetal cell wall degradation, suggesting their potential as antimicrobial additives or probiotics in ruminant diets.

  4. Role of grapevine vegetative expression on Aspergillus spp. incidence and OTA accumulation in wines produced in a temperate humid climate.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Virginia; Dellacassa, Eduardo; Coniberti, Andrés; Disegna, Edgardo

    2017-02-01

    Aspergillus spp. and Penicillium spp. are the main producers of ochratoxin A (OTA), a mycotoxin responsible for fatal human diseases. Some authorities have established a maximum of 2 μg/L of OTA in wine. Although the incidence and occurrence of OTA in grapes and wine is highly related to climate conditions, as has been extensively documented, there is no conclusive information on the effects of cultivation systems on the presence of OTA. This study focuses on determining the effect of the trellis system, planting density and cordon height on plant microclimate and thus on Aspergillus spp. contamination and OTA production in Tannat wines in Southern Uruguay. Two experiments were conducted during the 2010-2011 growing season: (1) a strip split plot design with five replicates and two cordon heights (CH) (0.5 m and 1.0 m above the soil) were compared in two planting densities (PD) (0.8 and 1.5 m between plants); (2) a randomised complete block design, vertical shoot positioning (VSP) versus Lyra trellis systems were evaluated. The results suggest that, even the macro- and micro-climate growing conditions play an important part in Aspergillus developing on grapes. Agronomical practices also have an undoubted impact on the risk and control of OTA accumulation in wine.

  5. Importance of Aspergillus spp. isolation in Acute exacerbations of severe COPD: prevalence, factors and follow-up: the FUNGI-COPD study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD) are often associated with infectious agents, some of which may be non-usual, including Aspergillus spp. However, the importance of Aspergillus spp. in the clinical management of AECOPD still remains unclear. Objectives The aims of the study were to analyze the prevalence and risk factors associated with Aspergillus spp. isolation in AECOPD, and to investigate the associated clinical outcomes during a 1-year follow-up period. Methods Patients presenting with an AECOPD requiring hospitalization were prospectively included from four hospitals across Spain. Clinical, radiological and microbiological data were collected at admission and during the follow-up period (1, 6 and 12 months after discharge), and re-admissions and mortality data collected during the follow-up. Results A total of 240 patients with severe AECOPD were included. Valid sputum samples were obtained in 144 (58%) patients, and in this group, the prevalence of Aspergillus spp. isolation was 16.6% on admission and 14.1% at one-year follow-up. Multivariate logistic-regression showed that AECOPD in the previous year (OR 12.35; 95% CI, 1.9-29.1; p < 0.001), concurrent isolation of pathogenic bacteria (OR 3.64; 95% CI 1.65-9.45, p = 0.001) and concomitant isolation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (OR 2.80; 95% IC, 1.81-11.42; p = 0.001) were the main risk factors for Aspergillus spp. isolation. Conclusions The main risk factors for Aspergillus spp. isolation were AECOPD in the previous year and concomitant isolation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. However, although Aspergillus spp. is often isolated in sputum samples from patients with AECOPD, the pathogenic and clinical significance remains unclear. PMID:24517318

  6. NsdC and NsdD affect Aspergillus flavus morphogenesis and aflatoxin production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The transcription factors NsdC and NsdD have been shown to be necessary for sexual development in Aspergillus nidulans. Herein we examine the role of these proteins in development and aflatoxin production of the agriculturally important, aflatoxin-producing fungus, Aspergillus flavus. We found tha...

  7. MALDI-TOF MS Andromas strategy for the routine identification of bacteria, mycobacteria, yeasts, Aspergillus spp. and positive blood cultures.

    PubMed

    Bille, E; Dauphin, B; Leto, J; Bougnoux, M-E; Beretti, J-L; Lotz, A; Suarez, S; Meyer, J; Join-Lambert, O; Descamps, P; Grall, N; Mory, F; Dubreuil, L; Berche, P; Nassif, X; Ferroni, A

    2012-11-01

    All organisms usually isolated in our laboratory are now routinely identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) using the Andromas software. The aim of this study was to describe the use of this strategy in a routine clinical microbiology laboratory. The microorganisms identified included bacteria, mycobacteria, yeasts and Aspergillus spp. isolated on solid media or extracted directly from blood cultures. MALDI-TOF MS was performed on 2665 bacteria isolated on solid media, corresponding to all bacteria isolated during this period except Escherichia coli grown on chromogenic media. All acquisitions were performed without extraction. After a single acquisition, 93.1% of bacteria grown on solid media were correctly identified. When the first acquisition was not contributory, a second acquisition was performed either the same day or the next day. After two acquisitions, the rate of bacteria identified increased to 99.2%. The failures reported on 21 strains were due to an unknown profile attributed to new species (9) or an insufficient quality of the spectrum (12). MALDI-TOF MS has been applied to 162 positive blood cultures. The identification rate was 91.4%. All mycobacteria isolated during this period (22) were correctly identified by MALDI-TOF MS without any extraction. For 96.3% and 92.2% of yeasts and Aspergillus spp., respectively, the identification was obtained with a single acquisition. After a second acquisition, the overall identification rate was 98.8% for yeasts (160/162) and 98.4% (63/64) for Aspergillus spp. In conclusion, the MALDI-TOF MS strategy used in this work allows a rapid and efficient identification of all microorganisms isolated routinely. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2011 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  8. Activity of a long-acting echinocandin, CD101, determined using CLSI and EUCAST reference methods, against Candida and Aspergillus spp., including echinocandin- and azole-resistant isolates.

    PubMed

    Pfaller, Michael A; Messer, Shawn A; Rhomberg, Paul R; Jones, Ronald N; Castanheira, Mariana

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of CD101, a novel echinocandin with a long serum elimination half-life, and comparator (anidulafungin and caspofungin) antifungal agents against a collection of Candida and Aspergillus spp. isolates. CD101 and comparator agents were tested against 106 Candida spp. and 67 Aspergillus spp. isolates, including 27 isolates of Candida harbouring fks hotspot mutations and 12 itraconazole non-WT Aspergillus, using CLSI and EUCAST reference susceptibility broth microdilution (BMD) methods. Against WT and fks mutant Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Candida tropicalis, the activity of CD101 [MIC90 = 0.06, 0.12 and 0.03 mg/L, respectively (CLSI method values)] was comparable to that of anidulafungin (MIC90 = 0.03, 0.12 and 0.03 mg/L, respectively) and caspofungin (MIC90 = 0.12, 0.25 and 0.12 mg/L, respectively). WT Candida krusei isolates were very susceptible to CD101 (MIC = 0.06 mg/L). CD101 activity (MIC50/90 = 1/2 mg/L) was comparable to that of anidulafungin (MIC50/90 = 2/2 mg/L) against Candida parapsilosis. CD101 (MIC mode = 0.06 mg/L for C. glabrata) was 2- to 4-fold more active against fks hotspot mutants than caspofungin (MIC mode = 0.5 mg/L). CD101 was active against Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus (MEC90 range = ≤0.008-0.03 mg/L). The essential agreement between CLSI and EUCAST methods for CD101 was 92.0%-100.0% among Candida spp. and 95.0%-100.0% among Aspergillus spp. The activity of CD101 is comparable to that of other members of the echinocandin class for the prevention and treatment of serious fungal infections. Similar results for CD101 activity versus Candida and Aspergillus spp. may be obtained with either CLSI or EUCAST BMD methods. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy.

  9. Breakpoints for antifungal agents: an update from EUCAST focussing on echinocandins against Candida spp. and triazoles against Aspergillus spp.

    PubMed

    Arendrup, Maiken C; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel; Lass-Flörl, Cornelia; Hope, William W

    2013-12-01

    Candida and Aspergillus infections have emerged as significant pathogens in recent decades. During this same time, broad spectrum triazole and echinocandin antifungal agents have been developed and increasingly used. One consequence of widespread use is leading to the emergence of mutants with acquired resistance mutations. Therefore, accurate susceptibility testing and appropriate clinical breakpoints for the interpretation of susceptibility results have become increasingly important. Here we review the underlying methodology by which breakpoints have been selected by EUCAST (European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing). Five parameters are evaluated: dosing regimens used; EUCAST MIC distributions from multiple laboratories, species and compound specific epidemiological cut off values (upper MIC limits of wild type isolates or ECOFFs), pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationships and targets associated with outcome and finally clinical data by species and MIC when available. The general principles are reviewed followed by a detailed review of the individual aspects for Candida species and the three echinocandins and for Aspergillus and the three mould-active azoles. This review provides an update of the subcommittee on antifungal susceptibility testing (AFST) of the EUCAST methodology and summarises the current EUCAST breakpoints for Candida and Aspergillus. Recommendations about applicability of antifungal susceptibility testing in the routine setting are also included. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Occurrence of Toxigenic Fungi and Aflatoxin Potential of Aspergillus spp. Strains Associated with Subsistence Farmed Crops in Haiti.

    PubMed

    Aristil, Junior; Venturini, Giovanni; Spada, Alberto

    2017-04-01

    Subsistence farming and poor storage facilities favor toxigenic fungal contamination and mycotoxin accumulation in staple foods from tropical countries such as Haiti. The present preliminary study was designed to evaluate the occurrence of toxigenic fungi in Haitian foodstuffs to define the mycotoxin risk associated with Haitian crops. The objectives of this research were to determine the distribution of toxigenic fungi in the Haitian crops maize, moringa, and peanut seeds and to screen Aspergillus section Flavi (ASF) isolates for production of aflatoxins B 1 and G 1 in vitro. Maize, moringa, and peanut samples were contaminated by potential toxigenic fungal taxa, mainly ASF and Fusarium spp. The isolation frequency of Aspergillus spp. and Fusarium spp. was influenced by locality and thus by farming systems, storage systems, and weather conditions. Particularly for ASF in peanut and maize samples, isolation frequencies were directly related to the growing season length. The present study represents the first report of contamination by toxigenic fungi and aflatoxin in moringa seeds, posing concerns about the safety of these seeds, which people in Haiti commonly consume. Most (80%) of the Haitian ASF strains were capable of producing aflatoxins, indicating that Haitian conditions clearly favor the colonization of toxigenic ASF strains over atoxigenic strains. ASF strains producing both aflatoxins B 1 and G 1 were found. Understanding the distribution of toxigenic ASF in Haitian crops and foodstuffs is important for determining accurate toxicological risks because the toxic profile of ASF is species specific. The occurrence of toxigenic fungi and the profiles of the ASF found in various crops highlight the need to prevent formation of aflatoxins in Haitian crops. This study provides relevant preliminary baseline data for guiding the development of legislation regulating the quality and safety of crops in this low-income country.

  11. The effect of high-power ultrasound and gas phase plasma treatment on Aspergillus spp. and Penicillium spp. count in pure culture.

    PubMed

    Herceg, Z; Režek Jambrak, A; Vukušić, T; Stulić, V; Stanzer, D; Milošević, S

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate and compare two nonthermal techniques in the inactivation of moulds. High power ultrasound (20 kHz) and nonthermal gas phase plasma treatments were studied in the inactivation of selected moulds. Aspergillus spp. and Penicillium spp. were chosen as the most common mould present in or on food. Experimental design was introduced to establish and optimize working variables. For high power ultrasound, the greatest reduction of moulds (indicated by the total removal of viable cells) was obtained after ultrasound treatments at 60°C (thermosonication) for 6 and 9 min (power applied, 20-39 W). For plasma treatment, the greatest inactivation of moulds was observed for the longest treatment time (5 min) and lowest sample volume (2 ml), (AP12, AP13, PP12 and PP13). The great amount of applied energy required for achieving a partial log reduction in viable cells is the limiting factor for using high-power ultrasound. However, both treatment methods could be combined in the future to produce beneficial outcomes. This study deals with nonthermal food processing techniques and the results and findings present in this study are the root for further prospective studies. The food industry is looking for nonthermal methods that will enable food preservation, reduce deterioration of food compounds and structure and prolong food shelf life. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. Alginate Oligosaccharides Inhibit Fungal Cell Growth and Potentiate the Activity of Antifungals against Candida and Aspergillus spp

    PubMed Central

    Tøndervik, Anne; Sletta, Håvard; Klinkenberg, Geir; Emanuel, Charlotte; Powell, Lydia C.; Pritchard, Manon F.; Khan, Saira; Craine, Kieron M.; Onsøyen, Edvar; Rye, Phil D.; Wright, Chris; Thomas, David W.; Hill, Katja E.

    2014-01-01

    The oligosaccharide OligoG, an alginate derived from seaweed, has been shown to have anti-bacterial and anti-biofilm properties and potentiates the activity of selected antibiotics against multi-drug resistant bacteria. The ability of OligoG to perturb fungal growth and potentiate conventional antifungal agents was evaluated using a range of pathogenic fungal strains. Candida (n = 11) and Aspergillus (n = 3) spp. were tested using germ tube assays, LIVE/DEAD staining, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and high-throughput minimum inhibition concentration assays (MICs). In general, the strains tested showed a significant dose-dependent reduction in cell growth at ≥6% OligoG as measured by optical density (OD600; P<0.05). OligoG (>0.5%) also showed a significant inhibitory effect on hyphal growth in germ tube assays, although strain-dependent variations in efficacy were observed (P<0.05). SEM and AFM both showed that OligoG (≥2%) markedly disrupted fungal biofilm formation, both alone, and in combination with fluconazole. Cell surface roughness was also significantly increased by the combination treatment (P<0.001). High-throughput robotic MIC screening demonstrated the potentiating effects of OligoG (2, 6, 10%) with nystatin, amphotericin B, fluconazole, miconazole, voriconazole or terbinafine with the test strains. Potentiating effects were observed for the Aspergillus strains with all six antifungal agents, with an up to 16-fold (nystatin) reduction in MIC. Similarly, all the Candida spp. showed potentiation with nystatin (up to 16-fold) and fluconazole (up to 8-fold). These findings demonstrate the antifungal properties of OligoG and suggest a potential role in the management of fungal infections and possible reduction of antifungal toxicity. PMID:25409186

  13. Characterization of chicken antisera raised against Aspergillus spp. by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Chen, F S; Chen, J W; Zhao, S; Gan, Z B; Luo, X C; Zhou, Q

    2000-10-01

    Enzyme linked immunosorbent assays of three Aspergillus species have been developed. Laying hens were immunized with the exoantigens from Asp. flavus, Asp. ochreaus and Asp. versicolor. All test chickens except for one produced antisera raised against the exoantigens. The antisera production process and ELISA titer were analysed. Fourteen days after the first injection, the antisera began to produce largely, on the 35th day reached to the peak, and maintained a stable level until the 42nd day. The maximum ELISA titer of the antisera to the exoantigens from Asp. flavus, Asp. ochreaus and Asp. versicolor was 1:8,000, 1:10,000 and 1:10,000, respectively. The cross-reactivities of antisera were determined with seventeen species of Aspergillus, ten species of fungi from other genera and the buffer-extracts of grain. The antisera did not cross-react with the exoantigens from other genera and the buffer-extracts of grain. The antiserum to exoantigen from Asp. ochreaus was species-specific, whereas the antisera against Asp. flavus and Asp. versicolor tended to cross-react with other Aspergillus species to varying degrees. The results suggest that exoantigens immunoassays can be developed to indentify and detect Aspergillus genus in grains.

  14. A multiplex PCR method for detection of Aspergillus spp. and Mycobacterium tuberculosis in BAL specimens.

    PubMed

    Amini, F; Kachuei, R; Noorbakhsh, F; Imani Fooladi, A A

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was the detection of Aspergillus species and Mycobacterium tuberculosis together in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) using of multiplex PCR. In this study, from September 2012 until June 2013, 100 bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimens were collected from patients suspected of tuberculosis (TB). After the direct and culture test, multiplex PCR were utilized in order to diagnose Aspergillus species and M. tuberculosis. Phenol-chloroform manual method was used in order to extract DNA from these microorganisms. Aspergillus specific primers, M. tuberculosis designed primers and beta actin primers were used for multiplex PCR. In this study, by multiplex PCR method, Aspergillus species were identified in 12 samples (12%), positive samples in direct and culture test were respectively 11% and 10%. Sensitivity and specificity of this method in comparison to direct test were respectively 100% and 98.8%, also sensitivity and specificity of this method in comparison to culture test were respectively 100% and 97.7%. In this assay, M. tuberculosis was identified in 8 samples (8%). Mycobacterium-positive samples in molecular method, direct and culture test were respectively 6%, 5% and 7%. Sensitivity and specificity of PCR method in comparison to direct test were 80% and 97.8% also sensitivity and specificity of this method in comparison to culture test was 71.4% and 98.9%. In the present study, multiplex PCR method had higher sensitivity than direct and culture test in order to identify and detect Aspergillus, also this method had lower sensitivity for identification of M. tuberculosis, suggesting that the method of DNA extraction was not suitable. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Aflatoxins produced by Aspergillus parasiticus present in the diet of quails increase the activities of cholinesterase and adenosine deaminase.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Aleksandro Schafer; Santurio, Janio M; Roza, Lenilson F; Bottari, Nathieli B; Galli, Gabriela M; Morsch, Vera M; Schetinger, Maria Rosa C; Baldissera, Matheus D; Stefani, Lenita M; Radavelli, Willian M; Tomasi, Thainã; Boiago, Marcel M

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of aflatoxins on cholinesterases (acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), and adenosine deaminase (ADA) activities in quails. For this, twenty male quails were randomly distributed into two groups (n = 10 each): the group A was composed by quails that received feed without aflatoxin (the control group); while the group B was composed by quails that received feed contaminated with 200 ppm/kg of feed of aflatoxin. On day 20, the animals were euthanized to measure the activities of AChE (total blood and brain), BChE (serum) and ADA (serum, liver, and brain), as well as for histopathological analyses (liver and intestine). AChE, BChE, and ADA levels increased in animals intoxicated by aflatoxin compared to the control group. The presence of aflatoxin lead to severe hydropic degeneration of hepatocytes and small focus of hepatocyte necrosis. In conclusion, aflatoxins poisoning increased AChE, BChE, and ADA activities, suggesting the involvement of these enzymes during this type of intoxication, in addition to the fact that they are well known molecules that participate in physiological and pathological events as inflammatory mediators. In summary, increased AChE, BChE and ADA activities contribute directly to the inflammatory process and tissue damage, and they might be involved in disease development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. VeA is associated with the response to oxidative stress in the aflatoxin producer Aspergillus flavus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Survival of fungal species depends on the ability of these organisms to respond to environmental stresses. Osmotic stress or high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) can cause stress in fungi resulting in growth inhibition. Both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells have developed numerous mechanisms...

  17. Aflaquinolones A-G: secondary metabolites from marine and fungicolous isolates of Aspergillus spp.

    PubMed

    Neff, Scott A; Lee, Sang Un; Asami, Yukihiro; Ahn, Jong Seog; Oh, Hyuncheol; Baltrusaitis, Jonas; Gloer, James B; Wicklow, Donald T

    2012-03-23

    Seven new compounds (aflaquinolones A-G; 1-7) containing dihydroquinolin-2-one and terpenoid units have been isolated from two different fungal sources. Two of these metabolites (1 and 2) were obtained from a Hawaiian fungicolous isolate of Aspergillus sp. (section Flavipedes; MYC-2048 = NRRL 58570), while the others were obtained from a marine Aspergillus isolate (SF-5044) collected in Korea. The structures of these compounds were determined mainly by analysis of NMR and MS data. Relative and absolute configurations were assigned on the basis of NOESY data and (1)H NMR J-values, comparison of calculated and experimental ECD spectra, and analysis of a Mosher's ester derivative of 2. Several known compounds, including alantrypinone, aspochalasins I and J, methyl 3,4,5-trimethoxy-2((2-((3-pyridinylcarbonyl)amino)benzoyl)amino)benzoate, and trans-dehydrocurvularin were also encountered in the extract of the Hawaiian isolate.

  18. In Vitro Synergy of Caspofungin and Amphotericin B against Aspergillus and Fusarium spp.

    PubMed Central

    Arikan, Sevtap; Lozano-Chiu, Mario; Paetznick, Victor; Rex, John H.

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the in vitro interaction of caspofungin and amphotericin B for clinical isolates of Aspergillus and Fusarium. Synergy tests were performed using the checkerboard method and following the NCCLS M38-P guidelines in Antibiotic Medium 3 broth supplemented to 2% glucose. Antagonism was not observed for any of the isolates tested. Caspofungin and amphotericin B were synergistic or synergistic to additive for at least half of the isolates. PMID:11751145

  19. Genome sequence and comparative analyses of atoxigenic Aspergillus flavus WRRL 1519

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aflatoxins are fungal secondary metabolites that often contaminate foodstuffs and crops, the major producer of which is Aspergillus flavus. Use of non-aflatoxigenic strains of A. flavus to compete against aflatoxin-producing strains has emerged as one of the best management practices for reducing af...

  20. RNA-seq analysis of an nsdC mutant in Aspergillus flavus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The C2H2-type transcription factor NsdC (Never in Sexual Development C) has been shown to play a role in asexual development and secondary metabolite production in Aspergillus flavus, an agriculturally relevant, aflatoxin-producing species. The nsdC knoackout mutant demonstrates perturbed morphologi...

  1. Genome-Wide Association Mapping of and Aspergillus flavus Aflatoxin Accumulation Resistance in Maize

    Treesearch

    Marilyn L. Warburton; Juliet D. Tang; Gary L. Windham; Leigh K. Hawkins; Seth C. Murray; Wenwei Xu; Debbie Boykin; Andy Perkins; W. Paul Williams

    2015-01-01

    Contamination of maize (Zea mays L.) with aflatoxin, produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus Link, has severe health and economic consequences. Efforts to reduce aflatoxin accumulation in maize have focused on identifying and selecting germplasm with natural host resistance factors, and several maize lines with significantly...

  2. Aspergillus spp. colonization in exhaled breath condensate of lung cancer patients from Puglia Region of Italy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Airways of lung cancer patients are often colonized by fungi. Some of these colonizing fungi, under particular conditions, produce cancerogenic mycotoxins. Given the recent interest in the infective origin of lung cancer, with this preliminary study we aim to give our small contribution to this field of research by analysing the fungal microbiome of the exhaled breath condensate of lung cancer patients from Puglia, a region of Italy. Methods We enrolled 43 lung cancer patients and 21 healthy subjects that underwent exhaled breath condensate and bronchial brushing collection. The fungal incidence and nature of sample collected were analysed by using a selected media for Aspergillus species. Results For the first time we were able to analyse the fungal microbioma of the exhaled breath condensate. 27.9% of lung cancer patients showed a presence of Aspergillus niger, or A. ochraceus or Penicillium ssp. while none of the healthy subjects did so. Conclusion The results confirmed the high percentage of fungal colonization of the airways of lung cancer patients from Puglia, suggesting the need to conduct further analyses in this field in order to evaluate the exact pathogenetic role of these fungi in lung cancer as well as to propose efficient, empirical therapy. PMID:24548615

  3. Aspergillus spp. colonization in exhaled breath condensate of lung cancer patients from Puglia Region of Italy.

    PubMed

    Carpagnano, Giovanna E; Lacedonia, Donato; Palladino, Grazia Pia; Logrieco, Giuseppe; Crisetti, Elisabetta; Susca, Antonia; Logrieco, Antonio; Foschino-Barbaro, Maria P

    2014-02-18

    Airways of lung cancer patients are often colonized by fungi. Some of these colonizing fungi, under particular conditions, produce cancerogenic mycotoxins. Given the recent interest in the infective origin of lung cancer, with this preliminary study we aim to give our small contribution to this field of research by analysing the fungal microbiome of the exhaled breath condensate of lung cancer patients from Puglia, a region of Italy. We enrolled 43 lung cancer patients and 21 healthy subjects that underwent exhaled breath condensate and bronchial brushing collection. The fungal incidence and nature of sample collected were analysed by using a selected media for Aspergillus species. For the first time we were able to analyse the fungal microbioma of the exhaled breath condensate. 27.9% of lung cancer patients showed a presence of Aspergillus niger, or A. ochraceus or Penicillium ssp. while none of the healthy subjects did so. The results confirmed the high percentage of fungal colonization of the airways of lung cancer patients from Puglia, suggesting the need to conduct further analyses in this field in order to evaluate the exact pathogenetic role of these fungi in lung cancer as well as to propose efficient, empirical therapy.

  4. Performance evaluation of two Aspergillus spp. for the decolourization of reactive dyes by bioaccumulation and biosorption.

    PubMed

    Mathur, Megha; Gola, Deepak; Panja, Rupobrata; Malik, Anushree; Ahammad, Shaikh Ziauddin

    2018-01-01

    A biological method was adopted to decolourize textile dyes, which is an economic and eco-friendly technology for textile wastewater remediation. Two fungal strains, i.e. Aspergillus lentulus and Aspergillus fumigatus, were used to study the removal of low to high concentrations (25 to 2000 mg L -1 ) of reactive remazol red, reactive blue and reactive yellow dyes by biosorption and bioaccumulation. The biosorption was successful only at the lower concentrations. A. lentulus was capable of removing 67-85% of reactive dyes during bioaccumulation mode of treatment at 500 mg L -1 dye concentration with an increased biomass uptake capacity. To cope up with the high dye concentration of 2000 mg L -1 , a novel combined approach was successful in case of A. lentulus, where almost 76% removal of reactive remazol red dye was observed during bioaccumulation followed by biosorption. The scanning electron microscopy also showed the accumulation of dye on the surface of fungal mycelium. The results signify the application of such robust fungal strains for the removal of high concentration of dyes in the textile wastewaters.

  5. Biodegradation of HDPE by Aspergillus spp. from marine ecosystem of Gulf of Mannar, India.

    PubMed

    Sangeetha Devi, Rajendran; Rajesh Kannan, Velu; Nivas, Duraisamy; Kannan, Kanthaiah; Chandru, Sekar; Robert Antony, Arokiaswamy

    2015-07-15

    High density polyethylene (HDPE) is the most commonly found non-degradable solid waste among the polyethylene. In this present study, HDPE degrading various fungal strains were isolated from the polyethylene waste dumped marine coastal area and screened under in vitro condition. Based on weight loss and FT-IR Spectrophotometric analysis, two fungal strains designated as VRKPT1 and VRKPT2 were found to be efficient in HDPE degradation. Through the sequence analysis of ITS region homology, the isolated fungi were identified as Aspergillus tubingensis VRKPT1 and Aspergillus flavus VRKPT2. The biofilm formation observed under epifluorescent microscope had shown the viability of fungal strains even after one month of incubation. The biodegradation of HDPE film nature was further investigated through SEM analysis. HDPE poses severe environmental threats and hence the ability of fungal isolates was proved to utilize virgin polyethylene as the carbon source without any pre-treatment and pro-oxidant additives. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of different genotypes of nontoxigenic Aspergillus flavus for their ability to reduce aflatoxin contamination in peanuts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aflatoxins produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus are potent carcinogens and account for large monetary losses worldwide in peanuts, maize and cottonseed. Biological control in which a nontoxigenic strain of A. flavus is applied to crops at high concentrations effectively reduces aflatoxins thro...

  7. Environmental distribution and genetic diversity of vegetative compatibility groups determine biocontrol strategies to mitigate aflatoxin contamination of maize by Aspergillus flavus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Maize infected by aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus flavus may become contaminated with aflatoxins and as a result, threaten human health, food security, and farmers’ income in developing countries where maize is a staple. Environmental distribution and genetic diversity of A. flavus can influence the...

  8. Study of the genetic diversity of the aflatoxin biosynthesis cluster in Aspergillus section Flavi using insertion/deletion markers in peanut seeds from Georgia, USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aflatoxins are among the most powerful carcinogens in nature. The major aflatoxin-producing fungi are Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. Numerous crops, including peanut, are susceptible to aflatoxin contamination by these fungi. There has been an increased use of RNA interference (RNAi) technol...

  9. Wild-Type MIC Distributions and Epidemiological Cutoff Values for Caspofungin and Aspergillus spp. for the CLSI Broth Microdilution Method (M38-A2 Document)▿

    PubMed Central

    Espinel-Ingroff, A.; Fothergill, A.; Fuller, J.; Johnson, E.; Pelaez, T.; Turnidge, J.

    2011-01-01

    Clinical breakpoints have not been established for mold testing. Epidemiologic cutoff values (ECVs) are available for six Aspergillus spp. and the triazoles, but not for caspofungin. Wild-type (WT) minimal effective concentration (MEC) distributions (organisms in a species-drug combination with no acquired resistance mechanisms) were defined in order to establish ECVs for six Aspergillus spp. and caspofungin. The number of available isolates was as follows: 1,691 A. fumigatus, 432 A. flavus, 192 A. nidulans, 440 A. niger, 385 A. terreus, and 75 A. versicolor isolates. CLSI broth microdilution MEC data gathered in five independent laboratories in Canada, Europe, and the United States were aggregated for the analyses. ECVs expressed in μg/ml that captured 95% and 99% of the modeled wild-type population were for A. fumigatus 0.5 and 1, A. flavus 0.25 and 0.5, A. nidulans 0.5 and 0.5, A. niger 0.25 and 0.25, A. terreus 0.25 and 0.5, and A. versicolor 0.25 and 0.5. Although caspofungin ECVs are not designed to predict the outcome of therapy, they may aid in the detection of strains with reduced antifungal susceptibility to this agent and acquired resistance mechanisms. PMID:21422219

  10. Multicenter Study of Method-Dependent Epidemiological Cutoff Values for Detection of Resistance in Candida spp. and Aspergillus spp. to Amphotericin B and Echinocandins for the Etest Agar Diffusion Method.

    PubMed

    Espinel-Ingroff, A; Arendrup, M; Cantón, E; Cordoba, S; Dannaoui, E; García-Rodríguez, J; Gonzalez, G M; Govender, N P; Martin-Mazuelos, E; Lackner, M; Lass-Flörl, C; Linares Sicilia, M J; Rodriguez-Iglesias, M A; Pelaez, T; Shields, R K; Garcia-Effron, G; Guinea, J; Sanguinetti, M; Turnidge, J

    2017-01-01

    Method-dependent Etest epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs) are not available for susceptibility testing of either Candida or Aspergillus species with amphotericin B or echinocandins. In addition, reference caspofungin MICs for Candida spp. are unreliable. Candida and Aspergillus species wild-type (WT) Etest MIC distributions (microorganisms in a species-drug combination with no detectable phenotypic resistance) were established for 4,341 Candida albicans, 113 C. dubliniensis, 1,683 C. glabrata species complex (SC), 709 C. krusei, 767 C. parapsilosis SC, 796 C. tropicalis, 1,637 Aspergillus fumigatus SC, 238 A. flavus SC, 321 A. niger SC, and 247 A. terreus SC isolates. Etest MICs from 15 laboratories (in Argentina, Europe, Mexico, South Africa, and the United States) were pooled to establish Etest ECVs. Anidulafungin, caspofungin, micafungin, and amphotericin B ECVs (in micrograms per milliliter) encompassing ≥97.5% of the statistically modeled population were 0.016, 0.5, 0.03, and 1 for C. albicans; 0.03, 1, 0.03, and 2 for C. glabrata SC; 0.06, 1, 0.25, and 4 for C. krusei; 8, 4, 2, and 2 for C. parapsilosis SC; and 0.03, 1, 0.12, and 2 for C. tropicalis The amphotericin B ECV was 0.25 μg/ml for C. dubliniensis and 2, 8, 2, and 16 μg/ml for the complexes of A. fumigatus, A. flavus, A. niger, and A. terreus, respectively. While anidulafungin Etest ECVs classified 92% of the Candida fks mutants evaluated as non-WT, the performance was lower for caspofungin (75%) and micafungin (84%) cutoffs. Finally, although anidulafungin (as an echinocandin surrogate susceptibility marker) and amphotericin B ECVs should identify Candida and Aspergillus isolates with reduced susceptibility to these agents using the Etest, these ECVs will not categorize a fungal isolate as susceptible or resistant, as breakpoints do. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Microbiology.

  11. Influence of Bacillus spp. isolated from maize agroecosystem on growth and aflatoxin B(1) production by Aspergillus section Flavi.

    PubMed

    Bluma, Romina V; Etcheverry, Miriam G

    2006-03-01

    A total of 59 bacteria of the Bacillus genus were isolated from different components of a maize agroecosystem and their antifungal activity against Aspergillus section Flavi was evaluated. Thirty-three and 46% of these bacteria were able to inhibit Aspergillus flavus Link and A. parasiticus Speare respectively at water activity (a(w)) 0.982; however, when a(w) was 0.955, these percentages were decreased and only three isolates were able to inhibit Aspergillus section Flavi. The majority of bacilli acted as contact antagonists, while a small number of isolates were able to form inhibition zones. In maize meal extract agar, Aspergillus section Flavi growth rate and aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) production were significantly reduced when these strains were paired at a(w) 0.982 with bacilli at all inoculum levels studied. However, two bacilli isolated were able to reduce growth rate and aflatoxin production when a(w) was 0.955. Lag phase increase followed the same general pattern as growth rate reduction. When Aspergillus section Flavi was grown in sterile maize in the presence of three Bacillus strains at a(w) 0.982, the reduction in count (colony-forming units (cfu) g(-1) maize) was less than 30%, except when Aspergillus section Flavi grew with Bacillus amyloliquefaciens UNRCLR. However, levels of detectable AFB(1) were significantly reduced in these interactions at a(w) 0.982.

  12. Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of Aspergillus spp. by Using a Composite Correlation Index (CCI)-Based Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry Method Appears To Not Offer Benefit over Traditional Broth Microdilution Testing

    PubMed Central

    Gitman, Melissa R.; McTaggart, Lisa; Spinato, Joanna; Poopalarajah, Rahgavi; Lister, Erin; Husain, Shahid

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aspergillus spp. cause serious invasive lung infections, and Aspergillus fumigatus is the most commonly encountered clinically significant species. Voriconazole is considered to be the drug of choice for treating A. fumigatus infections; however, rising resistance rates have been reported. We evaluated a matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS)-based method for the differentiation between wild-type and non-wild-type isolates of 20 Aspergillus spp. (including 2 isolates of Aspergillus ustus and 1 of Aspergillus calidoustus that were used as controls due their intrinsic low azole susceptibility with respect to the in vitro response to voriconazole). At 30 and 48 h of incubation, there was complete agreement between Cyp51A sequence analysis, broth microdilution, and MALDI-TOF MS classification of isolates as wild type or non-wild type. In this proof-of-concept study, we demonstrated that MALDI-TOF MS can be used to accurately detect A. fumigatus strains with reduced voriconazole susceptibility. However, rather than proving to be a rapid and simple method for antifungal susceptibility testing, this particular MS-based method showed no benefit over conventional testing methods. PMID:28404678

  13. Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of Aspergillus spp. by Using a Composite Correlation Index (CCI)-Based Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry Method Appears To Not Offer Benefit over Traditional Broth Microdilution Testing.

    PubMed

    Gitman, Melissa R; McTaggart, Lisa; Spinato, Joanna; Poopalarajah, Rahgavi; Lister, Erin; Husain, Shahid; Kus, Julianne V

    2017-07-01

    Aspergillus spp. cause serious invasive lung infections, and Aspergillus fumigatus is the most commonly encountered clinically significant species. Voriconazole is considered to be the drug of choice for treating A. fumigatus infections; however, rising resistance rates have been reported. We evaluated a matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS)-based method for the differentiation between wild-type and non-wild-type isolates of 20 Aspergillus spp. (including 2 isolates of Aspergillus ustus and 1 of Aspergillus calidoustus that were used as controls due their intrinsic low azole susceptibility with respect to the in vitro response to voriconazole). At 30 and 48 h of incubation, there was complete agreement between Cyp51A sequence analysis, broth microdilution, and MALDI-TOF MS classification of isolates as wild type or non-wild type. In this proof-of-concept study, we demonstrated that MALDI-TOF MS can be used to accurately detect A. fumigatus strains with reduced voriconazole susceptibility. However, rather than proving to be a rapid and simple method for antifungal susceptibility testing, this particular MS-based method showed no benefit over conventional testing methods. © Crown copyright 2017.

  14. Fluorescence imaging spectroscopy (FIS) for comparing spectra from corn ears naturally and artificially infected with aflatoxin producing fungus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In an effort to address the aflatoxin problem in grain, the current study assessed the spectral differences of aflatoxin production in kernels from a cornfield inoculated with spores from two different strains of toxigenic Aspergillus flavus. Aflatoxin production in corn from the same field due to n...

  15. Diagnostic accuracy of histopathologic and cytopathologic examination of Aspergillus species.

    PubMed

    Shah, Akeesha A; Hazen, Kevin C

    2013-01-01

    To assess the diagnostic accuracy of histopatho-logic and cytopathologic examination (HCE) of Aspergillus species (spp), we performed an 11-year retrospective review to correlate surgical/cytology cases with a diagnosis of Aspergillus spp with their concurrent fungal culture results. Diagnostic accuracy was defined as the percentage of cases with culture-proven Aspergillus spp divided by the number of cases diagnosed as Aspergillus spp on HCE that had growth on fungal culture. Ninety surgical/cytology cases with concurrent fungal culture were reviewed, 58 of which grew a fungal organism. Of these 58 cases, 45 grew an Aspergillus spp, whereas 13 grew an organism other than Aspergillus spp, including both common (Scedosporium, Fusarium, and Paecilomyces spp) and uncommon mimickers (Trichosporon loubieri), resulting in a diagnostic accuracy of 78%. The low diagnostic accuracy indicates that several fungal organisms can morphologically mimic Aspergillus spp and can only be distinguished by fungal culture and DNA sequencing.

  16. An attempt to optimize potassium sorbate use to preserve low pH (4.5-5.5) intermediate moisture bakery products by modelling Eurotium spp., Aspergillus spp. and Penicillium corylophilum growth.

    PubMed

    Guynot, M Elena; Marín, Sonia; Sanchis, Vicente; Ramos, Antonio J

    2005-05-25

    Mould growth was modelled on fermented bakery product analogues (FBPA) of two different pH (4.5 and 5.5), different water activity (a(w)) levels (0.80-0.90) and potassium sorbate concentrations (0-0.3%) by using seven moulds commonly causing spoilage of bakery products (Eurotium spp., Aspergillus spp. and Penicillium corylophilum). For the description of fungal growth (growth rates) as a function of a(w), potassium sorbate concentration and pH, 10-terms polynomial models were developed. Modelling enables prediction of spoilage during storage as a function of the factors affecting fungal growth. At pH 4.5 the concentration of potassium sorbate could be reduced to some extent only at low levels of a(w), whereas at pH 5.5 fungal growth was observed even by adding 0.3% of potassium sorbate. However, this preservative could be a valuable alternative as antifungal in such bakery product, of slightly acidic pH, if a long shelf life has not to be achieved.

  17. Reduction of Aspergillus spp. and aflatoxins in peanut sauce processing by oil-less frying of chilli powder and retort processing.

    PubMed

    Farawahida, A H; Jinap, S; Nor-Khaizura, M A R; Samsudin, N I P

    2017-12-01

    Among the many roles played by small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in the food industry is the production of heritage foods such as peanut sauce. Unfortunately, the safety of peanut sauce is not always assured as the processing line is not controlled. Peanut sauce is usually made of peanuts and chilli, and these commodities are normally contaminated with Aspergillus spp. and aflatoxins (AFs). Hence, the objective of this study was to evaluate the practices related to reduction of AF hazard and the effect of interventions in peanut sauce processing. Peanut samples were collected from each step of peanut sauce processing from a small peanut sauce company according to four designs: (1) control; (2) oil-less frying of chilli powder; (3) addition of retort processing; and (4) combination of oil-less frying of chilli powder and retort processing. Oil-less frying of chilli powder (Design 2) reduced total AFs by 33-41%, retort processing (Design 3) reduced total AFs by 49%, while combination of these two thermal processes (Design 4) significantly reduced total AFs, by 57%. The present work demonstrated that Design 4 yielded the highest reduction of total AFs and is therefore recommended to be employed by SME companies.

  18. Impact of infrared treatment on quality and fungal decontamination of mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) inoculated with Aspergillus spp.

    PubMed

    Meenu, Maninder; Guha, Paramita; Mishra, Sunita

    2018-05-01

    Mung bean is a rich source of protein, carbohydrates and fiber content. It also exhibits a high level of antioxidant activity due to the presence of phenolic compounds. Aspergillus flavus and A. niger are the two major fungal strains associated with stored mung bean that lead to post-harvest losses of grains and also cause serious health risks to human beings. Thus there is a need to explore an economical decontamination method that can be used without affecting the biochemical parameters of grains. It was observed that infrared (IR) treatment of mung bean surface up to 70 °C for 5 min at an intensity of 0.299 kW m -2 led to complete visible inhibition of fungal growth. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that surface irregularities and physical disruption of spores coat are the major reasons behind the inactivation of IR-treated fungal spores. It was also reported that IR treatment up to 70 °C for 5 min does not cause any negative impact on the biochemical and physical properties of mung bean. From the results of the present study, it was concluded that IR treatment at 70 °C for 5 min using an IR source having an intensity of 0.299 kW m -2 can be successfully used as a method of fungal decontamination. The fungal spore population was reduced (approximately 5.3 log 10 CFU g -1 reductions) without significantly altering the biochemical and physical properties of grains. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Fluorescence imaging spectroscopy (FIS) for comparing spectra from corn ears naturally and artificially infected with aflatoxin producing fungus.

    PubMed

    Hruska, Zuzana; Yao, Haibo; Kincaid, Russell; Darlington, Dawn; Brown, Robert L; Bhatnagar, Deepak; Cleveland, Thomas E

    2013-08-01

    In an effort to address the problem of rapid detection of aflatoxin in grain, particularly oilseeds, the current study assessed the spectral differences of aflatoxin production in kernels from a cornfield inoculated with spores from 2 different strains of toxigenic Aspergillus flavus. Aflatoxin production in corn from the same field due to natural infestation was also assessed. A small corn plot in Baton Rouge, La., U.S.A., was used during the 2008-growing season. Two groups of 400 plants were inoculated with 2 different inocula and 1 group of 400 plants was designated as controls. Any contamination detected in the controls was attributed to natural infestation. A subset of each group was imaged with a visible near infra red (VNIR) hyperspectral system under ultra violet (UV) excitation and subsequently analyzed for aflatoxin using affinity column fluorometry. Group differences were statistically analyzed. Results indicate that when all the spectral data across all groups were averaged, any potential differences between groups (treated and untreated) were obscured. However, spectral analysis based on contaminated "hot" pixel classification showed a distinct spectral shift/separation between contaminated and clean ears with fluorescence peaks at 501 and 478 nm, respectively. All inoculated and naturally infected control ears had fluorescence peaks at 501 nm that differed from uninfected corn ears. Results from this study may be useful in evaluating rapid, noninvasive instrumentation and/or methodology for aflatoxin detection in grain. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  20. Aspergillus section Flavi community structure in Zambia influences aflatoxin contamination of maize and groundnut.

    PubMed

    Kachapulula, Paul W; Akello, Juliet; Bandyopadhyay, Ranajit; Cotty, Peter J

    2017-11-16

    Aflatoxins are cancer-causing, immuno-suppressive mycotoxins that frequently contaminate important staples in Zambia including maize and groundnut. Several species within Aspergillus section Flavi have been implicated as causal agents of aflatoxin contamination in Africa. However, Aspergillus populations associated with aflatoxin contamination in Zambia have not been adequately detailed. Most of Zambia's arable land is non-cultivated and Aspergillus communities in crops may originate in non-cultivated soil. However, relationships between Aspergillus populations on crops and those resident in non-cultivated soils have not been explored. Because characterization of similar fungal populations outside of Zambia have resulted in strategies to prevent aflatoxins, the current study sought to improve understanding of fungal communities in cultivated and non-cultivated soils and in crops. Crops (n=412) and soils from cultivated (n=160) and non-cultivated land (n=60) were assayed for Aspergillus section Flavi from 2012 to 2016. The L-strain morphotype of Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus were dominant on maize and groundnut (60% and 42% of Aspergillus section Flavi, respectively). Incidences of A. flavus L-morphotype were negatively correlated with aflatoxin in groundnut (log y=2.4990935-0.09966x, R 2 =0.79, P=0.001) but not in maize. Incidences of A. parasiticus partially explained groundnut aflatoxin concentrations in all agroecologies and maize aflatoxin in agroecology III (log y=0.1956034+0.510379x, R 2 =0.57, P<0.001) supporting A. parasiticus as the dominant etiologic agent of aflatoxin contamination in Zambia. Communities in both non-cultivated and cultivated soils were dominated by A. parasiticus (69% and 58%, respectively). Aspergillus parasiticus from cultivated and non-cultivated land produced statistically similar concentrations of aflatoxins. Aflatoxin-producers causing contamination of crops in Zambia may be native and, originate from non-cultivated areas

  1. Genetic diversity of Aspergillus species isolated from onychomycosis and Aspergillus hongkongensis sp. nov., with implications to antifungal susceptibility testing.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Chi-Ching; Hui, Teresa W S; Lee, Kim-Chung; Chen, Jonathan H K; Ngan, Antonio H Y; Tam, Emily W T; Chan, Jasper F W; Wu, Andrea L; Cheung, Mei; Tse, Brian P H; Wu, Alan K L; Lai, Christopher K C; Tsang, Dominic N C; Que, Tak-Lun; Lam, Ching-Wan; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Lau, Susanna K P; Woo, Patrick C Y

    2016-02-01

    Thirteen Aspergillus isolates recovered from nails of 13 patients (fingernails, n=2; toenails, n=11) with onychomycosis were characterized. Twelve strains were identified by multilocus sequencing as Aspergillus spp. (Aspergillus sydowii [n=4], Aspergillus welwitschiae [n=3], Aspergillus terreus [n=2], Aspergillus flavus [n=1], Aspergillus tubingensis [n=1], and Aspergillus unguis [n=1]). Isolates of A. terreus, A. flavus, and A. unguis were also identifiable by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The 13th isolate (HKU49(T)) possessed unique morphological characteristics different from other Aspergillus spp. Molecular characterization also unambiguously showed that HKU49(T) was distinct from other Aspergillus spp. We propose the novel species Aspergillus hongkongensis to describe this previously unknown fungus. Antifungal susceptibility testing showed most Aspergillus isolates had low MICs against itraconazole and voriconazole, but all Aspergillus isolates had high MICs against fluconazole. A diverse spectrum of Aspergillus species is associated with onychomycosis. Itraconazole and voriconazole are probably better drug options for Aspergillus onychomycosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Performance of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization−Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry for Identification of Aspergillus, Scedosporium, and Fusarium spp. in the Australian Clinical Setting

    PubMed Central

    Sleiman, Sue; Halliday, Catriona L.; Chapman, Belinda; Brown, Mitchell; Nitschke, Joanne; Lau, Anna F.

    2016-01-01

    We developed an Australian database for the identification of Aspergillus, Scedosporium, and Fusarium species (n = 28) by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization−time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). In a challenge against 117 isolates, species identification significantly improved when the in-house-built database was combined with the Bruker Filamentous Fungi Library compared with that for the Bruker library alone (Aspergillus, 93% versus 69%; Fusarium, 84% versus 42%; and Scedosporium, 94% versus 18%, respectively). PMID:27252460

  3. Performance of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry for Identification of Aspergillus, Scedosporium, and Fusarium spp. in the Australian Clinical Setting.

    PubMed

    Sleiman, Sue; Halliday, Catriona L; Chapman, Belinda; Brown, Mitchell; Nitschke, Joanne; Lau, Anna F; Chen, Sharon C-A

    2016-08-01

    We developed an Australian database for the identification of Aspergillus, Scedosporium, and Fusarium species (n = 28) by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). In a challenge against 117 isolates, species identification significantly improved when the in-house-built database was combined with the Bruker Filamentous Fungi Library compared with that for the Bruker library alone (Aspergillus, 93% versus 69%; Fusarium, 84% versus 42%; and Scedosporium, 94% versus 18%, respectively). Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Aflatoxin-producing fungi in maize field soils from sea level to over 2000 masl: A three year study in Sonora, Mexico

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aflatoxins, highly toxic carcinogens produced by several members of Aspergillus section Flavi, contaminate crops in temperate zones. Maize is cultivated from 0 to 2,100 masl under diverse growing regimes in the state of Sonora, Mexico. This is typical of the nation. In order to design sampling strat...

  5. Aspergillus: introduction

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Species in the genus Aspergillus possess versatile metabolic activities that impact our daily life both positively and negatively. Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus oryzae are closely related fungi. While the former is able to produce carcinogenic aflatoxins and is an etiological agent of aspergill...

  6. Causative Agents of Aspergillosis Including Cryptic Aspergillus Species and A. fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Toyotome, Takahito

    2016-01-01

    Aspergillosis is an important deep mycosis. The causative agents are Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, and Aspergillus terreus, of which A. fumigatus is the most prevalent. Cryptic Aspergillus spp., which morphologically resemble representative species of each Aspergillus section, also cause aspergillosis. Most of the cryptic species reveal different susceptibility patterns and/or different secondary metabolite profiles, also called exometabolome in this manuscript, from those representative species. On the other hand, azole-resistant A. fumigatus strains in clinical specimens and in the environment have been reported. Therefore, it is imperative to precisely identify the species, including cryptic Aspergillus spp., and evaluate the susceptibility of isolates.In this manuscript, some of the causative cryptic Aspergillus spp. are briefly reviewed. In addition, the exometabolome of Aspergillus section Fumigati is described. Finally, azole resistance of A. fumigatus is also discussed, in reference to several studies from Japan.

  7. Aspergillus parasiticus communities associated with sugarcane in the Rio Grande Valley of Texas: implications of global transport and host association within Aspergillus section Flavi.

    PubMed

    Garber, N P; Cotty, P J

    2014-05-01

    In the Rio Grande Valley of Texas (RGV), values of maize and cottonseed crops are significantly reduced by aflatoxin contamination. Aflatoxin contamination of susceptible crops is the product of communities of aflatoxin producers and the average aflatoxin-producing potentials of these communities influence aflatoxin contamination risk. Cropping pattern influences community composition and, thereby, the epidemiology of aflatoxin contamination. In 2004, Aspergillus parasiticus was isolated from two fields previously cropped to sugarcane but not from 23 fields without recent history of sugarcane cultivation. In 2004 and 2005, A. parasiticus composed 18 to 36% of Aspergillus section Flavi resident in agricultural soils within sugarcane-producing counties. A. parasiticus was not detected in counties that do not produce sugarcane. Aspergillus section Flavi soil communities within sugarcane-producing counties differed significantly dependent on sugarcane cropping history. Fields cropped to sugarcane within the previous 5 years had greater quantities of A. parasiticus (mean = 16 CFU/g) than fields not cropped to sugarcane (mean = 0.1 CFU/g). The percentage of Aspergillus section Flavi composed of A. parasiticus increased to 65% under continuous sugarcane cultivation and remained high the first season of rotation out of sugarcane. Section Flavi communities in fields rotated to non-sugarcane crops for 3 to 5 years were composed of <5% A. parasiticus, and fields with no sugarcane history averaged only 0.2% A. parasiticus. The section Flavi community infecting RGV sugarcane stems ranged from 95% A. parasiticus in billets prepared for commercial planting to 52% A. parasiticus in hand-collected sugarcane stems. Vegetative compatibility assays and multilocus phylogenies verified that aflatoxin contamination of raw sugar was previously attributed to similar A. parasiticus in Japan. Association of closely related A. parasiticus genotypes with sugarcane produced in Japan and RGV

  8. A study on Aspergillus species in houses of asthmatic patients from Sari City, Iran and a brief review of the health effects of exposure to indoor Aspergillus.

    PubMed

    Hedayati, Mohammad T; Mayahi, Sabah; Denning, David W

    2010-09-01

    To study the distribution of Aspergillus spp. in outdoor and indoor air of asthmatic patients' houses, as well as a review on the health effects of exposure to indoor Aspergillus. Open plates containing malt extract agar media were used to isolate fungi from the indoor (n = 360) and outdoor (n = 180) air of 90 asthmatic patients' houses living in Sari City, Iran. Plates were incubated at room temperature for 7-14 days. Cultured Aspergillus spp. were identified by standard mycological techniques. All culture plates grew fungi, a testament to the ubiquitous nature of fungal exposure. Cladosporium spp. (29.2%), Aspergillus spp. (19.0%), and Penicillium spp. (18.3%) were most common inside the houses while Cladosporium spp. (44.5%), Aspergillus spp. (12.4%), and Alternaria spp. (11.1%) were most common outside the houses. Aspergillus flavus (30.1%) and A. fumigatus (23.1%) are the most commonly isolated species in indoor air. Aspergillus flavus (44.5%) and A. fumigatus (42.6%) were the most prevalent Aspergillus spp. outside. The most colony numbers of Aspergillus were isolated from kitchens (30.4%) and the least from bedrooms (21.1%). Aspergillus flavus was the most prevalent species in all sampled rooms except in the kitchen where A. fumigatus was the most common. Aspergillus flavus is the most prevalent species among the Aspergillus spp. in the indoor and outdoor of a warm climate area. In these areas, A. flavus can be a major source of allergen in the air. Therefore, minimizing indoor fungal exposure could play an important role in reducing allergic symptoms in susceptible persons.

  9. Identification and toxigenic potential of the industrially important fungi, Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus sojae.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Thomas R

    2007-12-01

    Mold strains belonging to the species Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus sojae are highly valued as koji molds in the traditional preparation of fermented foods, such as miso, sake, and shoyu, and as protein production hosts in modern industrial processes. A. oryzae and A. sojae are relatives of the wild molds Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. All four species are classified to the A. flavus group. Strains of the A. flavus group are characterized by a high degree of morphological similarity. Koji mold species are generally perceived of as being nontoxigenic, whereas wild molds are associated with the carcinogenic aflatoxins. Thus, reliable identification of individual strains is very important for application purposes. This review considers the pheno- and genotypic markers used in the classification of A. flavus group strains and specifically in the identification of A. oryzae and A. sojae strains. Separation of A. oryzae and A. sojae from A. flavus and A. parasiticus, respectively, is inconsistent, and both morphologic and molecular evidence support conspecificity. The high degree of identity is reflected by the divergent identification of reference cultures maintained in culture collections. As close relatives of aflatoxin-producing wild molds, koji molds possess an aflatoxin gene homolog cluster. Some strains identified as A. oryzae and A. sojae have been implicated in aflatoxin production. Identification of a strain as A. oryzae or A. sojae is no guarantee of its inability to produce aflatoxins or other toxic metabolites. Toxigenic potential must be determined specifically for individual strains. The species taxa, A. oryzae and A. sojae, are currently conserved by societal issues.

  10. Biodiversity of Aspergillus species in some important agricultural products.

    PubMed

    Perrone, G; Susca, A; Cozzi, G; Ehrlich, K; Varga, J; Frisvad, J C; Meijer, M; Noonim, P; Mahakarnchanakul, W; Samson, R A

    2007-01-01

    The genus Aspergillus is one of the most important filamentous fungal genera. Aspergillus species are used in the fermentation industry, but they are also responsible of various plant and food secondary rot, with the consequence of possible accumulation of mycotoxins. The aflatoxin producing A. flavus and A. parasiticus, and ochratoxinogenic A. niger, A. ochraceus and A. carbonarius species are frequently encountered in agricultural products. Studies on the biodiversity of toxigenic Aspergillus species is useful to clarify molecular, ecological and biochemical characteristics of the different species in relation to their different adaptation to environmental and geographical conditions, and to their potential toxigenicity. Here we analyzed the biodiversity of ochratoxin producing species occurring on two important crops: grapes and coffee, and the genetic diversity of A. flavus populations occurring in agricultural fields. Altogether nine different black Aspergillus species can be found on grapes which are often difficult to identify with classical methods. The polyphasic approach used in our studies led to the identification of three new species occurring on grapes: A. brasiliensis, A. ibericus, and A. uvarum. Similar studies on the Aspergillus species occurring on coffee beans have evidenced in the last five years that A. carbonarius is an important source of ochratoxin A in coffee. Four new species within the black aspergilli were also identified in coffee beans: A. sclerotioniger, A. lacticoffeatus, A. sclerotiicarbonarius, and A. aculeatinus. The genetic diversity within A. flavus populations has been widely studied in relation to their potential aflatoxigenicity and morphological variants L- and S-strains. Within A. flavus and other Aspergillus species capable of aflatoxin production, considerable diversity is found. We summarise the main recent achievements in the diversity of the aflatoxin gene cluster in A. flavus populations, A. parasiticus and the non

  11. Aspergillus flavus mycetoma and epidural abscess successfully treated with itraconazole.

    PubMed

    Witzig, R S; Greer, D L; Hyslop, N E

    1996-01-01

    Aspergillus spp. rarely cause mycetomata. We report a patient with diabetes and nephrotic syndrome with Aspergillus flavus mycetoma of the back, with the development of an epidural abscess, diskitis and vertebral osteomyelitis. The patient was successfully treated with decompressive laminectomy and a 14-month itraconazole regimen. Serial serum itraconazole levels and quantitative Aspergillus antigen levels were performed. This is the second reported and first extrapedal case of mycetoma caused by A. flavus.

  12. Aspergillus infections in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    King, Jill; Brunel, Shan F; Warris, Adilia

    2016-07-05

    Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) suffer from chronic lung infection and airway inflammation. Respiratory failure secondary to chronic or recurrent infection remains the commonest cause of death and accounts for over 90% of mortality. Bacteria as Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia cepacia complex have been regarded the main CF pathogens and their role in progressive lung decline has been studied extensively. Little attention has been paid to the role of Aspergillus spp. and other filamentous fungi in the pathogenesis of non-ABPA (allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis) respiratory disease in CF, despite their frequent recovery in respiratory samples. It has become more apparent however, that Aspergillus spp. may play an important role in chronic lung disease in CF. Research delineating the underlying mechanisms of Aspergillus persistence and infection in the CF lung and its link to lung deterioration is lacking. This review summarizes the Aspergillus disease phenotypes observed in CF, discusses the role of CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator)-protein in innate immune responses and new treatment modalities. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. The proportion of non-aflatoxigenic strains of the Aspergillus flavus/oryzae complex from meju by analyses of the aflatoxin biosynthetic genes.

    PubMed

    Hong, Seung-Beom; Lee, Mina; Kim, Dae-Ho; Chung, Soo-Hyun; Shin, Hyeon-Dong; Samson, Robert A

    2013-12-01

    Strains of the Aspergillus flavus/oryzae complex are frequently isolated from meju, a fermented soybean product, that is used as the starting material for ganjang (soy sauce) and doenjang (soybean paste) production. In this study, we examined the aflatoxin producing capacity of A. flavus/oryzae strains isolated from meju. 192 strains of A. flavus/oryzae were isolated from more than 100 meju samples collected from diverse regions of Korea from 2008 to 2011, and the norB-cypA, omtA, and aflR genes in the aflatoxin biosynthesis gene cluster were analyzed. We found that 178 strains (92.7%) belonged to non-aflatoxigenic group (Type I of norB-cypA, IB-L-B-, IC-AO, or IA-L-B- of omtA, and AO type of aflR), and 14 strains (7.3%) belonged to aflatoxin-producible group (Type II of norB-cypA, IC-L-B+/B- or IC-L-B+ of omtA, and AF type of aflR). Only 7 strains (3.6%) in the aflatoxin-producible group produced aflatoxins on Czapek yeast-extract medium. The aflatoxin-producing capability of A. flavus/oryzae strains from other sources in Korea were also investigated, and 92.9% (52/56) strains from air, 93.9% (31/33) strains from rice straw, 91.7% (11/12) strains from soybean, 81.3% (13/16) strains from corn, 82% (41/50) strains from peanut, and 73.2% (41/56) strains from arable soil were included in the non-aflatoxigenic group. The proportion of non-aflatoxigenicity of meju strains was similar to that of strains from soybean, air and rice straw, all of which have an effect on the fermentation of meju. The data suggest that meju does not have a preference for non-aflatoxigenic or aflatoxin-producible strains of A. flavus/oryzae from the environment of meju. The non-aflatoxigenic meju strains are proposed to be named A. oryzae, while the meju strains that can produce aflatoxins should be referred to A. flavus in this study.

  14. In vivo confocal microscopy appearance of Fusarium and Aspergillus species in fungal keratitis.

    PubMed

    Chidambaram, Jaya Devi; Prajna, Namperumalsamy Venkatesh; Larke, Natasha; Macleod, David; Srikanthi, Palepu; Lanjewar, Shruti; Shah, Manisha; Lalitha, Prajna; Elakkiya, Shanmugam; Burton, Matthew J

    2017-08-01

    Clinical outcomes in fungal keratitis vary between Fusarium and Aspergillus spp, therefore distinguishing between species using morphological features such as filament branching angles, sporulation along filaments (adventitious sporulation) or dichotomous branching may be useful. In this study, we assessed these three features within Heidelberg Retina Tomograph 3 in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) images from culture-positive Fusarium and Aspergillus spp keratitis participants. Prospective observational cohort study in Aravind Eye Hospital (February 2011-February 2012). Eligibility criteria: age ≥18 years, stromal infiltrate ≥3 mm diameter, Fusarium or Aspergillus spp culture-positive. previous/current herpetic keratitis, visual acuity <6/60 in fellow eye, >80% corneal thinning. IVCM was performed and images analysed for branch angle, presence/absence of adventitious sporulation or dichotomous branching by a grader masked to the microbiological diagnosis. 98 participants were included (106 eligible, 8 excluded as no measurable branch angles); 68 were positive for Fusarium spp, 30 for Aspergillus spp. Mean branch angle for Fusarium spp was 59.7° (95% CI 57.7° to 61.8°), and for Aspergillus spp was 63.3° (95% CI 60.8° to 65.8°), p=0.07. No adventitious sporulation was detected in Fusarium spp ulcers. Dichotomous branching was detected in 11 ulcers (7 Aspergillus spp, 4 Fusarium spp). There was very little difference in the branching angle of Fusarium and Aspergillus spp. Adventitious sporulation was not detected and dichotomous branching was infrequently seen. Although IVCM remains a valuable tool to detect fungal filaments in fungal keratitis, it cannot be used to distinguish Fusarium from Aspergillus spp and culture remains essential to determine fungal species. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  15. Leaf application of a sprayable bioplastic-based formulation of biocontrol Aspergillus flavus strains for reduction of aflatoxins in corn.

    PubMed

    Accinelli, Cesare; Abbas, Hamed K; Vicari, Alberto; Shier, W Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Applying non-aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus flavus isolates to the soil has been shown to be effective in reducing aflatoxin levels in harvested crops, including peanuts, cotton and corn. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibility of controlling aflatoxin contamination using a novel sprayable formulation consisting of a partially gelatinized starch-based bioplastic dispersion embedded with spores of biocontrol A. flavus strains, which is applied to the leaf surfaces of corn plants. The formulation was shown to be adherent, resulting in colonization of leaf surfaces with the biocontrol strain of A. flavus, and to reduce aflatoxin contamination of harvested kernels by up to 80% in Northern Italy and by up to 89% in the Mississippi Delta. The percentage of aflatoxin-producing isolates in the soil reservoir under leaf-treated corn was not significantly changed, even when the soil was amended with additional A. flavus as a model of changes to the soil reservoir that occur in no-till agriculture. This study indicated that it is not necessary to treat the soil reservoir in order to achieve effective biocontrol of aflatoxin contamination in kernel corn. Spraying this novel bioplastic-based formulation to leaves can be an effective alternative in the biocontrol of A. flavus in corn. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Biological Control Products for Aflatoxin Prevention in Italy: Commercial Field Evaluation of Atoxigenic Aspergillus flavus Active Ingredients.

    PubMed

    Mauro, Antonio; Garcia-Cela, Esther; Pietri, Amedeo; Cotty, Peter J; Battilani, Paola

    2018-01-05

    Since 2003, non-compliant aflatoxin concentrations have been detected in maize produced in Italy. The most successful worldwide experiments in aflatoxin prevention resulted from distribution of atoxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus to displace aflatoxin-producers during crop development. The displacement results in lower aflatoxin concentrations in harvested grain. The current study evaluated in field performances of two atoxigenic strains of A . flavus endemic to Italy in artificially inoculated maize ears and in naturally contaminated maize. Co-inoculation of atoxigenic strains with aflatoxin producers resulted in highly significant reductions in aflatoxin concentrations (>90%) in both years only with atoxigenic strain A2085. The average percent reduction in aflatoxin B₁ concentration in naturally contaminated maize fields was 92.3%, without significant differences in fumonisins between treated and control maize. The vegetative compatibility group of A2085 was the most frequently recovered A. flavus in both treated and control plots (average 61.9% and 53.5% of the A. flavus , respectively). A2085 was therefore selected as an active ingredient for biocontrol products and deposited under provisions of the Budapest Treaty in the Belgian Co-Ordinated Collections of Micro-Organisms (BCCM/MUCL) collection (accession MUCL54911). Further work on development of A2085 as a tool for preventing aflatoxin contamination in maize produced in Italy is ongoing with the commercial product named AF-X1™.

  17. Aspergillus prevalence in air conditioning filters from vehicles: taxis for patient transportation, forklifts, and personal vehicles.

    PubMed

    Viegas, Carla; Moreira, Ricardo; Faria, Tiago; Caetano, Liliana Aranha; Carolino, Elisabete; Gomes, Anita Quintal; Viegas, Susana

    2018-05-04

    The frequency and importance of Aspergillus infections is increasing worldwide. This study aimed to assess the occupational exposure of forklifts and taxi drivers to Aspergillus spp. Nineteen filters from air conditioning system of taxis, 17 from forklifts and 37 from personal vehicles were assessed. Filters extract were streaked onto MEA, DG18 and in azole-supplemented media. Real-time quantitative PCR amplification of selected Aspergillus species-complex was also performed. Forklifts filter samples presented higher median values. Aspergillus section Nigri was the most observed in forklifts filters in MEA (28.2%) and in azole-supplemented media. DNA from Aspergillus sections Fumigati and Versicolores was successfully amplified by qPCR. This study enlightens the added value of using filters from the air conditioning system to assess Aspergillus spp. occupational exposure. Aspergillus azole resistance screening should be included in future occupational exposure assessments.

  18. Aspergillus colonization in patients with bronchogenic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ali, Sana; Malik, Abida; Bhargava, Rakesh; Shahid, Mohammad; Fatima, Nazish

    2014-05-01

    Aspergillus antigens such as galactomannan antigen, a cell wall polysaccharide, can be detected in patient's serum or bronchoalveolar lavage. To study the prevalence of Aspergillus infection in patients with bronchogenic carcinoma, we measured galactomannan antigen in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage samples of patients with bronchogenic carcinoma. The study was conducted on 45 bronchogenic carcinoma patients. The diagnosis of lung cancer was confirmed by bronchoscopy, histopathological and radiological examinations. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid collected from each patient by fiberoptic bronchoscopy was subjected to direct microscopy and culture on Sabouraud's dextrose agar and Czapek-Dox agar, and Aspergillus galactomannan antigen was measured in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage samples. The majority of patients were male (93.3%) in the age group 51-60 years, 88.9% were addicted to gutka chewing, and 82.1% were addicted to smoking. Most patients complained of cough (73%) and shortness of breath (51.1%). Squamous cell carcinoma (64.4%) was the most common malignancy, followed by adenocarcinoma (13.3%). On culture of bronchoalveolar lavage samples, 35.5% showed growth of Aspergillus spp. (Aspergillus fumigatus in 17.8%, Aspergillus flavus in 13.3%, and Aspergillus niger in 4.4%). Galactomannan antigen was detected in 58.3% of bronchoalveolar lavage samples and 47.2% of serum samples. There is a high prevalence of aspergillosis in patients with lung carcinoma, especially among smokers and gutka chewers.

  19. Aspergillus species as emerging causative agents of onychomycosis.

    PubMed

    Nouripour-Sisakht, S; Mirhendi, H; Shidfar, M R; Ahmadi, B; Rezaei-Matehkolaei, A; Geramishoar, M; Zarei, F; Jalalizand, N

    2015-06-01

    Onychomycosis is a common nail infection caused by dermatophytes, non-dermatophyte molds (NDM), and yeasts. Aspergillus species are emerging as increasing causes of toenail onychomycosis. The purpose of this study was species delineation of Aspergillus spp. isolated from patients with onychomycosis. During a period of one year (2012-2013), nail samples were collected from patients clinically suspected of onychomycosis and subjected to microscopic examination and culture. Species identification was performed based on macro- and micro-morphology of colonies. For precise species identification, PCR-amplification and sequencing of the beta-tubulin gene followed by BLAST queries were performed where required. A total of 463/2,292 (20.2%) tested nails were diagnosed with onychomycosis. Among the positive specimens, 154 cases (33.2%) were identified as saprophytic NDM onychomycosis, 135 (29.2%) of which were attributable to Aspergillus. Aspergillus species isolated from the infected nails included Aspergillus flavus (77.3%, n=119), Aspergillus niger (n=4), Aspergillus tubingensis (n=4), Aspergillus terreus (n=3), Aspergillus sydowii (n=2), Aspergillus spp. (n=2), and Aspergillus candidus (n=1). Among the patients diagnosed with onychomycosis due to Aspergillus (average patient age, 47.4 years), 40 had fingernail and 95 toenail involvement. The large toenails were most commonly affected. This study identified a markedly high occurrence of A. flavus, and this fungus appears to be an emerging cause of saprophytic onychomycosis in Iran. The study moreover highlights the necessity of differentiating between dermatophytic and non-dermatophytic nail infections for informed decisions on appropriate therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Aflatoxin Production in Peanut Varieties by aspergillus flavus Link and Aspergillus parasiticus Speare

    PubMed Central

    Nagarajan, V.; Bhat, Ramesh V.

    1973-01-01

    Levels of aflatoxin produced in peanuts differed with the genetic variety of plant and with the species and strain of invading fungus. Possibilities for identifying groundnut varieties partially resistant to aflatoxin production are discussed. PMID:4632857

  1. Effect of gamma-irradiation on aflatoxin B1 production by Aspergillus flavus and chemical composition of three crop seeds.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Nagy H; Mahrous, Souzan R

    2004-06-01

    The effect of gamma-irradiation on aflatoxin B1 production by Aspergillus flavus, and the chemical composition of some different crop seeds were investigated. A. flavus infected seeds behaved differently according to their principal constituents. A. flavus caused an increase in protein and decrease in lipids and carbohydrate contents of wheat, soyabean and fababean seeds. Growth of A. flavus and production of aflatoxin B1 was inhibited at a dose level of 5 kGy. A. flavus utilizes carbohydrates of seeds for its growth and aflatoxin production. Crops were arranged, in descending order, according to aflatoxin produced in seeds as wheat > soyabean > fababean. There were no changes in chemical constituents of irradiated seeds, such as protein, lipids, and carbohydrates.

  2. Activation of Aflatoxin Biosynthesis Alleviates Total ROS in Aspergillus parasiticus

    PubMed Central

    Kenne, Gabriel J.; Gummadidala, Phani M.; Omebeyinje, Mayomi H.; Mondal, Ananda M.; Bett, Dominic K.; McFadden, Sandra; Bromfield, Sydney; Banaszek, Nora; Velez-Martinez, Michelle; Mitra, Chandrani; Mikell, Isabelle; Chatterjee, Saurabh; Wee, Josephine; Chanda, Anindya

    2018-01-01

    An aspect of mycotoxin biosynthesis that remains unclear is its relationship with the cellular management of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here we conduct a comparative study of the total ROS production in the wild-type strain (SU-1) of the plant pathogen and aflatoxin producer, Aspergillus parasiticus, and its mutant strain, AFS10, in which the aflatoxin biosynthesis pathway is blocked by disruption of its pathway regulator, aflR. We show that SU-1 demonstrates a significantly faster decrease in total ROS than AFS10 between 24 h to 48 h, a time window within which aflatoxin synthesis is activated and reaches peak levels in SU-1. The impact of aflatoxin synthesis in alleviation of ROS correlated well with the transcriptional activation of five superoxide dismutases (SOD), a group of enzymes that protect cells from elevated levels of a class of ROS, the superoxide radicals (O2−). Finally, we show that aflatoxin supplementation to AFS10 growth medium results in a significant reduction of total ROS only in 24 h cultures, without resulting in significant changes in SOD gene expression. Our findings show that the activation of aflatoxin biosynthesis in A. parasiticus alleviates ROS generation, which in turn, can be both aflR dependent and aflatoxin dependent. PMID:29382166

  3. Effect of temperature and water activity on growth and aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus on cured meat model systems.

    PubMed

    Peromingo, Belén; Rodríguez, Alicia; Bernáldez, Victoria; Delgado, Josué; Rodríguez, Mar

    2016-12-01

    Dry-cured hams may be colonised by aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus during the ripening process. The objective of this study was to evaluate the interaction between non-ionic water stress and temperatures may have on lag phases prior to growth, growth rates and aflatoxin production by two strains of each A. parasiticus and A. flavus on meat matrices over a period of 12days. Results showed that A. flavus CBS 573.65 had shorter lag phases than A. parasiticus CECT 2688, however the growth rates were quite similar. For both species, no growth occurred at 10°C and all aw tested and optimum growth happened at 25°C and 0.95 aw. Similar aflatoxin B1 production profiles between both species were found, however A. flavus produced much higher concentration of such toxin than A. parasiticus. Both species produced aflatoxins when the temperature and the aw were ≥15°C and ≥0.90. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Aspergillus Hyphae in Infected Tissue: Evidence of Physiologic Adaptation and Effect on Culture Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Tarrand, Jeffrey J.; Han, Xiang Y.; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P.; May, Gregory S.

    2005-01-01

    Microbiologic cultures of fungi are routinely incubated at ambient temperatures in room air, and the rate of recovery of Aspergillus species from clinical specimens is poor. Failure of current culture methods to mimic the physiologic temperature and low-oxygen environment found in hypha-laden infected tissue may underlie this poor recovery. Experiments were performed to compare the recovery of Aspergillus spp. incubated at 35°C in 6% O2-10% CO2 with that at 25°C in room air. The samples tested included Aspergillus-infected tissue specimens from a dog model and human autopsies, experimental anaerobically stressed Aspergillus inocula, and 10,062 consecutive clinical specimens. Culture at 35°C in 6% O2-10% CO2 significantly enhanced the recovery of Aspergillus spp. from the infected autopsy tissue samples. Incubation at 35°C alone resulted in approximately 10-fold-improved culture recovery from the experimentally stressed hyphae, and the 6% O2-10% CO2 atmosphere independently favored growth under temperature-matched conditions. Finally, incubation at 35°C (in room air) improved the overall recovery of Aspergillus spp. from clinical specimens by 31%. Culture at 35°C in a microaerobic atmosphere significantly enhances the recovery of Aspergillus spp. from various sources. Aspergillus hyphae growing in infected tissue appear to be adapted to the physiologic temperature and hypoxic milieu. PMID:15634998

  5. Aspergillus hyphae in infected tissue: evidence of physiologic adaptation and effect on culture recovery.

    PubMed

    Tarrand, Jeffrey J; Han, Xiang Y; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P; May, Gregory S

    2005-01-01

    Microbiologic cultures of fungi are routinely incubated at ambient temperatures in room air, and the rate of recovery of Aspergillus species from clinical specimens is poor. Failure of current culture methods to mimic the physiologic temperature and low-oxygen environment found in hypha-laden infected tissue may underlie this poor recovery. Experiments were performed to compare the recovery of Aspergillus spp. incubated at 35 degrees C in 6% O(2)-10% CO(2) with that at 25 degrees C in room air. The samples tested included Aspergillus-infected tissue specimens from a dog model and human autopsies, experimental anaerobically stressed Aspergillus inocula, and 10,062 consecutive clinical specimens. Culture at 35 degrees C in 6% O(2)-10% CO(2) significantly enhanced the recovery of Aspergillus spp. from the infected autopsy tissue samples. Incubation at 35 degrees C alone resulted in approximately 10-fold-improved culture recovery from the experimentally stressed hyphae, and the 6% O(2)-10% CO(2) atmosphere independently favored growth under temperature-matched conditions. Finally, incubation at 35 degrees C (in room air) improved the overall recovery of Aspergillus spp. from clinical specimens by 31%. Culture at 35 degrees C in a microaerobic atmosphere significantly enhances the recovery of Aspergillus spp. from various sources. Aspergillus hyphae growing in infected tissue appear to be adapted to the physiologic temperature and hypoxic milieu.

  6. A highly specific competitive direct enzyme immunoassay for sterigmatocystin as a tool for rapid immunochemotaxonomic differentiation of mycotoxigenic Aspergillus species.

    PubMed

    Wegner, S; Bauer, J I; Dietrich, R; Märtlbauer, E; Usleber, E; Gottschalk, C; Gross, M

    2017-02-01

    A simplified method to produce specific polyclonal rabbit antibodies against sterigmatocystin (STC) was established, using a STC-glycolic acid-ether derivative (STC-GE) conjugated to keyhole limpet haemocyanin (immunogen). The competitive direct enzyme immunoassay (EIA) established for STC had a detection limit (20% binding inhibition) of 130 pg ml -1 . The test was highly specific for STC, with minor cross-reactivity with O-methylsterigmatocystin (OMSTC, 0·87%) and negligible reactivity with aflatoxins (<0·02%). STC-EIA was used in combination with a previously developed specific EIA for aflatoxins (<0·1% cross-reactivity with STC and OMSTC), to study the STC/aflatoxin production profiles of reference strains of Aspergillus species. This immunochemotaxonomic procedure was found to be a convenient tool to identify STC- or aflatoxin-producing strains. The carcinogenic mycotoxin sterigmatocystin (STC) is produced by several Aspergillus species, either alone or together with aflatoxins. Here, we report a very simple and straightforward procedure to obtain highly sensitive and specific anti-STC antibodies, and their use in the first ever real STC-specific competitive direct enzyme immunoassay (EIA). In combination with a previous EIA for aflatoxins, this study for the first time demonstrates the potential of a STC/aflatoxin EIA pair for what is branded as 'immunochemotaxonomic' identification of mycotoxigenic Aspergillus species. This new analytical tool enhances analytical possibilities for differential analysis of STC and aflatoxins. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. Revitalization of a forward genetic screen identifies three new regulators of fungal secondary metabolism in the genus Aspergillus

    Treesearch

    Brandon T. Pfannenstiel; Xixi Zhao; Jennifer Wortman; Philipp Wiemann; Kurt Throckmorton; Joseph E. Spraker; Alexandra A. Soukup; Xingyu Luo; Daniel L. Lindner; Fang Yun Lim; Benjamin P. Knox; Brian Haas; Gregory J. Fischer; Tsokyi Choera; Robert A. E. Butchko; Jin-Woo Bok; Katharyn J. Affeldt; Nancy P. Keller; Jonathan M. Palmer; B. Gillian Turgeon

    2017-01-01

    The study of aflatoxin in Aspergillus spp. has garnered the attention of many researchers due to aflatoxin's carcinogenic properties and frequency as a food and feed contaminant. Significant progress has been made by utilizing the model organism Aspergillus nidulans to characterize the regulation of sterigmatocystin (ST),...

  8. The Platelia Aspergillus ELISA in diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergilosis (IPA).

    PubMed

    Siemann, M; Koch-Dörfler, M

    2001-01-01

    The sensitivity of a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detecting Aspergillus galactomannan was evaluated with 66 serum samples and 113 specimens of the respiratory tract obtained from 52 patients with pulmonary diseases. The patients were divided into five groups: proven invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) (five patients), probable IPA (seven patients), Aspergillus colonization (eight patients) or unlikely Aspergillus infection (27 patients). Another five patients with doubtful diagnostic test results are discussed in detail. The results of the Platelia Aspergillus ELISA (Sanofi Pasteur, Freiburg, Germany) in testing specimens of the respiratory tract were 90% sensitivity in proven (serum 38%), 60% in probable (serum 37%) and 71% in Aspergillus colonization (serum 0%). Furthermore, 85% of the Aspergillus spp. from positive cultures of specimens of the respiratory tract were also detected in the ELISA. A total of 57% of the culture negative specimens of patients with a least one positive culture or proven aspergillosis in a series of specimens were positive in the ELISA.

  9. Lack of Host Specialization in Aspergillus flavus

    PubMed Central

    St. Leger, Raymond J.; Screen, Steven E.; Shams-Pirzadeh, Bijan

    2000-01-01

    Aspergillus spp. cause disease in a broad range of organisms, but it is unknown if strains are specialized for particular hosts. We evaluated isolates of Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Aspergillus nidulans for their ability to infect bean leaves, corn kernels, and insects (Galleria mellonella). Strains of A. flavus did not affect nonwounded bean leaves, corn kernels, or insects at 22°C, but they killed insects following hemocoelic challenge and caused symptoms ranging from moderate to severe in corn kernels and bean leaves injured during inoculation. The pectinase P2c, implicated in aggressive colonization of cotton bolls, is produced by most A. flavus isolates, but its absence did not prevent colonization of bean leaves. Proteases have been implicated in colonization of animal hosts. All A. flavus strains produced very similar patterns of protease isozymes when cultured on horse lung polymers. Quantitative differences in protease levels did not correlate with the ability to colonize insects. In contrast to A. flavus, strains of A. nidulans and A. fumigatus could not invade living insect or plant tissues or resist digestion by insect hemocytes. Our results indicate that A. flavus has parasitic attributes that are lacking in A. fumigatus and A. nidulans but that individual strains of A. flavus are not specialized to particular hosts. PMID:10618242

  10. The Inhibitory Effects of Curcuma longa L. Essential Oil and Curcumin on Aspergillus flavus Link Growth and Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Mossini, Simone Aparecida Galerani; Ferreira, Francine Maery Dias; Arrotéia, Carla Cristina; da Costa, Christiane Luciana; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Machinski Junior, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    The essential oil from Curcuma longa L. was analysed by GC/MS. The major components of the oil were ar-turmerone (33.2%), α-turmerone (23.5%) and β-turmerone (22.7%). The antifungal activities of the oil were studied with regard to Aspergillus flavus growth inhibition and altered morphology, as preliminary studies indicated that the essential oil from C. longa inhibited Aspergillus flavus Link aflatoxin production. The concentration of essential oil in the culture media ranged from 0.01% to 5.0% v/v, and the concentration of curcumin was 0.01–0.5% v/v. The effects on sporulation, spore viability, and fungal morphology were determined. The essential oil exhibited stronger antifungal activity than curcumin on A. flavus. The essential oil reduced the fungal growth in a concentration-dependent manner. A. flavus growth rate was reduced by C. longa essential oil at 0.10%, and this inhibition effect was more efficient in concentrations above 0.50%. Germination and sporulation were 100% inhibited in 0.5% oil. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of A. flavus exposed to oil showed damage to hyphae membranes and conidiophores. Because the fungus is a plant pathogen and aflatoxin producer, C. longa essential oil may be used in the management of host plants. PMID:24367241

  11. The inhibitory effects of Curcuma longa L. essential oil and curcumin on Aspergillus flavus link growth and morphology.

    PubMed

    Dias Ferreira, Flávio; Mossini, Simone Aparecida Galerani; Dias Ferreira, Francine Maery; Arrotéia, Carla Cristina; da Costa, Christiane Luciana; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Machinski, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    The essential oil from Curcuma longa L. was analysed by GC/MS. The major components of the oil were ar-turmerone (33.2%), α -turmerone (23.5%) and β -turmerone (22.7%). The antifungal activities of the oil were studied with regard to Aspergillus flavus growth inhibition and altered morphology, as preliminary studies indicated that the essential oil from C. longa inhibited Aspergillus flavus Link aflatoxin production. The concentration of essential oil in the culture media ranged from 0.01% to 5.0% v/v, and the concentration of curcumin was 0.01-0.5% v/v. The effects on sporulation, spore viability, and fungal morphology were determined. The essential oil exhibited stronger antifungal activity than curcumin on A. flavus. The essential oil reduced the fungal growth in a concentration-dependent manner. A. flavus growth rate was reduced by C. longa essential oil at 0.10%, and this inhibition effect was more efficient in concentrations above 0.50%. Germination and sporulation were 100% inhibited in 0.5% oil. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of A. flavus exposed to oil showed damage to hyphae membranes and conidiophores. Because the fungus is a plant pathogen and aflatoxin producer, C. longa essential oil may be used in the management of host plants.

  12. Aspergillus otitis in small animals--a retrospective study of 17 cases.

    PubMed

    Goodale, Elizabeth C; Outerbridge, Catherine A; White, Stephen D

    2016-02-01

    Aspergillus spp. are saprophytic opportunistic fungal organisms and are a common cause of otomycosis in humans. Although there have been case reports of Aspergillus otitis externa in dogs, to the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first retrospective case series describing Aspergillus otitis in dogs and cats. To characterize signalment, putative risk factors, treatments and outcomes of a case series of dogs and cats with Aspergillus otitis. Eight dogs and nine cats diagnosed with Aspergillus otitis. A retrospective review of medical records from 1989 to 2014 identified animals diagnosed with Aspergillus otitis based on culture. All dogs weighed greater than 23 kg. The most common putative risk factors identified in this study were concurrent diseases, therapy causing immunosuppression or a history of an otic foreign body. Aspergillus otitis was unilateral in all study dogs and most cats. Concurrent otitis media was confirmed in three dogs and one cat, and suspected in two additional cats. Aspergillus fumigatus was the most common isolate overall and was the dominant isolate in cats. Aspergillus niger and A. terreus were more commonly isolated from dogs. Animals received various topical and systemic antifungal medications; however, otic lavage under anaesthesia and/or surgical intervention increased the likelihood of resolution of the fungal infection. Aspergillus otitis is uncommon, typically seen as unilateral otitis externa in cats and larger breed dogs with possible risk factors that include immunosuppression and otic foreign bodies; previous antibiotic usage was common. © 2015 ESVD and ACVD.

  13. Autoxidated linolenic acid inhibits aflatoxin biosynthesis in Aspergillus flavus via oxylipin species.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shijuan; Liang, Yating; Zhang, Jindan; Chen, Zhuang; Liu, Chun-Ming

    2015-08-01

    Aflatoxins produced by Aspergillus species are among the most toxic and carcinogenic compounds in nature. Although it has been known for a long time that seeds with high oil content are more susceptible to aflatoxin contamination, the role of fatty acids in aflatoxin biosynthesis remains controversial. Here we demonstrate in A. flavus that both the saturated stearic acid (C18:0) and the polyunsaturated linolenic acid (C18:3) promoted aflatoxin production, while C18:3, but not C18:0, inhibited aflatoxin biosynthesis after exposure to air for several hours. Further experiments showed that autoxidated C18:3 promoted mycelial growth, sporulation, and kojic acid production, but inhibited the expression of genes in the AF biosynthetic gene cluster. Mass spectrometry analyses of autoxidated C18:3 fractions that were able to inhibit aflatoxin biosynthesis led to the identification of multiple oxylipin species. These results may help to clarify the role of fatty acids in aflatoxin biosynthesis, and may explain why controversial results have been obtained for fatty acids in the past. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of atoxigenic isolates of Aspergillus flavus as potential biocontrol agents for aflatoxin in maize.

    PubMed

    Atehnkeng, J; Ojiambo, P S; Ikotun, T; Sikora, R A; Cotty, P J; Bandyopadhyay, R

    2008-10-01

    Aflatoxin contamination resulting from maize infection by Aspergillus flavus is both an economic and a public health concern. Therefore, strategies for controlling aflatoxin contamination in maize are being investigated. The abilities of eleven naturally occurring atoxigenic isolates in Nigeria to reduce aflatoxin contamination in maize were evaluated in grain competition experiments and in field studies during the 2005 and 2006 growing seasons. Treatments consisted of inoculation of either grains in vials or ears at mid-silking stage in field plots, with the toxigenic isolate (La3228) or atoxigenic isolate alone and co-inoculation of each atoxigenic isolate and La3328. Aflatoxin B(1) + B(2) concentrations were significantly (p < 0.05) lower in the co-inoculation treatments compared with the treatment in which the aflatoxin-producing isolate La3228 was inoculated alone. Relative levels of aflatoxin B(1) + B(2) reduction ranged from 70.1% to 99.9%. Among the atoxigenics, two isolates from Lafia, La3279 and La3303, were most effective at reducing aflatoxin B(1) + B(2) concentrations in both laboratory and field trials. These two isolates have potential value as agents for the biocontrol of aflatoxin contamination in maize. Because these isolates are endemic to West Africa, they are both more likely than introduced isolates to be well adapted to West African environments and to meet regulatory concerns over their use throughout that region.

  15. Characterization of the Maize Chitinase Genes and Their Effect on Aspergillus flavus and Aflatoxin Accumulation Resistance.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Leigh K; Mylroie, J Erik; Oliveira, Dafne A; Smith, J Spencer; Ozkan, Seval; Windham, Gary L; Williams, W Paul; Warburton, Marilyn L

    2015-01-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) is a crop of global importance, but prone to contamination by aflatoxins produced by fungi in the genus Aspergillus. The development of resistant germplasm and the identification of genes contributing to resistance would aid in the reduction of the problem with a minimal need for intervention by farmers. Chitinolytic enzymes respond to attack by potential pathogens and have been demonstrated to increase insect and fungal resistance in plants. Here, all chitinase genes in the maize genome were characterized via sequence diversity and expression patterns. Recent evolution within this gene family was noted. Markers from within each gene were developed and used to map the phenotypic effect on resistance of each gene in up to four QTL mapping populations and one association panel. Seven chitinase genes were identified that had alleles associated with increased resistance to aflatoxin accumulation and A. flavus infection in field grown maize. The chitinase in bin 1.05 identified a new and highly significant QTL, while chitinase genes in bins 2.04 and 5.03 fell directly beneath the peaks of previously published QTL. The expression patterns of these genes corroborate possible grain resistance mechanisms. Markers from within the gene sequences or very closely linked to them are presented to aid in the use of marker assisted selection to improve this trait.

  16. The Aspergillus flavus Homeobox Gene, hbx1, is Required for Development and Aflatoxin Production.

    PubMed

    Cary, Jeffrey W; Harris-Coward, Pamela; Scharfenstein, Leslie; Mack, Brian M; Chang, Perng-Kuang; Wei, Qijian; Lebar, Matthew; Carter-Wientjes, Carol; Majumdar, Rajtilak; Mitra, Chandrani; Banerjee, Sourav; Chanda, Anindya

    2017-10-12

    Homeobox proteins, a class of well conserved transcription factors, regulate the expression of targeted genes, especially those involved in development. In filamentous fungi, homeobox genes are required for normal conidiogenesis and fruiting body formation. In the present study, we identified eight homeobox ( hbx ) genes in the aflatoxin-producing ascomycete, Aspergillus flavus , and determined their respective role in growth, conidiation and sclerotial production. Disruption of seven of the eight genes had little to no effect on fungal growth and development. However, disruption of the homeobox gene AFLA_069100, designated as hbx1 , in two morphologically different A. flavus strains, CA14 and AF70, resulted in complete loss of production of conidia and sclerotia as well as aflatoxins B₁ and B₂, cyclopiazonic acid and aflatrem. Microscopic examination showed that the Δ hbx1 mutants did not produce conidiophores. The inability of Δ hbx1 mutants to produce conidia was related to downregulation of brlA (bristle) and abaA (abacus), regulatory genes for conidiophore development. These mutants also had significant downregulation of the aflatoxin pathway biosynthetic genes aflC , aflD , aflM and the cluster-specific regulatory gene, aflR . Our results demonstrate that hbx1 not only plays a significant role in controlling A. flavus development but is also critical for the production of secondary metabolites, such as aflatoxins.

  17. Characterization of the Maize Chitinase Genes and Their Effect on Aspergillus flavus and Aflatoxin Accumulation Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, Leigh K.; Mylroie, J. Erik; Oliveira, Dafne A.; Smith, J. Spencer; Ozkan, Seval; Windham, Gary L.; Williams, W. Paul; Warburton, Marilyn L.

    2015-01-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) is a crop of global importance, but prone to contamination by aflatoxins produced by fungi in the genus Aspergillus. The development of resistant germplasm and the identification of genes contributing to resistance would aid in the reduction of the problem with a minimal need for intervention by farmers. Chitinolytic enzymes respond to attack by potential pathogens and have been demonstrated to increase insect and fungal resistance in plants. Here, all chitinase genes in the maize genome were characterized via sequence diversity and expression patterns. Recent evolution within this gene family was noted. Markers from within each gene were developed and used to map the phenotypic effect on resistance of each gene in up to four QTL mapping populations and one association panel. Seven chitinase genes were identified that had alleles associated with increased resistance to aflatoxin accumulation and A. flavus infection in field grown maize. The chitinase in bin 1.05 identified a new and highly significant QTL, while chitinase genes in bins 2.04 and 5.03 fell directly beneath the peaks of previously published QTL. The expression patterns of these genes corroborate possible grain resistance mechanisms. Markers from within the gene sequences or very closely linked to them are presented to aid in the use of marker assisted selection to improve this trait. PMID:26090679

  18. Seed mycoflora of Ephedra aphylla and amino acid profile of seed-borne Aspergillus flavus.

    PubMed

    Al-Qarawi, Abdulaziz A; Hashem, Abeer; Abd-Allah, Elsayed F

    2012-09-01

    Twenty-seven seed samples of Ephedra aphylla were collected from different rangelands in Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia during seed production season of 2010. They were assessed to determine the incidence of seedborne fungal flora using both agar plate and blotter paper methods. The investigation of the seeds yielded thirty four fungal species belonging to twelve genera, which are new record to seed-brone mycoflora of E. aphylla in Saudi Arabia. The agar plate method was found superior over blotter methods. The genus Aspergillus was the most prevalent one followed by Fusarium, Penicillium, Alternaria, and Chaetomium. Only eighteen isolates of A. flavus (∼ 28.6% of total isolates) were able to produce aflatoxins. Mycelial amino acids profile of selected aflatoxigenic isolates of A. flavus was investigated and five amino acids, namely cystein, lysine, praline, tryptophan and valine were common in mycelia and all of them were aflatoxins producers. Based on the dissimilarity coefficient between the isolates and their amino acids patterns, high diversity among the population of A. flavus has been recorded.

  19. Molecular identification of Aspergillus and Eurotium species isolated from rice and their toxin-producing ability.

    PubMed

    Yazdani, D; Zainal Abidin, M A; Tan, Y H; Kamaruzaman, S

    2011-01-01

    Thirty milled rice samples were collected from retailers in 4 provinces of Malaysia. These samples were evaluated for Aspergillus spp. infection by direct plating on malt extract salt agar (MESA). All Aspergillus holomorphs were isolated and identified using nucleotide sequences of ITS 1 and ITS 2 of rDNA. Five anamorphs (Aspergillus flavus, A. oryzae, A. tamarii, A. fumigatus and A. niger) and 5 teleomorphs (Eurotium rubrum, E. amstelodami, E. chevalieri, E. cristatum and E. tonophilum) were identified. The PCR-sequencing based technique for sequences of ITS 1 and ITS 2 is a fast technique for identification of Aspergillus and Eurotium species, although it doesn't work flawlessly for differentiation of Eurotium species. All Aspergillus and Eurotium isolates were screened for their ability to produce aflatoxin and ochratoxin A (OTA) by HPLC and TLC techniques. Only A. flavus isolate UPM 89 was able to produce aflatoxins B1 and B2.

  20. The Mediterranean red alga Asparagopsis taxiformis has antifungal activity against Aspergillus species.

    PubMed

    Genovese, Giuseppa; Leitner, Sandra; Minicante, Simona A; Lass-Flörl, Cornelia

    2013-09-01

    The red algae Asparagopsis taxiformis collected from the Straits of Messina (Italy) were screened for antifungal activity against Aspergillus species. EUCAST methodology was applied and extracts showed antifungal activity against A. fumigatus, A. terreus and A. flavus. The lowest minimum inhibitory concentrations observed were <0.15 mg ml(-1) and the highest were >5 mg ml(-1) for Aspergillus spp. tested. Agar diffusion assays confirmed antifungal activity of A. taxiformis extracts in Aspergillus species. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Aspergillus Section Fumigati Typing by PCR-Restriction Fragment Polymorphism▿

    PubMed Central

    Staab, Janet F.; Balajee, S. Arunmozhi; Marr, Kieren A.

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that there are multiple clinically important members of the Aspergillus section Fumigati that are difficult to distinguish on the basis of morphological features (e.g., Aspergillus fumigatus, A. lentulus, and Neosartorya udagawae). Identification of these organisms may be clinically important, as some species vary in their susceptibilities to antifungal agents. In a prior study, we utilized multilocus sequence typing to describe A. lentulus as a species distinct from A. fumigatus. The sequence data show that the gene encoding β-tubulin, benA, has high interspecies variability at intronic regions but is conserved among isolates of the same species. These data were used to develop a PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method that rapidly and accurately distinguishes A. fumigatus, A. lentulus, and N. udagawae, three major species within the section Fumigati that have previously been implicated in disease. Digestion of the benA amplicon with BccI generated unique banding patterns; the results were validated by screening a collection of clinical strains and by in silico analysis of the benA sequences of Aspergillus spp. deposited in the GenBank database. PCR-RFLP of benA is a simple method for the identification of clinically important, similar morphotypes of Aspergillus spp. within the section Fumigati. PMID:19403766

  2. Aspergillus section Fumigati typing by PCR-restriction fragment polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Staab, Janet F; Balajee, S Arunmozhi; Marr, Kieren A

    2009-07-01

    Recent studies have shown that there are multiple clinically important members of the Aspergillus section Fumigati that are difficult to distinguish on the basis of morphological features (e.g., Aspergillus fumigatus, A. lentulus, and Neosartorya udagawae). Identification of these organisms may be clinically important, as some species vary in their susceptibilities to antifungal agents. In a prior study, we utilized multilocus sequence typing to describe A. lentulus as a species distinct from A. fumigatus. The sequence data show that the gene encoding beta-tubulin, benA, has high interspecies variability at intronic regions but is conserved among isolates of the same species. These data were used to develop a PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method that rapidly and accurately distinguishes A. fumigatus, A. lentulus, and N. udagawae, three major species within the section Fumigati that have previously been implicated in disease. Digestion of the benA amplicon with BccI generated unique banding patterns; the results were validated by screening a collection of clinical strains and by in silico analysis of the benA sequences of Aspergillus spp. deposited in the GenBank database. PCR-RFLP of benA is a simple method for the identification of clinically important, similar morphotypes of Aspergillus spp. within the section Fumigati.

  3. Discrimination of Aspergillus lentulus from Aspergillus fumigatus by Raman spectroscopy and MALDI-TOF MS.

    PubMed

    Verwer, P E B; van Leeuwen, W B; Girard, V; Monnin, V; van Belkum, A; Staab, J F; Verbrugh, H A; Bakker-Woudenberg, I A J M; van de Sande, W W J

    2014-02-01

    In 2005, a new sibling species of Aspergillus fumigatus was discovered: Aspergillus lentulus. Both species can cause invasive fungal disease in immune-compromised patients. The species are morphologically very similar. Current techniques for identification are PCR-based or morphology-based. These techniques are labour-intense and not sufficiently discriminatory. Since A. lentulus is less susceptible to several antifungal agents, it is important to correctly identify the causative infectious agent in order to optimize antifungal therapy. In this study we determined whether Raman spectroscopy and/or MALDI-TOF MS were able to differentiate between A. lentulus and A. fumigatus. For 16 isolates of A. lentulus and 16 isolates of A. fumigatus, Raman spectra and peptide profiles were obtained using the Spectracell and MALDI-TOF MS (VITEK MS RUO, bioMérieux) respectively. In order to obtain reliable Raman spectra for A. fumigatus and A. lentulus, the culture medium needed to be adjusted to obtain colourless conidia. Only Raman spectra obtained from colourless conidia were reproducible and correctly identified 25 out of 32 (78 %) of the Aspergillus strains. For VITEK MS RUO, no medium adjustments were necessary. Pigmented conidia resulted in reproducible peptide profiles as well in this case. VITEK MS RUO correctly identified 100 % of the Aspergillus isolates, within a timeframe of approximately 54 h including culture. Of the two techniques studied here, VITEK MS RUO was superior to Raman spectroscopy in the discrimination of A. lentulus from A. fumigatus. VITEK MS RUO seems to be a successful technique in the daily identification of Aspergillus spp. within a limited timeframe.

  4. Influence of the Host Contact Sequence on the Outcome of Competition among Aspergillus flavus Isolates during Host Tissue Invasion▿

    PubMed Central

    Mehl, H. L.; Cotty, P. J.

    2011-01-01

    Biological control of aflatoxin contamination by Aspergillus flavus is achieved through competitive exclusion of aflatoxin producers by atoxigenic strains. Factors dictating the extent to which competitive displacement occurs during host infection are unknown. The role of initial host contact in competition between pairs of A. flavus isolates coinfecting maize kernels was examined. Isolate success during tissue invasion and reproduction was assessed by quantification of isolate-specific single nucleotide polymorphisms using pyrosequencing. Isolates were inoculated either simultaneously or 1 h apart. Increased success during competition was conferred to the first isolate to contact the host independent of that isolate's innate competitive ability. The first-isolate advantage decreased with the conidial concentration, suggesting capture of limited resources on kernel surfaces contributes to competitive exclusion. Attempts to modify access to putative attachment sites by either coating kernels with dead conidia or washing kernels with solvents did not influence the success of the first isolate, suggesting competition for limited attachment sites on kernel surfaces does not mediate first-isolate advantage. The current study is the first to demonstrate an immediate competitive advantage conferred to A. flavus isolates upon host contact and prior to either germ tube emergence or host colonization. This suggests the timing of host contact is as important to competition during disease cycles as innate competitive ability. Early dispersal to susceptible crop components may allow maintenance within A. flavus populations of genetic types with low competitive ability during host tissue invasion. PMID:21216896

  5. Development in Aspergillus

    PubMed Central

    Krijgsheld, P.; Bleichrodt, R.; van Veluw, G.J.; Wang, F.; Müller, W.H.; Dijksterhuis, J.; Wösten, H.A.B.

    2013-01-01

    The genus Aspergillus represents a diverse group of fungi that are among the most abundant fungi in the world. Germination of a spore can lead to a vegetative mycelium that colonizes a substrate. The hyphae within the mycelium are highly heterogeneous with respect to gene expression, growth, and secretion. Aspergilli can reproduce both asexually and sexually. To this end, conidiophores and ascocarps are produced that form conidia and ascospores, respectively. This review describes the molecular mechanisms underlying growth and development of Aspergillus. PMID:23450714

  6. Aspergillus fumigatus and Related Species

    PubMed Central

    Sugui, Janyce A.; Kwon-Chung, Kyung J.; Juvvadi, Praveen R.; Latgé, Jean-Paul; Steinbach, William J.

    2015-01-01

    The genus Aspergillus contains etiologic agents of aspergillosis. The clinical manifestations of the disease range from allergic reaction to invasive pulmonary infection. Among the pathogenic aspergilli, Aspergillus fumigatus is most ubiquitous in the environment and is the major cause of the disease, followed by Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus nidulans, and several species in the section Fumigati that morphologically resemble A. fumigatus. Patients that are at risk for acquiring aspergillosis are those with an altered immune system. Early diagnosis, species identification, and adequate antifungal therapy are key elements for treatment of the disease, especially in cases of pulmonary invasive aspergillosis that often advance very rapidly. Incorporating knowledge of the basic biology of Aspergillus species to that of the diseases that they cause is fundamental for further progress in the field. PMID:25377144

  7. Immunoevasive Aspergillus virulence factors.

    PubMed

    Chotirmall, Sanjay H; Mirkovic, Bojana; Lavelle, Gillian M; McElvaney, Noel G

    2014-12-01

    Individuals with structural lung disease or defective immunity are predisposed to Aspergillus-associated disease. Manifestations range from allergic to cavitary or angio-invasive syndromes. Despite daily spore inhalation, immunocompetence facilitates clearance through initiation of innate and adaptive host responses. These include mechanical barriers, phagocyte activation, antimicrobial peptide release and pattern recognition receptor activation. Adaptive responses include Th1 and Th2 approaches. Understanding Aspergillus virulence mechanisms remains critical to the development of effective research and treatment strategies to counteract the fungi. Major virulence factors relate to fungal structure, protease release and allergens; however, mechanisms utilized to evade immune recognition continue to be important in establishing infection. These include the fungal rodlet layer, dihydroxynaphthalene-melanin, detoxifying systems for reactive oxygen species and toxin release. One major immunoevasive toxin, gliotoxin, plays a key role in mediating Aspergillus-associated colonization in the context of cystic fibrosis. Here, it down-regulates vitamin D receptor expression which following itraconazole therapy is rescued concurrent with decreased Th2 cytokine (IL-5 and IL-13) concentrations in the CF airway. This review focuses on the interaction between Aspergillus pathogenic mechanisms, host immune responses and the immunoevasive strategies employed by the organism during disease states such as that observed in cystic fibrosis.

  8. High burden of Aspergillus fumigatus infection among chronic respiratory diseases.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Yosuke; Homma, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Shintaro; Takuma, Takahiro; Tanaka, Akihiko; Yokoe, Takuya; Ohnishi, Tsukasa; Niki, Yoshihito; Sagara, Hironori

    2018-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus (AF) is a ubiquitous fungus in our environment and causes severe airway disorders. Chronic respiratory diseases (CRDs) are a series of chronic airway and lung diseases. Although both are chronic disorders, however, the relationships between AF and CRDs are still unclear. Therefore, we examined 104 Aspergillus species (spp.) isolated samples in our hospital during three consecutive years to further elucidate the relationships between Aspergillus spp. and CRDs. Based on sample isolates, we then grouped these into two groups, AF and non-AF, to retrospectively analyse the clinical features and to clarify the relationships between AF and CRDs. Importantly, the manifestation of CRD was more frequent in the AF group than in the non-AF group ( p = 0.035). Among CRDs, lung fibrosis was more evident in the AF group ( p = 0.025). Moreover, diabetes mellitus was tended to be evident in AF group than non-AF group ( p = 0.035). In conclusion, CRDs, especially lung fibrosis, were highly prevalent in AF group than non-AF group.

  9. Unusual Aspergillus species in patients with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Symoens, Françoise; Haase, Gerhard; Pihet, Marc; Carrere, Jacqueline; Beguin, Hugues; Degand, Nicolas; Mely, Laurent; Bouchara, Jean-Philippe

    2010-11-01

    Poorly sporulating Aspergillus isolates from patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) are generally identified in routine procedures as Aspergillus spp. In this study, we identified and characterized 11 isolates belonging to two unusual Aspergillus species of the section Fumigati (A. lentulus and Neosartorya pseudofischeri) recovered from four different patients. Aspergillus lentulus was found occasionally during a 10-year follow-up study of one CF patient colonized by A. fumigatus. Neosartorya pseudofischeri was isolated from three patients followed in different European hospitals. This species was recovered from two sputum samples of one patient, and from four successive samples of the two other patients, suggesting that it may be responsible for chronic colonization. Both species were isolated together with A. fumigatus. Isolates from both species did not grow at 50°C, and DNA sequence analysis, together with further morphological observations permitted identification at the species level. Growth at different temperatures and antifungal susceptibility were also investigated. All the isolates of N. pseudofischeri exhibited a very low susceptibility to voriconazole (VRZ) whereas a very low susceptibility to VRZ and amphotericin B was seen with the A. lentulus isolates.

  10. The high-affinity phosphodiesterase PdeH regulates development and aflatoxin biosynthesis in Aspergillus flavus.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kunlong; Liu, Yinghang; Liang, Linlin; Li, Zhenguo; Qin, Qiuping; Nie, Xinyi; Wang, Shihua

    2017-04-01

    Cyclic AMP signaling controls a range of physiological processes in response to extracellular stimuli in organisms. Among the signaling cascades, cAMP, as a second messenger, is orchestrated by adenylate cyclase (biosynthesis) and cAMP phosphodiesterases (PDEs) (hydrolysis). In this study, we investigated the function of the high-affinity (PdeH) and low-affinity (PdeL) cAMP phosphodiesterase from the carcinogenic aflatoxin producing fungus Aspergillus flavus, and found that instead of PdeL, inactivation of PdeH exhibited a reduction in conidiation and sclerotia formation. However, the ΔpdeL/ΔpdeH mutant exhibited an enhanced phenotype defects, a similar phenotype defects to wild-type strain treated with exogenous cAMP. The activation of PKA activity was inhibited in the ΔpdeH or ΔpdeL/ΔpdeH mutant, both of whom exhibited increasing AF production. Further analysis by qRT-PCR revealed that pdeH had a high transcriptional level compared to pdeL in wild-type strain, and affected pdeL transcription. Green fluorescent protein tagging at the C-terminus of PDEs showed that PdeH-GFP is broadly compartmentalized in the cytosol, while PdeL-GFP localized mainly to the nucleus. Overall, our results indicated that PdeH plays a major role, but has overlapping function with PdeL, in vegetative growth, development and AF biosynthesis in A. flavus. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Aspergillus in liquid-based cervicovaginal cytology in a postmenopausal patient: A case report.

    PubMed

    Garza-Guajardo, Raquel; Canales-Martínez, Luis Carlos; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Irám Pablo; Sánchez-Chaparro, María Marisela; Gómez-Macías, Gabriela Sofía; Vilches-Cisneros, Natalia; Barboza-Quintana, Oralia

    2017-10-01

    Aspergillus is an opportunistic fungus present in humid environments, whose natural environment is in soil, hay and compost. It is a frequent contaminant in the clinical laboratory. Because of this, the fungus is often inhaled, affecting those with an underlying pulmonary disease or immune deficiency. Fungal genitourinary tract infections are relatively common. A rare Aspergillus spp cervical infection diagnosed via liquid-based cytology is presented in the current study. The 57-year-old woman attended her annual check-up without any relevant medical history. The result of a gynecological examination by Papanicolaou smear was normal and routine liquid-based cytology was performed. The specimen exhibited fungal organisms characterized by septate hyphae branching at acute angles, most consistent with the Aspergillus species. Subsequent cytology demonstrated the same results. Antifungal treatment was initiated and a second post-treatment smear only exhibited atrophy. The cytomorphological features of Aspergillus spp. are discussed in the current study and a brief review of the few reported cases of a primary cervical infection in the literature is provided. In addition, the liquid-based cytology was established as a tool to diagnose the rare Aspergillus infection.

  12. Biomarkers of Aspergillus spores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulc, Miroslav; Peslova, Katerina; Zabka, Martin; Hajduch, Marian; Havlicek, Vladimir

    2009-02-01

    We applied both matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometric and 1D sodium dodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic (1D-PAGE) approaches for direct analysis of intact fungal spores of twenty four Aspergillus species. In parallel, we optimized various protocols for protein extraction from Aspergillus spores using acidic conditions, step organic gradient and variable sonication treatment. The MALDI-TOF mass spectra obtained from optimally prepared samples provided a reproducible fingerprint demonstrating the capability of the MALDI-TOF approach to type and characterize different fungal strains within the Aspergillus genus. Mass spectra of intact fungal spores provided signals mostly below 20 kDa. The minimum material amount represented 0.3 [mu]g (10,000 spores). Proteins with higher molecular weight were detected by 1D-PAGEE Eleven proteins were identified from three selected strains in the range 5-25 kDa by the proteomic approach. Hemolysin and hydrophobin have the highest relevance in host-pathogen interactions.

  13. In vitro antifungal susceptibility of clinical species belonging to Aspergillus genus and Rhizopus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Kachuei, R; Khodavaisy, S; Rezaie, S; Sharifynia, S

    2016-03-01

    Among filamentous fungal pathogens, Aspergillus spp. and zygomycetes account for highest rates of morbidity and mortality among immunocompromised patients. Recently developed antifungal drugs offer the potential to improve management and therapeutic outcomes of fungal infections. The aim of this study was to analyse the in vitro activities of voriconazole, itraconazole, amphotericin B and caspofungin against clinical isolates of Aspergillus spp. and Rhizopus oryzae. The in vitro antifungal susceptibility of 54 isolates belonging to different clinical isolates of Aspergillus spp. and R. oryzae was tested for four antifungal agents using a microdilution reference method (CLSI, M38-A2). All isolates were identified by typical colony and microscopic characteristics, and also characterized by molecular methods. Caspofungin (MEC range: 0.008-0.25 and MEC50: 0.0023μg/mL) was the most active drug in vitro against Aspergillus spp., followed by voriconazole (MIC range: 0.031-8 and MIC50: 0.5μg/mL), itraconazole (MIC range: 0.031-16 and MIC50: 0.25μg/mL), and amphotericin B (MIC range: 0.125-4 and MIC50: 0.5μg/mL), in order of decreasing activity. The caspofungin, voriconazole, and itraconazole demonstrated poor in vitro activity against R. oryzae isolates evaluated, followed by amphotericin B. This study demonstrates that caspofungin had good antifungal activity and azole agents had better activity than amphotericin B against Aspergillus species. Although, azole drugs are considered ineffective against R. oryzae. This result is just from a small scale in vitro susceptibility study and we did not take other factors into consideration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Assessment of micafungin regimens by pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic analysis: a dosing strategy for Aspergillus infections.

    PubMed

    Ikawa, Kazuro; Nomura, Kenichi; Morikawa, Norifumi; Ikeda, Kayo; Taniwaki, Masafumi

    2009-10-01

    A pharmacokinetic (PK)-pharmacodynamic (PD) analysis was conducted to assess various micafungin regimens for Candida and Aspergillus infections, as appropriate regimens have not been established, especially for Aspergillus infections. Plasma drug concentrations (48 samples from 10 adult patients with haematological malignancies) were determined chromatographically, and used for population PK modelling and Monte Carlo simulation to evaluate the ability of regimens (1 h infusions) to attain genus-dependent PK-PD targets, namely fungistatic and fungicidal targets against Candida spp. [area under the plasma unbound (1%) drug concentration-time curve over 24 h/MIC (fAUC/MIC) = 10 and 20] and an effective concentration target against Aspergillus spp. (plasma unbound drug concentration = 0.05 mg/L). Mean (variance) values for two-compartment PK model parameters were: clearance, 0.762 L/h (15.4%); volume of central compartment, 9.25 L (24.6%); intercompartmental clearance, 7.02 L/h (fixed); and volume of peripheral compartment, 8.86 L (71.8%). The Monte Carlo simulation demonstrated that 50 mg once daily and 100 mg once daily for the fungistatic and fungicidal targets achieved a >95% probability of target attainment against Candida spp. To achieve such probability against Aspergillus spp., 250 mg once daily or 100 mg twice daily was required. These results rationalize the approved micafungin dosages for Candida infections (50 mg once daily for prophylaxis and 100-150 mg once daily for treatment), and on the basis of these results we propose a PK-PD-based dosing strategy for Aspergillus infections. A regimen of 200-250 mg/day should be initiated to ensure the likelihood of a favourable outcome. The regimen can be optimized by decreasing the dosing interval.

  15. Characteristics of culture-positive invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in patients with hematologic diseases: Comparison between Aspergillus fumigatus and non-fumigatus Aspergillus species.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sung-Yeon; Lee, Dong-Gun; Choi, Jae-Ki; Lee, Hyo-Jin; Kim, Si-Hyun; Park, Sun Hee; Choi, Su-Mi; Choi, Jung-Hyun; Yoo, Jin-Hong; Park, Yeon-Joon; Lee, Jong-Wook

    2017-12-01

    While the epidemiology and clinical differences of various Candida spp. has been relatively well-identified, data regarding invasive aspergillosis (IA) caused by different Aspergillus spp. are insufficient.We aimed to determine the epidemiology of culture-positive invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) and to compare the characteristics and outcomes of Aspergillus fumigatus IPA with those of non-fumigatus IPA in patients with hematologic diseases. All consecutive cases of IPA from 2011 to 2015 were reviewed retrospectively.There were 430 proven/probable IPA and 76 culture-positive proven/probable IPA. Excluding cases of multiple species of fungi or cases having difficulties in species-level identification, 41 A fumigatus and 22 non-fumigatus IPA (Aspergillus flavus [n = 11], Aspergillus niger [n = 6], and Aspergillus terreus [n = 5]) were compared. There were no significant differences in baseline characteristics between the 2 groups. However, disseminated IA was more common in non-fumigatus IPA (2.4% vs 18.2%; P = .046). Paranasal sinus (PNS) involvement was more common in non-fumigatus IPA. There was a trend towards higher peak serum galactomannan values in non-fumigatus IPA than in A fumigatus IPA group (median 1.33 [interquartile 0.98-3.29] vs 0.97 [0.66-1.97]; P = .084). Clinical response and mortality did not differ between groups.The culture-positive rate of proven/probable IPA was 17.7%, of which non-fumigatus Aspergillus accounted for about one-third. Disseminated IA, especially involving the PNS, was more frequent in non-fumigatus IPA than in A fumigatus IPA.

  16. Albumin Enhances Caspofungin Activity against Aspergillus Species by Facilitating Drug Delivery to Germinating Hyphae

    PubMed Central

    Ioannou, Petros; Andrianaki, Aggeliki; Akoumianaki, Tonia; Kyrmizi, Irene; Albert, Nathaniel; Perlin, David; Samonis, George

    2015-01-01

    The modest in vitro activity of echinocandins against Aspergillus implies that host-related factors augment the action of these antifungal agents in vivo. We found that, in contrast to the other antifungal agents (voriconazole, amphotericin B) tested, caspofungin exhibited a profound increase in activity against various Aspergillus species under conditions of cell culture growth, as evidenced by a ≥4-fold decrease in minimum effective concentrations (MECs) (P = 0. 0005). Importantly, the enhanced activity of caspofungin against Aspergillus spp. under cell culture conditions was strictly dependent on serum albumin and was not observed with the other two echinocandins, micafungin and anidulafungin. Of interest, fluorescently labeled albumin bound preferentially on the surface of germinating Aspergillus hyphae, and this interaction was further enhanced upon treatment with caspofungin. In addition, supplementation of cell culture medium with albumin resulted in a significant, 5-fold increase in association of fluorescently labeled caspofungin with Aspergillus hyphae (P < 0.0001). Collectively, we found a novel synergistic interaction between albumin and caspofungin, with albumin acting as a potential carrier molecule to facilitate antifungal drug delivery to Aspergillus hyphae. PMID:26643329

  17. Albumin Enhances Caspofungin Activity against Aspergillus Species by Facilitating Drug Delivery to Germinating Hyphae.

    PubMed

    Ioannou, Petros; Andrianaki, Aggeliki; Akoumianaki, Tonia; Kyrmizi, Irene; Albert, Nathaniel; Perlin, David; Samonis, George; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P; Chamilos, Georgios

    2015-12-07

    The modest in vitro activity of echinocandins against Aspergillus implies that host-related factors augment the action of these antifungal agents in vivo. We found that, in contrast to the other antifungal agents (voriconazole, amphotericin B) tested, caspofungin exhibited a profound increase in activity against various Aspergillus species under conditions of cell culture growth, as evidenced by a ≥4-fold decrease in minimum effective concentrations (MECs) (P = 0. 0005). Importantly, the enhanced activity of caspofungin against Aspergillus spp. under cell culture conditions was strictly dependent on serum albumin and was not observed with the other two echinocandins, micafungin and anidulafungin. Of interest, fluorescently labeled albumin bound preferentially on the surface of germinating Aspergillus hyphae, and this interaction was further enhanced upon treatment with caspofungin. In addition, supplementation of cell culture medium with albumin resulted in a significant, 5-fold increase in association of fluorescently labeled caspofungin with Aspergillus hyphae (P < 0.0001). Collectively, we found a novel synergistic interaction between albumin and caspofungin, with albumin acting as a potential carrier molecule to facilitate antifungal drug delivery to Aspergillus hyphae. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Aspergillus vertebral osteomyelitis in chronic leukocyte leukemia patient diagnosed by a novel panfungal polymerase chain reaction method.

    PubMed

    Dayan, Lior; Sprecher, Hannah; Hananni, Amos; Rosenbaum, Hana; Milloul, Victor; Oren, Ilana

    2007-01-01

    Vertebral osteomyelitis and disciitis caused by Aspergillus spp is a rare event. Early diagnosis and early antifungal therapy are critical in improving the prognosis for these patients. The diagnosis of invasive fungal infections is, in many cases, not straightforward and requires invasive procedures so that histological examination and culture can be performed. Furthermore, current traditional microbiological tests (ie, cultures and stains) lack the sensitivity for diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis. To present a case of vertebral osteomyelitis caused by Aspergillus spp diagnosed using a novel polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. Case report. Aspergillus DNA was detected in DNA extracted from the necrotic bone tissue by using a "panfungal" PCR novel method. Treatment with voriconazole was started based on the diagnosis. Using this novel technique enabled us to diagnose accurately an unusual bone pathogen that requires a unique treatment.

  19. Interaction of Wild Strains of Aspergilla with Aspergillus parasiticus ATCC15517 and Aflatoxin Production †

    PubMed Central

    Martins, H. Marina; Almeida, Inês; Marques, Marta; Bernardo, Fernando

    2008-01-01

    competent aflatoxin producing moulds has a significant influence on the natural biosynthesis pattern. PMID:19325757

  20. Isothermal microcalorimetry for antifungal susceptibility testing of Mucorales, Fusarium spp., and Scedosporium spp.

    PubMed

    Furustrand Tafin, Ulrika; Meis, Jacques F; Trampuz, Andrej

    2012-08-01

    We evaluated isothermal microcalorimetry for real-time susceptibility testing of non-Aspergillus molds. MIC and minimal effective concentration (MEC) values of Mucorales (n = 4), Fusarium spp. (n = 4), and Scedosporium spp. (n = 4) were determined by microbroth dilution according to the Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute M38-A2 guidelines. Heat production of molds was measured at 37 °C in Sabouraud dextrose broth inoculated with 2.5 × 10(4) spores/mL in the presence of amphotericin B, voriconazole, posaconazole, caspofungin, and anidulafungin. As determined by microcalorimetry, amphotericin B was the most active agent against Mucorales (MHIC 0.06-0.125 μg/mL) and Fusarium spp. (MHIC 1-4 μg/mL), whereas voriconazole was the most active agent against Scedosporium spp. (MHIC 0.25 to 8 μg/mL). The percentage of agreement (within one 2-fold dilution) between the MHIC and MIC (or MEC) was 67%, 92%, 75%, and 83% for amphotericin B, voriconazole, posaconazole, and caspofungin, respectively. Microcalorimetry provides additional information on timing of antifungal activity, enabling further investigation of drug-mold and drug-drug interaction, and optimization of antifungal treatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Previously unknown species of Aspergillus.

    PubMed

    Gautier, M; Normand, A-C; Ranque, S

    2016-08-01

    The use of multi-locus DNA sequence analysis has led to the description of previously unknown 'cryptic' Aspergillus species, whereas classical morphology-based identification of Aspergillus remains limited to the section or species-complex level. The current literature highlights two main features concerning these 'cryptic' Aspergillus species. First, the prevalence of such species in clinical samples is relatively high compared with emergent filamentous fungal taxa such as Mucorales, Scedosporium or Fusarium. Second, it is clearly important to identify these species in the clinical laboratory because of the high frequency of antifungal drug-resistant isolates of such Aspergillus species. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has recently been shown to enable the identification of filamentous fungi with an accuracy similar to that of DNA sequence-based methods. As MALDI-TOF MS is well suited to the routine clinical laboratory workflow, it facilitates the identification of these 'cryptic' Aspergillus species at the routine mycology bench. The rapid establishment of enhanced filamentous fungi identification facilities will lead to a better understanding of the epidemiology and clinical importance of these emerging Aspergillus species. Based on routine MALDI-TOF MS-based identification results, we provide original insights into the key interpretation issues of a positive Aspergillus culture from a clinical sample. Which ubiquitous species that are frequently isolated from air samples are rarely involved in human invasive disease? Can both the species and the type of biological sample indicate Aspergillus carriage, colonization or infection in a patient? Highly accurate routine filamentous fungi identification is central to enhance the understanding of these previously unknown Aspergillus species, with a vital impact on further improved patient care. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and

  2. Aspergillus spinal epidural abscess.

    PubMed

    Gupta, P K; Mahapatra, A K; Gaind, R; Bhandari, S; Musa, M M; Lad, S D

    2001-07-01

    Spinal abscess due to Aspergillus is rare. A young boy with chronic granulomatous disease and aspergillosis of the rib had been treated with antifungal treatment 3 months earlier. The patient presented with a brief history of progressive paraparesis. Imaging showed D9--11 vertebral involvement and destruction of the D10 vertebral body with angulation and a large dorsally placed, multiloculated epidural abscess extending from D6 to L2. There was also extensive granulation anterior to and on either side of the vertebrae. The patient underwent extensive laminectomy and decompression of all the loculi and partial removal of the granulation tissue. Aggressive medical treatment was started. The authors recommend an aggressive surgical and medical approach in such cases of disseminated invasive aspergillosis, even though the result may not be very satisfactory. This report discusses the full clinical profile and management of Aspergillus spinal epidural abscess and emphasizes the need to follow up these cases to detect recurrence and new lesions, even if the patients are on adequate medical treatment. In spite of all efforts, high morbidity and mortality is common in such patients. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

  3. Population structure and aflatoxin production by Aspergillus Sect. Flavi from maize in Nigeria and Ghana.

    PubMed

    Perrone, Giancarlo; Haidukowski, Miriam; Stea, Gaetano; Epifani, Filomena; Bandyopadhyay, Ranajit; Leslie, John F; Logrieco, Antonio

    2014-08-01

    Aflatoxins are highly toxic carcinogens that contaminate crops worldwide. Previous studies conducted in Nigeria and Ghana found high concentrations of aflatoxins in pre- and post-harvest maize. However, little information is available on the population structure of Aspergillus Sect. Flavi in West Africa. We determined the incidence of Aspergillus Sect. Flavi and the level of aflatoxin contamination in 91 maize samples from farms and markets in Nigeria and Ghana. Aspergillus spp. were recovered from 61/91 maize samples and aflatoxins B1 and/or B2 occurred in 36/91 samples. Three samples from the farms also contained aflatoxin G1 and/or G2. Farm samples were more highly contaminated than were samples from the market, in terms of both the percentage of the samples contaminated and the level of mycotoxin contamination. One-hundred-and-thirty-five strains representative of the 1163 strains collected were identified by using a multilocus sequence analysis of portions of the genes encoding calmodulin, β-tubulin and actin, and evaluated for aflatoxin production. Of the 135 strains, there were 110 - Aspergillus flavus, 20 - Aspergillus tamarii, 2 - Aspergillus wentii, 2 - Aspergillus flavofurcatus, and 1 - Aspergillus parvisclerotigenus. Twenty-five of the A. flavus strains and the A. parvisclerotigenus strain were the only strains that produced aflatoxins. The higher contamination of the farm than the market samples suggests that the aflatoxin exposure of rural farmers is even higher than previously estimated based on reported contamination of market samples. The relative infrequency of the A. flavus SBG strains, producing small sclerotia and high levels of both aflatoxins (B and G), suggests that long-term chronic exposure to this mycotoxin are a much higher health risk in West Africa than is the acute toxicity due to very highly contaminated maize in east Africa. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Molecular Diagnostic Testing for Aspergillus

    PubMed Central

    Powers-Fletcher, Margaret V.

    2016-01-01

    The direct detection of Aspergillus nucleic acid in clinical specimens has the potential to improve the diagnosis of aspergillosis by offering more rapid and sensitive identification of invasive infections than is possible with traditional techniques, such as culture or histopathology. Molecular tests for Aspergillus have been limited historically by lack of standardization and variable sensitivities and specificities. Recent efforts have been directed at addressing these limitations and optimizing assay performance using a variety of specimen types. This review provides a summary of standardization efforts and outlines the complexities of molecular testing for Aspergillus in clinical mycology. PMID:27487954

  5. Heterologous expression of Aspergillus terreus fructosyltransferase in Kluyveromyces lactis.

    PubMed

    Spohner, Sebastian C; Czermak, Peter

    2016-06-25

    Fructo-oligosaccharides are prebiotic and hypocaloric sweeteners that are usually extracted from chicory. They can also be produced from sucrose using fructosyltransferases, but the only commercial enzyme suitable for this purpose is Pectinex Ultra, which is produced with Aspergillus aculeatus. Here we used the yeast Kluyveromyces lactis to express a secreted recombinant fructosyltransferase from the inulin-producing fungus Aspergillus terreus. A synthetic codon-optimised version of the putative β-fructofuranosidase ATEG 04996 (XP 001214174.1) from A. terreus NIH2624 was secreted as a functional protein into the extracellular medium. At 60°C, the purified A. terreus enzyme generated the same pattern of oligosaccharides as Pectinex Ultra, but at lower temperatures it also produced oligomers with up to seven units. We achieved activities of up to 986.4U/mL in high-level expression experiments, which is better than previous reports of optimised Aspergillus spp. fermentations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Aspergillus fumigatus-Related Species in Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Lamoth, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is the main etiologic agent of invasive aspergillosis (IA). Other Aspergillus species belonging to the section Fumigati (A. fumigatus complex) may occasionally be the cause of IA. These strains are often misidentified, as they cannot be distinguished from A. fumigatus by conventional morphological analysis and sequencing methods. This lack of recognition may have important consequences as these A. fumigatus-related species often display some level of intrinsic resistance to azoles and other antifungal drugs. A. lentulus, A. udagawae, A. viridinutans, and A. thermomutatus (Neosartorya pseudofischeri) have been associated with refractory cases of IA. Microbiologists should be able to suspect the presence of these cryptic species behind a putative A. fumigatus isolate on the basis of some simple characteristics, such as defect in sporulation and/or unusual antifungal susceptibility profile. However, definitive species identification requires specific sequencing analyses of the beta-tubulin or calmodulin genes, which are not available in most laboratories. Multiplex PCR assays or matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization – time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) gave promising results for rapid and accurate distinction between A. fumigatus and other Aspergillus spp. of the section Fumigati in clinical practice. Improved diagnostic procedures and antifungal susceptibility testing may be helpful for the early detection and management of these particular IA cases. PMID:27242710

  7. Aspergillus fumigatus-Related Species in Clinical Practice.

    PubMed

    Lamoth, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is the main etiologic agent of invasive aspergillosis (IA). Other Aspergillus species belonging to the section Fumigati (A. fumigatus complex) may occasionally be the cause of IA. These strains are often misidentified, as they cannot be distinguished from A. fumigatus by conventional morphological analysis and sequencing methods. This lack of recognition may have important consequences as these A. fumigatus-related species often display some level of intrinsic resistance to azoles and other antifungal drugs. A. lentulus, A. udagawae, A. viridinutans, and A. thermomutatus (Neosartorya pseudofischeri) have been associated with refractory cases of IA. Microbiologists should be able to suspect the presence of these cryptic species behind a putative A. fumigatus isolate on the basis of some simple characteristics, such as defect in sporulation and/or unusual antifungal susceptibility profile. However, definitive species identification requires specific sequencing analyses of the beta-tubulin or calmodulin genes, which are not available in most laboratories. Multiplex PCR assays or matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization - time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) gave promising results for rapid and accurate distinction between A. fumigatus and other Aspergillus spp. of the section Fumigati in clinical practice. Improved diagnostic procedures and antifungal susceptibility testing may be helpful for the early detection and management of these particular IA cases.

  8. Diversity in Secondary Metabolites Including Mycotoxins from Strains of Aspergillus Section Nigri Isolated from Raw Cashew Nuts from Benin, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Lamboni, Yendouban; Nielsen, Kristian F; Linnemann, Anita R; Gezgin, Yüksel; Hell, Kerstin; Nout, Martinus J R; Smid, Eddy J; Tamo, Manuele; van Boekel, Martinus A J S; Hoof, Jakob Blæsbjerg; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2016-01-01

    In a previous study, raw cashew kernels were assayed for the fungal contamination focusing on strains belonging to the genus Aspergillus and on aflatoxins producers. These samples showed high contamination with Aspergillus section Nigri species and absence of aflatoxins. To investigate the diversity of secondary metabolites, including mycotoxins, the species of A. section Nigri may produce and thus threaten to contaminate the raw cashew kernels, 150 strains were isolated from cashew samples and assayed for their production of secondary metabolites using liquid chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). Seven species of black Aspergilli were isolated based on morphological and chemical identification: A. tubingensis (44%), A. niger (32%), A. brasiliensis (10%), A. carbonarius (8.7%), A. luchuensis (2.7%), A. aculeatus (2%) and A. aculeatinus (0.7%). From these, 45 metabolites and their isomers were identified. Aurasperone and pyranonigrin A, produced by all species excluding A. aculeatus and A. aculeatinus, were most prevalent and were encountered in 146 (97.3%) and 145 (95.7%) isolates, respectively. Three mycotoxins groups were detected: fumonisins (B2 and B4) (2.7%) ochratoxin A (13.3%), and secalonic acids (2%), indicating that these mycotoxins could occur in raw cashew nuts. Thirty strains of black Aspergilli were randomly sampled for verification of species identity based on sequences of β-tubulin and calmodulin genes. Among them, 27 isolates were positive to the primers used and 11 were identified as A. niger, 7 as A. tubingensis, 6 as A. carbonarius, 2 as A. luchuensis and 1 as A. welwitschiae confirming the species names as based on morphology and chemical features. These strains clustered in 5 clades in A. section Nigri. Chemical profile clustering also showed also 5 groups confirming the species specific metabolites production.

  9. Diversity in Secondary Metabolites Including Mycotoxins from Strains of Aspergillus Section Nigri Isolated from Raw Cashew Nuts from Benin, West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Lamboni, Yendouban; Nielsen, Kristian F.; Linnemann, Anita R.; Gezgin, Yüksel; Hell, Kerstin; Nout, Martinus J. R.; Smid, Eddy J.; Tamo, Manuele; van Boekel, Martinus A. J. S.; Hoof, Jakob Blæsbjerg; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2016-01-01

    In a previous study, raw cashew kernels were assayed for the fungal contamination focusing on strains belonging to the genus Aspergillus and on aflatoxins producers. These samples showed high contamination with Aspergillus section Nigri species and absence of aflatoxins. To investigate the diversity of secondary metabolites, including mycotoxins, the species of A. section Nigri may produce and thus threaten to contaminate the raw cashew kernels, 150 strains were isolated from cashew samples and assayed for their production of secondary metabolites using liquid chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). Seven species of black Aspergilli were isolated based on morphological and chemical identification: A. tubingensis (44%), A. niger (32%), A. brasiliensis (10%), A. carbonarius (8.7%), A. luchuensis (2.7%), A. aculeatus (2%) and A. aculeatinus (0.7%). From these, 45 metabolites and their isomers were identified. Aurasperone and pyranonigrin A, produced by all species excluding A. aculeatus and A. aculeatinus, were most prevalent and were encountered in 146 (97.3%) and 145 (95.7%) isolates, respectively. Three mycotoxins groups were detected: fumonisins (B2 and B4) (2.7%) ochratoxin A (13.3%), and secalonic acids (2%), indicating that these mycotoxins could occur in raw cashew nuts. Thirty strains of black Aspergilli were randomly sampled for verification of species identity based on sequences of β-tubulin and calmodulin genes. Among them, 27 isolates were positive to the primers used and 11 were identified as A. niger, 7 as A. tubingensis, 6 as A. carbonarius, 2 as A. luchuensis and 1 as A. welwitschiae confirming the species names as based on morphology and chemical features. These strains clustered in 5 clades in A. section Nigri. Chemical profile clustering also showed also 5 groups confirming the species specific metabolites production. PMID:27768708

  10. Downregulation of transcription factor aflR in Aspergillus flavus confers reduction to aflatoxin accumulation in transgenic maize with alteration of host plant architecture.

    PubMed

    Masanga, Joel Okoyo; Matheka, Jonathan Mutie; Omer, Rasha Adam; Ommeh, Sheila Cecily; Monda, Ethel Oranga; Alakonya, Amos Emitati

    2015-08-01

    We report success of host-induced gene silencing in downregulation of aflatoxin biosynthesis in Aspergillus flavus infecting maize transformed with a hairpin construct targeting transcription factor aflR. Infestation of crops by aflatoxin-producing fungi results in economic losses as well as negative human and animal health effects. Currently, the control strategies against aflatoxin accumulation are not effective to the small holder farming systems in Africa and this has led to widespread aflatoxin exposure especially in rural populations of sub-Saharan Africa that rely on maize as a staple food crop. A recent strategy called host-induced gene silencing holds great potential for developing aflatoxin-resistant plant germplasm for the African context where farmers are unable to make further investments other than access to the germplasm. We transformed maize with a hairpin construct targeting the aflatoxin biosynthesis transcription factor aflR. The developed transgenic maize were challenged with an aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus strain from Eastern Kenya, a region endemic to aflatoxin outbreaks. Our results indicated that aflR was downregulated in A. flavus colonizing transgenic maize. Further, maize kernels from transgenic plants accumulated significantly lower levels of aflatoxins (14-fold) than those from wild type plants. Interestingly, we observed that our silencing cassette caused stunting and reduced kernel placement in the transgenic maize. This could have been due to "off-target" silencing of unintended genes in transformed plants by aflR siRNAs. Overall, this work indicates that host-induced gene silencing has potential in developing aflatoxin-resistant germplasm.

  11. Treatment strategies for Aspergillus infections.

    PubMed

    Chiller, Tom M.; Stevens, David A.

    2000-04-01

    Infections caused by Aspergillus species consist of many different disease presentations, ranging from relatively benign asthma in atopic disease to life-threatening systemic invasive infections. The spectrum of disease manifestations is determined by a combination of genetic predisposition, host immune system defects, and virulence of the Aspergillus species. For the purposes of this discussion, we will address three principal entities: invasive aspergillosis, both primary and disseminated, pulmonary aspergilloma, and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. Amphotericin B is the standard of treatment for severe Aspergillus infections, despite the fact that mortality in these patients remains high. Alternative therapies such as combination regimens and itraconazole also have efficacy against Aspergillus infections. We discuss the role of current therapies, the potential role of drugs in development, and the results of ongoing research with combination and immunotherapies. Copyright 2000 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  12. Tremorgenic mycotoxins from Aspergillus caespitosus.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, H W; Cole, R J; Hein, H; Kirksey, J W

    1975-06-01

    Two tremorgenic mycotoxins were isolated from Aspergillus caespitosus, and identified as verruculogen and fumitremorgin B. They were produced at the rate of 172 and 325 mg per kg, respectively, on autoclaved cracked field corn.

  13. Tremorgenic Mycotoxins from Aspergillus Caespitosus

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, H. W.; Cole, R. J.; Hein, H.; Kirksey, J. W.

    1975-01-01

    Two tremorgenic mycotoxins were isolated from Aspergillus caespitosus, and identified as verruculogen and fumitremorgin B. They were produced at the rate of 172 and 325 mg per kg, respectively, on autoclaved cracked field corn. PMID:1155935

  14. Free chlorine and monochloramine inactivation kinetics of Aspergillus and Penicillium in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiao; Bibby, Kyle

    2017-09-01

    Fungi are near-ubiquitous in potable water distribution systems, but the disinfection kinetics of commonly identified fungi are poorly studied. In the present study, laboratory scale experiments were conducted to evaluate the inactivation kinetics of Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus versicolor, and Penicillium purpurogenum by free chlorine and monochloramine. The observed inactivation data were then fit to a delayed Chick-Watson model. Based on the model parameter estimation, the Ct values (integrated product of disinfectant concentration C and contact time t over defined time intervals) for 99.9% inactivation of the tested fungal strains ranged from 48.99 mg min/L to 194.7 mg min/L for free chlorine and from 90.33 mg min/L to 531.3 mg min/L for monochloramine. Fungal isolates from a drinking water system (Aspergillus versicolor and Penicillium purpurogenum) were more disinfection resistant than Aspergillus fumigatus type and clinical isolates. The required 99.9% inactivation Ct values for the tested fungal strains are higher than E. coli, a commonly monitored indicator bacteria, and within a similar range for bacteria commonly identified within water distribution systems, such as Mycobacterium spp. and Legionella spp. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Morphological and molecular identification of filamentous Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus isolated from compound feeds in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Iheanacho, Henry E; Njobeh, Patrick B; Dutton, Francis M; Steenkamp, Paul A; Steenkamp, Lucia; Mthombeni, Julian Q; Daru, Barnabas H; Makun, Anthony H

    2014-12-01

    Isolation of filamentous species of two Aspergillum genera from compound feeds produced in South Africa, and subsequent extraction of their individual DNA in this study, presents a simple but rapid molecular procedure for high through-put analysis of the individual morphological forms. DNA was successfully isolated from the Aspergillus spp. from agar cultures by use of a commercial kit. Agarose gel electrophoresis fractionation of the fungi DNA, showed distinct bands. The DNA extracted by this procedure appears to be relatively pure with a ratio absorbance at 260 and 280 nm. However, the overall morphological and molecular data indicated that 67.5 and 51.1% of feed samples were found to be contaminated with Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, respectively, with poultry feed having the highest contamination mean level of 5.7 × 105 CFU/g when compared to cattle (mean: 4.0 × 106 CFU/g), pig (mean: 2.7 × 104 CFU/g) and horse (1.0 × 102 CFU) feed. This technique presents a readily achievable, easy to use method in the extraction of filamentous fungal DNA and it's identification. Hence serves as an important tool towards molecular study of these organisms for routine analysis check in monitoring and improving compound feed quality against fungal contamination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. An anti-Aspergillus protein from Escherichia coli DH5α: putative inhibitor of siderophore biosynthesis in Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Balhara, Meenakshi; Ruhil, Sonam; Kumar, Manish; Dhankhar, Sandeep; Chhillar, A K

    2014-03-01

    An antifungal protein designated as anti-Aspergillus protein (AAP), produced by Escherichia coli DH5α, was purified and characterised. It exhibited a molecular weight of 60 kDa on Sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis and depicted 99% purity on ultra performance liquid chromatography. The purified protein manifested antimycotic potential against pathogenic isolates of Aspergillus spp., depicting a minimum inhibitory concentration in the range 15.62-31.25 μg ml(-1) and 5.0-10.0 μg per disc, using microbroth dilution, spore germination inhibition and disc diffusion assays respectively. In vitro toxicity tests demonstrated that it showed no toxicity against human erythrocytes at doses up to 1000 μg ml(-1) . Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-Time-of-flight analysis of trypsin-digested peptides of purified protein and subsequent Mascot search revealed that several peptides of AAP have identity with bacterial siderophore biosynthetic protein, i.e. non-ribosomal peptide synthetase enzyme, involved in critical step of fungal siderophore biosynthesis. Siderophore-based inhibition was further corroborated by Chrome azurol S assay. Hence, the antagonistic effect might be the result of impediment in siderophore-mediated iron uptake and transport process which may cause critical consequences on Aspergillus growth and virulence. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Aspergillus fumigatus in Poultry

    PubMed Central

    Arné, Pascal; Thierry, Simon; Wang, Dongying; Deville, Manjula; Le Loc'h, Guillaume; Desoutter, Anaïs; Féménia, Françoise; Nieguitsila, Adélaïde; Huang, Weiyi; Chermette, René; Guillot, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus remains a major respiratory pathogen in birds. In poultry, infection by A. fumigatus may induce significant economic losses particularly in turkey production. A. fumigatus develops and sporulates easily in poor quality bedding or contaminated feedstuffs in indoor farm environments. Inadequate ventilation and dusty conditions increase the risk of bird exposure to aerosolized spores. Acute cases are seen in young animals following inhalation of spores, causing high morbidity and mortality. The chronic form affects older birds and looks more sporadic. The respiratory tract is the primary site of A. fumigatus development leading to severe respiratory distress and associated granulomatous airsacculitis and pneumonia. Treatments for infected poultry are nonexistent; therefore, prevention is the only way to protect poultry. Development of avian models of aspergillosis may improve our understanding of its pathogenesis, which remains poorly understood. PMID:21826144

  18. Aspergillus asper sp. nov. and Aspergillus collinsii sp. nov., from Aspergillus section Usti.

    PubMed

    Jurjevic, Zeljko; Peterson, Stephen W

    2016-07-01

    In sampling fungi from the built environment, two isolates that could not confidently be placed in described species were encountered. Phenotypic analysis suggested that they belonged in Aspergillus sect. Usti. In order to verify the sectional placement and to assure that they were undescribed rather than phenotypically aberrant isolates, DNA was isolated and sequenced at the beta-tubulin, calmodulin, internal transcribed spacer and RNA polymerase II loci and sequences compared with those from other species in the genus Aspergillus. At each locus, each new isolate was distant from existing species. Phylogenetic trees calculated from these data and GenBank data for species of the section Usti excluded the placement of these isolates in existing species, with statistical support. Because they were excluded from existing taxa, the distinct species Aspergillus asper (type strain NRRL 35910 T ) and Aspergillus collinsii (type strain NRRL 66196 T ) in sect. Usti are proposed to accommodate these strains.

  19. The role of Aspergillus flavus veA in the production of extracellular proteins during growth on starch substrates.

    PubMed

    Duran, Rocio M; Gregersen, Scott; Smith, Timothy D; Bhetariya, Preetida J; Cary, Jeffrey W; Harris-Coward, Pamela Y; Mattison, Christopher P; Grimm, Casey; Calvo, Ana M

    2014-06-01

    The aflatoxin-producer and opportunistic plant pathogenic, filamentous fungus Aspergillus flavus is responsible for the contamination of corn and other important agricultural commodities. In order to obtain nutrients from the host A. flavus produces a variety of extracellular hydrolytic enzymes. Interestingly, A. flavus amylase and protease activity are dependent on the global regulator veA, a gene known to regulate morphogenesis and secondary metabolism in numerous fungi. Analysis of starch degradation by fungal enzymes secreted into broths of starch- or corn kernel-based media showed a notable accumulation of glucose in samples of the A. flavus control strain while the deletion veA sample accumulated high levels of maltose and maltotriose and only a small amount of glucose. Furthermore, SDS-PAGE and proteomics analysis of culture broths from starch- or corn kernel-based media demonstrated differential production of a number of proteins that included a reduction in the amount of a glucoamylase protein in the veA mutant compared to the control strain, while an alpha-amylase was produced in greater quantities in the veA mutant. Quantitative real-time PCR and western blot analyses using anti-glucoamylase or alpha-amylase antisera supported the proteomics results. Additionally, an overall reduction in protease activity was observed in the veA mutant including production of the alkaline protease, oryzin, compared to the control strain. These findings contribute to our knowledge of mechanisms controlling production of hydrolases and other extracellular proteins during growth of A. flavus on natural starch-based substrates.

  20. Microscopic Evaluation, Molecular Identification, Antifungal Susceptibility, and Clinical Outcomes in Fusarium, Aspergillus and, Dematiaceous Keratitis

    PubMed Central

    Gajjar, Devarshi U.; Pal, Anuradha K.; Ghodadra, Bharat K.; Vasavada, Abhay R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Fusarium, Aspergillus, and Dematiaceous are the most common fungal species causing keratitis in tropical countries. Herein we report a prospective study on fungal keratitis caused by these three fungal species. Methodology. A prospective investigation was undertaken to evaluate eyes with presumed fungal keratitis. All the fungal isolates (n = 73) obtained from keratitis infections were identified using morphological and microscopic characters. Molecular identification using sequencing of the ITS region and antifungal susceptibility tests using microdilution method were done. The final clinical outcome was evaluated in terms of the time taken for resolution of keratitis and the final visual outcome. The results were analyzed after segregating the cases into three groups, namely, Fusarium, Aspergillus, and Dematiaceous keratitis. Results. Diagnosis of fungal keratitis was established in 73 (35.9%) cases out of 208 cases. The spectra of fungi isolated were Fusarium spp. (26.6%), Aspergillus spp. (21.6%), and Dematiaceous fungi (11.6%). The sequence of the ITS region could identify the Fusarium and Aspergillus species at the species complex level, and the Dematiaceous isolates were accurately identified. Using antifungal agents such as fluconazole, natamycin, amphotericin B, and itraconazole, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for Fusarium spp. were >32 μg/mL, 4–8 μg/mL, 0.5–1 μg/mL, and >32 μg/mL, respectively. Antifungal susceptibility data showed that Curvularia spp. was highly resistant to all the antifungal agents. Overall, natamycin and amphotericin B were found to be the most effective antifungal agents. The comparative clinical outcomes in all cases showed that the healing response in terms of visual acuity of the Dematiaceous group was significantly good when compared with the Fusarium and Aspergillus groups (P < 0.05). The time required for healing in the Fusarium group was statistically significantly less when compared with

  1. Tracheobronchial Manifestations of Aspergillus Infections

    PubMed Central

    Krenke, Rafal; Grabczak, Elzbieta M.

    2011-01-01

    Human lungs are constantly exposed to a large number of Aspergillus spores which are present in ambient air. These spores are usually harmless to immunocompetent subjects but can produce a symptomatic disease in patients with impaired antifungal defense. In a small percentage of patients, the trachea and bronchi may be the main or even the sole site of Aspergillus infection. The clinical entities that may develop in tracheobronchial location include saprophytic, allergic and invasive diseases. Although this review is focused on invasive Aspergillus tracheobronchial infections, some aspects of allergic and saprophytic tracheobronchial diseases are also discussed in order to present the whole spectrum of tracheobronchial aspergillosis. To be consistent with clinical practice, an approach basing on specific conditions predisposing to invasive Aspergillus tracheobronchial infections is used to present the differences in the clinical course and prognosis of these infections. Thus, invasive or potentially invasive Aspergillus airway diseases are discussed separately in three groups of patients: (1) lung transplant recipients, (2) highly immunocompromised patients with hematologic malignancies and/or patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and (3) the remaining, less severely immunocompromised patients or even immunocompetent subjects. PMID:22194666

  2. Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillosis

    PubMed Central

    Latgé, Jean-Paul

    1999-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is one of the most ubiquitous of the airborne saprophytic fungi. Humans and animals constantly inhale numerous conidia of this fungus. The conidia are normally eliminated in the immunocompetent host by innate immune mechanisms, and aspergilloma and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, uncommon clinical syndromes, are the only infections observed in such hosts. Thus, A. fumigatus was considered for years to be a weak pathogen. With increases in the number of immunosuppressed patients, however, there has been a dramatic increase in severe and usually fatal invasive aspergillosis, now the most common mold infection worldwide. In this review, the focus is on the biology of A. fumigatus and the diseases it causes. Included are discussions of (i) genomic and molecular characterization of the organism, (ii) clinical and laboratory methods available for the diagnosis of aspergillosis in immunocompetent and immunocompromised hosts, (iii) identification of host and fungal factors that play a role in the establishment of the fungus in vivo, and (iv) problems associated with antifungal therapy. PMID:10194462

  3. Glycosylinositolphosphoceramides in Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Simenel, Catherine; Coddeville, Bernadette; Delepierre, Muriel; Latgé, Jean-Paul; Fontaine, Thierry

    2008-01-01

    Fungal glycosylinositolphosphoceramides (GIPCs) are involved in cell growth and fungal-host interactions. In this study, six GIPCs from the mycelium of the human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus were purified and characterized using Q-TOF mass spectrometry and 1H, 13C, and 31P NMR. All structures have the same inositolphosphoceramide moiety with the presence of a C(18:0)-phytosphingosine conjugated to a 2-hydroxylated saturated fatty acid (2-hydroxy-lignoceric acid). The carbohydrate moiety defines two types of GIPC. The first, a mannosylated zwitterionic glycosphingolipid contains a glucosamine residue linked in alpha1-2 to an inositol ring that has been described in only two other fungal pathogens. The second type of GIPC presents an alpha-Manp-(1-->3)-alpha-Manp-(1-->2)-IPC common core. A galactofuranose residue is found in four GIPC structures, mainly at the terminal position via a beta1-2 linkage. Interestingly, this galactofuranose residue could be substituted by a choline-phosphate group, as observed only in the GIPC of Acremonium sp., a plant pathogen.

  4. An overproduction of astellolides induced by genetic disruption of chromatin-remodeling factors in Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Shinohara, Yasutomo; Kawatani, Makoto; Futamura, Yushi; Osada, Hiroyuki; Koyama, Yasuji

    2016-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae is an important industrial mold. Recent genomic analysis indicated that A. oryzae has a large number of biosynthetic genes for secondary metabolites (SMs), but many of the SMs they produce have not been identified. For better understanding of SMs production by A. oryzae, we screened a gene-disruption library of transcription factors including chromatin-remodeling factors and found two gene disruptions that show similarly altered SM production profiles. One is a homolog of Aspergillus nidulans cclA, a component of the histone 3 lysine 4 (H3K4) methyltransferase complex of proteins associated with Set1 complex, and the other, sppA, is an ortholog of Saccharomyces cerevisiae SPP1, another component of a complex of proteins associated with Set1 complex. The cclA and sppA disruptions in A. oryzae are deficient in trimethylation of H3K4. Furthermore, one of the SMs that increased in the cclA disruptant was identified as astellolide F (14-deacetyl astellolide B). These data indicate that both cclA and sppA affect production of SMs including astellolides by affecting the methylation status of H3K4 in A. oryzae.

  5. Antifungal Activity of Thapsia villosa Essential Oil against Candida, Cryptococcus, Malassezia, Aspergillus and Dermatophyte Species.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Eugénia; Gonçalves, Maria-José; Cavaleiro, Carlos; Salgueiro, Lígia

    2017-09-22

    The composition of the essential oil (EO) of Thapsia villosa (Apiaceae), isolated by hydrodistillation from the plant's aerial parts, was analysed by GC and GC-MS. Antifungal activity of the EO and its main components, limonene (57.5%) and methyleugenol (35.9%), were evaluated against clinically relevant yeasts ( Candida spp., Cryptococcus neoformans and Malassezia furfur ) and moulds ( Aspergillus spp. and dermatophytes). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were measured according to the broth macrodilution protocols by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). The EO, limonene and methyleugenol displayed low MIC and MFC (minimum fungicidal concentration) values against Candida spp., Cryptococcus neoformans , dermatophytes, and Aspergillus spp. Regarding Candida species, an inhibition of yeast-mycelium transition was demonstrated at sub-inhibitory concentrations of the EO (MIC/128; 0.01 μL/mL) and their major compounds in Candida albicans . Fluconazole does not show this activity, and the combination with low concentrations of EO could associate a supplementary target for the antifungal activity. The association of fluconazole with T. villosa oil does not show antagonism, but the combination limonene/fluconazole displays synergism. The fungistatic and fungicidal activities revealed by T. villosa EO and its main compounds, associated with their low haemolytic activity, confirm their potential antimicrobial interest against fungal species often associated with human mycoses.

  6. Aspergillus--classification and antifungal susceptibilities.

    PubMed

    Buzina, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Aspergillus is one of the most important fungal genera for the man, for its industrial use, its ability to spoil food and not least its medical impact as cause of a variety of diseases. Currently hundreds of species of Aspergillus are known; nearly fifty of them are able to cause infections in humans and animals. Recently, the genus Aspergillus is subdivided into 8 subgenera and 22 sections. The spectrum of diseases caused by Aspergillus species varies from superficial cutaneous to invasive and systemic infections. All species of Aspergillus investigated so far are resistant against the antifungals fluconazole and 5-fluorocytosine, the range of susceptibilities to currently available antifungals is discussed in this paper.

  7. Aspergillus spondylodiscitis after multivisceral transplantation.

    PubMed

    Gerlach, Undine A; Kohler, Sven; Sauer, Igor M; Joerres, Dinah; Kandziora, Frank; Neuhaus, Peter; Pratschke, Johann; Pascher, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    Although spondylodiscitis is rare, it is increasingly described in patients with compromised immunity due to malignancy, chemotherapy or immunosuppression. Typical pathogens are staphylococcus aureus and enterobacteria; fungal spondylodiscitis is uncommon. We present a case of aspergillus spondylodiscitis following pulmonary aspergillosis in a patient with multivisceral and kidney transplantation. Due to irreversible disc destruction, surgical restoration by autologous iliac crest graft was required in addition to intravenous antifungal therapy, which consisted of voriconazole, caspofungin and liposomal amphotericin B. Aspergillus spondylodiscitis is a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge, a combination of surgical debridement and antifungal therapy is inevitable to prevent rapid progression of invasive aspergillosis and neurological damage.

  8. Cyclopiazonic Acid Biosynthesis of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus oryzae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) is an indole-tetramic acid neurotoxin produced by some of the same strains of A. flavus that produce aflatoxins and by some Aspergillus oryzae strains. Despite its discovery 40 years ago, few reviews of its toxicity and biosynthesis have been reported. This review examines w...

  9. Aspergillus spondylitis in immunocompetent patients.

    PubMed

    Govender, S; Kumar, K P

    2001-01-01

    Four immunocompetent patients with neurological deficit underwent anterior decompression for Aspergillus osteomyelitis of the spine. All patients improved neurologically following anterior spinal decompression and antifungal therapy. This study emphasizes the importance of obtaining a tissue diagnosis as these unusual infections may mimic tuberculosis, which is more common.

  10. Sexual recombination in Aspergillus tubingensis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aspergillus tubingensis from section Nigri (Black Aspergilli) is closely related to A. niger and is used extensively in the industrial production of enzymes and organic acids. We recently discovered sexual reproduction in A. tubingensis and in this study, demonstrate that the progeny are products o...

  11. Distribution of Aspergillus section flavi in soils of maize fields in three agroecological zones of Nigeria

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fungal communities in soils of Nigerian maize fields were examined to determine distributions of aflatoxin-producing fungi and to identify endemic atoxigenic strains of potential value as biological control agents for limiting aflatoxin contamination in West African crops. Over 1,000 isolates belon...

  12. [Mycotic aneurism in aortic arch by Aspergillus fumigatus: contribution of a case and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Burón Fernández, M R; Oruezábal Moreno, M J

    2005-09-01

    The micotic aneurisms by Aspergillus are rare and usually appear in the context of an invasive pulmonary aspergilosis, or by septicum embolism or direct extension from the lungs, for that reason the location the more frequents is in aortic arch and the ascending aorta.8 cases of micotic aneurisms by Aspergillus spp. have been described in literature between 1966 and 2000, being the most frequent location the ascending aorta or the aortic arch. The Aspergillus fumigatus is the isolated species with more frequency, affecting mainly to patients undergoing inmunosupression. The diagnosis of a micotic aneurism requires a high clinical suspicion, given to its peculiarity and the presence of inespecific symptoms, being frequently an accidental finding in an invasive pulmonary aspergilosis.The case of a patient with a micotic aneurism by A. fumigatus appears and we reviewed the similar cases previously disclosed.

  13. Aspergillus nodules; another presentation of Chronic Pulmonary Aspergillosis.

    PubMed

    Muldoon, Eavan G; Sharman, Anna; Page, Iain; Bishop, Paul; Denning, David W

    2016-08-18

    There are a number of different manifestations of pulmonary aspergillosis. This study aims to review the radiology, presentation, and histological features of lung nodules caused by Aspergillus spp. Patients were identified from a cohort attending our specialist Chronic Pulmonary Aspergillosis clinic. Patients with cavitating lung lesions, with or without fibrosis and those with aspergillomas or a diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis were excluded. Demographic, laboratory, and clinical data and radiologic findings were recorded. Thirty-three patients with pulmonary nodules and diagnostic features of aspergillosis (histology and/or laboratory findings) were identified. Eighteen (54.5 %) were male, mean age 58 years (range 27-80 years). 19 (57.6 %) were former or current smokers. The median Charleston co-morbidity index was 3 (range 0-7). All complained of a least one of; dyspnoea, cough, haemoptysis, or weight loss. None reported fever. Ten patients (31 %) did not have an elevated Aspergillus IgG, and only 4 patients had elevated Aspergillus precipitins. Twelve patients (36 %) had a single nodule, six patients (18 %) had between 2 and 5 nodules, 2 (6 %) between 6 and 10 nodules and 13 (39 %) had more than 10 nodules. The mean size of the nodules was 21 mm, with a maximum size ranging between 5-50 mm. No nodules had cavitation radiographically. The upper lobes were most commonly involved. Histology was available for 18 patients and showed evidence of granulation tissue, fibrosis, and visualisation of fungal hyphae. Pulmonary nodules are a less common manifestation of aspergillosis in immunocompetent patients. Distinguishing these nodules from other lung pathology may be difficult on CT findings alone.

  14. Antifungal susceptibility of 175 Aspergillus isolates from various clinical and environmental sources.

    PubMed

    Sabino, Raquel; Carolino, Elisabete; Veríssimo, Cristina; Martinez, Marife; Clemons, Karl V; Stevens, David A

    2016-10-01

    Some environmental Aspergillus spp. isolates have been described as resistant to antifungals, potentially causing an emerging medical problem. In the present work, the antifungal susceptibility profile of 41 clinical and 134 environmental isolates of Aspergillus was determined using the CLSI microdilution method. The aim of this study was to compare environmental and clinical isolates with respect to their susceptibility, and assess the potential implications for therapy of isolates encountered in different environments. To our knowledge, this is the first report comparing antifungal susceptibility profiles of Aspergillus collected from different environmental sources (poultries, swineries, beach sand, and hospital environment). Significant differences were found in the distribution of the different species sections for the different sources. Significant differences were also found in the susceptibility profile of the different Aspergillus sections recovered from the various sources. Clear differences were found between the susceptibility of clinical and environmental isolates for caspofungin, amphotericin B and posaconazole, with clinical isolates showing overall greater susceptibility, except for caspofungin. In comparison to clinical isolates, hospital environmental isolates showed significantly less susceptibility to amphotericin B and posaconazole. These data indicate that species section identity and the site from which the isolate was recovered influence the antifungal susceptibility profile, which may affect initial antifungal choices. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Atypical Aspergillus parasiticus isolates from pistachio with aflR gene nucleotide insertion identical to Aspergillus sojae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aflatoxins are the most toxic and carcinogenic secondary metabolites produced primarily by the filamentous fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. The toxins cause devastating economic losses because of strict regulations on distribution of contaminated products. Aspergillus sojae are...

  16. What Does Genetic Diversity of Aspergillus flavus Tell Us About Aspergillus oryzae?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus oryzae belong to Aspergillus section Flavi. They are closely related and are of significant economic importance. The former species has the ability to produce harmful aflatoxins while the latter is widely used in food fermentation and industrial enzyme production. ...

  17. Molecular and biochemical characterization of Iranian surfactin-producing Bacillus subtilis isolates and evaluation of their biocontrol potential against Aspergillus flavus and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides.

    PubMed

    Mohammadipour, Matin; Mousivand, Maryam; Salehi Jouzani, Gholamreza; Abbasalizadeh, Saeed

    2009-04-01

    The characterization of surfactin-producing Bacillus subtilis isolates collected from different ecological zones of Iran is presented. Characterization was performed using blood agar, PCR, drop-collapse, and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses, and the isolates' biocontrol effects against the aflatoxin-producing agent Aspergillus flavus and the citrus antracnosis agent Colletotrichum gloeosporioides were studied. In total, 290 B. subtilis isolates were isolated from phylosphere and rhizosphere samples collected from fields and gardens of 5 provinces of Iran. Blood agar assays showed that 185 isolates produced different biosurfactants. Isolates containing the sfp gene, coding for surfactin, were detected using the PCR method. It was found that 14 different isolates contained the sfp gene. Drop-collapse assays, which detect isolates with high production of surfactin, showed that 7 isolates produced high levels of surfactin. It was found from HPLC analysis that the isolates containin the sfp gene produced between 55 and 1610 mg of surfactin per litre of broth medium. Four isolates, named BS119m, BS116l, N3dn, and BS113c, produced more than 1000 mg of surfactin per litre of broth. The highest surfactin production level was observed for isolate BS119m (1610 mg/L). The antagonistic potential of the sfp gene-containing isolates was determined using dual culture and chloroform vapour methods. Our bioassay results indicated that isolate BS119m showed high inhibitory effects against A. flavus (100%) and C. gloeosporioides (88%). Furthermore, the effect of purified surfactin on the growth of A. flavus was evaluated. Mycelia growth was considerably reduced with increasing concentration of surfactin, and 36%, 54%, 84%, and 100% inhibitions of mycelia growth were, respectively, observed at 20, 40, 80, and 160 mg/L after 7 days of incubation.

  18. Co-inoculation of aflatoxigenic and non-aflatoxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus to study fungal invasion, colonization, and competition in maize kernels

    PubMed Central

    Hruska, Zuzana; Rajasekaran, Kanniah; Yao, Haibo; Kincaid, Russell; Darlington, Dawn; Brown, Robert L.; Bhatnagar, Deepak; Cleveland, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    A currently utilized pre-harvest biocontrol method involves field inoculations with non-aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus strains, a tactic shown to strategically suppress native aflatoxin-producing strains and effectively decrease aflatoxin contamination in corn. The present in situ study focuses on tracking the invasion and colonization of an aflatoxigenic A. flavus strain (AF70), labeled with green fluorescent protein (GFP), in the presence of a non-aflatoxigenic A. flavus biocontrol strain (AF36), to better understand the competitive interaction between these two strains in seed tissue of corn (Zea mays). Corn kernels that had been co-inoculated with GFP-labeled AF70 and wild-type AF36 were cross-sectioned and observed under UV and blue light to determine the outcome of competition between these strains. After imaging, all kernels were analyzed for aflatoxin levels. There appeared to be a population difference between the co-inoculated AF70-GFP+AF36 and the individual AF70-GFP tests, both visually and with pixel count analysis. The GFP allowed us to observe that AF70-GFP inside the kernels was suppressed up to 82% when co-inoculated with AF36 indicating that AF36 inhibited progression of AF70-GFP. This was in agreement with images taken of whole kernels where AF36 exhibited a more robust external growth compared to AF70-GFP. The suppressed growth of AF70-GFP was reflected in a corresponding (upto 73%) suppression in aflatoxin levels. Our results indicate that the decrease in aflatoxin production correlated with population depression of the aflatoxigenic fungus by the biocontrol strain supporting the theory of competitive exclusion through robust propagation and fast colonization by the non-aflatoxigenic fungus. PMID:24734028

  19. Characterization and competitive ability of non-aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus isolated from the maize agro-ecosystem in Argentina as potential aflatoxin biocontrol agents.

    PubMed

    Alaniz Zanon, María Silvina; Clemente, María Paz; Chulze, Sofía Noemí

    2018-07-20

    Aspergillus flavus is an opportunistic pathogen and may produce aflatoxins in maize, one of the most important crops in Argentina. A promising strategy to reduce aflatoxin accumulation is the biological control based on competitive exclusion. In order to select potential biocontrol agents among isolates from the maize growing region in Argentina, a total of 512 A. flavus strains were isolated from maize kernels and soil samples. Thirty-six per cent of the isolates from maize kernels did not produce detectable levels of aflatoxins, while 73% of the isolates from soil were characterized as non-aflatoxin producers. Forty percent and 49% of the isolates from maize kernels and soil samples, respectively, were not producers of cyclopiazonic acid (CPA). Sclerotia morphology was evaluated using Czapek Dox media. Eighty-six per cent of the isolates from maize kernels and 85% of the isolates from soil samples were L sclerotia morphotype (average diameter > 400 μm). The remaining isolates did not produce sclerotia. All isolates had MAT 1-1 idiomorph. The competitive ability of 9 non aflatoxigenic strains, 4 CPA(+) and 5 CPA(-), was evaluated in co-inoculations of maize kernels with an aflatoxigenic strain. All evaluated strains significantly (p < 0.05) reduced aflatoxin contamination in maize kernels. The aflatoxin B 1 (AFB 1 ) reduction ranged from 6 to 60%. The strain A. flavus ARG5/30 isolated from maize kernels would be a good candidate as a potential biocontrol agent to be used in maize, since it was characterized as neither aflatoxin nor CPA producer, morphotype L, MAT 1-1 idiomorph, and reduced AFB 1 content in maize kernels by 59%. This study showed the competitive ability of potential aflatoxin biocontrol agents to be evaluated under field trials in a maize agro-ecosystem in Argentina. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Co-inoculation of aflatoxigenic and non-aflatoxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus to study fungal invasion, colonization, and competition in maize kernels.

    PubMed

    Hruska, Zuzana; Rajasekaran, Kanniah; Yao, Haibo; Kincaid, Russell; Darlington, Dawn; Brown, Robert L; Bhatnagar, Deepak; Cleveland, Thomas E

    2014-01-01

    A currently utilized pre-harvest biocontrol method involves field inoculations with non-aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus strains, a tactic shown to strategically suppress native aflatoxin-producing strains and effectively decrease aflatoxin contamination in corn. The present in situ study focuses on tracking the invasion and colonization of an aflatoxigenic A. flavus strain (AF70), labeled with green fluorescent protein (GFP), in the presence of a non-aflatoxigenic A. flavus biocontrol strain (AF36), to better understand the competitive interaction between these two strains in seed tissue of corn (Zea mays). Corn kernels that had been co-inoculated with GFP-labeled AF70 and wild-type AF36 were cross-sectioned and observed under UV and blue light to determine the outcome of competition between these strains. After imaging, all kernels were analyzed for aflatoxin levels. There appeared to be a population difference between the co-inoculated AF70-GFP+AF36 and the individual AF70-GFP tests, both visually and with pixel count analysis. The GFP allowed us to observe that AF70-GFP inside the kernels was suppressed up to 82% when co-inoculated with AF36 indicating that AF36 inhibited progression of AF70-GFP. This was in agreement with images taken of whole kernels where AF36 exhibited a more robust external growth compared to AF70-GFP. The suppressed growth of AF70-GFP was reflected in a corresponding (upto 73%) suppression in aflatoxin levels. Our results indicate that the decrease in aflatoxin production correlated with population depression of the aflatoxigenic fungus by the biocontrol strain supporting the theory of competitive exclusion through robust propagation and fast colonization by the non-aflatoxigenic fungus.

  1. Multiplex Detection of Aspergillus Species.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Culebras, Pedro; Selma, María Victoria; Aznar, Rosa

    2017-01-01

    Multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) provides a fast and accurate DNA-based tool for the simultaneous amplification of more than one target sequence in a single reaction. Here a duplex real-time PCR assay is described for the simultaneous detection of Aspergillus carbonarius and members of the Aspergillus niger aggregate, which are the main responsible species for ochratoxin A (OTA) contamination in grapes. This single tube reaction targets the beta-ketosynthase and the acyl transferase domains of the polyketide synthase of A. carbonarius and the A. niger aggregate, respectively.Besides, a rapid and efficient fungi DNA extraction procedure is described suitable to be applied in wine grapes. It includes a pulsifier equipment to remove conidia from grapes which prevents releasing of PCR inhibitors.

  2. Surgical treatment of aspergillus spondylodiscitis.

    PubMed

    van Ooij, A; Beckers, J M; Herpers, M J; Walenkamp, G H

    2000-02-01

    Four cases of aspergillus spondylodiscitis were treated with operative debridement and fusion. In this rarely encountered mycotic infection of the spine in immunocompromised patients rapid destruction of the intervertebral disc and vertebral bodies can occur. In advanced cases antimycotic drug therapy is thought to be ineffective and a forcing indication for surgery exists when the destruction is progressive and spinal cord compression is imminent or manifest. Spinal instrumentation can be of help in maintaining or restoring spinal stability and maintaining spinal alignment. In our four patients the aspergillus spondylodiscitis was successfully eradicated and fusion achieved. In two of three patients with a neurologic deficit, this deficit disappeared. Two patients died within 6 months after the operative treatment, due to complications related to the underlying illness. One patient was left with a subtotal paraplegia.

  3. Fungal Endocarditis Due to Aspergillus oryzae: The First Case Reported in the Literature.

    PubMed

    Mazza, Andrea; Luciani, Nicola; Luciani, Marco; Cammertoni, Federico; Giaquinto, Alessia; Pavone, Natalia; Bruno, Piergiorgio; Massetti, Massimo

    2017-03-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) is a severe disease with high mortality and morbidity. Prosthetic valve endocarditis is a life-threatening complication which can occur in less than 10% of patients with valve prosthesis. A fungal etiology of IE is rare and accounts for only 2-4% of all case of endocarditis, but is associated with a higher mortality and morbidity. Herein is reported the first case of fungal endocarditis of aortic valve prosthesis due to Aspergillus oryzae in a 67-year-old caucasian man who nine years previously underwent mitral and aortic valve replacement with mechanical prostheses, and tricuspid annuloplasty for acute IE due to Enterococcus spp. Seven months previously, the patient also underwent a redo cardiac procedure to replace a mitral valve prosthesis with a new mechanical device due to a leakage. Aspergillus oryzae showed impressive growth with strong and unexpected virulence in both local and systemic settings.

  4. Aspergillus osteomyelitis of the spine.

    PubMed

    Govender, S; Rajoo, R; Goga, I E; Charles, R W

    1991-07-01

    Aspergillosis involving either the vertebral body or the intervertebral disc is a rare cause of osteomyelitis of the spine. The following is a report of five cases of Aspergillus fumigatus infection of the spine treated successfully with amphotericin B and 5-flucytosine. In three patients, the diagnosis was established at closed-needle biopsy; two patients with paraplegia had an anterior decompression and fusion. The follow-up period ranged from 19 to 48 months.

  5. Aspergillus arthritis: analysis of clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of 31 reported cases.

    PubMed

    Gamaletsou, Maria N; Rammaert, Blandine; Bueno, Marimelle A; Sipsas, Nikolaos V; Moriyama, Brad; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P; Roilides, Emmanuel; Zeller, Valerie; Taj-Aldeen, Saad J; Henry, Michael; Petraitis, Vidmantas; Denning, David W; Lortholary, Olivier; Walsh, Thomas J

    2017-04-01

    Aspergillus arthritis is a debilitating form of invasive aspergillosis. Little is known about its epidemiology, clinical manifestations, laboratory features, treatment, and prognosis. Cases of Aspergillus arthritis were reviewed in the English literature from 1967 through 2015 for variables of arthritis with Aspergillus spp. recovered from joint and/or adjacent bone, underlying conditions, symptoms, signs, inflammatory biomarkers, diagnostic imaging, management, and outcome. Among 31 evaluable cases, 87% were males and 13% pediatric. Median age was 50 y (range 1-83 y). Seventeen (55%) patients were immunosuppressed with such conditions as hematological malignancies (26%), corticosteroids (39%), and/or transplantation (26%). Approximately one-half (52%) of patients had hematogenous seeding of the joint, and more than 80% had de novo infection with no prior antifungal therapy. Oligoarticular infection (2-3 joints) occurred in 45% and contiguous osteomyelitis was present in 61%. Clinical manifestations included pain (87%), edema (26%), and limited function (23%), with knees (35%), intervertebral discs (26%), and hips (16%) being most commonly infected. Aspergillus fumigatus constituted 77% of cases followed by Aspergillus flavus in 13%, Aspergillus niger in 3%, and not specified in 7%. Median ESR was 90 mm/hr and median CRP was 3.6 mg/dl. Median synovial fluid WBC was 17,200/μL (7,300-128,000) with 72% PMNs (range 61-92). Osteolysis occurred in 35%, and soft-tissue extension 47%. Nineteen patients (61%) were managed with combined medical and surgical therapy, 10 (32%) with medical therapy only, and 2 (6%) surgery only. Amphotericin B and itraconazole were the most frequently used agents with median duration of therapy of 219 days (range 30-545). Surgical interventions included debridement in 61%, drainage 19%, and amputation 6%. Complete or partial response was achieved in 71% and relapse occurred in 16%. Medical therapy was reinstituted with successful outcome in

  6. Use of SCW4 gene primers in PCR methods for the identification of six medically important Aspergillus species.

    PubMed

    Arancia, Silvia; Sandini, Silvia; De Carolis, Elena; Vella, Antonietta; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Norelli, Sandro; De Bernardis, Flavia

    2016-10-01

    Aspergillus species are the cause of invasive mold infections in immunocompromised patients: Aspergillus fumigatus, A. flavus and A. terreus account for most cases of invasive aspergillosis (IA). As certain species are associated with higher mortality and vary in their resistance to antifungal therapy, diagnosis requires increasingly rapid molecular methods that enable sensitive detection and species discrimination. We have developed PCR and Multiplex PCR assays for the detection of six medically important Aspergillus spp. species DNA in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimens from hematology and intensive care unit (ICU) patients at risk of IA, using different species and genus-specific PCR primers, selected within the SCW4 gene, encoding a cell wall glucanase of A. fumigatus, similar to mannoprotein Mp65 of Candida albicans. The genus-specific PCR primers were able to amplify only Aspergillus DNAs but not that belonging to other fungal genera tested. The species-specific PCR primers allowed differentiation of each Aspergillus species by the amplicon length produced. The methods described in this study are rapid (less than 4 h), reproducible, simple and specific and demonstrate potential application in the clinical laboratory.

  7. Bartonella spp. in Bats, Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    Kosoy, Michael; Recuenco, Sergio; Alvarez, Danilo; Moran, David; Turmelle, Amy; Ellison, James; Garcia, Daniel L.; Estevez, Alejandra; Lindblade, Kim; Rupprecht, Charles

    2011-01-01

    To better understand the role of bats as reservoirs of Bartonella spp., we estimated Bartonella spp. prevalence and genetic diversity in bats in Guatemala during 2009. We found prevalence of 33% and identified 21 genetic variants of 13 phylogroups. Vampire bat–associated Bartonella spp. may cause undiagnosed illnesses in humans. PMID:21762584

  8. Ecophysiological characterization of Aspergillus carbonarius, Aspergillus tubingensis and Aspergillus niger isolated from grapes in Spanish vineyards.

    PubMed

    García-Cela, E; Crespo-Sempere, A; Ramos, A J; Sanchis, V; Marin, S

    2014-03-03

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the diversity of black aspergilli isolated from berries from different agroclimatic regions of Spain. Growth characterization (in terms of temperature and water activity requirements) of Aspergillus carbonarius, Aspergillus tubingensis and Aspergillus niger was carried out on synthetic grape medium. A. tubingensis and A. niger showed higher maximum temperatures for growth (>45 °C versus 40-42 °C), and lower minimum aw requirements (0.83 aw versus 0.87 aw) than A. carbonarius. No differences in growth boundaries due to their geographical origin were found within A. niger aggregate isolates. Conversely, A. carbonarius isolates from the hotter and drier region grew and produced OTA at lower aw than other isolates. However, little genetic diversity in A. carbonarius was observed for the microsatellites tested and the same sequence of β-tubulin gene was observed; therefore intraspecific variability did not correlate with the geographical origin of the isolates or with their ability to produce OTA. Climatic change prediction points to drier and hotter climatic scenarios where A. tubingensis and A. niger could be even more prevalent over A. carbonarius, since they are better adapted to extreme high temperature and drier conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Concomitant pulmonary infection with Nocardia transvalensis and Aspergillus ustus in lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Cabada, Miguel M; Nishi, Shawn P; Lea, Alfred S; Schnadig, Vicki; Lombard, Gisele A; Lick, Scott D; Valentine, Vincent G

    2010-08-01

    Lung infections with Nocardia and Aspergillus spp in lung transplant recipients (LTRs) create diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. The present case illustrates the difficulties in identifying these pathogens in LTRs. A high degree of clinical suspicion and aggressive early management are required to ensure good outcomes. Although prospective data on treating these conditions are scarce, the empiric use of combination broad-spectrum anti-microbials initially seems prudent. Copyright (c) 2010 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Cyclopiazonic Acid Biosynthesis of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus oryzae

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Perng-Kuang; Ehrlich, Kenneth C.; Fujii, Isao

    2009-01-01

    Cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) is an indole-tetramic acid neurotoxin produced by some of the same strains of A. flavus that produce aflatoxins and by some Aspergillus oryzae strains. Despite its discovery 40 years ago, few reviews of its toxicity and biosynthesis have been reported. This review examines what is currently known about the toxicity of CPA to animals and humans, both by itself or in combination with other mycotoxins. The review also discusses CPA biosynthesis and the genetic diversity of CPA production in A. flavus/oryzae populations. PMID:22069533

  11. Aspergillus tracheobronchitis in a mild immunocompromised host.

    PubMed

    Cho, Byung Ha; Oh, Youngmin; Kang, Eun Seok; Hong, Yong Joo; Jeong, Hye Won; Lee, Ok-Jun; Chang, You-Jin; Choe, Kang Hyeon; Lee, Ki Man; An, Jin-Young

    2014-11-01

    Aspergillus tracheobronchitis is a form of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in which the Aspergillus infection is limited predominantly to the tracheobronchial tree. It occurs primarily in severely immunocompromised patients such as lung transplant recipients. Here, we report a case of Aspergillus tracheobronchitis in a 42-year-old man with diabetes mellitus, who presented with intractable cough, lack of expectoration of sputum, and chest discomfort. The patient did not respond to conventional treatment with antibiotics and antitussive agents, and he underwent bronchoscopy that showed multiple, discrete, gelatinous whitish plaques mainly involving the trachea and the left bronchus. On the basis of the bronchoscopic and microbiologic findings, we made the diagnosis of Aspergillus tracheobronchitis and initiated antifungal therapy. He showed gradual improvement in his symptoms and continued taking oral itraconazole for 6 months. Physicians should consider Aspergillus tracheobronchitis as a probable diagnosis in immunocompromised patients presenting with atypical respiratory symptoms and should try to establish a prompt diagnosis.

  12. Two novel species of Aspergillus section Nigri from indoor air

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aspergillus collinsii, Aspergillus floridensis, and Aspergillus trinidadensis are described as novel uniseriate species of Aspergillus section Nigri isolated from air samples. To describe the species we used phenotypes from 7-d Czapek yeast extract agar culture (CYA) and malt extract agar culture (M...

  13. The Effectiveness of Culture-Directed Preemptive Anti-Aspergillus Treatment in Lung Transplant Recipients at One Year After Transplant.

    PubMed

    Hosseini-Moghaddam, Seyed M; Chaparro, Cecilia; Luong, Me-Linh; Azad, Sassan; Singer, Lianne G; Mazzulli, Tony; Rotstein, Coleman; Keshavjee, Shaf; Husain, Shahid

    2015-11-01

    Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is a significant complication after lung transplantation. However, the risk factors for IPA in patients colonized with Aspergillus species, and the effectiveness of culture-directed preemptive treatment, are not well known. We studied 328 lung transplant recipients, from January 2006 to July 2009, with 1-year follow-up. Risk factors and effectiveness of culture-directed preemptive treatment were evaluated via a Cox-proportional hazard model. Seventy-one recipients (21.6%) developed invasive fungal infections, including 29 patients (8.8%) with IPA. Only 48.3% (14/29) of patients with IPA had pretransplantation or posttransplantation airway colonization with Aspergillus spp. In the Cox-proportional hazard model, treatment with rabbit antithymocyte globulin was significantly associated with posttransplant IPA in patients with Aspergillus colonization (hazards ratio, 4.25; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-16.6). Preemptive antifungal treatment for 3 months was significantly associated with a lower rate of IPA (0% [0/36] vs 18% [14/77]; P = 0.003, odds ratio, 0.8; 95% confidence interval, 0.7-0.9) but did not impact mortality. Our data suggest that almost half the cases of IPA occurred in patients without pretransplantation or posttransplantation airway colonization with Aspergillus spp. Among patients with Aspergillus colonization, use of rabbit antithymocyte globulin was associated with 4-fold risk of subsequent development of IPA. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis was an independent risk factor for 1-year mortality. Use of preemptive antifungal treatment for 3 months may be associated with significant reduction of IPA without influencing mortality.

  14. Cloning and characterization of chsD, a chitin synthase-like gene of Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Mellado, E; Specht, C A; Robbins, P W; Holden, D W

    1996-09-15

    A chitin synthase-like gene (chsD) was isolated from an Aspergillus fumigatus genomic DNA library. Comparisons with the predicted amino acid sequence from chsD reveals low but significant similarity to chitin synthases, to other N-acetylglucosaminyltransferases (NodC from Rhizopus spp., HasA from Streptococcus spp. and DG42 from vertebrates. A chsD- mutant strain constructed by gene disruption has a 20% reduction in total mycelial chitin content; however, no differences between the wild-type strain and the chsD- strain were found with respect to morphology, chitin synthase activity or virulence in a neutropenic murine model of aspergillosis. The results show that the chsD product has an important but inessential role in the synthesis of chitin in A. fumigatus.

  15. The potential of soil fungi associated with potato rhizosphere to control root knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp.) on potato

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utari, E.; Lisnawita; Safni, I.; Lubis, K.; Tantawi, AR; Hasanuddin

    2018-02-01

    The root knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp.) is one of important pathogens on potato crops in North Sumatra, Indonesia. This nematode causes significant crop losses on potatoes directly and indirectly. The effect of fungal isolates (Trichoderma sp. 1, Mucor sp.1, Aspergillus sp. 2, Mucor sp. 2) that were isolated from rhizosphere of potato in North Sumatra were studied in green house experiments on the growth of potato and the reproduction of the nematode (Meloidogyne spp). The results showed that Trichoderma sp. 1 caused a significant gall reduction, while Mucor sp.1 and Mucor sp.2 could improve the growth of potato.

  16. [The first case of persistent vaginitis due to Aspergillus protuberus in an immunocompetent patient].

    PubMed

    Borsa, Barış Ata; Özgün, Gonca; Houbraken, Jos; Ökmen, Fırat

    2015-01-01

    The vast majority of vaginal fungal infections are caused by Candida species. However, vaginitis cases caused by molds are extremely rare. Aspergillus protuberus is previously known as a member of Aspergillus section Versicolores which can cause opportunistic infections in immunocompromised patients, however it has recently been described as a seperate species. Although the members of Aspergillus section Versicolores have been isolated rarely in cases of pulmonary infections, eye infections, otomycosis, osteomyelitis and onycomycoses, to the best of our knowledge, there is no published case of human infection caused by A.protuberus. In this report, the first case of persistent vaginitis due to A.protuberus in an immunocompetent patient was presented. A 42-year-old female patient was admitted to our hospital with the complaints of pelvic pain, vaginal itching and discharge during one month. Her symptoms had been persistant despite of the miconazole nitrate and clotrimazole therapies for probable candidal vaginitis. Fungal structures such as branched, septate hyphae together with the conidial forms were seen in microscopic examination as in the cervical smear. Thereafter, a vaginal discharge sample was taken for microbiological evaluation and similar characteristics of fungal structures were observed in the microscopic examination as of cervical smear. Then, preliminary result was reported as Aspergillus spp. At the same time, the sample was plated on Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) in duplicate and incubated at room temperature and at 37°C. After 5 days, white, powdery and pure-looking fungal colonies were observed in SDA which was incubated at room temperature, while the other medium remained sterile. The culture was submitted to the CBS-KNAW Fungal Biodiversity Center for further characterization. Phenotypic identification showed that the isolated strain belonged to the Aspergillus section Versicolores. The strain was grown for 7 days on malt extract agar and then

  17. Secondary metabolite profiles and antifungal drug susceptibility of Aspergillus fumigatus and closely related species, Aspergillus lentulus, Aspergillus udagawae, and Aspergillus viridinutans.

    PubMed

    Tamiya, Hiroyuki; Ochiai, Eri; Kikuchi, Kazuyo; Yahiro, Maki; Toyotome, Takahito; Watanabe, Akira; Yaguchi, Takashi; Kamei, Katsuhiko

    2015-05-01

    The incidence of Aspergillus infection has been increasing in the past few years. Also, new Aspergillus fumigatus-related species, namely Aspergillus lentulus, Aspergillus udagawae, and Aspergillus viridinutans, were shown to infect humans. These fungi exhibit marked morphological similarities to A. fumigatus, albeit with different clinical courses and antifungal drug susceptibilities. The present study used liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry to identify the secondary metabolites secreted as virulence factors by these Aspergillus species and compared their antifungal susceptibility. The metabolite profiles varied widely among A. fumigatus, A. lentulus, A. udagawae, and A. viridinutans, producing 27, 13, 8, and 11 substances, respectively. Among the mycotoxins, fumifungin, fumiquinazoline A/B and D, fumitremorgin B, gliotoxin, sphingofungins, pseurotins, and verruculogen were only found in A. fumigatus, whereas auranthine was only found in A. lentulus. The amount of gliotoxin, one of the most abundant mycotoxins in A. fumigatus, was negligible in these related species. In addition, they had decreased susceptibility to antifungal agents such as itraconazole and voriconazole, even though metabolites that were shared in the isolates showing higher minimum inhibitory concentrations than epidemiological cutoff values were not detected. These strikingly different secondary metabolite profiles may lead to the development of more discriminative identification protocols for such closely related Aspergillus species as well as improved treatment outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. NITRIFICATION BY ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS1

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, K. C.; Alexander, M.

    1962-01-01

    Marshall, K. C. (Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y.) and M. Alexander. Nitrification by Aspergillus flavus. J. Bacteriol. 83:572–578. 1962.—Aspergillus flavus has been shown to produce bound hydroxylamine, nitrite, and nitrate when grown in peptone, amino acid, or buffered ammonium media. Free hydroxylamine was not detected in these cultures, but it was found in an unbuffered ammonium medium in which neither nitrite nor nitrate was formed. Evidence was obtained for the presence of β-nitropropionic acid in the filtrate of an actively nitrifying culture. Alumina treatment of an ammonium medium prevented the formation by growing cultures of nitrite and nitrate but not bound hydroxylamine. The effect of alumina treatment was reversed by the addition of 10−3m CeCl3 to the medium. Extracts of the fungus contained peroxidase and an enzyme capable of catalyzing the production of nitrite from β-nitropropionic acid. The nitrite-forming enzyme is apparently specific for β-nitropropionate; no activity was found with nitromethane, nitroethane, and nitropropane as substrates. Nitrate was not reduced to nitrite nor was nitrite oxidized to nitrate by the hyphal extracts. The significance of these observations in nitrification by A. flavus is discussed. PMID:14470254

  19. Aspergillus Bronchitis in Patients with Cystic Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Claudia; Roehmel, Jobst; Rickerts, Volker; Melichar, Volker; Niemann, Nadja; Schwarz, Carsten

    2018-02-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus frequently colonizes the airways of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and may cause various severe infections, such as bronchitis. Serological data, sputum dependent markers and longitudinal data of treated cases of Aspergillus bronchitis were evaluated for further description of this infection. This study, which comprises three substudies, aimed to analyze epidemiological data of Aspergillus in CF and the entity of Aspergillus bronchitis. In a first step, data of the German Cystic Fibrosis Registry were used to evaluate the frequency of Aspergillus colonization in patients with CF (n = 2599). Then a retrospective analysis of 10 cases of Aspergillus bronchitis was performed to evaluate longitudinal data for lung function and clinical presentation parameters: sputum production, cough and physical capacity. Finally, a prospective cohort study (n = 22) was conducted to investigate serological markers for Aspergillus bronchitis: total serum IgE, specific serum IgE, specific serum IgG, as well as sputum galactomannan, real-time PCR detection of Aspergillus DNA in sputum and fungal cultures. Analysis of the German CF registry revealed an Aspergillus colonization rate of 32.5% among the 2599 patients. A retrospective data analysis of 10 treated cases revealed the clinical course of Aspergillus bronchitis, including repeated positive sputum culture findings for A. fumigatus, no antibiotic treatment response, total serum IgE levels <200 kU/l, no observation of new pulmonary infiltrates and appropriate antifungal treatment response. Antifungal treatment durations of 4 ± 1.6 (2-6) weeks significantly reduced cough (P = 0.0067), sputum production (P < 0.0001) and lung function measures (P = 0.0358) but not physical capacity (P = 0.0794). From this retrospective study, a prevalence of 1.6% was calculated. In addition, two cases of Aspergillus bronchitis were identified in the prospective cohort study according to immunological, molecular

  20. Aspergillus vertebral osteomyelitis in immunocompetent patients.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Somika; Siraj, Fouzia; Kalra, Kl; Chopra, P

    2012-03-01

    Fungal infections are one of the important cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. Aspergillus vertebral osteomyelitis is extremely rare. We report two cases of aspergillus vertebral osteomyelitis in immunocompetent men in the absence of an underlying disorder. The clinical and radiological findings were suggestive of Pott's spine. The absolute CD4, CD8 counts and their ratio were normal. The HIV status was negative in both patients. Both patients underwent surgical decompression. The histopathology of tissue obtained were suggestive of aspergillus osteomyelitis. One patient had antifungal treatment for 3 months and was doing well at 1 year followup, whereas other patient did not turnup after 2 months.

  1. Aspergillus vertebral osteomyelitis in immunocompetent patients

    PubMed Central

    Sethi, Somika; Siraj, Fouzia; Kalra, KL; Chopra, P

    2012-01-01

    Fungal infections are one of the important cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. Aspergillus vertebral osteomyelitis is extremely rare. We report two cases of aspergillus vertebral osteomyelitis in immunocompetent men in the absence of an underlying disorder. The clinical and radiological findings were suggestive of Pott's spine. The absolute CD4, CD8 counts and their ratio were normal. The HIV status was negative in both patients. Both patients underwent surgical decompression. The histopathology of tissue obtained were suggestive of aspergillus osteomyelitis. One patient had antifungal treatment for 3 months and was doing well at 1 year followup, whereas other patient did not turnup after 2 months. PMID:22448068

  2. In vitro activity of the novel antifungal compound F901318 against difficult-to-treat Aspergillus isolates.

    PubMed

    Buil, J B; Rijs, A J M M; Meis, J F; Birch, M; Law, D; Melchers, W J G; Verweij, P E

    2017-09-01

    F901318 is a new antifungal agent with a novel mechanism of action with activity against Aspergillus species. We investigated the in vitro activity of F901318 against a collection of Aspergillus isolates. A total of 213 Aspergillus isolates were used in this study. A total of 143 Aspergillus fumigatus sensu stricto isolates were used, of which 133 were azole resistant [25 TR34/L98H; 25 TR46/Y121F/T289A; 33 A. fumigatus with cyp51A-associated point mutations (25 G54, 1 G432 and 7 M220); and 50 azole-resistant A. fumigatus without known resistance mechanisms]. Ten azole-susceptible A. fumigatus isolates were used as WT controls. The in vitro activity was also determined against Aspergillus calidoustus (25 isolates), Aspergillus flavus (10), Aspergillus nidulans (10) and Aspergillus tubingensis (25). F901318 activity was compared with that of itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, isavuconazole, amphotericin B and anidulafungin. Minimum effective concentrations and MICs were determined using the EUCAST broth microdilution method. F901318 was active against all tested isolates: A. fumigatus WT, MIC90 0.125 mg/L (range 0.031-0.125); TR34/L98H,TR46/Y121F/T289A and azole resistant without known resistance mechanisms, MIC90 0.125 mg/L (range 0.031-0.25); A. fumigatus with cyp51A-associated point mutations, MIC90 0.062 mg/L (range 0.015-0.125); and other species, A. calidoustus MIC90 0.5 mg/L (range 0.125-0.5), A. flavus MIC90 0.062 mg/L (range 0.015-0.62), A. nidulans MIC90 0.125 mg/L (range 0.062-0.25) and A. tubingensis MIC90 0.062 mg/L (range 0.015-0.25). F901318 showed potent and consistent in vitro activity against difficult-to-treat Aspergillus spp. with intrinsic and acquired antifungal resistance due to known and unknown resistance mechanisms, suggesting no significant implications of azole resistance mechanisms for the mode of action of F901318. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for

  3. Identification of volatile markers for indoor fungal growth and chemotaxonomic classification of Aspergillus species.

    PubMed

    Polizzi, Viviana; Adams, An; Malysheva, Svetlana V; De Saeger, Sarah; Van Peteghem, Carlos; Moretti, Antonio; Picco, Anna Maria; De Kimpe, Norbert

    2012-09-01

    Microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs) were collected in water-damaged buildings to evaluate their use as possible indicators of indoor fungal growth. Fungal species isolated from contaminated buildings were screened for MVOC production on malt extract agar by means of headspace solid-phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Some sesquiterpenes, specifically derived from fungal growth, were detected in the sampled environments and the corresponding fungal producers were identified. Statistical analysis of the detected MVOC profiles allowed the identification of species-specific MVOCs or MVOC patterns for Aspergillus versicolor group, Aspergillus ustus, and Eurotium amstelodami. In addition, Chaetomium spp. and Epicoccum spp. were clearly differentiated by their volatile production from a group of 76 fungal strains belonging to different genera. These results are useful in the chemotaxonomic discrimination of fungal species, in aid to the classical morphological and molecular identification techniques. Copyright © 2012 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Aspergillus discitis with acute disc abscess.

    PubMed

    Assaad, W; Nuchikat, P S; Cohen, L; Esguerra, J V; Whittier, F C

    1994-10-01

    Aspergillus osteomyelitis of the vertebral body and disc space is rare. This report discusses a case that occurred in an immunosuppressed 29-year-old man and reviews the pertinent medical literature. To review the management and treatment of Aspergillus osteomyelitis of the vertebral body and disc space. The patient presented with acute neurologic compromise resulting from L5-S1 discitis and a large epidural soft tissue component secondary to the Aspergillus infection. The patient underwent aggressive surgical debridement along with treatment with amphotericin B and had a complete clinical recovery. The authors recommend a combined medical-surgical approach in most cases of vertebral Aspergillus osteomyelitis. Early surgery with vigorous surgical debridement along with antifungal treatment seems to yield a good outcome.

  5. Surgical treatment of hematogenous vertebral Aspergillus osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Bridwell, K H; Campbell, J W; Barenkamp, S J

    1990-04-01

    Three cases of Aspergillus fumigatas vertebral osteomyelitis failed courses of medical treatment. Each was subsequently treated with anterior vertebral debridement and posterior segmental spinal instrumentation. Despite poor nutritional and immune systems, resolution of the infection and subsequent anterior ankylosis occurred in each patient, with follow-up ranging from 1 to 3 years. If patients with aspergillus vertebral osteomyelitis do not respond to medical treatment, early surgical debridement and stabilization in combination with intravenous amphotericin B can lead to resolution and bony ankylosis.

  6. Toxigenic Potential of Aspergillus Species Occurring on Maize Kernels from Two Agro-Ecological Zones in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Okoth, Sheila; Nyongesa, Beatrice; Ayugi, Vincent; Kang’ethe, Erastus; Korhonen, Hannu; Joutsjoki, Vesa

    2012-01-01

    Two agro-ecological zones in Kenya were selected to compare the distribution in maize of Aspergillus spp. and their toxigenicity. These were Nandi County, which is the main maize growing region in the country but where no human aflatoxicoses have been reported, and Makueni County where most of the aflatoxicosis cases have occurred. Two hundred and fifty-five households were sampled in Nandi and 258 in Makueni, and Aspergillus was isolated from maize. Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus isolates were tested for the presence of aflD and aflQ genes. Positive strains were induced to produce aflatoxins on yeast extract sucrose and quantified using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LCMSMS). Aspergillus flavus was the most common contaminant, and the incidence of occurrence in Nandi and Makueni was not significantly different (82.33% and 73.26%, respectively). Toxigenic strains were more prevalent than non-toxigenic strains. All the toxigenic strains from Makueni were of the S-type while those from Nandi belonged to the L-type. Quantitative differences in aflatoxin production in vitro between isolates and between strains were detected with S strains producing relatively larger amounts of total aflatoxins, B toxins and lower values for G toxins. This was in accord with the frequent aflatoxicosis outbreaks in Makueni. However some L strains produced considerable amounts of B toxins. Given the widespread distribution of toxigenic strains in both regions, the risk of aflatoxin poisoning is high when favorable conditions for toxin production occur. PMID:23202303

  7. Assessment of mycoflora and infestation of insects, vector of Aspergillus section Flavi, in stored peanut from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Nesci, Andrea; Montemarani, Analía; Etcheverry, Miriam

    2011-02-01

    The occurrence of spoilage fungi and Aspergillus section Flavi populations, the aflatoxins incidence, the role of insects as vectors of mycotoxin-producing fungi and the AFs-producing ability of the isolated species throughout the peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) storage period were evaluated. Analyses of fungal populations from 95 peanut seed samples did not demonstrate significant differences between the incidences in each sampling period. Aspergillus section Flavi were isolated during all incubation periods. Cryptolestes spp. (Coleoptera: Cucujidae) were collected in August, September and October with 18, 16 and 28% of peanut samples contaminated, respectively. Insects isolated during August showed 69% of Aspergillus section Flavi contamination. A. flavus was the most frequently isolated (79%) from peanut seeds and from insect (59%). The greater levels of AFB1 were detected in September and October with a mean of 68.86 μg/kg and 69.12 μg/kg respectively. The highest proportion of A. flavus toxigenic strains (87.5%) was obtained in June. The presence of Aspergillus section Flavi and insect vectors of aflatoxigenic fungi presented a potential risk for aflatoxin production during the peanut storage period. Integrated management of fungi and insect vectors is in progress.

  8. Integrated use of residues from olive mill and winery for lipase production by solid state fermentation with Aspergillus sp.

    PubMed

    Salgado, José Manuel; Abrunhosa, Luís; Venâncio, Armando; Domínguez, José Manuel; Belo, Isabel

    2014-02-01

    Two-phase olive mill waste (TPOMW) is presently the major waste produced by the olive mill industry. This waste has potential to be used as substrate for solid state fermentation (SSF) despite of its high concentration of phenolic compounds and low nitrogen content. In this work, it is demonstrated that mixtures of TPOMW with winery wastes support the production of lipase by Aspergillus spp. By agar plate screening, Aspergillus niger MUM 03.58, Aspergillus ibericus MUM 03.49, and Aspergillus uvarum MUM 08.01 were chosen for lipase production by SSF. Plackett-Burman experimental design was employed to evaluate the effect of substrate composition and time on lipase production. The highest amounts of lipase were produced by A. ibericus on a mixture of TPOMW, urea, and exhausted grape mark (EGM). Urea was found to be the most influent factor for the lipase production. Further optimization of lipase production by A. ibericus using a full factorial design (3(2)) conducted to optimal conditions of substrate composition (0.073 g urea/g and 25 % of EGM) achieve 18.67 U/g of lipolytic activity.

  9. What the Aspergillus genomes have told us.

    PubMed

    Nierman, W C; May, G; Kim, H S; Anderson, M J; Chen, D; Denning, D W

    2005-05-01

    The sequencing and annotation of the genomes of the first strains of Aspergillus nidulans, Aspergillus oryzae, and Aspergillus fumigatus will be seen in retrospect as a transformational event in Aspergillus biology. With this event the entire genetic composition of A. nidulans, the sexual experimental model organism of the genus Aspergillus, A. oryzae, the food biotechnology organism which is the product of centuries of cultivation, and A. fumigatus, the most common causative agent of invasive aspergillosis is now revealed to the extent that we are at present able to understand. Each genome exhibits a large set of genes common to the three as well as a much smaller set of genes unique to each. Moreover, these sequences serve as resources providing the major tool to expanding our understanding of the biology of each. Transcription profiling of A. fumigatus at high temperatures and comparative genomic hybridization between A. fumigatus and a closely related Aspergillus species provides microarray based examples of the beginning of functional analysis of the genomes of these organisms going forward from the genome sequence.

  10. Recurrent prosthetic valve endocarditis caused by Aspergillus delacroxii (formerly Aspergillus nidulans var. echinulatus)

    PubMed Central

    Uhrin, Gábor Balázs; Jensen, Rasmus Hare; Korup, Eva; Grønlund, Jens; Hjort, Ulla; Moser, Claus; Arendrup, Maiken Cavling; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl

    2015-01-01

    We report Aspergillus delacroxii (formerly Aspergillus nidulans var. echinulatus) causing recurrent prosthetic valve endocarditis. The fungus was the sole agent detected during replacement of a mechanical aortic valve conduit due to abscess formation. Despite extensive surgery and anti-fungal treatment, the patient had a cerebral hemorrhage 4 months post-surgery prompting a diagnosis of recurrent prosthetic valve endocarditis and fungemia. PMID:26909244

  11. Molecular strategy for identification in Aspergillus section Flavi.

    PubMed

    Godet, Marie; Munaut, Françoise

    2010-03-01

    Aspergillus flavus is one of the most common contaminants that produces aflatoxins in foodstuffs. It is also a human allergen and a pathogen of animals and plants. Aspergillus flavus is included in the Aspergillus section Flavi that comprises 11 closely related species producing different profiles of secondary metabolites. A six-step strategy has been developed that allows identification of nine of the 11 species. First, three real-time PCR reactions allowed us to discriminate four groups within the section: (1) A. flavus/Aspergillus oryzae/Aspergillus minisclerotigenes/Aspergillus parvisclerotigenus; (2) Aspergillus parasiticus/Aspergillus sojae/Aspergillus arachidicola; (3) Aspergillus tamarii/Aspergillus bombycis/Aspergillus pseudotamarii; and (4) Aspergillus nomius. Secondly, random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) amplifications or SmaI digestion allowed us to differentiate (1) A. flavus, A. oryzae and A. minisclerotigenes; (2) A. parasiticus, A. sojae and A. arachidicola; (3) A. tamarii, A. bombycis and A. pseudotamarii. Among the 11 species, only A. parvisclerotigenus cannot be differentiated from A. flavus. Using the results of real-time PCR, RAPD and SmaI digestion, a decision-making tree was drawn up to identify nine of the 11 species of section Flavi. In contrast to conventional morphological methods, which are often time-consuming, the molecular strategy proposed here is based mainly on real-time PCR, which is rapid and requires minimal handling.

  12. Aspergillus tubingensis and Aspergillus niger as the dominant black Aspergillus, use of simple PCR-RFLP for preliminary differentiation.

    PubMed

    Mirhendi, H; Zarei, F; Motamedi, M; Nouripour-Sisakht, S

    2016-03-01

    This work aimed to identify the species distribution of common clinical and environmental isolates of black Aspergilli based on simple restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the β-tubulin gene. A total of 149 clinical and environmental strains of black Aspergilli were collected and subjected to preliminary morphological examination. Total genomic DNAs were extracted, and PCR was performed to amplify part of the β-tubulin gene. At first, 52 randomly selected samples were species-delineated by sequence analysis. In order to distinguish the most common species, PCR amplicons of 117 black Aspergillus strains were identified by simple PCR-RFLP analysis using the enzyme TasI. Among 52 sequenced isolates, 28 were Aspergillus tubingensis, 21 Aspergillus niger, and the three remaining isolates included Aspergillus uvarum, Aspergillus awamori, and Aspergillus acidus. All 100 environmental and 17 BAL samples subjected to TasI-RFLP analysis of the β-tubulin gene, fell into two groups, consisting of about 59% (n=69) A. tubingensis and 41% (n=48) A. niger. Therefore, the method successfully and rapidly distinguished A. tubingensis and A. niger as the most common species among the clinical and environmental isolates. Although tardy, the Ehrlich test was also able to differentiate A. tubingensis and A. niger according to the yellow color reaction specific to A. niger. A. tubingensis and A. niger are the most common black Aspergillus in both clinical and environmental isolates in Iran. PCR-RFLP using TasI digestion of β-tubulin DNA enables rapid screening for these common species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Epidemiological and Genomic Landscape of Azole Resistance Mechanisms in Aspergillus Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Hagiwara, Daisuke; Watanabe, Akira; Kamei, Katsuhiko; Goldman, Gustavo H.

    2016-01-01

    Invasive aspergillosis is a life-threatening mycosis caused by the pathogenic fungus Aspergillus. The predominant causal species is Aspergillus fumigatus, and azole drugs are the treatment of choice. Azole drugs approved for clinical use include itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, and the recently added isavuconazole. However, epidemiological research has indicated that the prevalence of azole-resistant A. fumigatus isolates has increased significantly over the last decade. What is worse is that azole-resistant strains are likely to have emerged not only in response to long-term drug treatment but also because of exposure to azole fungicides in the environment. Resistance mechanisms include amino acid substitutions in the target Cyp51A protein, tandem repeat sequence insertions at the cyp51A promoter, and overexpression of the ABC transporter Cdr1B. Environmental azole-resistant strains harboring the association of a tandem repeat sequence and punctual mutation of the Cyp51A gene (TR34/L98H and TR46/Y121F/T289A) have become widely disseminated across the world within a short time period. The epidemiological data also suggests that the number of Aspergillus spp. other than A. fumigatus isolated has risen. Some non-fumigatus species intrinsically show low susceptibility to azole drugs, imposing the need for accurate identification, and drug susceptibility testing in most clinical cases. Currently, our knowledge of azole resistance mechanisms in non-fumigatus Aspergillus species such as A. flavus, A. niger, A. tubingensis, A. terreus, A. fischeri, A. lentulus, A. udagawae, and A. calidoustus is limited. In this review, we present recent advances in our understanding of azole resistance mechanisms particularly in A. fumigatus. We then provide an overview of the genome sequences of non-fumigatus species, focusing on the proteins related to azole resistance mechanisms. PMID:27708619

  14. Efficiency of four currently used decontamination conditionings in Romania against Aspergillus and Candida strains.

    PubMed

    Lorin, D; Cristina, R T; Teusdea, V; Mitrănescu, E; Muselin, F; Butnariu, M; David, G; Dumitrescu, E

    2017-09-01

    Efficacy of four commercial biocidal products (noted A to D), using manufacturers' recommendations, and a contact time of 30minutes, were evaluated in the purpose of standard SR EN1657: 2006 adapted. Were used four strains, two as reference: Aspergillus brasiliensis (niger) (ATCC 16404) and Candida albicans (ATCC 10231), and two isolates: Aspergillus flavus and respectively Aspergillus fumigatus. The inoculum plates containing Malt Extract Agar (MEA) were incubated 48h for C. albicans and 72hours for Aspergillus spp. The standard SR EN1657: 2006 adapted was conducted in two phases: the test cultures preparation and the method validation. Method validation included: the control of experimental conditions and of neutralizant solution, and the method verification. Results revealed that three from the four tested products (A, B and D) had exerted biocidal effect on the studied strains at the recommended concentrations, the registered CFU values being reduced by more than 4 log 10 , conversely in the case of the product (C), applied against A. fumigatus at the recommended concentration of 2%, the biocidal effect was not detected, fact confirmed also by the CFU's value (3.59 log 10 ). The biocide retested at a greater concentration (of 5%), showed a biocidal effect against A. fumigatus after 30minutes, the CFU value being reduced, by more than 5.29 log 10 , evidencing the resistance emergence of A. fumigatus under the repeated pressure of biocides. It is re-confirming that merely the "chemical" defense measures to defuse the fungi's strategies become unproductive. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Differential Kinetics of Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus fumigatus Phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Gresnigt, Mark S; Becker, Katharina L; Leenders, Floris; Alonso, M Fernanda; Wang, Xiaowen; Meis, Jacques F; Bain, Judith M; Erwig, Lars P; van de Veerdonk, Frank L

    2018-01-01

    Invasive aspergillosis mainly occurs in immunocompromised patients and is commonly caused by Aspergillus fumigatus, while A.nidulans is rarely the causative agent. However, in chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) patients, A. nidulans is a frequent cause of invasive aspergillosis and is associated with higher mortality. Immune recognition of A. nidulans was compared to A. fumigatus to offer an insight into why A. nidulans infections are prevalent in CGD. Live cell imaging with J774A.1 macrophage-like cells and LC3-GFP-mCherry bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) revealed that phagocytosis of A. nidulans was slower compared to A. fumigatus. This difference could be attributed to slower migration of J774A.1 cells and a lower percentage of migrating BMDMs. In addition, delayed phagosome acidification and LC3-associated phagocytosis was observed with A. nidulans. Cytokine and oxidative burst measurements in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells revealed a lower oxidative burst upon challenge with A. nidulans. In contrast, A. nidulans induced significantly higher concentrations of cytokines. Collectively, our data demonstrate that A. nidulans is phagocytosed and processed at a slower rate compared to A. fumigatus, resulting in reduced fungal killing and increased germination of conidia. This slower rate of A. nidulans clearance may be permissive for overgrowth within certain immune settings. The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Fungi in spices and mycotoxigenic potential of some Aspergilli isolated.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Marcelo Valle; Parussolo, Gilson; Moro, Camila Brombilla; Bernardi, Angélica Olivier; Copetti, Marina Venturini

    2018-08-01

    The aim of this study was to identify fungal species present in 200 samples of rosemary, fennel, cinnamon, clove, pepperoni, black and white pepper and oregano and evaluate the mycotoxigenic potential of the some Aspergilli isolated. Clove, black and white peppers were analyzed by direct plating. For rosemary, cinnamon, fennel, pepperoni pepper and oregano samples were used spread plate. Mycotoxigenic capacity was verified by the agar plug method. With the exception of clove, all the spices showed high fungal contamination, especially by Aspergillus sp., Penicillium sp. and Cladosporium sp. Frequency of toxigenic Aspergillus spp. was intense in white and black peppers, with presence of Aspergillus flavus (up to 32%), Aspergillus nomius (up to 12%), Aspergillus parasiticus (up to 4%), Aspergillus niger complex (up to 52%), Aspergillus ochraceus (up 12%) and Aspergillus carbonarius (up to 4%). 14,2% of A. flavus isolated from black pepper were aflatoxins producers. In the white pepper, 66.7% of A. flavus isolates and 100% of A. nomius were aflatoxigenic. Oregano showed the highest number of A. niger complex isolates (49), however, only 2.04% produced ochratoxin A. This study showed a huge fungal presence in spices, which could compromise the sensorial quality of these products and represent a hazard for consumers. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. [Aspergillus fumigatus endocarditis in a patient with a biventricular pacemaker].

    PubMed

    Cuesta, José M; Fariñas, María C; Rodilla, Irene G; Salesa, Ricardo; de Berrazueta, José R

    2005-05-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus endocarditis is one of the rarest and severest complications in cardiological patients. We describe a patient with an intracardial pacemaker who was diagnosed as having Aspergillus fumigatus endocarditis. Postmortem examination showed a large, Aspergillus-infected thrombus encased in the right ventricle, pulmonary trunk and main pulmonary branches.

  18. Conidial Hydrophobins of Aspergillus fumigatus

    PubMed Central

    Paris, Sophie; Debeaupuis, Jean-Paul; Crameri, Reto; Carey, Marilyn; Charlès, Franck; Prévost, Marie Christine; Schmitt, Christine; Philippe, Bruno; Latgé, Jean Paul

    2003-01-01

    The surface of Aspergillus fumigatus conidia, the first structure recognized by the host immune system, is covered by rodlets. We report that this outer cell wall layer contains two hydrophobins, RodAp and RodBp, which are found as highly insoluble complexes. The RODA gene was previously characterized, and ΔrodA conidia do not display a rodlet layer (N. Thau, M. Monod, B. Crestani, C. Rolland, G. Tronchin, J. P. Latgé, and S. Paris, Infect. Immun. 62:4380-4388, 1994). The RODB gene was cloned and disrupted. RodBp was highly homologous to RodAp and different from DewAp of A. nidulans. ΔrodB conidia had a rodlet layer similar to that of the wild-type conidia. Therefore, unlike RodAp, RodBp is not required for rodlet formation. The surface of ΔrodA conidia is granular; in contrast, an amorphous layer is present at the surface of the conidia of the ΔrodA ΔrodB double mutant. These data show that RodBp plays a role in the structure of the conidial cell wall. Moreover, rodletless mutants are more sensitive to killing by alveolar macrophages, suggesting that RodAp or the rodlet structure is involved in the resistance to host cells. PMID:12620846

  19. ASPERGILLUS LUCHUENSIS , AN INDUSTRIALLY IMPORTANT BLACK ASPERGILLUS IN EAST ASIA

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Seung-Beom; Lee, Mina; Kim, Dae-Ho; Varga, Janos; Frisvad, Jens C.; Perrone, Giancarlo; Gomi, Katsuya; Yamada, Osamu; Machida, Masayuki; Houbraken, Jos; Samson, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    Aspergilli known as black- and white-koji molds which are used for awamori, shochu, makgeolli and other food and beverage fermentations, are reported in the literature as A. luchuensis, A. awamori, A. kawachii, or A. acidus. In order to elucidate the taxonomic position of these species, available ex-type cultures were compared based on morphology and molecular characters. A. luchuensis, A. kawachii and A. acidus showed the same banding patterns in RAPD, and the three species had the same rDNA-ITS, β-tubulin and calmodulin sequences and these differed from those of the closely related A. niger and A. tubingensis. Morphologically, the three species are not significantly different from each other or from A. niger and A. tubingensis. It is concluded that A. luchuensis, A. kawachii and A. acidus are the same species, and A. luchuensis is selected as the correct name based on priority. Strains of A. awamori which are stored in National Research Institute of Brewing in Japan, represent A. niger (n = 14) and A. luchuensis (n = 6). The neotype of A. awamori (CBS 557.65 =  NRRL 4948) does not originate from awamori fermentation and it is shown to be identical with the unknown taxon Aspergillus welwitschiae. Extrolite analysis of strains of A. luchuensis showed that they do not produce mycotoxins and therefore can be considered safe for food and beverage fermentations. A. luchuensis is also frequently isolated from meju and nuruk in Korea and Puerh tea in China and the species is probably common in the fermentation environment of East Asia. A re-description of A. luchuensis is provided because the incomplete data in the original literature. PMID:23723998

  20. Aspergillus luchuensis, an industrially important black Aspergillus in East Asia.

    PubMed

    Hong, Seung-Beom; Lee, Mina; Kim, Dae-Ho; Varga, Janos; Frisvad, Jens C; Perrone, Giancarlo; Gomi, Katsuya; Yamada, Osamu; Machida, Masayuki; Houbraken, Jos; Samson, Robert A

    2013-01-01

    Aspergilli known as black- and white-koji molds which are used for awamori, shochu, makgeolli and other food and beverage fermentations, are reported in the literature as A. luchuensis, A. awamori, A. kawachii, or A. acidus. In order to elucidate the taxonomic position of these species, available ex-type cultures were compared based on morphology and molecular characters. A. luchuensis, A. kawachii and A. acidus showed the same banding patterns in RAPD, and the three species had the same rDNA-ITS, β-tubulin and calmodulin sequences and these differed from those of the closely related A. niger and A. tubingensis. Morphologically, the three species are not significantly different from each other or from A. niger and A. tubingensis. It is concluded that A. luchuensis, A. kawachii and A. acidus are the same species, and A. luchuensis is selected as the correct name based on priority. Strains of A. awamori which are stored in National Research Institute of Brewing in Japan, represent A. niger (n = 14) and A. luchuensis (n = 6). The neotype of A. awamori (CBS 557.65 =  NRRL 4948) does not originate from awamori fermentation and it is shown to be identical with the unknown taxon Aspergillus welwitschiae. Extrolite analysis of strains of A. luchuensis showed that they do not produce mycotoxins and therefore can be considered safe for food and beverage fermentations. A. luchuensis is also frequently isolated from meju and nuruk in Korea and Puerh tea in China and the species is probably common in the fermentation environment of East Asia. A re-description of A. luchuensis is provided because the incomplete data in the original literature.

  1. [Survival Strategies of Aspergillus in the Human Body].

    PubMed

    Tashiro, Masato; Izumikawa, Koichi

    2017-01-01

     The human body is a hostile environment for Aspergillus species, which originally live outside the human body. There are lots of elimination mechanisms against Aspergillus inhaled into the human body, such as high body temperature, soluble lung components, mucociliary clearance mechanism, or responses of phagocytes. Aspergillus fumigatus, which is the primary causative agent of human infections among the human pathogenic species of Aspergillus, defend itself from the hostile human body environment by various mechanisms, such as thermotolerance, mycotoxin production, and characteristic morphological features. Here we review mechanisms of defense in Aspergillus against elimination from the human body.

  2. [Aspergillus spondylodiscitis. Apropos of 5 cases].

    PubMed

    Cortet, B; Deprez, X; Triki, R; Savage, C; Flipo, R M; Duquesnoy, B; Delcambre, B

    1993-01-01

    Five cases of Aspergillus discitis in male patients are reported. Three patients had impaired immune responses as a result of immunosuppressive therapy following a heart transplant (two cases) or hairy cell leukemia (one case). Two patients had a recent history of mycobacterial infection. All five patients were hospitalized for severe spinal pain suggestive of an inflammatory disease with no neurological abnormalities. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate was elevated in every case. The diagnosis of discitis was suspected on spinal roentgenograms and established by computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging. In three patients the spine was the only site of Aspergillus infection (lumbar discitis in two cases and thoracic discitis in one case). One patient developed Aspergillus infection of several disks (L1-L2, L2-L3, and L4-L5) after Aspergillus endocarditis with embolization to the left lower limb. Another patient developed discitis after an Aspergillus lung infection. In every case, Aspergillus fumigatus was recovered in cultures of specimens harvested by a percutaneous needle biopsy of the intervertebral disk. All five patients were treated by itraconazole which was given as single drug therapy in one case and in combination with 5-flucytosine and amphotericin B in four cases. Recovery was achieved in every case after four to six months of this drug therapy. In contrast to most previously reported cases, none of the five patients reported herein required surgical treatment. Efficacy of conservative treatment in this study may be related to the use of itraconazole in every case.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Diversity, Application, and Synthetic Biology of Industrially Important Aspergillus Fungi.

    PubMed

    Park, Hee-Soo; Jun, Sang-Cheol; Han, Kap-Hoon; Hong, Seung-Beom; Yu, Jae-Hyuk

    2017-01-01

    The filamentous fungal genus Aspergillus consists of over 340 officially recognized species. A handful of these Aspergillus fungi are predominantly used for food fermentation and large-scale production of enzymes, organic acids, and bioactive compounds. These industrially important Aspergilli primarily belong to the two major Aspergillus sections, Nigri and Flavi. Aspergillus oryzae (section Flavi) is the most commonly used mold for the fermentation of soybeans, rice, grains, and potatoes. Aspergillus niger (section Nigri) is used in the industrial production of various enzymes and organic acids, including 99% (1.4 million tons per year) of citric acid produced worldwide. Better understanding of the genomes and the signaling mechanisms of key Aspergillus species can help identify novel approaches to enhance these commercially significant strains. This review summarizes the diversity, current applications, key products, and synthetic biology of Aspergillus fungi commonly used in industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparative genomics of Fructobacillus spp. and Leuconostoc spp. reveals niche-specific evolution of Fructobacillus spp.

    DOE PAGES

    Endo, Akihito; Tanizawa, Yasuhiro; Tanaka, Naoto; ...

    2015-12-29

    In this study, Fructobacillus spp. in fructose-rich niches belong to the family Leuconostocaceae. They were originally classified as Leuconostoc spp., but were later grouped into a novel genus, Fructobacillus , based on their phylogenetic position, morphology and specific biochemical characteristics. The unique characters, so called fructophilic characteristics, had not been reported in the group of lactic acid bacteria, suggesting unique evolution at the genome level. Here we studied four draft genome sequences of Fructobacillus spp. and compared their metabolic properties against those of Leuconostoc spp. As a result, Fructobacillus species possess significantly less protein coding sequences in their small genomes.more » The number of genes was significantly smaller in carbohydrate transport and metabolism. Several other metabolic pathways, including TCA cycle, ubiquinone and other terpenoid-quinone biosynthesis and phosphotransferase systems, were characterized as discriminative pathways between the two genera. The adhE gene for bifunctional acetaldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase, and genes for subunits of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex were absent in Fructobacillus spp. The two genera also show different levels of GC contents, which are mainly due to the different GC contents at the third codon position. In conclusion, the present genome characteristics in Fructobacillus spp. suggest reductive evolution that took place to adapt to specific niches.« less

  5. Comparative genomics of Fructobacillus spp. and Leuconostoc spp. reveals niche-specific evolution of Fructobacillus spp.

    SciTech Connect

    Endo, Akihito; Tanizawa, Yasuhiro; Tanaka, Naoto

    In this study, Fructobacillus spp. in fructose-rich niches belong to the family Leuconostocaceae. They were originally classified as Leuconostoc spp., but were later grouped into a novel genus, Fructobacillus , based on their phylogenetic position, morphology and specific biochemical characteristics. The unique characters, so called fructophilic characteristics, had not been reported in the group of lactic acid bacteria, suggesting unique evolution at the genome level. Here we studied four draft genome sequences of Fructobacillus spp. and compared their metabolic properties against those of Leuconostoc spp. As a result, Fructobacillus species possess significantly less protein coding sequences in their small genomes.more » The number of genes was significantly smaller in carbohydrate transport and metabolism. Several other metabolic pathways, including TCA cycle, ubiquinone and other terpenoid-quinone biosynthesis and phosphotransferase systems, were characterized as discriminative pathways between the two genera. The adhE gene for bifunctional acetaldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase, and genes for subunits of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex were absent in Fructobacillus spp. The two genera also show different levels of GC contents, which are mainly due to the different GC contents at the third codon position. In conclusion, the present genome characteristics in Fructobacillus spp. suggest reductive evolution that took place to adapt to specific niches.« less

  6. Taxonomic Characterization and Secondary Metabolite Profiling of Aspergillus Section Aspergillus Contaminating Feeds and Feedstuffs

    PubMed Central

    Greco, Mariana; Kemppainen, Minna; Pose, Graciela; Pardo, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Xerophilic fungal species of the genus Aspergillus are economically highly relevant due to their ability to grow on low water activity substrates causing spoilage of stored goods and animal feeds. These fungi can synthesize a variety of secondary metabolites, many of which show animal toxicity, creating a health risk for food production animals and to humans as final consumers, respectively. Animal feeds used for rabbit, chinchilla and rainbow trout production in Argentina were analysed for the presence of xerophilic Aspergillus section Aspergillus species. High isolation frequencies (>60%) were detected in all the studied rabbit and chinchilla feeds, while the rainbow trout feeds showed lower fungal charge (25%). These section Aspergillus contaminations comprised predominantly five taxa. Twenty isolates were subjected to taxonomic characterization using both ascospore SEM micromorphology and two independent DNA loci sequencing. The secondary metabolite profiles of the isolates were determined qualitatively by HPLC-MS. All the isolates produced neoechinulin A, 17 isolates were positive for cladosporin and echinulin, and 18 were positive for neoechinulin B. Physcion and preechinulin were detected in a minor proportion of the isolates. This is the first report describing the detailed species composition and the secondary metabolite profiles of Aspergillus section Aspergillus contaminating animal feeds. PMID:26364643

  7. Taxonomic Characterization and Secondary Metabolite Profiling of Aspergillus Section Aspergillus Contaminating Feeds and Feedstuffs.

    PubMed

    Greco, Mariana; Kemppainen, Minna; Pose, Graciela; Pardo, Alejandro

    2015-09-02

    Xerophilic fungal species of the genus Aspergillus are economically highly relevant due to their ability to grow on low water activity substrates causing spoilage of stored goods and animal feeds. These fungi can synthesize a variety of secondary metabolites, many of which show animal toxicity, creating a health risk for food production animals and to humans as final consumers, respectively. Animal feeds used for rabbit, chinchilla and rainbow trout production in Argentina were analysed for the presence of xerophilic Aspergillus section Aspergillus species. High isolation frequencies (>60%) were detected in all the studied rabbit and chinchilla feeds, while the rainbow trout feeds showed lower fungal charge (25%). These section Aspergillus contaminations comprised predominantly five taxa. Twenty isolates were subjected to taxonomic characterization using both ascospore SEM micromorphology and two independent DNA loci sequencing. The secondary metabolite profiles of the isolates were determined qualitatively by HPLC-MS. All the isolates produced neoechinulin A, 17 isolates were positive for cladosporin and echinulin, and 18 were positive for neoechinulin B. Physcion and preechinulin were detected in a minor proportion of the isolates. This is the first report describing the detailed species composition and the secondary metabolite profiles of Aspergillus section Aspergillus contaminating animal feeds.

  8. Infections caused by Scedosporium spp.

    PubMed

    Cortez, Karoll J; Roilides, Emmanuel; Quiroz-Telles, Flavio; Meletiadis, Joseph; Antachopoulos, Charalampos; Knudsen, Tena; Buchanan, Wendy; Milanovich, Jeffrey; Sutton, Deanna A; Fothergill, Annette; Rinaldi, Michael G; Shea, Yvonne R; Zaoutis, Theoklis; Kottilil, Shyam; Walsh, Thomas J

    2008-01-01

    Scedosporium spp. are increasingly recognized as causes of resistant life-threatening infections in immunocompromised patients. Scedosporium spp. also cause a wide spectrum of conditions, including mycetoma, saprobic involvement and colonization of the airways, sinopulmonary infections, extrapulmonary localized infections, and disseminated infections. Invasive scedosporium infections are also associated with central nervous infection following near-drowning accidents. The most common sites of infection are the lungs, sinuses, bones, joints, eyes, and brain. Scedosporium apiospermum and Scedosporium prolificans are the two principal medically important species of this genus. Pseudallescheria boydii, the teleomorph of S. apiospermum, is recognized by the presence of cleistothecia. Recent advances in molecular taxonomy have advanced the understanding of the genus Scedosporium and have demonstrated a wider range of species than heretofore recognized. Studies of the pathogenesis of and immune response to Scedosporium spp. underscore the importance of innate host defenses in protection against these organisms. Microbiological diagnosis of Scedosporium spp. currently depends upon culture and morphological characterization. Molecular tools for clinical microbiological detection of Scedosporium spp. are currently investigational. Infections caused by S. apiospermum and P. boydii in patients and animals may respond to antifungal triazoles. By comparison, infections caused by S. prolificans seldom respond to medical therapy alone. Surgery and reversal of immunosuppression may be the only effective therapeutic options for infections caused by S. prolificans.

  9. Infections Caused by Scedosporium spp.

    PubMed Central

    Cortez, Karoll J.; Roilides, Emmanuel; Quiroz-Telles, Flavio; Meletiadis, Joseph; Antachopoulos, Charalampos; Knudsen, Tena; Buchanan, Wendy; Milanovich, Jeffrey; Sutton, Deanna A.; Fothergill, Annette; Rinaldi, Michael G.; Shea, Yvonne R.; Zaoutis, Theoklis; Kottilil, Shyam; Walsh, Thomas J.

    2008-01-01

    Scedosporium spp. are increasingly recognized as causes of resistant life-threatening infections in immunocompromised patients. Scedosporium spp. also cause a wide spectrum of conditions, including mycetoma, saprobic involvement and colonization of the airways, sinopulmonary infections, extrapulmonary localized infections, and disseminated infections. Invasive scedosporium infections are also associated with central nervous infection following near-drowning accidents. The most common sites of infection are the lungs, sinuses, bones, joints, eyes, and brain. Scedosporium apiospermum and Scedosporium prolificans are the two principal medically important species of this genus. Pseudallescheria boydii, the teleomorph of S. apiospermum, is recognized by the presence of cleistothecia. Recent advances in molecular taxonomy have advanced the understanding of the genus Scedosporium and have demonstrated a wider range of species than heretofore recognized. Studies of the pathogenesis of and immune response to Scedosporium spp. underscore the importance of innate host defenses in protection against these organisms. Microbiological diagnosis of Scedosporium spp. currently depends upon culture and morphological characterization. Molecular tools for clinical microbiological detection of Scedosporium spp. are currently investigational. Infections caused by S. apiospermum and P. boydii in patients and animals may respond to antifungal triazoles. By comparison, infections caused by S. prolificans seldom respond to medical therapy alone. Surgery and reversal of immunosuppression may be the only effective therapeutic options for infections caused by S. prolificans. PMID:18202441

  10. The biology of pulmonary aspergillus infections.

    PubMed

    Warris, Adilia

    2014-11-01

    Pulmonary aspergillus infections are mainly caused by Aspergillus fumigatus and can be classified based on clinical syndromes into saphrophytic infections, allergic disease and invasive disease. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, occurring in immunocompromised patients, reflects the most serious disease with a high case-fatality rate. Patients with cystic fibrosis and severe asthma might develop allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, while saphrophytic infections are observed in patients with lung cavities mainly due to tuberculosis. Histopathologically, a differentiation can be made into angio-invasive and airway-invasive disease. If the host response is too weak or too strong, Aspergillus species are able to cause disease characterized either by damage from the fungus itself or through an exaggerated inflammatory response of the host, in both situations leading to overt disease associated with specific clinical signs and symptoms. The unraveling of the specific host - Aspergillus interaction has not been performed to a great extent and needs attention to improve the management of those clinical syndromes. Copyright © 2014 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Genome sequence of Aspergillus luchuensis NBRC 4314

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Osamu; Machida, Masayuki; Hosoyama, Akira; Goto, Masatoshi; Takahashi, Toru; Futagami, Taiki; Yamagata, Youhei; Takeuchi, Michio; Kobayashi, Tetsuo; Koike, Hideaki; Abe, Keietsu; Asai, Kiyoshi; Arita, Masanori; Fujita, Nobuyuki; Fukuda, Kazuro; Higa, Ken-ichi; Horikawa, Hiroshi; Ishikawa, Takeaki; Jinno, Koji; Kato, Yumiko; Kirimura, Kohtaro; Mizutani, Osamu; Nakasone, Kaoru; Sano, Motoaki; Shiraishi, Yohei; Tsukahara, Masatoshi; Gomi, Katsuya

    2016-01-01

    Awamori is a traditional distilled beverage made from steamed Thai-Indica rice in Okinawa, Japan. For brewing the liquor, two microbes, local kuro (black) koji mold Aspergillus luchuensis and awamori yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are involved. In contrast, that yeasts are used for ethanol fermentation throughout the world, a characteristic of Japanese fermentation industries is the use of Aspergillus molds as a source of enzymes for the maceration and saccharification of raw materials. Here we report the draft genome of a kuro (black) koji mold, A. luchuensis NBRC 4314 (RIB 2604). The total length of nonredundant sequences was nearly 34.7 Mb, comprising approximately 2,300 contigs with 16 telomere-like sequences. In total, 11,691 genes were predicted to encode proteins. Most of the housekeeping genes, such as transcription factors and N-and O-glycosylation system, were conserved with respect to Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae. An alternative oxidase and acid-stable α-amylase regarding citric acid production and fermentation at a low pH as well as a unique glutamic peptidase were also found in the genome. Furthermore, key biosynthetic gene clusters of ochratoxin A and fumonisin B were absent when compared with A. niger genome, showing the safety of A. luchuensis for food and beverage production. This genome information will facilitate not only comparative genomics with industrial kuro-koji molds, but also molecular breeding of the molds in improvements of awamori fermentation. PMID:27651094

  12. Aspergillus spondylodiscitis in solid organ transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Li, X-F; Liu, Z-D; Xia, Q; Dai, L-Y

    2010-12-01

    Transplantation practices have had a significant effect on the epidemiology of invasive Aspergillosis. Aspergillus spondylodiscitis is rare in transplant recipients. The optimal treatment has yet to be defined because of the rarity of such cases. This article reviews the available literature on Aspergillus spondylodiscitis in solid organ transplant recipients and provides recommendations on its management. We identified 15 cases of Aspergillus spondylodiscitis in transplant recipients. Most patients were heart transplant recipients. Back pain was the mode of presentation in all patients. Most cases were afebrile. The dominant location was the lumbar spine. Aspergillus fumigatus was responsible for 84.62% of cases and A flavus for 15.38%. The overall recovery rate was 66.67%. Delay in diagnosis remained a major impediment to the successful treatment of spinal aspergillosis. Treatment included antifungal therapy alone or combined with surgery. Initial therapy with voriconazole could lead to better curative effects. Combined medical and operative interventions are recommended for treatment. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Biotransformation of Stypotriol triacetate by Aspergillus niger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Areche, Carlos; Vaca, Inmaculada; Labbe, Pamela; Soto-Delgado, Jorge; Astudillo, Luis; Silva, Mario; Rovirosa, Juana; San-Martin, Aurelio

    2011-07-01

    Biological transformation of the meroditerpenoid, stypotriol triacetate ( 1) by the fungi Aspergillus niger, Cunninghamella elegans, Gibberella fujikuroi and Mucor plumbeus was studied. The incubation of 1 with A. niger yielded the new compound 6',14-diacetoxy-stypol-4,5-dione ( 2) whose structure was established by 1H, 13C and 2D NMR and supported by DFT/GIAO.

  14. Cyclopiazonic acid biosynthesis by Aspergillus flavus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) is an indole-tetramic acid mycotoxin produced by some strains of Aspergillus flavus. Characterization of the CPA biosynthesis gene cluster confirmed that formation of CPA is via a three-enzyme pathway. This review examines the structure and organization of the CPA genes, elu...

  15. Aspergillus DNA contamination in blood collection tubes.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Elizabeth; Stalhberger, Thomas; Whelan, Ruth; Sugrue, Michele; Wingard, John R; Alexander, Barbara D; Follett, Sarah A; Bowyer, Paul; Denning, David W

    2010-08-01

    Fungal polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based diagnostic methods are at risk for contamination. Sample collection containers were investigated for fungal DNA contamination using real-time PCR assays. Up to 18% of blood collection tubes were contaminated with fungal DNA, probably Aspergillus fumigatus. Lower proportions of contamination in other vessels were observed. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Aspergillus Species and Their Associated Mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    Perrone, Giancarlo; Gallo, Antonia

    2017-01-01

    The genus Aspergillus is among the most abundant and widely distributed organism on earth, and at the moment comprises 339 known species. It is one of the most important economically fungal genus and the biotechnological use of Aspergillus species is related to production of soy sauce, of different hydrolytic enzymes (amylases, lipases) and organic acid (citric acid, gluconic acid), as well as biologically active metabolites such as lovastatin. Although they are not considered to be major cause of plant diseases, Aspergillus species are responsible for several disorders in various plants and plant products, especially as opportunistic storage moulds. The notable consequence of their presence is contamination of foods and feeds by mycotoxins, among which the most important are aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, and, at a less extent, fumonisins. Aflatoxins B 1 , B 2 , G 1 , G 2 are the most toxic and carcinogenic mycotoxins, due to their extreme hepatocarcinogenicity; ochratoxin A is a potent nephrotoxin, it is also carcinogenic, teratogenic, and immunotoxic in rats and possibly in humans; fumonisins are hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic with potential carcinogenic effects on rat and mice. In this chapter we summarize the main aspects of morphology, ecology, epidemiology, and toxigenicity of Aspergillus foodborne pathogens which belong to sections Flavi, Circumdati, and Nigri, occurring in several agricultural products and responsible of aflatoxin, ochratoxin A, and fumonisins contamination of food and feed.

  17. Commercial levels of chymosin production by Aspergillus.

    PubMed

    Dunn-Coleman, N S; Bloebaum, P; Berka, R M; Bodie, E; Robinson, N; Armstrong, G; Ward, M; Przetak, M; Carter, G L; LaCost, R

    1991-10-01

    We have increased the production of bovine chymosin in Aspergillus niger var. awamori to more than one gram per liter of secreted authentic enzyme by combining a mutagenesis protocol with a novel robotic screening program. Analysis of the superior chymosin producing strains indicated that they have enhanced capabilities to secrete extracellular proteins.

  18. Legionella spp. and Legionnaires' disease.

    PubMed

    Diederen, B M W

    2008-01-01

    Infection with Legionella spp. is an important cause of community- and hospital-acquired pneumonia, occurring both sporadically and in outbreaks. Infection with Legionella spp. ranks among the three most common causes of severe pneumonia in the community setting, and is isolated in 1-40% of cases of hospital-acquired pneumonia. There are no clinical features unique to Legionnaires' disease. Macrolides and fluoroquinolones are the most widely used drugs in treatment. The availability of a good diagnostic repertoire, suitable for accurately diagnosing LD, constitutes the basis for the early recognition and treatment of the individual patient as well as for effective measures for prevention and control. This review summarizes the available information regarding the microbiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment of LD, with an emphasis on the laboratory diagnosis of infection with Legionella spp.

  19. Aspergillus niger contains the cryptic phylogenetic species A. awamori.

    PubMed

    Perrone, Giancarlo; Stea, Gaetano; Epifani, Filomena; Varga, János; Frisvad, Jens C; Samson, Robert A

    2011-11-01

    Aspergillus section Nigri is an important group of species for food and medical mycology, and biotechnology. The Aspergillus niger 'aggregate' represents its most complicated taxonomic subgroup containing eight morphologically indistinguishable taxa: A. niger, Aspergillus tubingensis, Aspergillus acidus, Aspergillus brasiliensis, Aspergillus costaricaensis, Aspergillus lacticoffeatus, Aspergillus piperis, and Aspergillus vadensis. Aspergillus awamori, first described by Nakazawa, has been compared taxonomically with other black aspergilli and recently it has been treated as a synonym of A. niger. Phylogenetic analyses of sequences generated from portions of three genes coding for the proteins β-tubulin (benA), calmodulin (CaM), and the translation elongation factor-1 alpha (TEF-1α) of a population of A. niger strains isolated from grapes in Europe revealed the presence of a cryptic phylogenetic species within this population, A. awamori. Morphological, physiological, ecological and chemical data overlap occurred between A. niger and the cryptic A. awamori, however the splitting of these two species was also supported by AFLP analysis of the full genome. Isolates in both phylospecies can produce the mycotoxins ochratoxin A and fumonisin B₂, and they also share the production of pyranonigrin A, tensidol B, funalenone, malformins, and naphtho-γ-pyrones. In addition, sequence analysis of four putative A. awamori strains from Japan, used in the koji industrial fermentation, revealed that none of these strains belong to the A. awamori phylospecies. Copyright © 2011 British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles by the fungus Arthroderma fulvum and its antifungal activity against genera of Candida, Aspergillus and Fusarium

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Baiji; He, Dan; Gao, Song; Wang, Dongyang; Yokoyama, Koji; Wang, Li

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to find one or more fungal strains that could be utilized to biosynthesize antifungal silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Using morphological and molecular methods, Arthroderma fulvum was identified as the most effective fungal strain for synthesizing AgNPs. The UV–visible range showed a single peak at 420 nm, which corresponded to the surface plasmon absorbance of AgNPs. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that the biosynthesized AgNPs were crystalline in nature with an average diameter of 15.5±2.5 nm. Numerous factors could potentially affect the process of biosynthesis, and the main factors are discussed here. Optimization results showed that substrate concentration of 1.5 mM, alkaline pH, reaction temperature of 55°C, and reaction time of 10 hours were the optimum conditions for AgNP biosynthesis. Biosynthesized AgNPs showed considerable activity against the tested fungal strains, including Candida spp., Aspergillus spp., and Fusarium spp., especially Candida spp. PMID:27217752

  1. Occurrence of Campylobacter spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. in seagulls (Larus spp.).

    PubMed

    Moore, John E; Gilpin, Deidre; Crothers, Elizabeth; Canney, Anne; Kaneko, Aki; Matsuda, Motoo

    2002-01-01

    An investigation was carried out into the prevalence of thermophilic Campylobacter subspecies (spp.) and Cryptosporidium spp. in fresh fecal specimens collected from members of the gull family (Larus spp.) from three coastal locations of Northern Ireland. A total of 205 fresh fecal specimens were collected from gulls, of which 28 of 205 (13.7%) were positive for Campylobacter spp. and none of 205 for Cryptosporidium spp. Of these campylobacters, 21 of 28 (75%) isolates obtained belonged to the urease-positive thermophilic Campylobacter (UPTC) taxon, followed by five of 28 (17.9%) Campylobacter lari and 2/28 (7.1%) Campylobacter jejuni. It is significant that seagulls are the sole warm-blooded animal host of this bacterial taxon in Northern Ireland. It is proposed that physiological adaptation to starvation by gulls may lead to increased concentrations of urea through energy production from protein, yielding increased levels of urea for metabolism by UPTC organisms. In general, the possibility exists that environmental contamination of surface waters with campylobacters might be mediated by wild birds (such as gulls), where such waters are used for recreational purposes or where such waters are consumed untreated, might represent a risk to public health.

  2. GROWTH EVALUATION OF FUNGI (PENICILLIUM AND ASPERGILLUS SPP.) ON CEILING TILES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of an evaluation of the potential for fungal growth on four different ceiling tiles in static chambers. It was found that even new ceiling tiles supported fungal growth under favorable conditions. Used ceiling tiles appeared to be more susceptible to funga...

  3. Genotypic and phenotypic diversity in tropical strains of Aspergillus spp. (section Circumdati) isolated from insects.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Aurea; Holanda, Veronica; Zahner, Viviane

    2006-04-01

    The morphology, multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE), and RAPD-PCR profiles of a panel of 63 strains of Aspergilus section Circumdati, all isoloated from Brazilian insects, were examined. When compared to the descriptions reported in the literature, differences were observed in terms of colony diameter for the representatives studies. Numerical taxonomy based on data generated by MLEE identified two distinct subgroups among the A. ochraceus isolates. In addition, phosphoglucose isomerase (GPI-1) was detected only in A. sclerotiorum, while phosphofructokinase (FK-1) and acid phosphatase (ACP-2) were present only in strains of A. sulphureus, suggesting that these alleles (bands) could be used for species-specific detection. Using RAPD-PCR, species-specific molecular markers were identified for both A. petrakii and A. sulphureus. These results are important from the taxonomic viewpoint and may also be used in the design of screening programs for the isoloation of new strains.

  4. Fungi in healthy and diseased sea fans ( Gorgonia ventalina): is Aspergillus sydowii always the pathogen?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toledo-Hernández, C.; Zuluaga-Montero, A.; Bones-González, A.; Rodríguez, J. A.; Sabat, A. M.; Bayman, P.

    2008-09-01

    Caribbean corals, including sea fans ( Gorgonia spp.), are being affected by severe and apparently new diseases. In the case of sea fans, the pathogen is reported to be the fungus Aspergillus sydowii, and the disease is named aspergillosis. In order to understand coral diseases and pathogens, knowledge of the microbes associated with healthy corals is also necessary. In this study the fungal community of healthy Gorgonia ventalina colonies was contrasted with that of diseased colonies. In addition, the fungal community of healthy and diseased tissue within colonies with aspergillosis was contrasted. Fungi were isolated from healthy and diseased fans from 15 reefs around Puerto Rico, and identified by sequencing the nuclear ribosomal ITS region and by morphology. Thirty fungal species belonging to 15 genera were isolated from 203 G. ventalina colonies. Penicillum and Aspergillus were the most common genera isolated from both healthy and diseased fans. However, the fungal community of healthy fans was distinct and more diverse than that of diseased ones. Within diseased fans, fungal communities from diseased tissues were distinct and more diverse than from healthy tissue. The reduction of fungi in diseased colonies may occur prior to infection due to environmental changes affecting the host, or after infection due to increase in dominance of the pathogen, or because of host responses to infection. Data also indicate that the fungal community of an entire sea fan colony is affected even when only a small portion of the colony suffers from aspergillosis. An unexpected result was that A. sydowii was found in healthy sea fans but never in diseased ones. This result suggests that A. sydowii is not the pathogen causing aspergillosis in the studied colonies, and suggests several fungi common to healthy and diseased colonies as opportunistic pathogens. Given that it is not clear that Aspergillus is the sole pathogen, calling this disease aspergillosis is an

  5. Characterization of Aspergillus sojae Isolated from Meju, Korean Traditional Fermented Soybean Brick.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung Min; Lim, Jaeho; Lee, Jae Jung; Hurh, Byung-Serk; Lee, Inhyung

    2017-02-28

    Initially, we screened 18 Aspergillus sojae -like strains from Aspergillus spp. isolated from meju (Korean traditional fermented soybean brick) according to their morphological characteristics. Because members of Aspergillus section Flavi are often incorrectly identified because of their phylogenetic similarity, we re-identified these strains at the morphological and molecular genetic levels. Fourteen strains were finally identified as A. sojae . The isolates produced protease and α-amylase with ranges of 2.66-10.64 and 21.53-106.73 unit/g-initial dry substrate (U/g-IDS), respectively, which were equivalent to those of the koji (starter mold) strains employed to produce Japanese soy sauce. Among the isolates and Japanese koji strains, strains SMF 127 and SMF 131 had the highest leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) activities at 6.00 and 6.06 U/g-IDS, respectively. LAP plays an important role in flavor development because of the production of low-molecular-weight peptides that affect the taste and decrease bitterness. SMF 127 and SMF 131 appeared to be non-aflatoxigenic because of a termination point mutation in aflR and the lack of the polyketide synthase gene found in other A. sojae strains. In addition, SMF 127 and SMF 131 were not cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) producers because of the deletion of maoA , dmaT , and pks/nrps , which are involved in CPA biosynthesis. Therefore, A. sojae strains such as SMF 127 and SMF 131, which have high protease and LAP activities and are free of safety issues, can be considered good starters for soybean fermentations, such as in the production of the Korean fermented soybean products meju, doenjang, and ganjang.

  6. Biotechnological advances for combating Aspergillus flavus and aflatoxin contamination in crops.

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar-Mathur, Pooja; Sunkara, Sowmini; Bhatnagar-Panwar, Madhurima; Waliyar, Farid; Sharma, Kiran Kumar

    2015-05-01

    Aflatoxins are toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic and immunosuppressive byproducts of Aspergillus spp. that contaminate a wide range of crops such as maize, peanut, and cotton. Aflatoxin not only affects crop production but renders the produce unfit for consumption and harmful to human and livestock health, with stringent threshold limits of acceptability. In many crops, breeding for resistance is not a reliable option because of the limited availability of genotypes with durable resistance to Aspergillus. Understanding the fungal/crop/environment interactions involved in aflatoxin contamination is therefore essential in designing measures for its prevention and control. For a sustainable solution to aflatoxin contamination, research must be focused on identifying and improving knowledge of host-plant resistance factors to aflatoxin accumulation. Current advances in genetic transformation, proteomics, RNAi technology, and marker-assisted selection offer great potential in minimizing pre-harvest aflatoxin contamination in cultivated crop species. Moreover, developing effective phenotyping strategies for transgenic as well as precision breeding of resistance genes into commercial varieties is critical. While appropriate storage practices can generally minimize post-harvest aflatoxin contamination in crops, the use of biotechnology to interrupt the probability of pre-harvest infection and contamination has the potential to provide sustainable solution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. First Report of an Atypical New Aspergillus parasiticus Isolates with Nucleotides Insertion in aflR Gene Identical to Aspergillus sojae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aflatoxins are toxic and carcinogenic secondary metabolites produced primarily by the filamentous fungi Aspergillus favus and Aspergillus parasitic and cause toxin contamination in food chain worldwide. Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus sojae are highly valued as koji molds in the traditional prep...

  8. Effect of potassium sorbate (E-202) and the antifungal PgAFP protein on Aspergillus carbonarius growth and ochratoxin A production in raisin simulating media.

    PubMed

    Fodil, Sihem; Delgado, Josué; Varvaro, Leonardo; Yaseen, Thaer; Rodríguez, Alicia

    2018-05-13

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin produced by several species of Aspergillus and Penicillium fungi. The presence of OTA in raisins is mainly related to the black Aspergillus spp. contamination. This toxin poses risks to human and animal health due to their high toxicity and carcinogenicity. Therefore, new strategies to avoid the risk associated to OTA are necessary. In the present study, a comparison between the effects of the antifungal protein PgAFP and potassium sorbate (E-202), on the growth of Aspergillus carbonarius, biosynthetic- and stress-related gene expression and its OTA production at two water activity (a w ) levels 0.95 and 0.93 a w , was carried out. The results showed that PgAFP successfully controlled OTA production, whereas E-202, although was able to decrease Aspergillus carbonarius growth, caused a significant increase in OTA production by the fungus. PgAFP protein, a biological compound with an antifungal activity, is safer to use compared to E-202 and may be proposed as a food preservative and a useful biocontrol strategy to control ochratoxigenic A. carbonarius in raisins. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Global population structure and adaptive evolution of aflatoxin-producing fungi

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We employed interspecific principal component analyses for six different categories (geography, species, precipitation, temperature, aflatoxin chemotype profile, and mating type) and inferred maximum likelihood phylogenies for six combined loci, including two aflatoxin cluster regions (aflM/alfN and...

  10. [Isolation of Listeria spp., Aeromonas spp., and Vibrio spp. from seafood products].

    PubMed

    Scoglio, M E; Di Pietro, A; Mauro, A; Picerno, I; Laganà, P; Delia, S A

    2000-01-01

    Forty-one strains of Listeria, Aeromonas and Vibrio have been isolated in 71 samples of seafood, both raw and ready to eat and frozen. L. monocytogenes, detected by PCR also, is found in the smoked salmon only. Aeromonas spp. and Vibrio spp. are isolated in the raw products (shrimps and shellfish). No relationship is found between the presence of such microrganisms and the common indicator bacteria. Finally, the health hazard related to strong contamination and the need to diversify the food safety assurance programmes, for the various products, are underlined.

  11. Aspergillus vertebral osteomyelitis and ureteral obstruction after liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, L-P; Chen, X-S; Wu, J-Q; Yang, F-F; Weng, X-H

    2011-04-01

    Aspergillus osteomyelitis has been reported as a result of dissemination in solid organ transplant recipients. Vertebral osteomyelitis is one of the most common forms of Aspergillus osteomyelitis. An Aspergillus fungal ball is a rare cause of ureteral obstruction. We describe an unusual case of simultaneous vertebral osteomyelitis and ureteral obstruction caused by A. flavus in a hepatic transplant recipient, who was successfully treated with sequential intravenous and oral itraconazole solution. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  12. Spinal cord aspergillus invasion--complication of an aspergilloma.

    PubMed

    Sheth, N K; Varkey, B; Wagner, D K

    1985-12-01

    Acute paraplegia developed in a 53-year-old man with pulmonary aspergilloma because of contiguous extension of Aspergillus infection to the epidural and subdural spaces and spinal cord. Histopathologic findings of the spinal cord showed Aspergillus hyphae penetrating the myelin sheath and myelomalacia, predominantly in the anterior and lateral columns. To the authors' knowledge, there have been no previous descriptions or illustrations of spinal cord involvement and the pathologic changes caused by Aspergillus infection.

  13. Ecology of aspergillosis: insights into the pathogenic potency of Aspergillus fumigatus and some other Aspergillus species.

    PubMed

    Paulussen, Caroline; Hallsworth, John E; Álvarez-Pérez, Sergio; Nierman, William C; Hamill, Philip G; Blain, David; Rediers, Hans; Lievens, Bart

    2017-03-01

    Fungi of the genus Aspergillus are widespread in the environment. Some Aspergillus species, most commonly Aspergillus fumigatus, may lead to a variety of allergic reactions and life-threatening systemic infections in humans. Invasive aspergillosis occurs primarily in patients with severe immunodeficiency, and has dramatically increased in recent years. There are several factors at play that contribute to aspergillosis, including both fungus and host-related factors such as strain virulence and host pulmonary structure/immune status, respectively. The environmental tenacity of Aspergilllus, its dominance in diverse microbial communities/habitats, and its ability to navigate the ecophysiological and biophysical challenges of host infection are attributable, in large part, to a robust stress-tolerance biology and exceptional capacity to generate cell-available energy. Aspects of its stress metabolism, ecology, interactions with diverse animal hosts, clinical presentations and treatment regimens have been well-studied over the past years. Here, we synthesize these findings in relation to the way in which some Aspergillus species have become successful opportunistic pathogens of human- and other animal hosts. We focus on the biophysical capabilities of Aspergillus pathogens, key aspects of their ecophysiology and the flexibility to undergo a sexual cycle or form cryptic species. Additionally, recent advances in diagnosis of the disease are discussed as well as implications in relation to questions that have yet to be resolved. © 2016 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. Comparative systems analysis of the secretome of the opportunistic pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus and other Aspergillus species.

    PubMed

    Vivek-Ananth, R P; Mohanraj, Karthikeyan; Vandanashree, Muralidharan; Jhingran, Anupam; Craig, James P; Samal, Areejit

    2018-04-26

    Aspergillus fumigatus and multiple other Aspergillus species cause a wide range of lung infections, collectively termed aspergillosis. Aspergilli are ubiquitous in environment with healthy immune systems routinely eliminating inhaled conidia, however, Aspergilli can become an opportunistic pathogen in immune-compromised patients. The aspergillosis mortality rate and emergence of drug-resistance reveals an urgent need to identify novel targets. Secreted and cell membrane proteins play a critical role in fungal-host interactions and pathogenesis. Using a computational pipeline integrating data from high-throughput experiments and bioinformatic predictions, we have identified secreted and cell membrane proteins in ten Aspergillus species known to cause aspergillosis. Small secreted and effector-like proteins similar to agents of fungal-plant pathogenesis were also identified within each secretome. A comparison with humans revealed that at least 70% of Aspergillus secretomes have no sequence similarity with the human proteome. An analysis of antigenic qualities of Aspergillus proteins revealed that the secretome is significantly more antigenic than cell membrane proteins or the complete proteome. Finally, overlaying an expression dataset, four A. fumigatus proteins upregulated during infection and with available structures, were found to be structurally similar to known drug target proteins in other organisms, and were able to dock in silico with the respective drug.

  15. Aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus strains in Hungarian maize fields.

    PubMed

    Sebők, Flóra; Dobolyi, Csaba; Zágoni, Dóra; Risa, Anita; Krifaton, Csilla; Hartman, Mátyás; Cserháti, Mátyás; Szoboszlay, Sándor; Kriszt, Balázs

    2016-12-01

    Due to the climate change, aflatoxigenic Aspergillus species and strains have appeared in several European countries, contaminating different agricultural commodities with aflatoxin. Our aim was to screen the presence of aflatoxigenic fungi in maize fields throughout the seven geographic regions of Hungary. Fungi belonging to Aspergillus section Flavi were isolated in the ratio of 26.9% and 42.3% from soil and maize samples in 2013, and these ratios decreased to 16.1% and 34.7% in 2014. Based on morphological characteristics and the sequence analysis of the partial calmodulin gene, all isolates proved to be Aspergillus flavus, except four strains, which were identified as Aspergillus parasiticus. About half of the A. flavus strains and all the A. parasiticus strains were able to synthesize aflatoxins. Aflatoxigenic Aspergillus strains were isolated from all the seven regions of Hungary. A. parasiticus strains were found in the soil of the regions Southern Great Plain and Southern Transdanubia and in a maize sample of the region Western Transdanubia. In spite of the fact that aflatoxins have rarely been detected in feeds and foods in Hungary, aflatoxigenic A. flavus and A. parasiticus strains are present in the maize culture throughout Hungary posing a potential threat to food safety.

  16. Aspergillus thyroiditis in a renal transplant recipient mimicking subacute thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Solak, Y; Atalay, H; Nar, A; Ozbek, O; Turkmen, K; Erekul, S; Turk, S

    2011-04-01

    Fungal pathogens are increasingly encountered after renal transplantation. Aspergillus causes significant morbidity and mortality in transplant patients. Fungal thyroiditis is a rare occurrence owing to unique features of the thyroid gland. Most cases are caused by Aspergillus species and have been described in immunocompromised patients. Presentation may be identical with that of subacute thyroiditis, in which hyperthyroidism features and painful thyroid are the prominent findings. Diagnosis can be ascertained by fine-needle aspiration of thyroid showing branching hyphae of Aspergillus. We describe a renal transplant patient who developed Aspergillus thyroiditis as part of a disseminated infection successfully treated with voriconazole. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. Pathogenesis of Aspergillus fumigatus in Invasive Aspergillosis.

    PubMed

    Dagenais, Taylor R T; Keller, Nancy P

    2009-07-01

    Aspergillus species are globally ubiquitous saprophytes found in a variety of ecological niches. Almost 200 species of aspergilli have been identified, less than 20 of which are known to cause human disease. Among them, Aspergillus fumigatus is the most prevalent and is largely responsible for the increased incidence of invasive aspergillosis (IA) in the immunocompromised patient population. IA is a devastating illness, with mortality rates in some patient groups reaching as high as 90%. Studies identifying and assessing the roles of specific factors of A. fumigatus that contribute to the pathogenesis of IA have traditionally focused on single-gene deletion and mutant characterization. In combination with recent large-scale approaches analyzing global fungal responses to distinct environmental or host conditions, these studies have identified many factors that contribute to the overall pathogenic potential of A. fumigatus. Here, we provide an overview of the significant findings regarding A. fumigatus pathogenesis as it pertains to invasive disease.

  18. Aspergillus bertholletius sp. nov. from Brazil Nuts

    PubMed Central

    Taniwaki, Marta H.; Pitt, John I.; Iamanaka, Beatriz T.; Sartori, Daniele; Copetti, Marina V.; Balajee, Arun; Fungaro, Maria Helena P.; Frisvad, Jens C.

    2012-01-01

    During a study on the mycobiota of brazil nuts (Bertholletia excelsa) in Brazil, a new Aspergillus species, A. bertholletius, was found, and is described here. A polyphasic approach was applied using morphological characters, extrolite data as well as partial β-tubulin, calmodulin and ITS sequences to characterize this taxon. A. bertholletius is represented by nineteen isolates from samples of brazil nuts at various stages of production and soil close to Bertholletia excelsa trees. The following extrolites were produced by this species: aflavinin, cyclopiazonic acid, kojic acid, tenuazonic acid and ustilaginoidin C. Phylogenetic analysis using partial β-tubulin and camodulin gene sequences showed that A. bertholletius represents a new phylogenetic clade in Aspergillus section Flavi. The type strain of A. bertholletius is CCT 7615 ( = ITAL 270/06 = IBT 29228). PMID:22952594

  19. Aspergillus vertebral osteomyelitis and epidural abscess.

    PubMed

    Tew, C W; Han, F C; Jureen, R; Tey, B H

    2009-04-01

    We present the first reported case of Aspergillus vertebral osteomyelitis and epidural abscess in Singapore in a 50-year-old man with post-tuberculous bronchiectasis. The patient presented with acute urinary retention and flaccid paraplegia. Despite surgical debridement and treatment with voriconazole, the patient developed multiorgan failure and died two weeks after presentation. Early diagnosis and prompt initiation of treatment are emphasised in the hope of improving the outcome of this aggressive condition.

  20. Comparative Reannotation of 21 Aspergillus Genomes

    SciTech Connect

    Salamov, Asaf; Riley, Robert; Kuo, Alan

    2013-03-08

    We used comparative gene modeling to reannotate 21 Aspergillus genomes. Initial automatic annotation of individual genomes may contain some errors of different nature, e.g. missing genes, incorrect exon-intron structures, 'chimeras', which fuse 2 or more real genes or alternatively splitting some real genes into 2 or more models. The main premise behind the comparative modeling approach is that for closely related genomes most orthologous families have the same conserved gene structure. The algorithm maps all gene models predicted in each individual Aspergillus genome to the other genomes and, for each locus, selects from potentially many competing models, the one whichmore » most closely resembles the orthologous genes from other genomes. This procedure is iterated until no further change in gene models is observed. For Aspergillus genomes we predicted in total 4503 new gene models ( ~;;2percent per genome), supported by comparative analysis, additionally correcting ~;;18percent of old gene models. This resulted in a total of 4065 more genes with annotated PFAM domains (~;;3percent increase per genome). Analysis of a few genomes with EST/transcriptomics data shows that the new annotation sets also have a higher number of EST-supported splice sites at exon-intron boundaries.« less

  1. Aspergillus serology: Have we arrived yet?

    PubMed

    Richardson, Malcolm D; Page, Iain D

    2017-01-01

    Aspergillosis presents in various clinical forms, among them chronic pulmonary aspergillosis, which is a spectrum of disease entities including aspergilloma, chronic cavitary pulmonary aspergillosis, and chronic fibrosing pulmonary aspergillosis. Aspergillus also contributes to fungal allergy and sensitization. Analysis of the immune response to Aspergillus and its antigens is an integral part of the diagnosis of these diseases. Over the past half century, the techniques used to determine antibody titers have evolved from testing for precipitating and agglutinating antibodies by agar gel double diffusion and immunolectrophoresis to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays using recombinant proteins as capture antigens. A resurgence of interest in the detection of immunoglobulins, primarily Aspergillus-specific IgG, has hinted at the possibility of distinguishing between colonization and invasion in immunocompromised patients with invasive aspergillosis. Even though there appears to be a greater degree of discrimination between the clinical forms of aspergillosis there is still a long way to travel. This review presents illustrative examples of where new diagnostic platforms and technologies have been applied to this intriguing spectrum of diseases. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Antibiotic Extraction as a Recent Biocontrol Method for Aspergillus Niger andAspergillus Flavus Fungi in Ancient Egyptian mural paintings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemdan, R. Elmitwalli; Fatma, Helmi M.; Rizk, Mohammed A.; Hagrassy, Abeer F.

    Biodeterioration of mural paintings by Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus Fungi has been proved in different mural paintings in Egypt nowadays. Several researches have studied the effect of fungi on mural paintings, the mechanism of interaction and methods of control. But none of these researches gives us the solution without causing a side effect. In this paper, for the first time, a recent treatment by antibiotic "6 penthyl α pyrone phenol" was applied as a successful technique for elimination of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus. On the other hand, it is favorable for cleaning Surfaces of Murals executed by tembera technique from the fungi metabolism which caused a black pigments on surfaces.

  3. High-yields heterologous production of the novel Aspergillus fumigatus elastase inhibitor AFUEI in Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Nobuo; Komori, Yumiko; Okumura, Yoshiyuki; Uchiya, Kei-Ichi; Matsui, Takeshi; Nishimura, Akira; Ogawa, Kenji; Nikai, Toshiaki

    2011-08-01

    AFUEI, an elastase inhibitor produced by Aspergillus fumigatus strongly inhibits the elastolytic activity of A. fumigatus etc. To purify AFUEI, we constructed a strain that overproduces AFUEI by introducing the gene encoding AFUEI (Genbank accession no. AB546725) under control of the amyB promoter into the heterologous host Aspergillus oryzae. A. oryzae TF-4 displayed strong elastase inhibitory activity and produced considerably more AFUEI than that of A. fumigatus. Furthermore, AFUEI could be purified using culture broth and single ultrafiltration (UF) treatment, allowing for the effective production of AFUEI for use in clinical trials. Copyright © 2011 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Rafflesia spp.: propagation and conservation.

    PubMed

    Wicaksono, Adhityo; Mursidawati, Sofi; Sukamto, Lazarus A; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A

    2016-08-01

    The propagation of Rafflesia spp. is considered to be important for future development of ornamental and other applications. Thus far, the only successful propagation technique has been grafting. This mini-review succinctly emphasizes what is known about Rafflesia species. Members of the genus Rafflesia (Rafflesiaceae), which are holoparasitic plants known to grow on a host vine, Tetrastigma sp., are widely spread from the Malayan Peninsula to various islands throughout Indonesia. The plant's geographical distribution as well as many other aspects pertaining to the basic biology of this genus have still not been studied. The young flower buds and flowers of wild Rafflesia hasseltii Suringar, Rafflesia keithii Meijer and Rafflesia cantleyi Solms-Laubach are used in local (Malaysia and Indonesia) traditional ethnomedicine as wound-healing agents, but currently no formal published research exists to validate this property. To maintain a balance between its ethnomedicinal and ornamental use, and conservation, Rafflesia spp. must be artificially cultivated to prevent overexploitation. A successful method of vegetative propagation is by host grafting using Rafflesia-impregnated Tetrastigma onto the stem of a normal Tetrastigma plant. Due to difficulties with culture contamination in vitro, callus induction was only accomplished in 2010 for the first time when picloram and 2,4-D were added to a basal Murashige and Skoog medium, and the tissue culture of holoparasitic plants continues to be extremely difficult. Seeds harvested from fertile fruit may serve as a possible method to propagate Rafflesia spp. This paper provides a brief synthesis on what is known about research related to Rafflesia spp. The objective is to further stimulate researchers to examine, through rigorous scientific discovery, the mechanisms underlying the ethnomedicinal properties, the flowering mechanisms, and suitable in vitro regeneration protocols that would allow for the fortification of germplasm

  5. Aspergillus species and other molds in respiratory samples from patients with cystic fibrosis: a laboratory-based study with focus on Aspergillus fumigatus azole resistance.

    PubMed

    Mortensen, Klaus Leth; Jensen, Rasmus Hare; Johansen, Helle Krogh; Skov, Marianne; Pressler, Tacjana; Howard, Susan Julie; Leatherbarrow, Howard; Mellado, Emilia; Arendrup, Maiken Cavling

    2011-06-01

    Respiratory tract colonization by molds in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) were analyzed, with particular focus on the frequency, genotype, and underlying mechanism of azole resistance among Aspergillus fumigatus isolates. Clinical and demographic data were also analyzed. A total of 3,336 respiratory samples from 287 CF patients were collected during two 6-month periods in 2007 and 2009. Azole resistance was detected using an itraconazole screening agar (4 mg/liter) and the EUCAST method. cyp51A gene sequencing and microsatellite genotyping were performed for isolates from patients harboring azole-resistant A. fumigatus. Aspergillus spp. were present in 145 patients (51%), of whom 63 (22%) were persistently colonized. Twelve patients (4%) harbored other molds. Persistently colonized patients were older, provided more samples, and more often had a chronic bacterial infection. Six of 133 patients (4.5%) harbored azole-nonsusceptible or -resistant A. fumigatus isolates, and five of those six patients had isolates with Cyp51A alterations (M220K, tandem repeat [TR]/L98H, TR/L98H-S297T-F495I, M220I-V101F, and Y431C). All six patients were previously exposed to azoles. Genotyping revealed (i) microevolution for A. fumigatus isolates received consecutively over the 2-year period, (ii) susceptible and resistant isolates (not involving TR/L98H isolates) with identical or very closely related genotypes (two patients), and (iii) two related susceptible isolates and a third unrelated resistant isolate with a unique genotype and the TR/L98H resistance combination (one patient). Aspergilli were frequently found in Danish CF patients, with 4.5% of the A. fumigatus isolates being azole nonsusceptible or resistant. Genotyping suggested selection of resistance in the patient as well as resistance being achieved in the environment.

  6. The biology of Giardia spp.

    PubMed Central

    Adam, R D

    1991-01-01

    Gardia spp. are flagellated protozoans that parasitize the small intestines of mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians. The infectious cysts begin excysting in the acidic environment of the stomach and become trophozoites (the vegetative form). The trophozoites attach to the intestinal mucosa through the suction generated by a ventral disk and cause diarrhea and malabsorption by mechanisms that are not well understood. Giardia spp. have a number of unique features, including a predominantly anaerobic metabolism, complete dependence on salvage of exogenous nucleotides, a limited ability to synthesize and degrade carbohydrates and lipids, and two nuclei that are equal by all criteria that have been tested. The small size and unique sequence of G. lamblia rRNA molecules have led to the proposal that Giardia is the most primitive eukaryotic organism. Three Giardia spp. have been identified by light lamblia, G. muris, and G. agilis, but electron microscopy has allowed further species to be described within the G. lamblia group, some of which have been substantiated by differences in the rDNA. Animal models and human infections have led to the conclusion that intestinal infection is controlled primarily through the humoral immune system (T-cell dependent in the mouse model). A major immunogenic cysteine-rich surface antigen is able to vary in vitro and in vivo in the course of an infection and may provide a means of evading the host immune response or perhaps a means of adapting to different intestinal environments. Images PMID:1779932

  7. Allergens/Antigens, toxins and polyketides of important Aspergillus species.

    PubMed

    Bhetariya, Preetida J; Madan, Taruna; Basir, Seemi Farhat; Varma, Anupam; Usha, Sarma P

    2011-04-01

    The medical, agricultural and biotechnological importance of the primitive eukaryotic microorganisms, the Fungi was recognized way back in 1920. Among various groups of fungi, the Aspergillus species are studied in great detail using advances in genomics and proteomics to unravel biological and molecular mechanisms in these fungi. Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus parasiticus, Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus terreus are some of the important species relevant to human, agricultural and biotechnological applications. The potential of Aspergillus species to produce highly diversified complex biomolecules such as multifunctional proteins (allergens, antigens, enzymes) and polyketides is fascinating and demands greater insight into the understanding of these fungal species for application to human health. Recently a regulator gene for secondary metabolites, LaeA has been identified. Gene mining based on LaeA has facilitated new metabolites with antimicrobial activity such as emericellamides and antitumor activity such as terrequinone A from A. nidulans. Immunoproteomic approach was reported for identification of few novel allergens for A. fumigatus. In this context, the review is focused on recent developments in allergens, antigens, structural and functional diversity of the polyketide synthases that produce polyketides of pharmaceutical and biological importance. Possible antifungal drug targets for development of effective antifungal drugs and new strategies for development of molecular diagnostics are considered.

  8. Serum galactomannan in cystic fibrosis patients colonized with Aspergillus species.

    PubMed

    Warren, Thomas A; Yau, Yvonne; Ratjen, Felix; Tullis, Elizabeth; Waters, Valerie

    2012-08-01

    Cystic fibrosis patients are often colonized by Aspergillus species. Sera from 138 pediatric and adult cystic fibrosis patients were tested for the presence of galactomannan. All serum samples were negative for galactomannan and there was no difference among patients who were chronically, intermittently, and never colonized with Aspergillus.

  9. Phylogeny, identification and nomenclature of the genus Aspergillus

    PubMed Central

    Samson, R.A.; Visagie, C.M.; Houbraken, J.; Hong, S.-B.; Hubka, V.; Klaassen, C.H.W.; Perrone, G.; Seifert, K.A.; Susca, A.; Tanney, J.B.; Varga, J.; Kocsubé, S.; Szigeti, G.; Yaguchi, T.; Frisvad, J.C.

    2014-01-01

    Aspergillus comprises a diverse group of species based on morphological, physiological and phylogenetic characters, which significantly impact biotechnology, food production, indoor environments and human health. Aspergillus was traditionally associated with nine teleomorph genera, but phylogenetic data suggest that together with genera such as Polypaecilum, Phialosimplex, Dichotomomyces and Cristaspora, Aspergillus forms a monophyletic clade closely related to Penicillium. Changes in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants resulted in the move to one name per species, meaning that a decision had to be made whether to keep Aspergillus as one big genus or to split it into several smaller genera. The International Commission of Penicillium and Aspergillus decided to keep Aspergillus instead of using smaller genera. In this paper, we present the arguments for this decision. We introduce new combinations for accepted species presently lacking an Aspergillus name and provide an updated accepted species list for the genus, now containing 339 species. To add to the scientific value of the list, we include information about living ex-type culture collection numbers and GenBank accession numbers for available representative ITS, calmodulin, β-tubulin and RPB2 sequences. In addition, we recommend a standard working technique for Aspergillus and propose calmodulin as a secondary identification marker. PMID:25492982

  10. Genomic Islands in Pathogenic Filamentous Fungus Aspergillus fumigatus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We present the genome sequences of a new clinical isolate, CEA10, of an important human pathogen, Aspergillus fumigatus, and two closely related, but rarely pathogenic species, Neosartorya fischeri NRRL181 and Aspergillus clavatus NRRL1. Comparative genomic analysis of CEA10 with the recently sequen...

  11. Sexual reproduction in Aspergillus tubingensis from section Nigri

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A sclerotium-forming member of Aspergillus section Nigri was sampled from a population in a single field in North Carolina, USA, and identified as A. tubingensis based on genealogical concordance analysis. Aspergillus tubingensis was shown to be heterothallic, with individual strains containing ei...

  12. Fatal coinfection with Legionella pneumophila serogroup 8 and Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Guillouzouic, Aurélie; Bemer, Pascale; Gay-Andrieu, Françoise; Bretonnière, Cédric; Lepelletier, Didier; Mahé, Pierre-Joachim; Villers, Daniel; Jarraud, Sophie; Reynaud, Alain; Corvec, Stéphane

    2008-02-01

    Legionella pneumophila is an important cause of community-acquired and nosocomial pneumonia. We report on a patient who simultaneously developed L. pneumophila serogroup 8 pneumonia and Aspergillus fumigatus lung abscesses. Despite appropriate treatments, Aspergillus disease progressed with metastasis. Coinfections caused by L. pneumophila and A. fumigatus remain exceptional. In apparently immunocompetent patients, corticosteroid therapy is a key risk factor for aspergillosis.

  13. Unique antimicrobial spectrum of ophiobolin K produced by Aspergillus ustus.

    PubMed

    Sohsomboon, Natthapat; Kanzaki, Hiroshi; Nitoda, Teruhiko

    2018-03-01

    A co-cultivation study of two fungal strains showed that Aspergillus ustus could inhibit Aspergillus repens growth. The bioactive compound responsible for the observed activity was purified and identified as a sesterterpene, ophiobolin K. Ophiobolin K exhibited marked inhibition against both fungi and bacteria, especially A. repens, A. glaucus and gram-positive bacteria including Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Micrococcus luteus.

  14. Activity of voriconazole (UK-109,496) against clinical isolates of Aspergillus species and its effectiveness in an experimental model of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis.

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, M; Bernard, E M; Ishimaru, T; Armstrong, D

    1997-01-01

    Voriconazole, a new azole antifungal agent, showed potent activity against clinical isolates of Aspergillus spp. in vitro. For A. fumigatus, the MIC range was < 0.03 to 0.5 microgram/ml and the MIC at which 90% of isolates are inhibited was 0.25 microgram/ml. In an experimental model of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis which mimics infection in humans, oral voriconazole at dosages of 30 mg/kg of body weight per day significantly delayed or prevented mortality. PMID:9056016

  15. The function and evolution of the Aspergillus genome

    PubMed Central

    Gibbons, John G.; Rokas, Antonis

    2012-01-01

    Species in the filamentous fungal genus Aspergillus display a wide diversity of lifestyles and are of great importance to humans. The decoding of genome sequences from a dozen species that vary widely in their degree of evolutionary affinity has galvanized studies of the function and evolution of the Aspergillus genome in clinical, industrial, and agricultural environments. Here, we synthesize recent key findings that shed light on the architecture of the Aspergillus genome, on the molecular foundations of the genus’ astounding dexterity and diversity in secondary metabolism, and on the genetic underpinnings of virulence in Aspergillus fumigatus, one of the most lethal fungal pathogens. Many of these insights dramatically expand our knowledge of fungal and microbial eukaryote genome evolution and function and argue that Aspergillus constitutes a superb model clade for the study of functional and comparative genomics. PMID:23084572

  16. Species of Aspergillus section Aspergillus from clinical samples in the United States.

    PubMed

    Siqueira, João P Z; Sutton, Deanna A; Gené, Josepa; García, Dania; Wiederhold, Nathan; Guarro, Josep

    2018-07-01

    The diversity of Aspergillus species in clinical samples is continuously increasing. Species under the former name Eurotium, currently accommodated in section Aspergillus of the genus Aspergillus, are xerophilic fungi widely found in the human environment and able to grow on substrates with low water activity. However, their prevalence in the clinical setting is poorly known. We have studied the presence of these species in a set of clinical samples from the United States using a multilocus sequence analysis based on the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the rRNA, and fragments of the genes β-tubulin (BenA), calmodulin (CaM), and polymerase II second largest subunit (RPB2). A total of 25 isolates were studied and identified as follows: A. montevidensis (44%), A. chevalieri (36%), A. pseudoglaucus (8%), and A. costiformis (4%). A new species Aspergillus microperforatus is also proposed, which represented 8% of the isolates studied and is characterized by uniseriate conidial heads, subglobose to pyriform vesicles, rough conidia, globose to subglobose cleistothecia, and lenticular and smooth ascospores. The in vitro antifungal activity of eight clinically available antifungals was also determined against these isolates, with the echinocandins and posaconazole having the most potent activity.

  17. Importance of serological cross-reactivity among Toxoplasma gondii, Hammondia spp., Neospora spp., Sarcocystis spp. and Besnoitia besnoiti.

    PubMed

    Gondim, Luís F P; Mineo, José R; Schares, Gereon

    2017-06-01

    Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora spp., Sarcocystis spp., Hammondia spp. and Besnoitia besnoiti are genetically related cyst-forming coccidia. Serology is frequently used for the identification of T. gondii, Neospora spp. and B. besnoiti-exposed individuals. Serologic cross-reactions occur in different tests among animals infected with T. gondii and H. hammondi, as well as among animals infected by T. gondii and N. caninum. Infections caused by N. caninum and N. hughesi are almost indistinguishable by serology. Neospora caninum, B. besnoiti and Sarcocystis spp. infections in cattle show some degree of serologic cross-reactivity. Antibody cross-reactivity between Neospora spp. and H. heydorni-infected animals is suspected, but not proven to occur. We review serologic cross-reactivity among animals and/or humans infected with T. gondii, Neospora spp., Sarcocystis spp., Hammondia spp. and B. besnoiti. Emphasis is laid upon antigens and serological methods for N. caninum diagnosis which were tested for cross-reactivity with related protozoa. Species-specific antigens, as well as stage-specific proteins have been identified in some of these parasites and have promising use for diagnosis and epidemiological surveys.

  18. Constitutive expression of fluorescent protein by Aspergillus var. niger and Aspergillus carbonarius to monitor fungal colonization in maize plants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aspergillus niger and A. carbonarius are two species in the Aspergillus section Nigri (black-spored aspergilli) frequently associated with peanut (Arachis hypogea), maize (Zea mays), and other plants as pathogens. These infections are symptomless and as such are major concerns since some black aspe...

  19. Reduction of aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus in interaction with Streptomyces.

    PubMed

    Verheecke, C; Liboz, T; Anson, P; Diaz, R; Mathieu, F

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate aflatoxin gene expression during Streptomyces-Aspergillus interaction. Aflatoxins are carcinogenic compounds produced mainly by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. A previous study has shown that Streptomyces-A. flavus interaction can reduce aflatoxin content in vitro. Here, we first validated this same effect in the interaction with A. parasiticus. Moreover, we showed that growth reduction and aflatoxin content were correlated in A. parasiticus but not in A. flavus. Secondly, we investigated the mechanisms of action by reverse-transcriptase quantitative PCR. As microbial interaction can lead to variations in expression of household genes, the most stable [act1, βtub (and cox5 for A. parasiticus)] were chosen using geNorm software. To shed light on the mechanisms involved, we studied during the interaction the expression of five genes (aflD, aflM, aflP, aflR and aflS). Overall, the results of aflatoxin gene expression showed that Streptomyces repressed gene expression to a greater level in A. parasiticus than in A. flavus. Expression of aflR and aflS was generally repressed in both Aspergillus species. Expression of aflM was repressed and was correlated with aflatoxin B1 content. The results suggest that aflM expression could be a potential aflatoxin indicator in Streptomyces species interactions. Therefore, we demonstrate that Streptomyces can reduce aflatoxin production by both Aspergillus species and that this effect can be correlated with the repression of aflM expression. © 2015 The Authors.

  20. Density and Molecular Epidemiology of Aspergillus in Air and Relationship to Outbreaks of Aspergillus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Leenders, Alexander C. A. P.; van Belkum, Alex; Behrendt, Myra; Luijendijk, Ad; Verbrugh, Henri A.

    1999-01-01

    After five patients were diagnosed with nosocomial invasive aspergillosis caused by Aspergillus fumigatus and A. flavus, a 14-month surveillance program for pathogenic and nonpathogenic fungal conidia in the air within and outside the University Hospital in Rotterdam (The Netherlands) was begun. A. fumigatus isolates obtained from the Department of Hematology were studied for genetic relatedness by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. This was repeated with A. fumigatus isolates contaminating culture media in the microbiology laboratory. The density of the conidia of nonpathogenic fungi in the outside air showed a seasonal variation: higher densities were measured during the summer, while lower densities were determined during the fall and winter. Hardly any variation was found in the numbers of Aspergillus conidia. We found decreasing numbers of conidia when comparing air from outside the hospital to that inside the hospital and when comparing open areas within the hospital to the closed department of hematology. The increase in the number of patients with invasive aspergillosis could not be explained by an increase in the number of Aspergillus conidia in the outside air. The short-term presence of A. flavus can only be explained by the presence of a point source, which was probably patient related. Genotyping A. fumigatus isolates from the department of hematology showed that clonally related isolates were persistently present for more than 1 year. Clinical isolates of A. fumigatus obtained during the outbreak period were different from these persistent clones. A. fumigatus isolates contaminating culture media were all genotypically identical, indicating a causative point source. Knowledge of the epidemiology of Aspergillus species is necessary for the development of strategies to prevent invasive aspergillosis. RAPD fingerprinting of Aspergillus isolates can help to determine the cause of an outbreak of invasive aspergillosis. PMID:10325319

  1. Development of novel Alicyclobacillus spp. isolation medium.

    PubMed

    Chang, S; Kang, D-H

    2005-01-01

    To develop a new isolation medium with higher recovery rates of Alicyclobacillus spp. SK agar was developed with optimized incubation temperature, pH, acidulant, Tween 80 concentration and divalent cation addition. Results indicate that detection of Alicyclobacillus spp. by SK agar was significantly higher (P > 0.05) than those obtained by K agar, orange serum agar, and potato dextrose agar. Current media used for Alicyclobacillus spp. isolation still resulted in high numbers of false negative products. The sensitivity of SK agar to Alicyclobacillus spp. allows detection of low numbers of Alicyclobacillus spp. and also provides a more higher isolation results compared with currently used media. SK agar will be useful to the fruit juice industry to obtain more accurate numbers of contaminant Alicyclobacillus spp. With this media, false negative samples can be reduced, and the likelihood of exported products being rejected can be greatly reduced.

  2. PCR for the identification and differentiation of Histomonas meleagridis, Tetratrichomonas gallinarum and Blastocystis spp.

    PubMed

    Grabensteiner, E; Hess, M

    2006-12-20

    In the present investigation PCR assays were developed for the rapid detection and differentiation of two poultry flagellates: Histomonas meleagridis and Tetratrichomonas gallinarum as well as the protozoan microorganism: Blastocystis spp. The nucleotide sequences of the small subunit ribosomal RNAs were used for primer construction obtaining fragments which vary in size for each microorganism. The established PCRs were able to detect DNA obtained from one microorganism of T. gallinarum and Blastocystis spp. propagated in vitro, proving the high analytical sensitivity of the method. DNA isolated from 10 protozoa was sufficient to detect H. meleagridis. To assess specificity, each PCR assay was performed with DNA from either H. meleagridis and/or T. gallinarum and/or Blastocystis spp. as well as with DNA from several other protozoan parasites (Eimeria tenella, Toxoplasma gondii, Cryptosporidia spp., Trichomonas gallinae, Entamoeba invadens, Entamoeba ranarum), fungi (Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans), bacteria (Staphylococcae, Streptococcae, E. coli, Clostridium perfringens, Camplyobacter jejuni, Proteus) and viruses (fowl adenovirus serotype 4, avian reovirus) as well as livers and caecal samples from turkeys and specified pathogen free (spf) chickens. No cross-reactions with any of these samples were observed with the primer sets for the detection of H. meleagridis and Blastocystis spp. The primers designed for the identification of T. gallinarum yielded a PCR product with DNA of Trichomonas gallinae that had the identical size as the amplicon obtained with DNA from T. gallinarum. However, no PCR products resulted from any of the other samples tested with these primers. Liver and caecal samples from turkeys and chickens from flocks with outbreaks of histomonosis also named as "histomoniasis" originating from geographically distinct regions were investigated with the established PCRs. This is also the first report about the detection of the nucleic acid of H

  3. Aspergillus spondylodiscitis in an immunocompetent paraplegic patient.

    PubMed

    Schubert, M; Schär, G; Curt, A; Dietz, V

    1998-11-01

    A case of an immunocompetent 60 year old patient is reported, who suffered extensive thoracic spinal injury and paraplegia after polytrauma. In the course of rehabilitation he developed aspergillus spondylodiscitis in a part of the thoraco-lumbar spine which was primarily uninjured. The diagnostic assessment and therapeutic approach of this rare disorder is elucidated and discussed in the context of paraplegia and polytrauma. Possible mechanisms of inoculation and spreading of the moulds as well as predisposing factors of the disease are discussed in this paper and a review of the recent literature is provided.

  4. Territrems, tremorgenic mycotoxins of Aspergillus terreus.

    PubMed

    Ling, K H; Yang, C K; Peng, F T

    1979-03-01

    The tremorgenic mycotoxins isolated from Aspergillus terreus were given the trivial names territrem A and B instead of their previous designations of C1 and C2 respectively. High-resolution mass spectral data suggested the molecular formula of territrem A to be C28H30O9 and that of territrem B,C29H34O9. They were partially characterized by ultraviolet, infrared, proton magnetic resonance, and mass spectroscopy. The spectroscopic evidence indicated that their chemical structures were very similar. The procedures of purification were also revised for the complete separation of these two chemically related compounds.

  5. Fumitoxins, new mycotoxins from Aspergillus fumigatus Fres.

    PubMed

    Debeaupuis, J P; Lafont, P

    1978-07-01

    Extracts of cultures of Aspergillus fumigatus isolated from silage were lethal to chicken embryos. Using this test and thin-layer chromatography, four UV-absorbing toxins, designated as fumitoxins A, B, C and D, were isolated. Analysis and mass spectrometry of crystallized fumitoxin A, the most abundant in the extract, established its molecular formula to be C31H42O8. Infrared, UV spectroscopy, and chemical reactions suggested that fumitoxin A is a steroid. Fumitoxins appear to be clearly different from the previously described toxins recognized in A. fumigatus.

  6. Territrems, tremorgenic mycotoxins of Aspergillus terreus.

    PubMed Central

    Ling, K H; Yang, C K; Peng, F T

    1979-01-01

    The tremorgenic mycotoxins isolated from Aspergillus terreus were given the trivial names territrem A and B instead of their previous designations of C1 and C2 respectively. High-resolution mass spectral data suggested the molecular formula of territrem A to be C28H30O9 and that of territrem B,C29H34O9. They were partially characterized by ultraviolet, infrared, proton magnetic resonance, and mass spectroscopy. The spectroscopic evidence indicated that their chemical structures were very similar. The procedures of purification were also revised for the complete separation of these two chemically related compounds. PMID:453815

  7. Fumitoxins, new mycotoxins from Aspergillus fumigatus Fres.

    PubMed Central

    Debeaupuis, J P; Lafont, P

    1978-01-01

    Extracts of cultures of Aspergillus fumigatus isolated from silage were lethal to chicken embryos. Using this test and thin-layer chromatography, four UV-absorbing toxins, designated as fumitoxins A, B, C and D, were isolated. Analysis and mass spectrometry of crystallized fumitoxin A, the most abundant in the extract, established its molecular formula to be C31H42O8. Infrared, UV spectroscopy, and chemical reactions suggested that fumitoxin A is a steroid. Fumitoxins appear to be clearly different from the previously described toxins recognized in A. fumigatus. PMID:358921

  8. Aspergillus spondylodiscitis: successful conservative treatment in 9 cases.

    PubMed

    Cortet, B; Richard, R; Deprez, X; Lucet, L; Flipo, R M; Le Loët, X; Duquesnoy, B; Delcambre, B

    1994-07-01

    To assess the effectiveness of medical treatment by clinical, radiological, and biological analysis of outcome in 9 patients with aspergillus spondylodiscitis. Retrospective study including 9 patients with aspergillus discitis, in which 7 were immunosuppressed; 3 were heart transplant patients, 2 had acute lymphoblastic leukemia, 1 hairy cell leukemia and one was receiving prednisone for bronchial asthma. Four patients had isolated spinal aspergillosis infection. In 4 cases, disc space infection occurred after pulmonary aspergillosis. In the last case the spondylodiscitis occurred after aspergillus endocarditis and mycotic limb embolism. In all cases a percutaneous needle biopsy of the intervertebral disc was performed; the subsequent culture produced Aspergillus fumigatus in 8 cases and Aspergillus flavus in 1. Itraconazole was given to all patients (mean dose: 350 mg/day); it was given alone in 2 cases, in addition to 5 flucytosine and amphotericin B in 6 cases, and in addition to amphotericin B in the last case. Improvement was obtained in the 9 cases, with full recovery in the absence of any surgical debridement after a mean treatment duration of 5.5 months and a mean followup delay of 16 months. Early recognition of aspergillus spondylodiscitis in immunocompromised hosts is important. Itraconazole alone or in combination is an effective therapy. There may be an increased incidence of aspergillus discitis due to the increasing frequency of immunosuppression associated conditions including organ transplantation, chemotherapy, or acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

  9. Chronological aging in conidia of pathogenic Aspergillus: Comparison between species.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Manuela; Pereira, Clara; Bessa, Cláudia; Araujo, Ricardo; Saraiva, Lucília

    2015-11-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus terreus and Aspergillus niger are common airborne fungi, and the most frequent causative agents of human fungal infections. However, the resistance and lifetime persistence of these fungi in the atmosphere, and the mechanism of aging of Aspergillus conidia are unknown.With this work, we intended to study the processes underlying conidial aging of these four relevant and pathogenic Aspergillus species. Chronological aging was therefore evaluated in A. fumigatus, A. flavus, A. terreus and A. niger conidia exposed to environmental and human body temperatures. The results showed that the aging process in Aspergillus conidia involves apoptosis,with metacaspase activation, DNA fragmentation, and reactive oxygen species production, associated with secondary necrosis. Distinct results were observed for the selected pathogenic species. At environmental conditions, A. niger was the species with the highest resistance to aging, indicating a higher adaption to environmental conditions, whereas A. flavus followed by A. terreus were the most sensitive species. At higher temperatures (37 °C), A. fumigatus presented the longest lifespan, in accordance with its good adaptation to the human body temperature. Altogether,with this work new insights regarding conidia aging are provided, which may be useful when designing treatments for aspergillosis.

  10. Risk factors for persistent Aspergillus respiratory isolation in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Hong, Gina; Psoter, Kevin J; Jennings, Mark T; Merlo, Christian A; Boyle, Michael P; Hadjiliadis, Denis; Kawut, Steven M; Lechtzin, Noah

    2018-02-12

    Aspergillus species are increasingly detected in the respiratory tracts of individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF), and chronic Aspergillus fumigatus is associated with more frequent hospitalizations for pulmonary exacerbations. However, patient and clinical factors that may contribute to the acquisition of persistent Aspergillus infection have yet to be identified. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors for development of Aspergillus respiratory isolation in CF. A retrospective cohort study of participants in the CF Foundation Patient Registry between 2006 and 2012 was conducted. Generalized estimating equation models were used to evaluate the association between the development of persistent Aspergillus respiratory isolation and individual level demographic and clinical characteristics. Among 16,095 individuals with CF followed from 2006 to 2012, 1541 (9.6%) subjects developed persistent Aspergillus isolation. White race (Odds Ratio [OR] 1.74, 95% confidence interval 1.23, 2.48, p<0.001) and pancreatic insufficiency (OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.09, 2.06, p<0.001) were found to be risk factors for persistent Aspergillus isolation. Chronic therapies, including inhaled antibiotics (OR 1.33; 95% CI 1.21, 1.46), macrolides (OR 1.23, 95% CI 1.14, 1.32, p<0.001), and inhaled corticosteroids (OR 1.13, 95% CI 1.04, 1.20, p<0.001) were also independently associated with an increased risk for persistent Aspergillus isolation. We identified macrolides and inhaled antibiotics, which individually have been shown to improve CF outcomes, and inhaled corticosteroids as risk factors for developing persistent Aspergillus isolation. Further work is needed to determine whether these associations are causal or due to confounding by other factors. Copyright © 2018 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Aspergillus fumigatus biofilms in the clinical setting.

    PubMed

    Müller, Frank-Michael C; Seidler, Marc; Beauvais, Anne

    2011-04-01

    We discuss in this work the role of Aspergillus biofilms in the clinical setting by reviewing the most recent findings on this topic. Aspergillus fumigatus can produce in vitro an extracellular hydrophobic matrix with typical biofilm characteristics under all static conditions tested, i.e., agar media, polystyrene and bronchial epithelial cells. Under static conditions the mycelial growth is greater than in shaken, submerged conditions. The extracellular matrix (ECM) is composed of galactomannan, α-1,3-glucans, monosaccharides and polyols, melanin and proteins including major antigens and hydrophobins. Typical biofilm structures were observed in the aspergillomas from two patients and in a murine model of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. The results indicate that α-1,3-glucans plays a predominant role in the agglutination of the hyphae together in aerial conditions, and that nutrient starvation was responsible for mycelial death in aspergilloma. Melanin was produced during the infection, suggesting that this pigment is necessary for lung tissue invasion. All antifungal drugs are significantly less effective when A. fumigatus is grown under biofilm vs. planktonic conditions. Chronic persistence of a unique genotype of A. fumigatus in the respiratory tract of CF-patients and the presence of an ECM in vivo may have some therapeutical application for aspergillosis. The most appropriate antifungal drug should not be selected only on the basis of its efficiency to kill in vitro grown fungal cells, but also on its ability to penetrate the ECM.

  12. Bronchiectasis and Aspergillus: How are they linked?

    PubMed

    De Soyza, Anthony; Aliberti, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Bronchiectasis is a chronic airway infection syndrome, distinct from cystic fibrosis that is rising in prevalence and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. It can be caused by many etiologies including post-infectious effects or be seen in common lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or severe asthma. Bronchiectasis is associated with many Aspergillus-associated syndromes: allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) may complicate asthma, thus leading to bronchiectasis as part of the diagnostic criteria of ABPA or can complicate preexisting bronchiectasis due to another etiology. Aspergilloma can develop in areas of lung damage seen in patients with bronchiectasis, whereas fungal bronchitis may lead to later bronchiectasis. Invasive aspergillosis, perhaps more commonly viewed as a consequence of significant immunosuppression, is also seen in the absence of immunosuppression in those with underlying lung diseases including bronchiectasis. The pathogenesis and treatments of these diverse Aspergillus-associated diseases in bronchiectasis are discussed. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Aspergillus baeticus sp. nov. and Aspergillus thesauricus sp. nov., two species in section Usti from Spanish caves.

    PubMed

    Nováková, Alena; Hubka, Vit; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo; Kolarik, Miroslav

    2012-11-01

    Two novel species of Aspergillus that are clearly distinct from all known species in section Usti were revealed during a study of microfungal communities in Spanish caves. The novel species identified in this study and additional species of Aspergillus section Usti are associated with places and substrates related to human activities in caves. Novel species are described using data from four loci (ITS, benA, caM and rpb2), morphology and basic chemical and physiological analyses. Members of the species Aspergillus thesauricus sp. nov. were isolated from various substrates, including decaying organic matter, cave air and cave sediment of the Cueva del Tesoro Cave (the Treasure cave); the species is represented by twelve isolates and is most closely related to the recently described Aspergillus germanicus. Members of the species Aspergillus baeticus sp. nov. were isolated from cave sediment in the Gruta de las Maravillas Cave (the Grotto of the Marvels); the species is represented by two isolates. An additional isolate was found in the Cueva del Tesoro Cave and in the Demänovská Peace Cave (Slovakia), suggesting a potentially wide distribution of this micro-organism. The species is related to Aspergillus ustus and Aspergillus pseudoustus. Both species were unable to grow at 37 °C, and a weakly positive, light greenish yellow Ehrlich reaction was observed in A. thesauricus. Unique morphological features alone are sufficient to distinguish both species from related taxa.

  14. Mycotoxigenic potentials of the genera: Aspergillus, Fusarium and Penicillium isolated from houseflies (Musca domestica L.).

    PubMed

    Phoku, J Z; Barnard, T G; Potgieter, N; Dutton, M F

    2017-04-01

    A study on the potential of houseflies (Musca domestica L.) to spread fungal spores in Gauteng Province, South Africa proved that houseflies are vectors for fungal spores. Therefore, there is a need to determine the toxigenic potentials and to identify the mycotoxins produced by fungal isolates derived from this study. In total 377 potentially toxigenic isolates of Aspergillus (186), Fusarium (85) and Penicillium (106) species (spp.) were isolated. These isolates were further tested for their ability to produce aflatoxins (AFs) [aflatoxin B 1 , B 2 , G 1 and G 2 ], deoxynivalenol (DON), fumonisin B 1 (FB 1 ) ochratoxin A (OTA), and zearalenone (ZEA) by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) respectively. Strains of A. flavus and A. parasiticus belonging to the genera of Aspergillus were found to be the main producers of AFB 1 , AFB 2 , AFG 1 , and AFG 2 , while A. carbonarius, A. niger and A. ochraceus produced OTA. Fumonisin B 1 was produced by F. verticillioides and F. proliferatum with concentrations ranging from 20 to 1834μg/kg and 79 to 262μg/kg respectively. Deoxynivalenol produced mainly by F. culmorum (2-6μg/kg), F. graminearum (1-4μg/kg), F. poae (1-3μg/kg), and F. sporotrichioides (2-3μg/kg) species was the least detected toxin in this study. The high mycotoxins levels produced in isolates from houseflies in this study are regarded as unsafe, especially when international legislated tolerance levels for mycotoxins are considered. Thus, possible human exposure to mycotoxins may pose concerns with respect to human health and demands constant and consistent investigation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of gamma radiation on Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus ochraceus ultrastructure and mycotoxin production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, J.; Cavaglieri, L.; Vital, H.; Cristofolini, A.; Merkis, C.; Astoreca, A.; Orlando, J.; Carú, M.; Dalcero, A.; Rosa, C. A. R.

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of gamma radiation (2 kGy) on Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus ochraceus ultrastructure. Moreover, the influence on aflatoxin B 1 and ochratoxin A production was also observed. Irradiated A. flavus strain showed a dull orangish colony while control strain showed the typical green color. Minor differences were observed on stipes, metulae and conidia size between control and irradiated A. flavus and A. ochraceus strains. Irradiated fungi showed ultrastructural changes on cell wall, plasmalema and cytoplasm levels. The levels of mycotoxins produced by irradiated strains were two times greater than those produced by control strains. Successive transferences of irradiated strains on malt extract agar allowed the fungus to recuperate morphological characteristics. Although minor changes in the fungal morphology were observed, ultrastructural changes at cell wall level and the increase of mycotoxin production ability were observed. Inappropriate storage of irradiated food and feed would allow the development of potentially more toxicogenic fungal propagules.

  16. Conventional Morphology Versus PCR Sequencing, rep-PCR, and MALDI-TOF-MS for Identification of Clinical Aspergillus Isolates Collected Over a 2-Year Period in a University Hospital at Kayseri, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Atalay, Altay; Koc, Ayse Nedret; Suel, Ahmet; Sav, Hafize; Demir, Gonca; Elmali, Ferhan; Cakir, Nuri; Seyedmousavi, Seyedmojtaba

    2016-09-01

    Aspergillus species cause a wide range of diseases in humans, including allergies, localized infections, or fatal disseminated diseases. Rapid detection and identification of Aspergillus spp. facilitate effective patient management. In the current study we compared conventional morphological methods with PCR sequencing, rep-PCR, and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) for the identification of Aspergillus strains. A total of 24 consecutive clinical isolates of Aspergillus were collected during 2012-2014. Conventional morphology and rep-PCR were performed in our Mycology Laboratory. The identification, evaluation, and reporting of strains using MALDI-TOF-MS were performed by BioMérieux Diagnostic, Inc. in Istanbul. DNA sequence analysis of the clinical isolates was performed by the BMLabosis laboratory in Ankara. Samples consisted of 18 (75%) lower respiratory tract specimens, 3 otomycosis (12.5%) ear tissues, 1 sample from keratitis, and 1 sample from a cutaneous wound. According to DNA sequence analysis, 12 (50%) specimens were identified as A. fumigatus, 8 (33.3%) as A. flavus, 3 (12.5%) as A. niger, and 1 (4.2%) as A. terreus. Statistically, there was good agreement between the conventional morphology and rep-PCR and MALDI-TOF methods; kappa values were κ = 0.869, 0.871, and 0.916, respectively (P < 0.001). The good level of agreement between the methods included in the present study and sequence method could be due to the identification of Aspergillus strains that were commonly encountered. Therefore, it was concluded that studies conducted with a higher number of isolates, which include other Aspergillus strains, are required. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Prevalence of Microsporidia, Cryptosporidium spp., and Giardia spp. in beavers (Castor canadensis) in Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fayer, R.; Santin, M.; Trout, J.M.; DeStefano, S.; Koenen, K.; Kaur, T.

    2006-01-01

    Feces from 62 beavers (Castor canadensis) in Massachusetts were examined by fluorescence microscopy (IFA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Microsporidia species, Cryptosporidium spp., and Giardia spp. between January 2002 and December 2004. PCR-positive specimens were further examined by gene sequencing. Protist parasites were detected in 6.4% of the beavers. All were subadults and kits. Microsporidia species were not detected. Giardia spp. was detected by IFA from four beavers; Cryptosporidium spp. was also detected by IFA from two of these beavers. However, gene sequence data for the ssrRNA gene from these two Cryptosporidium spp.-positive beavers were inconclusive in identifying the species. Nucleotide sequences of the TPI, ssrRNA, and ??-giardin genes for Giardia spp. (deposited in GenBank) indicated that the four beavers were excreting Giardia duodenalis Assemblage B, the zoonotic genotype representing a potential source of waterborne Giardia spp. cysts. Copyright 2006 by American Association of Zoo Veterinarians.

  18. Examination of fungi in domestic interiors by using factor analysis: Correlations and associations with home factors. [Cladosporium, Alternaria, Epicoccum, Aureobasidium, Aspergillus; Penicillium

    SciTech Connect

    Su, H.J.; Rotnitzky, A.; Spengler, J.D.

    1992-01-01

    Factor analysis was utilized to investigate correlations among airborne microorganisms collected with Andersen samplers from homes in Topeka, Kans., during the winter of 1987 to 1988. The factors derived were used to relate microbial concentrations with categorical, questionnaire-derived descriptions of housing conditions. This approach successfully identified groups of common aboveground decay fungi including Cladosporium, Alternaria, Epicoccum, and Aureobasidium spp. The common soil fungi Aspergillus and Penicillium spp. were also separated as a group. These previously known ecological groupings were confirmed with air sampling data by a quantitative evaluation technique. The above ground decay fungi sampled indoors in winter were presentmore » at relatively high concentrations in homes with gas stoves for cooking, suggesting a possible association between these fungi and increased humidity from the combustion process. Elevated concentrations of the soil fungi were significantly associated with the dirt floor, crawl-space type of basement. Elevated concentrations of water-requiring fungi, such as Fusarium spp., were shown to be associated with water collection in domestic interiors. Also, elevated mean concentrations for the group of fungi including Cladosporium, Epicoccum, Aureobasidium, and yeast spp. were found to be associated with symptoms reported on a health questionnaire. This finding was consistent with the authors previous study of associations between respiratory health and airborne microorganisms by univariate logistic regression analysis.« less

  19. Initial Spore Density Has an Influence on Ochratoxin A Content in Aspergillus ochraceus CGMCC 3.4412 in PDB and Its Interaction with Seeds.

    PubMed

    Li, Caiyan; Song, Yanmin; Xiong, Lu; Huang, Kunlun; Liang, Zhihong

    2017-04-21

    The morphology and secondary metabolism of Aspergillus spp. are associated with initial spore density (ISD). Fatty acids (FA) are involved in the biosynthesis of aflatoxins (AF) through Aspergillus quorum sensing (QS). Here, we studied how ochratoxin A (OTA) was regulated by spore density in Aspergillus ochraceus CGMCC 3.4412. The results contribute to understanding the role of spore density in morphogenesis, OTA biosynthesis, and host-pathogen interactions. When A. ochraceus was grown in Potato Dextrose Broth (PDB) media at different spore densities (from 10¹ to 10⁶ spores/mL), more OTA was produced when ISD were increased, but a higher level of ISD inhibited OTA biosynthesis. Seed infection studies showed that peanuts ( Arachis hypogaea ) and soybeans ( Glycine max ) with high FA content were more susceptible to OTA production when infected by A. ochraceus and reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced OTA biosynthesis. These results suggested that FA was vital for OTA biosynthesis, and that oxidative stress was closely related to OTA biosynthesis in A. ochraceus .

  20. Extrolites of Aspergillus fumigatus and Other Pathogenic Species in Aspergillus Section Fumigati

    PubMed Central

    Frisvad, Jens C.; Larsen, Thomas O.

    2016-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is an important opportunistic human pathogen known for its production of a large array of extrolites. Up to 63 species have been described in Aspergillus section Fumigati, some of which have also been reliably reported to be pathogenic, including A. felis, A. fischeri, A. fumigatiaffinis, A. fumisynnematus, A. hiratsukae, A. laciniosus, A. lentulus, A. novofumigatus, A. parafelis, A. pseudofelis, A. pseudoviridinutans, A. spinosus, A. thermomutatus, and A. udagawae. These species share the production of hydrophobins, melanins, and siderophores and ability to grow well at 37°C, but they only share some small molecule extrolites, that could be important factors in pathogenicity. According to the literature gliotoxin and other exometabolites can be contributing factors to pathogenicity, but these exometabolites are apparently not produced by all pathogenic species. It is our hypothesis that species unable to produce some of these metabolites can produce proxy-exometabolites that may serve the same function. We tabulate all exometabolites reported from species in Aspergillus section Fumigati and by comparing the profile of those extrolites, suggest that those producing many different kinds of exometabolites are potential opportunistic pathogens. The exometabolite data also suggest that the profile of exometabolites are highly specific and can be used for identification of these closely related species. PMID:26779142

  1. Discrimination of Aspergillus niger and other Aspergillus species belonging to section Nigri by PCR assays.

    PubMed

    González-Salgado, Amaia; Patiño, Belén; Vázquez, Covadonga; González-Jaén, M Teresa

    2005-04-15

    Aspergillus species included in section Nigri are common in plant products and processed food, such as grapes, cereals, coffee and derivatives, particularly in warm and tropical climates. Two of these species, A. carbonarius and A. niger, are known to produce ochratoxin A (OTA), a potent nephrotoxin and carcinogenic to human (group 2B). Recognition of the several species of this section is difficult and requires considerable expertise using conventional methods based on morphological features. In this work we describe rapid, sensitive and robust assays based on the PCR technique to discriminate the main species included in section Nigri: A. japonicus, A. heteromorphus, A. ellipticus and the two morphologically indistinguishable species of the A. niger aggregate: A. niger and A. tubingensis. The species-specific primers have been designed on the basis of ITS (internal transcribed spacers of rDNA units) sequence comparisons obtained from several Aspergillus strains and have been tested in a number of strains from different origins and hosts. These PCR assays, based on multi-copy sequences, are highly sensitive and specific and represent a good tool for an early detection of OTA-producing Aspergillus species in order to prevent OTA from entering the food chain.

  2. A novel fungal fruiting structure formed by Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus carbonarius in grape berries.

    PubMed

    Pisani, Cristina; Nguyen, Trang Thoaivan; Gubler, Walter Douglas

    2015-09-01

    Sour rot, is a pre-harvest disease that affects many grape varieties. Sour rot symptoms include initial berry cracking and breakdown of berry tissue. This is a disease complex with many filamentous fungi and bacteria involved, but is usually initiated by Aspergillus niger or Aspergillus carbonarius. Usually, by the time one sees the rot there are many other organisms involved and it is difficult to attribute the disease to one species. In this study two species of Aspergillus were shown to produce a previously unknown fruiting structure in infected berries. The nodulous morphology, bearing conidia, suggests them to be an 'everted polymorphic stroma'. This structure forms freely inside the berry pulp and assumes multiple shapes and sizes, sometimes sclerotium-like in form. It is composed of a mass of vegetative hyphae with or without tissue of the host containing spores or fruiting bodies bearing spores. Artificially inoculated berries placed in soil in winter showed the possible overwintering function of the fruiting body. Inoculated berry clusters on standing vines produced fruiting structures within 21 d post inoculation when wounds were made at veraison or after (July-September). Histological studies confirmed that the fruiting structure was indeed fungal tissue. Copyright © 2015 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Revitalization of a Forward Genetic Screen Identifies Three New Regulators of Fungal Secondary Metabolism in the Genus Aspergillus

    PubMed Central

    Pfannenstiel, Brandon T.; Zhao, Xixi; Wortman, Jennifer; Throckmorton, Kurt; Spraker, Joseph E.; Luo, Xingyu; Lindner, Daniel L.; Lim, Fang Yun; Knox, Benjamin P.; Haas, Brian; Fischer, Gregory J.; Choera, Tsokyi; Butchko, Robert A. E.; Bok, Jin-Woo; Affeldt, Katharyn J.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The study of aflatoxin in Aspergillus spp. has garnered the attention of many researchers due to aflatoxin’s carcinogenic properties and frequency as a food and feed contaminant. Significant progress has been made by utilizing the model organism Aspergillus nidulans to characterize the regulation of sterigmatocystin (ST), the penultimate precursor of aflatoxin. A previous forward genetic screen identified 23 A. nidulans mutants involved in regulating ST production. Six mutants were characterized from this screen using classical mapping (five mutations in mcsA) and complementation with a cosmid library (one mutation in laeA). The remaining mutants were backcrossed and sequenced using Illumina and Ion Torrent sequencing platforms. All but one mutant contained one or more sequence variants in predicted open reading frames. Deletion of these genes resulted in identification of mutant alleles responsible for the loss of ST production in 12 of the 17 remaining mutants. Eight of these mutations were in genes already known to affect ST synthesis (laeA, mcsA, fluG, and stcA), while the remaining four mutations (in laeB, sntB, and hamI) were in previously uncharacterized genes not known to be involved in ST production. Deletion of laeB, sntB, and hamI in A. flavus results in loss of aflatoxin production, confirming that these regulators are conserved in the aflatoxigenic aspergilli. This report highlights the multifaceted regulatory mechanisms governing secondary metabolism in Aspergillus. Additionally, these data contribute to the increasing number of studies showing that forward genetic screens of fungi coupled with whole-genome resequencing is a robust and cost-effective technique. PMID:28874473

  4. The Aspergillus fumigatus septins play pleiotropic roles in septation, conidiation, and cell wall stress, but are dispensable for virulence.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Muñiz, José M; Renshaw, Hilary; Richards, Amber D; Lamoth, Frédéric; Soderblom, Erik J; Moseley, M Arthur; Juvvadi, Praveen R; Steinbach, William J

    2015-08-01

    Septins are a conserved family of GTPases that regulate important cellular processes such as cell wall integrity, and septation in fungi. The requirement of septins for virulence has been demonstrated in the human pathogenic yeasts Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans, as well as the plant pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae. Aspergillus spp. contains five genes encoding for septins (aspA-E). While the importance of septins AspA, AspB, AspC, and AspE for growth and conidiation has been elucidated in the filamentous fungal model Aspergillus nidulans, nothing is known on the role of septins in growth and virulence in the human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. Here we deleted all five A. fumigatus septins, and generated certain double and triple septin deletion strains. Phenotypic analyses revealed that while all the septins are dispensable in normal growth conditions, AspA, AspB, AspC and AspE are required for regular septation. Furthermore, deletion of only the core septin genes significantly reduced conidiation. Concomitant with the absence of an electron-dense outer conidial wall, the ΔaspB strain was also sensitive to anti-cell wall agents. Infection with the ΔaspB strain in a Galleria mellonella model of invasive aspergillosis showed hypervirulence, but no virulence difference was noted when compared to the wild-type strain in a murine model of invasive aspergillosis. Although the deletion of aspB resulted in increased release of TNF-α from the macrophages, no significant inflammation differences in lung histology was noted between the ΔaspB strain and the wild-type strain. Taken together, these results point to the importance of septins in A. fumigatus growth, but not virulence in a murine model. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Growth pattern of the surface of fungus Aspergillus colony

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuura, Shu; Miyazima, Sasuke

    1992-05-01

    Aspergillus oryzae colonies were grown under various glucose concentrations, temperatures, and agar concentrations, and the effects on the pattern were investigated. Patterns of colony were found to vary from uniform to diffusion-limited aggregation type.

  6. Self-affine fractal growth front of Aspergillus oryzae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuura, Shu; Miyazima, Sasuke

    1992-12-01

    Aspergillus oryzae have been grown in various environmental conditions and analyzed from the viewpoint of self-affinity. The growth behavior can be described by the Eden model in favorable conditions, and by DLA in unfavorable conditions.

  7. Thoracic spinal cord intramedullary aspergillus invasion and abscess.

    PubMed

    McCaslin, Addason F; Lall, Rishi R; Wong, Albert P; Lall, Rohan R; Sugrue, Patrick A; Koski, Tyler R

    2015-02-01

    Invasive central nervous system aspergillosis is a rare form of fungal infection that presents most commonly in immunocompromised individuals. There have been multiple previous reports of aspergillus vertebral osteomyelitis and spinal epidural aspergillus abscess; however to our knowledge there are no reports of intramedullary aspergillus infection. We present a 19-year-old woman with active acute lymphoblastic leukemia who presented with several weeks of fevers and bilateral lower extremity weakness. She was found to have an intramedullary aspergillus abscess at T12-L1 resulting from adjacent vertebral osteomyelitis and underwent surgical debridement with ultra-sound guided aspiration and aggressive intravenous voriconazole therapy. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of spinal aspergillosis invading the intramedullary cavity. Though rare, this entity should be included in the differential for immunocompromised patients presenting with fevers and neurologic deficit. Early recognition with aggressive neurosurgical intervention and antifungal therapy may improve outcomes in future cases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Three new species of Aspergillus from Amazonian forest soil (Ecuador).

    PubMed

    Mares, Donatella; Andreotti, Elisa; Maldonado, Maria Elena; Pedrini, Paola; Colalongo, Chiara; Romagnoli, Carlo

    2008-09-01

    From an undisturbed natural forest soil in Ecuador, three fungal strains of the genus Aspergillus were isolated. Based on molecular and morphological features they are described as three new species, named A. quitensis, A. amazonicus, and A. ecuadorensis.

  9. Anthraquinones in the biosynthesis of sterigmatocystin by Aspergillus versicolor.

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, D P; Singh, R; Yao, R C; Bennett, J W

    1978-01-01

    14C-labeled averufin, versiconal hemiacetal acetate, and versicolorin A were efficiently converted to sterigmatocystin by Aspergillus versicolor, thus providing experimental evidence that these anthraquinones are biosynthetic precursors of sterigmatocystin, a xanthone. PMID:655714

  10. Septic arthritis due to tubercular and Aspergillus co-infection

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Mukesh; Thilak, Jai; Zahoor, Adnan; Jyothi, Arun

    2016-01-01

    Aspergillus septic arthritis is a rare and serious medical and surgical problem. It occurs mainly in immunocompromised patients. Aspergillus fumigatus is the most common causative organism followed by Aspergillus flavus. The most common site affected is knee followed by shoulder, ankle, wrist, hip and sacroiliac joint. Debridement and voriconazole are primary treatment of articular aspergilosis. To the best of our knowledge, there are no reported cases of co-infection of tuberculosis (TB) and Aspergillus infecting joints. We report a case of co-infection of TB and A. flavus of hip and knee of a 60-year-old male, with type 2 diabetes mellitus. He was treated with debridement, intravenous voriconazole, and antitubercular drugs. PMID:27293296

  11. Septic arthritis due to tubercular and Aspergillus co-infection.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Mukesh; Thilak, Jai; Zahoor, Adnan; Jyothi, Arun

    2016-01-01

    Aspergillus septic arthritis is a rare and serious medical and surgical problem. It occurs mainly in immunocompromised patients. Aspergillus fumigatus is the most common causative organism followed by Aspergillus flavus. The most common site affected is knee followed by shoulder, ankle, wrist, hip and sacroiliac joint. Debridement and voriconazole are primary treatment of articular aspergilosis. To the best of our knowledge, there are no reported cases of co-infection of tuberculosis (TB) and Aspergillus infecting joints. We report a case of co-infection of TB and A. flavus of hip and knee of a 60-year-old male, with type 2 diabetes mellitus. He was treated with debridement, intravenous voriconazole, and antitubercular drugs.

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of Aspergillus oryzae ATCC 12892

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Shuang; Pomraning, Kyle R.; Bohutskyi, Pavlo

    The draft genome sequence ofAspergillus oryzaeATCC 12892 is presented here.A. oryzaeproduces 3-nitropropionic acid, which has been investigated with regard to understanding the biosynthesis of nitroorganic compounds.

  13. In vitro interaction of actinomycetes isolates with Aspergillus flavus: impact on aflatoxins B1 and B2 production.

    PubMed

    Verheecke, C; Liboz, T; Darriet, M; Sabaou, N; Mathieu, F

    2014-06-01

    This work aimed to study the interaction between Actinomycetal isolates and Aspergillus flavus to promote mutual antagonism in contact. Thirty-seven soilborn Streptomyces spp. isolates were chosen as potential candidates. After a 10-day in vitro co-incubation period, 27 isolates respond to the criteria, that is, mutual antagonism in contact. Further aflatoxins B1 and B2 analysis revealed that those 27 isolates reduced aflatoxin B1 residual concentration from 38·6 to 4·4%, depending on the isolate. We selected 12 isolates and tested their capacity to reduce AFB1 in pure culture to start identifying the mechanisms involved in its reduction. AFB1 was reduced by eight isolates. The remaining AFB1 concentration varied between 82·2 and 15·6%. These findings led us to suggest that these eight isolates could be used as biocontrol agents against AFB1 and B2 with low risk of impacting the natural microbial equilibrium. Interaction between Aspergillus flavus and Actinomycetes isolates was conducted in vitro. Actinomycetes isolates having a mutual antagonism in contact with A. flavus were chosen for further aflatoxins production study. This is a new approach based to develop biocontrol against aflatoxins accumulation in maize while respecting natural microbial equilibrium. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. Health effects of Aspergillus in food and air.

    PubMed

    Klich, Maren A

    2009-01-01

    This review summarizes the health aspects of the medically important fungal genus Aspergillus. The morphology and systematics of the genus are explained as well as its biogeography. Major mycotoxins, the aspergilli that produce them, affected crops, and symptoms of the toxicoses are summarized, as are the major mycoses caused by aspergilli. The current status of the relationship between Aspergillus in the indoor environment and health issues are discussed.

  15. Aflatoxins: A Global Concern for Food Safety, Human Health and Their Management

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Pradeep; Mahato, Dipendra K.; Kamle, Madhu; Mohanta, Tapan K.; Kang, Sang G.

    2017-01-01

    The aflatoxin producing fungi, Aspergillus spp., are widely spread in nature and have severely contaminated food supplies of humans and animals, resulting in health hazards and even death. Therefore, there is great demand for aflatoxins research to develop suitable methods for their quantification, precise detection and control to ensure the safety of consumers’ health. Here, the chemistry and biosynthesis process of the mycotoxins is discussed in brief along with their occurrence, and the health hazards to humans and livestock. This review focuses on resources, production, detection and control measures of aflatoxins to ensure food and feed safety. The review is informative for health-conscious consumers and research experts in the fields. Furthermore, providing knowledge on aflatoxins toxicity will help in ensure food safety and meet the future demands of the increasing population by decreasing the incidence of outbreaks due to aflatoxins. PMID:28144235

  16. Aspergillus fumigatus colonization of punctal plugs.

    PubMed

    Tabbara, Khalid F

    2007-01-01

    Punctal plugs are used in patients with dry eye syndrome to preserve the tears. In this report, I present two cases of Aspergillus fumigatus colonization of punctal plugs. Observational series of two cases. Approval was obtained from the institutional review board. Two men aged 29 and 31 years developed black spots inside the hole of punctal plug, which looked like eyeliner deposits. The deposits inside the hole of the plug in each patient were removed and cultured. Cultures of the two punctal plugs black deposits grew A fumigatus. Bacterial cultures were negative. Colonization of the punctal plug hole with A fumigatus was observed in two cases. It is recommended that punctal plugs be removed in patients undergoing refractive or intraocular procedures or in patients who are receiving topical corticosteroids. Current punctal plugs should be redesigned to avoid the presence of an inserter hole.

  17. Aspergillus fumigatus morphology and dynamic host interactions.

    PubMed

    van de Veerdonk, Frank L; Gresnigt, Mark S; Romani, Luigina; Netea, Mihai G; Latgé, Jean-Paul

    2017-11-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is an environmental filamentous fungus that can cause life-threatening disease in immunocompromised individuals. The interactions between A. fumigatus and the host environment are dynamic and complex. The host immune system needs to recognize the distinct morphological forms of A. fumigatus to control fungal growth and prevent tissue invasion, whereas the fungus requires nutrients and needs to adapt to the hostile environment by escaping immune recognition and counteracting host responses. Understanding these highly dynamic interactions is necessary to fully understand the pathogenesis of aspergillosis and to facilitate the design of new therapeutics to overcome the morbidity and mortality caused by A. fumigatus. In this Review, we describe how A. fumigatus adapts to environmental change, the mechanisms of host defence, and our current knowledge of the interplay between the host immune response and the fungus.

  18. [Progress in omics research of Aspergillus niger].

    PubMed

    Sui, Yufei; Ouyang, Liming; Lu, Hongzhong; Zhuang, Yingping; Zhang, Siliang

    2016-08-25

    Aspergillus niger, as an important industrial fermentation strain, is widely applied in the production of organic acids and industrial enzymes. With the development of diverse omics technologies, the data of genome, transcriptome, proteome and metabolome of A. niger are increasing continuously, which declared the coming era of big data for the research in fermentation process of A. niger. The data analysis from single omics and the comparison of multi-omics, to the integrations of multi-omics based on the genome-scale metabolic network model largely extends the intensive and systematic understanding of the efficient production mechanism of A. niger. It also provides possibilities for the reasonable global optimization of strain performance by genetic modification and process regulation. We reviewed and summarized progress in omics research of A. niger, and proposed the development direction of omics research on this cell factory.

  19. Proteomic analysis of Aspergillus fumigatus - clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Moloney, Nicola M; Owens, Rebecca A; Doyle, Sean

    2016-07-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is a ubiquitous saprophytic fungus capable of producing small airborne spores, which are frequently inhaled by humans. In healthy individuals, the fungus is rapidly cleared by innate mechanisms, including immune cells. However, in individuals with impaired lung function or immunosuppression the spores can germinate and prompt severe allergic responses, and disease with limited or extensive invasiveness. The traits that make A. fumigatus a successful colonizer and pathogen of humans are multi-factorial. Thus, a global investigative approach is required to elucidate the mechanisms utilized by the fungus to cause disease. Expert commentary: In doing so, a better understanding of disease pathology can be achieved with improved therapeutic/diagnostic solutions, thereby improving patient outcome. Proteomic analysis permits such investigations and recent work has yielded insight into these mechanisms.

  20. Heterologous expression of Gaeumannomyces graminis lipoxygenase in Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed

    Heshof, Ruud; van Schayck, J Paul; Tamayo-Ramos, Juan Antonio; de Graaff, Leo H

    2014-01-01

    Aspergillus sp. contain ppo genes coding for Ppo enzymes that produce oxylipins from polyunsaturated fatty acids. These oxylipins function as signal molecules in sporulation and influence the asexual to sexual ratio of Aspergillus sp. Fungi like Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus niger contain just ppo genes where the human pathogenic Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus fumigatus contain ppo genes as well as lipoxygenases. Lipoxygenases catalyze the synthesis of oxylipins and are hypothesized to be involved in quorum-sensing abilities and invading plant tissue. In this study we used A. nidulans WG505 as an expression host to heterologously express Gaeumannomyces graminis lipoxygenase. The presence of the recombinant LOX induced phenotypic changes in A. nidulans transformants. Also, a proteomic analysis of an A. nidulans LOX producing strain indicated that the heterologous protein was degraded before its glycosylation in the secretory pathway. We observed that the presence of LOX induced the specific production of aminopeptidase Y that possibly degrades the G. graminis lipoxygenase intercellularly. Also the presence of the protein thioredoxin reductase suggests that the G. graminis lipoxygenase is actively repressed in A. nidulans.

  1. Aspergillus and cystic fibrosis: old disease - new classifications.

    PubMed

    Felton, Imogen C; Simmonds, Nicholas J

    2014-11-01

    Aspergillus pulmonary infection has traditionally been recognized as a clinical spectrum of increasing pathogenicity, encompassing saprophytic airways colonization historically regarded of doubtful clinical significance, to allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, chronic cavitatory and life-threatening invasive disease in the immunocompromised host. Whilst the latter two categories are rarely encountered in cystic fibrosis (CF), there is recognition of an extending spectrum of disease yet to be reflected in consensus management guidelines. The purpose of this review is to provide an up-to-date overview of this extending spectrum, with a focus on disease categories and their clinical significance. Conflicting evidence regarding the clinical significance of Aspergillus colonization and sensitization in CF, alongside the emergence of a novel disease category 'Aspergillus bronchitis', has led to proposals for the reclassification of Aspergillus disease. In addition, lack of standardization and poor sensitivity of culture-dependent mycology techniques renders clinical and epidemiological interpretation of these isolates challenging. The role of Aspergillus in the absence of established CF-allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis remains unclear. The following review discusses new approaches proposed to categorise the extended spectrum of CF Aspergillus disease, highlighting the need for enhanced microbiological investigation and serological monitoring of patients in light of evidence which differentiates colonization from categories of greater pathogenic potential.

  2. Heterologous expression of Gaeumannomyces graminis lipoxygenase in Aspergillus nidulans

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Aspergillus sp. contain ppo genes coding for Ppo enzymes that produce oxylipins from polyunsaturated fatty acids. These oxylipins function as signal molecules in sporulation and influence the asexual to sexual ratio of Aspergillus sp. Fungi like Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus niger contain just ppo genes where the human pathogenic Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus fumigatus contain ppo genes as well as lipoxygenases. Lipoxygenases catalyze the synthesis of oxylipins and are hypothesized to be involved in quorum-sensing abilities and invading plant tissue. In this study we used A. nidulans WG505 as an expression host to heterologously express Gaeumannomyces graminis lipoxygenase. The presence of the recombinant LOX induced phenotypic changes in A. nidulans transformants. Also, a proteomic analysis of an A. nidulans LOX producing strain indicated that the heterologous protein was degraded before its glycosylation in the secretory pathway. We observed that the presence of LOX induced the specific production of aminopeptidase Y that possibly degrades the G. graminis lipoxygenase intercellularly. Also the presence of the protein thioredoxin reductase suggests that the G. graminis lipoxygenase is actively repressed in A. nidulans. PMID:25401068

  3. Molecular epidemiology of Aspergillus collected from cystic fibrosis patients.

    PubMed

    Sabino, Raquel; Ferreira, Jose A G; Moss, Richard B; Valente, Joana; Veríssimo, Cristina; Carolino, Elisabete; Clemons, Karl V; Everson, Cassie; Banaei, Niaz; Penner, John; Stevens, David A

    2015-07-01

    Aspergillus respiratory infection is a common complication in cystic fibrosis (CF) and is associated with loss of pulmonary function and allergic disease. Fifty-three Aspergillus isolates recovered from CF patients were identified to species by Internal Transcribed Spacer Region (ITS), β-tubulin, and calmodulin sequencing. Three species complexes (Terrei, Nigri, and Fumigati) were found. Identification to species level gave a single Aspergillus terreus sensu stricto, one Aspergillus niger sensu stricto and 51 Aspergillus fumigatus sensu stricto isolates. No cryptic species were found. To our knowledge, this is the first prospective study of Aspergillus species in CF using molecular methods. The paucity of non-A. fumigatus and of cryptic species of A. fumigatus suggests a special association of A. fumigatus sensu stricto with CF airways, indicating it likely displays unique characteristics making it suitable for chronic residence in that milieu. These findings could refine an epidemiologic and therapeutic approach geared to this pathogen. Copyright © 2014 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Factors associated with the likelihood of Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. in soil from dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Barwick, R S; Mohammed, H O; White, M E; Bryant, R B

    2003-03-01

    A study was conducted to identify factors associated with the likelihood of detecting Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. in the soil of dairy farms in a watershed area. A total of 37 farms were visited, and 782 soil samples were collected from targeted areas on these farms. The samples were analyzed for the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts, Giardia spp. cysts, percent moisture content, and pH. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify risk factors associated with the likelihood of the presence of these organisms. The use of the land at the sampling site was associated with the likelihood of environmental contamination with Cryptosporidium spp. Barn cleaner equipment area and agricultural fields were associated with increased likelihood of environmental contamination with Cryptosporidium spp. The risk of environmental contamination decreased with the pH of the soil and with the score of the potential likelihood of Cryptosporidium spp. The size of the sampling site, as determined by the sampling design, in square feet, was associated nonlinearly with the risk of detecting Cryptosporidium spp. The likelihood of the Giardia cyst in the soil increased with the prevalence of Giardia spp. in animals (i.e., 18 to 39%). As the size of the farm increased, there was decreased risk of Giardia spp. in the soil, and sampling sites which were covered with brush or bare soil showed a decrease in likelihood of detecting Giardia spp. when compared to land which had managed grass. The number of cattle on the farm less than 6 mo of age was negatively associated with the risk of detecting Giardia spp. in the soil, and the percent moisture content was positively associated with the risk of detecting Giardia spp. Our study showed that these two protozoan exist in dairy farm soil at different rates, and this risk could be modified by manipulating the pH of the soil.

  5. Conidia survival of Aspergillus section Nigri, Flavi and Circumdati under UV-A and UV-B radiation with cycling temperature/light regime.

    PubMed

    García-Cela, Maria Esther; Marín, Sonia; Reyes, Monica; Sanchis, Vicent; Ramos, Antonio J

    2016-04-01

    Bio-geographical differences in fungal infection distribution have been observed around the world, confirming that climatic conditions are decisive in colonization. This research is focused on the impact of ultraviolet radiation (UV) on Aspergillus species, based on the consideration that an increase in UV-B radiation may have large ecological effects. Conidia of six mycotoxigenic Aspergillus species isolated from vineyards located in the northeast and south of Spain were incubated for 15 days under light/dark cycles and temperatures between 20 and 30 °C per day. Additionally, 6 h of exposure to UV-A or UV-B radiation per day were included in the light exposure. UV irradiance used were 1.7 ± 0.2 mW cm(-2) of UV-A (peak 365 nm) and 0.10 ± 0.2 mW cm(-2) of UV-B (peak 312 nm). The intrinsic decrease in viability of conidia over time was accentuated when they were UV irradiated. UV-B radiation was more harmful. Conidial sensitivity to UV light was marked in Aspergillus section Circumdati. Conidia pigmentation could be related to UV sensitivity. Different resistance was observed within species belonging to sections Flavi and Nigri. An increase in UV radiation could lead to a reduction in the Aspergillus spp. inoculum present in the field (vineyards, nuts, cereal crops). In addition, it could unbalance the spore species present in the field, leading to a higher predominance of dark-pigmented conidia. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Differential role of gpaB and sidA gene expressions in relation to virulence in Aspergillus species from patients with invasive aspergillosis.

    PubMed

    Ghods, Nayereh; Falahati, Mehraban; Roudbary, Maryam; Farahyar, Shirin; Shamaei, Masoud; Pourabdollah, Mahin; Seif, Farhad

    2018-02-03

    The virulence genes in invasive aspergillosis (IA) have not been analyzed adequately. The present study was designed to evaluate the expression of gpaB and sidA genes, which are important virulence genes in Aspergillus spp. from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples. Direct examination and culture on Czapek Agar and Sabouraud Dextrose Agar media were performed for 600 BAL specimens isolated from patients with possible aspergillosis. A Galactomannan ELISA assay was also carried out. The expression levels of the gpaB and sidA genes in isolates were analyzed using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). We identified 2 species, including Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus) and Aspergillus fumigatus (A. fumigatus) in 25 positive samples for invasive aspergillosis as validated using GM-ELISA. A. flavus is the main pathogen threatening transplant recipients and cancer patients worldwide. In this study, A. flavus had low levels of the gpaB gene expression compared to A. fumigatus (p=0.006). The highest sidA expression was detected in transplant recipients (p=0.05). There was no significant correlation between sidA expression and underlying disease (p=0.15). The sidA and gpaB gene expression patterns may provide evidence that these virulence genes play important roles in the pathogenicity of Aspergillus isolates; however, there are several regulatory genes responsible for the unexpressed sidA and gpaB genes in the isolates. Copyright © 2018 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  7. Molecular characterization of the presence of Eubacterium spp and Streptococcus spp in endodontic infections.

    PubMed

    Fouad, A F; Kum, K-Y; Clawson, M L; Barry, J; Abenoja, C; Zhu, Q; Caimano, M; Radolf, J D

    2003-08-01

    Eubacterium spp. and Streptococcus spp. are virulent, commonly identified microorganisms in endodontic infections. The purpose of this study was to use molecular methods to identify these organisms in 22 infected root canals that include eight cases with preoperative clinical symptoms and five cases with a history of diabetes mellitus. The presence of Streptococcus spp. and Eubacterium spp. was examined using two sets of PCR primers specific with multiple species within the respective genera. Positive specimens had their PCR products sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed to identify the specific species. Sixteen specimens (73%) contained Eubacterium spp. and nine (41%) were positive for Streptococcus spp. Eubacterium infirmum was the most prevalent Eubacterium sp. This organism was significantly associated with a history of diabetes (OR = 9.6; P = 0.04). Streptococcus anginosus was the most common Streptococcus sp., but neither it nor any of the other streptococci were significantly associated with the clinical parameters evaluated.

  8. Assessment of potential probiotic properties of Lactobacillus spp., Lactococcus spp., and Pediococcus spp. strains isolated from kefir.

    PubMed

    Sabir, Firat; Beyatli, Yavuz; Cokmus, Cumhur; Onal-Darilmaz, Derya

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the metabolic activities (in terms of quantities of the produced lactic acid, hydrogen peroxide, and exopolysaccharides) of 8 strains of Lactobacillus spp., Lactococcus spp., and Pediococcus spp., were determined. Lactic acid levels produced by strains were 8.1 to 17.4 mg/L. The L. acidophilus Z1L strain produced the maximum amount (3.18 μg/mL) of hydrogen peroxide. The exopolysaccharides (EPS) production by the strains was ranged between 173 and 378 mg/L. The susceptibility of 7 different antibiotics against these strains was also tested. All strains were found to be sensitive to ampicillin. The tolerance of the strains to low pH, their resistance to bile salts of strains, and their abilities to autoaggregate and coaggregate with Escherichia coli ATCC 11229 were also evaluated. High EPS-producing strains showed significant autoaggregation and coaggregation ability with test bacteria (P < 0.01). A correlation also was determined between EPS production and acid-bile tolerance (P < 0.05). EPS production possibly affects or is involved in acid-bile tolerance and aggregation of Lactobacillus spp., Lactococcus spp., and Pediococcus spp. strains and supports the potential of L. acidophilus Z1L strain as new probiotic. © 2010 Institute of Food Technologists®

  9. Bartonella spp. DNA Associated with Biting Flies from California

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Crystal Y.; Kasten, Rickie W.; Paff, Sandra M.; Van Horn, Brian A.; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Boulouis, Henri-Jean

    2004-01-01

    Bartonella DNA was investigated in 104 horn flies (Haematobia spp.), 60 stable flies (Stomoxys spp.), 11 deer flies (Chrysops spp.), and 11 horse flies (Tabanus spp.) collected on cattle in California. Partial sequencing indicated B. bovis DNA in the horn fly pool and B. henselae type M DNA in one stable fly. PMID:15324557

  10. Biofouling of groundwater systems by Thiothrix spp.

    PubMed

    Brigmon, R L; Martin, H W; Aldrich, H C

    1997-09-01

    Thiothrix spp., sulfide-oxidizing filamentous bacteria, were found to be a principal bacterial component of aquatic biofilms causing biofouling in selected municipal water storage tanks, private wells, and drip irrigation systems in Florida. Treatments of up to 200 ppm chlorine in the affected systems could not prevent return of the biofouling problem. The water originated from the upper Floridan aquifer and associated surficial aquifers in central and north Florida. Samples were examined where visible biofilms had a white, filamentous appearance, indicative of Thiothrix spp. The detection of Thiothrix spp. was confirmed by enzyme-liked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), indirect immunofluorescence (IIF), and microbiological procedures. It was estimated through immunocytochemical procedures that Thiothrix spp. comprised 18% of the biofilm in the municipal water storage tanks. These observations confirm that specific biological and chemical interactions may induce physical changes leading to significant biofouling.

  11. What is the importance of classifying Aspergillus disease in cystic fibrosis patients?

    PubMed

    Jones, Andrew M; Horsley, Alex; Denning, David W

    2014-08-01

    Aspergillus species are commonly isolated from lower respiratory tract samples of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and markers of immunological sensation to Aspergillus are frequently encountered in this group of patients; however, the contribution of Aspergillus to CF lung disease outside of the typical complications of ABPA and aspergilloma formation remains largely unclear. Patients with CF show discretely different responses to Aspergillus, though the underlying reasons for this variation are unknown. Recent work has begun to allow us to categorize patient responses to Aspergillus based upon molecular markers of infection and immune sensitization. Aspergillus sensitization and/or airway infection is associated with worse FEV1, in CF and other patients (asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, bronchiectasis). Classification of different clinical phenotypes of Aspergillus will enable future studies to determine the natural history of different manifestations of Aspergillus disease and evaluate the effects of intervention with antifungal therapy.

  12. Aspergillus section Flavi community structure in Zambia influences aflatoxin contamination of Maize and Groundnut

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aflatoxins are cancer-causing, immuno-suppressive mycotoxins that frequently contaminate important staples in Zambia including maize and groundnut. Several species within Aspergillus section Flavi have been implicated as causal agents of aflatoxin contamination in Africa. However, Aspergillus popula...

  13. Aspergillus fumigatus Invasion Increases with Progressive Airway Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Joe L.; Khan, Mohammad A.; Sobel, Raymond A.; Jiang, Xinguo; Clemons, Karl V.; Nguyen, Tom T.; Stevens, David A.; Martinez, Marife; Nicolls, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of Aspergillus-related disease in immune suppressed lung transplant patients, little is known of the host-pathogen interaction. Because of the mould’s angiotropic nature and because of its capacity to thrive in hypoxic conditions, we hypothesized that the degree of Aspergillus invasion would increase with progressive rejection-mediated ischemia of the allograft. To study this relationship, we utilized a novel orthotopic tracheal transplant model of Aspergillus infection, in which it was possible to assess the effects of tissue hypoxia and ischemia on airway infectivity. Laser Doppler flowmetry and FITC-lectin were used to determine blood perfusion, and a fiber optic microsensor was used to measure airway tissue oxygen tension. Fungal burden and depth of invasion were graded using histopathology. We demonstrated a high efficacy (80%) for producing a localized fungal tracheal infection with the majority of infection occurring at the donor-recipient anastomosis; Aspergillus was more invasive in allogeneic compared to syngeneic groups. During the study period, the overall kinetics of both non-infected and infected allografts was similar, demonstrating a progressive loss of perfusion and oxygenation, which reached a nadir by days 10-12 post-transplantation. The extent of Aspergillus invasion directly correlated with the degree of graft hypoxia and ischemia. Compared to the midtrachea, the donor-recipient anastomotic site exhibited lower perfusion and more invasive disease; a finding consistent with clinical experience. For the first time, we identify ischemia as a putative risk factor for Aspergillus invasion. Therapeutic approaches focused on preserving vascular health may play an important role in limiting Aspergillus infections. PMID:24155924

  14. Aspergillus infection in lung transplant patients: incidence and prognosis.

    PubMed

    Iversen, M; Burton, C M; Vand, S; Skovfoged, L; Carlsen, J; Milman, N; Andersen, C B; Rasmussen, M; Tvede, M

    2007-12-01

    Lung transplant recipients experience a particularly high incidence of Aspergillus infection in comparison with other solid-organ transplantations. This study was conducted to determine the incidence of Aspergillus colonisation and invasive aspergillosis, and the impact on long-term survival associated with Aspergillus infection. A retrospective study of 362 consecutive lung transplant patients from a single national centre who were transplanted 1992-2003 were studied. Twenty-seven patients were excluded due to incomplete or missing files. A total of 105/335 (31%) patients had evidence of Aspergillus infection (colonisation or invasion), including 83 (25%) patients with colonisation and 22 (6%) patients with radiographic or histological evidence of invasive disease. Most of the infections occurred within the first 3 months after transplantation. Cystic fibrosis (CF) patients had higher incidences of colonisation and invasive disease [15 (42%) and 4 (11%) of 36 patients] than non-CF patients [68 (23%) and 18 (6%) of 299 patients] (P = 0.01). Invasive aspergillosis was associated with 58% mortality after 2 years, whereas colonisation was not associated with early increased mortality but was associated with increased mortality after 5 years compared to non-infected patients (P < 0.05). An analysis of demographic factors showed that donor age [OR 1.40 per decade (95% CI 1.10-1.80)], ischaemia time [OR 1.17 per hour increase (95% CI 1.01-1.39)], and use of daclizumab versus polyclonal induction [OR 2.05 (95% CI 1.14-3.75)] were independent risk factors for Aspergillus infection. Invasive aspergillosis was associated with early and high mortality in lung transplant patients. Colonisation with Aspergillus was also associated with a significant increase in mortality after 5 years. CF patients have a higher incidence of Aspergillus infection than non-CF patients.

  15. Aspergillus osteomyelitis: epidemiology, clinical manifestations, management, and outcome.

    PubMed

    Gamaletsou, Maria N; Rammaert, Blandine; Bueno, Marimelle A; Moriyama, Brad; Sipsas, Nikolaos V; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P; Roilides, Emmanuel; Zeller, Valerie; Prinapori, Roberta; Taj-Aldeen, Saad J; Brause, Barry; Lortholary, Olivier; Walsh, Thomas J

    2014-05-01

    The epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of Aspergillus osteomyelitis are not well understood. Protocol-defined cases of Aspergillus osteomyelitis published in the English literature were reviewed for comorbidities, microbiology, mechanisms of infection, clinical manifestations, radiological findings, inflammatory biomarkers, antifungal therapy, and outcome. Among 180 evaluable patients, 127 (71%) were males. Possible predisposing medical conditions in 103 (57%) included pharmacological immunosuppression, primary immunodeficiency, and neutropenia. Seventy-three others (41%) had prior open fracture, trauma or surgery. Eighty (44%) followed a hematogenous mechanism, 58 (32%) contiguous infections, and 42 (23%) direct inoculation. Aspergillus osteomyelitis was the first manifestation of aspergillosis in 77%. Pain and tenderness were present in 80%. The most frequently infected sites were vertebrae (46%), cranium (23%), ribs (16%), and long bones (13%). Patients with vertebral Aspergillus osteomyelitis had more previous orthopedic surgery (19% vs 0%; P = 0.02), while those with cranial osteomyelitis had more diabetes mellitus (32% vs 8%; P = 0.002) and prior head/neck surgery (12% vs 0%; P = 0.02). Radiologic findings included osteolysis, soft-tissue extension, and uptake on T2-weighted images. Vertebral body Aspergillus osteomyelitis was complicated by spinal-cord compression in 47% and neurological deficits in 41%. Forty-four patients (24%) received only antifungal therapy, while 121 (67%) were managed with surgery and antifungal therapy. Overall mortality was 25%. Median duration of therapy was 90 days (range, 10-772 days). There were fewer relapses in patients managed with surgery plus antifungal therapy in comparison to those managed with antifungal therapy alone (8% vs 30%; P = 0.006). Aspergillus osteomyelitis is a debilitating infection affecting both immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients. The most common sites are vertebrae, ribs, and

  16. Aspergillus Osteomyelitis: Epidemiology, Clinical Manifestations, Management, and Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Gamaletsou, Maria N.; Rammaert, Blandine; Bueno, Marimelle A.; Moriyama, Brad; Sipsas, Nikolaos V.; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P.; Roilides, Emmanuel; Zeller, Valerie; Prinapori, Roberta; Tajaldeen, Saad Jaber; Brause, Barry; Lortholary, Olivier; Walsh, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Background The epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of Aspergillus osteomyelitis are not well understood. Methods Protocol-defined cases of Aspergillus osteomyelitis published in the English literature were reviewed for comorbidities, microbiology, mechanisms of infection, clinical manifestations, radiological findings, inflammatory biomarkers, antifungal therapy, and outcome. Results Among 180 evaluable patients, 127 (71%) were males. Possible predisposing medical conditions in 103 (57%) included pharmacological immunosuppression, primary immunodeficiency, and neutropenia. Seventy-three others (41%) had prior open fracture, trauma or surgery. Eighty (44%) followed a hematogenous mechanism, 58 (32%) contiguous infections, and 42 (23%) direct inoculation. Aspergillus osteomyelitis was the first manifestation of aspergillosis in 77%. Pain and tenderness were present in 80%. The most frequently infected sites were vertebrae (46%), cranium (23%), ribs (16%), and long bones (13%). Patients with vertebral Aspergillus osteomyelitis had more previous orthopedic surgery (19% vs 0%; P=0.02), while those with cranial osteomyelitis had more diabetes mellitus (32% vs 8%; P=0.002) and prior head/neck surgery (12% vs 0%; P=0.02). Radiologic findings included osteolysis, soft-tissue extension, and uptake on T2-weighted images. Vertebral body Aspergillus osteomyelitis was complicated by spinal-cord compression in 47% and neurological deficits in 41%. Forty-four patients (24%) received only antifungal therapy, while 121(67%) were managed with surgery and antifungal therapy. Overall mortality was 25%. Median duration of therapy was 90 days (range, 10–772 days). There were fewer relapses in patients managed with surgery plus antifungal therapy in comparison to those managed with antifungal therapy alone (8% vs 30%; P=0.006). Conclusions Aspergillus osteomyelitis is a debilitating infection affecting both immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients. The most

  17. Aspergillus pragensis sp. nov. discovered during molecular reidentification of clinical isolates belonging to Aspergillus section Candidi.

    PubMed

    Hubka, Vit; Lyskova, Pavlina; Frisvad, Jens C; Peterson, Stephen W; Skorepova, Magdalena; Kolarik, Miroslav

    2014-08-01

    The identity of nine clinical isolates recovered from Czech patients and presumptively identified as Aspergillus sp. section Candidi based on colony morphology was revised using sequences of β-tubulin, calmodulin gene sequence, and internal transcribed spacer rDNA. Six isolates were from suspected and proven onychomycosis, one from otitis externa, and two associated with probable invasive aspergillosis. The results showed that one Aspergillus candidus isolate was the cause of otitis externa, and both isolates obtained from sputa of patients with probable invasive aspergillosis were reidentified as A. carneus (sect. Terrei) and A. flavus (sect. Flavi). Three isolates from nail scrapings were identified as A. tritici, a verified agent of nondermatophyte onychomycosis. One isolate from toenail was determined to be A. candidus and the two isolates belonged to a hitherto undescribed species, Aspergillus pragensis sp. nov. This species is well supported by phylogenetic analysis based on β-tubulin and calmodulin gene and is distinguishable from other members of sect. Candidi by red-brown reverse on malt extract agar, slow growth on Czapek-Dox agar and inability to grow at 37°C. A secondary metabolite analysis was also provided with comparison of metabolite spectrum to other species. Section Candidi now encompasses five species for which a dichotomous key based on colony characteristics is provided. All clinical isolates were tested for susceptibilities to selected antifungal agents using the Etest and disc diffusion method. Overall sect. Candidi members are highly susceptible to common antifungals. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Aspergillus Volatiles Regulate Aflatoxin Synthesis and Asexual Sporulation in Aspergillus parasiticus▿

    PubMed Central

    Roze, Ludmila V.; Beaudry, Randolph M.; Arthur, Anna E.; Calvo, Ana M.; Linz, John E.

    2007-01-01

    Aspergillus parasiticus is one primary source of aflatoxin contamination in economically important crops. To prevent the potential health and economic impacts of aflatoxin contamination, our goal is to develop practical strategies to reduce aflatoxin synthesis on susceptible crops. One focus is to identify biological and environmental factors that regulate aflatoxin synthesis and to manipulate these factors to control aflatoxin biosynthesis in the field or during crop storage. In the current study, we analyzed the effects of aspergillus volatiles on growth, development, aflatoxin biosynthesis, and promoter activity in the filamentous fungus A. parasiticus. When colonies of Aspergillus nidulans and A. parasiticus were incubated in the same growth chamber, we observed a significant reduction in aflatoxin synthesis and asexual sporulation by A. parasiticus. Analysis of the headspace gases demonstrated that A. nidulans produced much larger quantities of 2-buten-1-ol (CA) and 2-ethyl-1-hexanol (EH) than A. parasiticus. In its pure form, EH inhibited growth and increased aflatoxin accumulation in A. parasiticus at all doses tested; EH also stimulated aflatoxin transcript accumulation. In contrast, CA exerted dose-dependent up-regulatory or down-regulatory effects on aflatoxin accumulation, conidiation, and aflatoxin transcript accumulation. Experiments with reporter strains carrying nor-1 promoter deletions and mutations suggested that the differential effects of CA were mediated through separate regulatory regions in the nor-1 promoter. The potential efficacy of CA as a tool for analysis of transcriptional regulation of aflatoxin biosynthesis is discussed. We also identify a novel, rapid, and reliable method to assess norsolorinic acid accumulation in solid culture using a Chroma Meter CR-300 apparatus. PMID:17890344

  19. Expression of the Aspergillus terreus itaconic acid biosynthesis cluster in Aspergillus niger

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Aspergillus terreus is a natural producer of itaconic acid and is currently used to produce itaconic acid on an industrial scale. The metabolic process for itaconic acid biosynthesis is very similar to the production of citric acid in Aspergillus niger. However, a key enzyme in A. niger, cis-aconitate decarboxylase, is missing. The introduction of the A. terreus cadA gene in A. niger exploits the high level of citric acid production (over 200 g per liter) and theoretically can lead to production levels of over 135 g per liter of itaconic acid in A. niger. Given the potential for higher production levels in A. niger, production of itaconic acid in this host was investigated. Results Expression of Aspergillus terreus cis-aconitate decarboxylase in Aspergillus niger resulted in the production of a low concentration (0.05 g/L) of itaconic acid. Overexpression of codon-optimized genes for cis-aconitate decarboxylase, a mitochondrial transporter and a plasma membrane transporter in an oxaloacetate hydrolase and glucose oxidase deficient A. niger strain led to highly increased yields and itaconic acid production titers. At these higher production titers, the effect of the mitochondrial and plasma membrane transporters was much more pronounced, with levels being 5–8 times higher than previously described. Conclusions Itaconic acid can be produced in A. niger by the introduction of the A. terreus cis-aconitate decarboxylase encoding cadA gene. This results in a low itaconic acid production level, which can be increased by codon-optimization of the cadA gene for A. niger. A second crucial requirement for efficient production of itaconic acid is the expression of the A. terreus mttA gene, encoding a putative mitochondrial transporter. Expression of this transporter results in a twenty-fold increase in the secretion of itaconic acid. Expression of the A. terreus itaconic acid cluster consisting of the cadA gene, the mttA gene and the mfsA gene results in A

  20. Expression of the Aspergillus terreus itaconic acid biosynthesis cluster in Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    van der Straat, Laura; Vernooij, Marloes; Lammers, Marieke; van den Berg, Willy; Schonewille, Tom; Cordewener, Jan; van der Meer, Ingrid; Koops, Andries; de Graaff, Leo H

    2014-01-17

    Aspergillus terreus is a natural producer of itaconic acid and is currently used to produce itaconic acid on an industrial scale. The metabolic process for itaconic acid biosynthesis is very similar to the production of citric acid in Aspergillus niger. However, a key enzyme in A. niger, cis-aconitate decarboxylase, is missing. The introduction of the A. terreus cadA gene in A. niger exploits the high level of citric acid production (over 200 g per liter) and theoretically can lead to production levels of over 135 g per liter of itaconic acid in A. niger. Given the potential for higher production levels in A. niger, production of itaconic acid in this host was investigated. Expression of Aspergillus terreus cis-aconitate decarboxylase in Aspergillus niger resulted in the production of a low concentration (0.05 g/L) of itaconic acid. Overexpression of codon-optimized genes for cis-aconitate decarboxylase, a mitochondrial transporter and a plasma membrane transporter in an oxaloacetate hydrolase and glucose oxidase deficient A. niger strain led to highly increased yields and itaconic acid production titers. At these higher production titers, the effect of the mitochondrial and plasma membrane transporters was much more pronounced, with levels being 5-8 times higher than previously described. Itaconic acid can be produced in A. niger by the introduction of the A. terreus cis-aconitate decarboxylase encoding cadA gene. This results in a low itaconic acid production level, which can be increased by codon-optimization of the cadA gene for A. niger. A second crucial requirement for efficient production of itaconic acid is the expression of the A. terreus mttA gene, encoding a putative mitochondrial transporter. Expression of this transporter results in a twenty-fold increase in the secretion of itaconic acid. Expression of the A. terreus itaconic acid cluster consisting of the cadA gene, the mttA gene and the mfsA gene results in A. niger strains that produce over

  1. Olive pomace valorization by Aspergillus species: lipase production using solid-state fermentation.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Felisbela; Moreira, Cláudia; Salgado, José Manuel; Abrunhosa, Luís; Venâncio, Armando; Belo, Isabel

    2016-08-01

    Pollution by olive mill wastes is an important problem in the Mediterranean area and novel solutions for their proper management and valorization are needed. The aim of this work was to optimize a solid-state fermentation (SSF) process to produce lipase using olive pomace (OP) as the main source of nutrients by several Aspergillus spp. Optimized variables in two different designs were: ratio between olive pomace and wheat bran (OP:WB), NaNO3 , Czapek nutrients, fermentation time, moisture content (MC) and temperature. Results showed that the mixture OP:WB and MC were the most significant factors affecting lipase production for all fungi strains tested. With MC and temperature optimization, a 4.4-fold increase in A. ibericus lipase was achieved (90.5 ± 1.5 U g(-1) ), using a mixture of OP and WB at 1:1 ratio, 0.02 g NaNO3 g(-1) dry substrate, absence of Czapek nutrients, 60% of MC and incubation at 30 °C for 7 days. For A. niger and A. tubingensis, highest lipase activity obtained was 56.6 ± 5.4 and 7.6 ± 0.6 U g(-1) , respectively. Aspergillus ibericus was found to be the most promising microorganism for lipase production using mixtures of OP and WB. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Phylogeny of xerophilic aspergilli (subgenus Aspergillus ) and taxonomic revision of section Restricti

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aspergillus section Restricti together with sister section Aspergillus (formerly Eurotium) comprises xerophilic species, that are able to grow on substrates with low water activity and in extreme environments. We adressed the monophyly of both sections within subgenus Aspergillus and applied a multi...

  3. Aspergillus flavus: human pathogen, allergen and mycotoxin producer.

    PubMed

    Hedayati, M T; Pasqualotto, A C; Warn, P A; Bowyer, P; Denning, D W

    2007-06-01

    Aspergillus infections have grown in importance in the last years. However, most of the studies have focused on Aspergillus fumigatus, the most prevalent species in the genus. In certain locales and hospitals, Aspergillus flavus is more common in air than A. fumigatus, for unclear reasons. After A. fumigatus, A. flavus is the second leading cause of invasive aspergillosis and it is the most common cause of superficial infection. Experimental invasive infections in mice show A. flavus to be 100-fold more virulent than A. fumigatus in terms of inoculum required. Particularly common clinical syndromes associated with A. flavus include chronic granulomatous sinusitis, keratitis, cutaneous aspergillosis, wound infections and osteomyelitis following trauma and inoculation. Outbreaks associated with A. flavus appear to be associated with single or closely related strains, in contrast to those associated with A. fumigatus. In addition, A. flavus produces aflatoxins, the most toxic and potent hepatocarcinogenic natural compounds ever characterized. Accurate species identification within Aspergillus flavus complex remains difficult due to overlapping morphological and biochemical characteristics, and much taxonomic and population genetics work is necessary to better understand the species and related species. The flavus complex currently includes 23 species or varieties, including two sexual species, Petromyces alliaceus and P. albertensis. The genome of the highly related Aspergillus oryzae is completed and available; that of A. flavus in the final stages of annotation. Our understanding of A. flavus lags far behind that of A. fumigatus. Studies of the genomics, taxonomy, population genetics, pathogenicity, allergenicity and antifungal susceptibility of A. flavus are all required.

  4. [Gerog Fresenius and the species Aspergillus fumigatus].

    PubMed

    Schmidt, A

    1998-01-01

    The species Aspergillus fumigatus was first extensively described by G. Fresenius. J. B. Georg W. Fresenius was born in Frankfurt/Main, Germany, in 1808 and also died there in 1866. He studied medicine and finished his doctorate thesis (MD) in 1829. Afterwards he started his career as a physician and surgeon in Frankfurt/Main in the same year. In 1831 Fresenius became a university lecturer for botany at the "Senckenbergisches medicinisches Institut"; this institute specialized in botany. In this year Fresenius also became the director of the botanical gardens of Frankfurt/Main. Apart from his collaboration in the institute for agriculture he actively participated in the microscopical association of Frankfurt as well as the "Senckenbergische medicinische Gesellschaft". Almost over the whole period, Fresenius also worked as a physician taking care of miserable people. The outstanding publications of Fresenius are "Die Flora von Frankfurt" (Flora of Frankfurt) and "Beiträge zur Mykologie" (Contributions to Mycology). The monograph "Beiträge zur Mykologie" was published by Fresenius as a dedication for the centennial celebrations of the Senckenberg foundation ("Senckenbergische Stiftung"). It contains 132 pages and 13 excellent lithographic figures (Camera lucida). The third part of this monograph also contains the description of the species A. fumigatus. Fresenius was an engaged physician as well as an outstanding researcher and expert in natural sciences who described numerous new fungal species some of which are still accepted nowadays in accordance with the "International Code of Botanical Nomenclature".

  5. Keratinolytic activity of Aspergillus fumigatus fresenius.

    PubMed

    Santos RMDB; Firmino, A A; de Sá, C M; Felix, C R

    1996-12-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus can utilize chicken feather keratin as its sole carbon and nitrogen source. Because enzymatic conversion of native keratin into readily usable products is of economic interest, this fungus was studied for its capacity to produce and secrete keratin-hydrolyzing proteinases. Substantial keratin-azure hydrolyzing activity was present in the culture fluid of keratin-containing media. Considerably lower activity was present in cultures containing glucose and nitrate as the carbon and nitrogen sources, or keratin plus glucose and nitrate. Secretion of keratin-hydrolyzing activity in A. fumigatus was induced by keratin but repressed by low-molecular-weight carbon and nitrogen sources. The amount of keratinolytic enzyme present in the culture fluid was dependent on the initial pH of the culture medium. The crude enzyme also hydrolyzed native keratin and casein in vitro. Hydrolysis was optimal at pH 9 and 45 degrees C. The crude enzyme was remarkably thermostable. At 70 degrees C, it retained about 90% of its original activity for 1.5 h. The obtained results indicated that the A. fumigatus keratinolytic enzyme may be suitable for enzymatic improvement of feather meal.

  6. Investigation of Aspergillus flavus in animal virulence.

    PubMed

    Lan, Huahui; Wu, Lianghuan; Sun, Ruilin; Yang, Kunlong; Liu, Yinghang; Wu, Jiefei; Geng, Longpo; Huang, Chuanzhong; Wang, Shihua

    2018-04-01

    Aspergillus flavus is a common fungal pathogen of plants, animals and humans. Recently, many genes of A. flavus have been reported involving in regulation of pathogenesis in crops, but whether these genes are involved in animal virulence is still unknown. Here, we used a previous easy-to-use infection model for A. flavus based on mouse model by intravenous inoculation of A. flavus conidia. The outcome of infections in mice model showed that A. flavus NRRL3357 and laboratory strain CA14 PTS were both in dose dependent manner and highly reproducible. The progress of disease could be monitored by mice survival and histology analysis. Fungal burden analysis indicated it was gradually decreased within 7 days after infection. Moreover, aspergillosis caused by A. flavus significantly up-regulated gene expression levels of immune response mediators, including INF-γ, TNF-α, Dectin-1 and TLR2. Furthermore, the defined deletion A. flavus strains that previously displayed virulence in crop infection were also determined in this mouse model, and the results showed comparable degrees of infection in mice. Our results suggested that intravenous inoculation of conidia could be a suitable model for testing different A. flavus mutants in animal virulence. We hope to use this model to determine distinct A. flavus strains virulence in animals and study novel therapeutic methods to help control fungus diseases in the future. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Role of Hydrophobins in Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Valsecchi, Isabel; Dupres, Vincent; Stephen-Victor, Emmanuel; Guijarro, J Iñaki; Gibbons, John; Beau, Rémi; Bayry, Jagadeesh; Coppee, Jean-Yves; Lafont, Frank; Latgé, Jean-Paul; Beauvais, Anne

    2017-12-24

    Resistance of Aspergillus fumigatus conidia to desiccation and their capacity to reach the alveoli are partly due to the presence of a hydrophobic layer composed of a protein from the hydrophobin family, called RodA, which covers the conidial surface. In A. fumigatus there are seven hydrophobins (RodA-RodG) belonging to class I and III. Most of them have never been studied. We constructed single and multiple hydrophobin-deletion mutants until the generation of a hydrophobin-free mutant. The phenotype, immunogenicity, and virulence of the mutants were studied. RODA is the most expressed hydrophobin in sporulating cultures, whereas RODB is upregulated in biofilm conditions and in vivo Only RodA, however, is responsible for rodlet formation, sporulation, conidial hydrophobicity, resistance to physical insult or anionic dyes, and immunological inertia of the conidia. None of the hydrophobin plays a role in biofilm formation or its hydrophobicity. RodA is the only needed hydrophobin in A. fumigatus , conditioning the structure, permeability, hydrophobicity, and immune-inertia of the cell wall surface in conidia. Moreover, the defect of rodlets on the conidial cell wall surface impacts on the drug sensitivity of the fungus.

  8. Role of Hydrophobins in Aspergillus fumigatus

    PubMed Central

    Valsecchi, Isabel; Dupres, Vincent; Stephen-Victor, Emmanuel; Guijarro, J. Iñaki; Gibbons, John; Beau, Rémi; Coppee, Jean-Yves; Lafont, Frank; Latgé, Jean-Paul; Beauvais, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Resistance of Aspergillus fumigatus conidia to desiccation and their capacity to reach the alveoli are partly due to the presence of a hydrophobic layer composed of a protein from the hydrophobin family, called RodA, which covers the conidial surface. In A. fumigatus there are seven hydrophobins (RodA–RodG) belonging to class I and III. Most of them have never been studied. We constructed single and multiple hydrophobin-deletion mutants until the generation of a hydrophobin-free mutant. The phenotype, immunogenicity, and virulence of the mutants were studied. RODA is the most expressed hydrophobin in sporulating cultures, whereas RODB is upregulated in biofilm conditions and in vivo Only RodA, however, is responsible for rodlet formation, sporulation, conidial hydrophobicity, resistance to physical insult or anionic dyes, and immunological inertia of the conidia. None of the hydrophobin plays a role in biofilm formation or its hydrophobicity. RodA is the only needed hydrophobin in A. fumigatus, conditioning the structure, permeability, hydrophobicity, and immune-inertia of the cell wall surface in conidia. Moreover, the defect of rodlets on the conidial cell wall surface impacts on the drug sensitivity of the fungus. PMID:29371496

  9. A reductive aminase from Aspergillus oryzae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleku, Godwin A.; France, Scott P.; Man, Henry; Mangas-Sanchez, Juan; Montgomery, Sarah L.; Sharma, Mahima; Leipold, Friedemann; Hussain, Shahed; Grogan, Gideon; Turner, Nicholas J.

    2017-10-01

    Reductive amination is one of the most important methods for the synthesis of chiral amines. Here we report the discovery of an NADP(H)-dependent reductive aminase from Aspergillus oryzae (AspRedAm, Uniprot code Q2TW47) that can catalyse the reductive coupling of a broad set of carbonyl compounds with a variety of primary and secondary amines with up to >98% conversion and with up to >98% enantiomeric excess. In cases where both carbonyl and amine show high reactivity, it is possible to employ a 1:1 ratio of the substrates, forming amine products with up to 94% conversion. Steady-state kinetic studies establish that the enzyme is capable of catalysing imine formation as well as reduction. Crystal structures of AspRedAm in complex with NADP(H) and also with both NADP(H) and the pharmaceutical ingredient (R)-rasagiline are reported. We also demonstrate preparative scale reductive aminations with wild-type and Q240A variant biocatalysts displaying total turnover numbers of up to 32,000 and space time yields up to 3.73 g l-1 d-1.

  10. Bioconversion of Capsaicin by Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Lee, Minji; Cho, Jeong-Yong; Lee, Yu Geon; Lee, Hyoung Jae; Lim, Seong-Il; Park, So-Lim; Moon, Jae-Hak

    2015-07-08

    This study identified metabolites of capsaicin bioconverted by Aspergillus oryzae, which is generally used for mass production of gochujang prepared by fermenting red pepper powder in Korea. A. oryzae was incubated with capsaicin in potato dextrose broth. Capsaicin decreased depending on the incubation period, but new metabolites increased. Five capsaicin metabolites purified from the ethyl acetate fraction of the capsaicin culture were identified as N-vanillylcarbamoylbutyric acid, N-vanillyl-9-hydroxy-8-methyloctanamide, ω-hydroxycapsaicin, 8-methyl-N-vanillylcarbamoyl-6(E)-octenoic acid, and 2-methyl-N-vanillylcarbamoyl-6(Z)-octenoic acid by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS). The capsaicin metabolites in gochujang were confirmed and quantitated by selective multiple reaction monitoring detection after liquid chromatography electrospray ionization MS using the isolated compounds as external standards. On the basis of the structures of the capsaicin metabolites, it is proposed that capsaicin metabolites were converted by A. oryzae by ω-hydroxylation, alcohol oxidation, hydrogenation, isomerization, and α- and/or β-oxidation.

  11. Polarity-defective mutants of Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed

    Osherov, N; Mathew, J; May, G S

    2000-12-01

    We have identified two polarity-defective (pod) mutants in Aspergillus nidulans from a collection of heat-sensitive lethal mutants. At restrictive temperature, these mutants are capable of nuclear division but are unable to establish polar hyphal growth. We cloned the two pod genes by complementation of their heat-sensitive lethal phenotypes. The libraries used to clone the pod genes are under the control of the bidirectional niaD and niiA promoters. Complementation of the pod mutants is dependent on growth on inducing medium. We show that rescue of the heat-sensitive phenotype on inducing media is independent of the orientation of the gene relative to the niaD or niiA promoters, demonstrating that the intergenic region between the niaD and the niiA genes functions as an orientation-independent enhancer and repressor that is capable of functioning over long distances. The products of the podG and the podH genes were identified as homologues of the alpha subunit of yeast mitochondrial phenylalanyl--tRNA synthetase and transcription factor IIF interacting component of the CTD phosphatase. Neither of these gene products would have been predicted to produce a pod mutant phenotype based on studies of cellular polarity mutants in other organisms. The implications of these results are discussed. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  12. Degradation of melanin by Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed Central

    Luther, J P; Lipke, H

    1980-01-01

    A strain of Aspergillus fumigatus from composted coffee and garden wastes utilized natural deproteinized insect, banana, hair, octopus, and synthetic tyrosine and dopa melanins as sole sources of carbon. With a sucrose supplement, degradation was essentially complete after 50 days in Czapek medium pH 6.5 at 30 degrees C. The catabolic rate differed for each substrate pigment, as did the molecular weight distribution of products accumulating in the medium. After incubation with L-[U-14C]melanin, over 50% was recovered in a dark fungal pigment, the remainder appearing as cell protein, chitin, lipid, CO2, and polar metabolites. When grown on melanin, the normally pale mycelia darkened with the production of a fungal allomelanin, with infrared spectrum and alkali fusion products differing from those of the substrate pigment. Isotope distribution in amino acids for A. fumigatus grown on labeled melanin supplemented with sucrose suggested separate pools for synthesis of cell proteins and melanoproteins. Deposition of allomelanin increased resistance of conidia, sterigma, and conidiophores to lytic carbohydrases as judged by scanning electron microscopy. Images PMID:6996615

  13. Proteome map of Aspergillus nidulans during osmoadaptation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yonghyun; Nandakumar, M P; Marten, Mark R

    2007-09-01

    The model filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans, when grown in a moderate level of osmolyte (+0.6M KCl), was previously found to have a significantly reduced cell wall elasticity (Biotech Prog, 21:292, 2005). In this study, comparative proteomic analysis via two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2de) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry was used to assess molecular level events associated with this phenomenon. Thirty of 90 differentially expressed proteins were identified. Sequence homology and conserved domains were used to assign probable function to twenty-one proteins currently annotated as "hypothetical." In osmoadapted cells, there was an increased expression of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase, as well as a decreased expression of enolase, suggesting an increased glycerol biosynthesis and decreased use of the TCA cycle. There also was an increased expression of heat shock proteins and Shp1-like protein degradation protein, implicating increased protein turnover. Five novel osmoadaptation proteins of unknown functions were also identified.

  14. N-Glycan Modification in Aspergillus Species▿

    PubMed Central

    Kainz, Elke; Gallmetzer, Andreas; Hatzl, Christian; Nett, Juergen H.; Li, Huijuan; Schinko, Thorsten; Pachlinger, Robert; Berger, Harald; Reyes-Dominguez, Yazmid; Bernreiter, Andreas; Gerngross, Tillmann; Wildt, Stefan; Strauss, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    The production by filamentous fungi of therapeutic glycoproteins intended for use in mammals is held back by the inherent difference in protein N-glycosylation and by the inability of the fungal cell to modify proteins with mammalian glycosylation structures. Here, we report protein N-glycan engineering in two Aspergillus species. We functionally expressed in the fungal hosts heterologous chimeric fusion proteins containing different localization peptides and catalytic domains. This strategy allowed the isolation of a strain with a functional α-1,2-mannosidase producing increased amounts of N-glycans of the Man5GlcNAc2 type. This strain was further engineered by the introduction of a functional GlcNAc transferase I construct yielding GlcNAcMan5GlcNac2 N-glycans. Additionally, we deleted algC genes coding for an enzyme involved in an early step of the fungal glycosylation pathway yielding Man3GlcNAc2 N-glycans. This modification of fungal glycosylation is a step toward the ability to produce humanized complex N-glycans on therapeutic proteins in filamentous fungi. PMID:18083888

  15. Analysis of secreted proteins from Aspergillus flavus.

    PubMed

    Medina, Martha L; Haynes, Paul A; Breci, Linda; Francisco, Wilson A

    2005-08-01

    MS/MS techniques in proteomics make possible the identification of proteins from organisms with little or no genome sequence information available. Peptide sequences are obtained from tandem mass spectra by matching peptide mass and fragmentation information to protein sequence information from related organisms, including unannotated genome sequence data. This peptide identification data can then be grouped and reconstructed into protein data. In this study, we have used this approach to study protein secretion by Aspergillus flavus, a filamentous fungus for which very little genome sequence information is available. A. flavus is capable of degrading the flavonoid rutin (quercetin 3-O-glycoside), as the only source of carbon via an extracellular enzyme system. In this continuing study, a proteomic analysis was used to identify secreted proteins from A. flavus when grown on rutin. The growth media glucose and potato dextrose were used to identify differentially expressed secreted proteins. The secreted proteins were analyzed by 1- and 2-DE and MS/MS. A total of 51 unique A. flavus secreted proteins were identified from the three growth conditions. Ten proteins were unique to rutin-, five to glucose- and one to potato dextrose-grown A. flavus. Sixteen secreted proteins were common to all three media. Fourteen identifications were of hypothetical proteins or proteins of unknown functions. To our knowledge, this is the first extensive proteomic study conducted to identify the secreted proteins from a filamentous fungus.

  16. Steroid 11-Alpha-Hydroxylation by the Fungi Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus ochraceus.

    PubMed

    Ríos, Lidia Ortega-de Los; Luengo, José M; Fernández-Cañón, José M

    2017-01-01

    Steroids are a group of natural compounds derived from the cyclopentane-perhydro-phenantrene nucleus that have a great interest for the pharmaceutical industries as a consequence of their physiological effects. Among their functions are anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, or contraceptive activities. Nowadays, microbial transformation of steroid precursors is winning relevance opposite to the chemical synthesis, since it allows for decreasing time, expenses, and environmental pollution. Pharmaceutical industry tends to use cholesterol and phytosterols as starting materials due to their low cost. Aspergillus ochraceus and Aspergillus nidulans, a fungus whose biochemistry and genetics are well known, have been chosen because of their capacity of 11-α-hydroxylation over some steroids which confers on them their anti-inflammatory properties. We have cloned the genes encoding the 11-α-hydroxylase enzymatic activities with the aim to introduce them in other microorganisms, such as Mycobacterium smegmatis, used in the industry to split the side chain of phytosterols, and thus creating recombinant microorganisms able to generate useful steroids from cheap precursors in just one-step fermentation.

  17. Inhibitory Effects of Thai Essential Oils on Potentially Aflatoxigenic Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus flavus.

    PubMed

    Jantapan, Kittika; Poapolathep, Amnart; Imsilp, Kanjana; Poapolathep, Saranya; Tanhan, Phanwimol; Kumagai, Susumu; Jermnak, Usuma

    2017-01-01

     The antiaflatoxigenic and antifungal activities of essential oils (EOs) of finger root (Boesenbergia rotunda (L.) Mansf.), pine (Pinus pinaster), rosewood (Aniba rosaedora), Siam benzoin (Styrax tonkinensis), Thai moringa (Moringa oleifera), and ylang ylang (Cananga odorata) were tested for Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus flavus in potato dextrose broth. Aflatoxin B 1 (AFB 1 ) was extracted from culture using a QuEChERS-based extraction procedure and analyzed with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to a fluorescence detector. EO of pine showed the greatest inhibition of growth and AFB 1 production of A. parasiticus, followed by EOs of rosewood, finger root, Siam benzoin, and ylang ylang. EO of finger root gave the best inhibitory effects on A. flavus, followed by EOs of rosewood, pine, ylang ylang, and Siam benzoin. EO of Thai moringa did not show any significant inhibition of aflatoxigenic fungi. The antiaflatoxigenic activities of EOs correlated with their antifungal activities in the dosedependent manner. Comparison of the application of the five selected EOs in peanut pods by direct and vapor exposure indicated that the AFB 1 production inhibitory effects of the five EOs by direct exposure were faster and more effective than by vapor exposure. EO of finger root showed the best inhibition of AFB 1 production of A. flavus in peanut pods by direct exposure, followed by EOs of pine, rosewood, ylang ylang, and Siam benzoin.

  18. Inhibition of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus by some herbs and spices.

    PubMed

    Yin, M C; Cheng, W S

    1998-01-01

    The inhibitory effect of water-soluble extracts of garlic bulbs, green garlic, green onions, hot peppers, ginger, Chinese parsley, and basil on the growth of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus was examined. Garlic bulbs, green garlic, and green onions showed an inhibitory effect against these two fungi. The influence of heat, acid, and salt upon the inhibitory effect of these three herbs was further studied. Increasing the temperature from 60 to 100 degrees C resulted in a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in the inhibitory effect of garlic bulbs against the fungi tested. Green garlic and green onion lost their antifungal activity against A. niger after being treated at 80 and 60 degrees, respectively. For A. flavus, the inhibitory effect of green garlic declined significantly (P < 0.05) with an increase in temperature. However, the antifungal activity of green onions against A. flavus was heat stable. For both fungi tested in this study, the antifungal activity of these spice plants was not affected by acid treatments at pH values 2, 4, or 6, or salt by treatments at concentrations of 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, and 0.4 M (P > 0.05).

  19. Transferability of SSR and RGA markers developed in Cynodon spp. to Zoysia spp.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bermudagrass (Cynodon spp.) and zoysiagrass (Zoysia spp.), which are both used as warm-season turfgrasses in the United States, are members of subfamily Chloridoideae and are reported to be at least 55% genetically similar. To assess if molecular tools between the two species can be interchanged, 93...

  20. Methylobacterium spp. as an indicator for the presence or absence of Mycobacterium spp.

    PubMed

    Falkinham, Joseph O; Williams, Myra D; Kwait, Rebecca; Lande, Leah

    2016-06-01

    A published survey of bacteria in showerhead biofilm samples revealed that Methylobacterium spp. and Mycobacterium spp. seldom coexisted in biofilms. To confirm that information, biofilm samples were collected from household plumbing of Mycobacterium avium patients and Methylobacterium spp. and M. avium numbers were measured by direct colony counts. The results demonstrated that if Methylobacterium spp. were present, Mycobacterium spp. were absent, and the opposite. The data demonstrate that microbial populations in biofilms can influence the presence or absence of opportunistic premise plumbing pathogens and, thereby, increase the range of strategies to reduce exposure to waterborne pathogens. Finally, by assessing for the visual presence of methylobacteria as pink pigmentation on showers and shower curtains, homeowners and managers of hospitals and other buildings can quickly determine whether a premise plumbing biofilm sample has mycobacteria with a high degree of assurance. Copyright © 2016 Asian African Society for Mycobacteriology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Identification and discrimination of Toxoplasma gondii, Sarcocystis spp., Neospora spp., and Cryptosporidium spp. by righ-resolution melting analysis

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to standardize the high-resolution melting method for identification and discrimination of Toxoplasma gondii, Sarcocystis spp., Neospora spp., and Cryptosporidium spp. by amplification of 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) using a single primer pair. The analyses were performed on individual reactions (containing DNA from a single species of a protozoan), on duplex reactions (containing DNA from two species of protozoa in each reaction), and on a multiplex reaction (containing DNA of four parasites in a single reaction). The proposed method allowed us to identify and discriminate the four species by analyzing the derivative, normalized, and difference melting curves, with high reproducibility among and within the experiments, as demonstrated by low coefficients of variation (less than 2.2% and 2.0%, respectively). This is the first study where this method is used for discrimination of these four species of protozoa in a single reaction. PMID:28346485

  2. Development of a Microbial-Based Integrated Pest Management Program for Helicoverpa spp. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Beneficial Insects on Conventional Cotton Crops in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Mensah, Robert K.; Young, Alison; Rood-England, Leah

    2015-01-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi, when used as a microbial control agent against cotton pests, such as Helicoverpa spp., may have the potential to establish and spread in the environment and to have an impact on both pests and beneficial insects. Information on the effect of entomopathogenic fungi on pests and beneficial insects is crucial for a product to be registered as a biopesticide. The effect of the entomopathogenic fungus BC 639 (Aspergillus sp.) against Helicoverpa spp. and beneficial insects (mostly predatory insects) was studied in the laboratory and in cotton field trials. The results show that when Helicoverpa spp. second instar larvae were exposed to increasing concentrations (from 102 to 109) of the entomopathogenic fungus BC 639, the optimum dose required to kill over 50% of the insects was 1.0 × 107 spores/mL. In the field trials, the number of Helicoverpa spp. per metre on plots treated with 1.0 or 0.50 L/ha of BC 639 was the same as on plots treated with the recommended rate of the commercial insecticide, Indoxacarb. However, when plots were treated with 0.25 L/ha of BC 639, this was not as effective at controlling Helicoverpa spp. as 1.0 or 0.5 L/ha BC 639 or Indoxacarb. BC 639 had less effect on predatory insects when applied at lower rates (0.50 and 0.25 L/ha) than at higher rates (1.0 L/ha). Thus, BC 639 was more selective against predators when applied at lower rates than at the higher rate, but was also more selective than Indoxacarb. Thus, the ability of BC 639 to control Helicoverpa spp. effectively with a minimal effect on predatory insects indicates its potential for enhancing integrated pest management programs and to sustain cotton production. PMID:26463189

  3. Brevundimonas spp: Emerging global opportunistic pathogens

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Non-fermenting Gram-negative bacteria are problematic in clinical locations, being one of the most prevalent causes of nosocomial infections. Many of these non-fermenting Gram-negative bacteria are opportunistic pathogens that affect patients that are suffering with underlying medical conditions and diseases. Brevundimonas spp., in particular Brevundimonas diminuta and Brevundimonas vesicularis, are a genus of non-fermenting Gram-negative bacteria considered of minor clinical importance. Forty-nine separate instances of infection relating to Brevundimonas spp were found in the scientific literature along with two pseudo-infections. The majority of these instances were infection with Brevundimonas vesicularis (thirty-five cases – 71%). The major condition associated with Brevundimonas spp infection was bacteraemia with seventeen individual cases/outbreaks (35%). This review identified forty-nine examples of Brevundimonas spp. infections have been discussed in the literature. These findings indicate that infection review programs should consider investigation of possible Brevundimonas spp outbreaks if these bacteria are clinically isolated in more than one patient. PMID:29484917

  4. Activation of bovine neutrophils by Brucella spp.

    PubMed

    Keleher, Lauren L; Skyberg, Jerod A

    2016-09-01

    Brucellosis is a globally important zoonotic infectious disease caused by gram negative bacteria of the genus Brucella. While many species of Brucella exist, Brucella melitensis, Brucella abortus, and Brucella suis are the most common pathogens of humans and livestock. The virulence of Brucella is largely influenced by its ability to evade host factors, including phagocytic killing mechanisms, which are critical for the host response to infection. The aim of this study was to characterize the bovine neutrophil response to virulent Brucella spp. Here, we found that virulent strains of smooth B. abortus, B. melitensis, B. suis, and virulent, rough, strains of Brucella canis possess similar abilities to resist killing by resting, or IFN-γ-activated, bovine neutrophils. Bovine neutrophils responded to infection with a time-dependent oxidative burst that varied little between Brucella spp. Inhibition of TAK1, or SYK kinase blunted the oxidative burst of neutrophils in response to Brucella infection. Interestingly, Brucella spp. did not induce robust death of bovine neutrophils. These results indicate that bovine neutrophils respond similarly to virulent Brucella spp. In addition, virulent Brucella spp., including naturally rough strains of B. canis, have a conserved ability to resist killing by bovine neutrophils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Campylobacter spp., Giardia spp., Cryptosporidium spp., Noroviruses, and Indicator Organisms in Surface Water in Southwestern Finland, 2000-2001

    PubMed Central

    Hörman, Ari; Rimhanen-Finne, Ruska; Maunula, Leena; von Bonsdorff, Carl-Henrik; Torvela, Niina; Heikinheimo, Annamari; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa

    2004-01-01

    A total of 139 surface water samples from seven lakes and 15 rivers in southwestern Finland were analyzed during five consecutive seasons from autumn 2000 to autumn 2001 for the presence of various enteropathogens (Campylobacter spp., Giardia spp., Cryptosporidium spp., and noroviruses) and fecal indicators (thermotolerant coliforms, Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens, and F-RNA bacteriophages) and for physicochemical parameters (turbidity and temperature); this was the first such systematic study. Altogether, 41.0% (57 of 139) of the samples were positive for at least one of the pathogens; 17.3% were positive for Campylobacter spp. (45.8% of the positive samples contained Campylobacter jejuni, 25.0% contained Campylobacter lari, 4.2% contained Campylobacter coli, and 25.0% contained Campylobacter isolates that were not identified), 13.7% were positive for Giardia spp., 10.1% were positive for Cryptosporidium spp., and 9.4% were positive for noroviruses (23.0% of the positive samples contained genogroup I and 77.0% contained genogroup II). The samples were positive for enteropathogens significantly (P < 0.05) less frequently during the winter season than during the other sampling seasons. No significant differences in the prevalence of enteropathogens were found when rivers and lakes were compared. The presence of thermotolerant coliforms, E. coli, and C. perfringens had significant bivariate nonparametric Spearman's rank order correlation coefficients (P < 0.001) with samples that were positive for one or more of the pathogens analyzed. The absence of these indicators in a logistic regression model was found to have significant predictive value (odds ratios, 1.15 × 108, 7.57, and 2.74, respectively; P < 0.05) for a sample that was negative for the pathogens analyzed. There were no significant correlations between counts or count levels for thermotolerant coliforms or E. coli or the presence of F-RNA phages and pathogens in the samples analyzed. PMID

  6. Malic acid production from thin stillage by Aspergillus species.

    PubMed

    West, Thomas P

    2011-12-01

    The ability of Aspergillus strains to utilize thin stillage to produce malic acid was compared. The highest malic acid was produced by Aspergillus niger ATCC 9142 at 17 g l(-1). Biomass production from thin stillage was similar with all strains but ATCC 10577 was the highest at 19 g l(-1). The highest malic acid yield (0.8 g g(-1)) was with A. niger ATCC 9142 and ATCC 10577 on the stillage. Thus, thin stillage has the potential to act as a substrate for the commercial production of food-grade malic acid by the A. niger strains. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

  7. Polyphasic taxonomy of Aspergillus section Fumigati and its teleomorph Neosartorya

    PubMed Central

    Samson, R.A.; Hong, S.; Peterson, S.W.; Frisvad, J.C.; Varga, J.

    2007-01-01

    The taxonomy of Aspergillus section Fumigati with its teleomorph genus Neosartorya is revised. The species concept is based on phenotypic (morphology and extrolite profiles) and molecular (β-tubulin and calmodulin gene sequences) characters in a polyphasic approach. Four new taxa are proposed: N. australensis N. ferenczii, N. papuaensis and N. warcupii. All newly described and accepted species are illustrated. The section consists of 33 taxa: 10 strictly anamorphic Aspergillus species and 23 Neosartorya species. Four other Neosartorya species described previously were not available for this monograph, and consequently are relegated to the category of doubtful species. PMID:18490953

  8. Bilateral endogenous necrotizing scleritis due to Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Stenson, S; Brookner, A; Rosenthal, S

    1982-01-01

    A case of bilateral necrotizing scleritis due to Aspergillus oryzae is reported. The patient was a former addict of intravenous narcotics treated five years previously for meningitis due to the same organism. A seeding focus in the thoracic spine was eventually found. The patient responded well to combined local and systemic therapy with amphotericin B, flucytosine, and natamycin. This represents, to the best of our knowledge, both the first reported case of ocular disease due to this species of Aspergillus and of isolated scleral, nonintraocular involvement in endogenous oculomycosis.

  9. Aspergillus Vertebral Osteomyelitis Complicating Pulmonary Granuloma in an Immunocompetent Adult.

    PubMed

    Li, Yun; Cen, Yanyi; Luo, Yuwen; Zhu, Zhe; Min, Shaoxiong; Chen, Xin

    The aim of this report is to describe a case with Aspergillus vertebral osteomyelitis complicating pulmonary granuloma in an immunocompetent adult. A 53-year-old male patient was found to have lesions on lumbar vertebra 5 months after thoracoscopic resection of pulmonary granuloma that lacked a definite etiology. Three operations on the lumbar lesions were performed successively; however, an Aspergillus infection was not confirmed until hyphae were clearly detected at the last surgery. The patient was treated with voriconazole and recovered well. This case shows that simultaneous occurrence of granulomatous nodules in the lung and vertebral lesions should raise suspicion of aspergillosis, even in immunocompetent patients. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Aspergillus vertebral osteomyelitis after simultaneous kidney-pancreas transplantation.

    PubMed

    Salvalaggio, P R O; Bassetti, M; Lorber, M I; Micheletto, G C; Friedman, A L; Andriole, V T; Basadonna, G P

    2003-12-01

    Aspergillus osteomyelitis is a rare complication of invasive aspergillosis after organ transplantation. This is the report of a 46-year-old man who underwent a simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplantation, complicated by an Aspergillus osteomyelitis and diskitis of the lumbar spine. Prompt diagnosis with needle biopsy, followed by antifungal therapy using caspofungin, a new antifungal agent recommended for the treatment of refractory aspergillosis, in combination with amphotericin B and an early surgical intervention led to clinical resolution of the infection. Reported cases of spinal aspergillosis after transplantation are reviewed in terms of clinical presentation, risk factors, therapeutic options, and outcome.

  11. Biodegradation of polyester polyurethane by Aspergillus tubingensis.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sehroon; Nadir, Sadia; Shah, Zia Ullah; Shah, Aamer Ali; Karunarathna, Samantha C; Xu, Jianchu; Khan, Afsar; Munir, Shahzad; Hasan, Fariha

    2017-06-01

    The xenobiotic nature and lack of degradability of polymeric materials has resulted in vast levels of environmental pollution and numerous health hazards. Different strategies have been developed and still more research is being in progress to reduce the impact of these polymeric materials. This work aimed to isolate and characterize polyester polyurethane (PU) degrading fungi from the soil of a general city waste disposal site in Islamabad, Pakistan. A novel PU degrading fungus was isolated from soil and identified as Aspergillus tubingensis on the basis of colony morphology, macro- and micro-morphology, molecular and phylogenetic analyses. The PU degrading ability of the fungus was tested in three different ways in the presence of 2% glucose: (a) on SDA agar plate, (b) in liquid MSM, and (c) after burial in soil. Our results indicated that this strain of A. tubingensis was capable of degrading PU. Using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), we were able to visually confirm that the mycelium of A. tubingensis colonized the PU material, causing surface degradation and scarring. The formation or breakage of chemical bonds during the biodegradation process of PU was confirmed using Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. The biodegradation of PU was higher when plate culture method was employed, followed by the liquid culture method and soil burial technique. Notably, after two months in liquid medium, the PU film was totally degraded into smaller pieces. Based on a comprehensive literature search, it can be stated that this is the first report showing A. tubingensis capable of degrading PU. This work provides insight into the role of A. tubingensis towards solving the dilemma of PU wastes through biodegradation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Functional Analysis of the Aspergillus nidulans Kinome

    PubMed Central

    De Souza, Colin P.; Hashmi, Shahr B.; Osmani, Aysha H.; Andrews, Peter; Ringelberg, Carol S.; Dunlap, Jay C.; Osmani, Stephen A.

    2013-01-01

    The filamentous fungi are an ecologically important group of organisms which also have important industrial applications but devastating effects as pathogens and agents of food spoilage. Protein kinases have been implicated in the regulation of virtually all biological processes but how they regulate filamentous fungal specific processes is not understood. The filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans has long been utilized as a powerful molecular genetic system and recent technical advances have made systematic approaches to study large gene sets possible. To enhance A. nidulans functional genomics we have created gene deletion constructs for 9851 genes representing 93.3% of the encoding genome. To illustrate the utility of these constructs, and advance the understanding of fungal kinases, we have systematically generated deletion strains for 128 A. nidulans kinases including expanded groups of 15 histidine kinases, 7 SRPK (serine-arginine protein kinases) kinases and an interesting group of 11 filamentous fungal specific kinases. We defined the terminal phenotype of 23 of the 25 essential kinases by heterokaryon rescue and identified phenotypes for 43 of the 103 non-essential kinases. Uncovered phenotypes ranged from almost no growth for a small number of essential kinases implicated in processes such as ribosomal biosynthesis, to conditional defects in response to cellular stresses. The data provide experimental evidence that previously uncharacterized kinases function in the septation initiation network, the cell wall integrity and the morphogenesis Orb6 kinase signaling pathways, as well as in pathways regulating vesicular trafficking, sexual development and secondary metabolism. Finally, we identify ChkC as a third effector kinase functioning in the cellular response to genotoxic stress. The identification of many previously unknown functions for kinases through the functional analysis of the A. nidulans kinome illustrates the utility of the A. nidulans gene

  13. Prevalence of Brucella spp in humans1

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Catharina de Paula Oliveira Cavalcanti; Teles, José Andreey Almeida; dos Santos, Aldenir Feitosa; Silva, Stemberg Oliveira Firmino; Cruz, Maria Vilma Rocha Andrade; da Silva-Júnior, Francisco Feliciano

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to determine the seroprevalence of Brucella spp in humans. Method: this is an observational study, developed with 455 individuals between 18 and 64 years old, who use the Estratégia de Saúde da Família (Brazil's family health strategy). The serum samples of volunteers underwent buffered acid antigen tests, such as screening, agar gel immunodiffusion and slow seroagglutination test in tubes and 2-Mercaptoethanol. Results: among the samples, 1.98% has responded to buffered-acid antigen, 2.85% to agar gel immunodiffusion test and 1.54% to the slow seroagglutination tests on tubes/2-Mercaptoethanol. The prevalence of Brucella spp was 4.4%, represented by the last two tests. Conclusion: the results of this research suggest that the studied population is exposed to Brucella spp infection. PMID:26487143

  14. Prevalence of Brucella spp in humans.

    PubMed

    Soares, Catharina de Paula Oliveira Cavalcanti; Teles, José Andreey Almeida; dos Santos, Aldenir Feitosa; Silva, Stemberg Oliveira Firmino; Cruz, Maria Vilma Rocha Andrade; da Silva-Júnior, Francisco Feliciano

    2015-01-01

    to determine the seroprevalence of Brucella spp in humans. this is an observational study, developed with 455 individuals between 18 and 64 years old, who use the Estratégia de Saúde da Família (Brazil's family health strategy). The serum samples of volunteers underwent buffered acid antigen tests, such as screening, agar gel immunodiffusion and slow seroagglutination test in tubes and 2-Mercaptoethanol. among the samples, 1.98% has responded to buffered-acid antigen, 2.85% to agar gel immunodiffusion test and 1.54% to the slow seroagglutination tests on tubes/2-Mercaptoethanol. The prevalence of Brucella spp was 4.4%, represented by the last two tests. the results of this research suggest that the studied population is exposed to Brucella spp infection.

  15. Suppression of Pythium spp. by Trichoderma spp. during germination of tomato seeds in soilless growing media.

    PubMed

    Aerts, R; De Schutter, B; Rombouts, L

    2002-01-01

    In the Flemish horticulture Pythium spp. is an important pathogen of tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculenthum) in soilless growing media. Therefore some experiments were conducted to evaluate the possibility of decreasing the damage caused by Pythium spp. by Trichoderma spp. In a tray with several growing media, a suspension of Trichoderma conidia (10(6)/ml growing medium) was applied two weeks before sowing. On some objects, a compost extract (Biostimulus) was added. The growing media used in the experiment were rockwool, recycled rockwool and recycled coconut fibre. After sowing, the trays were covered with perlite. Three isolates of Trichoderma spp.: T. asperellum (Biofungus), T. harzianum (Tri 003) and Trichoderma sp. (KHK) and two isolates of Pythium spp.: P. ultimum (MUCL) en P. aphanidermatum (HRI, UK) were used. Propamocarb was used as a chemical standard. The use of coconut fibre growing medium resulted in a higher percentage (36%) of germination than the rockwool media when only Pythium spp. was used. The presence of the spontaneous developing microflora in the coconut fibre medium gave probably also a suppression of Pythium spp. For that reason the results of the suppression by Trichoderma spp. are not easy to explain and very variable on the different objects. Pythium ultimum was more suppressed than P. aphanidermatum on all the growing media and the application of all the Trichoderma isolates increased the germination percentage of tomato seeds. T. asperellum (Biofungus) gave on rockwool also a good result for the suppression of P. aphanidermatum (increasing of germination with 48%). This effect was comparable with the propamocarb treatment (48%). T. harzianum (Tri 003) gave a small suppression (22%) and Trichoderma sp. (KHK) gave almost no suppression of P. aphanidermatum (7%). When less Trichoderma conidia were applied the germination percentage decreased. The adding of a compost extract (Biostimulus) had no influence on the results. This experiment

  16. Field ecology, fungal sex and food contamination involving Aspergillus species

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Several species within the genus Aspergillus are capable of producing a myriad of toxic secondary metabolites, with aflatoxin being of most concern. These fungi happen to colonize important agricultural commodities, thereby having the potential to contaminate our food with carcinogenic aflatoxins. P...

  17. Variation in polygalacturonase production among Aspergillus flavus isolates.

    PubMed Central

    Cotty, P J; Cleveland, T E; Brown, R L; Mellon, J E

    1990-01-01

    Pectinase production by Aspergillus flavus was determined by measuring clear zones formed around colonies stained with ruthenium red. Several isolates produced red zones instead of clear zones. Red zones were reproduced with pectinesterase and correlated with absence of specific polygalacturonases. Of 87 isolates tested, 15 produced red zones. Images PMID:2128015

  18. The emergence of Aspergillus species in chronic respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Yii, Anthony Ca; Koh, Mariko S; Lapperre, Therese S; Tan, Gan L; Chotirmall, Sanjay H

    2017-01-01

    Chronic lung disease is recognized as an important risk factor for developing pulmonary aspergillosis. The development of specific aspergillus-associated syndromes depends on host immunity and underlying lung disease. In the setting of asthma, hypersensitivity to Aspergillus can lead to allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) or severe asthma with fungal sensitization (SAFS). Chronic use of systemic or inhaled corticosteroids coupled with recurrent antibiotic use for exacerbations prevalent in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) predisposes to chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA). Prior pulmonary tuberculosis is a risk factor for CPA, a syndrome with a wide range of presentations including a simple aspergilloma, chronic cavities, necrosis or fibrosis. Accumulating evidence suggests that the presence of or colonization by Aspergillus in the setting of chronic lung disease can worsen clinical course and outcomes even in the absence of overt pulmonary aspergillosis. We propose that understanding the complex interplay between host and fungi may provide key insights into the pathogenesis of Aspergillus -associated pulmonary syndromes in the setting of chronic lung disease, and provide novel therapeutic approaches to improve its identification and management.

  19. Characteristics of immobilized aminoacylase from Aspergillus oryzae on macroporous copolymers.

    PubMed

    He, B L; Jiang, P; Qiu, Y B

    1990-01-01

    Aminoacylase from Aspergillus oryzae was adsorbed on functionallized macroporous copolymers where the enzyme showed excellent catalyzing activity and operation stability. Various factors which effect the activity of the immobilized aminoacylase such as temperature, pH and ionic strength were investigated. The continuous operation of the enzyme immobilized on macroporous copolymers was compared with that of the enzyme immobilized on DEAE-Sephadex.

  20. The maize rachis affects Aspergillus flavus movement during ear development

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aspergillus flavus expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) was used to follow infection in ears of maize hybrids resistant and susceptible to the fungus. Developing ears were needle-inoculated with GFP-transformed A. flavus 20 days after silk emergence, and GFP fluorescence in the pith was evalu...

  1. Heritability study of eGFP-transformed Aspergillus flavus strains

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pre-harvest prevention of aflatoxin contamination of corn, cottonseed, and peanut through field inoculation with non-aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus appears to be the only method for biocontrol currently being used. Until recently, evidence for out-crossing in A. flavus was observed in agar slants...

  2. Treatment of postoperative Aspergillus fumigatus spondylodiscitis with itraconazole.

    PubMed

    Peters-Christodoulou, M N; de Beer, F C; Bots, G T; Ottenhoff, T M; Thompson, J; van 't Wout, J W

    1991-01-01

    A 46-year-old man presented with Aspergillus fumigatus spondylodiscitis after lumbar surgery. He was successfully treated with the new antifungal drug itraconazole in combination with surgical débridement of the disc space. The patient has remained on itraconazole for more than a year and tolerated the drug well.

  3. Genomic sequence for the aflatoxigenic filamentous fungus Aspergillus nomius

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The genome of the A. nomius type strain was sequenced using a personal genome machine. Annotation of the genes was undertaken, followed by gene ontology and an investigation into the number of secondary metabolite clusters. Comparative studies with other Aspergillus species involved shared/unique ge...

  4. Lipoxygenase activity accelerates programmed spore germination in Aspergillus fumigatus

    Treesearch

    Gregory J. Fischer; William Bacon; Jun Yang; Jonathan M. Palmer; Taylor Dagenais; Bruce D. Hammock; Nancy P. Keller

    2017-01-01

    The opportunistic human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus initiates invasive growth through a programmed germination process that progresses from dormant spore to swollen spore (SS) to germling (GL) and ultimately invasive hyphal growth. We find a lipoxygenase with considerable homology to human Alox5 and Alox15, LoxB, that impacts the transitions of...

  5. Production of itaconic acid from pentose sugars by Aspergillus terreus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Itaconic acid (IA), an unsaturated 5-carbon dicarboxylic acid, is a building block platform chemical that is currently produced industrially with glucose by fermentation with Aspergillus terreus (A. terreus). However, lignocellulosic biomass has the potential to serve as a low cost source of sugars ...

  6. QUANTITATIVE PCR OF SELECTED ASPERGILLUS, PENICILLIUM AND PAECILOMYCES SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A total of 65 quantitative PCR (QPCR) assays, incorporating fluorigenic 5' nuclease (TaqMan®) chemistry and directed at the nuclear ribosomal RNA operon, internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS1 or ITS2) was developed and tested for the detection of Aspergillus, Penicillium and ...

  7. Antifungal activity of some essential oils against toxigenic Aspergillus species.

    PubMed

    Alizadeh, Alireza; Zamani, Elham; Sharaifi, Rohollah; Javan-Nikkhah, Mohammad; Nazari, Somayeh

    2010-01-01

    Increasing attentions have been paid on the application of essential oils and plant extracts for control of postharvest pathogens due to their natural origin and less appearance of resistance in fungi pathogens. Some Aspergillus species are toxigenic and responsible for many cases of food and feed contamination. Some Toxins that produce with some Aspergillus species are known to be potent hepatocarcinogens in animals and humans. The present work evaluated the parameters of antifungal activity of the essential oils of Zataria multiflora, Thymus migricus, Satureja hortensis, Foeniculum vulgare, Carum capticum and thiabendazol fungicide on survival and growth of different species of Aspergillus. Aerial part and seeds of plant species were collected then dried and its essential oils isolated by means of hydrodistillation. Antifungal activity was evaluated in vitro by poisonous medium technique with PDA medium at six concentrations. Results showed that all essential oils could inhibit the growth of Aspergillus species. The essential oil with the best effect and lowest EC50 and MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration) was Z. multiflora (223 microl/l and 650 microl/l, respectively). The chemical composition of the Z. multiflora essential oil was analyzed by GC-MS.

  8. Evidence of aneuploidy modulating aflatoxigenicity in Aspergillus flavus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aspergillus flavus is a well-known pathogen of many important agricultural commodities and is a major producer of aflatoxins, which are carcinogenic polyketides that pose a serious health risk to humans and animals. Aflatoxin contamination in peanut exports worldwide accounts for as much as $450 mi...

  9. Population dynamics of Aspergillus flavus following biocontrol treatment of corn

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aspergillus flavus is a fungal pathogen of many agronomically important crops worldwide. We sampled A. flavus strains from a cornfield in Rocky Mount, North Carolina, over a period of two years. The field was planted in 2010 and plots were inoculated at tasselling with either AF36 or NRRL 21882 (=Af...

  10. Mating-type heterokaryosis and population shifts in Aspergillus flavus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aspergillus flavus is a fungal pathogen of many agronomically important crops worldwide. We sampled A. flavus strains from a cornfield in Rocky Mount, NC. This field was planted in 2010 and plots were inoculated at tasselling with either AF36 or NRRL 21882 (=Afla-Guard) biocontrol strains, both of...

  11. Population structure of Aspergillus flavus before and after biocontrol treatment

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aspergillus flavus is a fungal pathogen of many important crops worldwide. We sampled A. flavus strains from a cornfield in Rocky Mount, North Carolina, over a period of two years. Plots were inoculated at tasselling with either AF36 or NRRL 21882 (=Afla-Guard) biocontrol strains, both of which are ...

  12. Population shifts and mating-type heterokaryosis in Aspergillus flavus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aspergillus flavus is a fungal pathogen of many agronomically important crops worldwide. We sampled A. flavus strains from a cornfield in Rocky Mount, NC. This field was planted in 2010 and plots were inoculated at tasselling with either AF36 or NRRL 21882 (=Afla-Guard) biocontrol strains, both of...

  13. Characterization of toxigenic and atoxigenic Aspergillus flavus isolates from pistachio

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Thirty eight Aspergillus flavus isolates collected from a pistachio orchard in California were analyzed for production of aflatoxin (AF), cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs) and mating types. All toxigenic isolates produced both AFB1 and CPA. Twenty-one percent of the i...

  14. Recombination and cryptic heterokaryosis in experimental populations of Aspergillus flavus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aspergillus flavus infects both plants and animals, and is of toxicological importance due to its production of aflatoxins (AFs) and other mycotoxins. Mycotoxins can cause agricultural losses totaling upwards of $1.4 billion annually. Recent efforts to reduce AF concentrations have focused on the us...

  15. Aspergillus flavus secondary metabolites: more than just aflatoxins

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aspergillus flavus is best known for producing the family of potent carcinogenic secondary metabolites known as aflatoxins. However, this opportunistic plant and animal pathogen also produces numerous other secondary metabolites, many of which have also been shown to be toxic. While about forty of t...

  16. Identification of resistance to Aspergillus flavus infection in cotton germplasm

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Natural resistance of in cottonseed to Aspergillus flavus infection has not been explored to date. A green fluorescent protein (GFP) expressing -70 strain was used to assess the resistance of seed from thirty five35 cotton varieties including representatives from Gossypium arboreum, G. barbadense, a...

  17. Nuclear heterogeneity in conidial populations of Aspergillus flavus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aspergillus flavus is a major producer of aflatoxin and an opportunistic pathogen for a wide range of hosts. Understanding genotypic and phenotypic variations within strains of A. flavus is important for controlling disease and reducing aflatoxin contamination. A. flavus is multinucleate and predomi...

  18. Sexual reproduction in Aspergillus flavus sclerotia naturally produced in corn

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aspergillus flavus is the major producer of carcinogenic aflatoxins worldwide in crops. Populations of A. flavus are characterized by high genetic variation and the source of this variation is likely sexual reproduction. The fungus is heterothallic and laboratory crosses produce ascospore-bearing ...

  19. Isolation of an Antioxidative Substance Produced by Aspergillus repens.

    PubMed

    Yagi, R; Doi, M

    1999-01-01

    The acidic fraction of an extract of the culture liquid of Aspergillus repens MA0197 showed strong antioxidative activity when tested by the ferric thiocyanate and TBA methods. Chromatographic purification of this acidic fraction gave an active substance identified as Neoechinulin A. This compound showed higher antioxidative activity than α-tocopherol and could be expected to act as an antioxidant in Katsuobushi.

  20. Maxillary sinusitis from Microascus cinereus and Aspergillus repens.

    PubMed

    Aznar, C; de Bievre, C; Guiguen, C

    1989-02-01

    Microascus was associated with Aspergillus repens in a left maxillary sinus. Tissue contained septale filaments of two types, conidia, ostiolate perithecia containing ascospores corresponding to Microascus cinereus which was identified by culture. The abundance of sexual fructifications in the tissue indicates that pathogenicity is due to Microascus cinereus.

  1. Immunoproteomics of Aspergillus for the development of biomarkers and immunotherapies.

    PubMed

    Kniemeyer, Olaf; Ebel, Frank; Krüger, Thomas; Bacher, Petra; Scheffold, Alexander; Luo, Ting; Strassburger, Maria; Brakhage, Axel A

    2016-10-01

    Filamentous fungi of the genus Aspergillus play significant roles as pathogens causing superficial and invasive infections as well as allergic reactions in humans. Particularly invasive mycoses caused by Aspergillus species are characterized by high mortality rates due to difficult diagnosis and insufficient antifungal therapy. The application of immunoproteomic approaches has a great potential to identify new targets for the diagnosis, therapy, and vaccine development of diseases caused by Aspergillus species. Serological proteome analyses (SERPA) that combine 2D electrophoresis with Western blotting are still one of the most popular techniques for the identification of antigenic proteins. However, recently a growing number of approaches have been developed to identify proteins, which either provoke an antibody response or which represent targets of T-cell immunity in patients with allergy or fungal infections. Here, we review advances in the studies of immune responses against pathogenic Aspergilli as well as the current status of diagnosis and immunotherapy of Aspergillus infections. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Fungal diversity and Aspergillus species in hospital environments.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Herrera, Erick Obed; Frías De-León, María Guadalupe; Duarte-Escalante, Esperanza; Calderón-Ezquerro, María Del Carmen; Jiménez-Martínez, María Del Carme; Acosta-Altamirano, Gustavo; Rivera-Becerril, Facundo; Toriello, Conchita; Reyes Montes, María Del Rocío

    2016-06-02

    Nosocomial invasive fungal infections, particularly aspergillosis, are an increasing problem in immunocompromised patients. The presented study evaluates fungal diversity and the presence of Aspergillus in air samples from two hospitals. Over the course of one year (rainy and dry seasons), the air was sampled from three areas in two hospitals (1 and 2) using a single-stage Andersen viable particle sampler (Thermo Scientific, Waltham, MA, USA). The fungi were identified by macro- and micromorphology, and the number of colony forming units (CFU)/m(3) air and their richness, abundance, and diversity were determined. Isolates Aspergillus genus were characterized by their thermotolerance. The CFU/m(3) air was similar at both hospitals during the two seasons, but different between the sampled areas. Results showed 10 fungal genera for hospital 1, and 8 for hospital 2. The most abundant were Penicillium, Cladosporium and Aspergillus. The thermotolerance test confirmed the identification of A. fumigatus section Fumigati. The highest growth rate was found in Aspergillus section Nigri. Determining the fungal diversity in the two hospitals was important because all the species have the potential to be pathogenic, especially the section Fumigati.

  3. Post-genomic insights into the plant polysaccharide degradation potential of Aspergillus nidulans and comparison to Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Coutinho, Pedro M; Andersen, Mikael R; Kolenova, Katarina; vanKuyk, Patricia A; Benoit, Isabelle; Gruben, Birgit S; Trejo-Aguilar, Blanca; Visser, Hans; van Solingen, Piet; Pakula, Tiina; Seiboth, Bernard; Battaglia, Evy; Aguilar-Osorio, Guillermo; de Jong, Jan F; Ohm, Robin A; Aguilar, Mariana; Henrissat, Bernard; Nielsen, Jens; Stålbrand, Henrik; de Vries, Ronald P

    2009-03-01

    The plant polysaccharide degradative potential of Aspergillus nidulans was analysed in detail and compared to that of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae using a combination of bioinformatics, physiology and transcriptomics. Manual verification indicated that 28.4% of the A. nidulans ORFs analysed in this study do not contain a secretion signal, of which 40% may be secreted through a non-classical method.While significant differences were found between the species in the numbers of ORFs assigned to the relevant CAZy families, no significant difference was observed in growth on polysaccharides. Growth differences were observed between the Aspergilli and Podospora anserina, which has a more different genomic potential for polysaccharide degradation, suggesting that large genomic differences are required to cause growth differences on polysaccharides. Differences were also detected between the Aspergilli in the presence of putative regulatory sequences in the promoters of the ORFs of this study and correlation of the presence of putative XlnR binding sites to induction by xylose was detected for A. niger. These data demonstrate differences at genome content, substrate specificity of the enzymes and gene regulation in these three Aspergilli, which likely reflect their individual adaptation to their natural biotope.

  4. FT-IR spectroscopy for rapid differentiation of Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus parasiticus and characterization of aflatoxigenic isolates collected from agricultural environments.

    PubMed

    Garon, David; El Kaddoumi, Anne; Carayon, Alexandra; Amiel, Caroline

    2010-08-01

    In agricultural areas, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus parasiticus are commonly identified in various feedstuffs and bioaerosols originated from feed handling. Some isolates belonging to these fungal species could produce mycotoxins and constitute a risk factor for human and animal health. In this study, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy was used for a rapid detection and characterization of 99 isolates collected from agricultural areas. The results showed a first cluster corresponding to strains previously attributed to the A. fumigatus group according to current taxonomic concepts, and a second cluster divided in 2 groups around reference strains of A. flavus and A. parasiticus species. The toxigenic capacity of isolates was evaluated by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. In the A. flavus group, only 6 strains of A. parasiticus and 4 strains of A. flavus were able to produce aflatoxins on culture media. FT-IR spectroscopy, respectively, allowed the differentiation of non-toxigenic and toxigenic A. flavus and A. parasiticus isolates at 75 and 100%. Discrimination between toxigenic and non-toxigenic A. fumigatus was not possible because all of the isolates produced at least one mycotoxin.

  5. [Salmonella spp. strains resistant to drugs].

    PubMed

    Białucha, Agata; Kozuszko, Sylwia; Gospodarek, Eugenia

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was retrospective analysis of Salmonella spp. strains isolated from patients of State Infectious Diseases Observatory Hospital of T. Browicz in Bydgoszcz (SZAK) and University of dr. A. Jurasz in Bydgoszcz (SU CM UMK) in 2006-2009. The percentages of Salmonella spp. strains resistant to at least one drug were: 19,0% in 2006, 12,5% in 2007, 50,6% in 2008 and 43,8% in the first half of 2009 year. The highest number of Salmonella spp. strains resistant to drugs were isolated from stool (96,7%) and from patients of SZAK (83,3%). Among all isolated Salmonella spp. strains resistant to drugs the highest percentage were S. enterica serovar Enteritidis (56,7%). Among S. enterica bacilli predominated resitant phenotypes to ampicillin, amoxicillin, chloramphenicol and nalidixic acid. The increasing number of strains resistant to ciprofloxacin (0,0 - 26,7%) and high percentage of strains resistant to nalidixic acid (97,3%) were noted. Decreasing resistance to chloramphenicol was observed in our study (54,5 - 14,3%).

  6. Occurrence of Pasteuria spp. in Florida

    PubMed Central

    Hewlett, T. E.; Cox, R.; Dickson, D. W.; Dunn, R. A.

    1994-01-01

    Two years of data collected from the Florida Nematode Assay Laboratory of the Florida Cooperative Extension Service and 4 years of data from the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Division of Plant Industry, were compiled to find out the distribution of Pasteuria spp. on nematodes in Florida soils. Information recorded came from 335 samples and included nematode genera with Pasteuria endospores attached, host plants associated with the samples, and the origins of the samples. Pasteuria spp. were detected on 14 different plant-parasitic nematode genera in 41 Florida counties and associated with over 39 different plant species and in seven fallow fields. Pasteuria-infected nematodes were associated with a wide range of plant hosts, although frequency of associations with these hosts reflected the sample bias of the laboratories involved. Meloidogyne and Hoplolaimus spp. were the two nematode genera most frequently associated with Pasteuria. Pasteuria spp. were observed attached to members of these two genera in 176 and 59 soil samples, respectively. PMID:19279936

  7. Malassezia spp. overgrowth in allergic cats.

    PubMed

    Ordeix, Laura; Galeotti, Franca; Scarampella, Fabia; Dedola, Carla; Bardagí, Mar; Romano, Erica; Fondati, Alessandra

    2007-10-01

    A series of 18 allergic cats with multifocal Malassezia spp. overgrowth is reported: atopic dermatitis was diagnosed in 16, an adverse food reaction in another and one was euthanized 2 months after diagnosis of Malassezia overgrowth. All the cats were otherwise healthy and those tested (16 out of 18) for feline leukaemia or feline immunodeficiency virus infections were all negative. At dermatological examination, multifocal alopecia, erythema, crusting and greasy adherent brownish scales were variably distributed on all cats. Cytological examination revealed Malassezia spp. overgrowth with/without bacterial infection in facial skin (n = 11), ventral neck (n = 6), abdomen (n = 6), ear canal (n = 4), chin (n = 2), ear pinnae (n = 2), interdigital (n = 1) and claw folds skin (n = 1). Moreover, in two cats Malassezia pachydermatis was isolated in fungal cultures from lesional skin. Azoles therapy alone was prescribed in seven, azoles and antibacterial therapy in eight and azoles with both antibacterial and anti-inflammatory therapy in three of the cats. After 3-4 weeks of treatment, substantial reduction of pruritus and skin lesions was observed in all 11 cats treated with a combined therapy and in five of seven treated solely with azoles. Malassezia spp. overgrowth may represent a secondary cutaneous problem in allergic cats particularly in those presented for dermatological examination displaying greasy adherent brownish scales. The favourable response to treatment with antifungal treatments alone suggests that, as in dogs, Malassezia spp. may be partly responsible for both pruritus and cutaneous lesions in allergic cats.

  8. Evaluating SPP/APR Improvement Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Early Childhood Technical Assistance Center (NECTAC), 2009

    2009-01-01

    This document is intended to assist State Education Agency (SEA) and Lead Agency (LA) staff and technical assistance providers in designing a meaningful evaluation for the State Performance Plan (SPP)/Annual Performance Report (APR) improvement activities. It provides: (1) information about the relevance of evaluation in the context of improvement…

  9. Culturing Stool Specimens for Campylobacter spp., Pennsylvania, USA

    PubMed Central

    M’ikanatha, Nkuchia M.; Dettinger, Lisa A.; Perry, Amanda; Rogers, Paul; Reynolds, Stanley M.

    2012-01-01

    In 2010, we surveyed 176 clinical laboratories in Pennsylvania regarding stool specimen testing practices for enteropathogens, including Campylobacter spp. Most (96.3%) routinely test for Campylobacter spp. In 17 (15.7%), a stool antigen test is the sole method for diagnosis. We recommend that laboratory practice guidelines for Campylobacter spp. testing be developed. PMID:22377086

  10. Polycistronic gene expression in Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Schuetze, Tabea; Meyer, Vera

    2017-09-25

    Genome mining approaches predict dozens of biosynthetic gene clusters in each of the filamentous fungal genomes sequenced so far. However, the majority of these gene clusters still remain cryptic because they are not expressed in their natural host. Simultaneous expression of all genes belonging to a biosynthetic pathway in a heterologous host is one approach to activate biosynthetic gene clusters and to screen the metabolites produced for bioactivities. Polycistronic expression of all pathway genes under control of a single and tunable promoter would be the method of choice, as this does not only simplify cloning procedures, but also offers control on timing and strength of expression. However, polycistronic gene expression is a feature not commonly found in eukaryotic host systems, such as Aspergillus niger. In this study, we tested the suitability of the viral P2A peptide for co-expression of three genes in A. niger. Two genes descend from Fusarium oxysporum and are essential to produce the secondary metabolite enniatin (esyn1, ekivR). The third gene (luc) encodes the reporter luciferase which was included to study position effects. Expression of the polycistronic gene cassette was put under control of the Tet-On system to ensure tunable gene expression in A. niger. In total, three polycistronic expression cassettes which differed in the position of luc were constructed and targeted to the pyrG locus in A. niger. This allowed direct comparison of the luciferase activity based on the position of the luciferase gene. Doxycycline-mediated induction of the Tet-On expression cassettes resulted in the production of one long polycistronic mRNA as proven by Northern analyses, and ensured comparable production of enniatin in all three strains. Notably, gene position within the polycistronic expression cassette matters, as, luciferase activity was lowest at position one and had a comparable activity at positions two and three. The P2A peptide can be used to express at

  11. Global Population Genetic Analysis of Aspergillus fumigatus

    PubMed Central

    Ashu, Eta Ebasi; Hagen, Ferry; Chowdhary, Anuradha

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aspergillus fumigatus is a ubiquitous opportunistic fungal pathogen capable of causing invasive aspergillosis, a globally distributed disease with a mortality rate of up to 90% in high-risk populations. Effective control and prevention of this disease require a thorough understanding of its epidemiology. However, despite significant efforts, the global molecular epidemiology of A. fumigatus remains poorly understood. In this study, we analyzed 2,026 A. fumigatus isolates from 13 countries in four continents using nine highly polymorphic microsatellite markers. Genetic cluster analyses suggest that our global sample of A. fumigatus isolates belonged to eight genetic clusters, with seven of the eight clusters showing broad geographic distributions. We found common signatures of sexual recombination within individual genetic clusters and clear evidence of hybridization between several clusters. Limited but statistically significant genetic differentiations were found among geographic and ecological populations. However, there was abundant evidence for gene flow at the local, regional, and global scales. Interestingly, the triazole-susceptible and triazole-resistant populations showed different population structures, consistent with antifungal drug pressure playing a significant role in local adaptation. Our results suggest that global populations of A. fumigatus are shaped by historical differentiation, contemporary gene flow, sexual reproduction, and the localized antifungal drug selection that is driving clonal expansion of genotypes resistant to multiple triazole drugs. IMPORTANCE The genetic diversity and geographic structure of the human fungal pathogen A. fumigatus have been the subject of many studies. However, most previous studies had relatively limited sample ranges and sizes and/or used genetic markers with low-level polymorphisms. In this paper, we characterize a global collection of strains of A. fumigatus using a panel of 9 highly

  12. Biological control of saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) by saltcedar leaf beetles (Diorhabda spp.): effects on small mammals

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The spread of introduced saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) throughout many riparian systems across the western United States motivated the introduction of biological control agents that are specific to saltcedar, saltcedar leaf beetles (Diorhabda carinulata, D. elongata; Chrysomelidae). I monitored small mam...

  13. Proteomics of eukaryotic microorganisms: The medically and biotechnologically important fungal genus Aspergillus.

    PubMed

    Kniemeyer, Olaf

    2011-08-01

    Fungal species of the genus Aspergillus play significant roles as model organisms in basic research, as "cell factories" for the production of organic acids, pharmaceuticals or industrially important enzymes and as pathogens causing superficial and invasive infections in animals and humans. The release of the genome sequences of several Aspergillus sp. has paved the way for global analyses of protein expression in Aspergilli including the characterisation of proteins, which have not designated any function. With the application of proteomic methods, particularly 2-D gel and LC-MS/MS-based methods, first insights into the composition of the proteome of Aspergilli under different growth and stress conditions could be gained. Putative targets of global regulators led to the improvement of industrially relevant Aspergillus strains and so far not described Aspergillus antigens have already been discovered. Here, I review the recent proteome data generated for the species Aspergillus nidulans, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus oryzae. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Metabolomics Analysis Reveals Specific Novel Tetrapeptide and Potential Anti-Inflammatory Metabolites in Pathogenic Aspergillus species

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kim-Chung; Tam, Emily W. T.; Lo, Ka-Ching; Tsang, Alan K. L.; Lau, Candy C. Y.; To, Kelvin K. W.; Chan, Jasper F. W.; Lam, Ching-Wan; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Lau, Susanna K. P.; Woo, Patrick C. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Infections related to Aspergillus species have emerged to become an important focus in infectious diseases, as a result of the increasing use of immunosuppressive agents and high fatality associated with invasive aspergillosis. However, laboratory diagnosis of Aspergillus infections remains difficult. In this study, by comparing the metabolomic profiles of the culture supernatants of 30 strains of six pathogenic Aspergillus species (A. fumigatus, A. flavus, A. niger, A. terreus, A. nomius and A. tamarii) and 31 strains of 10 non-Aspergillus fungi, eight compounds present in all strains of the six Aspergillus species but not in any strain of the non-Aspergillus fungi were observed. One of the eight compounds, Leu–Glu–Leu–Glu, is a novel tetrapeptide and represents the first linear tetrapeptide observed in Aspergillus species, which we propose to be named aspergitide. Two other closely related Aspergillus-specific compounds, hydroxy-(sulfooxy)benzoic acid and (sulfooxy)benzoic acid, may possess anti-inflammatory properties, as 2-(sulfooxy)benzoic acid possesses a structure similar to those of aspirin [2-(acetoxy)benzoic acid] and salicylic acid (2-hydroxybenzoic acid). Further studies to examine the potentials of these Aspergillus-specific compounds for laboratory diagnosis of aspergillosis are warranted and further experiments will reveal whether Leu–Glu–Leu–Glu, hydroxy-(sulfooxy)benzoic acid and (sulfooxy)benzoic acid are virulent factors of the pathogenic Aspergillus species. PMID:26090713

  15. [Indoor fungal exposure: What impact on clinical and biological status regarding Aspergillus during cystic fibrosis].

    PubMed

    Pricope, D; Deneuville, E; Frain, S; Chevrier, S; Belaz, S; Roussey, M; Gangneux, J-P

    2015-06-01

    The sources of exposure during diseases due to Aspergillus fungi in cystic fibrosis patients are still poorly explored. We assessed home fungal exposure in patients suffering from cystic fibrosis and analysed its impact on the presence of Aspergillus biological markers, the colonisation of airways, as well as the sensitization and Aspergillus serology. Between March 2012 and August 2012, 34 patients benefited from a visit performed by a home environment medical adviser including sampling for mycological analysis. The number of colonies of Aspergillus was not significantly different in the various sampling sites (P=0.251), but the number of non-Aspergillus colonies was much higher in the kitchen (P=0.0045). Subsequently, home fungal exposure was compared between the groups "absence of Aspergillus-related markers" and "presence of Aspergillus-related markers". Home exposure to Aspergillus (P=0.453) and non-Aspergillus (P=0.972) flora was not significant between the 2 groups. Within this series of 34 patients that should be expanded, we note an absence of clear relationship between home exposure and the Aspergillus-linked markers in patients suffering from cystic fibrosis. This result should be taken into account regarding too restrictive hygiene advices provided to families, given the fact that fungal exposure can also results from activities performed away from home. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Metabolomics Analysis Reveals Specific Novel Tetrapeptide and Potential Anti-Inflammatory Metabolites in Pathogenic Aspergillus species.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kim-Chung; Tam, Emily W T; Lo, Ka-Ching; Tsang, Alan K L; Lau, Candy C Y; To, Kelvin K W; Chan, Jasper F W; Lam, Ching-Wan; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Lau, Susanna K P; Woo, Patrick C Y

    2015-06-17

    Infections related to Aspergillus species have emerged to become an important focus in infectious diseases, as a result of the increasing use of immunosuppressive agents and high fatality associated with invasive aspergillosis. However, laboratory diagnosis of Aspergillus infections remains difficult. In this study, by comparing the metabolomic profiles of the culture supernatants of 30 strains of six pathogenic Aspergillus species (A. fumigatus, A. flavus, A. niger, A. terreus, A. nomius and A. tamarii) and 31 strains of 10 non-Aspergillus fungi, eight compounds present in all strains of the six Aspergillus species but not in any strain of the non-Aspergillus fungi were observed. One of the eight compounds, Leu-Glu-Leu-Glu, is a novel tetrapeptide and represents the first linear tetrapeptide observed in Aspergillus species, which we propose to be named aspergitide. Two other closely related Aspergillus-specific compounds, hydroxy-(sulfooxy)benzoic acid and (sulfooxy)benzoic acid, may possess anti-inflammatory properties, as 2-(sulfooxy)benzoic acid possesses a structure similar to those of aspirin [2-(acetoxy)benzoic acid] and salicylic acid (2-hydroxybenzoic acid). Further studies to examine the potentials of these Aspergillus-specific compounds for laboratory diagnosis of aspergillosis are warranted and further experiments will reveal whether Leu-Glu-Leu-Glu, hydroxy-(sulfooxy)benzoic acid and (sulfooxy)benzoic acid are virulent factors of the pathogenic Aspergillus species.

  17. Use of fruit residues for pectinase production by Aspergillus flavipes FP-500 and Aspergillus terreus FP-370.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Trujillo, A; Arreguín-Rangel, L; García-Rivero, M; Aguilar-Osorio, G

    2011-08-01

    Utilization of fruit residues for pectinase production by two Aspergillus strains for recognizing the effects of some factors during fermentation and describing enzyme production kinetics. Pectinase production on several fruit residues was compared. The effects of three factors on the production of several pectinases were evaluated by a full factorial 2(k) experimental design. Higher activities were obtained on lemon peel. In both strains, acidic pH values and high carbon source concentration favoured exopectinase and endopectinase production, while higher pH values and low carbon source concentration promoted pectin lyase and rhamnogalacturonase production. Unstructured mathematical modelling provided a good description of pectinase production in a submerged batch culture. Fruit residues were very good substrates for pectinase production, and Aspergillus strains used showed a promising performance in submerged fermentation. Mathematical modelling was useful to describe growth and pectinase production. Lemon peel can be used as a substrate to obtain high pectinase titres by Aspergillus flavipes FP-500 and Aspergillus terreus FP-370. The factors that contributed to improve the yield were identified, which supports the possibility of using this substrate in the industrial production of these enzymes. © 2011 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. Small rodents as reservoirs of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in south-western Poland.

    PubMed

    Perec-Matysiak, Agnieszka; Buńkowska-Gawlik, Katarzyna; Zaleśny, Grzegorz; Hildebrand, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. have been detected in a range of host species, including rodents. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of these pathogens and recognition of the reservoir role of rodents in the maintenance of these pathogens in south-western Poland. Additionally, preliminary molecular studies were conducted to elucidate the species and genotypes of Cryptosporidium and Giardia identified in this study. Stool samples (n=266) from A. agrarius, A. flavicollis and M. glareolus, were subjected for analyses. Values of prevalence were 61.7, 68.3 and 68.1%, respectively, for Cryptosporidium spp. and 41.7, 24.4 and 38.4%, respectively, for Giardia spp. There was a statistically significant correlation between host species and Giardia infection where A. agrarius was the species of the highest prevalence. Statistically significant differences were not found for comparisons made for study sites and occurrence of Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. Due to preliminary nested PCR results, specific amplifications of Cryptosporidium COWP and SSU rRNA genes were obtained for several isolates taken from rodent host species. One isolate recovered from A. agrarius (from a semi-aquatic, urban area) was identified as C. parvum and revealed 100% similarity with sequences obtained from humans. To the best of the knowledge of the authors, this is the first record of the C. parvum zoonotic species from the striped field mouse. Also recorded were the first findings of C. ubiquitum from three small rodent species.

  19. Loss of msnA, a putative stress regulatory gene, in Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus flavus increased production of conidia, aflatoxins and kojic acid

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Production of the harmful carcinogenic aflatoxins by Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus flavus has been postulated to be a mechanism to relieve oxidative stress. The msnA gene, the ortholog of Saccharomyces cerevisiae MSN2 associated with multi-stress response, of the two species was disrupted....

  20. Rapid detection of aflatoxigenic Aspergillus sp. in herbal specimens by a simple, bendable, paper-based lab-on-a-chip.

    PubMed

    Chaumpluk, Piyasak; Plubcharoensook, Pattra; Prasongsuk, Sehanat

    2016-06-01

    Postharvest herbal product contamination with mycotoxins and mycotoxin-producing fungi represents a potentially carcinogenic hazard. Aspergillus flavus is a major cause of this issue. Available mold detection methods are PCR-based and rely heavily on laboratories; thus, they are unsuitable for on-site monitoring. In this study, a bendable, paper-based lab-on-a-chip platform was developed to rapidly detect toxigenic Aspergillus spp. DNA. The 3.0-4.0 cm(2) chip is fabricated using Whatman™ filter paper, fishing line and a simple plastic lamination process and has nucleic acid amplification and signal detection components. The Aspergillus assay specifically amplifies the aflatoxin biosynthesis gene, aflR, using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP); hybridization between target DNA and probes on blue silvernanoplates (AgNPls) yields colorimetric results. Positive results are indicated by the detection pad appearing blue due to dispersed blue AgNPls; negative results are indicated by the detection pad appearing colorless or pale yellow due to probe/target DNA hybridization and AgNPls aggregation. Assay completion requires less than 40 min, has a limit of detection (LOD) of 100 aflR copies, and has high specificity (94.47%)and sensitivity (100%). Contamination was identified in 14 of 32 herbal samples tested (43.75%). This work demonstrates the fabrication of a simple, low-cost, paper-based lab-on-a-chip platform suitable for rapid-detection applications. Copyright © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Clinical Performance of Aspergillus PCR for Testing Serum and Plasma: a Study by the European Aspergillus PCR Initiative.

    PubMed

    White, P Lewis; Barnes, Rosemary A; Springer, Jan; Klingspor, Lena; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel; Morton, C Oliver; Lagrou, Katrien; Bretagne, Stéphane; Melchers, Willem J G; Mengoli, Carlo; Donnelly, J Peter; Heinz, Werner J; Loeffler, Juergen

    2015-09-01

    Aspergillus PCR testing of serum provides technical simplicity but with potentially reduced sensitivity compared to whole-blood testing. With diseases for which screening to exclude disease represents an optimal strategy, sensitivity is paramount. The associated analytical study confirmed that DNA concentrations were greater in plasma than those in serum. The aim of the current investigation was to confirm analytical findings by comparing the performance of Aspergillus PCR testing of plasma and serum in the clinical setting. Standardized Aspergillus PCR was performed on plasma and serum samples concurrently obtained from hematology patients in a multicenter retrospective anonymous case-control study, with cases diagnosed according to European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Invasive Fungal Infections Cooperative Group and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Mycoses Study Group (EORTC/MSG) consensus definitions (19 proven/probable cases and 42 controls). Clinical performance and clinical utility (time to positivity) were calculated for both kinds of samples. The sensitivity and specificity for Aspergillus PCR when testing serum were 68.4% and 76.2%, respectively, and for plasma, they were 94.7% and 83.3%, respectively. Eighty-five percent of serum and plasma PCR results were concordant. On average, plasma PCR was positive 16.8 days before diagnosis and was the earliest indicator of infection in 13 cases, combined with other biomarkers in five cases. On average, serum PCR was positive 10.8 days before diagnosis and was the earliest indicator of infection in six cases, combined with other biomarkers in three cases. These results confirm the analytical finding that the sensitivity of Aspergillus PCR using plasma is superior to that using serum. PCR positivity occurs earlier when testing plasma and provides sufficient sensitivity for the screening of invasive aspergillosis while maintaining methodological simplicity. Copyright

  2. Cytokine and transcription factor expression by Aspergillus fumigatus-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells in dogs with sino-nasal aspergillosis.

    PubMed

    Vanherberghen, M; Bureau, F; Peters, I R; Day, M J; Lynch, A; Fievez, L; Billen, F; Clercx, C; Peeters, D

    2013-08-15

    The causal agent of sino-nasal aspergillosis is usually Aspergillus fumigatus, which is a saprophytic and ubiquitous fungus that causes a severe rhinosinusitis in apparent healthy dogs. Affected dogs do not have systemic immuno-suppression. It has been shown previously that dogs affected by this disease have local over-expression of interleukin (IL)-10 and Th1 cytokines in nasal mucosal tissue. The aim of the present study was to assess the response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from affected and unaffected dogs to antigen-specific stimulation with heat-inactivated Aspergillus spp. conidia, by quantifying gene expression for specific Th1, Th2, Th17 and Treg cytokines and their related transcription factors. Quantification of IL-4 and IFN-γ protein in culture supernatant was performed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). PBMC from dogs with SNA produced adequate mRNA encoding IFN-γ and IFN-γ protein. The expression of IL-17A mRNA was significantly greater in PBMC of affected compared with unaffected dogs. The amount of IL-10 mRNA in PBMC from affected dogs decreased after antigen-specific challenge. These results suggest that the incapacity of affected dogs to clear these fungal infections is not related to a defect in Th1 immunity or to an overwhelming regulatory reaction, but rather to an uncontrolled pro-inflammatory reaction driven by Th17 cells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Biocontrol activity of four non- and low-fermenting yeast strains against Aspergillus carbonarius and their ability to remove ochratoxin A from grape juice.

    PubMed

    Fiori, Stefano; Urgeghe, Pietro Paolo; Hammami, Walid; Razzu, Salvatorico; Jaoua, Samir; Migheli, Quirico

    2014-10-17

    Aspergillus spp. infection of grape may lead to ochratoxin A (OTA) contamination in processed beverages such as wine and grape juice. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the biocontrol potential of two non-fermenting (Cyberlindnera jadinii 273 and Candida friedrichii 778) and two low-fermenting (Candida intermedia 235 and Lachancea thermotolerans 751) yeast strains against the pathogenic fungus and OTA-producer Aspergillus carbonarius, and their ability to remove OTA from grape juice. Two strains, 235 and 751, showed a significant ability to inhibit A. carbonarius both on grape berries and in in vitro experiments. Neither their filtrate nor their autoclaved filtrate culture broth was able to prevent consistently pathogen growth. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by all four selected yeasts were likely able to consistently prevent pathogen sporulation in vitro. VOCs produced by the non-fermenting strain 778 also significantly reduced A. carbonarius vegetative growth. Three yeast strains (235, 751, and 778) efficiently adsorbed artificially spiked OTA from grape juice, while autoclaving treatment improved OTA adsorption capacity by all the four tested strains. Biological control of A. carbonarius and OTA-decontamination using yeast is proposed as an approach to meet the Islamic dietary laws concerning the absence of alcohol in halal beverages. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Structural and functional diversity of rhizobacteria associated with Rauwolfia spp. across the Western Ghat regions of Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Prasanna Kumar, S P; Hariprasad, P; Brijesh Singh, S; Gowtham, H G; Niranjana, S R

    2014-01-01

    The present study carried out with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of DNA extracted from rhizosphere soils of Rauwolfia spp. collected from Western Ghat (WG) regions of Karnataka indicated that Pseudomonas sp. was prevalently found followed by Methylobacterium sp., Bacillus sp. and uncultured bacteria. A total of 200 rhizobacteria were isolated from 58 rhizosphere soil samples comprising of 15 different bacterial genera. The Shannon Weaver diversity index (H') and Simpson's diversity index (D) were found to be 2.57 and 0.91 for cultivable bacteria, respectively. The total species richness of cultivable rhizobacteria was high in Coorg district comprising 15 bacterial genera while in Mysore district, four bacterial genera were recorded. Rarefaction curve analysis also indicated the presence of higher species richness in samples of Shimoga and Coorg. All the rhizobacteria were screened for their multiple plant growth promotion and disease suppression traits. The results revealed that 70% of the isolates colonized tomato roots, 42% produced indole acetic acid, 55% solubilized phosphorus, while 43, 22, 27, 19, 40, 15 and 44% produced siderophore, salicylic acid, hydrogen cyanide, chitinase, phytase, cellulase and protease, respectively. Rhizobacterial isolates showing antagonistic activity against Fusarium oxysporum and Aspergillus flavus were 53 and 33%, respectively. Plant growth promotion studies revealed that most of the isolates increased percent germination with significantly higher vigour index as compared to untreated control. Most predominant rhizobacteria found in the rhizospheres of Rauwolfia spp. of WG regions are potential PGPR which can serve as biofertilizers and biopesticides.

  5. The Role of Malassezia spp. in Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Glatz, Martin; Bosshard, Philipp P.; Hoetzenecker, Wolfram; Schmid-Grendelmeier, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Malassezia spp. is a genus of lipophilic yeasts and comprises the most common fungi on healthy human skin. Despite its role as a commensal on healthy human skin, Malassezia spp. is attributed a pathogenic role in atopic dermatitis. The mechanisms by which Malassezia spp. may contribute to the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis are not fully understood. Here, we review the latest findings on the pathogenetic role of Malassezia spp. in atopic dermatitis (AD). For example, Malassezia spp. produces a variety of immunogenic proteins that elicit the production of specific IgE antibodies and may induce the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In addition, Malassezia spp. induces auto-reactive T cells that cross-react between fungal proteins and their human counterparts. These mechanisms contribute to skin inflammation in atopic dermatitis and therefore influence the course of this disorder. Finally, we discuss the possible benefit of an anti-Malassezia spp. treatment in patients with atopic dermatitis. PMID:26239555

  6. Aspergillus infections in transplant and non-transplant surgical patients.

    PubMed

    Davies, Stephen; Guidry, Christopher; Politano, Amani; Rosenberger, Laura; McLeod, Matthew; Hranjec, Tjasa; Sawyer, Robert

    2014-06-01

    Aspergillus infections are associated commonly with immunocompromised states, such as transplantation and hematologic malignant disease. Although Aspergillus infections among patients having surgery occur primarily in transplant recipients, they are found in non-recipients of transplants, and have a mortality rate similar to that seen among transplant recipients. We conducted a retrospective analysis of a prospective data base collected from 1996 to 2010, in which we identified patients with Aspergillus infections. We compared demographic data, co-morbidities, and outcomes in non-transplant patients with those in abdominal transplant recipients. Continuous data were evaluated with the Student t-test, and categorical data were evaluated through χ(2) analysis. Twenty-three patients (11 transplant patients and 12 non-transplant patients) were identified as having had Aspergillus infections. The two groups were similar with regard to their demographics and co-morbidities, with the exceptions of their scores on the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II), of 23.6±8.1 points for transplant patients vs. 16.8±6.1 points for non-transplant patients (p=0.03); Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) of 16.6±8.3 points vs. 9.2±4.1 points, respectively (p=0.02); steroid use 91.0% vs. 25.0%, respectively (p=0.003); and percentage of infections acquired in the intensive care unit (ICU) 27.3% vs. 83.3%, respectively (p=0.01). The most common site of infection in both patient groups was the lung. The two groups showed no significant difference in the number of days from admission to treatment, hospital length of stay following treatment, or mortality. Although Aspergillus infections among surgical patients have been associated historically with solid-organ transplantation, our data suggest that other patients may also be susceptible to such infections, especially those in an ICU who are deemed to be critically ill. This supports the idea that critically

  7. Aspergillus Infections in Transplant and Non-Transplant Surgical Patients

    PubMed Central

    Guidry, Christopher; Politano, Amani; Rosenberger, Laura; McLeod, Matthew; Hranjec, Tjasa; Sawyer, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Background: Aspergillus infections are associated commonly with immunocompromised states, such as transplantation and hematologic malignant disease. Although Aspergillus infections among patients having surgery occur primarily in transplant recipients, they are found in non-recipients of transplants, and have a mortality rate similar to that seen among transplant recipients. Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of a prospective data base collected from 1996 to 2010, in which we identified patients with Aspergillus infections. We compared demographic data, co-morbidities, and outcomes in non-transplant patients with those in abdominal transplant recipients. Continuous data were evaluated with the Student t-test, and categorical data were evaluated through χ2 analysis. Results: Twenty-three patients (11 transplant patients and 12 non-transplant patients) were identified as having had Aspergillus infections. The two groups were similar with regard to their demographics and co-morbidities, with the exceptions of their scores on the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II), of 23.6±8.1 points for transplant patients vs. 16.8±6.1 points for non-transplant patients (p=0.03); Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) of 16.6±8.3 points vs. 9.2±4.1 points, respectively (p=0.02); steroid use 91.0% vs. 25.0%, respectively (p=0.003); and percentage of infections acquired in the intensive care unit (ICU) 27.3% vs. 83.3%, respectively (p=0.01). The most common site of infection in both patient groups was the lung. The two groups showed no significant difference in the number of days from admission to treatment, hospital length of stay following treatment, or mortality. Conclusions: Although Aspergillus infections among surgical patients have been associated historically with solid-organ transplantation, our data suggest that other patients may also be susceptible to such infections, especially those in an ICU who are deemed to be critically ill

  8. CTX-M extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Klebsiella spp, Salmonella spp, Shigella spp and Escherichia coli isolates in Iranian hospitals.

    PubMed

    Bialvaei, Abed Zahedi; Kafil, Hossein Samadi; Asgharzadeh, Mohammad; Aghazadeh, Mohammad; Yousefi, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted in Iran in order to assess the distribution of CTX-M type ESBLs producing Enterobacteriaceae. From January 2012 to December 2013, totally 198 E. coli, 139 Klebsiella spp, 54 Salmonella spp and 52 Shigella spp from seven hospitals of six provinces in Iran were screened for resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins. After identification and susceptibility testing, isolates presenting multiple-drug resistance (MDR) were evaluated for ESBL production by the disk combination method and by Etest using (cefotaxime and cefotaxime plus clavulanic acid). All isolates were also screened for blaCTX-M using conventional PCR. A total of 42.92%, 33.81%, 14.81% and 7.69% of the E. coli, Klebsiella spp, Salmonella spp and Shigella spp isolates were MDR, respectively. The presence of CTX-M enzyme among ESBL-producing isolates was 85.18%, 77.7%, 50%, and 66.7%, in E. coli, Klebsiella spp, Salmonella spp and Shigella spp respectively. The overall presence of CTX-M genes in Enterobacteriaceae was 15.4% and among the resistant isolates was 47.6%. This study indicated that resistance to β-lactams mediated by CTX-M enzymes in Iran had similar pattern as in other parts of the world. In order to control the spread of resistance, comprehensive studies and programs are needed. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  9. Species diversity of Aspergillus section Versicolores in clinical samples and antifungal susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Siqueira, João Paulo Zen; Sutton, Deanna A; García, Dania; Gené, Josepa; Thomson, Pamela; Wiederhold, Nathan; Guarro, Josep

    2016-11-01

    Aspergillus section Versicolores includes species of clinical relevance and many others that have been poorly studied but are occasionally found in clinical samples. The aim of this study was to investigate, using a multilocus phylogenetic approach, the spectrum of species of the section Versicolores and to determine their in vitro antifungal susceptibility. The study was based on a set of 77 clinical isolates from different USA medical centres, which had been previously identified as belonging to this section. The genetic markers used were internal transcribed spacer (ITS), β-tubulin (BenA), calmodulin (CaM), and RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (RPB2), and the drugs tested, following the CLSI guidelines, were amphotericin B (AMB), itraconazole, posaconazole, voriconazole, anidulafungin, caspofungin, micafungin, terbinafine (TBF), and flucytosine (5FC). The most frequent species were Aspergillus sydowii (26 %), Aspergillus creber (22 %), and Aspergillus amoenus (18.2 %), followed by Aspergillus protuberus (13 %), Aspergillus jensenii (10.4 %), and Aspergillus tabacinus (5.2 %); while Aspergillus cvjetkovicii, Aspergillus fructus, Aspergillus puulaauensis, and Aspergillus versicolor were represented by only one isolate each (1.3 %). This is the first time that A. jensenii and A. puulaauensis have been reported from clinical samples. Considering the high number of isolates identified as belonging to this fungal group in this study, its clinical relevance should not be overlooked. Aspergillus versicolor, traditionally considered one of the most common species in this section in a clinical setting, was only rarely recovered in our study. The in vitro antifungal results showed that echinocandins and TBF were the most potent drugs, the azoles showed variable results, AMB was poorly active, and 5FC was the less active. Copyright © 2016 British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Aspergillus species in hospital environments with pediatric patients in critical condition].

    PubMed

    Fernández, Mariana; Cattana, María; Rojas, Florencia; Sosa, María de Los Ángeles; Aguirre, Clarisa; Vergara, Marta; Giusiano, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    Aspergillus is a group of opportunistic fungi that cause infections, with high morbimortality in immunosuppressed patients. Aspergillus fumigatus is the most frequent species in these infections, although the incidence of other species has increased in the last few years. To evaluate the air fungal load and the diversity of Aspergillus species in hospitals with pediatric patients in critical condition. The Intensive Care Unit and Burns Unit of a pediatric hospital were sampled every 15 days during the autumn and spring seasons. The air samples were collected with SAS Super 100(®) and the surface samples were collected by swab method. The UFC/m(3) counts found exceeded the acceptable levels. The UFC/m(3) and the diversity of Aspergillus species found in the Intensive Care Unit were higher than those found in the Burns Unit. The fungal load and the diversity of species within the units were higher than those in control environments. The use of both methods -SAS and swab- allowed the detection of a higher diversity of species, with 96 strains of Aspergillus being isolated and 12 species identified. The outstanding findings were Aspergillus sydowii, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus terreus and Aspergillus parasiticus, due to their high frequency. Aspergillus fumigatus, considered unacceptable in indoor environments, was isolated in both units. Aspergillus was present with high frequency in these units. Several species are of interest in public health for being potential pathogenic agents. Air control and monitoring are essential in the prevention of these infections. Copyright © 2013 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Identification of Aspergillus fumigatus and Related Species by Nested PCR Targeting Ribosomal DNA Internal Transcribed Spacer Regions

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jun; Kong, Fanrong; Li, Ruoyu; Wang, Xiaohong; Wan, Zhe; Wang, Duanli

    2001-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is the most common species that causes invasive aspergillosis. In order to identify A. fumigatus, partial ribosomal DNA (rDNA) from two to six strains of five different Aspergillus species was sequenced. By comparing sequence data from GenBank, we designed specific primer pairs targeting rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of A. fumigatus. A nested PCR method for identification of other A. fumigatus-related species was established by using the primers. To evaluate the specificities and sensitivities of those primers, 24 isolates of A. fumigatus and variants, 8 isolates of Aspergillus nidulans, 7 isolates of Aspergillus flavus and variants, 8 isolates of Aspergillus terreus, 9 isolates of Aspergillus niger, 1 isolate each of Aspergillus parasiticus, Aspergillus penicilloides, Aspergillus versicolor, Aspergillus wangduanlii, Aspergillus qizutongii, Aspergillus beijingensis, and Exophiala dermatitidis, 4 isolates of Candida, 4 isolates of bacteria, and human DNA were used. The nested PCR method specifically identified the A. fumigatus isolates and closely related species and showed a high degree of sensitivity. Additionally, four A. fumigatus strains that were recently isolated from our clinic were correctly identified by this method. Our results demonstrate that these primers are useful for the identification of A. fumigatus and closely related species in culture and suggest further studies for the identification of Aspergillus fumigatus species in clinical specimens. PMID:11376067

  12. PCR-RFLP on β-tubulin gene for rapid identification of the most clinically important species of Aspergillus.

    PubMed

    Nasri, Tuba; Hedayati, Mohammad Taghi; Abastabar, Mahdi; Pasqualotto, Alessandro C; Armaki, Mojtaba Taghizadeh; Hoseinnejad, Akbar; Nabili, Mojtaba

    2015-10-01

    Aspergillus species are important agents of life-threatening infections in immunosuppressed patients. Proper speciation in the Aspergilli has been justified based on varied fungal virulence, clinical presentations, and antifungal resistance. Accurate identification of Aspergillus species usually relies on fungal DNA sequencing but this requires expensive equipment that is not available in most clinical laboratories. We developed and validated a discriminative low-cost PCR-based test to discriminate Aspergillus isolates at the species level. The Beta tubulin gene of various reference strains of Aspergillus species was amplified using the universal fungal primers Bt2a and Bt2b. The PCR products were subjected to digestion with a single restriction enzyme AlwI. All Aspergillus isolates were subjected to DNA sequencing for final species characterization. The PCR-RFLP test generated unique patterns for six clinically important Aspergillus species, including Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus nidulans, Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus clavatus and Aspergillus nidulans. The one-enzyme PCR-RFLP on Beta tubulin gene designed in this study is a low-cost tool for the reliable and rapid differentiation of the clinically important Aspergillus species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Aspergillus Colonization of the Lung Allograft is a Risk Factor for Bronchiolitis Obliterans Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Weigt, S. Samuel; Elashoff, Robert M.; Huang, Cathy; Ardehali, Abbas; Gregson, Aric L.; Kubak, Bernard; Fishbein, Michael C.; Saggar, Rajeev; Keane, Michael P.; Saggar, Rajan; Lynch, Joseph P.; Zisman, David A.; Ross, David J.; Belperio, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Multiple infections have been linked with the development of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) post-lung transplantation. Lung allograft airway colonization by Aspergillus species is common among lung transplant recipients. We hypothesized that Aspergillus colonization may promote the development of BOS and may decrease survival post-lung transplantation. We reviewed all lung transplant recipients transplanted in our center between 1/2000 and 6/2006. Bronchoscopy was performed according to a surveillance protocol and when clinically indicated. Aspergillus colonization was defined as a positive culture from bronchoalveolar lavage or two sputum cultures positive for the same Aspergillus species, in the absence of invasive pulmonary Aspergillosis. We found that Aspergillus colonization was strongly associated with BOS and BOS related mortality in Cox regression analyses. Aspergillus colonization typically preceded the development of BOS by a median of 261 days (95% CI 87 to 520). Furthermore, in a multivariate Cox regression model, Aspergillus colonization was a distinct risk factor for BOS, independent of acute rejection. These data suggest a potential causative role for Aspergillus colonization in the development of BOS post-lung transplantation and raise the possibility that strategies aimed to prevent Aspergillus colonization may help delay or reduce the incidence of BOS. PMID:19459819

  14. [Blastocystis spp.: Advances, controversies and future challenges].

    PubMed

    Del Coco, Valeria F; Molina, Nora B; Basualdo, Juan A; Córdoba, María A

    Blastocystis spp. is the most common protozoan detected in human stool samples. In developing countries, infection rates are higher than 20%. The presence of this parasite in the feces of several host species suggests its zoonotic potential. The clinical relevance and the pathogenic role of Blastocystis spp. in the intestinal tract remain unclear. There are several clinical reports that recognize it as the etiologic agent of several intestinal disorders such as diarrhea, inflammatory bowel disease and ulcerative colitis, although the pathogenicity of this parasite has not been proved yet. This wide range of clinical manifestations could be related to the genetic diversity exhibited by this parasite. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Fusarium and Aspergillus mycotoxins effects on dairy cow health, performance and the efficacy of Anti-Mycotoxin Additive.

    PubMed

    Jovaišienė, J; Bakutis, B; Baliukonienė, V; Gerulis, G

    2016-01-01

    One hundred two samples of feeds made in Lithuania, which included maize silage, grass-legume silage, hay and ensiled crimped maize were investigated during 2008-2012 for contamination with some mycotoxins. The highest concentrations of mycotoxins determined were those of deoxynivalenol (DON)--471.0 μg/kg and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)--21.2 μg/kg in ryegrass silage from bales, and zearalenone (ZEA)--625.0 μg/kg in maize silage from trenches. The present study has been carried out based on these data because animal feeds contaminated with mycotoxins can cause reduced productivity of dairy cows and health disorders in the long term. The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term exposure of toxic effects of a diet naturally contaminated with low concentrations of mycotoxins on milk composition and biochemical, hematological, immunological parameters of dairy cows and to determine the anti-mycotoxin effect of Mycofix Plus 3.E. Twenty eight clinically healthy, medium productive Lithuanian Red cows were selected. ZEA was a major contaminant found in the corn silage at concentration levels of up to 1000.0 μg/kg of dry matter. DON was the second major found in the hay at concentration levels of up to 600.0 μg/kg of dry matter. The highest concentration AFB1- 10.0 μg/kg was determined in ground barley. The Anti-Mycotoxin Additive (AMA) Mycofix Plus 3.E was given individually to 14 cows at a concentration of 40.0 g daily for 9 weeks. The present results indicate that feeds naturally contaminated with low concentration of mycotoxins produced by Fusarium spp. and Aspergillus spp. in a diet of dairy cows can have a negative influence on somatic cell count, blood parameters and immunity. The addition of an Anti-Mycotoxin Additive (Mycofix Plus 3.E) to diet of dairy cows can prevent many of these effects.

  16. Effect of temperature and water activity on the production of fumonisins by Aspergillus niger and different Fusarium species

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Fumonisins are economically important mycotoxins which until recently were considered to originate from only a few Fusarium species. However recently a putative fumonisin gene cluster was discovered in two different Aspergillus niger strains followed by detection of an actual fumonisin B2 (FB2) production in four strains of this biotechnologically important workhorse. Results In the present study, a screening of 5 A. niger strains and 25 assumed fumonisin producing Fusarium strains from 6 species, showed that all 5 A. niger strains produced FB2 and 23 of 25 Fusarium produced fumonisin B1 and other isoforms (fumonisin B2 and B3). Five A. niger and five Fusarium spp. were incubated at six different temperatures from 15-42°C on Czapek Yeast Agar +5% salt or Potato Dextrose Agar. A. niger had the highest production of FB2 at 25-30°C whereas Fusarium spp. had the maximal production of FB1 and FB2 at 20-25°C. Addition of 2.5-5% NaCl, or 10-20% sucrose increased the FB2 production of A. niger, whereas addition of glycerol reduced FB2 production. All three water activity lowering solutes reduced the fumonisin production of the Fusarium species. Conclusion The present study shows that the regulation of fumonisin production is very different in A. niger and Fusarium, and that food and feeds preserved by addition of sugar or salts may be good substrates for fumonisin B2 production by A. niger. PMID:20043849

  17. Efficacy of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens in the control of Aspergillus parasiticus growth and aflatoxins production on pistachio.

    PubMed

    Siahmoshteh, Fatemeh; Siciliano, Ilenia; Banani, Houda; Hamidi-Esfahani, Zohreh; Razzaghi-Abyaneh, Mehdi; Gullino, Maria Lodovica; Spadaro, Davide

    2017-08-02

    Pistachio (Pistacia vera) is an important nut for its economic, nutritional and health aspects but it can be contaminated by aflatoxigenic fungi in the field and during storage. Biological control could be considered as an alternative to chemical treatment. In this study, we evaluated the antifungal and anti-mycotoxigenic capability of two Bacillus spp. both in vitro and on pistachio kernels. In in vitro conditions, both strains were able to reduce the mycelial growth and they were able to degrade the four aflatoxins during the first three days after inoculation. AFG 1 and AFG 2 were rapidly degraded within two days of incubation with the bacterial strains. No aflatoxin was found in the bacterial cell walls, permitting exclusion of mycotoxin adsorption and hypothesis of an in vitro biodegradation as a mode of action. The cultivar of pistachio most susceptible to fungal colonization was 'Ahmad-Aghaei', selected among four main Iranian cultivars. A. parasiticus was able to grow and produce aflatoxins on pistachios, but at longer inoculation periods, a natural decrease of aflatoxins was registered. Both strains were able to reduce the fungal incidence and number of spores on pistachio with a stronger effect during the first 5dpi. The effect on aflatoxin content in vivo was less pronounced than in vitro, with a maximum effect at 8dpi. At longer times, there was a contrasting effect due to the lower activity of Bacillus spp. in stationary phase and higher growth of Aspergillus species. This consideration could explain the lack of aflatoxin reduction at 12dpi. Both bacterial strains showed good antifungal activity and aflatoxin reduction in in vitro conditions and on pistachio kernels. Altogether, these results indicate that Bacillus species could be considered as potential biocontrol agents to combat toxigenic fungal growth and subsequent aflatoxin contamination of nuts and agricultural crops in practice. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Molecular detection of Bartonella spp. and Rickettsia spp. in bat ectoparasites in Brazil.

    PubMed

    do Amaral, Renan Bressianini; Lourenço, Elizabete Captivo; Famadas, Kátia Maria; Garcia, Amanda Barbosa; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias; André, Marcos Rogério

    2018-01-01

    The family Streblidae comprises a monophyletic group of Hippoboscoidea, hematophagous dipterans that parasitize bats. Bartonella spp. and Rickettsia spp. have been reported in bats sampled in Europe, Africa, Asia, North, Central and South America. However, there are few reports on the Bartonella and Rickettsia bacteria infecting Hippoboscoidea flies and mites. While Spinturnicidae mites are ectoparasites found only in bats, those belonging to the family Macronyssidae comprise mites that also parasitize other mammal species. This study investigates the occurrence and assesses the phylogenetic positioning of Bartonella spp. and Rickettsia spp. found in Streblidae flies and Spinturnicidae and Macronyssidae mites collected from bats captured in Brazil. From May 2011 to April 2012 and September 2013 to December 2014, 400 Streblidae flies, 100 Macronyssidaes, and 100 Spinturnicidae mites were collected from bats captured in two sites in northeastern Nova Iguaçu, Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil. Forty (19.8%) out of 202 Streblidae flies were positive for Bartonella spp. in qPCR assays based on the nuoG gene. Among the flies positive for the bacterium, six (18%) were Paratrichobius longicrus, seven (29%) Strebla guajiro, two (40%) Aspidoptera phyllostomatis, five (11%) Aspidoptera falcata, one (10%) Trichobius anducei, one (25%) Megistopoda aranea, and 18 (32%) Trichobius joblingi, and collected from bats of the following species: Artibeus lituratus, Carollia perspicillata, Artibeus planirostris, Sturnira lilium, and Artibeus obscurus. Six sequences were obtained for Bartonella (nuoG [n = 2], gltA [n = 2], rpoB [n = 1], ribC = 1]). The phylogenetic analysis based on gltA (750pb) gene showed that the Bartonella sequences clustered with Bartonella genotypes detected in bats and ectoparasites previously sampled in Latin America, including Brazil. Only one sample (0.49%) of the species Trichobius joblingi collected from a specimen of Carollia perspicillata was positive

  19. Molecular detection of Bartonella spp. and Rickettsia spp. in bat ectoparasites in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    do Amaral, Renan Bressianini; Lourenço, Elizabete Captivo; Famadas, Kátia Maria; Garcia, Amanda Barbosa; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias

    2018-01-01

    The family Streblidae comprises a monophyletic group of Hippoboscoidea, hematophagous dipterans that parasitize bats. Bartonella spp. and Rickettsia spp. have been reported in bats sampled in Europe, Africa, Asia, North, Central and South America. However, there are few reports on the Bartonella and Rickettsia bacteria infecting Hippoboscoidea flies and mites. While Spinturnicidae mites are ectoparasites found only in bats, those belonging to the family Macronyssidae comprise mites that also parasitize other mammal species. This study investigates the occurrence and assesses the phylogenetic positioning of Bartonella spp. and Rickettsia spp. found in Streblidae flies and Spinturnicidae and Macronyssidae mites collected from bats captured in Brazil. From May 2011 to April 2012 and September 2013 to December 2014, 400 Streblidae flies, 100 Macronyssidaes, and 100 Spinturnicidae mites were collected from bats captured in two sites in northeastern Nova Iguaçu, Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil. Forty (19.8%) out of 202 Streblidae flies were positive for Bartonella spp. in qPCR assays based on the nuoG gene. Among the flies positive for the bacterium, six (18%) were Paratrichobius longicrus, seven (29%) Strebla guajiro, two (40%) Aspidoptera phyllostomatis, five (11%) Aspidoptera falcata, one (10%) Trichobius anducei, one (25%) Megistopoda aranea, and 18 (32%) Trichobius joblingi, and collected from bats of the following species: Artibeus lituratus, Carollia perspicillata, Artibeus planirostris, Sturnira lilium, and Artibeus obscurus. Six sequences were obtained for Bartonella (nuoG [n = 2], gltA [n = 2], rpoB [n = 1], ribC = 1]). The phylogenetic analysis based on gltA (750pb) gene showed that the Bartonella sequences clustered with Bartonella genotypes detected in bats and ectoparasites previously sampled in Latin America, including Brazil. Only one sample (0.49%) of the species Trichobius joblingi collected from a specimen of Carollia perspicillata was positive

  20. Mannitol and Mannitol Dehydrogenases in Conidia of Aspergillus oryzae

    PubMed Central

    Horikoshi, Koki; Iida, Shigeji; Ikeda, Yonosuke

    1965-01-01

    Horikoshi, Koki (The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Tokyo, Japan), Shigeji Iida, and Yonosuke Ikeda. Mannitol and mannitol dehydrogenases in conidia of Aspergillus oryzae. J. Bacteriol. 89:326–330. 1965.—A sugar alcohol was isolated from the conidia of Aspergillus oryzae and identified as d-mannitol. Two types of d-mannitol dehydrogenases, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-linked and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-linked, were found in the conidia. Substrate specificities, pH optima, Michaelis-Menton constants, and the effects of inhibitors were studied. d-Mannitol was converted to fructose by the dehydrogenases. Synthesis of d-mannitol dehydrogenases was not observed during germination; the content of d-mannitol decreased at an early stage of germination. It was assumed, therefore, that d-mannitol might be used as the source of endogenous respiration and provide energy for the germination. PMID:14255698

  1. Aspergillus Vertebral Osteomyelitis Complicating Pulmonary Granuloma in an Immunocompetent Adult

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yun; Cen, Yanyi; Luo, Yuwen; Zhu, Zhe; Min, Shaoxiong; Chen, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this report is to describe a case with Aspergillus vertebral osteomyelitis complicating pulmonary granuloma in an immunocompetent adult. Clinical Presentation and Intervention A 53-year-old male patient was found to have lesions on lumbar vertebra 5 months after thoracoscopic resection of pulmonary granuloma that lacked a definite etiology. Three operations on the lumbar lesions were performed successively; however, an Aspergillus infection was not confirmed until hyphae were clearly detected at the last surgery. The patient was treated with voriconazole and recovered well. Conclusion This case shows that simultaneous occurrence of granulomatous nodules in the lung and vertebral lesions should raise suspicion of aspergillosis, even in immunocompetent patients. PMID:26667988

  2. Spinal aspergillus abscess in a patient with bronchocentric granulomatosis.

    PubMed

    Collier, J; Wolfe, R; Lerner, R; Nathan, S; Mohsenifar, Z

    1995-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus hyphae is often found in the lung tissue of patients with bronchocentric granulomatosis (BCG). This organism is believed to be one agent responsible for inciting the hypersensitivity response and subsequent development of the characteristic pathology that defines BCG. The definitive etiology of this disease, however, remains conjectural. Corticosteroids represent the mainstay of therapy. The fungi recovered from patients with BCG are considered noninvasive; thus, the risk of fungal invasion secondary to steroid-induced immunosuppression is believed to be negligible. However, we report a case of spinal aspergillus abscess that developed in a patient with BCG subsequent to steroid therapy. This case also highlights the necessity for aggressive medical and neurosurgical intervention to avert the development of neurological sequelae.

  3. Multifocal Aspergillus terreus discospondylitis in two German shepherd dogs.

    PubMed

    Berry, W L; Leisewitz, A L

    1996-12-01

    Multifocal fungal (Aspergillus terreus) discospondylitis was diagnosed in 2 German shepherd dogs. In one dog, the aetiology was established by means of fluoroscopic-guided disc aspiration, cytology and culture of disc material and urine. Disseminated aspergillosis was confirmed at necropsy and A. terreus cultured from numerous organs in this dog. The aetiology in the other dog was not established until therapeutic failure forced surgical curettage of disc material from which the fungus was cultured. Ketoconazole therapy failed to effect an improvement, and at necropsy, disease was localised to the spinal column, with A. terreus cultured from the affected discs and associated vertebrae. Immunodeficiency was suspected in both cases. In the case of disseminated disease a reduced lymphocyte blastogenic response was demonstrated. Reduced IgA was shown in both cases. The German shepherd breed seems to be predisposed to Aspergillus infections and IgA deficiency.

  4. Interference of Aspergillus fumigatus with the immune response.

    PubMed

    Heinekamp, Thorsten; Schmidt, Hella; Lapp, Katrin; Pähtz, Vera; Shopova, Iordana; Köster-Eiserfunke, Nora; Krüger, Thomas; Kniemeyer, Olaf; Brakhage, Axel A

    2015-03-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is a saprotrophic filamentous fungus and also the most prevalent airborne fungal pathogen of humans. Depending on the host's immune status, the variety of diseases caused by A. fumigatus ranges from allergies in immunocompetent hosts to life-threatening invasive infections in patients with impaired immunity. In contrast to the majority of other Aspergillus species, which are in most cases nonpathogenic, A. fumigatus features an armory of virulence determinants to establish an infection. For example, A. fumigatus is able to evade the human complement system by binding or degrading complement regulators. Furthermore, the fungus interferes with lung epithelial cells, alveolar macrophages, and neutrophil granulocytes to prevent killing by these immune cells. This chapter summarizes the different strategies of A. fumigatus to manipulate the immune response. We also discuss the potential impact of recent advances in immunoproteomics to improve diagnosis and therapy of an A. fumigatus infection.

  5. Legionella spp. in dental unit waterlines.

    PubMed

    Sedlata Juraskova, E; Sedlackova, H; Janska, J; Holy, O; Lalova, I; Matouskova, I

    2017-01-01

    To determine the current presence of Legionella spp. in the output water of dental unit waterlines (DUWLs) and examine its mitigation by disinfection at the Institute of Dentistry and Oral Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacky University Olomouc and University Hospital Olomouc. The first stage of our survey involved collecting samples of DUWL output water from 50 dental chair units (DCUs), and 2 samples of the incoming potable water. In October 2015, a one-time disinfection (1 % Stabimed) of DUWLs was conducted. This was followed by collecting 10 control samples (survey stage 2). From the total of 50 samples (survey stage 1), 18 samples (36.0 %) tested positive for Legionella spp. Following the disinfection, nine of the ten samples no longer showed any presence of Legionella. Based on culture results, the one-time disinfection (1 % Stabimed) was effective. We are unable to comment on the duration of positive effect of disinfection on the occurrence of Legionella spp. in the outlet water. It was a one-time survey (Tab. 2, Ref. 32).

  6. Micropropagation of Rubus and Ribes spp.

    PubMed

    Dziedzic, Ewa; Jagła, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Micropropagation is the most appropriate method for large-scale production of Rubus and Ribes spp. The proliferation rate of Rubus spp. differs in shoot tips and nodal segments. The culture media used for raspberry and blackberry propagation are MS-based supplemented with different combination and ratio of plant growth regulators, depending on the stage of culture. The initiation medium containing 0.4 mg L(-1) BA and 0.1 mg L(-1) IBA is used to stabilize shoot cultures. In multiplication media, concentration of cytokinin is doubled. In vitro rooting of shoots is achieved on media supplemented with 1.0 mg L(-1) IBA. Ribes spp. cultures are initiated from shoot tips, meristem, or dormant buds on MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg L(-1) BA, 0.5 mg L(-1) IBA, and 0.1 mg L(-1) GA(3.) After stabilization of shoot cultures in 3-4-week time, shoot multiplication is carried out on MS medium containing 1.0 mg L(-1) BA and 0.1 mg L(-1) IBA. Shoots 2 cm long are cultured to rooting on a medium amended with 2.0 mg L(-1) IBA and 5.0 mg L(-1) IAA. Rooted plantlets are transferred to universal peat substrate and acclimatized in the greenhouse.

  7. Enrichment of Acinetobacter spp. from food samples.

    PubMed

    Carvalheira, Ana; Ferreira, Vânia; Silva, Joana; Teixeira, Paula

    2016-05-01

    Relatively little is known about the role of foods in the chain of transmission of acinetobacters and the occurrence of different Acinetobacter spp. in foods. Currently, there is no standard procedure to recover acinetobacters from food in order to gain insight into the food-related ecology and epidemiology of acinetobacters. This study aimed to assess whether enrichment in Dijkshoorn enrichment medium followed by plating in CHROMagar™ Acinetobacter medium is a useful method for the isolation of Acinetobacter spp. from foods. Recovery of six Acinetobacter species from food spiked with these organisms was compared for two selective enrichment media (Baumann's enrichment and Dijkshoorn's enrichment). Significantly (p < 0.01) higher cell counts were obtained in Dijkshoorn's enrichment. Next, the Dijkshoorn's enrichment followed by direct plating on CHROMagar™ Acinetobacter was applied to detect Acinetobacter spp. in different foods. Fourteen different presumptive acinetobacters were recovered and assumed to represent nine different strains on the basis of REP-PCR typing. Eight of these strains were identified by rpoB gene analysis as belonging to the species Acinetobacter johnsonii, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Acinetobacter guillouiae and Acinetobacter gandensis. It was not possible to identify the species level of one strain which may suggests that it represents a distinct species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Fractionation and identification of the allergic proteins in Aspergillus species.

    PubMed

    Falahati, M; Ghanbari, S; Ebrahimi, M; Ghazanfari, M; Bazrafshan, F; Farahyar, S; Falak, R

    2016-12-01

    Allergy is an undesired immune response to non-pathogenic agents. However, some opportunistic microorganisms such as fungi can also cause allergy. Among those fungi, hyphae form of Aspergillus strains including A. fumigatus , A. flavus , and A. niger could be mentioned. In this study, we aimed to separate allergic proteins from Aspergillus strains and determine their identity. Standard species of Aspergillus strains were cultivated in optimized conditions and the mycelium was separated by centrifugation. The fungal cells were lysed through physical methods such as freeze-thawing and grinding to prepare a suitable protein extract. The protein concentration was measured by Bradford method and the electrophoretic pattern of the extract was determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The proteins were fractionated by ammonium sulfate precipitation and anion exchange chromatography using fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) system. The IgE immunoreactivity of the sensitized patients and controls was studied using the fractionated proteins by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Following SDS-PAGE, proteins were electrotransferred onto polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membranes and the strips were blotted with allergic patients' and controls' sera. The immunoreactive bands were excised from colloidal coomassie-stained SDS-PAGE gels and studied by mass spectroscopy methods. Among the studied species, A. fumigatus showed stronger IgE reactivity and more IgE reactive protein bands than others did. The proteins with higher molecular weights showed stronger immunoreactivity in Western blotting. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis demonstrated a correlation between the results of the applied ELISA methods. One of the most prominent IgE-reactive proteins was confirmed to be 45 kDa mycelia catalase. Our findings confirmed that high molecular weight proteins might play a major role in allergy and IgE reactivity to

  9. Thoracic intradural Aspergillus abscess formation following epidural steroid injection.

    PubMed

    Saigal, Gaurav; Donovan Post, M Judith; Kozic, Dusko

    2004-04-01

    We report an extremely unusual iatrogenic infection of the spinal canal with Aspergillus fumigatus that resulted in intradural abscess formation following epidural steroid injection in an immunocompetent young individual. Although the imaging findings of the infection were relatively nonspecific, MR imaging not only allowed for a prompt diagnosis, but also helped in surgical localization to the intradural compartment. Complications from the use of these injections are briefly discussed.

  10. Single cell transcriptomics of neighboring hyphae of Aspergillus niger

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Single cell profiling was performed to assess differences in RNA accumulation in neighboring hyphae of the fungus Aspergillus niger. A protocol was developed to isolate and amplify RNA from single hyphae or parts thereof. Microarray analysis resulted in a present call for 4 to 7% of the A. niger genes, of which 12% showed heterogeneous RNA levels. These genes belonged to a wide range of gene categories. PMID:21816052

  11. Aspergillus antigen testing in bone marrow transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, E; Oliver, D; Johnson, E; Foot, A; Marks, D; Warnock, D

    2000-01-01

    Aims—To assess the clinical usefulness of a commercial aspergillus antigen enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis (IA) in bone marrow transplant recipients, and to compare it with a commercial latex agglutination (LA) test. Methods—In total, 2026 serum samples from 104 bone marrow transplant recipients were tested. These comprised 67 sera from seven patients who had died with confirmed IA, 268 sera from nine patients who had died with suspected IA, and 1691 sera from 88 patients with no clinical, radiological, or microbiological signs of IA. Results—The ELISA was more sensitive than the LA test. All patients who were ELISA positive were also LA positive, and a positive LA result never preceded a positive ELISA. Twelve of 16 patients with confirmed or suspected IA were ELISA positive on two or more occasions, compared with 10 of 15 who were LA positive. ELISA was positive before LA in five patients (range, 2–14 days), and became positive on the same day in the remainder. Aspergillus antigen was detected by ELISA a median of 15 days before death (range, 4–233). Clinical and/or radiological evidence of IA was noted in all patients, and a positive ELISA was never the sole criterion for introduction of antifungal treatment. Two samples (one from each of two patients without IA) gave false positive results. Conclusions—The aspergillus ELISA is a specific indicator of invasive aspergillosis if the criterion of two positive samples is required to confirm the diagnosis. However, the test is insufficiently sensitive to diagnose aspergillosis before other symptoms or signs are apparent, and hence is unlikely to lead to earlier initiation of antifungal treatment. It is therefore unsuitable for screening of asymptomatic patients at risk of invasive aspergillosis, but does have a useful role in confirming the diagnosis in symptomatic patients. Key Words: invasive aspergillosis • aspergillus antigen • Platelia enzyme

  12. Endogenous Aspergillus endophthalmitis. Clinical features and treatment outcomes.

    PubMed

    Weishaar, P D; Flynn, H W; Murray, T G; Davis, J L; Barr, C C; Gross, J G; Mein, C E; McLean, W C; Killian, J H

    1998-01-01

    This study evaluated the clinical features and treatment outcomes in patients with endogenous Aspergillus endophthalmitis. The study design was a multicenter retrospective chart review. Ten patients (12 eyes) with culture-proven endogenous Aspergillus endophthalmitis treated by 1 of the authors were studied. Intravitreous amphotericin B injection, pars plana vitrectomy, systemic amphotericin B therapy, and oral anti-fungal therapy were performed. Elimination of endogenous Aspergillus endophthalmitis and Snellen visual acuity, best corrected, were measured. All patients had a 1- to 3-day history of pain and marked loss of visual acuity in the involved eyes. Varying degrees of vitritis was present in all 12 eyes. In 8 of 12 eyes, a central macular chorioretinal inflammatory lesion was present. Four patients (six eyes) had associated pulmonary diseases and were receiving concurrent steroid therapy. One of these patients with chronic asthma also was abusing intravenous drugs. Overall, six patients (six eyes) had a history of intravenous drug abuse, whereas a seventh patient (one eye) was suspected of abusing intravenous drugs. Blood cultures and echocardiograms were negative for systemic aspergillosis. Management consisted of a pars plana vitrectomy in 10 of 12 eyes. Intravitreous amphotericin B was administered in 11 of 12 eyes. Systemic amphotericin B therapy was used in eight patients. One patient was treated with oral antifungal agents. In three eyes without central macular involvement, final visual acuities were 20/25 to 20/200. In eight eyes with initial central macular involvement, final visual acuities were 20/400 in three eyes and 5/200 or less in four eyes. Two painful eyes with marked inflammation, hypotony, and retinal detachment were enucleated. Endogenous Aspergillus endophthalmitis usually has an acute onset of intraocular inflammation and often has a characteristic chorioretinal lesion located in the macula. Although treatment with pars plana vitrectomy

  13. Spectrophotometric reading of EUCAST antifungal susceptibility testing of Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Meletiadis, J; Leth Mortensen, K; Verweij, P E; Mouton, J W; Arendrup, M C

    2017-02-01

    Given the increasing number of antifungal drugs and the emergence of resistant Aspergillus isolates, objective, automated and high-throughput antifungal susceptibility testing is important. The EUCAST E.Def 9.3 reference method for MIC determination of Aspergillus species relies on visual reading. Spectrophotometric reading was not adopted because of concern that non-uniform filamentous growth might lead to unreliable and non-reproducible results. We therefore evaluated spectrophotometric reading for the determination of MICs of antifungal azoles against Aspergillus fumigatus. Eighty-eight clinical isolates of A. fumigatus were tested against four medical azoles (posaconazole, voriconazole, itraconazole, isavuconazole) and one agricultural azole (tebuconazole) with EUCAST E.Def 9.3. The visually determined MICs (complete inhibition of growth) were compared with spectrophotometrically determined MICs and essential (±1 twofold dilution) and categorical (susceptible/intermediate/resistant or wild-type/non-wild-type) agreement was calculated. Spectrophotometric data were analysed with regression analysis using the E max model, and the effective concentration corresponding to 5% (EC 5 ) was estimated. Using the 5% cut-off, high essential (92%-97%) and categorical (93%-99%) agreement (<6% errors) was found between spectrophotometric and visual MICs. The EC 5 also correlated with the visually determined MICs with an essential agreement of 83%-96% and a categorical agreement of 90%-100% (<5% errors). Spectrophotometric determination of MICs of antifungal drugs may increase objectivity, and allow automation and high-throughput of EUCAST E.Def 9.3 antifungal susceptibility testing of Aspergillus species. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Voriconazole for the treatment of refractory Aspergillus fumigatus keratitis

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Hitendra B; Garg, Prashant; Kodial, Harish

    2008-01-01

    We report a case of Aspergillus fumigatus keratitis in a 53-year-old, well-controlled diabetic female who did not respond to standard antifungal treatment. She was started on topical natamycin eye drops, but the infiltrate continued to progress. Topical amphotericin B and systemic ketoconazole was added, however, there was no response and the infiltrate increased further. She was then switched to topical and systemic voriconazole. Steady resolution of the infiltrate was noted within 2 weeks of therapy. PMID:18417831

  15. Polyol concentrations in Aspergillus repens grown under salt stress.

    PubMed

    Kelavkar, U P; Chhatpar, H S

    1993-09-01

    Na(+), K(+) and the ratio of Na(+)/K(+) were higher in cells of the halotolerant Aspergillus repens grown with 2 M NaCl than without NaCl. The osmolytes, proline, glycerol, betaine and glutamate, did not affect the Na(+)/K(+) ratio, nor the polyol content of cells under any conditions. The concentrations of polyols, consisting of glycerol, arabitol, erythritol and mannitol, changed markedly during growth, indicating that they have a crucial role in osmotic adaptation.

  16. Galactosaminogalactan, a New Immunosuppressive Polysaccharide of Aspergillus fumigatus

    PubMed Central

    Simenel, Catherine; Coddeville, Bernadette; van Vliet, Sandra J.; van Kooyk, Yvette; Bozza, Silvia; Moretti, Silvia; Schwarz, Flavio; Trichot, Coline; Aebi, Markus; Delepierre, Muriel; Elbim, Carole; Romani, Luigina; Latgé, Jean-Paul

    2011-01-01

    A new polysaccharide secreted by the human opportunistic fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus has been characterized. Carbohydrate analysis using specific chemical degradations, mass spectrometry, 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance showed that this polysaccharide is a linear heterogeneous galactosaminogalactan composed of α1-4 linked galactose and α1-4 linked N-acetylgalactosamine residues where both monosacharides are randomly distributed and where the percentage of galactose per chain varied from 15 to 60%. This polysaccharide is antigenic and is recognized by a majority of the human population irrespectively of the occurrence of an Aspergillus infection. GalNAc oligosaccharides are an essential epitope of the galactosaminogalactan that explains the universal antibody reaction due to cross reactivity with other antigenic molecules containing GalNAc stretches such as the N-glycans of Campylobacter jejuni. The galactosaminogalactan has no protective effect during Aspergillus infections. Most importantly, the polysaccharide promotes fungal development in immunocompetent mice due to its immunosuppressive activity associated with disminished neutrophil infiltrates. PMID:22102815

  17. The pathogenicity of Aspergillus fumigatus, drug resistance, and nanoparticle delivery.

    PubMed

    Szalewski, David A; Hinrichs, Victoria S; Zinniel, Denise K; Barletta, Raúl G

    2018-03-27

    The genus Aspergillus includes fungal species that cause major health issues of significant economic importance. These microorganisms are also the culprit for production of carcinogenic aflatoxins in grain storages, contaminating crops, and economically straining the production process. Aspergillus fumigatus is a very important pathogenic species, being responsible for high human morbidity and mortality on a global basis. The prevalence of these infections in immunosuppressed individuals is on the rise, and physicians struggle with the diagnosis of these deadly pathogens. Several virulence determinants facilitate fungal invasion and evasion of the host immune response. Metabolic functions are also important for virulence and drug resistance, since they allow fungi to obtain nutrients for their own survival and growth. Following a positive diagnostic identification, mortality rates remain high due, in part, to emerging resistance to frequently used antifungal drugs. In this review, we discuss the role of the main virulence, drug target, and drug resistance determinants. We conclude with the review of new technologies being developed to treat aspergillosis. In particular, microsphere and nanoparticle delivery systems are discussed in the context of improving drug bioavailability. Aspergillus will likely continue to cause problematic infections in immunocompromised patients, so it is imperative to improve treatment options.

  18. Lumbar Aspergillus osteomyelitis mimicking pyogenic osteomyelitis in an immunocompetent adult.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Kyeong-Wook; Kim, Young-Jin

    2015-04-01

    Spinal Aspergillus osteomyelitis is rare and occurs mostly in immunocompromised patients, but especially very rare in immunocompetent adult. This report presents a case of lumbar vertebral osteomyelitis in immunocompetent adult. A 53-year-old male who had no significant medical history was admitted due to complaints of back pain radiating to the flank for the last 3 months, followed by a progressive motor weakness of both lower limbs. Lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated osteomyelitis and diskitis, suspected to be a pyogenic condition rather than a tuberculosis infection. Despite antibiotic treatment for several weeks, the symptoms worsened, and finally, open surgery was performed. Surgical biopsy revealed an Aspergillus infection and medical treatment with amphotericin B was started. It can be diagnosed early through an MRI; biopsy is very important but difficult, and making the correct differential diagnosis is essential for avoiding unexpected complications. The authors report a case of lumbar Aspergillus osteomyelitis in an immunocompetent adult and reviewed previously described cases of spinal aspergillosis.

  19. Molecular analysis of Aspergillus section Flavi isolated from Brazil nuts.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Juliana Soares; Ferracin, Lara Munique; Carneiro Vieira, Maria Lucia; Iamanaka, Beatriz Thie; Taniwaki, Marta Hiromi; Pelegrinelli Fungaro, Maria Helena

    2012-04-01

    Brazil nuts are an important export market in its main producing countries, including Brazil, Bolivia, and Peru. Approximately 30,000 tons of Brazil nuts are harvested each year. However, substantial nut contamination by Aspergillus section Flavi occurs with subsequent production of aflatoxins. In our study, Aspergillus section Flavi were isolated from Brazil nuts (Bertholletia excelsa), and identified by morphological and molecular means. We obtained 241 isolates from nut samples, 41% positive for aflatoxin production. Eighty-one isolates were selected for molecular investigation. Pairwise genetic distances among isolates and phylogenetic relationships were assessed. The following Aspergillus species were identified: A. flavus, A. caelatus, A. nomius, A. tamarii, A. bombycis, and A. arachidicola. Additionally, molecular profiles indicated a high level of nucleotide variation within β-tubulin and calmodulin gene sequences associated with high genetic divergence from RAPD data. Among the 81 isolates analyzed by molecular means, three of them were phylogenetically distinct from all other isolates representing the six species of section Flavi. A putative novel species was identified based on molecular profiles.

  20. Aspergillus in endodontic infection near the maxillary sinus.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Cinthya Cristina; Pinto, Larissa Christina Costa; Victor, Fernanda Loretti; Silva, Erlange Andrade Borges da; Ribeiro, Apoena de Aguiar; Sarquis, Maria Inês de Moura; Camões, Isabel Coelho Gomes

    2015-01-01

    Diseases of the maxillary sinus have been associated with dental roots near the maxillary sinus that have undergone endodontic treatment. To investigate the presence of filamentous fungi in patients with dental roots near the maxillary sinus who had apical periodontitis treated endodontically, and to alert practitioners that this could be a possible avenue of contamination of the sinus in patients who develop maxillary sinus infection. Cross-sectional study in 60 palatal roots of the first maxillary molars near the maxillary sinus, that underwent endodontic treatment for apical periodontitis. After removal of the filling material, dentin shavings were collected and placed in test tubes containing Sabouraud dextrose agar and chloramphenicol. The phenotype was determined by macroscopic and microscopic examination of the colonies. For polymerase chain reaction, the primers ITS-5 and ITS-4 were used. The sequences obtained were compared with those deposited at GenBank using the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool program. Filamentous fungi were isolated from 6 of 60 canals (10%): Aspergillus niger (6.7%), Aspergillus versicolor (1.6%), and Aspergillus fumigatus (1.6%). Root canals near the maxillary sinus with endodontic treatment and apical periodontitis may exhibit positive cultures for filamentous fungi. Interested professionals should be alert, because these microorganisms have pathogenic characteristics that can cause disease of odontogenic origin in the maxillary sinus. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of Aspergillus PCR protocols for testing serum specimens.

    PubMed

    White, P Lewis; Mengoli, Carlo; Bretagne, Stéphane; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel; Finnstrom, Niklas; Klingspor, Lena; Melchers, Willem J G; McCulloch, Elaine; Barnes, Rosemary A; Donnelly, J Peter; Loeffler, Juergen

    2011-11-01

    A panel of human serum samples spiked with various amounts of Aspergillus fumigatus genomic DNA was distributed to 23 centers within the European Aspergillus PCR Initiative to determine analytical performance of PCR. Information regarding specific methodological components and PCR performance was requested. The information provided was made anonymous, and meta-regression analysis was performed to determine any procedural factors that significantly altered PCR performance. Ninety-seven percent of protocols were able to detect a threshold of 10 genomes/ml on at least one occasion, with 83% of protocols reproducibly detecting this concentration. Sensitivity and specificity were 86.1% and 93.6%, respectively. Positive associations between sensitivity and the use of larger sample volumes, an internal control PCR, and PCR targeting the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region were shown. Negative associations between sensitivity and the use of larger elution volumes (≥100 μl) and PCR targeting the mitochondrial genes were demonstrated. Most Aspergillus PCR protocols used to test serum generate satisfactory analytical performance. Testing serum requires less standardization, and the specific recommendations shown in this article will only improve performance.

  2. Molecular screening of xerophilic Aspergillus strains producing mycophenolic acid.

    PubMed

    Mouhamadou, Bello; Sage, Lucile; Périgon, Sophie; Séguin, Virginie; Bouchart, Valérie; Legendre, Patrick; Caillat, Mathilde; Yamouni, Hayet; Garon, David

    2017-02-01

    Mycophenolic acid (MPA) is the fungal secondary metabolite displaying several biological properties. Up to now, screening of fungal strains producing MPA has mainly been the result of the search of this molecule in their culture medium by chemical methods. Here we developed a molecular approach by targeting the expression level of the MpaC gene encoding the polyketide synthase, one of the key enzymes involved in the MPA synthesis. Thirty xerophilic Aspergillus strains were identified using the RNA polymerase II subunit and the β-tubulin genes. Seven Aspergillus species were evidenced. The expression level of the MpaC gene was quantified and compared to the MPA production rate. Only Aspergillus pseudoglaucus and all the eight strains of this species produced MPA. While the MpaC gene was not expressed or weakly expressed in the MPA non-producing strains, all the A. pseudoglaucus strains presented a high level of expression of this gene. The highest expression level of the MpaC gene among the MPA non-producing strains was significantly lower than the lowest expression level of this gene in the MPA producing strains. To our knowledge, this is the first study that demonstrates the effectiveness of molecular approach for the screening of MPA-producing species. Copyright © 2016 British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Biological activities of ophiobolin K and 6-epi-ophiobolin K produced by the endophytic fungus Aspergillus calidoustus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The endophytic fungus, Aspergillus calidoustus, was isolated from the plant species Acanthospermum australe (Asteraceae). A dichloromethane extract of the fungus displayed antifungal, antiprotozoal, and cytotoxic activities. Aspergillus calidoustus was identified using molecular, physiological and m...

  4. Effect of specific amino acids on growth and aflatoxin production by Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus flavus in defined media.

    PubMed Central

    Payne, G A; Hagler, W M

    1983-01-01

    Four amino acids were used as sole nitrogen sources or as supplements to ammonium sulfate, and casein and ammonium sulfate were used as sole nitrogen sources to examine their effects on aflatoxin production by Aspergillus parasiticus NRRL 2999 and Aspergillus flavus 3357 grown on synthetic liquid media. In general, when proline, asparagine, casein, and ammonium sulfate were used as sole nitrogen sources, they supported more growth and toxin production than tryptophan or methionine. However, proline stimulated more toxin production per gram of mycelium in stationary cultures than the other nitrogen sources, including the amino acid asparagine, which is generally recognized as supporting good aflatoxin production. The exact responses to individual nitrogen sources were influenced by the species of fungus and whether cultures were stationary or shaken. In shake cultures, but not in stationary cultures, increased growth was generally associated with increased toxin production. PMID:6416168

  5. Differences among the cell wall galactomannans from Aspergillus wentii and Chaetosartorya chrysella and that of Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Miranda, Begoña; Prieto, Alicia; Leal, Juan Antonio; Ahrazem, Oussama; Jiménez-Barbero, Jesús; Bernabé, Manuel

    2004-01-01

    The alkali extractable and water-soluble cell wall polysaccharides F1SS from Aspergillus wentii and Chaetosartorya chrysella have been studied by methylation analysis, 1D- and 2D-NMR, and MALDI-TOF analysis. Their structures are almost identical, corresponding to the following repeating unit: [--> 3)-beta-D-Gal f -(1 --> 5)-beta-D-Gal f-(1 -->]n --> mannan core. The structure of this galactofuranose side chain differs from that found in the pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus, in other Aspergillii and members of Trichocomaceae: [--> 5)-beta-D-Gal f-(1 -->]n --> mannan core. The mannan cores have also been investigated, and are constituted by a (1 --> 6)-alpha-mannan backbone, substituted at positions 2 by chains from 1 to 7 residues of (1 --> 2) linked alpha-mannopyranoses. Copyright 2004 Kluwer Academic Publishers

  6. Synergy, Pharmacodynamics, and Time-Sequenced Ultrastructural Changes of the Interaction between Nikkomycin Z and the Echinocandin FK463 against Aspergillus fumigatus

    PubMed Central

    Chiou, Christine C.; Mavrogiorgos, Nikolaos; Tillem, Elizabeth; Hector, Richard; Walsh, Thomas J.

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the potential synergy between two cell wall-active agents, the echinocandin FK463 (FK) and the chitin synthase inhibitor nikkomycin Z (NZ), against 16 isolates of filamentous fungi. Susceptibility testing was performed with a broth macrodilution procedure by NCCLS methods. The median minimal effective concentration (MEC) of FK against all Aspergillus species was 0.25 μg/ml (range, 0.05 to 0.5 μg/ml). For Fusarium solani and Rhizopus oryzae, MECs of FK were >512 μg/ml. The median MEC of NZ against Aspergillus fumigatus was 32 μg/ml (range, 8 to 64 μg/ml), and that against R. oryzae was 0.5 μg/ml (range, 0.06 to 2 μg/ml); however, for the other Aspergillus species, as well as F. solani, MECs were >512 μg/ml. A checkerboard inhibitory assay demonstrated synergy against A. fumigatus (median fractional inhibitory concentration index = 0.312 [range, 0.15 to 0.475]). The effect was additive to indifferent against R. oryzae and indifferent against other Aspergillus spp. and F. solani. We further investigated the pharmacodynamics of hyphal damage by MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay and examined the time-sequenced changes in hyphal ultrastructure. Significant synergistic hyphal damage was demonstrated with the combination of NZ (2 to 32 μg/ml) and FK (0.03 to 0.5 μg/ml) over a wide range of concentrations (P < 0.001). The synergistic effect was most pronounced after 12 h of incubation and was sustained through 24 h. Time-sequenced light and electron microscopic studies demonstrated that structural alterations of hyphae were profound, with marked transformation of hyphae to blastospore-like structures, in the presence of FK plus NZ, while fungi treated with a single drug showed partial recovery at 24 h. The methods used in this study may be applicable to elucidating the activity and interaction of other cell wall-active agents. In summary, these two cell wall-targeted antifungal agents, FK and NZ, showed marked

  7. Constitutive expression of fluorescent protein by Aspergillus var. niger and Aspergillus carbonarius to monitor fungal colonization in maize plants.

    PubMed

    Palencia, Edwin Rene; Glenn, Anthony Elbie; Hinton, Dorothy Mae; Bacon, Charles Wilson

    2013-09-01

    Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus carbonarius are two species in the Aspergillus section Nigri (black-spored aspergilli) frequently associated with peanut (Arachis hypogea), maize (Zea mays), and other plants as pathogens. These infections are symptomless and as such are major concerns since some black aspergilli produce important mycotoxins, ochratoxins A, and the fumonisins. To facilitate the study of the black aspergilli-maize interactions with maize during the early stages of infections, we developed a method that used the enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (eYFP) and the monomeric red fluorescent protein (mRFP1) to transform A. niger and A. carbonarius, respectively. The results were constitutive expressions of the fluorescent genes that were stable in the cytoplasms of hyphae and conidia under natural environmental conditions. The hyphal in planta distribution in 21-day-old seedlings of maize were similar wild type and transformants of A. niger and A. carbonarius. The in planta studies indicated that both wild type and transformants internally colonized leaf, stem and root tissues of maize seedlings, without any visible disease symptoms. Yellow and red fluorescent strains were capable of invading epidermal cells of maize roots intercellularly within the first 3 days after inoculation, but intracellular hyphal growth was more evident after 7 days of inoculation. We also tested the capacity of fluorescent transformants to produce ochratoxin A and the results with A. carbonarius showed that this transgenic strain produced similar concentrations of this secondary metabolite. This is the first report on the in planta expression of fluorescent proteins that should be useful to study the internal plant colonization patterns of two ochratoxigenic species in the Aspergillus section Nigri. © 2013.

  8. Quantification of viable but nonculturable Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. during sludge anaerobic digestion and their reactivation during cake storage.

    PubMed

    Fu, B; Jiang, Q; Liu, H-B; Liu, H

    2015-10-01

    The presence of viable but nonculturable (VBNC) bacterial pathogens which often fail to be detected by cultivation and can regain the cultivability if the living conditions improve were reported. The objective of this study was to determine the occurrence of VBNC Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. in the biosolids during anaerobic digestion and its reactivation during the cake storage. The occurrence of VBNC Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. during mesophilic, temperature-phased, thermophilic anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge and the subsequent storage were studied by RT-qPCR and most probable number (MPN) method. The VBNC incidence of Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. during thermophilic digestion was four orders of magnitude higher than those of mesophilic digestion. Accordingly, higher resuscitation ratio of VBNC pathogens was also achieved in thermophilic digested sludge. As a result, the culturable Salmonella typhimurium contents in thermophilic digested sludge after cake storage were two orders of magnitude higher than mesophilic digestion. Both quantitative PCR and reverse transcription quantitative PCR assay results showed the two bacterial counting numbers remained stable throughout the cake storage. The results indicate that the increase in the culturable Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. after centrifugal dewatering was attributed to the resuscitation from the VBNC state to the culturable state. Thermophilic anaerobic digestion mainly induced Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. into VBNC state rather than killed them, suggesting that the biological safety of sewage sludge by temperature-phased anaerobic digestion should be carefully assessed. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. Aspergillus steynii and Aspergillus westerdijkiae as potential risk of OTA contamination in food products in warm climates.

    PubMed

    Gil-Serna, Jessica; Patiño, Belén; Cortes, Laura; Gonzalez-Jaen, Maria Teresa; Vazquez, Covadonga

    2015-04-01

    Aspergillus steynii and Aspergillus westerdijkiae are the main ochratoxin A (OTA) producing species of Aspergillus section Circumdati. Due to its recent description, few data are available about the influence of ecophysiological factors on their growth and OTA production profiles. In this work, the effect of temperature (20, 24 and 28 °C) and water activity (aw) (0.928, 0.964 and 0.995) on growth, sporulation and OTA production by these fungi was examined in CYA and media prepared from paprika, green coffee, anise, grapes, maize and barley. Growth was positively affected by the highest temperature and aw values indicating that both species might be expected in warm climates or storage conditions. However, optimal growth conditions showed differences depending on the medium. OTA production was markedly affected by substrate and showed qualitative and quantitative differences. Both species, especially A. steynii, represent a great potential risk of OTA contamination due to their high production in a variety of conditions and substrates, in particular in barley and paprika-based media. Additionally, neither growth nor sporulation did result good indicators of OTA production by A. steynii or A. westerdijkiae; therefore, specific and highly-sensitive detection methods become essential tools for control strategies to reduce OTA risk by these species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Phytase Production by Aspergillus niger CFR 335 and Aspergillus ficuum SGA 01 through Submerged and Solid-State Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Shivanna, Gunashree B.; Venkateswaran, Govindarajulu

    2014-01-01

    Fermentation is one of the industrially important processes for the development of microbial metabolites that has immense applications in various fields. This has prompted to employ fermentation as a major technique in the production of phytase from microbial source. In this study, a comparison was made between submerged (SmF) and solid-state fermentations (SSF) for the production of phytase from Aspergillus niger CFR 335 and Aspergillus ficuum SGA 01. It was found that both the fungi were capable of producing maximum phytase on 5th day of incubation in both submerged and solid-state fermentation media. Aspergillus niger CFR 335 and A. ficuum produced a maximum of 60.6 U/gds and 38 U/gds of the enzyme, respectively, in wheat bran solid substrate medium. Enhancement in the enzyme level (76 and 50.7 U/gds) was found when grown in a combined solid substrate medium comprising wheat bran, rice bran, and groundnut cake in the ratio of 2 : 1 : 1. A maximum of 9.6 and 8.2 U/mL of enzyme activity was observed in SmF by A. niger CFR 335 and A.ficuum, respectively, when grown in potato dextrose broth. PMID:24688383

  11. Overexpression of Aspergillus tubingensis faeA in protease-deficient Aspergillus niger enables ferulic acid production from plant material.

    PubMed

    Zwane, Eunice N; Rose, Shaunita H; van Zyl, Willem H; Rumbold, Karl; Viljoen-Bloom, Marinda

    2014-06-01

    The production of ferulic acid esterase involved in the release of ferulic acid side groups from xylan was investigated in strains of Aspergillus tubingensis, Aspergillus carneus, Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oryzae. The highest activity on triticale bran as sole carbon source was observed with the A. tubingensis T8.4 strain, which produced a type A ferulic acid esterase active against methyl p-coumarate, methyl ferulate and methyl sinapate. The activity of the A. tubingensis ferulic acid esterase (AtFAEA) was inhibited twofold by glucose and induced twofold in the presence of maize bran. An initial accumulation of endoglucanase was followed by the production of endoxylanase, suggesting a combined action with ferulic acid esterase on maize bran. A genomic copy of the A. tubingensis faeA gene was cloned and expressed in A. niger D15#26 under the control of the A. niger gpd promoter. The recombinant strain has reduced protease activity and does not acidify the media, therefore promoting high-level expression of recombinant enzymes. It produced 13.5 U/ml FAEA after 5 days on autoclaved maize bran as sole carbon source, which was threefold higher than for the A. tubingensis donor strain. The recombinant AtFAEA was able to extract 50 % of the available ferulic acid from non-pretreated maize bran, making this enzyme suitable for the biological production of ferulic acid from lignocellulosic plant material.

  12. Persistence versus Escape: Aspergillus terreus and Aspergillus fumigatus Employ Different Strategies during Interactions with Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Slesiona, Silvia; Gressler, Markus; Mihlan, Michael; Zaehle, Christoph; Schaller, Martin; Barz, Dagmar; Hube, Bernhard; Jacobsen, Ilse D.; Brock, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Invasive bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (IBPA) is a life-threatening disease in immunocompromised patients. Although Aspergillus terreus is frequently found in the environment, A. fumigatus is by far the main cause of IBPA. However, once A. terreus establishes infection in the host, disease is as fatal as A. fumigatus infections. Thus, we hypothesized that the initial steps of disease establishment might be fundamentally different between these two species. Since alveolar macrophages represent one of the first phagocytes facing inhaled conidia, we compared the interaction of A. terreus and A. fumigatus conidia with alveolar macrophages. A. terreus conidia were phagocytosed more rapidly than A. fumigatus conidia, possibly due to higher exposure of β-1,3-glucan and galactomannan on the surface. In agreement, blocking of dectin-1 and mannose receptors significantly reduced phagocytosis of A. terreus, but had only a moderate effect on phagocytosis of A. fumigatus. Once phagocytosed, and in contrast to A. fumigatus, A. terreus did not inhibit acidification of phagolysosomes, but remained viable without signs of germination both in vitro and in immunocompetent mice. The inability of A. terreus to germinate and pierce macrophages resulted in significantly lower cytotoxicity compared to A. fumigatus. Blocking phagolysosome acidification by the v-ATPase inhibitor bafilomycin increased A. terreus germination rates and cytotoxicity. Recombinant expression of the A. nidulans wA naphthopyrone synthase, a homologue of A. fumigatus PksP, inhibited phagolysosome acidification and resulted in increased germination, macrophage damage and virulence in corticosteroid-treated mice. In summary, we show that A. terreus and A. fumigatus have evolved significantly different strategies to survive the attack of host immune cells. While A. fumigatus prevents phagocytosis and phagolysosome acidification and escapes from macrophages by germination, A. terreus is rapidly phagocytosed, but

  13. Contamination by Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp. and Listeria spp. of most popular chicken- and pork-sausages sold in Reunion Island.

    PubMed

    Trimoulinard, A; Beral, M; Henry, I; Atiana, L; Porphyre, V; Tessier, C; Leclercq, A; Cardinale, E

    2017-06-05

    One of the most popular meat products of the local "cuisine" is sausage composed with 100% chicken or 100% pork. In this study, we aimed to determine the presence of Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp. and Listeria spp. in chicken- and pork-sausages, quantify Salmonella spp. population and identify the factors that could be associated with contamination in the outlets. Two hundred and three batches of pork and chicken sausages were randomly collected from 67 local outlets (supermarkets, groceries and butcher shops). Salmonella spp. was detected in 11.8% (95% confidence interval (CI): [10.0; 13.5]) of samples, Campylobacter spp. in 1.5% [0.7; 4.2] and Listeria monocytogenes in 5.9% [4.4; 7.3]. Most probable number of Salmonella spp. varied between 6cfu per gram to 320cfu per gram. Salmonella serotypes isolated from pork and chicken sausages were S. Typhimurium (45.8%), S. London (20.8%), S. Derby (16.7%), S. Newport (8.33%), S. Blockley (4.2%) and S. Weltevreden (4.17%). Using a logistic (mixed-effect) regression model, we found that Salmonella spp. contamination was positively associated with sausages sold in papers or plastic bags and no control of rodents. Chicken sausages were associated with a decreasing risk of Salmonella contamination. Listeria monocytogenes contamination was positively associated with the presence of fresh rodent droppings in the outlet and negatively when the staff was cleaning regularly their hands with soap and water or water only. All the sampled outlets of Reunion Island were not equivalent in terms of food safety measures. Increasing awareness of these traders remains a cornerstone to limit the presence of Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. in sausages, particularly in a tropical context (high temperature and humidity). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Chemical Components and Cardiovascular Activities of Valeriana spp.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Heng-Wen; Wei, Ben-Jun; He, Xuan-Hui; Liu, Yan; Wang, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Valeriana spp. is a flowering plant that is well known for its essential oils, iridoid compounds such as monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, flavonoids, alkaloids, amino acids, and lignanoids. Valeriana spp. exhibits a wide range of biological activities such as lowering blood pressure and heart rate, antimyocardial ischemia reperfusion injury, antiarrhythmia, and regulation of blood lipid levels. This review focuses on the chemical constituents and cardiovascular activities of Valeriana spp. PMID:26788113

  15. Aspergillus/allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis in an Irish cystic fibrosis population: a diagnostically challenging entity.

    PubMed

    Chotirmall, Sanjay Haresh; Branagan, Peter; Gunaratnam, Cedric; McElvaney, Noel Gerard

    2008-08-01

    Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) can become colonized by aspergillus, which can act as an allergen and cause allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA). To determine the rate of aspergillus colonization and ABPA in a population of Irish patients with CF. In 50 consecutive patients with CF who presented with exacerbations, we looked for the presence of aspergillus in their sputum and signs and symptoms of ABPA. Fifteen patients (30%) grew aspergillus species in their sputum cultures. Six patients (12%) had ABPA. Matched for age, sex, genotype, and microbiology, there was no significant difference in forced expiratory volume in the first second (percent predicted, FEV(1)%) in subjects with aspergillus-positive sputum compared to those not colonized with aspergillus. Subjects with ABPA experienced sharp short-term deterioration in lung function (mean 6.7% predicted FEV(1)), which returned to baseline following at least 4 weeks of treatment. The prevalence of ABPA was 12%. Aspergillus-positive sputum of itself was not a poor prognostic sign in terms of lung function over the 5-year study course. ABPA produces short-term reversible declines in lung function and responds to treatment. The frequency of aspergillus isolates did not correlate with the occurrence of ABPA. A low threshold for the diagnosis of ABPA should be maintained in any patient with CF who does not improve with antibiotics.

  16. Distribution and mycotoxigenic potential of Aspergillus section Nigri species in naturally-contaminated almonds

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In a previous study, inedible almond pick-out samples were assayed for aflatoxin and aflatoxigenic Aspergillus species. These samples were observed to contain high populations of black-spored Aspergillus section Nigri species. To investigate whether these species may contribute to the total potent...

  17. Deletion of creB in Aspergillus oryzae increases secreted hydrolytic enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Hunter, A J; Morris, T A; Jin, B; Saint, C P; Kelly, J M

    2013-09-01

    Aspergillus oryzae has been used in the food and beverage industry for centuries, and industrial strains have been produced by multiple rounds of selection. Targeted gene deletion technology is particularly useful for strain improvement in such strains, particularly when they do not have a well-characterized meiotic cycle. Phenotypes of an Aspergillus nidulans strain null for the CreB deubiquitinating enzyme include effects on growth and repression, including increased activity levels of various enzymes. We show that Aspergillus oryzae contains a functional homologue of the CreB deubiquitinating enzyme and that a null strain shows increased activity levels of industrially important secreted enzymes, including cellulases, xylanases, amylases, and proteases, as well as alleviated inhibition of spore germination on glucose medium. Reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis showed that the increased levels of enzyme activity in both Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus oryzae are mirrored at the transcript level, indicating transcriptional regulation. We report that Aspergillus oryzae DAR3699, originally isolated from soy fermentation, has a similar phenotype to that of a creB deletion mutant of the RIB40 strain, and it contains a mutation in the creB gene. Collectively, the results for Aspergillus oryzae, Aspergillus nidulans, Trichoderma reesei, and Penicillium decumbens show that deletion of creB may be broadly useful in diverse fungi for increasing production of a variety of enzymes.

  18. Deletion of creB in Aspergillus oryzae Increases Secreted Hydrolytic Enzyme Activity

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, A. J.; Morris, T. A.; Jin, B.; Saint, C. P.

    2013-01-01

    Aspergillus oryzae has been used in the food and beverage industry for centuries, and industrial strains have been produced by multiple rounds of selection. Targeted gene deletion technology is particularly useful for strain improvement in such strains, particularly when they do not have a well-characterized meiotic cycle. Phenotypes of an Aspergillus nidulans strain null for the CreB deubiquitinating enzyme include effects on growth and repression, including increased activity levels of various enzymes. We show that Aspergillus oryzae contains a functional homologue of the CreB deubiquitinating enzyme and that a null strain shows increased activity levels of industrially important secreted enzymes, including cellulases, xylanases, amylases, and proteases, as well as alleviated inhibition of spore germination on glucose medium. Reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis showed that the increased levels of enzyme activity in both Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus oryzae are mirrored at the transcript level, indicating transcriptional regulation. We report that Aspergillus oryzae DAR3699, originally isolated from soy fermentation, has a similar phenotype to that of a creB deletion mutant of the RIB40 strain, and it contains a mutation in the creB gene. Collectively, the results for Aspergillus oryzae, Aspergillus nidulans, Trichoderma reesei, and Penicillium decumbens show that deletion of creB may be broadly useful in diverse fungi for increasing production of a variety of enzymes. PMID:23835170

  19. Central nervous system Aspergillus infection after epidural analgesia: diagnosis, therapeutic challenges, and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Genzen, Jonathan R.; Kenney, Barton

    2009-01-01

    Aspergillus terreus was identified in an intra-dural spinal biopsy specimen from an African female with recurrent headache and hydrocephalus. Prior laboratory testing of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was non-diagnostic, despite extensive central nervous system (CNS) involvement. CNS Aspergillus infection presents a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge and is reviewed in the context of this particularly instructive and difficult case. PMID:19717262

  20. Treatment of Aspergillus infection of the proximal aortic prosthetic graft with associated vertebral osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Anderson, J; Kron, I L

    1984-07-01

    This is a case report of an unusual vascular graft infection involving an invasive Aspergillus species with associated vertebral osteomyelitis. Successful treatment was obtained by graft incision, extra-anatomic bypass, and prolonged antibiotic therapy. To our knowledge this is the first successful treatment of invasive Aspergillus of an aortic prosthetic graft.

  1. Non-aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus isolates reduce aflatoxins, cyclopiazonic acid and fumonisin in corn (maize)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aspergillus flavus strains vary widely in their production of aflatoxins and cyclopiazonic acid (CPA). A total of 500 Aspergillus strains isolated from a variety of sources showed 16.4% were negative for both aflatoxin and CPA, 41.3% were positive for both mycotoxins, 13.0% were positive only fo...

  2. 21 CFR 173.120 - Carbohydrase and cellulase derived from Aspergillus niger.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173.120 Carbohydrase and cellulase derived from Aspergillus niger. Carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme preparation derived from... Aspergillus niger from the carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme product. (d) The additive is used or intended for...

  3. 21 CFR 173.120 - Carbohydrase and cellulase derived from Aspergillus niger.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173.120 Carbohydrase and cellulase derived from Aspergillus niger. Carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme preparation derived from... Aspergillus niger from the carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme product. (d) The additive is used or intended for...

  4. Introduction to the Toxin Reviews Special Issue "Aspergillus, Aflatoxin, Cyclopiazonic Acid, and Biological Control"

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This special issue of Toxin Reviews, “Aspergillus, Aflatoxin, CPA and Biological Control of Aflatoxin", is different from previous publications because it focuses on solving the problem of mycotoxin contamination through the use of biological control strains of Aspergillus, which is applicable to th...

  5. RmtA, a putative arginine methyltransferase, regulates secondary metabolism and development in Aspergillus flavus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aspergillus flavus is found colonizing numerous oil seed crops such as corn, peanuts, sorghum, treenuts and cotton worldwide, contaminating them with aflatoxin and other harmful potent toxins. In the phylogenetically related model fungus Aspergillus nidulans, the methyltransferase, RmtA, has been de...

  6. RNA interference reduces aflatoxin accumulation by Aspergillus flavus in peanut seeds

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aflatoxins are among the most powerful carcinogens in nature. They are produced by the fungal pathogen Aspergillus flavus Link and other Aspergillus species. Aflatoxins accumulate in many crops, including rice, wheat, oats, pecans, pistachios, soybean, cassava, almonds, peanuts, beans, corn and cot...

  7. 21 CFR 173.120 - Carbohydrase and cellulase derived from Aspergillus niger.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173.120 Carbohydrase and cellulase derived from Aspergillus niger. Carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme preparation derived from... Aspergillus niger from the carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme product. (d) The additive is used or intended for...

  8. 21 CFR 173.120 - Carbohydrase and cellulase derived from Aspergillus niger.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173.120 Carbohydrase and cellulase derived from Aspergillus niger. Carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme preparation derived from... Aspergillus niger from the carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme product. (d) The additive is used or intended for...

  9. 21 CFR 173.120 - Carbohydrase and cellulase derived from Aspergillus niger.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173.120 Carbohydrase and cellulase derived from Aspergillus niger. Carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme preparation derived from Aspergillus niger may be safely used... the carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme product. (d) The additive is used or intended for use as follows...

  10. Aspergillus and aflatoxin in groundnuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) and groundnut cake in Eastern Ethiopia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important cash and food crop in eastern Ethiopia. The lack of awareness and data on Aspergillus and aflatoxin contamination of groundnut and groundnut food products in the area are lacking. Therefore, this study was conducted to: i) assess major Aspergillus spec...

  11. Detecting peanuts inoculated with toxigenic and atoxienic Aspergillus flavus strains with fluorescence hyperspectral imagery

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aflatoxin contamination in peanut products has been an important and long-standing problem around the world. Produced mainly by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, aflatoxins are the most toxic and carcinogenic compounds among toxins. This study investigated the application of fluorescen...

  12. Survival of Campylobacter spp. in bovine faeces on pasture.

    PubMed

    Gilpin, B J; Robson, B; Scholes, P; Nourozi, F; Sinton, L W

    2009-02-01

    To determine the survival on pasture of Campylobacter spp. naturally present in bovine faeces and compare this with a previously published study using laboratory-cultured Campylobacter spp. Ten freshly collected cow pats were deposited on pasture during summer, and Campylobacter spp. were enumerated by enrichment broth culture. The counts in three pats were below detection limits. Counts of Campylobacter spp. in the other seven pats fell below detection limits within 14 days. The geometric means of the counts up to 7 days produced a T(90) of 2.2 days. Characterization of Campylobacter spp. by PCR and pulsed field gel electrophoresis indicated the presence of at least six genotypes of Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter lari. Campylobacter spp. naturally present in cow faeces exhibited a similar survival rate to that previously determined using laboratory-cultured strains. The highly variable counts of naturally occurring Campylobacter spp., and the predominance of lower counts, also support the earlier decision to use laboratory-cultured strains in survival experiments. This study reaffirms the short survival of Campylobacter spp. in cow faeces deposited on pasture. This information will be incorporated into a 'reservoir model' for Campylobacter spp. in cow pats on New Zealand pastures.

  13. Transpiration rates of rice plants treated with Trichoderma spp.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doni, Febri; Anizan, I.; Che Radziah C. M., Z.; Yusoff, Wan Mohtar Wan

    2014-09-01

    Trichoderma spp. are considered as successful plant growth promoting fungi and have positive role in habitat engineering. In this study, the potential for Trichoderma spp. to regulate transpiration process in rice plant was assessed experimentally under greenhouse condition using a completely randomized design. The study revealed that Trichoderma spp. have potential to enhance growth of rice plant through transpirational processes. The results of the study add to the advancement of the understanding as to the role of Trichoderma spp. in improving rice physiological process.

  14. Treatment of Rickettsia spp. infections: a review.

    PubMed

    Botelho-Nevers, Elisabeth; Socolovschi, Cristina; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2012-12-01

    Human rickettsioses caused by intracellular bacteria of the genus Rickettsia are distributed worldwide and are transmitted by arthropod vectors such as ticks, fleas, mites and lice. They have a wide range of manifestations from benign to life-threatening diseases. Mortality rates of up to 30% have been reported for some rickettsioses. Here, the authors will review in vitro and human studies of the various compounds that have been used for the treatment of Rickettsia spp. infections. The authors will also provide recommendations for the treatment of spotted fever and typhus group rickettsioses.

  15. Comparative of Quercus spp. and Salix spp. for phytoremediation of Pb/Zn mine tailings.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiang; Wang, Shufeng; Sun, Haijing; Chen, Yitai; Wang, Dongxue; Pan, Hongwei; Zou, Yazhu; Liu, Jianfeng; Zheng, Linyu; Zhao, Xiulian; Jiang, Zeping

    2017-02-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using tree seedlings for the phytoremediation of lead/zinc (Pb/Zn) mine tailings. Seedlings of three Quercus spp. (Q. shumardii, Q. phellos, and Q. virginiana) and rooted cuttings of two Salix spp. (S. matsudana and S. integra) were transplanted into pots containing 50 and 100 % Pb/Zn mine tailings to evaluate their tolerance of heavy metals. The five species showed different tolerance levels to the Pb/Zn tailings treatments. Q. virginiana was highly tolerant to heavy metals and grew normally in the Pb/Zn tailings. The root systems showed marked differences between the Quercus spp. and Salix spp., indicating that different mechanisms operated to confer tolerance of heavy metals. The maximum efficiency of photosystem II photochemistry value of the five species showed no differences among the treatments, except for Q. shumardii. All species showed low metal translocation factors (TFs). However, S. integra had significantly higher TF values for Zn (1.42-2.18) and cadmium (1.03-1.45) than did the other species. In this respect, Q. virginiana showed the highest tolerance and a low TF, implying that it is a candidate for phytostabilization of mine tailings in southern China. S. integra may be useful for phytoextraction of tailings in temperate regions.

  16. Histological Comparisons of Parasitism by Schistonchus spp. (Nemata: Aphelenchoididae) in Neotropical Ficus spp.

    PubMed Central

    Center, Barbara J.; Giblin-Davis, Robin M.; Herre, E. Allen; Chung-Schickler, Genevieve C.

    1999-01-01

    Syconia (enclosed infructescences) infested with host-specific species of Schistonchus (Aphelenchoididae) were collected from six species of Ficus (Moraceae) native to Florida or Panama. They were sectioned and histologically examined to assess the effects of parasitism. Parasitism by Schistonchus spp. was associated with hypertrophied cells, tissue necrosis, and the presence of an exudate in all species. Occasional hypertrophy of the outer epidermal cells occurred on seed florets, wasp florets, and on the endothecial cells of male florets in F. aurea (subgenus Urostigma) from Florida. Aberrations of the inner mesocarp occurred under the hypertrophied cells on seed florets. In F. laevigata (subgenus Urostigma) from Florida, Schistonchus sp. infested immature male florets and was associated with hypertrophy of endothecial cells, epidermal cells of the anther filaments, and anthers. Schistonchus sp. also caused aberrations of the anther filament, anthers, and pollen. Ficus poponoei (subgenus Urostigma) and F. glabrata (subgenus Pharmacosycea), both from Panama, had hypertrophied outer epidermal cells on seed florets. Ficus poponoei also had Schistonchus sp. within the pedicel of an aborted floret, with hypertrophy of the cortical parenchyma. Ficus trigonata (subgenus Urostigma) from Panama had hypertrophy of the outer epidermis of seed florets. When the outer epidermis on these florets was missing, the inner mesocarp was hypertrophied. Ficus maxima (subgenus Pharmacosycea) from Panama had hypertrophy on the outer epidermis of seed and aborted florets. Schistonchus spp. were not found in wasp larvae or pupae in any of the Ficus spp. examined. Hypertrophy was never observed in the absence of Schistonchus spp. PMID:19270912

  17. Disseminated Aspergillus fumigatus infection with consecutive mitral valve endocarditis in a lung transplant recipient.

    PubMed

    Scherer, Mirela; Fieguth, Hans-Gerd; Aybek, Tayfun; Ujvari, Zsolt; Moritz, Anton; Wimmer-Greinecker, Gerhard

    2005-12-01

    Aspergillus infection is a known complication of lung transplantation and remains associated with high mortality rates. The manifestation of the infection varies from simple colonization of the lung to disseminated complicated infections. Early Aspergillus infection has been rarely observed in a small number of lung transplant recipients; most cases occur during the late post-operative period. The pulmonary involvement has often been described as the first clinical localization of the disease. Although other various forms of Aspergillus infection are not uncommonly encountered after lung transplantation, Aspergillus mitral valve endocarditis is rare. We present a case of disseminated Aspergillus fumigatus infection with consecutive mitral valve endocarditis having developed 78 days after double-lung transplantation for cystic fibrosis.

  18. Methyl Red Decolorization Efficiency of a Korea Strain of Aspergillus sp. Immobilized into Different Polymeric Matrices.

    PubMed

    Kim, Beom-Su; Blaghen, Mohamed; Lee, Kang-Min

    2017-07-01

      Intensive research studies have revealed that fungal decolorization of dye wastewater is a promising replacement for the current process of dye wastewater decolorization. The authors isolated an Aspergillus sp. from the effluent of a textile industry area in Korea and assessed the effects of a variety of operational parameters on the decolorization of methyl red (MR) by this strain of Aspergillus sp. This Aspergillus sp. was then immobilized by entrapment in several polymeric matrices and the effects of operational conditions on MR decolorization were investigated again. The optimal decolorization activity of this Aspergillus sp. was observed in 1% glucose at a temperature of 37 °C and pH of 6.0. Furthermore, stable decolorization efficiency was observed when fungal biomass was immobilized into alginate gel during repeated batch experiment. These results suggest that the Aspergillus sp. isolated in Korea could be used to treat industrial wastewaters containing MR dye.

  19. Inhibition of aflatoxin biosynthesis in Aspergillus flavus by phenolic compounds extracted of Piper betle L.

    PubMed

    Yazdani, Darab; Mior Ahmad, Zainal Abidin; Yee How, Tan; Jaganath, Indu Bala; Shahnazi, Sahar

    2013-12-01

    Food contamination by aflatoxins is an important food safety concern for agricultural products. In order to identify and develop novel antifungal agents, several plant extracts and isolated compounds have been evaluated for their bioactivities. Anti-infectious activity of Piper betle used in traditional medicine of Malaysia has been reported previously. Crude methanol extract from P. betel powdered leaves was partitioned between chloroform and water. The fractions were tested against A. flavus UPMC 89, a strong aflatoxin producing strain. Inhibition of mycelial growth and aflatoxin biosynthesis were tested by disk diffusion and macrodillution techniques, respectively. The presence of aflatoxin was determined by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and fluorescence spectroscopy techniques using AFB1 standard. The chloroform soluble compounds were identified using HPLC-Tandem mass spectrometry technique. The results, evaluated by measuring the mycelial growth and quantification of aflatoxin B1(AFLB1) production in broth medium revealed that chloroform soluble compounds extract from P. betle dried leaves was able to block the aflatoxin biosynthesis pathway at concentration of 500μg/ml without a significant effect on mycelium growth. In analyzing of this effective fractions using HPLC-MS(2) with ESI ionization technique, 11 phenolic compounds were identified. The results showed that the certain phenolic compounds are able to decline the aflatoxin production in A. flavus with no significant effect on the fungus mycelia growth. The result also suggested P. betle could be used as potential antitoxin product.

  20. A survey of Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. in wild canids in Israel.

    PubMed

    Margalit Levi, Maayan; Nachum-Biala, Yaarit; King, Roni; Baneth, Gad

    2018-03-20

    Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. are apicomplexan parasites that infect a variety of animals, including canids. Their life-cycle includes an invertebrate hematophagous vector as a definitive host and vertebrates as intermediate hosts. The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence and risk factors for Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. infections in wild golden jackals (Canis aureus) and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Israel and to compare spleen with blood sample polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of infection. Blood and spleen samples from 109 golden jackals and 21 red foxes were tested by PCR for the detection of Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. using primers for the 18S ribosomal (r) RNA gene. Hepatozoon canis was detected in 50/109 (46%) of the jackals and 9/21 (43%) of the foxes. "Babesia vulpes" (the Babesia microti-like piroplasm) was detected in 4/21 (19%) of the foxes and in none of the jackals. A previously unknown genotype termed Babesia sp. MML related to Babesia lengau (96-97% identity) was detected in 1/109 (1%) of the jackals and 4/21 (19%) of the foxes. Further characterization of this genotype carried out by PCR of the rRNA internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) indicated that it had only 87% identity with the B. lengau ITS2. Sex (male or female), age (juvenile or adult) and geographic zone (North, Central or South Israel) were not found to be significant risk factors for these protozoan infections. The prevalence of "B. vulpes" and Babesia sp. MML infections was significantly higher in foxes compared to jackals (χ 2  = 15.65, df = 1, P < 0.005), while there was no statistically significant difference in the rate of H. canis infection between these two canid species. A fair agreement beyond chance between identification in the blood and spleen of H. canis was found in 21 animals from which both blood and spleen samples were available (k = 0.33). This study describes a high prevalence of H. canis infection in