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Sample records for afm ordering temperature

  1. BOREAS AFM-06 Mean Temperature Profile Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilczak, James; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Newcomer, Jeffrey A. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Airborne Fluxes and Meteorology (AFM)-6 team from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Adminsitration/Environment Technology Laboratory (NOAA/ETL) operated a 915-MHz wind/Radio Acoustic Sounding System (RASS) profiler system in the Southern Study Area (SSA) near the Old Jack Pine (OJP) tower from 21 May 1994 to 20 Sep 1994. The data set provides temperature profiles at 15 heights, containing the variables of virtual temperature, vertical velocity, the speed of sound, and w-bar. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The mean temperature profile data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  2. Coexistence of orbital and CE-AFM orders in colossal magnetoresistance manganites: A symmetry perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, J. L.

    2016-07-01

    The complex interplay between order parameters of different nature that dominates the physics of colossal magnetoresistance manganites is analysed from a symmetry based perspective. Phenomenological energies are given for the different competing phases. It is shown that the general trends observed in different systems, such as the mutual exclusion of orbital order and A-AFM order and the related stabilization of the CE-AFM order, stem to large extend from the symmetry of the parameters involved. The possible stabilization of complex phases where charge and orbital order coexist with magnetic and ferroelectric states is also anticipated.

  3. In situ Stiffness Adjustment of AFM Probes by Two Orders of Magnitude

    PubMed Central

    de Laat, Marcel Lambertus Cornelis; Pérez Garza, Héctor Hugo; Ghatkesar, Murali Krishna

    2016-01-01

    The choice on which type of cantilever to use for Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) depends on the type of the experiment being done. Typically, the cantilever has to be exchanged when a different stiffness is required and the entire alignment has to be repeated. In the present work, a method to adjust the stiffness in situ of a commercial AFM cantilever is developed. The adjustment is achieved by changing the effective length of the cantilever by electrostatic pull-in. By applying a voltage between the cantilever and an electrode (with an insulating layer at the point of contact), the cantilever snaps to the electrode, reducing the cantilever’s effective length. An analytical model was developed to find the pull-in voltage of the system. Subsequently, a finite element model was developed to study the pull-in behavior. The working principle of this concept is demonstrated with a proof-of-concept experiment. The electrode was positioned close to the cantilever by using a robotic nanomanipulator. To confirm the change in stiffness, the fundamental resonance frequency of the cantilever was measured for varying electrode positions. The results match with the theoretical expectations. The stiffness was adjusted in situ in the range of 0.2 N/m to 27 N/m, covering two orders of magnitude in one single cantilever. This proof-of-concept is the first step towards a micro fabricated prototype, that integrates the electrode positioning system and cantilever that can be used for actual AFM experiments. PMID:27077863

  4. Controlled AFM detachments and movement of nanoparticles: gold clusters on HOPG at different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Manoj; Paolicelli, Guido; D'Addato, Sergio; Valeri, Sergio

    2012-06-22

    The effect of temperature on the onset of movement of gold nanoclusters (diameter 27 nm) deposited on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) has been studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques. Using the AFM with amplitude modulation (tapping mode AFM) we have stimulated and controlled the movement of individual clusters. We show how, at room temperature, controlled detachments and smooth movements can be obtained for clusters having dimensions comparable to or smaller than the tip radius. Displacement is practically visible in real time and it can be started and stopped easily by adjusting only one parameter, the tip amplitude oscillation. Analysing the energy dissipation signal at the onset of nanocluster sliding we evaluated a detachment threshold energy as a function of temperature in the range 300-413 K. We also analysed single cluster thermal induced displacement and combining this delicate procedure with AFM forced movement behaviour we conclude that detachment threshold energy is directly related to the activation energy of nanocluster diffusion and it scales linearly with temperature as expected for a single-particle thermally activated process.

  5. Composition-mediated long-range-order transition from AFM to FM in LixNi2-xO2 solid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, C. X.; Ren, W. J.; Zhang, Z. D.

    2014-08-01

    A systematic study of the magnetic properties of LixNi2-xO2 solid solutions with the composition 0.40≤x≤0.91 has been performed. The relationship between composition and magnetic properties has been investigated. For 0.40≤x≤0.67, the compounds crystallize in the face-centered-cubic rocksalt structure in which the Ni2+ and Ni3+ ions are randomly distributed, leading to the existence of long-range antiferromagnetic (AFM) order. For 0.67orderly occupy the lattice positions, resulting in long-range ferromagnetic (FM) order. With increasing Li content, the long-range magnetic order changes from AFM-type to FM-type, which originates from the composition-mediated distribution of Ni2+ and Ni3+ions. The ordering temperature decreases linearly with increasing Li concentration, which is ascribed to the dilution effect of Li substitution.

  6. AFM study of excimer laser patterning of block-copolymer: Creation of ordered hierarchical, hybrid, or recessed structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Švanda, Jan; Siegel, Jakub; Švorčík, Vaclav; Lyutakov, Oleksiy

    2016-05-01

    We report fabrication of the varied range of hierarchical structures by combining bottom-up self-assembly of block copolymer poly(styrene-block-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P4VP) with top-down excimer laser patterning method. Different procedures were tested, where laser treatment was applied before phase separation and after phase separation or phase separation and surface reconstruction. Laser treatment was performed using either polarized laser light with the aim to create periodical pattern on polymer surface or non-polarized light for preferential removing of polystyrene (PS) part from PS-b-P4VP. Additionally, dye was introduced into one part of block copolymer (P4VP) with the aim to modify its response to laser light. Resulting structures were analyzed by XPS, UV-vis and AFM techniques. Application of polarized laser light leads to creation of structures with hierarchical, recessed or hybrid geometries. Non-polarized laser beam allows pronouncing the block copolymer phase separated structure. Tuning the order of steps or individual step conditions enables the efficient reorientation of block-copolymer domain at large scale, fabrication of hierarchical, hybrid or recessed structures. The obtained structures can find potential applications in nanotechnology, photonics, plasmonics, information storage, optical devices, sensors and smart surfaces.

  7. Nano-scale temperature dependent visco-elastic properties of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) using atomic force microscope (AFM).

    PubMed

    Grant, Colin A; Alfouzan, Abdulrahman; Gough, Tim; Twigg, Peter C; Coates, Phil D

    2013-01-01

    Visco-elastic behaviour at the nano-level of a commonly used polymer (PET) is characterised using atomic force microscopy (AFM) at a range of temperatures. The modulus, indentation creep and relaxation time of the PET film (thickness=100 μm) is highly sensitive to temperature over an experimental temperature range of 22-175°C. The analysis showed a 40-fold increase in the amount of indentation creep on raising the temperature from 22°C to 100°C, with the most rapid rise occurring above the glass-to-rubber transition temperature (T(g)=77.1°C). At higher temperatures, close to the crystallisation temperature (T(c)=134.7°C), the indentation creep reduced to levels similar to those at temperatures below T(g). The calculated relaxation time showed a similar temperature dependence, rising from 0.6s below T(g) to 1.2s between T(g) and T(c) and falling back to 0.6s above T(c). Whereas, the recorded modulus of the thick polymer film decreases above T(g), subsequently increasing near T(c). These visco-elastic parameters are obtained via mechanical modelling of the creep curves and are correlated to the thermal phase changes that occur in PET, as revealed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). PMID:22750040

  8. Direct and quantitative AFM measurements of the concentration and temperature dependence of the hydrophobic force law at nanoscopic contacts.

    PubMed

    Stock, Philipp; Utzig, Thomas; Valtiner, Markus

    2015-05-15

    By virtue of its importance for self-organization of biological matter the hydrophobic force law and the range of hydrophobic interactions (HI) have been debated extensively over the last 40 years. Here, we directly measure and quantify the hydrophobic force-distance law over large temperature and concentration ranges. In particular, we study the HI between molecularly smooth hydrophobic self-assembled monolayers, and similarly modified gold-coated AFM tips (radii∼8-50 nm). We present quantitative and direct evidence that the hydrophobic force is both long-ranged and exponential down to distances of about 1-2 nm. Therefore, we introduce a self-consistent radius-normalization for atomic force microscopy data. This approach allows quantitative data fitting of AFM-based experimental data to the recently proposed Hydra-model. With a statistical significance of r(2)⩾0.96 our fitting and data directly reveal an exponential HI decay length of 7.2±1.2 Å that is independent of the salt concentration up to 750 mM. As such, electrostatic screening does not have a significant influence on the HI in electrolyte concentrations ranging from 1 mM to 750 mM. In 1 M solutions the observed instability during approach shifts to longer distances, indicating ion correlation/adsorption effects at high salt concentrations. With increasing temperature the magnitude of HI decreases monotonically, while the range increases slightly. We compare our results to the large body of available literature, and shed new light into range and magnitude of hydrophobic interactions at very close distances and over wide temperature and concentration regimes. PMID:25678158

  9. Enhanced ordering temperatures in antiferromagnetic manganite superlattices

    SciTech Connect

    May, Stephen J.; Robertson, Lee; Ryan, P J; Kim, J.-W.; Santos, Tiffany S.; Karapetrova, Evgenia; Zarestky, Jerel L.; Zhai, X.; Te velthuis, Suzanne G.; Eckstein, James N.; Bader, S. D.; Bhattacharya, Anand

    2009-01-01

    The disorder inherent to doping by cation substitution in the complex oxides can have profound effects on collective ordered states. Here, we demonstrate that cation-site ordering achieved via digital synthesis techniques can dramatically enhance the antiferromagnetic ordering temperatures of manganite films. Cation-ordered (LaMnO3)m/(SrMnO3)2m superlattices exhibit N el temperatures (TN) that are the highest of any La1-xSrxMnO3 compound, ~70 K greater than compositionally equivalent randomly doped La1/3Sr2/3MnO3. The antiferromagnetic order is A-type, consisting of in-plane double-exchange-mediated ferromagnetic sheets coupled antiferromagnetically along the out-of-plane direction. Via synchrotron x-ray scattering, we have discovered an in-plane structural modulation that reduces the charge itinerancy and hence the ordering temperature within the ferromagnetic sheets, thereby limiting TN. This modulation is mitigated and driven to long wavelengths by cation ordering, enabling the higher TN values of the superlattices. These results provide insight into how cation-site ordering can enhance cooperative behavior in oxides through subtle structural phenomena.

  10. The ReactorAFM: non-contact atomic force microscope operating under high-pressure and high-temperature catalytic conditions.

    PubMed

    Roobol, S B; Cañas-Ventura, M E; Bergman, M; van Spronsen, M A; Onderwaater, W G; van der Tuijn, P C; Koehler, R; Ofitserov, A; van Baarle, G J C; Frenken, J W M

    2015-03-01

    An Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) has been integrated in a miniature high-pressure flow reactor for in-situ observations of heterogeneous catalytic reactions under conditions similar to those of industrial processes. The AFM can image model catalysts such as those consisting of metal nanoparticles on flat oxide supports in a gas atmosphere up to 6 bar and at a temperature up to 600 K, while the catalytic activity can be measured using mass spectrometry. The high-pressure reactor is placed inside an Ultrahigh Vacuum (UHV) system to supplement it with standard UHV sample preparation and characterization techniques. To demonstrate that this instrument successfully bridges both the pressure gap and the materials gap, images have been recorded of supported palladium nanoparticles catalyzing the oxidation of carbon monoxide under high-pressure, high-temperature conditions.

  11. The ReactorAFM: Non-contact atomic force microscope operating under high-pressure and high-temperature catalytic conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Roobol, S. B.; Cañas-Ventura, M. E.; Bergman, M.; Spronsen, M. A. van; Onderwaater, W. G.; Tuijn, P. C. van der; Koehler, R.; Frenken, J. W. M.; Ofitserov, A.; Baarle, G. J. C. van

    2015-03-15

    An Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) has been integrated in a miniature high-pressure flow reactor for in-situ observations of heterogeneous catalytic reactions under conditions similar to those of industrial processes. The AFM can image model catalysts such as those consisting of metal nanoparticles on flat oxide supports in a gas atmosphere up to 6 bar and at a temperature up to 600 K, while the catalytic activity can be measured using mass spectrometry. The high-pressure reactor is placed inside an Ultrahigh Vacuum (UHV) system to supplement it with standard UHV sample preparation and characterization techniques. To demonstrate that this instrument successfully bridges both the pressure gap and the materials gap, images have been recorded of supported palladium nanoparticles catalyzing the oxidation of carbon monoxide under high-pressure, high-temperature conditions.

  12. Radiation pressure excitation of Low Temperature Atomic Force & Magnetic Force Microscope (LT-AFM/MFM) for Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karci, Ozgur; Celik, Umit; Oral, Ahmet; NanoMagnetics Instruments Ltd. Team; Middle East Tech Univ Team

    2015-03-01

    We describe a novel method for excitation of Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) cantilevers by means of radiation pressure for imaging in an AFM for the first time. Piezo excitation is the most common method for cantilever excitation, but it may cause spurious resonance peaks. A fiber optic interferometer with 1310 nm laser was used both to measure the deflection of cantilever and apply a force to the cantilever in a LT-AFM/MFM from NanoMagnetics Instruments. The laser power was modulated at the cantilever`s resonance frequency by a digital Phase Lock Loop (PLL). The force exerted by the radiation pressure on a perfectly reflecting surface by a laser beam of power P is F = 2P/c. We typically modulate the laser beam by ~ 800 μW and obtain 10nm oscillation amplitude with Q ~ 8,000 at 2.5x10-4 mbar. The cantilever's stiffness can be accurately calibrated by using the radiation pressure. We have demonstrated performance of the radiation pressure excitation in AFM/MFM by imaging a hard disk sample between 4-300K and Abrikosov vortex lattice in BSCCO single crystal at 4K to for the first time.

  13. Ultrafast optical pump-probe spectroscopy is used to reveal the coexistence of coupled antiferromagnetic (AFM)/ferroelectric (FE) and ferromagnetic (FM) orders in multiferroic TbMnO3 films, which can guide researchers in creating new kinds of multiferroic materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Qi, Jingbo; Zhu, Jianxin; Trugman, Stuart A.; Taylor, Antoinette; Jia, Quanxi; Prasankumar, Rohit

    2012-07-06

    , experimental techniques capable of dynamically unraveling the interplay between these degrees of freedom on an ultrafast timescale are needed. Here, we use ultrafast optical pump-probe spectroscopy to reveal coexisting coupled magnetic orders in epitaxial TMO thin films grown on (001)-STO, which were not observed in previous work. Our temperature (T)-dependent transient differential reflectivity ({Delta}R/R) measurements show clear signatures of sinusoidal AFM, spiral AFM (FE) and FM phases developing as the film thickness changes. We carry out first-principle density functional theory (DFT) calculations to explain the coupling between AFM/FE and FM orders. These results reveal that the coupling between different magnetic orders observed in our multiferroic TMO thin films may offer greater control of functionality as compared to bulk single crystal multiferroics.

  14. Effect of incubation temperature on the self-assembly of regenerated silk fibroin: a study using AFM.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Jian; Liu, Xunwei; Wei, Daixu; Yan, Juan; Wang, Ping; Sun, Gang; He, Dannong

    2015-05-01

    Understanding effect of temperature on the molecular self-assembly process will be helpful to unravel the structure-function relationship of biomolecule and to provide important information for the bottom-up approach to nanotechnology. In this work, the effect of incubation temperature on the secondary structures and morphological structures of regenerated silk fibroin (RSF) was systematically studied using atomic force microscopy and Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy. The effect of incubation temperature on RSF self-assembly was dependent on RSF concentration. For the RSF solution with relatively low concentrations (15 μg/mL and 60 μg/mL), the increase of the incubation temperature mainly accelerated the formation and aggregation of antiparallel β-sheet protofibrils and decreased the formation of random coil protofilaments/globule-like molecules. For the RSF solution with relatively high concentrations (300 μg/mL and 1.5mg/mL), the increase of the incubation temperature mainly accelerated the formation and aggregation of antiparallel β-sheet RSF features (protofibrils and globule-like features) and decreased the formation of random coil bead-like features. This work implies that the morphology and conformation of biomacromolecules could be tuned by controlling the incubation temperature. Further, it will be beneficial to basic understanding of the nanoscale structure formation in different silk-based biomaterials.

  15. Catalytic Scanning Probe Nanolithography (cSPL): Control of the AFM Parameters in Order to Achieve Sub-100-nm Spatially Resolved Epoxidation of Alkenes Grafted onto a Surface.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Vincent; Botton, Julien; Valyaev, Dmitry A; François, Cyril; Patrone, Lionel; Balaban, Teodor Silviu; Abel, Mathieu; Parrain, Jean-Luc; Chuzel, Olivier; Clair, Sylvain

    2016-04-26

    Scanning probe lithography (SPL) appears to be a reliable alternative to the use of masks in traditional lithography techniques as it offers the possibility of directly producing specific chemical functionalities with nanoscale spatial control. We have recently extend the range of applications of catalytic SPL (cSPL) by introducing a homogeneous catalyst immobilized on the apex of a scanning probe. Here we investigate the importance of atomic force microscopy (AFM) physical parameters (applied force, writing speed, and interline distance) on the resultant chemical activity in this cSPL methodology through the direct topographic observation of nanostructured surfaces. Indeed, an alkene-terminated self-assembled monolayer (alkene-SAM) on a silicon wafer was locally epoxidized using a scanning probe tip with a covalently grafted manganese complex bearing the 1,4,7-triazacyclononane macrocycle as the ligand. In a post-transformation process, N-octylpiperazine was covalently grafted to the surface via a selective nucleophilic ring-opening reaction. With this procedure, we could write various patterns on the surface with high spatial control. The catalytic AFM probe thus appears to be very robust because a total area close to 500 μm(2) was patterned without any noticeable loss of catalytic activity. Finally, this methodology allowed us to reach a lower lateral line resolution down to 40 nm, thus being competitive and complementary to the other nanolithographical techniques for the nanostructuration of surfaces.

  16. EBSD and AFM observations of the microstructural changes induced by low temperature plasma carburising on AISI 316

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corujeira Gallo, Santiago; Dong, Hanshan

    2011-10-01

    Low temperature plasma carburising (LTPC) has been increasingly accepted as a hardening process for austenitic stainless steels because it produces a good combination of tribological and corrosion properties. The hardening mechanism is based on the supersaturation of the austenitic structure with carbon, which greatly hardens the material, significantly expands the fcc unit cell, produces high levels of compressive residual stresses and, ultimately, leads to the occurrence of deformation bands and rotation of the crystal lattice. The microstructural changes introduced during plasma carburising have a significant impact on the mechanical, tribological and corrosion performance and, for this reason, the microstructure of expanded austenite or S-phase has been extensively studied. However, modern surface characterisation techniques could provide new insights into the formation mechanism of S-phase layers. In this work, backscattered electron diffraction and atomic force microscopy were used to characterise the surface layers of expanded austenite produced by LTPC in an active screen furnace. Based on the experimental results, the plastic deformation, its dependence on crystallographic orientation, the evolution of grain boundaries, and their effects on mechanical, tribological and corrosion properties are discussed.

  17. Qplus AFM driven nanostencil.

    PubMed

    Grévin, B; Fakir, M; Hayton, J; Brun, M; Demadrille, R; Faure-Vincent, J

    2011-06-01

    We describe the development of a novel setup, in which large stencils with suspended silicon nitride membranes are combined with atomic force microscopy (AFM) regulation by using tuning forks. This system offers the possibility to perform separate AFM and nanostencil operations, as well as combined modes when using stencil chips with integrated tips. The flexibility and performances are demonstrated through a series of examples, including wide AFM scans in closed loop mode, probe positioning repeatability of a few tens of nanometer, simultaneous evaporation of large (several hundred of micron square) and nanoscopic metals and fullerene patterns in static, multistep, and dynamic modes. This approach paves the way for further developments, as it fully combines the advantages of conventional stenciling with the ones of an AFM driven shadow mask. PMID:21721701

  18. Colloquium: Theory of intertwined orders in high temperature superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fradkin, Eduardo; Kivelson, Steven A.; Tranquada, John M.

    2015-04-01

    The electronic phase diagrams of many highly correlated systems, and, in particular, the cuprate high temperature superconductors, are complex, with many different phases appearing with similar (sometimes identical) ordering temperatures even as material properties, such as dopant concentration, are varied over wide ranges. This complexity is sometimes referred to as "competing orders." However, since the relation is intimate, and can even lead to the existence of new phases of matter such as the putative "pair-density wave," the general relation is better thought of in terms of "intertwined orders." Some of the experiments in the cuprates which suggest that essential aspects of the physics are reflected in the intertwining of multiple orders, not just in the nature of each order by itself, are selectively analyzed. Several theoretical ideas concerning the origin and implications of this complexity are also summarized and critiqued.

  19. Temperature and Depth Dependence of Order in Liquid Crystal Interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Miranda,L.; Hu, Y.

    2006-01-01

    We have studied the depth dependence and temperature behavior of the ordering of smectic-A films close to the smectic A-nematic transition, deposited on grated glass. X-ray grazing incidence geometry in reflection mode through the glass substrate was used to characterize the samples. Our results indicate the presence of a structure similar to the helical twist grain boundary phase. The structure has two maxima, one close to the glass-liquid crystal interface and another about 8 {mu}m above the surface. The structure at 8 {mu}m is the one that dominates at higher temperatures. In addition, we find that order is preserved to temperatures close to the nematic-isotropic transition temperature for the deeper gratings. We find also a dependence of the orientation of the structure with the depth of the grating and the elastic constant of the liquid crystal.

  20. Theory of intertwined orders in high temperature superconductors

    DOE PAGES

    Fradkin, Eduardo; Tranquada, John M.; Kivelson, Steven A.

    2015-03-26

    The electronic phase diagrams of many highly correlated systems, and in particular the cuprate high temperature superconductors, are complex, with many different phases appearing with similar—sometimes identical—ordering temperatures even as material properties, such as a dopant concentration, are varied over wide ranges. This complexity is sometimes referred to as “competing orders.” However, since the relation is intimate, and can even lead to the existence of new phases of matter such as the putative “pair-density-wave,” the general relation is better thought of in terms of “intertwined orders.” We selectively analyze some of the experiments in the cuprates which suggest that essentialmore » aspects of the physics are reflected in the intertwining of multiple orders—not just in the nature of each order by itself. We also summarize and critique several theoretical ideas concerning the origin and implications of this complexity.« less

  1. Theory of intertwined orders in high temperature superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Fradkin, Eduardo; Tranquada, John M.; Kivelson, Steven A.

    2015-03-26

    The electronic phase diagrams of many highly correlated systems, and in particular the cuprate high temperature superconductors, are complex, with many different phases appearing with similar—sometimes identical—ordering temperatures even as material properties, such as a dopant concentration, are varied over wide ranges. This complexity is sometimes referred to as “competing orders.” However, since the relation is intimate, and can even lead to the existence of new phases of matter such as the putative “pair-density-wave,” the general relation is better thought of in terms of “intertwined orders.” We selectively analyze some of the experiments in the cuprates which suggest that essential aspects of the physics are reflected in the intertwining of multiple orders—not just in the nature of each order by itself. We also summarize and critique several theoretical ideas concerning the origin and implications of this complexity.

  2. Hydration states of AFm cement phases

    SciTech Connect

    Baquerizo, Luis G.; Matschei, Thomas; Scrivener, Karen L.; Saeidpour, Mahsa; Wadsö, Lars

    2015-07-15

    The AFm phase, one of the main products formed during the hydration of Portland and calcium aluminate cement based systems, belongs to the layered double hydrate (LDH) family having positively charged layers and water plus charge-balancing anions in the interlayer. It is known that these phases present different hydration states (i.e. varying water content) depending on the relative humidity (RH), temperature and anion type, which might be linked to volume changes (swelling and shrinkage). Unfortunately the stability conditions of these phases are insufficiently reported. This paper presents novel experimental results on the different hydration states of the most important AFm phases: monocarboaluminate, hemicarboaluminate, strätlingite, hydroxy-AFm and monosulfoaluminate, and the thermodynamic properties associated with changes in their water content during absorption/desorption. This data opens the possibility to model the response of cementitious systems during drying and wetting and to engineer systems more resistant to harsh external conditions.

  3. Structural insight into iodide uptake by AFm phases.

    PubMed

    Aimoz, Laure; Wieland, Erich; Taviot-Guého, Christine; Dähn, Rainer; Vespa, Marika; Churakov, Sergey V

    2012-04-01

    The ability of cement phases carrying positively charged surfaces to retard the mobility of (129)I, present as iodide (I(-)) in groundwater, was investigated in the context of safe disposal of radioactive waste. (125)I sorption experiments on ettringite, hydrotalcite, chloride-, carbonate- and sulfate-containing AFm phases indicated that calcium-monosulfate (AFm-SO(4)) is the only phase that takes up trace levels of iodide. The structures of AFm phases prepared by coprecipitating iodide with other anions were investigated in order to understand this preferential uptake mechanism. X-ray diffraction (XRD) investigations showed a segregation of monoiodide (AFm-I(2)) and Friedel's salt (AFm-Cl(2)) for I-Cl mixtures, whereas interstratifications of AFm-I(2) and hemicarboaluminate (AFm-OH-(CO(3))(0.5)) were observed for the I-CO(3) systems. In contrast, XRD measurements indicated the formation of a solid solution between AFm-I(2) and AFm-SO(4) for the I-SO(4) mixtures. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy showed a modification of the coordination environment of iodine in I-CO(3) and in I-SO(4) samples compared to pure AFm-I(2). This is assumed to be due to the introduction of stacking faults in I-CO(3) samples on one hand and due to the presence of sulfate and associated space-filling water molecules as close neighbors in I-SO(4) samples on the other hand. The formation of a solid solution between AFm-I(2) and AFm-SO(4), with a short-range mixing of iodide and sulfate, implies that AFm-SO(4) bears the potential to retard (129)I. PMID:22376086

  4. [AFM fishing of proteins under impulse electric field].

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Yu D; Pleshakova, T O; Malsagova, K A; Kaysheva, A L; Kopylov, A T; Izotov, A A; Tatur, V Yu; Vesnin, S G; Ivanova, N D; Ziborov, V S; Archakov, A I

    2016-05-01

    A combination of (atomic force microscopy)-based fishing (AFM-fishing) and mass spectrometry allows to capture protein molecules from solutions, concentrate and visualize them on an atomically flat surface of the AFM chip and identify by subsequent mass spectrometric analysis. In order to increase the AFM-fishing efficiency we have applied pulsed voltage with the rise time of the front of about 1 ns to the AFM chip. The AFM-chip was made using a conductive material, highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG). The increased efficiency of AFM-fishing has been demonstrated using detection of cytochrome b5 protein. Selection of the stimulating pulse with a rise time of 1 ns, corresponding to the GHz frequency range, by the effect of intrinsic emission from water observed in this frequency range during water injection into the cell. PMID:27562998

  5. [AFM fishing of proteins under impulse electric field].

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Yu D; Pleshakova, T O; Malsagova, K A; Kaysheva, A L; Kopylov, A T; Izotov, A A; Tatur, V Yu; Vesnin, S G; Ivanova, N D; Ziborov, V S; Archakov, A I

    2016-05-01

    A combination of (atomic force microscopy)-based fishing (AFM-fishing) and mass spectrometry allows to capture protein molecules from solutions, concentrate and visualize them on an atomically flat surface of the AFM chip and identify by subsequent mass spectrometric analysis. In order to increase the AFM-fishing efficiency we have applied pulsed voltage with the rise time of the front of about 1 ns to the AFM chip. The AFM-chip was made using a conductive material, highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG). The increased efficiency of AFM-fishing has been demonstrated using detection of cytochrome b5 protein. Selection of the stimulating pulse with a rise time of 1 ns, corresponding to the GHz frequency range, by the effect of intrinsic emission from water observed in this frequency range during water injection into the cell.

  6. Ductile long range ordered alloys with high critical ordering temperature and wrought articles fabricated therefrom

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Chain T.; Inouye, Henry

    1979-01-01

    Malleable long range ordered alloys having high critical ordering temperatures exist in the V(Fe, Co).sub.3 and V(Fe, Co, Ni).sub.3 systems. These alloys have the following compositions comprising by weight: 22-23% V, 14-30% Fe, and the remainder Co or Co and Ni with an electron density no more than 7.85. The maximum combination of high temperature strength, ductility and creep resistance are manifested in the alloy comprising by weight 22-23% V, 14-20% Fe and the remainder Co and having an atomic composition of V(Fe .sub.0.20-0.26 C Co.sub.0.74-0.80).sub.3. The alloy comprising by weight 22-23% V, 16-17% Fe and 60-62% Co has excellent high temperature properties. The alloys are fabricable into wrought articles by casting, deforming, and annealing for sufficient time to provide ordered structure.

  7. Zero temperature holographic superfluids with two competing orders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ran, Li; Tian, Yu; Zhang, Hongbao; Zhao, Junkun

    2016-08-01

    We initiate the investigation of the zero temperature holographic superfluids with two competing orders, where besides the vacuum phase, two one component superfluid phases, the coexistent superfluid phase has also been found in the anti-de Sitter soliton background for the first time. We construct the complete phase diagram in the e - μ plane by numerics, which is consistent with our qualitative analysis. Furthermore, we calculate the corresponding optical conductivity and sound speed by the linear response theory. The onset of the pole of optical conductivity at ω =0 indicates that the spontaneous breaking phase always represents the superfluid phase, and the residue of the pole is increased with the chemical potential, which is consistent with the fact that the particle density is essentially the superfluid density for zero temperature superfluids. In addition, the resulting sound speed demonstrates the nonsmoothness at the critical points as the order parameter of the condensate, which indicates that the phase transitions can also be identified by the behavior of the sound speed. Moreover, as expected from the boundary conformal field theory, the sound speed saturates to 1/√{2 } at the large chemical potential limit for our two component holographic superfluid model.

  8. Genesis of charge orders in high temperature superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Wei-Lin; Lee, Ting-Kuo

    2016-01-01

    One of the most puzzling facts about cuprate high-temperature superconductors in the lightly doped regime is the coexistence of uniform superconductivity and/or antiferromagnetism with many low-energy charge-ordered states in a unidirectional charge density wave or a bidirectional checkerboard structure. Recent experiments have discovered that these charge density waves exhibit different symmetries in their intra-unit-cell form factors for different cuprate families. Using a renormalized mean-field theory for a well-known, strongly correlated model of cuprates, we obtain a number of charge-ordered states with nearly degenerate energies without invoking special features of the Fermi surface. All of these self-consistent solutions have a pair density wave intertwined with a charge density wave and sometimes a spin density wave. Most of these states vanish in the underdoped regime, except for one with a large d-form factor that vanishes at approximately 19% doping of the holes, as reported by experiments. Furthermore, these states could be modified to have a global superconducting order, with a nodal-like density of states at low energy.

  9. Genesis of charge orders in high temperature superconductors

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Wei-Lin; Lee, Ting-Kuo

    2016-01-01

    One of the most puzzling facts about cuprate high-temperature superconductors in the lightly doped regime is the coexistence of uniform superconductivity and/or antiferromagnetism with many low-energy charge-ordered states in a unidirectional charge density wave or a bidirectional checkerboard structure. Recent experiments have discovered that these charge density waves exhibit different symmetries in their intra-unit-cell form factors for different cuprate families. Using a renormalized mean-field theory for a well-known, strongly correlated model of cuprates, we obtain a number of charge-ordered states with nearly degenerate energies without invoking special features of the Fermi surface. All of these self-consistent solutions have a pair density wave intertwined with a charge density wave and sometimes a spin density wave. Most of these states vanish in the underdoped regime, except for one with a large d-form factor that vanishes at approximately 19% doping of the holes, as reported by experiments. Furthermore, these states could be modified to have a global superconducting order, with a nodal-like density of states at low energy. PMID:26732076

  10. Curie temperatures of titanomagnetite in ignimbrites: Effects of emplacement temperatures, cooling rates, exsolution, and cation ordering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Mike; Bowles, Julie A.

    2014-11-01

    ashes, and tuffs from Mt. St. Helens and from Novarupta contain two principal forms of titanomagnetite: homogeneous grains with Curie temperatures in the range 350-500°C and oxyexsolved grains with similar bulk composition, containing ilmenite lamellae and having Curie temperatures above 500°C. Thermomagnetic analyses and isothermal annealing experiments in combination with stratigraphic settings and thermal models show that emplacement temperatures and cooling history may have affected the relative proportions of homogeneous and exsolved grains and have clearly had a strong influence on the Curie temperature of the homogeneous phase. The exsolved grains are most common where emplacement temperatures exceeded 600°C, and in laboratory experiments, heating to over 600°C in air causes the homogeneous titanomagnetites to oxyexsolve rapidly. Where emplacement temperatures were lower, Curie temperatures of the homogeneous grains are systematically related to overburden thickness and cooling timescales, and thermomagnetic curves are generally irreversible, with lower Curie temperatures measured during cooling, but little or no change is observed in room temperature susceptibility. We interpret this irreversible behavior as reflecting variations in the degree of cation ordering in the titanomagnetites, although we cannot conclusively rule out an alternative interpretation involving fine-scale subsolvus unmixing. Short-range ordering within the octahedral sites may play a key role in the observed phenomena. Changes in the Curie temperature have important implications for the acquisition, stabilization, and retention of natural remanence and may in some cases enable quantification of the emplacement temperatures or cooling rates of volcanic units containing homogeneous titanomagnetites.

  11. Supported phospholipid bilayer interaction with components found in typical room-temperature ionic liquids - a QCM-D and AFM study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring and atomic force microscopy were combined to evaluate the defects created by room-temperature ionic liquid anion and cation in a supported phospholipid bilayer composed of Zwitterionic lipids on a silica surface. The cation 1-octyl-3-methyl im...

  12. Molecular Dynamic Simulations of Interaction of an AFM Probe with the Surface of an SCN Sample

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bune, Adris; Kaukler, William; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Molecular dynamic (MD) simulations is conducted in order to estimate forces of probe-substrate interaction in the Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). First a review of available molecular dynamic techniques is given. Implementation of MD simulation is based on an object-oriented code developed at the University of Delft. Modeling of the sample material - succinonitrile (SCN) - is based on the Lennard-Jones potentials. For the polystyrene probe an atomic interaction potential is used. Due to object-oriented structure of the code modification of an atomic interaction potential is straight forward. Calculation of melting temperature is used for validation of the code and of the interaction potentials. Various fitting parameters of the probe-substrate interaction potentials are considered, as potentials fitted to certain properties and temperature ranges may not be reliable for the others. This research provides theoretical foundation for an interpretation of actual measurements of an interaction forces using AFM.

  13. Room-temperature antiferromagnetic memory resistor.

    PubMed

    Marti, X; Fina, I; Frontera, C; Liu, Jian; Wadley, P; He, Q; Paull, R J; Clarkson, J D; Kudrnovský, J; Turek, I; Kuneš, J; Yi, D; Chu, J-H; Nelson, C T; You, L; Arenholz, E; Salahuddin, S; Fontcuberta, J; Jungwirth, T; Ramesh, R

    2014-04-01

    The bistability of ordered spin states in ferromagnets provides the basis for magnetic memory functionality. The latest generation of magnetic random access memories rely on an efficient approach in which magnetic fields are replaced by electrical means for writing and reading the information in ferromagnets. This concept may eventually reduce the sensitivity of ferromagnets to magnetic field perturbations to being a weakness for data retention and the ferromagnetic stray fields to an obstacle for high-density memory integration. Here we report a room-temperature bistable antiferromagnetic (AFM) memory that produces negligible stray fields and is insensitive to strong magnetic fields. We use a resistor made of a FeRh AFM, which orders ferromagnetically roughly 100 K above room temperature, and therefore allows us to set different collective directions for the Fe moments by applied magnetic field. On cooling to room temperature, AFM order sets in with the direction of the AFM moments predetermined by the field and moment direction in the high-temperature ferromagnetic state. For electrical reading, we use an AFM analogue of the anisotropic magnetoresistance. Our microscopic theory modelling confirms that this archetypical spintronic effect, discovered more than 150 years ago in ferromagnets, is also present in AFMs. Our work demonstrates the feasibility of fabricating room-temperature spintronic memories with AFMs, which in turn expands the base of available magnetic materials for devices with properties that cannot be achieved with ferromagnets.

  14. Room-temperature antiferromagnetic memory resistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marti, X.; Fina, I.; Frontera, C.; Liu, Jian; Wadley, P.; He, Q.; Paull, R. J.; Clarkson, J. D.; Kudrnovský, J.; Turek, I.; Kuneš, J.; Yi, D.; Chu, J.-H.; Nelson, C. T.; You, L.; Arenholz, E.; Salahuddin, S.; Fontcuberta, J.; Jungwirth, T.; Ramesh, R.

    2014-04-01

    The bistability of ordered spin states in ferromagnets provides the basis for magnetic memory functionality. The latest generation of magnetic random access memories rely on an efficient approach in which magnetic fields are replaced by electrical means for writing and reading the information in ferromagnets. This concept may eventually reduce the sensitivity of ferromagnets to magnetic field perturbations to being a weakness for data retention and the ferromagnetic stray fields to an obstacle for high-density memory integration. Here we report a room-temperature bistable antiferromagnetic (AFM) memory that produces negligible stray fields and is insensitive to strong magnetic fields. We use a resistor made of a FeRh AFM, which orders ferromagnetically roughly 100 K above room temperature, and therefore allows us to set different collective directions for the Fe moments by applied magnetic field. On cooling to room temperature, AFM order sets in with the direction of the AFM moments predetermined by the field and moment direction in the high-temperature ferromagnetic state. For electrical reading, we use an AFM analogue of the anisotropic magnetoresistance. Our microscopic theory modelling confirms that this archetypical spintronic effect, discovered more than 150 years ago in ferromagnets, is also present in AFMs. Our work demonstrates the feasibility of fabricating room-temperature spintronic memories with AFMs, which in turn expands the base of available magnetic materials for devices with properties that cannot be achieved with ferromagnets.

  15. Ambient temperature normalization for infrared face recognition based on the second-order polynomial model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhengzi

    2015-08-01

    The influence of ambient temperature is a big challenge to robust infrared face recognition. This paper proposes a new ambient temperature normalization algorithm to improve the performance of infrared face recognition under variable ambient temperatures. Based on statistical regression theory, a second order polynomial model is learned to describe the ambient temperature's impact on infrared face image. Then, infrared image was normalized to reference ambient temperature by the second order polynomial model. Finally, this normalization method is applied to infrared face recognition to verify its efficiency. The experiments demonstrate that the proposed temperature normalization method is feasible and can significantly improve the robustness of infrared face recognition.

  16. Cells mechanics with AFM: problems and solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, Igor; Dokukin, Maxim; Guz, Nataliia

    2012-02-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is used to study mechanics of cells. Cell is far from being a homogeneous medium. This creates a number of problems which will be discussed as well as the ways to solve them. We will focus on the following problems: 1. Cellular surface brush (microvilli, glycocalyx..) surrounds cells. A simple model to separate the brush and cell deformation will be overviewed. 2. Problem of nonlinearity of stress-strain relation. Although unsolved, this may indirectly tested: the rigidity modulus should be reasonably independent of penetration. We will show that it can be achieved when using relatively dull AFM probes (the radii of microns) only. 3. Heterogeneity of cell surface. Cells are not homogeneous over the surface. We will discuss the question how many points is enough to characterize the cell. We will exemplify the above with human cervical epithelial cells. We will demonstrate that without proper consideration of the above problems, the error in defining the modulus of rigidity can easily reach an order of magnitude.

  17. Thermo-magnetic behaviour of AFM-MFM cantilevers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, M.; Arinero, R.; Bergez, W.; Tordjeman, Ph

    2015-08-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments were performed to study the behaviour of AFM cantilevers under an external magnetic field B and temperature field produced by a coil with an iron core. Four cantilever types were studied. Forces were measured for different B values and at various coil-to-cantilever separation distances. The results were analysed on the basis of a phenomenological model. This model contains the contribution of two terms, one monopole-monopole interaction at short distance, and one apparent paramagnetic interaction in \

  18. AFM investigation of Martian soil simulants on micromachined Si substrates.

    PubMed

    Vijendran, S; Sykulska, H; Pike, W T

    2007-09-01

    The micro and nanostructures of Martian soil simulants with particles in the micrometre-size range have been studied using a combination of optical and atomic force microscopy (AFM) in preparation for the 2007 NASA Phoenix Mars Lander mission. The operation of an atomic force microscope on samples of micrometre-sized soil particles is a poorly investigated area where the unwanted interaction between the scanning tip and loose particles results in poor image quality and tip contamination by the sample. In order to mitigate these effects, etched silicon substrates with a variety of features have been used to facilitate the sorting and gripping of particles. From these experiments, a number of patterns were identified that were particularly good at isolating and immobilizing particles for AFM imaging. This data was used to guide the design of micromachined substrates for the Phoenix AFM. Both individual particles as well as aggregates were successfully imaged, and information on sizes, shapes and surface morphologies were obtained. This study highlights both the strengths and weaknesses of AFM for the potential in situ investigation of Martian soil and dust. Also presented are more general findings of the limiting operational constraints that exist when attempting the AFM of high aspect ratio particles with current technology. The performance of the final designs of the substrates incorporated on Phoenix will be described in a later paper. PMID:17760618

  19. Tunable negative thermal expansion related with the gradual evolution of antiferromagnetic ordering in antiperovskite manganese nitrides Ag1-xNMn3+x (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.6)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, J. C.; Tong, P.; Tong, W.; Lin, S.; Wang, B. S.; Song, W. H.; Zou, Y. M.; Sun, Y. P.

    2015-02-01

    The thermal expansion and magnetic properties of antiperovskite manganese nitrides Ag1-xNMn3+x were reported. The substitution of Mn for Ag effectively broadens the temperature range of negative thermal expansion and drives it to cryogenic temperatures. As x increases, the paramagnetic (PM) to antiferromagnetic (AFM) phase transition temperature decreases. At x ˜ 0.2, the PM-AFM transition overlaps with the AFM to glass-like state transition. Above x = 0.2, two new distinct magnetic transitions were observed: One occurs above room temperature from PM to ferromagnetic (FM), and the other one evolves at a lower temperature (T*) below which both AFM and FM orderings are involved. Further, electron spin resonance measurement suggests that the broadened volume change near T* is closely related with the evolution of Γ5g AFM ordering.

  20. Tunable negative thermal expansion related with the gradual evolution of antiferromagnetic ordering in antiperovskite manganese nitrides Ag{sub 1−x}NMn{sub 3+x} (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.6)

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, J. C.; Tong, P. Lin, S.; Wang, B. S.; Song, W. H.; Tong, W.; Zou, Y. M.; Sun, Y. P.

    2015-02-23

    The thermal expansion and magnetic properties of antiperovskite manganese nitrides Ag{sub 1−x}NMn{sub 3+x} were reported. The substitution of Mn for Ag effectively broadens the temperature range of negative thermal expansion and drives it to cryogenic temperatures. As x increases, the paramagnetic (PM) to antiferromagnetic (AFM) phase transition temperature decreases. At x ∼ 0.2, the PM-AFM transition overlaps with the AFM to glass-like state transition. Above x = 0.2, two new distinct magnetic transitions were observed: One occurs above room temperature from PM to ferromagnetic (FM), and the other one evolves at a lower temperature (T{sup *}) below which both AFM and FM orderings are involved. Further, electron spin resonance measurement suggests that the broadened volume change near T{sup *} is closely related with the evolution of Γ{sup 5g} AFM ordering.

  1. Magnetic ordering temperatures in rare earth metal dysprosium under ultrahigh pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samudrala, Gopi K.; Tsoi, Georgiy M.; Weir, Samuel T.; Vohra, Yogesh K.

    2014-04-01

    Magnetic ordering temperatures in heavy rare earth metal dysprosium (Dy) have been studied using an ultrasensitive electrical transport measurement technique in a designer diamond anvil cell to a pressure of 69 GPa and a temperature of 10 K. Previous studies using magnetic susceptibility measurements at high pressures were able to track magnetic ordering temperature only till 7 GPa in the hexagonal close packed (hcp) phase of Dy. Our studies indicate that the magnetic ordering temperature shows an abrupt drop of 80 K at the hcp-Sm phase transition followed by a gradual decrease that continues till 17 GPa. This is followed by a rapid increase in the magnetic ordering temperatures in the double hcp phase and finally leveling off in the distorted face centered cubic phase of Dy. Our studies reaffirm that 4f-shell remains localized in Dy and there is no loss of magnetic moment or 4f-shell delocalization for pressures up to 69 GPa.

  2. Crystallographic order and decomposition of [MnIII6CrIII]3+ single-molecule magnets deposited in submonolayers and monolayers on HOPG studied by means of molecular resolved atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Kelvin probe force microscopy in UHV.

    PubMed

    Gryzia, Aaron; Volkmann, Timm; Brechling, Armin; Hoeke, Veronika; Schneider, Lilli; Kuepper, Karsten; Glaser, Thorsten; Heinzmann, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Monolayers and submonolayers of [MnIII6CrIII]3+ single-molecule magnets (SMMs) adsorbed on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) using the droplet technique characterized by non-contact atomic force microscopy (nc-AFM) as well as by Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) show island-like structures with heights resembling the height of the molecule. Furthermore, islands were found which revealed ordered 1D as well as 2D structures with periods close to the width of the SMMs. Along this, islands which show half the heights of intact SMMs were observed which are evidences for a decomposing process of the molecules during the preparation. Finally, models for the structure of the ordered SMM adsorbates are proposed to explain the observations.

  3. Measurement of distributed strain and temperature based on higher order and higher mode Bragg conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sirkis, James S. (Inventor); Sivanesan, Ponniah (Inventor); Venkat, Venki S. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A Bragg grating sensor for measuring distributed strain and temperature at the same time comprises an optical fiber having a single mode operating wavelength region and below a cutoff wavelength of the fiber having a multimode operating wavelength region. A saturated, higher order Bragg grating having first and second order Bragg conditions is fabricated in the optical fiber. The first order of Bragg resonance wavelength of the Bragg grating is within the single mode operating wavelength region of the optical fiber and the second order of Bragg resonance wavelength is below the cutoff wavelength of the fiber within the multimode operating wavelength region. The reflectivities of the saturated Bragg grating at the first and second order Bragg conditions are less than two orders of magnitude of one another. In use, the first and second order Bragg conditions are simultaneously created in the sensor at the respective wavelengths and a signal from the sensor is demodulated with respect to each of the wavelengths corresponding to the first and second order Bragg conditions. Two Bragg conditions have different responsivities to strain and temperature, thus allowing two equations for axial strain and temperature to be found in terms of the measure shifts in the primary and second order Bragg wavelengths. This system of equations can be solved for strain and temperature.

  4. Interactions between assembly order and temperature can alter both short- and long-term community composition.

    PubMed

    Clements, Christopher F; Warren, Philip H; Collen, Ben; Blackburn, Tim; Worsfold, Nicholas; Petchey, Owen

    2013-12-01

    Both the order in which species arrive in a community, and environmental conditions, such as temperature, are known to affect community structure. Little is known, however, about the potential for, and occurrence of, interactions between assembly history and the environment. Of particular, interest may be the interaction between temperature and community assembly dynamics, especially in the light of predicted global climatic change and the fundamental processes that are governed, through metabolic rate, by an individual's environmental temperature. We present, to our knowledge, the first experimental exploration of how the influence of assembly history, temperature, and the interaction between the two alters the structure of communities of competitors, using small-scale protist microcosm communities where temperature and assembly order were manipulated factorially. In our experiment, the most important driver of long-term abundance was temperature but long-lasting assembly order effects influenced the relationship between temperature and abundance. Any advantage of early colonization proved to be short-lived, and there was rarely any long-term advantage to colonizing a habitat before other species. The results presented here suggest that environmental conditions shape community composition, but that occasionally temperature could interact with the stochastic nature of community assembly to significantly alter future community composition, especially where temperature change has been large. This could have important implications for the dynamics of both rare and invasive species. PMID:24455149

  5. Evidence of Higher-Order Solar Periodicities in China Temperature Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, R. K.; Rajesh, R.; Padmavathi, B.

    2016-07-01

    We examine here a 2000-year-long record of surface air temperature from China using powerful spectral and statistical analysis techniques to assess the trend and harmonics, if any. Our analyses reveal statistically significant periodicities of order ~900 ± 50, ~480 ± 20, 340 ± 10, ~190 ± 10 and ~130 ± 5 years, which closely match with the known higher-order solar cycles. These periodicities are also similar to quasi-periodicities reported in the climate records of sedimentary cores of subarctic and subpolar regions of North America and North Pacific, thus attesting to the global signature of solar signals in temperature variability. A visual comparison of the temperature series shows that the nodes and antinodes of the underlying temperature variation also match with sunspot variations. We also compare the China temperature (CT) with temperature of northern and southern hemispheres of the past 1000 years. The study reveals strong correlation between the southern hemispheric temperatures and CT during the past 1000 years. However, the northern hemisphere temperature shows strong correlation with CT only during the past century. Interestingly, the variations in the correlation coefficient also have shown periodicities that are nearly identical to the periods observed from CT and higher-order solar cycles. We suggest that the solar irradiance induces global periodic oscillations in temperature records by transporting heat and thermal energy, possibly through the coupling of ocean-atmospheric processes and thereby reinforcing the Sun-ocean-climate link.

  6. Interactions between assembly order and temperature can alter both short- and long-term community composition

    PubMed Central

    Clements, Christopher F; Warren, Philip H; Collen, Ben; Blackburn, Tim; Worsfold, Nicholas; Petchey, Owen

    2013-01-01

    Both the order in which species arrive in a community, and environmental conditions, such as temperature, are known to affect community structure. Little is known, however, about the potential for, and occurrence of, interactions between assembly history and the environment. Of particular, interest may be the interaction between temperature and community assembly dynamics, especially in the light of predicted global climatic change and the fundamental processes that are governed, through metabolic rate, by an individual's environmental temperature. We present, to our knowledge, the first experimental exploration of how the influence of assembly history, temperature, and the interaction between the two alters the structure of communities of competitors, using small-scale protist microcosm communities where temperature and assembly order were manipulated factorially. In our experiment, the most important driver of long-term abundance was temperature but long-lasting assembly order effects influenced the relationship between temperature and abundance. Any advantage of early colonization proved to be short-lived, and there was rarely any long-term advantage to colonizing a habitat before other species. The results presented here suggest that environmental conditions shape community composition, but that occasionally temperature could interact with the stochastic nature of community assembly to significantly alter future community composition, especially where temperature change has been large. This could have important implications for the dynamics of both rare and invasive species. PMID:24455149

  7. Interactions between assembly order and temperature can alter both short- and long-term community composition.

    PubMed

    Clements, Christopher F; Warren, Philip H; Collen, Ben; Blackburn, Tim; Worsfold, Nicholas; Petchey, Owen

    2013-12-01

    Both the order in which species arrive in a community, and environmental conditions, such as temperature, are known to affect community structure. Little is known, however, about the potential for, and occurrence of, interactions between assembly history and the environment. Of particular, interest may be the interaction between temperature and community assembly dynamics, especially in the light of predicted global climatic change and the fundamental processes that are governed, through metabolic rate, by an individual's environmental temperature. We present, to our knowledge, the first experimental exploration of how the influence of assembly history, temperature, and the interaction between the two alters the structure of communities of competitors, using small-scale protist microcosm communities where temperature and assembly order were manipulated factorially. In our experiment, the most important driver of long-term abundance was temperature but long-lasting assembly order effects influenced the relationship between temperature and abundance. Any advantage of early colonization proved to be short-lived, and there was rarely any long-term advantage to colonizing a habitat before other species. The results presented here suggest that environmental conditions shape community composition, but that occasionally temperature could interact with the stochastic nature of community assembly to significantly alter future community composition, especially where temperature change has been large. This could have important implications for the dynamics of both rare and invasive species.

  8. Scanning hall probe microscopy (SHPM) using quartz crystal AFM feedback.

    PubMed

    Dede, M; Urkmen, K; Girişen, O; Atabak, M; Oral, A; Farrer, I; Ritchie, D

    2008-02-01

    Scanning Hall Probe Microscopy (SHPM) is a quantitative and non-invasive technique for imaging localized surface magnetic field fluctuations such as ferromagnetic domains with high spatial and magnetic field resolution of approximately 50 nm and 7 mG/Hz(1/2) at room temperature. In the SHPM technique, scanning tunneling microscope (STM) or atomic force microscope (AFM) feedback is used to keep the Hall sensor in close proximity of the sample surface. However, STM tracking SHPM requires conductive samples; therefore the insulating substrates have to be coated with a thin layer of gold. This constraint can be eliminated with the AFM feedback using sophisticated Hall probes that are integrated with AFM cantilevers. However it is very difficult to micro fabricate these sensors. In this work, we have eliminated the difficulty in the cantilever-Hall probe integration process, just by gluing a Hall Probe chip to a quartz crystal tuning fork force sensor. The Hall sensor chip is simply glued at the end of a 32.768 kHz or 100 kHz Quartz crystal, which is used as force sensor. An LT-SHPM system is used to scan the samples. The sensor assembly is dithered at the resonance frequency using a digital Phase Locked Loop circuit and frequency shifts are used for AFM tracking. SHPM electronics is modified to detect AFM topography and the frequency shift, along with the magnetic field image. Magnetic domains and topography of an Iron Garnet thin film crystal, NdFeB demagnetised magnet and hard disk samples are presented at room temperature. The performance is found to be comparable with the SHPM using STM feedback.

  9. Second order gravitational effects on CMB temperature anisotropy in {lambda} dominated flat universes

    SciTech Connect

    Tomita, Kenji; Inoue, Kaiki Taro

    2008-05-15

    We study second order gravitational effects of local inhomogeneities on the cosmic microwave background radiation in flat universes with matter and a cosmological constant {lambda}. We find that the general relativistic correction to the Newtonian approximation is negligible at second order provided that the size of the inhomogeneous region is sufficiently smaller than the horizon scale. For a spherically symmetric top-hat type quasilinear perturbation, the first order temperature fluctuation corresponding to the linear integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect is enhanced (suppressed) by the second order one for a compensated void (lump). As a function of redshift of the local inhomogeneity, the second order temperature fluctuations due to evolution of the gravitational potential have a peak before the matter-{lambda} equality epoch for a fixed comoving size and a density contrast. The second order gravitational effects from local quasilinear inhomogeneities at a redshift z{approx}1 may significantly affect the cosmic microwave background.

  10. Hydrodynamic effects in fast AFM single-molecule force measurements.

    PubMed

    Janovjak, Harald; Struckmeier, Jens; Müller, Daniel J

    2005-02-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) allows the critical forces that unfold single proteins and rupture individual receptor-ligand bonds to be measured. To derive the shape of the energy landscape, the dynamic strength of the system is probed at different force loading rates. This is usually achieved by varying the pulling speed between a few nm/s and a few microm/s, although for a more complete investigation of the kinetic properties higher speeds are desirable. Above 10 microm/s, the hydrodynamic drag force acting on the AFM cantilever reaches the same order of magnitude as the molecular forces. This has limited the maximum pulling speed in AFM single-molecule force spectroscopy experiments. Here, we present an approach for considering these hydrodynamic effects, thereby allowing a correct evaluation of AFM force measurements recorded over an extended range of pulling speeds (and thus loading rates). To support and illustrate our theoretical considerations, we experimentally evaluated the mechanical unfolding of a multi-domain protein recorded at 30 microm/s pulling speed. PMID:15257425

  11. An ergodic configurational thermostat using selective control of higher order temperatures.

    PubMed

    Patra, Puneet Kumar; Bhattacharya, Baidurya

    2015-05-21

    The conventional Nosé-Hoover type deterministic thermostat scheme for controlling temperature by configurational variables (Braga-Travis (BT) thermostat) is non-ergodic for systems with a few degrees of freedom. While for the original Nosé-Hoover kinetic thermostat ergodicity has been achieved by controlling the higher order moments of kinetic energy, the issues of nonergodicity of BT thermostat persists. In this paper, we introduce two new measures of configurational temperature (second and third order) based on the generalized temperature-curvature relationship and obtain a family of deterministic thermostatting schemes by selectively (and simultaneously) controlling the different orders of temperatures through pseudo-friction terms. The ergodic characteristics of the proposed thermostats are tested using a single harmonic oscillator through statistical (normality of joint distributions at different Poincare sections) as well as dynamical tests (difference of the minimum and maximum largest Lyapunov exponent). Our results indicate that simultaneously controlling the first and the second order configurational temperatures (C(1,2) thermostat) is sufficient to make the dynamics ergodic. A 2000 particle Lennard-Jones system is subjected to (i) equilibrium and (ii) sudden temperature change under BT and C(1,2) thermostatting schemes. The C(1,2) thermostat is found to be more robust than the BT thermostat without increasing computational costs.

  12. The influence of shear on the ordering temperature of a triblock copolymer melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakatani, Alan I.; Morrison, Faith A.; Douglas, Jack F.; Mays, Jimmy W.; Jackson, Catheryn L.; Muthukumar, M.; Han, Charles C.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of shear on the ordering temperature of a triblock copolymer melt of polystyrene-polybutadiene-polystyrene (SBS) is examined by in situ small angle neutron scattering (SANS). Results obtained by SANS are compared to the rheologically determined order-disorder transition temperature, TRODT=115±5 °C. The SANS measurements from a Couette geometry shear cell are then used to construct a ``dynamical phase diagram'' based on characteristic changes in the scattering with temperature and shear rate, γ˙. A shear rate dependent ordering temperature, Tord(γ˙), is identified as the system is sheared isothermally from the disordered state. The scattering behavior is shown to be highly strain dependent. We compare our findings on the shear rate dependence of the ordering transition in triblock materials with previous observations on diblock copolymer materials and theoretical expectations for the shear rate dependence of the order-disorder transition temperature. A simple scaling argument leads to a good description of the shear rate dependence of Tord(γ˙) in both diblock and triblock copolymer measurements over the range of shear rates examined.

  13. Temperature dependence of the structural order in the {gamma}{prime} phase of nickel base superalloy

    SciTech Connect

    Royer, A.; Bastie, P.; Veron, M.

    1999-03-19

    Single crystal nickel base superalloys are used for the high-temperature parts of aircraft engines like turbine blades. Their good mechanical properties at high temperature are related to the precipitation of an ordered {gamma}{prime} phase which induces a structural hardening of the material. The {gamma}{prime} phase has an ordered L1{sub 2} structure while the {gamma} matrix is disordered and has a FCC structure. The volume fraction of f{gamma}{prime} of the {gamma}{prime} phase evolves with the temperature and a complete solutionizing occurs above 1,280 C in the AM1 superalloy. The {gamma}{prime} phase of Ni based superalloys is usually analyzed through its prototype Ni{sub 3}Al. As the Ni{sub 3}Al structure remains totally ordered up to temperature very close to the melting point, it is commonly assumed in superalloys that the {gamma}{prime} phase precipitates are fully ordered up to their solutionizing and that the volume fraction of the precipitates is equivalent to the volume fraction of the ordered phase. However, in superalloys, it is difficult to separate experimentally the effects related to the solutionizing of the precipitates from those due to a possible partial disordering of the {gamma}{prime} phase and this assumption has not been verified yet. The aim of this paper is to study the structural order in the {gamma}{prime} phase of a superalloy.

  14. ezAFM: A low cost Atomic Force Microscope(AFM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celik, Umit; Celik, Kubra; Aslan, Husnu; Kehribar, Ihsan; Dede, Munir; Ozgur Ozer, H.; Oral, Ahmet

    2012-02-01

    A low cost AFM, ezAFM is developed for educational purposes as well as research. Optical beam deflection method is used to measure the deflection of cantilever. ezAFM scanner is built using voice coil motors (VCM) with ˜50x50x6 μm scan area. The microscope uses alignment free cantilevers, which minimizes setup times. FPGA based AFM feedback Control electronics is developed. FPGA technology allows us to drive all peripherals in parallel. ezAFM Controller is connected to PC by USB 2.0 interface as well as Wi-Fi. We have achieved <5nm lateral and ˜0.01nm vertical resolution. ezAFM can image single atomic steps in HOPG and mica. An optical microscope with <3 μm resolution is also integrated into the system. ezAFM supports different AFM operation modes such as dynamic mode, contact mode, lateral force microscopy. Advanced modes like magnetic force microscopy and electric force microscopy will be implemented later on. The new ezAFM system provides, short learning times for student labs, quick setup and easy to transport for portable applications with the best price/performance ratio. The cost of the system starts from 15,000, with system performance comparable with the traditional AFM systems.

  15. Kinetics of the charge ordering in magnetite below the Verwey temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gooth, Johannes; Böhnert, Tim; Gluschke, Jan G.; Hamdou, Bacel; Barth, Sven; Görlitz, Detlef; Zierold, Robert; Nielsch, Kornelius

    2014-11-01

    In this work the kinetics of the charge ordering in magnetite (Fe3O4) below the Verwey transition temperature TV is investigated in time and energy domain. After excitation by a one-second voltage pulse to destruct the charge-ordered state below TV, an alternating current (AC) is used to perturb its recovery process. Upon warming up to above a temperature Tr(< TV) the charge order recovers despite the ac perturbation, because the temperature-dependent relaxation time becomes shorter than the polarity change of the ac. From the frequency dependence of Tr(f), an activation energy of ΔE = 126 meV is extracted. Below Tr the real part of the ac conductance Greal follows the relation Greal ˜ fα with α = 0.98 ± 0.18, suggesting that the charge reordering is driven by correlated hopping transport. The relaxation time τ = 1/f(Tr) of the charge-ordered state is determined for temperatures between 70 and 98 K and is extrapolated to τ(TV) = 1.6 ms, continuously slowing down its dynamics as the temperature is decreased.

  16. Magnetic ordering temperatures in rare earth metal dysprosium under ultrahigh pressures

    DOE PAGES

    Samudrala, Gopi K.; Tsoi, Georgiy M.; Weir, Samuel T.; Vohra, Yogesh K.

    2014-04-03

    Magnetic ordering temperatures in heavy rare earth metal Dysprosium (Dy) have been studied using an ultrasensitive electrical transport measurement technique in a designer diamond anvil cell to extreme conditions of pressure to 69 GPa and temperature to 10 K. Previous studies using magnetic susceptibility measurements at high pressures were only able to track magnetic ordering temperature till 7 GPa in the hexagonal close packed (hcp) phase of Dy. Our studies indicate that the magnetic ordering temperature shows an abrupt drop of 80 K at the hcp-Sm phase transition followed by a gradual decrease that continues till 17 GPa. This ismore » followed by a rapid increase in the magnetic ordering temperatures in the double hexagonal close packed phase and finally leveling off in the distorted face centered cubic phase of Dy. Lastly, our studies reaffirm that 4f-shell remain localized in Dy and there is no loss of magnetic moment or 4f-shell delocalization for pressures up to 69 GPa.« less

  17. Magnetic ordering temperatures in rare earth metal dysprosium under ultrahigh pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Samudrala, Gopi K.; Tsoi, Georgiy M.; Weir, Samuel T.; Vohra, Yogesh K.

    2014-04-03

    Magnetic ordering temperatures in heavy rare earth metal Dysprosium (Dy) have been studied using an ultrasensitive electrical transport measurement technique in a designer diamond anvil cell to extreme conditions of pressure to 69 GPa and temperature to 10 K. Previous studies using magnetic susceptibility measurements at high pressures were only able to track magnetic ordering temperature till 7 GPa in the hexagonal close packed (hcp) phase of Dy. Our studies indicate that the magnetic ordering temperature shows an abrupt drop of 80 K at the hcp-Sm phase transition followed by a gradual decrease that continues till 17 GPa. This is followed by a rapid increase in the magnetic ordering temperatures in the double hexagonal close packed phase and finally leveling off in the distorted face centered cubic phase of Dy. Lastly, our studies reaffirm that 4f-shell remain localized in Dy and there is no loss of magnetic moment or 4f-shell delocalization for pressures up to 69 GPa.

  18. Feasibility of stratosphere temperature sounding with the Multi-Order Etalon Sounder (MOES) in the infrared

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.; Hays, P.B.; Moncet, J.L.

    1994-12-31

    Instruments with very high spectral resolution are needed to sound stratospheric temperatures from satellite. Maximizing the contributions of the stratosphere to the upwelling radiance measured by a particular channel can be achieved by using high spectral resolution channels positioned at strong carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) line centers. In this paper, the techniques of stratospheric temperature sounding from satellite are briefly reviewed. The feasibility of high resolution stratospheric temperature sounding with the Multi-Order Etalon Sounder (MOES), a high resolution Fabry-Perot array spectrometer, is discussed. The simulation studies indicate that stratospheric temperatures can be derived with a root-mean-square (RMS) error of about 2--3 K with MOES. A scenario to add MOES to the next generation High Resolution Infrared Sounder (HIRS/3) currently under development with minimal cost is suggested. With its compact size and ruggedness, MOES is an ideal candidate as the stratospheric temperature sounding unit for small environmental satellite platforms.

  19. The temperature dependence of second and higher order elastic constants of NH4Cl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Alpana; Gaur, N. K.

    2016-05-01

    We have incorporated the translational rotational (TR) coupling effects in the framework of three body force shell model (TSM) to develop an extended TSM (ETSM). This ETSM has been applied to reveal the second order elastic constants (C11, C12 and C44) of NH4Cl as a function of temperature for temperature range 240K≤T≤440K. An abrupt decrease in C44 is observed due to disorder present in the crystal as a result of random orientations of tetrahedral ammonium molecule. Our calculated results show similar trend as revealed by experimental data. Besides third order elastic constants have also been studied and discussed as a function of temperature for 240K≤T≤440K.

  20. The effect of cation ordering and temperature on the high-pressure behaviour of dolomite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zucchini, Azzurra; Comodi, Paola; Nazzareni, Sabrina; Hanfland, Michael

    2014-11-01

    Synchrotron single-crystal X-ray diffraction experiments at high-pressure and high-temperature conditions were performed up to 20 GPa and 573.0(2) K on a fully ordered stoichiometric dolomite and a partially disordered stoichiometric dolomite [order parameter, s = 0.26(6)]. The ordered dolomite was found to be stable up to approximately 14 GPa at ambient temperature and up to approximately 17 GPa at T = 573.0(2) K. The P- V data from the ambient temperature experiments were analysed by a second-order Birch-Murnaghan equation-of-state giving K 0 = 92.7(9) GPa for the ordered dolomite and K 0 = 92.5(8) GPa for the disordered dolomite. The high-temperature data, collected for the ordered sample, were fitted by a third-order Birch-Murnaghan equation-of-state resulting in K 0 = 95(6) GPa and K' = 2.6(7). In order to compare the three experiments results, a third-order Birch-Murnaghan equation-of-state was also calculated for the ambient temperature experiments giving K 0 = 93(3) GPa, K' = 3.9(6) for the ordered dolomite and K 0 = 92(3) GPa, K' = 4.0(4) for the disordered dolomite. The derived axial moduli show that dolomite compresses very anisotropically, being the c-axis approximately three times more compressible than the a-axis. The axial compressibility increases as T increases, and the a-axis is the most temperature-influenced axis. On the contrary, axial compressibility is not influenced by disordering. Structural refinements at different pressures show that Ca and Mg octahedra are almost equally compressible in the ordered dolomite with K(CaO6) = 109(4) GPa and K(MgO6) = 103(3) GPa. On the contrary, CaO6 compressibility is reduced and MgO6 compressibility is increased in the disordered crystal structure where K(CaO6) = 139(4) GPa and K(MgO6) = 89(4) GPa. Disordering is found to increase CaO6 and to decrease MgO6 bond strengths, thus making stiffer the Ca octahedron and softer the Mg octahedron. Cation polyhedra are distorted in both ordered and disordered

  1. Nano Mechanical Machining Using AFM Probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostofa, Md. Golam

    Complex miniaturized components with high form accuracy will play key roles in the future development of many products, as they provide portability, disposability, lower material consumption in production, low power consumption during operation, lower sample requirements for testing, and higher heat transfer due to their very high surface-to-volume ratio. Given the high market demand for such micro and nano featured components, different manufacturing methods have been developed for their fabrication. Some of the common technologies in micro/nano fabrication are photolithography, electron beam lithography, X-ray lithography and other semiconductor processing techniques. Although these methods are capable of fabricating micro/nano structures with a resolution of less than a few nanometers, some of the shortcomings associated with these methods, such as high production costs for customized products, limited material choices, necessitate the development of other fabricating techniques. Micro/nano mechanical machining, such an atomic force microscope (AFM) probe based nano fabrication, has, therefore, been used to overcome some the major restrictions of the traditional processes. This technique removes material from the workpiece by engaging micro/nano size cutting tool (i.e. AFM probe) and is applicable on a wider range of materials compared to the photolithographic process. In spite of the unique benefits of nano mechanical machining, there are also some challenges with this technique, since the scale is reduced, such as size effects, burr formations, chip adhesions, fragility of tools and tool wear. Moreover, AFM based machining does not have any rotational movement, which makes fabrication of 3D features more difficult. Thus, vibration-assisted machining is introduced into AFM probe based nano mechanical machining to overcome the limitations associated with the conventional AFM probe based scratching method. Vibration-assisted machining reduced the cutting forces

  2. Temperature-dependent ordering phenomena in single crystals of germanium antimony tellurides

    SciTech Connect

    Urban, Philipp; Schneider, Matthias N.; Oeckler, Oliver

    2015-07-15

    The temperature-dependent behavior of quenched single-crystalline (GeTe){sub n}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} (n~2.8, n~5 and n~11) was investigated by semiquantitative modeling of diffuse X-ray scattering. The structure at room temperature exhibits trigonal twin domains, each comprising a stacking-disordered sequence of distorted rocksalt-type slabs with variable thicknesses. Ge and Sb share the cation position and vacancies are partially ordered in defect layers (van der Waals gaps) between the slabs. The average structure determined with resonant diffraction data corresponds to a rocksalt-type structure whose cation position is split along the stacking direction. Upon heating, cation ordering leads to a metastable superstructure of the rocksalt type at ~400 °C, which transforms to a rocksalt-type high-temperature phase with randomly distributed cations and vacancies at ~500 °C; this structure was also refined using resonant diffraction. Cooling at high or intermediate rates does not yield the long-range ordered phase, but directly leads to the twinned disordered phase. - Graphical abstract: Development of the diffraction patterns of (GeTe){sub ~11}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} upon heating; the insets symbolically sketch the real structure at the corresponding temperatures. - Highlights: • The structure of disordered (GeTe){sub n}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} is described as a function of temperature. • Structural changes are tracked by modeling diffuse X-ray scattering. • Quenched crystals exhibit distorted NaCl-type slabs with different thicknesses. • Vacancy ordering upon heating leads to a metastable superstructure of the NaCl type. • Further heating leads to an undistorted disordered NaCl-type high-temperature phase.

  3. Combined CO2-philicity and Ordered Mesoporosity for Highly Selective CO2 Capture at High Temperatures.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Hoon; Lee, Hyeon Jeong; Lim, Soo Yeon; Kim, Byung Gon; Choi, Jang Wook

    2015-06-10

    Various dry sorbents have been lately introduced as promising media to capture carbon dioxide (CO2). However, it is still desirable to further improve their performance in diverse aspects, and high temperature selectivity of CO2 over other gases is clearly one of them. Here, we report a co-assembly approach to turn nonporous melamine resin to a highly ordered mesoporous polymeric network (space group: Im3̅m) containing high nitrogen content (∼18 at%). This mesoporous network shows anomalously increasing CO2/N2 selectivity with temperature rise, with the selectivity at 323 K reaching 117 (Henry method). This selectivity behavior is attributed to a combined effect of the high nitrogen content allowing for high binding affinity with CO2 and well-defined mesopores (2.5-2.9 nm) accelerating release of N2 with temperature rise. The given orthogonal approach suggests a new direction in designing dry sorbents with excellent selectivities at high temperatures. PMID:26000786

  4. Self-ordered nanopore arrays through hard anodization assisted by anode temperature ramp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadniaei, M.; Maleki, K.; Kashi, M. Almasi; Ramezani, A.; Mayamei, Y.

    2016-10-01

    In the present work, hard anodization assisted by anode temperature ramp was employed to fabricate self-ordered nanoporous alumina in the wide range of interpore distances (259-405 nm) in pure oxalic acid and mixture of oxalic and phosphoric acid solutions. Anode temperature ramp technique was employed to adjust the anodization current density to optimize the self-ordering of the nanopore arrays in the interpore range in which no ordered self-assembled hard anodized anodic aluminum oxide has reported. It is found that the certain ratios of oxalic and phosphoric acid solutions in this anodization technique increased self-ordering of the nanopores especially for anodization voltages over the 170 V by increasing alumina's viscous flow which could lead to decrease the overall current density of anodization, yet leveled up by anode temperature ramp. However, below 150 V anodization voltage, the ratio of interpore distance to the anodization voltage of the both anodization techniques was the same (~2 nm/V), while above this voltage, it increased to about 2.2 nm/V.

  5. Direct Observation of Room-Temperature Polar Ordering in Colloidal GeTe Nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Polking, Mark J.; Zheng, Haimei; Urban, Jeffrey J.; Milliron, Delia J.; Chan, Emory; Caldwell, Marissa A.; Raoux, Simone; Kisielowski, Christian F.; Ager III, Joel W.; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy; Alivisatos, A.P.

    2009-12-07

    Ferroelectrics and other materials that exhibit spontaneous polar ordering have demonstrated immense promise for applications ranging from non-volatile memories to microelectromechanical systems. However, experimental evidence of polar ordering and effective synthetic strategies for accessing these materials are lacking for low-dimensional nanomaterials. Here, we demonstrate the synthesis of size-controlled nanocrystals of the polar material germanium telluride (GeTe) using colloidal chemistry and provide the first direct evidence of room-temperature polar ordering in nanocrystals less than 5 nm in size using aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy. Synchrotron x-ray diffraction and Raman studies demonstrate a sizeable polar distortion and a reversible size-dependent polar phase transition in these nanocrystals. The stability of polar ordering in solution-processible nanomaterials suggests an economical avenue to Tbit/in2-density non-volatile memory devices and other applications.

  6. Probing Ternary Solvent Effect in High V(oc) Polymer Solar Cells Using Advanced AFM Techniques.

    PubMed

    Li, Chao; Ding, Yi; Soliman, Mikhael; Lorenzo, Josie; Dhasmana, Nitesh; Chantharasupawong, Panit; Ievlev, Anton V; Gesquiere, Andre J; Tetard, Laurene; Thomas, Jayan

    2016-02-01

    This work describes a simple method to develop a high V(oc) low band gap PSCs. In addition, two new atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based nanoscale characterization techniques to study the surface morphology and physical properties of the structured active layer are introduced. With the help of ternary solvent processing of the active layer and C60 buffer layer, a bulk heterojunction PSC with V(oc) more than 0.9 V and conversion efficiency 7.5% is developed. In order to understand the fundamental properties of the materials ruling the performance of the PSCs tested, AFM-based nanoscale characterization techniques including Pulsed-Force-Mode AFM (PFM-AFM) and Mode-Synthesizing AFM (MSAFM) are introduced. Interestingly, MSAFM exhibits high sensitivity for direct visualization of the donor-acceptor phases in the active layer of the PSCs. Finally, conductive-AFM (cAFM) studies reveal local variations in conductivity in the donor and acceptor phases as well as a significant increase in photocurrent in the PTB7:ICBA sample obtained with the ternary solvent processing. PMID:26807919

  7. Exchange bias and room-temperature magnetic order in molecular layers.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Manuel; Ibrahim, Fatima; Boukari, Samy; Isshiki, Hironari; Joly, Loïc; Peter, Moritz; Studniarek, Michał; Da Costa, Victor; Jabbar, Hashim; Davesne, Vincent; Halisdemir, Ufuk; Chen, Jinjie; Arabski, Jacek; Otero, Edwige; Choueikani, Fadi; Chen, Kai; Ohresser, Philippe; Wulfhekel, Wulf; Scheurer, Fabrice; Weber, Wolfgang; Alouani, Mebarek; Beaurepaire, Eric; Bowen, Martin

    2015-10-01

    Molecular semiconductors may exhibit antiferromagnetic correlations well below room temperature. Although inorganic antiferromagnetic layers may exchange bias single-molecule magnets, the reciprocal effect of an antiferromagnetic molecular layer magnetically pinning an inorganic ferromagnetic layer through exchange bias has so far not been observed. We report on the magnetic interplay, extending beyond the interface, between a cobalt ferromagnetic layer and a paramagnetic organic manganese phthalocyanine (MnPc) layer. These ferromagnetic/organic interfaces are called spinterfaces because spin polarization arises on them. The robust magnetism of the Co/MnPc spinterface stabilizes antiferromagnetic ordering at room temperature within subsequent MnPc monolayers away from the interface. The inferred magnetic coupling strength is much larger than that found in similar bulk, thin or ultrathin systems. In addition, at lower temperature, the antiferromagnetic MnPc layer induces an exchange bias on the Co film, which is magnetically pinned. These findings create new routes towards designing organic spintronic devices.

  8. Nanoscale rippling on polymer surfaces induced by AFM manipulation

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Summary Nanoscale rippling induced by an atomic force microscope (AFM) tip can be observed after performing one or many scans over the same area on a range of materials, namely ionic salts, metals, and semiconductors. However, it is for the case of polymer films that this phenomenon has been widely explored and studied. Due to the possibility of varying and controlling various parameters, this phenomenon has recently gained a great interest for some technological applications. The advent of AFM cantilevers with integrated heaters has promoted further advances in the field. An alternative method to heating up the tip is based on solvent-assisted viscoplastic deformations, where the ripples develop upon the application of a relatively low force to a solvent-rich film. An ensemble of AFM-based procedures can thus produce nanoripples on polymeric surfaces quickly, efficiently, and with an unprecedented order and control. However, even if nanorippling has been observed in various distinct modes and many theoretical models have been since proposed, a full understanding of this phenomenon is still far from being achieved. This review aims at summarizing the current state of the art in the perspective of achieving control over the rippling process on polymers at a nanoscale level. PMID:26733086

  9. Molecular ordering in the high-temperature nematic phase of an all-aromatic liquid crystal.

    PubMed

    Vita, Francesco; Hegde, Maruti; Portale, Giuseppe; Bras, Wim; Ferrero, Claudio; Samulski, Edward T; Francescangeli, Oriano; Dingemans, Theo

    2016-02-28

    We report the structural characterization of the nematic phase of 2,6-biphenyl naphthalene (PPNPP). This lath-like all-aromatic mesogen provides a valuable benchmark for classical theories of nematic order. PPNPP exhibits a very high temperature nematic phase (417-489 °C) above an enantiotropic smectic A phase. X-ray diffraction reveals a surprisingly strong tendency towards molecular layering in the nematic phase, indicative of "normal cybotaxis" (i.e. SmA-like stratification within clusters of mesogens). Although stronger at low temperatures, the layering is evident well above the smectic A-nematic transition. The nematic order parameter is evaluated as a function of temperature from the broadening of the wide-angle diffuse diffraction feature. Measured values of the orientational order parameter are slightly larger than those predicted by the Maier-Saupe theory over the entire nematic range except for a narrow region just below the clearing point where they significantly drop below the theoretical prediction.

  10. On CD-AFM bias related to probe bending

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ukraintsev, V. A.; Orji, N. G.; Vorburger, T. V.; Dixson, R. G.; Fu, J.; Silver, R. M.

    2012-03-01

    Critical Dimension AFM (CD-AFM) is a widely used reference metrology. To characterize modern semiconductor devices, very small and flexible probes, often 15 nm to 20 nm in diameter, are now frequently used. Several recent publications have reported on uncontrolled and significant probe-to-probe bias variation during linewidth and sidewall angle measurements [1,2]. Results obtained in this work suggest that probe bending can be on the order of several nanometers and thus potentially can explain much of the observed CD-AFM probe-to-probe bias variation. We have developed and experimentally tested one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) models to describe the bending of cylindrical probes. An earlier 1D bending model reported by Watanabe et al. [3] was refined. Contributions from several new phenomena were considered, including: probe misalignment, diameter variation near the carbon nanotube tip (CNT) apex, probe bending before snapping, distributed van der Waals-London force, etc. The methodology for extraction of the Hamaker probe-surface interaction energy from experimental probe bending data was developed. To overcome limitations of the 1D model, a new 2D distributed force (DF) model was developed. Comparison of the new model with the 1D single point force (SPF) model revealed about 27 % difference in probe bending bias between the two. A simple linear relation between biases predicted by the 1D SPF and 2D DF models was found. This finding simplifies use of the advanced 2D DF model of probe bending in various CD-AFM applications. New 2D and three-dimensional (3D) CDAFM data analysis software is needed to take full advantage of the new bias correction modeling capabilities.

  11. LET Spectrum Measurements In CR-39 PNTD With AFM

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C. E.; DeWitt, J. M.; Benton, E. R.; Yasuda, N.; Benton, E. V.

    2011-06-01

    Energetic protons, neutrons, and heavy ions undergoing collisions with target nuclei of varying Z can produce residual heavy recoil fragments via intra-nuclear cascade/evaporation reactions. The particles produced in these non-elastic collisions generally have such extremely short range ({approx}<10 {mu}m) that they cannot be directly observed by conventional detection methods including CR-39 plastic nuclear track detector (PNTD) that has been chemically etched for analysis by standard visible light microscopy. However, high-LET recoil fragments having range on the order of several cell diameters can be produced in tissue during radiotherapy using proton and carbon beams. We have developed a method to analyze short-range, high-LET tracks in CR-39 plastic nuclear track detector (PNTD) using short duration chemical etching ({approx}<1 {mu}m) following by automated atomic force microscope (AFM) scanning. The post-scan data processing used in this work was based on semi-automated matrix analysis opposed to traditional grey-scale image analysis. This method takes advantage of the 3-D data obtained via AFM to achieve robust discrimination of nuclear tracks from other features inherently present in the post-etch detector surface. Through automation of AFM scanning, sufficient AFM scan frames were obtained to attain an LET spectrum spanning the LET range from 200-1500 keV/{mu}m. In addition to our experiments, simulations were carried out with the Monte Carlo transport code, FLUKA. To demonstrate this method, CR-39 PNTD was exposed to the proton therapy beam at Loma Linda University Medical Center (LLUMC) at 60 and 230 MeV. Additionally, detectors were exposed to 1 GeV protons at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). For these exposures CR-39 PNTD, Al and Cu target foils were used between detector layers.

  12. LET Spectrum Measurements In CR-39 PNTD With AFM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, C. E.; DeWitt, J. M.; Benton, E. R.; Yasuda, N.; Benton, E. V.

    2011-06-01

    Energetic protons, neutrons, and heavy ions undergoing collisions with target nuclei of varying Z can produce residual heavy recoil fragments via intra-nuclear cascade/evaporation reactions. The particles produced in these non-elastic collisions generally have such extremely short range (˜<10 μm) that they cannot be directly observed by conventional detection methods including CR-39 plastic nuclear track detector (PNTD) that has been chemically etched for analysis by standard visible light microscopy. However, high-LET recoil fragments having range on the order of several cell diameters can be produced in tissue during radiotherapy using proton and carbon beams. We have developed a method to analyze short-range, high-LET tracks in CR-39 plastic nuclear track detector (PNTD) using short duration chemical etching (˜<1 μm) following by automated atomic force microscope (AFM) scanning. The post-scan data processing used in this work was based on semi-automated matrix analysis opposed to traditional grey-scale image analysis. This method takes advantage of the 3-D data obtained via AFM to achieve robust discrimination of nuclear tracks from other features inherently present in the post-etch detector surface. Through automation of AFM scanning, sufficient AFM scan frames were obtained to attain an LET spectrum spanning the LET range from 200-1500 keV/μm. In addition to our experiments, simulations were carried out with the Monte Carlo transport code, FLUKA. To demonstrate this method, CR-39 PNTD was exposed to the proton therapy beam at Loma Linda University Medical Center (LLUMC) at 60 and 230 MeV. Additionally, detectors were exposed to 1 GeV protons at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). For these exposures CR-39 PNTD, Al and Cu target foils were used between detector layers.

  13. LET spectrum measurements in Cr-39 PNTD with AFM

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Carl Edward; De Witt, Joel M; Benton, Eric R; Yasuda, Nakahiro; Benton, Eugene V

    2010-01-01

    Energetic protons, neutrons, and heavy ions undergoing collisions with target nuclei of varying Z can produce residual heavy recoil fragments via intra-nuclear cascade/evaporation reactions. The particles produced in these non-elastic collisions generally have such extremely short range ({approx}< 10 {mu}m) that they cannot be directly observed by conventional detection methods including CR-39 plastic nuclear track detector (PNTD) that has been chemically etched for analysis by standard visible light microscopy. However, high-LET recoil fragments having range on the order of several cell diameters can be produced in tissue during radiotherapy using proton and carbon beams. We have developed a method to analyze short-range, high-LET tracks in CR-39 plastic nuclear track detector (PNTD) using short duration chemical etching ({approx}< 1 {mu}m) followed by automated atomic force microscope (AFM) scanning. The post-scan data processing used in this work was based on semi-automated matrix analysis opposed to traditional grey-scale image analysis. This method takes advantage of the 3-D data obtained via AFM to achieve robust discrimination of nuclear tracks from other features. Through automation of AFM scanning, sufficient AFM scan frames were obtained to attain an LET spectrum spanning the LET range from 200-1500 keV/{mu}m. In addition to our experiments, simulations were carried out with the Monte Carlo transport code, FLUKA. To demonstrate this method, CR-39 PNTD was exposed to the proton therapy beam at Loma Linda University Medical Center (LLUMC) at 60 and 230 MeV. Additionally, detectors were exposed to I GeV protons at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). For these exposures CR-39 PNTD, Al and Cu target foils were used between detector layers.

  14. Room temperature ordering of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylserine bilayers induced by short chain alcohols.

    PubMed

    Wachtel, E; Bach, D; Miller, I R

    2013-01-01

    Using differential scanning calorimetry and small and wide angle X-ray diffraction, we show that, following extended incubation at room temperature, methanol, propanol, and three of the isomers of butanol can induce ordering in dipalmitoyl phosphatidylserine (DPPS) gel phase bilayers. The organization of the bilayers in the presence of ethanol, described previously, is now observed to be a general effect of short chain alcohols. Evidence is presented for tilting of the acyl chains with respect to the bilayer normal in the presence of ethanol or propanol. However, the different chain lengths of the alcohols, and isomeric form, influence the thermal stability of the ordered gel to different extents. This behavior is unlike that of the gel state phosphatidylcholine analog which, in the presence of short chain alcohols, undergoes hydrocarbon chain interdigitation. Dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine added to DPPS in the presence of 20 vol% ethanol, acts to suppress the ordered gel phase.

  15. Probing Cytoskeletal Structures by Coupling Optical Superresolution and AFM Techniques for a Correlative Approach

    PubMed Central

    Chacko, Jenu Varghese; Zanacchi, Francesca Cella; Diaspro, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we describe and show the application of some of the most advanced fluorescence superresolution techniques, STED AFM and STORM AFM microscopy towards imaging of cytoskeletal structures, such as microtubule filaments. Mechanical and structural properties can play a relevant role in the investigation of cytoskeletal structures of interest, such as microtubules, that provide support to the cell structure. In fact, the mechanical properties, such as the local stiffness and the elasticity, can be investigated by AFM force spectroscopy with tens of nanometers resolution. Force curves can be analyzed in order to obtain the local elasticity (and the Young's modulus calculation by fitting the force curves from every pixel of interest), and the combination with STED/STORM microscopy integrates the measurement with high specificity and yields superresolution structural information. This hybrid modality of superresolution-AFM working is a clear example of correlative multimodal microscopy. PMID:24027190

  16. Contact nanomechanical measurements with the AFM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geisse, Nicholas

    2013-03-01

    The atomic force microscope (AFM) has found broad use in the biological sciences largely due to its ability to make measurements on unfixed and unstained samples under liquid. In addition to imaging at multiple spatial scales ranging from micro- to nanometer, AFMs are commonly used as nanomechanical probes. This is pertinent for cell biology, as it has been demonstrated that the geometrical and mechanical properties of the extracellular microenvironment are important in such processes as cancer, cardiovascular disease, muscular dystrophy, and even the control of cell life and death. Indeed, the ability to control and quantify these external geometrical and mechanical parameters arises as a key issue in the field. Because AFM can quantitatively measure the mechanical properties of various biological samples, novel insights to cell function and to cell-substrate interactions are now possible. As the application of AFM to these types of problems is widened, it is important to understand the performance envelope of the technique and its associated data analyses. This talk will discuss the important issues that must be considered when mechanical models are applied to real-world data. Examples of the effect of different model assumptions on our understanding of the measured material properties will be shown. Furthermore, specific examples of the importance of mechanical stimuli and the micromechanical environment to the structure and function of biological materials will be presented.

  17. Room-temperature magnetic order on zigzag edges of narrow graphene nanoribbons.

    PubMed

    Magda, Gábor Zsolt; Jin, Xiaozhan; Hagymási, Imre; Vancsó, Péter; Osváth, Zoltán; Nemes-Incze, Péter; Hwang, Chanyong; Biró, László P; Tapasztó, Levente

    2014-10-30

    The possibility that non-magnetic materials such as carbon could exhibit a novel type of s-p electron magnetism has attracted much attention over the years, not least because such magnetic order is predicted to be stable at high temperatures. It has been demonstrated that atomic-scale structural defects of graphene can host unpaired spins, but it remains unclear under what conditions long-range magnetic order can emerge from such defect-bound magnetic moments. Here we propose that, in contrast to random defect distributions, atomic-scale engineering of graphene edges with specific crystallographic orientation--comprising edge atoms from only one sub-lattice of the bipartite graphene lattice--can give rise to a robust magnetic order. We use a nanofabrication technique based on scanning tunnelling microscopy to define graphene nanoribbons with nanometre precision and well-defined crystallographic edge orientations. Although so-called 'armchair' ribbons display quantum confinement gaps, ribbons with the 'zigzag' edge structure that are narrower than 7 nanometres exhibit an electronic bandgap of about 0.2-0.3 electronvolts, which can be identified as a signature of interaction-induced spin ordering along their edges. Moreover, upon increasing the ribbon width, a semiconductor-to-metal transition is revealed, indicating the switching of the magnetic coupling between opposite ribbon edges from the antiferromagnetic to the ferromagnetic configuration. We found that the magnetic order on graphene edges of controlled zigzag orientation can be stable even at room temperature, raising hopes of graphene-based spintronic devices operating under ambient conditions.

  18. Diffraction studies of order-disorder at high pressures and temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Parise, John B; Antao, Sytle M; Martin, Charles D; Crichton, Wilson

    2008-06-18

    Recent developments at synchrotron X-ray beamlines now allow collection of data suitable for structure determination and Rietveld structure refinement at high pressures and temperatures on challenging materials. These include materials, such as dolomite (CaMg(CO{sub 3}){sub 2}) that tends to calcine at high temperatures, and Fe-containing materials, such as the spinel MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, which tend to undergo changes in oxidation state. Careful consideration of encapsulation along with the use of radial collimation produced powder diffraction patterns virtually free of parasitic scattering from the cell in the case of large volume high-pressure experiments. These features have been used to study a number of phase transitions, especially those where superior signal-to-noise discrimination is required to distinguish weak ordering reflections. The structures adopted by dolomite, and CaSO4, anhydrite, were determined from 298 to 1466 K at high pressures. Using laser-heated diamond-anvil cells to achieve simultaneous high pressure and temperature conditions, we have observed CaSO{sub 4} undergo phase transitions to the monazite type and at highest pressure and temperature to crystallize in the barite-type structure. On cooling, the barite structure distorts, from an orthorhombic to a monoclinic lattice, to produce the AgMnO{sub 4}-type structure.

  19. Study of spin-temperature effects using energy-ordered gamma-ray spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Baktash, C.

    1990-01-01

    We investigated a new continuum {gamma}-ray spectroscopy technique which is based on the detection of all emitted {gamma} rays in a 4{pi} detector system, and ordering them according to their energies on an event-by-event basis. The technique allows determination of growth strength functions, and rotational damping width as a function of spin and temperature. Thus, it opens up the possibility of studying the onset of motional narrowing and the mapping of the evolution of nuclear collectivity with spin and temperature. Application of the technique for preferential entry-state population, exit-channel selection, and feeding of the discrete states via selective pathways will be discussed. 19 refs., 6 figs.

  20. General approach for studying first-order phase transitions at low temperatures.

    PubMed

    Fiore, C E; da Luz, M G E

    2011-12-01

    By combining different ideas, a general and efficient protocol to deal with discontinuous phase transitions at low temperatures is proposed. For small T's, it is possible to derive a generic analytic expression for appropriate order parameters, whose coefficients are obtained from simple simulations. Once in such regimes simulations by standard algorithms are not reliable; an enhanced tempering method, the parallel tempering-accurate for small and intermediate system sizes with rather low computational cost-is used. Finally, from finite size analysis, one can obtain the thermodynamic limit. The procedure is illustrated for four distinct models, demonstrating its power, e.g., to locate coexistence lines and the phase density at the coexistence.

  1. Dispersion effects of high-order-mode fiber on temperature and axial strain discrimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yanping; Lu, Ping; Song, Jia; Lu, Ping; Chen, Liang; Bao, Xiaoyi; Dong, Xiaopeng

    2015-09-01

    A new approach utilizing effects of dispersion in the high-order-mode fibers (HOMFs) to effectively discriminate changes in environmental temperature and axial strain is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Experimental characterization of a HOMF-based fiber modal interferometer with a sandwich fiber structure exhibits excellent agreements with numerical simulation results. A Fourier transform method of interferometry in the spatial frequency domain is adopted to distinguish mode coupling between different core-guided modes. Distinct phase sensitivities of multiple dispersion peaks are extracted by employing a novel phase demodulation scheme to realize dual-parameter sensing.

  2. Magnetic and structural phase transitions in erbium at low temperatures and high pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Sarah A.; Tsoi, Georgiy M.; Wenger, Lowell E.; Vohra, Yogesh K.

    2012-02-07

    Electrical resistance and crystal structure measurements have been carried out on polycrystalline erbium (Er) at temperatures down to 10 K and pressures up to 20 GPa. An abrupt change in the slope of the resistance is observed with decreasing temperature below 84 K, which is associated with the c-axis modulated (CAM) antiferromagnetic (AFM) ordering of the Er moments. With increasing pressure the temperature of the resistance slope change and the corresponding AFM ordering temperature decrease until vanishing above 10.6 GPa. The disappearance of the slope change in the resistance occurs at similar pressures where the hcp structural phase of Er is transformed to a nine-layer {alpha}-Sm structural phase, as confirmed by our high-pressure synchrotron x-ray diffraction studies. These results suggest that the disappearance in the AFM ordering of Er moments is strongly correlated to the structural phase transition at high pressures and low temperatures.

  3. BOREAS AFM-04 Twin Otter Aircraft Sounding Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacPherson, J. Ian; Desjardins, Raymond L.; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David E. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Airborne Fluxes and Meteorology (AFM)-4 team used the National Research Council, Canada (NRC) Twin Otter aircraft to make sounding measurements through the boundary layer. These measurements included concentrations of carbon dioxide and ozone, atmospheric pressure, dry bulb temperature, potential temperature, dewpoint temperature, calculated mixing ratio, and wind speed and direction. Aircraft position, heading, and altitude were also recorded. Data were collected at both the Northern Study Area (NSA) and the Southern Study Area (SSA) in 1994 and 1996. These data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The Twin Otter aircraft sounding data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files also are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  4. Probing ternary solvent effect in high Voc polymer solar cells using advanced AFM techniques

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Chao; Soleman, Mikhael; Lorenzo, Josie; Dhasmana, Nitesh; Chantharasupawong, Panit; Ievlev, Anton; Gesquiere, Andre; Tetard, Laurene; Thomas, Jayan

    2016-01-25

    This work describes a simple method to develop a high Voc low band gap PSCs. In addition, two new atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based nanoscale characterization techniques to study the surface morphology and physical properties of the structured active layer are introduced. With the help of ternary solvent processing of the active layer and C60 buffer layer, a bulk heterojunction PSC with Voc more than 0.9 V and conversion efficiency 7.5% is developed. In order to understand the fundamental properties of the materials ruling the performance of the PSCs tested, AFM-based nanoscale characterization techniques including Pulsed-Force-Mode AFM (PFM-AFM) and Mode-Synthesizing AFMmore » (MSAFM) are introduced. Interestingly, MSAFM exhibits high sensitivity for direct visualization of the donor–acceptor phases in the active layer of the PSCs. Lastly, conductive-AFM (cAFM) studies reveal local variations in conductivity in the donor and acceptor phases as well as a significant increase in photocurrent in the PTB7:ICBA sample obtained with the ternary solvent processing.« less

  5. Higher-order contributions to transport coefficients in two-temperature hydrogen thermal plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Rohit; Singh, Gurpreet; Singh, Kuldip

    2011-06-15

    Within the framework of Chapman-Enskog method, electron transport properties and their higher-order contributions have been studied in temperature range 5000-40 000 K at different pressures for hydrogen thermal plasma in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) and non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) regimes. Two cases of thermal plasma have been considered: (i) Ground state (GS) plasma in which all atomic hydrogen has been assumed to be in ground state and (ii) the excited state (ES) plasma in which hydrogen atoms are distributed in various possible electronically excited states (EES). The plasma composition is calculated by modified Saha equation of van de Sanden et al. The influence of non-equilibrium parameter {theta} (=T{sub e}/T{sub h}) on these properties has been examined in both the cases. It has been observed that both EES and {theta} modify the plasma composition and consequently affect the electron transport properties (viz., electron thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity, thermal diffusion and thermal diffusion ratio). It is shown that non-equilibrium parameter {theta} has meager effect on the higher-order convergence in comparison to EES. The unique behaviour observed for third-order contribution to these transport properties in GS plasma for small values of {theta} could be explained only when EES are taken into account. It is noted that EES show their influence on higher-orders to a considerable extent even when e-H(n) cross-sections are replaced by the ground state ones. Thus electron transport coefficients and their higher-order contributions are affected significantly due to inclusion of EES in LTE and NLTE plasmas.

  6. Observation of antiferromagnetic order collapse in the pressurized insulator LaMnPO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jing; Simonson, Jack; Sun, Liling; Wu, Qi; Guo, Peiwen; Zhang, Chao; Gu, Dachun; Kotliar, Gabriel; Aronson, Meigan; Zhao, Zhongxian

    2014-03-01

    The emergence of superconductivity in the iron pnictide or cuprate high temperature superconductors usually accompanies the suppression of a long-ranged antiferromagnetic (AFM) order state in a corresponding parent compound by doping or pressurizing. A great deal of effort by doping has been made to find superconductivity in Mn-based compounds, which are thought to bridge the gap between the two families of high temperature superconductors, but the AFM order was not successfully suppressed. Here we report the first observations of the pressure-induced elimination of long-ranged AFM order at ~ 34 GPa and a crossover from an AFM insulating to an AFM metallic state at ~ 20 GPa in LaMnPO single crystals that are iso-structural to the LaFeAsO superconductor by in-situ high pressure resistance and ac susceptibility measurements. These findings are of importance to explore potential superconductivity in Mn-based compounds and to shed new light on the underlying mechanism of high temperature superconductivity.

  7. Observation of antiferromagnetic order collapse in the pressurized insulator LaMnPO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jing; Simonson, J. W.; Sun, Liling; Wu, Qi; Gao, Peiwen; Zhang, Chao; Gu, Dachun; Kotliar, Gabriel; Aronson, Meigan; Zhao, Zhongxian

    2013-08-01

    The emergence of superconductivity in the iron pnictide or cuprate high temperature superconductors usually accompanies the suppression of a long-ranged antiferromagnetic (AFM) order state in a corresponding parent compound by doping or pressurizing. A great deal of effort by doping has been made to find superconductivity in Mn-based compounds, which are thought to bridge the gap between the two families of high temperature superconductors, but the AFM order was not successfully suppressed. Here we report the first observations of the pressure-induced elimination of long-ranged AFM order at ~ 34 GPa and a crossover from an AFM insulating to an AFM metallic state at ~ 20 GPa in LaMnPO single crystals that are iso-structural to the LaFeAsO superconductor by in-situ high pressure resistance and ac susceptibility measurements. These findings are of importance to explore potential superconductivity in Mn-based compounds and to shed new light on the underlying mechanism of high temperature superconductivity.

  8. Electronic Transport through Self Assembled Thiol Molecules: Effect of Monolayer Order, Dynamics and Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dholakia, Geetha; Fan, Wendy; Meyyappan, M.

    2005-01-01

    We present the charge transport and tunneling conductance of self assembled organic thiol molecules and discuss the influence of order and dynamics in the monolayer on the transport behavior and the effect of temperature. Conjugated thiol molecular wires and organometals such as terpyridine metal complexes provide a new platform for molecular electronic devices and we study their self assembly on Au(111) substrates by the scanning tunneling microscope. Determining the organization of the molecule and the ability to control the nature of its interface with the substrate is important for reliable performance of the molecular electronic devices. By concurrent scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy studies on SAMs formed from oligo (phenelyne ethynelyne) monolayers with and without molecular order, we show that packing and order determine the response of a self assembled monolayer (SAM) to competing interactions. Molecular resolution STM imaging in vacuum shows that the OPES adopt an imcommensurate SAM structure on Au(111) with a rectangular unit cell. Tunneling spectroscopic measurements were performed on the SAM as a function of junction resistance. STS results show that the I-Vs are non linear and asymmetric due to the inherent asymmetry in the molecular structure, with larger currents at negative sample biases. The asymmetry increases with increasing junction resistance due to the asymmetry in the coupling to the leads. This is brought out clearly in the differential conductance, which also shows a gap at the Fermi level. We also studied the effect of order and dynamics in the monolayer on the charge transport and found that competing forces between the electric field, intermolecular interactions, tip-molecule physisorption and substrate-molecule chemisorption impact the transport measurements and its reliability and that the presence of molecular order is very important for reproducible transport measurements. Thus while developing new electronic platforms

  9. Surface atomic order of compound III-V semiconductor alloys at finite temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, John C.; Millunchick, Joanna Mirecki; Modine, Normand A.; van der Ven, Anton

    2009-09-01

    We investigate the role of alloying, atomic-size mismatch strain, and thermal effects on ordering and reconstruction stability of As-rich (2×4) surfaces on (InxGa1-x)As (001) ternary III-V alloys (in the dilute limit) using a first-principles cluster-expansion and Monte Carlo simulations. The cluster expansion accounts for configurational degrees of freedom associated with As dimer adsorption/desorption as well as Ga-In disorder in subsurface cation sites. We analyze the α2(2×4)-β2(2×4) transition at finite temperature and directly examine the entropy and cation-site filling in both reconstructions. A compositionally dependent “zigzag” ordering of dimers in the α2(2×4) is predicted as well as a hybrid α2(2×4)-β2(2×4) reconstruction, found to be stable in a reasonably large chemical-potential range. The hybrid dimer ordering drives pronounced nanoscale composition modulation of surface cations.

  10. AFM nanoindentations of diatom biosilica surfaces.

    PubMed

    Losic, Dusan; Short, Ken; Mitchell, James G; Lal, Ratnesh; Voelcker, Nicolas H

    2007-04-24

    Diatoms have intricately and uniquely nanopatterned silica exoskeletons (frustules) and are a common target of biomimetic investigations. A better understanding of the diatom frustule structure and function at the nanoscale could provide new insights for the biomimetic fabrication of nanostructured ceramic materials and lightweight, yet strong, scaffold architectures. Here, we have mapped the nanoscale mechanical properties of Coscinodiscus sp. diatoms using atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based nanoindentation. Mechanical properties were correlated with the frustule structures obtained from high-resolution AFM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Significant differences in the micromechanical properties for the different frustule layers were observed. A comparative study of other related inorganic material including porous silicon films and free-standing membranes as well as porous alumina was also undertaken.

  11. Detection of Pathogens Using AFM and SPR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaseashta, Ashok

    2005-03-01

    A priori detection of pathogens in food and water has become a subject of paramount importance. Several recent incidents have resulted in the government passing stringent regulations for tolerable amounts of contamination of food products. Identification and/or monitoring of bacterial contamination in food are critical. The conventional methods of pathogen detection require time-consuming steps to arrive disembark at meaningful measurement in a timely manner as the detection time exceeds the time in which perishable food recycles through the food chain distribution. The aim of this presentation is to outline surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) as two methods for fast detect6ion of pathogens. Theoretical basis of SPR and experimental results of SPR and AFM on E. coli O157:H7 and prion are presented.

  12. AFM cantilever vibration detection with a transmitted electron beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woehl, Taylor; Wagner, Ryan; Keller, Robert; Killgore, Jason

    Cantilever oscillations for dynamic atomic force microscopy (AFM) are conventionally measured with an optical lever system. The speed of AFM cantilevers can be increased by decreasing the size of the cantilever; however, the fastest AFM cantilevers are currently nearing the smallest size that can be detected with the current optical lever approach. Here we demonstrate an electron detection scheme in an SEM for detecting AFM cantilever oscillations. An oscillating AFM tip is positioned perpendicular to the propagation direction of a stationary ~ 1 nm diameter electron probe, and the oscillatory change in electron scattering resulting from the changing thickness of the electron irradiated area of the AFM tip is detected with a transmitted electron detector positioned below the AFM tip. We perform frequency sweep and ring-down experiments to determine the first resonant frequency and Q factor of an AFM cantilever.

  13. Charge-Induced Long-Range Order in a Room-Temperature Ionic Liquid.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ke; Jarosova, Romana; Swain, Greg M; Blanchard, Gary J

    2016-09-20

    We report direct evidence for charge-induced long-range (ca. 100 μm) order in the room-temperature ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (BMIM(+)BF4(-)), supported on a silica surface. We have measured the rotational diffusion dynamics of anionic, cationic, and neutral chromophores as a function of distance from a silica surface. The results reflect the excess charge density gradient induced in the IL by the (negative) charge present on the silica surface. Identical measurements in ethylene glycol reveal spatially invariant reorientation dynamics for all chromophores. Capping the silica support with Me2SiCl2 results in spatially invariant reorientation dynamics in the IL. We understand these data in the context of the IL exhibiting a spatially damped piezoelectric response mediated by IL fluidity and disorder. PMID:27563803

  14. Sequestration and speciation of Eu(iii) on gamma alumina: role of temperature and contact order.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yawen; Ren, Xuemei; Lang, Yue; Liu, Zhiyong; Zong, Pengfei; Wang, Xiangke; Yang, Shitong

    2015-11-01

    The speciation, migration and transport of radionuclides in the environment are significantly influenced by their interactions with the natural minerals and humic substances therein. In view of this, the effect of temperature and contact order on the sorption behaviors of trivalent Eu(iii) in the γ-Al2O3/Eu(iii) and γ-Al2O3/HA/Eu(iii) systems was studied using batch experiments and the extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) technique. The endothermic sorption behavior of Eu(iii) in the γ-Al2O3/Eu(iii) systems was induced by the hydrolysis reaction of Eu(iii) in solution and the complexation of Eu(iii) with the γ-Al2O3 surface sites. The endothermic sorption of Eu(iii) in the γ-Al2O3/HA/Eu(iii) systems was attributed to the endothermic binding of HA on γ-Al2O3 and the endothermic complexation between Eu(iii) and HA. EXAFS analysis suggested the formation of type B ternary complexes and their thermodynamic stability improves with rising temperature. The different sorption percentages under various contact orders were closely related to the binding mode of Eu(iii) on the exposed γ-Al2O3 surfaces or the γ-Al2O3/HA colloids. The findings obtained herein are important to evaluate the security of the radioactive waste repository and predict the fate of trivalent actinides (e.g., Am(iii), Cm(iii), Pu(iii), etc.) near the geological repository. PMID:26428412

  15. Three-dimensionally ordered macroporous iron oxide for removal of H2S at medium temperatures.

    PubMed

    Fan, Hui-Ling; Sun, Ting; Zhao, Yan-Peng; Shangguan, Ju; Lin, Jian-Ying

    2013-05-01

    A series of iron oxide sorbents with novel structures of three-dimensionally ordered macropores (3DOM), ranging in size from 60 to 550 nm, were fabricated and creatively used as sorbents for the removal of H2S at medium temperatures of 300-350 °C. Evaluation tests using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and a fixed-bed reactor showed that, in comparison to the iron oxide sorbent prepared by a conventional mixing method, the fabricated iron oxide sorbent with a 3DOM structure exhibited much higher reactivity and efficiency, as well as high sorbent utilization with low regeneration temperature. The excellent performance of 3DOM iron oxide as a sulfur sorbent is attributed to its special texture, i.e., the open and interconnected macroporous, large surface area, and nanoparticles of iron oxide, which are revealed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and nitrogen adsorption techniques. The investigation results of the pore effect on the performance of the sorbent show that sorbents with pores size around 150 nm in diameter revealed the best performance. The reason is that pores of this size are large enough to allow gas to pass through even if the channel is partially blocked during the reaction process while remaining a large surface area that can provide more active sites for the reaction.

  16. Polarization induced water molecule dissociation below the first-order electronic-phase transition temperature.

    PubMed

    Das Arulsamy, Andrew; Kregar, Zlatko; Eleršič, Kristina; Modic, Martina; Subramani, Uma Shankar

    2011-09-01

    Hydrogen produced from the photocatalytic splitting of water is one of the reliable alternatives to replace the polluting fossil and the radioactive nuclear fuels. Here, we provide unequivocal evidence for the existence of blue- and red-shifting O-H covalent bonds within a single water molecule adsorbed on the MgO surface as a result of asymmetric displacement polarizabilities. The adsorbed H-O-H on MgO gives rise to one weaker H-O bond, while the other O-H covalent bond from the same adsorbed water molecule compensates this effect with a stronger bond. The weaker bond (nearest to the surface), the interlayer tunneling electrons and the silver substrate are shown to be the causes for the smallest dissociative activation energy on the MgO monolayer. The origin that is responsible to initiate the splitting mechanism is proven to be due to the changes in the polarizability of an adsorbed water molecule, which are further supported by the temperature-dependent static dielectric constant measurements for water below the first-order electronic-phase transition temperature.

  17. Three-dimensionally ordered macroporous iron oxide for removal of H2S at medium temperatures.

    PubMed

    Fan, Hui-Ling; Sun, Ting; Zhao, Yan-Peng; Shangguan, Ju; Lin, Jian-Ying

    2013-05-01

    A series of iron oxide sorbents with novel structures of three-dimensionally ordered macropores (3DOM), ranging in size from 60 to 550 nm, were fabricated and creatively used as sorbents for the removal of H2S at medium temperatures of 300-350 °C. Evaluation tests using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and a fixed-bed reactor showed that, in comparison to the iron oxide sorbent prepared by a conventional mixing method, the fabricated iron oxide sorbent with a 3DOM structure exhibited much higher reactivity and efficiency, as well as high sorbent utilization with low regeneration temperature. The excellent performance of 3DOM iron oxide as a sulfur sorbent is attributed to its special texture, i.e., the open and interconnected macroporous, large surface area, and nanoparticles of iron oxide, which are revealed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and nitrogen adsorption techniques. The investigation results of the pore effect on the performance of the sorbent show that sorbents with pores size around 150 nm in diameter revealed the best performance. The reason is that pores of this size are large enough to allow gas to pass through even if the channel is partially blocked during the reaction process while remaining a large surface area that can provide more active sites for the reaction. PMID:23528010

  18. Mesoporous aluminosilicates with ordered hexagonal structure, strong acidity, and extraordinary hydrothermal stability at high temperatures.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z; Han, Y; Xiao, F S; Qiu, S; Zhu, L; Wang, R; Yu, Y; Zhang, Z; Zou, B; Wang, Y; Sun, H; Zhao, D; Wei, Y

    2001-05-30

    Highly ordered hexagonal mesoporous aluminosilicates (MAS-5) with uniform pore sizes have been successfully synthesized from assembly of preformed aluminosilcate precursors with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) surfactant. The aluminosilicate precursors were obtained by heating, at 100--140 degrees C for 2--10 h, aluminasilica gels at the Al(2)O(3)/SiO(2)/TEAOH/H(2)O molar ratios of 1.0/7.0--350/10.0--33.0/500--2000. Mesoporous MAS-5 shows extraordinary stability both in boiling water (over 300 h) and in steam (800 degrees C for 2 h). Temperature-programmed desorption of ammonia shows that the acidic strength of MAS-5 is much higher than that of MCM-41 and is comparable to that of microporous Beta zeolite. In catalytic cracking of 1,3,5-triisopropylbenzene and alkylation of isobutane with butene, MAS-5 exhibits greater catalytic activity and selectivity, as compared with MCM-41 and HZSM-5. The MAS-5 samples were characterized with infrared, UV--Raman, and NMR spectroscopy and numerous other techniques. The results suggest that MAS-5 consists of both mesopores and micropores and that the pore walls of MAS-5 contain primary and secondary structural building units, similar to those of microporous zeolites. Such unique structural features might be responsible for the observed strong acidity and high thermal stability of the mesoporous aluminosilicates with well-ordered hexagonal symmetry.

  19. Changes to Stream Water and Soil Temperature Regimes Pre and Post Forest Harvesting in Low Order Boreal Forest Watersheds.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allan, C. J.; Najaf, P.; Mackereth, R.; Steedman, R.

    2014-12-01

    Soil and stream water temperatures were logged at 15 minute intervals (1995-2008) pre and post logging at four intensively monitored zero order boreal forest watersheds in NW Ontario, Canada. Trends in post logging changes to daily average, maximum and diurnal ranges in stream water and soil temperatures are presented. Changes to the soil temperature regime were found to be spatially variable and dependent upon aspect, hill slope position and soil moisture regime. In general, soil temperature displayed a hysteretic behavior in relation to reference sites during the post logging period with significantly warmer spring and summer temperatures and similar autumn temperatures. Stream water temperature appeared to be controlled by post logging surface soil temperatures (0-15 cm) as opposed to deeper (30-40 cm) soil temperatures during the pretreatment period. Results are compared to previous studies and implications for soil microbial processes and stream benthic communities are highlighted.

  20. AFM and electroanalytical studies of synthetic oligonucleotide hybridization.

    PubMed

    Chiorcea Paquim, A-M; Diculescu, V C; Oretskaya, T S; Oliveira Brett, A M

    2004-11-15

    The first and most important step in the development and manufacture of a sensitive DNA-biosensor for hybridization detection is the immobilization procedure of the nucleic acid probe on the transducer surface, maintaining its mobility and conformational flexibility. MAC Mode AFM images were used to demonstrate that oligonucleotide (ODN) molecules adsorb spontaneously at the electrode surface. After adsorption, the ODN layers were formed by molecules with restricted mobility, as well as by superposed molecules, which can lead to reduced hybridization efficiency. The images also showed the existence of pores in the adsorbed ODN film that revealed large parts of the electrode surface, and enabled non-specific adsorption of other ODNs on the uncovered areas. Electrostatic immobilization onto a clean glassy carbon electrode surface was followed by hybridization with complementary sequences and by control experiments with non-complementary sequences, studied using differential pulse voltammetry. The data obtained showed that non-specific adsorption strongly influenced the results, which depended on the sequence of the ODNs. In order to reduce the contribution of non-specific adsorbed ODNs during hybridization experiments, the carbon electrode surface was modified. After modification, the AFM images showed an electrode completely covered by the ODN probe film, which prevented the undesirable binding of target ODN molecules to the electrode surface. The changes of interfacial capacitance that took place after hybridization or control experiments showed the formation of a mixed multilayer that strongly depended on the local environment of the immobilized ODN.

  1. Pathogen identification using peptide nanotube biosensors and impedance AFM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maccuspie, Robert I.

    Pathogen identification at highly sensitive levels is crucial to meet urgent needs in fighting the spread of disease or detecting bioterrorism events. Toward that end, a new method for biosensing utilizing fluorescent antibody nanotubes is proposed. Fundamental studies on the self-assembly of these peptide nanotubes are performed, as are applications of aligning these nanotubes on surfaces. As biosensors, these nanotubes incorporate recognition units with antibodies at their ends and fluorescent signaling units at their sidewalls. When viral pathogens were mixed with these antibody nanotubes in solution, the nanotubes rapidly aggregated around the viruses. The size of the aggregates increased as the concentration of viruses increased, as detected by flow cytometry on the order of attomolar concentrations by changes in fluorescence and light scattering intensities. This enabled determination of the concentrations of viruses at trace levels (102 to 106 pfu/mL) within 30 minutes from the receipt of samples to the final quantitative data analysis, as demonstrated on Adenovirus, Herpes Simplex Virus, Influenza, and Vaccinia virus. As another separate approach, impedance AFM is used to study the electrical properties of individual viruses and nanoparticles used as model systems. The design, development, and implementation of the impedance AFM for an Asylum Research platform is described, as well as its application towards studying the impedance of individual nanoparticles as a model system for understanding the fundamental science of how the life cycle of a virus affects its electrical properties. In combination, these approaches fill a pressing need to quantify viruses both rapidly and sensitively.

  2. Measurement of the Order Parameter in a Room Temperature Liquid Crystal: An Experiment for the Physical Chemistry Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuPre, Donald B.; Chapoy, L. Lawrence

    1979-01-01

    Presented here is a laboratory experiment for a course in physical chemistry. Students are requested to directly measure the degree of orientational order in a liquid crystal at room temperature. A minimum amount of equipment is necessary. (Author/SA)

  3. BOREAS AFM-6 Surface Meteorological Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilczak, James; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Newcomer, Jeffrey A. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Airborne Fluxes and Meteorology (AFM)-6 team from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Adminsitration/Environment Technology Laboratory (NOAA/ETL) collected surface meteorological data from 21 May to 20 Sep 1994 near the Southern Study Area-Old Jack Pine (SSA-OJP) tower site. The data are in tabular ASCII files. The surface meteorological data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  4. AFM studies of semicrystalline polymer/inorganic nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strawhecker, Kenneth E.

    2002-01-01

    The aims of this work are to elucidate the effects of interaction strength on the crystallization of a polymer near an inorganic surface; connect filler induced polymer crystallinity with resulting property changes, especially for strongly interacting (i.e. hydrogen bonding) systems; and to devise atomic force microscopy (AFM) methods for probing the crystallinity and properties of polymer/layered silicate systems at the nanometer level. Three inorganically filled systems were studied: (1) poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), (2) poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO), and (3) polypropylene (PP). Since it has the strongest, interactions, the PVA system is investigated first. AFM is used in conjunction with x-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to show that strong polymer/filler interactions can promote a different crystalline structure and a different morphology than those seen in the bulk. The study then proceeds to the weakly interacting PEO/inorganic system where it is found that the inorganic layers disrupt crystalline morphology, but do not change the crystal structure. Furthermore, crystallization always occurs in volumes away from the inorganic filler. The third system (neutral interactions), PP/inorganic is then discussed. The three systems are compared with each other, and is found that the crystalline morphology and structure is highly dependent upon the strength of interaction between the polymer and filler. Due to its far-reaching morphology changes, the strongly interacting system was chosen for property studies. The composite structure study revealed a coexistence of exfoliated and intercalated MMT layers, especially for low and moderate silicate loadings. The inorganic layers promote a new crystalline phase different than the one of the respective neat PVA, characterized by higher melting temperature and a different crystal structure. This new crystal phase reflects on the composite materials properties, which have mechanical, thermal, and water

  5. Neutron diffraction and electrical transport studies on magnetic ordering in terbium at high pressures and low temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Sarah A.; Montgomery, Jeffrey M.; Tsoi, Georgiy M.; Vohra, Yogesh K.; Chesnut, Gary N.; Weir, Samuel T.; Tulk, Christopher A.; dos Santos, Antonio M.

    2013-06-11

    Neutron diffraction and electrical transport measurements have been carried out on the heavy rare earth metal terbium at high pressures and low temperatures in order to elucidate the onset of ferromagnetic order as a function of pressure. The electrical resistance measurements show a change in slope as the temperature is lowered through the ferromagnetic Curie temperature. The temperature of this ferromagnetic transition decreases from approximately 240 K at ambient pressure at a rate of –16.7 K/GPa up to a pressure of 3.6 GPa, at which point the onset of ferromagnetic order is suppressed. Neutron diffraction measurements as a function of pressure at temperatures ranging from 90 K to 290 K confirm that the change of slope in the resistance is associated with the ferromagnetic ordering, since this occurs at pressures similar to those determined from the resistance results at these temperatures. Furthermore, a change in ferromagnetic ordering as the pressure is increased above 3.6 GPa is correlated with the phase transition from the ambient hexagonal close packed (hcp) structure to an α-Sm type structure at high pressures.

  6. Neutron diffraction and electrical transport studies on magnetic ordering in terbium at high pressures and low temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Sarah; Montgomery, Jeffrey M; Tsoi, Georgiy; Vohra, Yogesh; Chesnut, Gary Neal; Weir, S. T.; Tulk, Christopher A; Moreira Dos Santos, Antonio F

    2013-01-01

    Neutron diffraction and electrical transport measurements have been carried out on the heavy rare-earth metal terbium at high pressures and low temperatures in order to elucidate the onset of ferromagnetic (FM) order as a function of pressure. The electrical resistance measurements show a change in slope as the temperature is lowered through the FM Curie temperature. The temperature of this FM transition decreases at a rate of-16.7 K/GPa up to a pressure of 3.6 GPa, at which point the onset of FM order is suppressed. The neutron diffraction measurements as a function of pressure at temperatures ranging from 90 to 290 K confirm that the change of slope in the resistance is associated with the FM ordering, since this occurs at pressures similar to those determined from the resistance results at these temperatures. A disappearance of FM ordering was observed as the pressure is increased above 3.6 GPa and is correlated with the phase transition from the ambient hexagonal close packed structure to an -Sm-type structure at high pressures.

  7. Neutron diffraction and electrical transport studies on magnetic ordering in terbium at high pressures and low temperatures

    DOE PAGES

    Thomas, Sarah A.; Montgomery, Jeffrey M.; Tsoi, Georgiy M.; Vohra, Yogesh K.; Chesnut, Gary N.; Weir, Samuel T.; Tulk, Christopher A.; dos Santos, Antonio M.

    2013-06-11

    Neutron diffraction and electrical transport measurements have been carried out on the heavy rare earth metal terbium at high pressures and low temperatures in order to elucidate the onset of ferromagnetic order as a function of pressure. The electrical resistance measurements show a change in slope as the temperature is lowered through the ferromagnetic Curie temperature. The temperature of this ferromagnetic transition decreases from approximately 240 K at ambient pressure at a rate of –16.7 K/GPa up to a pressure of 3.6 GPa, at which point the onset of ferromagnetic order is suppressed. Neutron diffraction measurements as a function ofmore » pressure at temperatures ranging from 90 K to 290 K confirm that the change of slope in the resistance is associated with the ferromagnetic ordering, since this occurs at pressures similar to those determined from the resistance results at these temperatures. Furthermore, a change in ferromagnetic ordering as the pressure is increased above 3.6 GPa is correlated with the phase transition from the ambient hexagonal close packed (hcp) structure to an α-Sm type structure at high pressures.« less

  8. Neutron diffraction and electrical transport studies on magnetic ordering in terbium at high pressures and low temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Sarah A.; Montgomery, Jeffrey M.; Tsoi, Georgiy M.; Vohra, Yogesh K.; Chesnut, Gary N.; Weir, Samuel T.; Tulk, Christopher A.; dos Santos, Antonio M.

    2013-08-01

    Neutron diffraction and electrical transport measurements have been carried out on the heavy rare-earth metal terbium at high pressures and low temperatures in order to elucidate the onset of ferromagnetic (FM) order as a function of pressure. The electrical resistance measurements show a change in slope as the temperature is lowered through the FM Curie temperature. The temperature of this FM transition decreases at a rate of-16.7 K/GPa up to a pressure of 3.6 GPa, at which point the onset of FM order is suppressed. The neutron diffraction measurements as a function of pressure at temperatures ranging from 90 to 290 K confirm that the change of slope in the resistance is associated with the FM ordering, since this occurs at pressures similar to those determined from the resistance results at these temperatures. A disappearance of FM ordering was observed as the pressure is increased above 3.6 GPa and is correlated with the phase transition from the ambient hexagonal close packed structure to an α-Sm-type structure at high pressures.

  9. Controlling morphology, mesoporosity, crystallinity, and photocatalytic activity of ordered mesoporous TiO2 films prepared at low temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elgh, Björn; Yuan, Ning; Cho, Hae Sung; Magerl, David; Philipp, Martine; Roth, Stephan V.; Yoon, Kyung Byung; Müller-Buschbaum, Peter; Terasaki, Osamu; Palmqvist, Anders E. C.

    2014-11-01

    Partly ordered mesoporous titania films with anatase crystallites incorporated into the pore walls were prepared at low temperature by spin-coating a microemulsion-based reaction solution. The effect of relative humidity employed during aging of the prepared films was studied using SEM, TEM, and grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering to evaluate the mesoscopic order, porosity, and crystallinity of the films. The study shows unambiguously that crystal growth occurs mainly during storage of the films and proceeds at room temperature largely depending on relative humidity. Porosity, pore size, mesoscopic order, crystallinity, and photocatalytic activity of the films increased with relative humidity up to an optimum around 75%.

  10. Controlling morphology, mesoporosity, crystallinity, and photocatalytic activity of ordered mesoporous TiO{sub 2} films prepared at low temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Elgh, Björn; Yuan, Ning; Palmqvist, Anders E. C.; Cho, Hae Sung; Terasaki, Osamu; Magerl, David; Philipp, Martine; Müller-Buschbaum, Peter; Roth, Stephan V.; Yoon, Kyung Byung

    2014-11-01

    Partly ordered mesoporous titania films with anatase crystallites incorporated into the pore walls were prepared at low temperature by spin-coating a microemulsion-based reaction solution. The effect of relative humidity employed during aging of the prepared films was studied using SEM, TEM, and grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering to evaluate the mesoscopic order, porosity, and crystallinity of the films. The study shows unambiguously that crystal growth occurs mainly during storage of the films and proceeds at room temperature largely depending on relative humidity. Porosity, pore size, mesoscopic order, crystallinity, and photocatalytic activity of the films increased with relative humidity up to an optimum around 75%.

  11. Isotopic ordering in eggshells reflects body temperatures and suggests differing thermophysiology in two Cretaceous dinosaurs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eagle, Robert A.; Enriquez, Marcus; Grellet-Tinner, Gerald; Pérez-Huerta, Alberto; Hu, David; Tütken, Thomas; Montanari, Shaena; Loyd, Sean J.; Ramirez, Pedro; Tripati, Aradhna K.; Kohn, Matthew J.; Cerling, Thure E.; Chiappe, Luis M.; Eiler, John M.

    2015-10-01

    Our understanding of the evolutionary transitions leading to the modern endothermic state of birds and mammals is incomplete, partly because tools available to study the thermophysiology of extinct vertebrates are limited. Here we show that clumped isotope analysis of eggshells can be used to determine body temperatures of females during periods of ovulation. Late Cretaceous titanosaurid eggshells yield temperatures similar to large modern endotherms. In contrast, oviraptorid eggshells yield temperatures lower than most modern endotherms but ~6 °C higher than co-occurring abiogenic carbonates, implying that this taxon did not have thermoregulation comparable to modern birds, but was able to elevate its body temperature above environmental temperatures. Therefore, we observe no strong evidence for end-member ectothermy or endothermy in the species examined. Body temperatures for these two species indicate that variable thermoregulation likely existed among the non-avian dinosaurs and that not all dinosaurs had body temperatures in the range of that seen in modern birds.

  12. Mechanical properties study of SW480 cells based on AFM.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaogang; Song, Zhengxun; Qu, Yingmin; Wang, Guoliang; Wang, Zuobin

    2015-08-01

    Since the invention of the atomic force microscope (AFM), it has been widely applied in biomedicine. One of the most important applications is used as an indenter tool to do the indentation experiment in order to get the mechanical properties of cells. In this paper, SW480 cells were used as the test subjects. Through the analysis of the contact and indentation, Young's modulus (E), which is an important parameter of cancer cells, has been estimated. Experimental results show that different mechanical models should be chosen to calculate the E in different indentation depths. Here, the E of SW480 cells was (2.5 ± 0.8) KPa at the indentation depth of 99 nm.

  13. Modeling Lunar Borehole Temperature in order to Reconstruct Historical Total Solar Irradiance and Estimate Surface Temperature in Permanently Shadowed Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, G.; Cahalan, R. F.; Miyahara, H.; Ohmura, A.

    2007-12-01

    The Moon is an ideal place to reconstruct historical total solar irradiance (TSI). With undisturbed lunar surface albedo and the very low thermal diffusivity of lunar regolith, changes in solar input lead to changes in lunar surface temperature that diffuse downward to be recorded in the temperature profile in the near-surface layer. Using regolith thermal properties from Apollo, we model the heat transfer in the regolith layer, and compare modeled surface temperature to Apollo observations to check model performance. Using as alternative input scenarios two reconstructed TSI time series from 1610 to 2000 (Lean, 2000; Wang, Lean, and Sheeley 2005), we conclude that the two scenarios can be distinguished by detectable differences in regolith temperature, with the peak difference of about 10 mK occuring at a depth of about 10 m (Miyahara et al., 2007). The possibility that water ice exists in permanently shadowed areas near the lunar poles (Nozette et al., 1997; Spudis et al, 1998), makes it of interest to estimate surface temperature in such dark regions. "Turning off" the Sun in our time dependent model, we found it would take several hundred years for the surface temperature to drop from ~~100K immediately after sunset down to a nearly constant equilibrium temperature of about 24~~38 K, with the range determined by the range of possible input from Earth, from 0 W/m2 without Earth visible, up to about 0.1 W/m2 at maximum Earth phase. A simple equilibrium model (e.g., Huang 2007) is inappropriate to relate the Apollo-observed nighttime temperature to Earth's radiation budget, given the long multi- centennial time scale needed for equilibration of the lunar surface layer after sunset. Although our results provide the key mechanisms for reconstructing historical TSI, further research is required to account for topography of lunar surfaces, and new measurements of regolith thermal properties will also be needed once a new base of operations is

  14. Temperature affects leaf litter decomposition in low-order forest streams: field and microcosm approaches.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Aingeru; Larrañaga, Aitor; Pérez, Javier; Descals, Enrique; Pozo, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Despite predicted global warming, the temperature effects on headwater stream functioning are poorly understood. We studied these effects on microbial-mediated leaf decomposition and the performance of associated aquatic hyphomycete assemblages. Alder leaves were incubated in three streams differing in winter water temperature. Simultaneously, in laboratory, leaf discs conditioned in these streams were incubated at 5, 10 and 15 °C. We determined mass loss, leaf N and sporulation rate and diversity of aquatic hyphomycete communities. In the field, decomposition rate correlated positively with temperature. Decomposition rate and leaf N presented a positive trend with dissolved nutrients, suggesting that temperature was not the only factor determining the process velocity. Under controlled conditions, it was confirmed that decomposition rate and leaf N were positively correlated with temperature, leaves from the coldest stream responding most clearly. Sporulation rate correlated positively with temperature after 9 days of incubation, but negatively after 18 and 27 days. Temperature rise affected negatively the sporulating fungi richness and diversity only in the material from the coldest stream. Our results suggest that temperature is an important factor determining leaf processing and aquatic hyphomycete assemblages and that composition and activity of fungal communities adapted to cold environments could be more affected by temperature rises. Highlight: Leaf decomposition rate and associated fungal communities respond to temperature shifts in headwater streams. PMID:24111990

  15. Temperature affects leaf litter decomposition in low-order forest streams: field and microcosm approaches.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Aingeru; Larrañaga, Aitor; Pérez, Javier; Descals, Enrique; Pozo, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Despite predicted global warming, the temperature effects on headwater stream functioning are poorly understood. We studied these effects on microbial-mediated leaf decomposition and the performance of associated aquatic hyphomycete assemblages. Alder leaves were incubated in three streams differing in winter water temperature. Simultaneously, in laboratory, leaf discs conditioned in these streams were incubated at 5, 10 and 15 °C. We determined mass loss, leaf N and sporulation rate and diversity of aquatic hyphomycete communities. In the field, decomposition rate correlated positively with temperature. Decomposition rate and leaf N presented a positive trend with dissolved nutrients, suggesting that temperature was not the only factor determining the process velocity. Under controlled conditions, it was confirmed that decomposition rate and leaf N were positively correlated with temperature, leaves from the coldest stream responding most clearly. Sporulation rate correlated positively with temperature after 9 days of incubation, but negatively after 18 and 27 days. Temperature rise affected negatively the sporulating fungi richness and diversity only in the material from the coldest stream. Our results suggest that temperature is an important factor determining leaf processing and aquatic hyphomycete assemblages and that composition and activity of fungal communities adapted to cold environments could be more affected by temperature rises. Highlight: Leaf decomposition rate and associated fungal communities respond to temperature shifts in headwater streams.

  16. BOREAS AFM-6 Boundary Layer Height Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilczak, James; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Newcomer, Jeffrey A. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Airborne Fluxes and Meteorology (AFM)-6 team from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Adminsitration/Environment Technology Laboratory (NOAA/ETL) operated a 915-MHz wind/Radio Acoustic Sounding System (RASS) profiler system in the Southern Study Area (SSA) near the Old Jack Pine (OJP) site. This data set provides boundary layer height information over the site. The data were collected from 21 May 1994 to 20 Sep 1994 and are stored in tabular ASCII files. The boundary layer height data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  17. BOREAS AFM-06 Mean Wind Profile Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilczak, James; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Newcomer, Jeffrey A. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Airborne Fluxes and Meteorology (AFM)-6 team from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Environment Technology Laboratory (NOAA/ETL) operated a 915-MHz wind/Radio Acoustic Sounding System (RASS) profiler system in the Southern Study Area (SSA) near the Old Jack Pine (OJP) tower from 21 May 1994 to 20 Sep 1994. The data set provides wind profiles at 38 heights, containing the variables of wind speed; wind direction; and the u-, v-, and w-components of the total wind. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The mean wind profile data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  18. Ordered iron aluminide alloys having an improved room-temperature ductility and method thereof

    DOEpatents

    Sikka, Vinod K.

    1992-01-01

    A process is disclosed for improving the room temperature ductility and strength of iron aluminide intermetallic alloys. The process involves thermomechanically working an iron aluminide alloy by means which produce an elongated grain structure. The worked alloy is then heated at a temperature in the range of about 650.degree. C. to about 800.degree. C. to produce a B2-type crystal structure. The alloy is rapidly cooled in a moisture free atmosphere to retain the B2-type crystal structure at room temperature, thus providing an alloy having improved room temperature ductility and strength.

  19. Effect of annealing temperature on PL spectrum and surface morphology of zinc oxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zendehnam, A.; Mirzaee, M.; Miri, S.

    2013-04-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films were produced by thermal oxidation of Zn layers (200 nm thickness) which were coated on Si (1 0 0) substrate by DC magnetron sputtering. In order to study the effect of annealing temperature on photoluminescence (PL) properties and the surface morphology of the ZnO samples, the annealing temperature range of 500-700 °C was employed. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) for investigation of surface morphology of the ZnO samples were carried out. The surface statistical characteristics of these ZnO thin films are then evaluated against data which outcome from AFM. SEM and AFM results indicated that the annealing temperature produces larger grains and rough surfaces at higher temperatures. The results of PL spectra represent an increase in interstitial zinc with increasing annealing temperature.

  20. AFM CHARACTERIZATION OF RAMAN LASER INDUCED DAMAGE ON CDZNTECRYSTAL SURFACES

    SciTech Connect

    Teague, L.; Duff, M.

    2008-10-07

    High quality CdZnTe (or CZT) crystals have the potential for use in room temperature gamma-ray and X-ray spectrometers. Over the last decade, the methods for growing high quality CZT have improved the quality of the produced crystals however there are material features that can influence the performance of these materials as radiation detectors. The presence of structural heterogeneities within the crystals, such as twinning, pipes, grain boundaries (polycrystallinity), and secondary phases (SPs) can have an impact on the detector performance. There is considerable need for reliable and reproducible characterization methods for the measurement of crystal quality. With improvements in material characterization and synthesis, these crystals may become suitable for widespread use in gamma radiation detection. Characterization techniques currently utilized to test for quality and/or to predict performance of the crystal as a gamma-ray detector include infrared (IR) transmission imaging, synchrotron X-ray topography, photoluminescence spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Raman spectroscopy. In some cases, damage caused by characterization methods can have deleterious effects on the crystal performance. The availability of non-destructive analysis techniques is essential to validate a crystal's quality and its ability to be used for either qualitative or quantitative gamma-ray or X-ray detection. The work presented herein discusses the damage that occurs during characterization of the CZT surface by a laser during Raman spectroscopy, even at minimal laser powers. Previous Raman studies have shown that the localized annealing from tightly focused, low powered lasers results in areas of higher Te concentration on the CZT surface. This type of laser damage on the surface resulted in decreased detector performance which was most likely due to increased leakage current caused by areas of higher Te concentration. In this study

  1. Elastic modulus of polypyrrole nanotubes: AFM measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuenot, Stéphane; Demoustier-Champagne, Sophie; Nysten, Bernard

    2001-03-01

    Polypyrrole nanotubes were electrochemically synthesized within the pores of nanoporous track-etched membranes. After dissolution of the template membrane, they were dispersed on PET membranes. Their tensile elastic modulus was measured by probing them in three points bending using an atomic force microscope. The elastic modulus was deduced from force-curve measurements. In this communication, the effect of the synthesis temperature and of the nanotube diameter will be presented. Especially it will be shown that the elastic modulus strongly increases when the nanotube outer diameter is reduced from 160 nm down to 35 nm. These results are in good agreement with previous results showing that the electrical conductivity of polypyrrole nanotubes increases by more than one order of magnitude when the diameter decreases in the same range. These behaviors could be explained by a larger ratio of well-oriented defect-free polymer chains in smaller tubes.

  2. High-temperature ordered intermetallic alloys III; Proceedings of the Third Symposium, Boston, MA, Nov. 29-Dec. 1, 1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, C. T. (Editor); Taub, A. I. (Editor); Stoloff, N. S. (Editor); Koch, C. C. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    The present conference on high-temperature ordered intermetallic alloys discusses alloy theory and phase stability, defects and microstructures, mechanical behavior, alloy design and material processing, multiphase and composite materials, nickel aluminides, titanium aluminides, and other ordered intermetallics. Attention is given to compositional effects on processing and properties of nickel aluminides, dynamic compaction and hot-isostatic-pressing of nickel aluminides, improvement of elevated-temperature material properties in Ni3Al, the effect of microalloying B on the high-temperature mechanical properties of Ti3Al, the effects of structure on creep of Ti-53.4 mol pct Al intermetallics, the deformation microstructure in Ni3Si polycrystals strained over the range of temperature of flow stress anomaly, and the microstructure and mechanical properties of dual phase alloys consisting of the intermetallic phases.

  3. Order-picking in deep cold--physiological responses of younger and older females. Part 2: body core temperature and skin surface temperature.

    PubMed

    Baldus, Sandra; Kluth, Karsten; Strasser, Helmut

    2012-01-01

    So far, it was unclear to what extent working in deep cold-storage depots has an influence on female order-pickers body core temperature and skin surface temperature considering different age groups. Physiological effects of order-picking in a chill room (+3°C) and cold store (-24°C) were examined on 30 female subjects (Ss), classified in two age groups (20- to 35- year-olds and 40- to 65-year-olds). The body core temperature was taken every 15 min at the tympanum and the skin surface temperature was recorded continuously at seven different positions. Working in the chill room induced a decrease of the body core temperature up to 0.5K in comparison to the value at the outset for both age groups which could be compensated by all Ss during the breaks. Working in the cold store caused a decline up to 1.1K for the younger Ss and 1.3K for the older Ss. A complete warming-up during the breaks was often not possible. Regarding the skin surface temperature, working in the chill room can be considered as unproblematic, whereas significantly lower temperatures at nose, fingers and toes, associated with substantial negative subjective sensations, were recorded while working in the cold store. PMID:22317178

  4. Isotopic ordering in eggshells reflects body temperatures and suggests differing thermophysiology in two Cretaceous dinosaurs.

    PubMed

    Eagle, Robert A; Enriquez, Marcus; Grellet-Tinner, Gerald; Pérez-Huerta, Alberto; Hu, David; Tütken, Thomas; Montanari, Shaena; Loyd, Sean J; Ramirez, Pedro; Tripati, Aradhna K; Kohn, Matthew J; Cerling, Thure E; Chiappe, Luis M; Eiler, John M

    2015-10-13

    Our understanding of the evolutionary transitions leading to the modern endothermic state of birds and mammals is incomplete, partly because tools available to study the thermophysiology of extinct vertebrates are limited. Here we show that clumped isotope analysis of eggshells can be used to determine body temperatures of females during periods of ovulation. Late Cretaceous titanosaurid eggshells yield temperatures similar to large modern endotherms. In contrast, oviraptorid eggshells yield temperatures lower than most modern endotherms but ∼ 6 °C higher than co-occurring abiogenic carbonates, implying that this taxon did not have thermoregulation comparable to modern birds, but was able to elevate its body temperature above environmental temperatures. Therefore, we observe no strong evidence for end-member ectothermy or endothermy in the species examined. Body temperatures for these two species indicate that variable thermoregulation likely existed among the non-avian dinosaurs and that not all dinosaurs had body temperatures in the range of that seen in modern birds.

  5. Isotopic ordering in eggshells reflects body temperatures and suggests differing thermophysiology in two Cretaceous dinosaurs.

    PubMed

    Eagle, Robert A; Enriquez, Marcus; Grellet-Tinner, Gerald; Pérez-Huerta, Alberto; Hu, David; Tütken, Thomas; Montanari, Shaena; Loyd, Sean J; Ramirez, Pedro; Tripati, Aradhna K; Kohn, Matthew J; Cerling, Thure E; Chiappe, Luis M; Eiler, John M

    2015-01-01

    Our understanding of the evolutionary transitions leading to the modern endothermic state of birds and mammals is incomplete, partly because tools available to study the thermophysiology of extinct vertebrates are limited. Here we show that clumped isotope analysis of eggshells can be used to determine body temperatures of females during periods of ovulation. Late Cretaceous titanosaurid eggshells yield temperatures similar to large modern endotherms. In contrast, oviraptorid eggshells yield temperatures lower than most modern endotherms but ∼ 6 °C higher than co-occurring abiogenic carbonates, implying that this taxon did not have thermoregulation comparable to modern birds, but was able to elevate its body temperature above environmental temperatures. Therefore, we observe no strong evidence for end-member ectothermy or endothermy in the species examined. Body temperatures for these two species indicate that variable thermoregulation likely existed among the non-avian dinosaurs and that not all dinosaurs had body temperatures in the range of that seen in modern birds. PMID:26462135

  6. Electron holography study of the temperature variation of the magnetic order parameter within circularly chained nickel nanoparticle rings

    SciTech Connect

    Sugawara, Akira; Fukunaga, Kei-ichi; Scheinfein, M. R.; Kobayashi, H.; Kitagawa, H.; Tonomura, A.

    2007-12-24

    The magnetic structure within circular chains composed of 30-nm-diameter, polymer-coated nickel particles was studied by electron holography. The magnetic flux closure due to dipolar coupling was confirmed at zero external magnetic field. Its long-range order parameter was determined from the magnitude of the electron phase shift, and it was found to decrease more rapidly than that of bulk nickel as a function of temperature. The results of Monte Carlo simulations indicated that the temperature variation of the order-parameter was explained in terms of weakened dipolar coupling field ascribed to the decay of the bulk magnetization and enhanced thermal fluctuations.

  7. Metal-coated second-order fibre Bragg gratings produced by infrared femtosecond radiation for dual temperature and strain sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chah, K.; Kinet, D.; Caucheteur, C.

    2016-05-01

    We report highly localized second-order fibre Bragg gratings at 1585 nm inscribed by point-by-point focused infrared femtosecond pulses. A thin gold coating deposited on the fibre outer surface at the grating location allows shielding the cladding mode resonances from the outer medium, so that they remain present in the transmitted amplitude spectrum. The Bragg resonance of the second-order grating is surrounded by high-order cladding mode resonances of the first-order grating. These cladding modes exhibit the same temperature sensitivity as the Bragg resonance (10.6 pm/°C) but high differential strain sensitivity (-0.55 pm/μepsilon versus 1.20 pm/μepsilon for the Bragg mode). Therefore, the conditioning of the matrix inversion as demodulation method is fully satisfied, yielding a new design of fibre sensor able to discriminate between temperature and strain, with an unprecedented sensitivity.

  8. BOREAS AFM-2 Wyoming King Air 1994 Aircraft Sounding Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Robert D.; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David E. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS AFM-2 team used the University of Wyoming King Air aircraft during IFCs 1, 2, and 3 in 1994 to collected pass-by-pass fluxes (and many other statistics) for the large number of level (constant altitude), straight-line passes used in a variety of flight patterns over the SSA and NSA and areas along the transect between these study areas. The data described here form a second set, namely soundings that were incorporated into nearly every research flight by the King Air in 1994. These soundings generally went from near the surface to above the inversion layer. Most were flown immediately after takeoff or immediately after finishing the last flux pattern of that particular day's flights. The parameters that were measured include wind direction, wind speed, west wind component (u), south wind component (v), static pressure, air dry bulb temperature, potential temperature, dewpoint, temperature, water vapor mixing ratio, and CO2 concentration. Data on the aircraft's location, attitude, and altitude during data collection are also provided. These data are stored in tabular ASCH files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884) or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  9. Order/disorder phenomena in Zn1-xMnxGa2Se4 ordered vacancy compounds: high temperature neutron powder diffraction experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso-Gutiérrez, P.; Morón, M. C.; Hull, S.; Sanjuán, M. L.

    2013-12-01

    We present a study of order-disorder phenomena in the series of tetrahedral ordered vacancy compounds Zn1-xMnxGa2Se4 by means of time-of-flight neutron diffraction at high temperature together with dc magnetic susceptibility, Raman spectroscopy, differential thermal analysis and optical absorption experiments. Samples of nominal composition x = 0, 0.24, 0.5, 0.77 and 1 have been studied. An order-disorder phase transition has been detected, with Tc ranging from 472 to 610 ° C, which involves a structural change from a defect chalcopyrite phase, with I\\bar {4} space group (s.g.) and three different cation sites, to a partially disordered defect stannite, in which Zn, Mn and half of the Ga ions share the 4d site in I\\bar {4}2 m s.g. Neither the vacancies nor the Ga ions occupying site 2a are involved in the phase transition. An additional ordering process is observed on approaching the phase transition from below, which is attributed to several factors: the activation of cation diffusion at ˜300 ° C, the partially disordered cation distribution exhibited by the as-grown single crystals and the preference of Mn atoms for the 2d crystallographic site in the I\\bar {4} structure. The reversibility of the phase transition is analysed with the aid of magnetic, optical and Raman experiments.

  10. Studying post-etching silicon crystal defects on 300mm wafer by automatic defect review AFM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zandiatashbar, Ardavan; Taylor, Patrick A.; Kim, Byong; Yoo, Young-kook; Lee, Keibock; Jo, Ahjin; Lee, Ju Suk; Cho, Sang-Joon; Park, Sang-il

    2016-03-01

    Single crystal silicon wafers are the fundamental elements of semiconductor manufacturing industry. The wafers produced by Czochralski (CZ) process are very high quality single crystalline materials with known defects that are formed during the crystal growth or modified by further processing. While defects can be unfavorable for yield for some manufactured electrical devices, a group of defects like oxide precipitates can have both positive and negative impacts on the final device. The spatial distribution of these defects may be found by scattering techniques. However, due to limitations of scattering (i.e. light wavelength), many crystal defects are either poorly classified or not detected. Therefore a high throughput and accurate characterization of their shape and dimension is essential for reviewing the defects and proper classification. While scanning electron microscopy (SEM) can provide high resolution twodimensional images, atomic force microscopy (AFM) is essential for obtaining three-dimensional information of the defects of interest (DOI) as it is known to provide the highest vertical resolution among all techniques [1]. However AFM's low throughput, limited tip life, and laborious efforts for locating the DOI have been the limitations of this technique for defect review for 300 mm wafers. To address these limitations of AFM, automatic defect review AFM has been introduced recently [2], and is utilized in this work for studying DOI on 300 mm silicon wafer. In this work, we carefully etched a 300 mm silicon wafer with a gaseous acid in a reducing atmosphere at a temperature and for a sufficient duration to decorate and grow the crystal defects to a size capable of being detected as light scattering defects [3]. The etched defects form a shallow structure and their distribution and relative size are inspected by laser light scattering (LLS). However, several groups of defects couldn't be properly sized by the LLS due to the very shallow depth and low

  11. Second-order number-conserving description of nonequilibrium dynamics in finite-temperature Bose-Einstein condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billam, T. P.; Mason, P.; Gardiner, S. A.

    2013-03-01

    While the Gross-Pitaevskii equation is well established as the canonical dynamical description of atomic Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) at zero temperature, describing the dynamics of BECs at finite temperatures remains a difficult theoretical problem, particularly when considering low-temperature, nonequilibrium systems in which depletion of the condensate occurs dynamically as a result of external driving. In this paper, we describe a fully time-dependent numerical implementation of a second-order, number-conserving description of finite-temperature BEC dynamics. This description consists of equations of motion describing the coupled dynamics of the condensate and noncondensate fractions in a self-consistent manner, and is ideally suited for the study of low-temperature, nonequilibrium, driven systems. The δ-kicked-rotor BEC provides a prototypical example of such a system, and we demonstrate the efficacy of our numerical implementation by investigating its dynamics at finite temperature. We demonstrate that the qualitative features of the system dynamics at zero temperature are generally preserved at finite temperatures, and predict a quantitative finite-temperature shift of resonance frequencies which would be relevant for, and could be verified by, future experiments.

  12. Structural and Mechanical Mechanisms of Ocular Tissues Probed by AFM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziebarth, Noël M.; Rico, Felix; Moy, Vincent T.

    In recent years, the atomic force microscope (AFM) has become an important tool in ophthalmic research. It has gained popularity largely because AFM is not restricted by the diffraction limits of light microscopy and can be applied to resolve images with molecular resolution. AFM is a minimally invasive technique and can be used to visualize molecular structures under near-physiological conditions. In addition, the AFM can be employed as a force apparatus to characterize the viscoelastic properties of biomaterials on the micron level and at the level of individual proteins. In this article, we summarize recent AFM studies of ocular tissues, while highlighting the great potential of AFM technology in ophthalmic research. Previous research demonstrates the versatility of the AFM as high resolution imaging technique and as a sensitive force apparatus for probing the mechanical properties of ocular tissues. The structural and mechanical properties of ocular tissues are of major importance to the understanding of the optomechanical functions of the human eye. In addition, AFM has played an important role in the development and characterization of ocular biomaterials, such as contact lenses and intraocular lenses. Studying ocular tissues using Atomic Force Microscopy has enabled several advances in ophthalmic research.

  13. Improved photoluminescence characteristics of order-disorder AlGaInP quantum wells at room and elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Mukherjee, Kunal; Fitzgerald, Eugene A.; Deotare, Parag B.

    2015-04-06

    A set of nominally undoped CuPt-B type ordered (Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}){sub 0.5}In{sub 0.5}P quantum-wells with disordered (Al{sub 0.7}Ga{sub 0.3}){sub 0.5}In{sub 0.5}P barriers were grown and characterized using transmission electron microscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy. Such structures are potentially beneficial for light emitting devices due to the possibility of greater carrier confinement, reduced scattering into the indirect valleys, and band-offset adjustment beyond what is possible with strain and composition. Furthermore, the possibility of independently tuning the composition and the order-parameter of the quantum-well allows for the decoupling of the carrier confinement and the aluminum content and aids in the identification of carrier loss mechanisms. In this study, sharp order-disorder interfaces were achieved via the control of growth temperature between 650 °C and 750 °C using growth pauses. Improved high-temperature (400 K) photoluminescence intensity was obtained from quantum-wells with ordered Ga{sub 0.5}In{sub 0.5}P as compared to disordered Ga{sub 0.5}In{sub 0.5}P due to greater confinement. Additionally, in the ordered samples with a higher Al/Ga ratio to counter the band-gap reduction, the photoluminescence intensity at high temperature was as bright as that from conventional disordered heterostructures and had slightly improved wavelength stability. Room-temperature time-resolved luminescence measurements indicated a longer radiative lifetime in the ordered quantum-well with reduced scattering into the barrier. These results show that in samples of good material quality, the property controlling the luminescence intensity is the carrier confinement and not the presence of ordering or the aluminum content.

  14. Microrheology using a custom-made AFM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosgodagan Acharige, Sebastien; Benzaquen, Michael; Steinberger, Audrey

    In the past few years, a new method was developed to measure local properties of liquids (X. Xiong et al., Phys. Rev. E 80, 2009). This method consists of gluing a micron-sized glass fiber at the tip of an AFM cantilever and probing the liquid with it. In ENS Lyon, this method was perfected (C. Devailly et al., EPL, 106 5, 2014) with the help of an interferometer developped in the same laboratory (L. Bellon et al., Opt. Commun. 207 49, 2002 and P. Paolino et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 2013), which background noise can reach 10-14 m /√{ Hz } . This method allows us to measure a wide range of viscosities (1 mPa . s to 500 mPa . s) of transparent and opaque fluids using a small sample volume ( 5 mL). In this presentation, I will briefly describe the interferometer developped in ENS Lyon, then explain precisely the microrheology measurements and then compare the experimental results to a model developped by M. Benzaquen. This work is supported financially by the ANR project NANOFLUIDYN (Grant Number ANR-13-BS10-0009).

  15. BOREAS AFM-07 SRC Surface Meteorological Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osborne, Heather; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Newcomer, Jeffrey A. (Editor); Young, Kim; Wittrock, Virginia; Shewchuck, Stan; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Saskatchewan Research Council (SRC) collected surface meteorological and radiation data from December 1993 until December 1996. The data set comprises Suite A (meteorological and energy balance measurements) and Suite B (diffuse solar and longwave measurements) components. Suite A measurements were taken at each of ten sites, and Suite B measurements were made at five of the Suite A sites. The data cover an approximate area of 500 km (North-South) by 1000 km (East-West) (a large portion of northern Manitoba and northern Saskatchewan). The measurement network was designed to provide researchers with a sufficient record of near-surface meteorological and radiation measurements. The data are provided in tabular ASCII files, and were collected by Aircraft Flux and Meteorology (AFM)-7. The surface meteorological and radiation data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  16. Axi-symmetric generalized thermoelastic diffusion problem with two-temperature and initial stress under fractional order heat conduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deswal, Sunita; Kalkal, Kapil Kumar; Sheoran, Sandeep Singh

    2016-09-01

    A mathematical model of fractional order two-temperature generalized thermoelasticity with diffusion and initial stress is proposed to analyze the transient wave phenomenon in an infinite thermoelastic half-space. The governing equations are derived in cylindrical coordinates for a two dimensional axi-symmetric problem. The analytical solution is procured by employing the Laplace and Hankel transforms for time and space variables respectively. The solutions are investigated in detail for a time dependent heat source. By using numerical inversion method of integral transforms, we obtain the solutions for displacement, stress, temperature and diffusion fields in physical domain. Computations are carried out for copper material and displayed graphically. The effect of fractional order parameter, two-temperature parameter, diffusion, initial stress and time on the different thermoelastic and diffusion fields is analyzed on the basis of analytical and numerical results. Some special cases have also been deduced from the present investigation.

  17. 24-th Order high temperature expansion for the 3-d Ising model

    SciTech Connect

    Glaessner, U.; Schilling, K.; Bhanot, G.; Creutz, M.

    1994-12-01

    The authors present the series for the free energy and their estimate for the critical exponent {alpha}, as computed by a recursive bookkeeping algorithm on the CM5. They begin with a discussion of the algorithm to compute the High-Temperature expansion on finite 3-D Ising lattices.

  18. Pressure-induced amorphization of charge ordered spinel AlV{sub 2}O{sub 4} at low temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Malavi, Pallavi S. Karmakar, S. Sharma, S. M.; Maurizio, P.

    2014-04-24

    Structural properties of charge ordered spinel AlV{sub 2}O{sub 4} have been investigated under high pressure at low temperature (80K) by synchrotron based x-ray diffraction measurements. It is observed that upon increasing pressure the structure becomes progressively disordered due to the distortion of the AlO{sub 4} tetrahedral unit and undergoes amorphization above ∼12 GPa. While releasing pressure, the rhombohedral phase is only partially recovered at a much lower pressure (below 5 GPa). Within the stability of the rhombohedral phase, the distortion in the vanadium heptamer increases monotonically with pressure, suggesting enhanced charge ordering. This result is in sharp contrast with the recent observation of pressure-induced frustration in the charge ordered state leading to structural transition to the cubic phase at room temperature [JPCM 25, 292201, 2013].

  19. BOREAS AFM-03-NCAR Electra 1994 Aircraft Sounding Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lenschow, Donald H.; Oncley, Steven P.; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David E. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Airborne Fluxes and Meteorology (AFM)-3 team used the National Center for Atmospheric Research's (NCAR) Electra aircraft to make sounding measurements to study the planetary boundary layer using in situ and remote-sensing measurements. Measurements were made of wind speed and direction, air pressure and temperature, potential temperature, dewpoint, mixing ratio of H, O, CO, concentration, and ozone concentration. Twenty-five research missions were flown over the Northern Study Area (NSA), Southern Study Area (SSA), and the transect during BOREAS Intensive Field Campaigns (IFCs) 1, 2, and 3 during 1994. All missions had from four to ten soundings through the top of the planetary boundary layer. This sounding data set contains all of the in situ vertical profiles through the boundary layer top that were made (with the exception of 'porpoise' maneuvers). Data were recorded in one-second time intervals. These data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The NCAR Electra 1994 aircraft sounding data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  20. Effect of grain size on charge and magnetic ordering in Bi{sub 0.67}Ca{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Ade, Ramesh Singh, R.

    2014-04-24

    In the present work we report the electron spin resonance(ESR) and magnetic measurements to understand the effect of grain size on the charge ordering (CO), orbital ordering (OO), long range anti ferromagnetic (AFM) ordering in Bi{sub 0.67}Ca{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 3} manganite synthesized by sol-gel method. The temperature dependence of linewidth (ΔH) of the ESR signal and magnetization have been used to get information about magnetic interactions. The CO is suppressed and AFM ordering remains unaffected with increase in grain size of the sample. The competition between FM and AFM correlations is strongly dependent on the grain size of the sample.

  1. Low-temperature dielectric behavior of disordered and ordered langasite family single crystals LGS, LGT, SNGS and STGS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnova, E.; Sotnikov, A.; Schmidt, H.; Weihnacht, M.; Sakharov, S.

    2015-10-01

    Dielectric measurements of disordered La3Ga5SiO14 (LGS), La3Ga5,5Ta0,5O14 (LGT) and ordered Sr3NbGa3Si2O14 (SNGS), Sr3TaGa3Si2O14 (STGS) single crystals of the langasite family performed at frequencies from 10 Hz to 1 MHz at temperatures between 4.2 and 300 K are reported. Temperature dependences of dielectric permittivity ε33 and ε11 are obtained. It is shown that ε33 in LGS and LGT exhibits incipient ferroelectric-like behavior. SNGS and STGS demonstrate ordinary dielectric temperature dependences as dielectric permittivity decreases down to helium temperatures.

  2. Unshocked equilibrated H-chondrites: A common low-temperature record from orthopyroxene iron-magnesium ordering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folco, L.; Mellini, M.; Pillinger, C. T.

    1996-05-01

    A suite of eight unshocked equilibrated H-chondrites ranging from petrographic type 4 to 6 (La Villa, Raguli, FRO 90076, Miami, FRO 90049, Estacado, FRO 90156 and Acfer 314) was selected for a systematic study of orthopyroxene cation ordering temperatures. The closure temperatures of the Fe-Mg exchange lie within the 384 ± 48 °C to 480 ± 28 °C range, regardless of the petrographic type. Data suggests that metamorphosed H-chondrites share a similar thermal evolution close to 380-480 °C. Indeed, this indicates that H4, H5 and H6 chondrites were located in petrogenetic environments characterized by similar temperature-time conditions when cooling through the above temperature interval.

  3. Fragile charge order in the nonsuperconducting ground state of the underdoped high-temperature superconductors.

    PubMed

    Tan, B S; Harrison, N; Zhu, Z; Balakirev, F; Ramshaw, B J; Srivastava, A; Sabok-Sayr, S A; Sabok, S A; Dabrowski, B; Lonzarich, G G; Sebastian, Suchitra E

    2015-08-01

    The normal state in the hole underdoped copper oxide superconductors has proven to be a source of mystery for decades. The measurement of a small Fermi surface by quantum oscillations on suppression of superconductivity by high applied magnetic fields, together with complementary spectroscopic measurements in the hole underdoped copper oxide superconductors, point to a nodal electron pocket from charge order in YBa2Cu3(6+δ). Here, we report quantum oscillation measurements in the closely related stoichiometric material YBa2Cu4O8, which reveals similar Fermi surface properties to YBa2Cu3(6+δ), despite the nonobservation of charge order signatures in the same spectroscopic techniques, such as X-ray diffraction, that revealed signatures of charge order in YBa2Cu3(6+δ). Fermi surface reconstruction in YBa2Cu4O8 is suggested to occur from magnetic field enhancement of charge order that is rendered fragile in zero magnetic fields because of its potential unconventional nature and/or its occurrence as a subsidiary to more robust underlying electronic correlations. PMID:26199413

  4. Fragile charge order in the nonsuperconducting ground state of the underdoped high-temperature superconductors

    PubMed Central

    Tan, B. S.; Harrison, N.; Zhu, Z.; Balakirev, F.; Ramshaw, B. J.; Srivastava, A.; Sabok-Sayr, S. A.; Dabrowski, B.; Lonzarich, G. G.; Sebastian, Suchitra E.

    2015-01-01

    The normal state in the hole underdoped copper oxide superconductors has proven to be a source of mystery for decades. The measurement of a small Fermi surface by quantum oscillations on suppression of superconductivity by high applied magnetic fields, together with complementary spectroscopic measurements in the hole underdoped copper oxide superconductors, point to a nodal electron pocket from charge order in YBa2Cu3O6+δ. Here, we report quantum oscillation measurements in the closely related stoichiometric material YBa2Cu4O8, which reveals similar Fermi surface properties to YBa2Cu3O6+δ, despite the nonobservation of charge order signatures in the same spectroscopic techniques, such as X-ray diffraction, that revealed signatures of charge order in YBa2Cu3O6+δ. Fermi surface reconstruction in YBa2Cu4O8 is suggested to occur from magnetic field enhancement of charge order that is rendered fragile in zero magnetic fields because of its potential unconventional nature and/or its occurrence as a subsidiary to more robust underlying electronic correlations. PMID:26199413

  5. Single-Molecule Studies of Integrins by AFM-Based Force Spectroscopy on Living Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eibl, Robert H.

    The characterization of cell adhesion between two living cells at the single-molecule level, i.e., between one adhesion receptor and its counter-receptor, appears to be an experimental challenge. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) can be used in its force spectroscopy mode to determine unbinding forces of a single pair of adhesion receptors, even with a living cell as a probe. This chapter provides an overview of AFM force measurements of the integrin family of cell adhesion receptors and their ligands. A focus is given to major integrins expressed on leukocytes, such as lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) and very late antigen 4 (VLA-4). These receptors are crucial for leukocyte trafficking in health and disease. LFA-1 and VLA-1 can be activated within the bloodstream from a low-affinity to a high-affinity receptor by chemokines in order to adhere strongly to the vessel wall before the receptor-bearing leukocytes extravasate. The experimental considerations needed to provide near-physiological conditions for a living cell and to be able to measure adequate forces at the single-molecule level are discussed in detail. AFM technology has been developed into a modern and extremely sensitive tool in biomedical research. It appears now that AFM force spectroscopy could enter, within a few years, medical applications in diagnosis and therapy of cancer and autoimmune diseases.

  6. Study of relaxation and transport processes by means of AFM based dielectric spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Miccio, Luis A.

    2014-05-15

    Since its birth a few years ago, dielectric spectroscopy studies based on atomic force microscopy (AFM) have gained a growing interest. Not only the frequency and temperature ranges have become broader since then but also the kind of processes that can be studied by means of this approach. In this work we analyze the most adequate experimental setup for the study of several dielectric processes with a spatial resolution of a few nanometers by using force mode AFM based dielectric spectroscopy. Proof of concept experiments were performed on PS/PVAc blends and PMMA homopolymer films, for temperatures ranging from 300 to 400 K. Charge transport processes were also studied by this approach. The obtained results were analyzed in terms of cantilever stray contribution, film thickness and relaxation strength. We found that the method sensitivity is strongly coupled with the film thickness and the relaxation strength, and that it is possible to control it by using an adequate experimental setup.

  7. AFM investigation and optical band gap study of chemically deposited PbS thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaman, S.; Mansoor, M.; Abubakar; Asim, M. M.

    2016-08-01

    The interest into deposition of nanocrystalline PbS thin films, the potential of designing and tailoring both the topographical features and the band gap energy (Eg) by controlling growth parameters, has significant technological importance. Nanocrystalline thin films of lead sulfide were grown onto glass substrates by chemical bath deposition (CBD) method. The experiments were carried out by varying deposition temperature. We report on the modification of structural and optical properties as a function of deposition temperature. The morphological changes of the films were analyzed by using SEM and AFM. AFM was also used to calculate average roughness of the films. XRD spectra indicated preferred growth of cubic phase of PbS films in (200) direction with increasing deposition time. Optical properties have been studied by UV-Spectrophotometer. From the diffused reflectance spectra we have calculated the optical Eg shift from 0.649-0.636 eV with increasing deposition time.

  8. Extraction and absorption of higher order modes in room temperature accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Rimmer, R.A.

    1993-02-01

    This paper describes methods for extracting and absorbing unwanted higher-order modes (HOMs) from normal-conducting accelerator structures. An introduction to the problems caused by HOMs is followed by a brief history of the development of techniques to suppress them, and some examples taken from existing and planned accelerators. These include damped radio frequency (RF) cavities for storage rings such as the proposed PEP-II B factory and accelerating structures for future linear collider projects.

  9. Supraphysiological cyclic dosing of sustained release T3 in order to reset low basal body temperature.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Michael; Miranda-Massari, Jorge R; Gonzalez, Michael J

    2006-03-01

    The use of sustained release tri-iodothyronine (SR-T3) in clinical practice, has gained popularity in the complementary and alternative medical community in the treatment of chronic fatigue with a protocol (WT3) pioneered by Dr. Denis Wilson. The WT3 protocol involves the use of SR-T3 taken orally by the patient every 12 hours according to a cyclic dose schedule determined by patient response. The patient is then weaned once a body temperature of 98.6 degrees F has been maintained for 3 consecutive weeks. The symptoms associated with this protocol have been given the name Wilson's Temperature Syndrome (WTS). There have been clinical studies using T3 in patients who are euthyroid based on normal TSH values. However, this treatment has created a controversy in the conventional medical community, especially with the American Thyroid Association, because it is not based on a measured deficiency of thyroid hormone. However, just as estrogen and progesterone are prescribed to regulate menstrual cycles in patients who have normal serum hormone levels, the WT3 therapy can be used to regulate metabolism despite normal serum thyroid hormone levels. SR-T3 prescription is based exclusively on low body temperature and presentation of symptoms. Decreased T3 function exerts widespread effects throughout the body. It can decrease serotonin and growth hormone levels and increase the number of adrenal hormone receptor sites. These effects may explain some of the symptoms observed in WTS. The dysregulation of neuroendocrine function may begin to explain such symptoms as alpha intrusion into slow wave sleep, decrease in blood flow to the brain, alterations in carbohydrate metabolism, fatigue, myalgia and arthralgia, depression and cognitive dysfunction. Despite all thermoregulatory control mechanisms of the body and the complex metabolic processes involved, WT3 therapy seems a valuable tool to re-establish normal body functions. We report the results of 11 patients who underwent the

  10. Raman and AFM study of gamma irradiated plastic bottle sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Yasir; Kumar, Vijay; Sonkawade, R. G.; Dhaliwal, A. S.

    2013-02-01

    In this investigation, the effects of gamma irradiation on the structural properties of plastic bottle sheet are studied. The Plastic sheets were exposed with 1.25MeV 60Co gamma rays source at various dose levels within the range from 0-670 kGy. The induced modifications were followed by micro-Raman and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The Raman spectrum shows the decrease in Raman intensity and formation of unsaturated bonds with an increase in the gamma dose. AFM image displays rough surface morphology after irradiation. The detailed Raman analysis of plastic bottle sheets is presented here, and the results are correlated with the AFM observations.

  11. Raman and AFM study of gamma irradiated plastic bottle sheets

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, Yasir; Kumar, Vijay; Dhaliwal, A. S.; Sonkawade, R. G.

    2013-02-05

    In this investigation, the effects of gamma irradiation on the structural properties of plastic bottle sheet are studied. The Plastic sheets were exposed with 1.25MeV {sup 60}Co gamma rays source at various dose levels within the range from 0-670 kGy. The induced modifications were followed by micro-Raman and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The Raman spectrum shows the decrease in Raman intensity and formation of unsaturated bonds with an increase in the gamma dose. AFM image displays rough surface morphology after irradiation. The detailed Raman analysis of plastic bottle sheets is presented here, and the results are correlated with the AFM observations.

  12. Long-range order in a high-density electron-hole system at room temperature during superradiant phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasil'ev, Peter P.; Olle, Vojtech; Penty, Richard V.; White, Ian H.

    2013-11-01

    We have experimentally investigated the formation of off-diagonal long-range order and non-equilibrium BEC-like condensation in GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures during superradiant (SR) emission at room temperature. The conclusive evidence of the establishment of phase coherence over a macroscopic range during the superradiant quantum phase transition is reported. The first-order spatial correlation function of the e-h system is determined by evaluating interference patterns of SR emission using Young's double slit.

  13. Low-temperature order in the heavy-fermion compound CeCu{sub 6}

    SciTech Connect

    Pollack, L.; Hoch, M.J.R.; Jin, C.; Smith, E.N.; Parpia, J.M.; Hawthorne, D.L.; Geller, D.A.; Lee, D.M.; Richardson, R.C.; Hinks, D.G.; Bucher, E.

    1995-12-01

    We have used nuclear-quadrupole-resonance (NQR) techniques to study Cu nuclei in two single-crystal samples of CeCu{sub 6} between 200 {mu}K and 20 mK. We present measurements of the NQR intensities and spin-lattice relaxation times, {ital T}{sub 1}, at frequencies corresponding to three different sites in the crystal. Below 5 mK we observe deviations from standard metallic behavior in both signal intensity and spin-lattice relaxation times. These deviations are unusual in that they are site dependent; they reveal the presence of one or more types of order in this system.

  14. Temperature-modulated annealing of c-plane sapphire for long-range-ordered atomic steps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatsui, Takashi; Kuribara, Kazunori; Sekitani, Tsuyoshi; Someya, Takao; Yoshimoto, Mamoru

    2016-03-01

    High-quality single-crystalline sapphire is used to prepare various semiconductors because of its thermal stability. Here, we applied the tempering technique, which is well known in the production of chocolate, to prepare a sapphire substrate. Surprisingly, we successfully realised millimetre-range ordering of the atomic step of the sapphire substrate. We also obtained a sapphire atomic step with nanometre-scale uniformity in the terrace width and atomic-step height. Such sapphire substrates will find applications in the preparation of various semiconductors and devices.

  15. Influence of smectite suspension structure on sheet orientation in dry sediments: XRD and AFM applications.

    PubMed

    Zbik, Marek S; Frost, Ray L

    2010-06-15

    The structure-building phenomena within clay aggregates are governed by forces acting between clay particles. Measurements of such forces are important to understand in order to manipulate the aggregate structure for applications such as dewatering of mineral processing tailings. A parallel particle orientation is required when conducting XRD investigation on the oriented samples and conduct force measurements acting between basal planes of clay mineral platelets using atomic force microscopy (AFM). To investigate how smectite clay platelets were oriented on silicon wafer substrate when dried from suspension range of methods like SEM, XRD and AFM were employed. From these investigations, we conclude that high clay concentrations and larger particle diameters (up to 5 microm) in suspension result in random orientation of platelets in the substrate. The best possible laminar orientation in the clay dry film, represented in the XRD 001/020 intensity ratio of 47 was obtained by drying thin layers from 0.02 wt.% clay suspensions of the natural pH. Conducted AFM investigations show that smectite studied in water based electrolytes show very long-range repulsive forces lower in strength than electrostatic forces from double-layer repulsion. It was suggested that these forces may have structural nature. Smectite surface layers rehydrate in water environment forms surface gel with spongy and cellular texture which cushion approaching AFM probe. This structural effect can be measured in distances larger than 1000 nm from substrate surface and when probe penetrate this gel layer, structural linkages are forming between substrate and clay covered probe. These linkages prevent subsequently smooth detachments of AFM probe on way back when retrieval. This effect of tearing new formed structure apart involves larger adhesion-like forces measured in retrieval. It is also suggested that these effect may be enhanced by the nano-clay particles interaction.

  16. Ferrimagnetic ordering behaviors and compensation temperatures in the FeIIFeIII bimetallic oxalates: Effective-field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xiaoling; Qi, Yang

    2016-08-01

    A mixed spin-2 (FeII) and spin-5/2 (FeIII) ferrimagnetic Ising model on a honeycomb lattice was built to describe the FeII FeIII bimetallic oxalates, and the ferrimagnetic ordering behaviors and compensation temperatures were investigated through the effective-field theory based on Glauber-type stochastic dynamic. It was found that the effects of the interlayer coupling and the single-ion anisotropy contributed to the increase of the critical temperature with growing layer separation and the existence of compensation temperature depending on the organic cation. In particular, the magnetization of the system may show a small discontinuous jump in a certain range of the single-ion anisotropy.

  17. Magnetic ordering temperature of nanocrystalline Gd: enhancement of magnetic interactions via hydrogenation-induced “negative” pressure

    PubMed Central

    Tereshina, E. A.; Khmelevskyi, S.; Politova, G.; Kaminskaya, T.; Drulis, H.; Tereshina, I. S.

    2016-01-01

    Gadolinium is a nearly ideal soft-magnetic material. However, one cannot take advantage of its properties at temperatures higher than the room temperature where Gd loses the ferromagnetic ordering. By using high-purity bulk samples with grains ~200 nm in size, we present proof-of-concept measurements of an increased Curie point (TC) and spontaneous magnetization in Gd due to hydrogenation. From first-principles we explain increase of TC in pure Gd due to the addition of hydrogen. We show that the interplay of the characteristic features in the electronic structure of the conduction band at the Fermi level in the high-temperature paramagnetic phase of Gd and “negative” pressure exerted by hydrogen are responsible for the observed effect. PMID:26931775

  18. Thermal plasma processed ferro-magnetically ordered face-centered cubic iron at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raut, Suyog A.; Kanhe, Nilesh S.; Bhoraskar, S. V.; Das, A. K.; Mathe, V. L.

    2014-10-01

    Here, we report tailor made phase of iron nanoparticles using homogeneous gas phase condensation process via thermal plasma route. It was observed that crystal lattice of nano-crystalline iron changes as a function of operating parameters of the plasma reactor. In the present investigation iron nanoparticles have been synthesized in presence of argon at operating pressures of 125-1000 Torr and fixed plasma input DC power of 6 kW. It was possible to obtain pure fcc, pure bcc as well as the mixed phases for iron nanoparticles in powder form as a function of operating pressure. The as synthesized product was characterized for understanding the structural and magnetic properties by using X-ray diffraction, vibrating sample magnetometer, and Mössbauer spectroscopy. The data reveal that fcc phase is ferromagnetically ordered with high spin state, which is unusual whereas bcc phase is found to be ferromagnetic as usual. Finally, the structural and magnetic properties are co-related.

  19. Metal-Based Room-Temperature Operating Single Electron Devices Using Scanning Probe Oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Kazuhiko; Gotoh, Yoshitaka; TatsuroMaeda, TatsuroMaeda; Dagata, John; Harris, JamesS.

    1999-01-01

    Coulomb oscillation was clearly observed at room temperature in the singleelectron transistor fabricated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) nano-oxidationprocess. In order to obtain a clear Coulomb oscillation at room temperature, newand improved fabrication processes and measurement systems such as a pulse-modeAFM nano-oxidation process and a triaxial active feedback measurement system areintroduced. The Coulomb oscillation peaks appear with the period of 1.9 V at thedrain bias conditions of 0.25 V and 0.3 V. The current modulation rate ranges from20% to 30%.

  20. Dome-shaped magnetic order competing with high-temperature superconductivity at high pressures in FeSe.

    PubMed

    Sun, J P; Matsuura, K; Ye, G Z; Mizukami, Y; Shimozawa, M; Matsubayashi, K; Yamashita, M; Watashige, T; Kasahara, S; Matsuda, Y; Yan, J-Q; Sales, B C; Uwatoko, Y; Cheng, J-G; Shibauchi, T

    2016-01-01

    The coexistence and competition between superconductivity and electronic orders, such as spin or charge density waves, have been a central issue in high transition-temperature (Tc) superconductors. Unlike other iron-based superconductors, FeSe exhibits nematic ordering without magnetism whose relationship with its superconductivity remains unclear. Moreover, a pressure-induced fourfold increase of Tc has been reported, which poses a profound mystery. Here we report high-pressure magnetotransport measurements in FeSe up to ∼15 GPa, which uncover the dome shape of magnetic phase superseding the nematic order. Above ∼6 GPa the sudden enhancement of superconductivity (Tc≤38.3 K) accompanies a suppression of magnetic order, demonstrating their competing nature with very similar energy scales. Above the magnetic dome, we find anomalous transport properties suggesting a possible pseudogap formation, whereas linear-in-temperature resistivity is observed in the normal states of the high-Tc phase above 6 GPa. The obtained phase diagram highlights unique features of FeSe among iron-based superconductors, but bears some resemblance to that of high-Tc cuprates. PMID:27431724

  1. Dome-shaped magnetic order competing with high-temperature superconductivity at high pressures in FeSe.

    PubMed

    Sun, J P; Matsuura, K; Ye, G Z; Mizukami, Y; Shimozawa, M; Matsubayashi, K; Yamashita, M; Watashige, T; Kasahara, S; Matsuda, Y; Yan, J-Q; Sales, B C; Uwatoko, Y; Cheng, J-G; Shibauchi, T

    2016-07-19

    The coexistence and competition between superconductivity and electronic orders, such as spin or charge density waves, have been a central issue in high transition-temperature (Tc) superconductors. Unlike other iron-based superconductors, FeSe exhibits nematic ordering without magnetism whose relationship with its superconductivity remains unclear. Moreover, a pressure-induced fourfold increase of Tc has been reported, which poses a profound mystery. Here we report high-pressure magnetotransport measurements in FeSe up to ∼15 GPa, which uncover the dome shape of magnetic phase superseding the nematic order. Above ∼6 GPa the sudden enhancement of superconductivity (Tc≤38.3 K) accompanies a suppression of magnetic order, demonstrating their competing nature with very similar energy scales. Above the magnetic dome, we find anomalous transport properties suggesting a possible pseudogap formation, whereas linear-in-temperature resistivity is observed in the normal states of the high-Tc phase above 6 GPa. The obtained phase diagram highlights unique features of FeSe among iron-based superconductors, but bears some resemblance to that of high-Tc cuprates.

  2. Dome-shaped magnetic order competing with high-temperature superconductivity at high pressures in FeSe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, J. P.; Matsuura, K.; Ye, G. Z.; Mizukami, Y.; Shimozawa, M.; Matsubayashi, K.; Yamashita, M.; Watashige, T.; Kasahara, S.; Matsuda, Y.; Yan, J.-Q.; Sales, B. C.; Uwatoko, Y.; Cheng, J.-G.; Shibauchi, T.

    2016-07-01

    The coexistence and competition between superconductivity and electronic orders, such as spin or charge density waves, have been a central issue in high transition-temperature (Tc) superconductors. Unlike other iron-based superconductors, FeSe exhibits nematic ordering without magnetism whose relationship with its superconductivity remains unclear. Moreover, a pressure-induced fourfold increase of Tc has been reported, which poses a profound mystery. Here we report high-pressure magnetotransport measurements in FeSe up to ~15 GPa, which uncover the dome shape of magnetic phase superseding the nematic order. Above ~6 GPa the sudden enhancement of superconductivity (Tc<=38.3 K) accompanies a suppression of magnetic order, demonstrating their competing nature with very similar energy scales. Above the magnetic dome, we find anomalous transport properties suggesting a possible pseudogap formation, whereas linear-in-temperature resistivity is observed in the normal states of the high-Tc phase above 6 GPa. The obtained phase diagram highlights unique features of FeSe among iron-based superconductors, but bears some resemblance to that of high-Tc cuprates.

  3. Dome-shaped magnetic order competing with high-temperature superconductivity at high pressures in FeSe

    PubMed Central

    Sun, J. P.; Matsuura, K.; Ye, G. Z.; Mizukami, Y.; Shimozawa, M.; Matsubayashi, K.; Yamashita, M.; Watashige, T.; Kasahara, S.; Matsuda, Y.; Yan, J. -Q.; Sales, B. C.; Uwatoko, Y.; Cheng, J. -G.; Shibauchi, T.

    2016-01-01

    The coexistence and competition between superconductivity and electronic orders, such as spin or charge density waves, have been a central issue in high transition-temperature (Tc) superconductors. Unlike other iron-based superconductors, FeSe exhibits nematic ordering without magnetism whose relationship with its superconductivity remains unclear. Moreover, a pressure-induced fourfold increase of Tc has been reported, which poses a profound mystery. Here we report high-pressure magnetotransport measurements in FeSe up to ∼15 GPa, which uncover the dome shape of magnetic phase superseding the nematic order. Above ∼6 GPa the sudden enhancement of superconductivity (Tc≤38.3 K) accompanies a suppression of magnetic order, demonstrating their competing nature with very similar energy scales. Above the magnetic dome, we find anomalous transport properties suggesting a possible pseudogap formation, whereas linear-in-temperature resistivity is observed in the normal states of the high-Tc phase above 6 GPa. The obtained phase diagram highlights unique features of FeSe among iron-based superconductors, but bears some resemblance to that of high-Tc cuprates. PMID:27431724

  4. Dome-shaped magnetic order competing with high-temperature superconductivity at high pressures in FeSe

    DOE PAGES

    Sun, J. P.; Matsuura, K.; Ye, G. Z.; Mizukami, Y.; Shimozawa, M.; Matsubayashi, K.; Yamashita, M.; Watashige, T.; Kasahara, S.; Matsuda, Y.; et al

    2016-07-19

    The coexistence and competition between superconductivity and electronic orders, such as spin or charge density waves, have been a central issue in high transition-temperature (Tc) superconductors. Unlike other iron-based superconductors, FeSe exhibits nematic ordering without magnetism whose relationship with its superconductivity remains unclear. Moreover, a pressure-induced fourfold increase of Tc has been reported, which poses a profound mystery. Here we report high-pressure magnetotransport measurements in FeSe up to ~15 GPa, which uncover the dome shape of magnetic phase superseding the nematic order. Above ~6 GPa the sudden enhancement of superconductivity (Tc ≤ 38.3 K) accompanies a suppression of magnetic order,more » demonstrating their competing nature with very similar energy scales. Above the magnetic dome, we find anomalous transport properties suggesting a possible pseudogap formation, whereas linear-in-temperature resistivity is observed in the normal states of the high-Tc phase above 6 GPa. In conclusion, the obtained phase diagram highlights unique features of FeSe among iron-based superconductors, but bears some resemblance to that of high-Tc cuprates.« less

  5. Emergence of charge order in a staggered loop-current phase of cuprate high-temperature superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, W. A.; Kampf, A. P.; Bulut, S.

    2016-04-01

    We study the emergence of charge-ordered phases within a π -loop-current (π LC ) model for the pseudogap based on a three-band model for underdoped cuprate superconductors. Loop currents and charge ordering are driven by distinct components of the short-range Coulomb interactions: loop currents result from the repulsion between nearest-neighbor copper and oxygen orbitals, while charge order results from repulsion between neighboring oxygen orbitals. We find that the leading π LC phase has an antiferromagnetic pattern similar to previously discovered staggered flux phases, and that it emerges abruptly at hole dopings p below the Van Hove filling. Subsequent charge-ordering tendencies in the π LC phase reveal that diagonal d -charge density waves (dCDWs) are suppressed by the loop currents while axial order competes more weakly. In some cases we find a wide temperature range below the loop-current transition, over which the susceptibility towards an axial dCDW is large. In these cases, short-range axial charge order may be induced by doping-related disorder. A unique feature of the coexisting dCDW and π LC phases is the emergence of an incommensurate modulation of the loop currents. If the dCDW is biaxial (checkerboard) then the resulting incommensurate current pattern breaks all mirror and time-reversal symmetries, thereby allowing for a polar Kerr effect.

  6. Nanoscale structural features determined by AFM for single virus particles.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shu-wen W; Odorico, Michael; Meillan, Matthieu; Vellutini, Luc; Teulon, Jean-Marie; Parot, Pierre; Bennetau, Bernard; Pellequer, Jean-Luc

    2013-11-21

    In this work, we propose "single-image analysis", as opposed to multi-image averaging, for extracting valuable information from AFM images of single bio-particles. This approach allows us to study molecular systems imaged by AFM under general circumstances without restrictions on their structural forms. As feature exhibition is a resolution correlation, we have performed AFM imaging on surfaces of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) to demonstrate variations of structural patterns with probing resolution. Two AFM images were acquired with the same tip at different probing resolutions in terms of pixel width, i.e., 1.95 and 0.49 nm per pixel. For assessment, we have constructed an in silico topograph based on the three-dimensional crystal structure of TMV as a reference. The prominent artifacts observed in the AFM-determined shape of TMV were attributed to tip convolutions. The width of TMV rod was systematically overestimated by ~10 nm at both probing resolutions of AFM. Nevertheless, the effects of tip convolution were less severe in vertical orientation so that the estimated height of TMV by AFM imaging was in close agreement with the in silico X-ray topograph. Using dedicated image processing algorithms, we found that at low resolution (i.e., 1.95 nm per pixel), the extracted surface features of TMV can be interpreted as a partial or full helical repeat (three complete turns with ~7.0 nm in length), while individual protein subunits (~2.5 nm) were perceivable only at high resolution. The present study shows that the scales of revealed structural features in AFM images are subject to both probing resolution and processing algorithms for image analysis. PMID:24056758

  7. Thermal plasma processed ferro-magnetically ordered face-centered cubic iron at room temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Raut, Suyog A.; Kanhe, Nilesh S.; Bhoraskar, S. V.; Mathe, V. L.; Das, A. K.

    2014-10-28

    Here, we report tailor made phase of iron nanoparticles using homogeneous gas phase condensation process via thermal plasma route. It was observed that crystal lattice of nano-crystalline iron changes as a function of operating parameters of the plasma reactor. In the present investigation iron nanoparticles have been synthesized in presence of argon at operating pressures of 125–1000 Torr and fixed plasma input DC power of 6 kW. It was possible to obtain pure fcc, pure bcc as well as the mixed phases for iron nanoparticles in powder form as a function of operating pressure. The as synthesized product was characterized for understanding the structural and magnetic properties by using X-ray diffraction, vibrating sample magnetometer, and Mössbauer spectroscopy. The data reveal that fcc phase is ferromagnetically ordered with high spin state, which is unusual whereas bcc phase is found to be ferromagnetic as usual. Finally, the structural and magnetic properties are co-related.

  8. First- and second-order Frank-Kamenetskii approximation applied to temperature-, pressure- and stress-dependent rheology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noack, Lena; Breuer, Doris

    2013-10-01

    The Frank-Kamenetskii (FK) approximation is a common method to represent the Arrhenius-type viscosity of planetary mantles because it reduces the viscosity contrast in the lithosphere to save computational resources and prevent numerical errors. In some cases, this approximation does not lead to satisfying results; for example, it can lead to a mobile-lid regime, whereas use of the Arrhenius law shows a thin stagnant lid. We therefore derive a new, more accurate approximation called `damped FK approximation' for a temperature- and pressure-dependent viscosity. This damped FK approximation is a mixture between the standard first-order FK approximation and an approximation of second-order accuracy controlled by a damping parameter. Furthermore, the FK parameters are determined self-consistently at every time step. This study shows that the damped FK approximation represents the mantle flow of an Arrhenius-type viscosity for a much larger parameter space than for the standard first-order approximation. It can also be used to simulate terrestrial planets, such as super-Earths, with high pressure dependence of the viscosity, if the surface temperature does not exceed a specific threshold value and if a high enough damping parameter is used. We also test the FK approximation for plate tectonics simulations. The second-order FK approximation best represents the Arrhenius flow in the investigated parameter range. In particular, the dependence of the critical yield stress, at which the transition from the plate tectonics regime to the stagnant-lid regime can be observed, on the Rayleigh number can differ from the Arrhenius case (and the second-order FK approximation) when using a first-order FK approximation or rheology parameters in the Arrhenius law that differ from laboratory values to yield small viscosity contrasts. This finding may have strong implications for the prediction of plate tectonics on terrestrial planets.

  9. Pattern formation and control in polymeric systems: From Minkowski measures to in situ AFM imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Karin

    2014-03-01

    Thin liquid polymer films are not only of great technical importance, they also exhibit a variety of dynamical instabilities. Some of them may be desired, some rather not. To analyze and finally control pattern formation, modern thin film theories are as vital as techniques to characterize the morphologies and structures in and on the films. Examples for the latter are atomic force microscopy (AFM) as well as scattering techniques. The talk will introduce into the practical applications of Minkowski measures to characterize patterns and explain what thin film properties (e.g. capillary number, solid/liquid boundary condition, glass transition temperature, chain mobility) can further be extracted including new technical possibilities by AFM and scattering techniques.

  10. Observation of low-temperature magnetic ordering in mixed-phase Sr-Ca-Cu-O superconductors substituted by iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sklyarova, A.; Shinoda, S.; Nagumo, T.; Chizhik, V. I.; Matveev, V. V.; Suematsu, H.

    2016-08-01

    The series of unsubstituted Sr2CaCu2O6 and iron-substituted Sr2CaCu2‑x Fe x O6 (x=0.1,x=0.05) materials were produced by a high-pressure synthesis route and characterized using X-ray diffraction and SQUID magnetometry. The change of contained phase ratio was found at different substituent concentrations in the samples synthesized under the same conditions: unexpected growth of 0201 and CuO phase with decrease of iron content was observed. Synthesis temperature-dependence of obtained phase fractions was found for the samples with x=0.05. The superconductivity transition was found for all obtained samples and the highest critical temperature was around 103 K. From the SQUID measurements distortions of the magnetic susceptibility curves were found; these were explained by the magnetic ordering arising at low temperatures. This magnetic ordering was associated with the magnetic moment appearing in iron-doped 0201 phase.

  11. Observation of low-temperature magnetic ordering in mixed-phase Sr-Ca-Cu-O superconductors substituted by iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sklyarova, A.; Shinoda, S.; Nagumo, T.; Chizhik, V. I.; Matveev, V. V.; Suematsu, H.

    2016-08-01

    The series of unsubstituted Sr2CaCu2O6 and iron-substituted Sr2CaCu2-x Fe x O6 (x=0.1,x=0.05) materials were produced by a high-pressure synthesis route and characterized using X-ray diffraction and SQUID magnetometry. The change of contained phase ratio was found at different substituent concentrations in the samples synthesized under the same conditions: unexpected growth of 0201 and CuO phase with decrease of iron content was observed. Synthesis temperature-dependence of obtained phase fractions was found for the samples with x=0.05. The superconductivity transition was found for all obtained samples and the highest critical temperature was around 103 K. From the SQUID measurements distortions of the magnetic susceptibility curves were found; these were explained by the magnetic ordering arising at low temperatures. This magnetic ordering was associated with the magnetic moment appearing in iron-doped 0201 phase.

  12. Cell mechanics as a marker for diseases: Biomedical applications of AFM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rianna, Carmela; Radmacher, Manfred

    2016-08-01

    Many diseases are related to changes in cell mechanics. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) is one of the most suitable techniques allowing the investigation of both topography and mechanical properties of adherent cells with high spatial resolution under physiological conditions. Over the years the use of this technique in medical and clinical applications has largely increased, resulting in the notion of cell mechanics as a biomarker to discriminate between different physiological and pathological states of cells. Cell mechanics has proven to be a biophysical fingerprint able discerning between cell phenotypes, unraveling processes in aging or diseases, or even detecting and diagnosing cellular pathologies. We will review in this report some of the works on cell mechanics investigated by AFM with clinical and medical relevance in order to clarify the state of research in this field and to highlight the role of cell mechanics in the study of pathologies, focusing on cancer, blood and cardiovascular diseases.

  13. Dynamics of a disturbed sessile drop measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM).

    PubMed

    McGuiggan, Patricia M; Grave, Daniel A; Wallace, Jay S; Cheng, Shengfeng; Prosperetti, Andrea; Robbins, Mark O

    2011-10-01

    A new method for studying the dynamics of a sessile drop by atomic force microscopy (AFM) is demonstrated. A hydrophobic microsphere (radius, r ∼ 20-30 μm) is brought into contact with a small sessile water drop resting on a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) surface. When the microsphere touches the liquid surface, the meniscus rises onto it because of capillary forces. Although the microsphere volume is 6 orders of magnitude smaller than the drop, it excites the normal resonance modes of the liquid interface. The sphere is pinned at the interface, whose small (<100 nm) oscillations are readily measured with AFM. Resonance oscillation frequencies were measured for drop volumes between 5 and 200 μL. The results for the two lowest normal modes are quantitatively consistent with continuum calculations for the natural frequency of hemispherical drops with no adjustable parameters. The method may enable sensitive measurements of volume, surface tension, and viscosity of small drops.

  14. Why we still don`t know the symmetry of the order parameter in high temperature superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Klemm, R.A.

    1997-03-01

    One of the most elusive topics in the study of high temperature superconductors (HTCS) is the orbital symmetry of the superconducting order parameter {Delta}. The low temperature T behavior observed in many experiments suggests that {Delta} might exhibit line nodes, as expected for d{sub x}{sub {minus}y}2 orbital symmetry. However, such behavior also arises from intrinsic proximity coupling and surface states, etc. The paramagnetic Meissner effect, once cited as indirect evidence for a d-wave {Delta}, was recently observed in Nb. Some phase-sensitive Josephson junction experiments gave strong evidence for a substantial isotropic, or s-wave, component to {Delta}, whereas others supported the above d-wave form. However, such experiments are intrinsically unreliable in experimental geometries with sample corners, or with meandering grain boundary junctions and stoichiometry inhomogeneities. Finally, the pseudogap observed recently in underdoped HTCS could arise from a charge-density wave.

  15. Tracer kinetic modeling of [(11)C]AFM, a new PET imaging agent for the serotonin transporter.

    PubMed

    Naganawa, Mika; Nabulsi, Nabeel; Planeta, Beata; Gallezot, Jean-Dominique; Lin, Shu-Fei; Najafzadeh, Soheila; Williams, Wendol; Ropchan, Jim; Labaree, David; Neumeister, Alexander; Huang, Yiyun; Carson, Richard E

    2013-12-01

    [(11)C]AFM, or [(11)C]2-[2-(dimethylaminomethyl)phenylthio]-5-fluoromethylphenylamine, is a new positron emission tomography (PET) radioligand with high affinity and selectivity for the serotonin transporter (SERT). The purpose of this study was to determine the most appropriate kinetic model to quantify [(11)C]AFM binding in the healthy human brain. Positron emission tomography data and arterial input functions were acquired from 10 subjects. Compartmental modeling and the multilinear analysis-1(MA1) method were tested using the arterial input functions. The one-tissue model showed a lack of fit in low-binding regions, and the two-tissue model failed to estimate parameters reliably. Regional time-activity curves were well described by MA1. The rank order of [(11)C]AFM binding potential (BPND) matched well with the known regional SERT densities. For routine use of [(11)C]AFM, several noninvasive methods for quantification of regional binding were evaluated, including simplified reference tissue models (SRTM and SRTM2), and multilinear reference tissue models (MRTM and MRTM2). The best methods for region of interest (ROI) analysis were MA1, MRTM2, and SRTM2, with fixed population kinetic values ( or b') for the reference methods. The MA1 and MRTM2 methods were best for parametric imaging. These results showed that [(11)C]AFM is a suitable PET radioligand to image and quantify SERT in humans. PMID:23921898

  16. New AFM Techniques for Investigating Molecular Growth Mechanisms of Protein Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Huayu; Nadarajah, Arunan; Konnert, John H.; Pusey, Marc L.

    1998-01-01

    Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) has emerged as a powerful technique for investigating protein crystal growth. Earlier AFM studies were among the first to demonstrate that these crystals grew by dislocation and 2D nucleation growth mechanisms [1]. These investigations were restricted to the micron range where only surface features, such as dislocation hillocks and 2D islands are visible. Most AFM instruments can scan at higher resolutions and have the potential to resolve individual protein molecules at nanometer ranges. Such scans are essential for determining the molecular packing arrangements on crystal faces and for probing the growth process at the molecular level. However, at this resolution the AFM tip influences the image produced, with the resulting image being a convolution of the tip shape and the surface morphology [2]. In most studies this problem is resolved by deconvoluting the image to obtain the true surface morphology. Although deconvolution routines work reasonably well for simple one- dimensional shapes, for complex surfaces this approach does not produce accurate results. In this study we devised a new approach which takes advantage of the precise molecular order of crystal surfaces, combined with the knowledge of individual molecular shapes from the crystallographic data of the protein and the AFM tip shape. This information is used to construct expected theoretical AFM images by convoluting the tip shape with the constructed crystal surface shape for a given surface packing arrangement. By comparing the images from actual AFM scans with the constructed ones for different possible surface packing arrangements, the correct packing arrangement can be conclusively determined. This approach was used in this study to determine the correct one from two possible packing arrangements on (I 10) faces of tetragonal lysozyme crystals. Another novel AFM technique was also devised to measure the dimension of individual growth units of the crystal faces

  17. Simultaneous noncontact AFM and STM of Ag:Si(111)-(3×3)R30∘

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweetman, Adam; Stannard, Andrew; Sugimoto, Yoshiaki; Abe, Masayuki; Morita, Seizo; Moriarty, Philip

    2013-02-01

    The Ag:Si(111)-(3×3)R30∘ surface structure has attracted considerable debate concerning interpretation of scanning tunneling microscope (STM) and noncontact atomic force microscope (NC-AFM) images. In particular, the accepted interpretation of atomic resolution images in NC-AFM has been questioned by theoretical and STM studies. In this paper, we use combined NC-AFM and STM to conclusively show that the inequivalent trimer (IET) configuration best describes the surface ground state. Thermal-averaging effects result in a honeycomb-chained-trimer (HCT) appearance at room temperature, in contrast to studies suggesting that the IET configuration remains stable at higher temperatures [Zhang, Gustafsson, and Johansson, Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO1098-012110.1103/PhysRevB.74.201304 74, 201304(R) (2006) and J. Phys.: Conf. Ser.1742-658810.1088/1742-6596/61/1/264 61, 1336 (2007)]. We also comment on results obtained at an intermediate temperature that suggest an intriguing difference between the imaging mechanisms of NC-AFM and STM on structurally fluctuating samples.

  18. Amylose Phase Composition As Analyzed By FTIR In A Temperature Ramp: Influence Of Short Range Order On The Thermodynamic Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernazzani, Paul; Delmas, Genevieve

    1998-03-01

    Amylose, a major component of starch, is one of the most important biopolymers, being mainly associated with the pharmacological and food industries. Although widely studied, a complete control and understanding of the physical properties of amylose is still lacking. It is well known that structure and phase transition are important aspects of the functionality of biopolymers since they influence physical attributes such as appearance, digestibility, water holding capacity, etc. In the past, we have studied polyethylene phase composition by DSC in a very slow temperature (T) ramp (1K/h) and have demonstrated the presence and importance of short-range order on the polymer and its characteristics. In this study, we evaluated the phase composition of potato amylose and associated the thermodynamic properties with the presence of short-range order. Two methods were correlated, DSC (in a 1K/h T-ramp) and FTIR as a function of temperature, also in a 1K/h T-ramp. The effects of the various phases on thermodynamic properties such as gelation and enzyme or chemical resistance are discussed.

  19. Increased structural ordering of the low temperature wetting layer in the Pb/Si(111)-7x7 system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miceli, P. F.; Gramlich, M. W.; Hayden, S. T.; Chen, Yiyao; Kim, C.; Conrad, E. H.; Tringides, M. C.

    2011-03-01

    The Pb/Si(111)-7x7 system exhibits interesting quantum size effects (QSE) for Pb nano-islands, including anomalously fast island coarsening that is facilitated by the wetting layer between the islands. While it is known that the wetting layer has a disordered 8x8 structure, the exact structure of the layer is still an open question. Our in situ x-ray scattering studies show that the wetting layer structure evolves temporally over a remarkably broad range of temperatures due to two physically independent mechanisms. The as grown low temperature wetting layer is found to slowly anneal into a better-ordered 8x8 structure, which suggests that it is highly dynamic as it attempts to accommodate the large corrugation of the Si(111)7x7 substrate. This increased order has important implications for the fast atom transport between the QSE-islands. Research funding is supported by NSF DMR-0706278 and the Ministry of Knowledge Economy of Korea 2009-F014-01 (CK). The experiments were performed at the Advanced Photon Source Sector 6 beam-line at Argonne National Laboratory, which is supported by the US-DOE through Ames Lab under Contract No. W-7405-Eng-82.

  20. The Fabrication of Ordered Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cell by Nanoimprinting Lithography Method Using Patterned Silk Fibroin Mold at Room Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Guangzhu; Jin, Qianqian; Chen, Qing; Hu, Zhijun; Liu, Jieping

    2015-12-01

    The performance of organic solar cell is greatly determined by the nanoscale heterojunction morphology, and finding a practical method to achieve advantageous nanostructure remains a challenge. We demonstrate here that ordered bulk heterojunction (OBHJ) solar cell can be fabricated assisted by a simple, cost-effective nanoimprinting lithography method using patterned silk fibroin film mold at room temperature. The P3HT nanogratings were achieved by nanoimprinting lithography (NIL) process, and phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) was spin-coated on the top of P3HT nanogratings. The conducting capacity of P3HT nanograting film has little difference compared with the unimprinted film in the vertical direction, due to the same edge-on chain alignment. However, it can be found that the fabrication of OBHJ nanostructure using room temperature NIL technique with patterned silk fibroin mold is able to promote optical absorption, interfacial area, and bicontinuous pathway. Therefore, the ordered heterojunction morphology plays an important part in improving device performance due to efficient exciton diffusion, dissociation, and reducing charge recombination rate.

  1. Temperature and thickness dependence of tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance in exchange-biased Py/IrMn/MgO/Ta stacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichlová, H.; Novák, V.; Kurosaki, Y.; Yamada, M.; Yamamoto, H.; Nishide, A.; Hayakawa, J.; Takahashi, H.; Maryško, M.; Wunderlich, J.; Marti, X.; Jungwirth, T.

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the thickness and temperature dependence of a series of Ni{}0.8Fe{}0.2/Ir{}0.2Mn{}0.8 bilayer samples with varying thickness ratio of the ferromagnet/antiferromagnet ({{t}}{{FM}}/{{t}}{{AFM}}) in order to explore the exchange coupling strengths in tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance (TAMR) devices. Specific values of {{t}}{{FM}}/{{t}}{{AFM}} lead to four distinct scenarios with specific electric responses to moderate magnetic fields. The characteristic dependence of the measured TAMR signal on applied voltage allows us to confirm its persistence up to room temperature despite an overlapped contribution by a thermal magnetic noise.

  2. Rayleigh scatter based order of magnitude increase in distributed temperature and strain sensing by simple UV exposure of optical fibre.

    PubMed

    Loranger, Sébastien; Gagné, Mathieu; Lambin-Iezzi, Victor; Kashyap, Raman

    2015-06-16

    We present a technique to improve signal strength, and therefore sensitivity in distributed temperature and strain sensing (DTSS) using Frequency domain Rayleigh scatter. A simple UV exposure of a hydrogen loaded standard SMF-28 fibre core is shown to enhance the Rayleigh back-scattered light dramatically by ten-fold, independent of the presence of a Bragg grating, and is therefore created by the UV exposure alone. This increase in Rayleigh back-scatter allows an order-of-magnitude increase in temperature and strain resolution for DTSS compared to un-exposed SMF-28 fibre used as a sensing element. This enhancement in sensitivity is effective for cm range or more sensor gauge length, below which is the theoretical cross-correlation limit. The detection of a 20 mK temperature rise with a spatial resolution of 2 cm is demonstrated. This gain in sensitivity for SMF-28 is compared with a high Ge doped photosensitive fibre with a characteristically high NA. For the latter, the UV enhancement is also present although of lower amplitude, and enables an even lower noise level for sensing, due to the fibre's intrinsically higher Rayleigh scatter signal.

  3. Rayleigh scatter based order of magnitude increase in distributed temperature and strain sensing by simple UV exposure of optical fibre

    PubMed Central

    Loranger, Sébastien; Gagné, Mathieu; Lambin-Iezzi, Victor; Kashyap, Raman

    2015-01-01

    We present a technique to improve signal strength, and therefore sensitivity in distributed temperature and strain sensing (DTSS) using Frequency domain Rayleigh scatter. A simple UV exposure of a hydrogen loaded standard SMF-28 fibre core is shown to enhance the Rayleigh back-scattered light dramatically by ten-fold, independent of the presence of a Bragg grating, and is therefore created by the UV exposure alone. This increase in Rayleigh back-scatter allows an order-of-magnitude increase in temperature and strain resolution for DTSS compared to un-exposed SMF-28 fibre used as a sensing element. This enhancement in sensitivity is effective for cm range or more sensor gauge length, below which is the theoretical cross-correlation limit. The detection of a 20 mK temperature rise with a spatial resolution of 2 cm is demonstrated. This gain in sensitivity for SMF-28 is compared with a high Ge doped photosensitive fibre with a characteristically high NA. For the latter, the UV enhancement is also present although of lower amplitude, and enables an even lower noise level for sensing, due to the fibre’s intrinsically higher Rayleigh scatter signal. PMID:26077365

  4. Rayleigh scatter based order of magnitude increase in distributed temperature and strain sensing by simple UV exposure of optical fibre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loranger, Sébastien; Gagné, Mathieu; Lambin-Iezzi, Victor; Kashyap, Raman

    2015-06-01

    We present a technique to improve signal strength, and therefore sensitivity in distributed temperature and strain sensing (DTSS) using Frequency domain Rayleigh scatter. A simple UV exposure of a hydrogen loaded standard SMF-28 fibre core is shown to enhance the Rayleigh back-scattered light dramatically by ten-fold, independent of the presence of a Bragg grating, and is therefore created by the UV exposure alone. This increase in Rayleigh back-scatter allows an order-of-magnitude increase in temperature and strain resolution for DTSS compared to un-exposed SMF-28 fibre used as a sensing element. This enhancement in sensitivity is effective for cm range or more sensor gauge length, below which is the theoretical cross-correlation limit. The detection of a 20 mK temperature rise with a spatial resolution of 2 cm is demonstrated. This gain in sensitivity for SMF-28 is compared with a high Ge doped photosensitive fibre with a characteristically high NA. For the latter, the UV enhancement is also present although of lower amplitude, and enables an even lower noise level for sensing, due to the fibre’s intrinsically higher Rayleigh scatter signal.

  5. Order-parameter-aided temperature-accelerated sampling for the exploration of crystal polymorphism and solid-liquid phase transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Tang-Qing Vanden-Eijnden, Eric; Chen, Pei-Yang; Chen, Ming; Samanta, Amit; Tuckerman, Mark

    2014-06-07

    The problem of predicting polymorphism in atomic and molecular crystals constitutes a significant challenge both experimentally and theoretically. From the theoretical viewpoint, polymorphism prediction falls into the general class of problems characterized by an underlying rough energy landscape, and consequently, free energy based enhanced sampling approaches can be brought to bear on the problem. In this paper, we build on a scheme previously introduced by two of the authors in which the lengths and angles of the supercell are targeted for enhanced sampling via temperature accelerated adiabatic free energy dynamics [T. Q. Yu and M. E. Tuckerman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 015701 (2011)]. Here, that framework is expanded to include general order parameters that distinguish different crystalline arrangements as target collective variables for enhanced sampling. The resulting free energy surface, being of quite high dimension, is nontrivial to reconstruct, and we discuss one particular strategy for performing the free energy analysis. The method is applied to the study of polymorphism in xenon crystals at high pressure and temperature using the Steinhardt order parameters without and with the supercell included in the set of collective variables. The expected fcc and bcc structures are obtained, and when the supercell parameters are included as collective variables, we also find several new structures, including fcc states with hcp stacking faults. We also apply the new method to the solid-liquid phase transition in copper at 1300 K using the same Steinhardt order parameters. Our method is able to melt and refreeze the system repeatedly, and the free energy profile can be obtained with high efficiency.

  6. Order-parameter-aided temperature-accelerated sampling for the exploration of crystal polymorphism and solid-liquid phase transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Tang-Qing; Chen, Pei-Yang; Chen, Ming; Samanta, Amit; Vanden-Eijnden, Eric; Tuckerman, Mark

    2014-06-01

    The problem of predicting polymorphism in atomic and molecular crystals constitutes a significant challenge both experimentally and theoretically. From the theoretical viewpoint, polymorphism prediction falls into the general class of problems characterized by an underlying rough energy landscape, and consequently, free energy based enhanced sampling approaches can be brought to bear on the problem. In this paper, we build on a scheme previously introduced by two of the authors in which the lengths and angles of the supercell are targeted for enhanced sampling via temperature accelerated adiabatic free energy dynamics [T. Q. Yu and M. E. Tuckerman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 015701 (2011)]. Here, that framework is expanded to include general order parameters that distinguish different crystalline arrangements as target collective variables for enhanced sampling. The resulting free energy surface, being of quite high dimension, is nontrivial to reconstruct, and we discuss one particular strategy for performing the free energy analysis. The method is applied to the study of polymorphism in xenon crystals at high pressure and temperature using the Steinhardt order parameters without and with the supercell included in the set of collective variables. The expected fcc and bcc structures are obtained, and when the supercell parameters are included as collective variables, we also find several new structures, including fcc states with hcp stacking faults. We also apply the new method to the solid-liquid phase transition in copper at 1300 K using the same Steinhardt order parameters. Our method is able to melt and refreeze the system repeatedly, and the free energy profile can be obtained with high efficiency.

  7. Examination of dentin surface using AFM (our experience).

    PubMed

    Zapletalová, Zdenka; Kubínek, Roman; Vůjtek, Milan; Novotný, Radko

    2004-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) as one the technique of Scanning Probe Microscopy is useful for imaging of surface structure. This method can yield three-dimensional high-resolution topographic images of sample surfaces by using a scanning technique for conductors and insulators on atomic scale. It is based upon mapping of atomic-forces on a surface of an investigated sample. The method is useful not only in physics and chemistry; it can be also applied in biological fields. Special construction of AFM scanner enables to follow biological samples in liquid environments. Artifacts caused by dehydration of samples are removed this way. Dentin of human teeth is a vital hydrated tissue. It is strongly sensitive to dehydration and drying that are commonly used in preparation of samples in examinations by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). We describe our experience in examination of dentin surfaces of extracted human third molars using contact method of AFM under moist conditions.

  8. Optimization of phase contrast in bimodal amplitude modulation AFM.

    PubMed

    Damircheli, Mehrnoosh; Payam, Amir F; Garcia, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Bimodal force microscopy has expanded the capabilities of atomic force microscopy (AFM) by providing high spatial resolution images, compositional contrast and quantitative mapping of material properties without compromising the data acquisition speed. In the first bimodal AFM configuration, an amplitude feedback loop keeps constant the amplitude of the first mode while the observables of the second mode have not feedback restrictions (bimodal AM). Here we study the conditions to enhance the compositional contrast in bimodal AM while imaging heterogeneous materials. The contrast has a maximum by decreasing the amplitude of the second mode. We demonstrate that the roles of the excited modes are asymmetric. The operational range of bimodal AM is maximized when the second mode is free to follow changes in the force. We also study the contrast in trimodal AFM by analyzing the kinetic energy ratios. The phase contrast improves by decreasing the energy of second mode relative to those of the first and third modes.

  9. AFM of biological complexes: what can we learn?

    PubMed Central

    Gaczynska, Maria; Osmulski, Pawel A.

    2009-01-01

    The term “biological complexes” broadly encompasses particles as diverse as multisubunit enzymes, viral capsids, transport cages, molecular nets, ribosomes, nucleosomes, biological membrane components and amyloids. The complexes represent a broad range of stability and composition. Atomic force microscopy offers a wealth of structural and functional data about such assemblies. For this review, we choose to comment on the significance of AFM to study various aspects of biology of selected nonmembrane protein assemblies. Such particles are large enough to reveal many structural details under the AFM probe. Importantly, the specific advantages of the method allow for gathering dynamic information about their formation, stability or allosteric structural changes critical for their function. Some of them have already found their way to nanomedical or nanotechnological applications. Here we present examples of studies where the AFM provided pioneering information about the biology of complexes, and examples of studies where the simplicity of the method is used toward the development of potential diagnostic applications. PMID:19802337

  10. Liquid contact resonance AFM: analytical models, experiments, and limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parlak, Zehra; Tu, Qing; Zauscher, Stefan

    2014-11-01

    Contact resonance AFM (CR-AFM) is a scanning probe microscopy technique that utilizes the contact resonances of the AFM cantilever for concurrent imaging of topography and surface stiffness. The technique has not been used in liquid until recently due to analytical and experimental difficulties, associated with viscous damping of cantilever vibrations and fluid loading effects. To address these difficulties, (i) an analytical approach for contact resonances in liquid is developed, and (ii) direct excitation of the contact resonances is demonstrated by actuating the cantilever directly in a magnetic field. By implementing the analytical approach and the direct actuation through magnetic particles, quantitative stiffness imaging on surfaces with a wide range of stiffness can be achieved in liquid with soft cantilevers and low contact forces.

  11. Optimization of phase contrast in bimodal amplitude modulation AFM

    PubMed Central

    Damircheli, Mehrnoosh; Payam, Amir F

    2015-01-01

    Summary Bimodal force microscopy has expanded the capabilities of atomic force microscopy (AFM) by providing high spatial resolution images, compositional contrast and quantitative mapping of material properties without compromising the data acquisition speed. In the first bimodal AFM configuration, an amplitude feedback loop keeps constant the amplitude of the first mode while the observables of the second mode have not feedback restrictions (bimodal AM). Here we study the conditions to enhance the compositional contrast in bimodal AM while imaging heterogeneous materials. The contrast has a maximum by decreasing the amplitude of the second mode. We demonstrate that the roles of the excited modes are asymmetric. The operational range of bimodal AM is maximized when the second mode is free to follow changes in the force. We also study the contrast in trimodal AFM by analyzing the kinetic energy ratios. The phase contrast improves by decreasing the energy of second mode relative to those of the first and third modes. PMID:26114079

  12. Mounting of Escherichia coli spheroplasts for AFM imaging.

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, Claretta J; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer L; Allison, David P; Doktycz, Mitchel John

    2005-11-01

    The cytoplasmic membrane of Escherichia coli (E. coli) is the location of numerous, chemically specific transporters and recognition elements. Investigation of this membrane in vivo by atomic force microscopy (AFM) requires removal of the cell wall and stable immobilization of the spheroplast. AFM images demonstrate that spheroplasts can be secured with warm gelatin applied to the mica substrate just before the addition of a spheroplast suspension. The resulting preparation can be repeatedly imaged by AFM over the course of several hours. Confocal fluorescence imaging confirms the association of the spheroplasts with the gelatin layer. Gelatin molecules are known to reorder into a network after heating. Entrapment within this gelatin network is believed to be responsible for the immobilization of spheroplasts on mica.

  13. A Novel Dog-Bone Oscillating AFM Probe with Thermal Actuation and Piezoresistive Detection †

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Zhuang; Mairiaux, Estelle; Walter, Benjamin; Faucher, Marc; Buchaillot, Lionel; Legrand, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    In order to effectively increase the resonance frequency and the quality factor of atomic force microscope (AFM) probes, a novel oscillating probe based on a dog-bone shaped MEMS resonator was conceived, designed, fabricated and evaluated. The novel probe with 400 μm in length, 100 μm in width and 5 μm in thickness was enabled to feature MHz resonance frequencies with integrated thermal actuation and piezoresistive detection. Standard silicon micromachining was employed. Both electrical and optical measurements were carried out in air. The resonance frequency and the quality factor of the novel probe were measured to be 5.4 MHz and 4000 respectively, which are much higher than those (about several hundreds of kHz) of commonly used cantilever probes. The probe was mounted onto a commercial AFM set-up through a dedicated probe-holder and circuit board. Topographic images of patterned resist samples were obtained. It is expected that the resonance frequency and the measurement bandwidth of such probes will be further increased by a proper downscaling, thus leading to a significant increase in the scanning speed capability of AFM instruments. PMID:25365463

  14. A novel dog-bone oscillating AFM probe with thermal actuation and piezoresistive detection.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Zhuang; Mairiaux, Estelle; Walter, Benjamin; Faucher, Marc; Buchaillot, Lionel; Legrand, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    In order to effectively increase the resonance frequency and the quality factor of atomic force microscope (AFM) probes, a novel oscillating probe based on a dog-bone shaped MEMS resonator was conceived, designed, fabricated and evaluated. The novel probe with 400 μm in length, 100 μm in width and 5 μm in thickness was enabled to feature MHz resonance frequencies with integrated thermal actuation and piezoresistive detection. Standard silicon micromachining was employed. Both electrical and optical measurements were carried out in air. The resonance frequency and the quality factor of the novel probe were measured to be 5.4 MHz and 4000 respectively, which are much higher than those (about several hundreds of kHz) of commonly used cantilever probes. The probe was mounted onto a commercial AFM set-up through a dedicated probe-holder and circuit board. Topographic images of patterned resist samples were obtained. It is expected that the resonance frequency and the measurement bandwidth of such probes will be further increased by a proper downscaling, thus leading to a significant increase in the scanning speed capability of AFM instruments. PMID:25365463

  15. Statistical analysis of AFM topographic images of self-assembled quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Sevriuk, V. A.; Brunkov, P. N. Shalnev, I. V.; Gutkin, A. A.; Klimko, G. V.; Gronin, S. V.; Sorokin, S. V.; Konnikov, S. G.

    2013-07-15

    To obtain statistical data on quantum-dot sizes, AFM topographic images of the substrate on which the dots under study are grown are analyzed. Due to the nonideality of the substrate containing height differences on the order of the size of nanoparticles at distances of 1-10 {mu}m and the insufficient resolution of closely arranged dots due to the finite curvature radius of the AFM probe, automation of the statistical analysis of their large dot array requires special techniques for processing topographic images to eliminate the loss of a particle fraction during conventional processing. As such a technique, convolution of the initial matrix of the AFM image with a specially selected matrix is used. This makes it possible to determine the position of each nanoparticle and, using the initial matrix, to measure their geometrical parameters. The results of statistical analysis by this method of self-assembled InAs quantum dots formed on the surface of an AlGaAs epitaxial layer are presented. It is shown that their concentration, average size, and half-width of height distribution depend strongly on the In flow and total amount of deposited InAs which are varied within insignificant limits.

  16. A low-cost AFM setup with an interferometer for undergraduates and secondary-school students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergmann, Antje; Feigl, Daniela; Kuhn, David; Schaupp, Manuel; Quast, Günter; Busch, Kurt; Eichner, Ludwig; Schumacher, Jens

    2013-07-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is an important tool in nanotechnology. This method makes it possible to observe nanoscopic surfaces beyond the resolution of light microscopy. In order to provide undergraduate and secondary-school students with insights into this world, we have developed a very robust low-cost AFM setup with a Fabry-Perot interferometer as a detecting device. This setup is designed to be operated almost completely manually and its simplicity gives access to a profound understanding of the working principle. Our AFM is operated in a constant height mode, i.e. the topography of the sample surface is represented directly by the deflection of the cantilever. Thus, the measuring procedure can be understood even by secondary-school students; furthermore, it is the method with the lowest cost, totalling not more than 10-15 k Euros. Nevertheless, we are able to examine a large variety of sample topographies such as CD and DVD surfaces, IC structures, blood cells, butterfly wings or moth eyes. Furthermore, force-distance curves can be recorded and the tensile moduli of some materials can be evaluated. We present our setup in detail and describe its working principles. In addition, we show various experiments which have already been performed by students.

  17. A novel dog-bone oscillating AFM probe with thermal actuation and piezoresistive detection.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Zhuang; Mairiaux, Estelle; Walter, Benjamin; Faucher, Marc; Buchaillot, Lionel; Legrand, Bernard

    2014-10-31

    In order to effectively increase the resonance frequency and the quality factor of atomic force microscope (AFM) probes, a novel oscillating probe based on a dog-bone shaped MEMS resonator was conceived, designed, fabricated and evaluated. The novel probe with 400 μm in length, 100 μm in width and 5 μm in thickness was enabled to feature MHz resonance frequencies with integrated thermal actuation and piezoresistive detection. Standard silicon micromachining was employed. Both electrical and optical measurements were carried out in air. The resonance frequency and the quality factor of the novel probe were measured to be 5.4 MHz and 4000 respectively, which are much higher than those (about several hundreds of kHz) of commonly used cantilever probes. The probe was mounted onto a commercial AFM set-up through a dedicated probe-holder and circuit board. Topographic images of patterned resist samples were obtained. It is expected that the resonance frequency and the measurement bandwidth of such probes will be further increased by a proper downscaling, thus leading to a significant increase in the scanning speed capability of AFM instruments.

  18. AFM-porosimetry: density and pore volume measurements of particulate materials.

    PubMed

    Sörensen, Malin H; Valle-Delgado, Juan J; Corkery, Robert W; Rutland, Mark W; Alberius, Peter C

    2008-06-01

    We introduced the novel technique of AFM-porosimetry and applied it to measure the total pore volume of porous particles with a spherical geometry. The methodology is based on using an atomic force microscope as a balance to measure masses of individual particles. Several particles within the same batch were measured, and by plotting particle mass versus particle volume, the bulk density of the sample can be extracted from the slope of the linear fit. The pore volume is then calculated from the densities of the bulk and matrix materials, respectively. In contrast to nitrogen sorption and mercury porosimetry, this method is capable of measuring the total pore volume regardless of pore size distribution and pore connectivity. In this study, three porous samples were investigated by AFM-porosimetry: one ordered mesoporous sample and two disordered foam structures. All samples were based on a matrix of amorphous silica templated by a block copolymer, Pluronic F127, swollen to various degrees with poly(propylene glycol). In addition, the density of silica spheres without a template was measured by two independent techniques: AFM and the Archimedes principle. PMID:18503284

  19. CD-AFM reference metrology at NIST and SEMATECH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixson, Ronald; Fu, Joseph; Orji, Ndubuisi; Guthrie, William; Allen, Richard; Cresswell, Michael

    2005-05-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and SEMATECH have been working together to improve the traceability of critical dimension atomic force microscope (CD-AFM) dimensional metrology in semiconductor manufacturing. A major component of this collaboration has been the implementation of a Reference Measurement System (RMS) at SEMATECH using a current generation CD-AFM. An earlier tool, originally used at SEMATECH, has now been installed at NIST. Uncertainty budgets were developed for pitch, height, and CD measurements using both tools. At present, the standard uncertainties are approximately 0.2 % for pitch measurements and 0.4% for step height measurements. Prior to the current work, CD AFM linewidth measurements were limited to a standard uncertainty of about 5 nm. However, this limit can now be significantly reduced. This reduction results from the completion of the NIST/SEMATECH collaboration on the development of single crystal critical dimension reference materials (SCDDRM). A new generation of these reference materials was released to SEMATECH Member Companies during late 2004. The SEMATECH RMS was used to measure the linewidths of selected features on the distributed specimens. To reduce the uncertainty in tip width calibration, a separate transfer experiment was performed in which samples were measured by CD-AFM and then sent for high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). In this manner, CD-AFM could be used to transfer the HRTEM width information to the distributed samples. Consequently, we are now able to reduce the limit on the standard uncertainty (k = 1) of CD-AFM width measurements to 1 nm.

  20. Functionalized AFM probes for force spectroscopy: eigenmode shapes and stiffness calibration through thermal noise measurements.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Justine; Steinberger, Audrey; Bellon, Ludovic

    2013-06-01

    The functionalization of an atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilever with a colloidal bead is a widely used technique when the geometry between the probe and the sample must be controlled, particularly in force spectroscopy. But some questions remain: how does a bead glued at the end of a cantilever influence its mechanical response? And more importantly for quantitative measurements, can we still determine the stiffness of the AFM probe with traditional techniques?In this paper, the influence of the colloidal mass loading on the eigenmode shape and resonant frequency is investigated by measuring the thermal noise on rectangular AFM microcantilevers with and without beads attached at their extremities. The experiments are performed with a home-made ultra-sensitive AFM, based on differential interferometry. The focused beam from the interferometer probes the cantilever at different positions and the spatial shapes of the modes are determined up to the fifth resonance, without external excitation. The results clearly demonstrate that the first eigenmode is almost unchanged by mass loading. However the oscillation behavior of higher resonances presents a marked difference: with a particle glued at its extremity, the nodes of the modes are displaced towards the free end of the cantilever. These results are compared to an analytical model taking into account the mass and inertial moment of the load in an Euler-Bernoulli framework, where the normalization of the eigenmodes is explicitly worked out in order to allow a quantitative prediction of the thermal noise amplitude of each mode. A good agreement between the experimental results and the analytical model is demonstrated, allowing a clean calibration of the probe stiffness.

  1. Mapping individual cosmid DNAs by direct AFM imaging.

    PubMed

    Allison, D P; Kerper, P S; Doktycz, M J; Thundat, T; Modrich, P; Larimer, F W; Johnson, D K; Hoyt, P R; Mucenski, M L; Warmack, R J

    1997-05-01

    Individual cosmid clones have been restriction mapped by directly imaging, with the atomic force microscope (AFM), a mutant EcoRI endonuclease site-specifically bound to DNA. Images and data are presented that locate six restriction sites, predicted from gel electrophoresis, on a 35-kb cosmid isolated from mouse chromosome 7. Measured distances between endonuclease molecules bound to lambda DNA, when compared to known values, demonstrate the accuracy of AFM mapping to better than 1%. These results may be extended to identify other important site-specific protein-DNA interactions, such as transcription factor and mismatch repair enzyme binding, difficult to resolve by current techniques.

  2. GPIM AF-M315E Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spores, Ronald A.; Masse, Robert; Kimbrel, Scott; McLean, Chris

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Space Technology mission Directorate's (STMD) Green Propellant Infusion Mission (GPIM) Technology Demonstration Mission (TDM) will demonstrate an operational AF-M315E green propellant propulsion system. Aerojet-Rocketdyne is responsible for the development of the propulsion system payload. This paper statuses the propulsion system module development, including thruster design and system design; Initial test results for the 1N engineering model thruster are presented. The culmination of this program will be high-performance, green AF-M315E propulsion system technology at TRL 7+, with components demonstrated to TRL 9, ready for direct infusion to a wide range of applications for the space user community.

  3. BOREAS AFM-04 Twin Otter Aircraft Flux Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacPherson, J. Ian; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David E. (Editor); Desjardins, Raymond L.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS AFM-5 team collected and processed data from the numerous radiosonde flights during the project. The goals of the AFM-05 team were to provide large-scale definition of the atmosphere by supplementing the existing AES aerological network, both temporally and spatially. This data set includes basic upper-air parameters collected from the network of upper-air stations during the 1993, 1994, and 1996 field campaigns over the entire study region. The data are contained in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884) or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  4. Linear Chains of Magnetic Ions Stacked with Variable Distance: Ferromagnetic Ordering with a Curie Temperature above 20 K.

    PubMed

    Friedländer, Stefan; Liu, Jinxuan; Addicoat, Matt; Petkov, Petko; Vankova, Nina; Rüger, Robert; Kuc, Agnieszka; Guo, Wei; Zhou, Wencai; Lukose, Binit; Wang, Zhengbang; Weidler, Peter G; Pöppl, Andreas; Ziese, Michael; Heine, Thomas; Wöll, Christof

    2016-10-01

    We have studied the magnetic properties of the SURMOF-2 series of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). Contrary to bulk MOF-2 crystals, where Cu(2+) ions form paddlewheels and are antiferromagnetically coupled, in this case the Cu(2+) ions are connected via carboxylate groups in a zipper-like fashion. This unusual coupling of the spin 1/2 ions within the resulting one-dimensional chains is found to stabilize a low-temperature, ferromagnetic (FM) phase. In contrast to other ordered 1D systems, no strong magnetic fields are needed to induce the ferromagnetism. The magnetic coupling constants describing the interaction between the individual metal ions have been determined in SQUID experiments. They are fully consistent with the results of ab initio DFT electronic structure calculations. The theoretical results allow the unusual magnetic behavior of this exotic, yet easy-to-fabricate, material to be described in a detailed fashion. PMID:27599895

  5. Ordered heteromolecular overlayers formed by metal phthalocyanines and porphyrins on rutile titanium dioxide surface studied at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zając, Łukasz; Olszowski, Piotr; Godlewski, Szymon; Such, Bartosz; Jöhr, Res; Pawlak, Rémy; Hinaut, Antoine; Glatzel, Thilo; Meyer, Ernst; Szymonski, Marek

    2015-12-01

    Molecular heterostructures are formed from meso-tetraphenyl porphyrins-Zn(ii) (ZnTPP) and Cu(ii)-phthalocyanines (CuPc) on the rutile TiO2(011) surface. We demonstrate that ZnTPP molecules form a quasi-ordered wetting layer with flat-lying molecules, which provides the support for growth of islands comprised of upright CuPc molecules. The incorporation of the ZnTPP layer and the growth of heterostructures increase the stability of the system and allow for room temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) measurements, which is contrasted with unstable STM probing of only CuPc species on TiO2. We demonstrate that within the CuPc layer the molecules arrange in two phases and we identify molecular dimers as basic building blocks of the dominant structural phase.

  6. Two-dimensional Mn structure on the GaN growth surface and evidence for room-temperature spin ordering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kangkang; Takeuchi, Noboru; Chinchore, Abhijit V.; Lin, Wenzhi; Liu, Yinghao; Smith, Arthur R.

    2011-04-01

    A class of striped superstructures with local hexagonal ordering has been obtained by depositing submonolayer Mn on the GaN(0001) surface. Combining scanning tunneling microscopy and first-principles theory, we find that Mn atoms incorporate into the surface and form a high-density two-dimensional MnxGa1-x structure. The highly spin-polarized Mn d electrons are found to dominate the surface electronic states. For the narrowest stripes, we calculate a row-wise antiferromagnetic ground state, which is observed in real space at room temperature as a spin-induced asymmetry in the density of states. These two-dimensional magnetic structures on GaN can also be considered model systems for wide-band-gap magnet/semiconductor spin injectors.

  7. Linear Chains of Magnetic Ions Stacked with Variable Distance: Ferromagnetic Ordering with a Curie Temperature above 20 K.

    PubMed

    Friedländer, Stefan; Liu, Jinxuan; Addicoat, Matt; Petkov, Petko; Vankova, Nina; Rüger, Robert; Kuc, Agnieszka; Guo, Wei; Zhou, Wencai; Lukose, Binit; Wang, Zhengbang; Weidler, Peter G; Pöppl, Andreas; Ziese, Michael; Heine, Thomas; Wöll, Christof

    2016-10-01

    We have studied the magnetic properties of the SURMOF-2 series of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). Contrary to bulk MOF-2 crystals, where Cu(2+) ions form paddlewheels and are antiferromagnetically coupled, in this case the Cu(2+) ions are connected via carboxylate groups in a zipper-like fashion. This unusual coupling of the spin 1/2 ions within the resulting one-dimensional chains is found to stabilize a low-temperature, ferromagnetic (FM) phase. In contrast to other ordered 1D systems, no strong magnetic fields are needed to induce the ferromagnetism. The magnetic coupling constants describing the interaction between the individual metal ions have been determined in SQUID experiments. They are fully consistent with the results of ab initio DFT electronic structure calculations. The theoretical results allow the unusual magnetic behavior of this exotic, yet easy-to-fabricate, material to be described in a detailed fashion.

  8. Quantum criticality and inhomogeneous magnetic order in Fe-doped α -YbAlB4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacLaughlin, D. E.; Kuga, K.; Shu, Lei; Bernal, O. O.; Ho, P.-C.; Nakatsuji, S.; Huang, K.; Ding, Z. F.; Tan, C.; Zhang, Jian

    2016-06-01

    The intermediate-valent polymorphs α - and β -YbAlB4 exhibit quantum criticality and other novel properties not usually associated with intermediate valence. Iron doping induces quantum criticality in α -YbAlB4 and magnetic order in both compounds. We report results of muon spin relaxation (μ SR ) experiments in α -YbAl1 -xFexB4 , x =0.014 and 0.25. For x =0.014 we find no evidence for magnetic order down to 25 mK. The dynamic muon spin relaxation rate λd exhibits a power-law temperature dependence λd∝T-a , a =0.40 (4 ) , in the temperature range 100 mK-2 K, in disagreement with predictions by theories of antiferromagnetic (AFM) or valence quantum critical behavior. For x =0.25 , where AFM order develops in the temperature range 7.5-10 K, we find coexistence of meso- or macroscopically segregated paramagnetic and AFM phases, with considerable disorder in the latter down to 2 K.

  9. New developments at PTB in 3D-AFM with tapping and torsion AFM mode and vector approach probing strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, G.; Hässler-Grohne, W.; Hüser, D.; Wolff, H.; Fluegge, J.; Bosse, H.

    2011-06-01

    A new 3D-AFM for true 3D measurements of nano structures has been developed at Physikalisch Technische-Bundesanstalt, the national metrology institute of Germany. In its configuration, two piezo actuators are applied to drive the AFM cantilever near its vertical and torsional resonant frequencies. In such a way, the AFM tip can probe the surface with a vertical and/or a lateral oscillation, offering high 3D probing sensitivity. For enhancing measurement flexibility as well as reducing tip wear, a so called "vector approach probing" (VAP) method has been applied. The sample is measured point by point using this method. At each probing point, the tip is approached towards the surface in its normal direction until the desired tip-sample interaction is detected and then immediately withdrawn from the surface. Preliminary experimental results show promising performance of the developed system. The measurement of a line structure of 800 nm height employing a super sharp AFM tip is performed, showing a repeatability of its 3D profiles of better than 1 nm (p-v). A single crystal critical dimension reference material (SCCDRM) having features with almost vertical sidewall is measured using a flared AFM tip. Results show that the feature has averaged left and right sidewall angles of 88.64° and 88.67deg;, respectively. However, the feature width non-uniformity may reach 10 nm within the measurement range of 1 μm. The standard deviation of the averaged middle CD values of 7 repeated measurements reaches 0.35 nm. In addition, an investigation of long term measurement stability is performed on a PTB photomask. The results shows that the 3D-AFM has a drift rate of about 0.00033 nm per line, which confirms the high measurement stability and the very low tip wear.

  10. Room temperature p-type conductivity and coexistence of ferroelectric order in ferromagnetic Li doped ZnO nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Awan, Saif Ullah E-mail: ullahphy@gmail.com; Hasanain, S. K.; Anjum, D. H.; Awan, M. S.; Shah, Saqlain A.

    2014-10-28

    Memory and switching devices acquired new materials which exhibit ferroelectric and ferromagnetic order simultaneously. We reported multiferroic behavior in Zn{sub 1−y}Li{sub y}O(0.00≤y≤0.10) nanoparticles. The analysis of transmission electron micrographs confirmed the hexagonal morphology and wurtzite crystalline structure. We investigated p-type conductivity in doped samples and measured hole carriers in range 2.4 × 10{sup 17}/cc to 7.3 × 10{sup 17}/cc for different Li contents. We found that hole carriers are responsible for long range order ferromagnetic coupling in Li doped samples. Room temperature ferroelectric hysteresis loops were observed in 8% and 10% Li doped samples. We demonstrated ferroelectric coercivity (remnant polarization) 2.5 kV/cm (0.11 μC/cm{sup 2}) and 2.8 kV/cm (0.15 μC/cm{sup 2}) for y = 0.08 and y = 0.10 samples. We propose that the mechanism of Li induced ferroelectricity in ZnO is due to indirect dipole interaction via hole carriers. We investigated that if the sample has hole carriers ≥5.3 × 10{sup 17}/cc, they can mediate the ferroelectricity. Ferroelectric and ferromagnetic measurements showed that higher electric polarization and larger magnetic moment is attained when the hole concentration is larger and vice versa. Our results confirmed the hole dependent coexistence of ferromagnetic and ferroelectric behavior at room temperature, which provide potential applications for switchable and memory devices.

  11. High-temperature-oxidation-induced ordered structure in Inconel 939 superalloy exposed to oxy-combustion environments

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Jingxi; Wise, Adam; Nuhfer, Thomas; Holcomb, Gordon R; Jablonski, Paul D; Sridhar, Seetharaman; Laughlin, David E

    2013-04-20

    In the integrated oxy-fuel combustion and turbine power generation system, turbine alloys are exposed to high temperature and an atmosphere comprised of steam, CO2 and O2. While surface and internal oxidation of the alloy takes place, the microstructure in the subsurface region also changes due to oxidation that results in the loss of the strengthening precipitates. In an earlier study of the oxidation of Inconel 939 Ni-based superalloy exposed to oxy-fuel combustion environment for up to 1000 hours, a high-temperature-oxidation-induced phase transformation in the sub-surface region was noticed and a two-phase region formed at the expense of strengthening γ' phase. While one of the two phases was identified as the Ni-matrix (γ solid solution, face-center-cubic) phase, the other product phase remained unidentified. In this study, the crystal structure of the unknown phase and its orientation relationship with the parent Ni-matrix phase was investigated through electron diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. It was determined that the crystal structure of the unknown phase could be modeled as a ternary derivative of the ordered η-Ni3Ti phase (D024) structure with lattice parameters of a = 0.5092 nm and c = 0.8336 nm, α = 90º, β = 90º and γ = 120º.

  12. Effects of higher-order energy bands and temperature on the bosonic Mott insulator in a periodically modulated lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sajna, A. S.

    2016-10-01

    We show that a certain class of higher-order excitations in ultracold atoms experiments can be described by straightforward extension of the standard strong coupling approach in the coherent state path integral formalism. It is achieved by theoretical analysis of energy absorption spectroscopy in the three-dimensional system of strongly correlated bosons described by the Bose-Hubbard model. In particular, for unit filling, an explicit form of the single-particle Mott insulator Green function at finite temperatures is derived which goes beyond the standard Hubbard bands description. Moreover, for relevant densities, we calculated the energy absorption rate and performed thermometry on rubidium atomic cloud gas by using previously obtained experimental data. Within the local density approximation, we explain that in such systems the nature of absorption spectrum depends significantly on local chemical potential: (a) the crossover region between lobes is characterized by different types of particle-hole excitations from neighboring Mott lobes and (b) origin of higher-order energy excitations changes from hole type to particle type for higher bosonic densities.

  13. Introduction to Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) in Biology.

    PubMed

    Kreplak, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    The atomic force microscope (AFM) has the unique capability of imaging biological samples with molecular resolution in buffer solution over a wide range of time scales from milliseconds to hours. In addition to providing topographical images of surfaces with nanometer- to angstrom-scale resolution, forces between single molecules and mechanical properties of biological samples can be investigated from the nano-scale to the micro-scale. Importantly, the measurements are made in buffer solutions, allowing biological samples to "stay alive" within a physiological-like environment while temporal changes in structure are measured-e.g., before and after addition of chemical reagents. These qualities distinguish AFM from conventional imaging techniques of comparable resolution, e.g., electron microscopy (EM). This unit provides an introduction to AFM on biological systems and describes specific examples of AFM on proteins, cells, and tissues. The physical principles of the technique and methodological aspects of its practical use and applications are also described. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:27479503

  14. AFM Structural Characterization of Drinking Water Biofilm under Physiological Conditions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Due to the complexity of mixed culture drinking water biofilm, direct visual observation under in situ conditions has been challenging. In this study, atomic force microscopy (AFM) revealed the three dimensional morphology and arrangement of drinking water relevant biofilm in air...

  15. Structural investigations on native collagen type I fibrils using AFM

    SciTech Connect

    Strasser, Stefan; Zink, Albert; Janko, Marek; Heckl, Wolfgang M.; Thalhammer, Stefan . E-mail: stefan.thalhammer@gsf.de

    2007-03-02

    This study was carried out to determine the elastic properties of single collagen type I fibrils with the use of atomic force microscopy (AFM). Native collagen fibrils were formed by self-assembly in vitro characterized with the AFM. To confirm the inner assembly of the collagen fibrils, the AFM was used as a microdissection tool. Native collagen type I fibrils were dissected and the inner core uncovered. To determine the elastic properties of collagen fibrils the tip of the AFM was used as a nanoindentor by recording force-displacement curves. Measurements were done on the outer shell and in the core of the fibril. The structural investigations revealed the banding of the shell also in the core of native collagen fibrils. Nanoindentation experiments showed the same Young's modulus on the shell as well as in the core of the investigated native collagen fibrils. In addition, the measurements indicate a higher adhesion in the core of the collagen fibrils compared to the shell.

  16. 3D Color Digital Elevation Map of AFM Sample

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This color image is a three dimensional (3D) view of a digital elevation map of a sample collected by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Atomic Force Microscope (AFM).

    The image shows four round pits, only 5 microns in depth, that were micromachined into the silicon substrate, which is the background plane shown in red. This image has been processed to reflect the levelness of the substrate.

    A Martian particle only one micrometer, or one millionth of a meter, across is held in the upper left pit.

    The rounded particle shown at the highest magnification ever seen from another world is a particle of the dust that cloaks Mars. Such dust particles color the Martian sky pink, feed storms that regularly envelop the planet and produce Mars' distinctive red soil.

    The particle was part of a sample informally called 'Sorceress' delivered to the AFM on the 38th Martian day, or sol, of the mission (July 2, 2008). The AFM is part of Phoenix's microscopic station called MECA, or the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer.

    The AFM was developed by a Swiss-led consortium, with Imperial College London producing the silicon substrate that holds sampled particles.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  17. Kinetic arrest of field-temperature induced first order phase transition in quasi-one dimensional spin system Ca3Co2O6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De, Santanu; Kumar, Kranti; Banerjee, A.; Chaddah, P.

    2016-05-01

    We have found that the geometrically frustrated spin chain compound Ca3Co2O6 belonging to Ising like universality class with uniaxial anisotropy shows kinetic arrest of first order intermediate phase (IP) to ferrimagnetic (FIM) transition. In this system, dc magnetization measurements followed by different protocols suggest the coexistence of high temperature IP with equilibrium FIM phase in low temperature. Formation of metastable state due to hindered first order transition has also been probed through cooling and heating in unequal field (CHUF) protocol. Kinetically arrested high temperature IP appears to persist down to almost the spin freezing temperature in this system.

  18. High-speed AFM for Studying Dynamic Biomolecular Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, Toshio

    2008-03-01

    Biological molecules show their vital activities only in aqueous solutions. It had been one of dreams in biological sciences to directly observe biological macromolecules (protein, DNA) at work under a physiological condition because such observation is straightforward to understanding their dynamic behaviors and functional mechanisms. Optical microscopy has no sufficient spatial resolution and electron microscopy is not applicable to in-liquid samples. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) can visualize molecules in liquids at high resolution but its imaging rate was too low to capture dynamic biological processes. This slow imaging rate is because AFM employs mechanical probes (cantilevers) and mechanical scanners to detect the sample height at each pixel. It is quite difficult to quickly move a mechanical device of macroscopic size with sub-nanometer accuracy without producing unwanted vibrations. It is also difficult to maintain the delicate contact between a probe tip and fragile samples. Two key techniques are required to realize high-speed AFM for biological research; fast feedback control to maintain a weak tip-sample interaction force and a technique to suppress mechanical vibrations of the scanner. Various efforts have been carried out in the past decade to materialize high-speed AFM. The current high-speed AFM can capture images on video at 30-60 frames/s for a scan range of 250nm and 100 scan lines, without significantly disturbing week biomolecular interaction. Our recent studies demonstrated that this new microscope can reveal biomolecular processes such as myosin V walking along actin tracks and association/dissociation dynamics of chaperonin GroEL-GroES that occurs in a negatively cooperative manner. The capacity of nanometer-scale visualization of dynamic processes in liquids will innovate on biological research. In addition, it will open a new way to study dynamic chemical/physical processes of various phenomena that occur at the liquid-solid interfaces.

  19. Novel Polymer Linkers for Single Molecule AFM Force Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Zenghan; Mikheikin, Andrey; Krasnoslobodtsev, Alexey; Lv, Zhengjian; Lyubchenko, Yuri L.

    2013-01-01

    Flexible polymer linkers play an important role in various imaging and probing techniques that require surface immobilization, including atomic force microscopy (AFM). In AFM force spectroscopy, polymer linkers are necessary for the covalent attachment of molecules of interest to the AFM tip and the surface. The polymer linkers tether the molecules and provide their proper orientation in probing experiments. Additionally, the linkers separate specific interactions from nonspecific short-range adhesion and serve as a reference point for the quantitative analysis of single molecule probing events. In this report, we present our results on the synthesis and testing of a novel polymer linker and the identification of a number of potential applications for its use in AFM force spectroscopy experiments. The synthesis of the linker is based on the well-developed phosphoramidate (PA) chemistry that allows the routine synthesis of linkers with predetermined lengths and PA composition. These linkers are homogeneous in length and can be terminated with various functional groups. PA linkers with different functional groups were synthesized and tested in experimental systems utilizing different immobilization chemistries. We probed interactions between complementary DNA oligonucleotides; DNA and protein complexes formed by the site-specific binding protein SfiI; and interactions between amyloid peptide (Aβ42). The results of the AFM force spectroscopy experiments validated the feasibility of the proposed approach for the linker design and synthesis. Furthermore, the properties of the tether (length, functional groups) can be adjusted to meet the specific requirements for different force spectroscopy experiments and system characteristics, suggesting that it could be used for a large number of various applications. PMID:23624104

  20. Spin Dynamics and Quantum Tunneling in Fe8 Nanomagnet and in AFM Rings by NMR

    SciTech Connect

    Seung-Ho-Baek

    2004-12-19

    In this thesis, our main interest has been to investigate the spin dynamics and quantum tunneling in single molecule magnets (SMMs), For this we have selected two different classes of SMMs: a ferrimagnetic total high spin S = 10 cluster Fe8 and antiferromagnetic (AFM) ring-type clusters. For Fe8, our efforts have been devoted to the investigation of the quantum tunneling of magnetization in the very low temperature region. The most remarkable experimental finding in Fe8 is that the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate (1/T{sub l}) at low temperatures takes place via strong collision mechanism, and thus it allows to measure directly the tunneling rate vs T and H for the first time. For AFM rings, we have shown that 1/T{sub l} probes the thermal fluctuations of the magnetization in the intermediate temperature range. We find that the fluctuations are dominated by a single characteristic frequency which has a power law T-dependence indicative of fluctuations due to electron-acoustic phonon interactions.

  1. Proposal of a general scheme to obtain room-temperature spin polarization in asymmetric antiferromagnetic semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xingxing; Wu, Xiaojun; Li, Zhenyu; Yang, Jinlong

    2015-09-01

    Exploring magnetic semiconductors is one of the most important questions for spintronic applications. Although various solutions, such as dilute magnetic semiconductors, have been proposed, a practical spintronic device working at room temperature has not been realized. The key to address this issue is to find magnetic materials with both room-temperature magnetic ordering and large spin polarization around the Fermi energy level. Here, we predict a new concept of asymmetric antiferromagnetic (AFM) semiconductors (AAFMSs) with both features. The high temperature magnetic ordering originates from the AFM coupling between different transition metal ions with strong super-exchange interaction, whereas the large spin polarization around the Fermi energy level owes to d orbital mismatch among these ions. Through first-principles calculations, a family of double perovskites A2Cr M O6 (A =Ca ,Sr ,Ba , and M =Ru ,Os ) are predicted to be AAFMSs. This paper provides a way for developing spintronic devices working at room temperature.

  2. Ordered states of URu2Si2 under hydrostatic pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffries, J. R.; Butch, N. P.; Paglione, J.; Maple, M. B.

    2006-03-01

    Oriented single crystalline samples of URu2Si2 have been synthesized and investigated under nearly hydrostatic pressure via electrical resistivity and ac susceptibility measurements. The heavy fermion compound URu2Si2 exhibits three distinct ordered states as a function of temperature and pressure: ``hidden order'' (HO), in which the order parameter has yet to be determined; antiferromagnetism (AFM), which seemingly develops out of the HO state at P <=15 kbar; and superconductivity (SC), which exists at ambient pressure. Careful measurements of the HO transition, occurring at THO˜16.5 K at ambient pressure, have been performed at several different pressures, yielding a P-T phase diagram for the HO state as a function of pressure. In addition, measurements of the superconducting critical temperature, Tc˜1.4 K at ambient pressure, and the upper critical field Hc2 have been performed at low temperatures using a ^3He-^4He dilution refrigerator, revealing the superconducting H-T-P phase diagram. Possible correlations between the HO, AFM, and SC states will be discussed. This research was supported by the National Nuclear Security Administration under the Stewardship Science Academic Alliances program through DOE Research Grant No. DE-FG52-03NA00068.

  3. Oxide nanocrystal based nanocomposites for fabricating photoplastic AFM probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingrosso, Chiara; Martin-Olmos, Cristina; Llobera, Andreu; Innocenti, Claudia; Sangregorio, Claudio; Striccoli, Marinella; Agostiano, Angela; Voigt, Anja; Gruetzner, Gabi; Brugger, Jürgen; Perez-Murano, Francesc; Curri, Maria Lucia

    2011-11-01

    We report on the synthesis, characterization and application of a novel nanocomposite made of a negative tone epoxy based photoresist modified with organic-capped Fe2O3 nanocrystals (NCs). The mechanical properties of the nanocomposite drastically improve upon incorporation of a suitable concentration of NCs in the polymer, without deteriorating its photolithography performance. High aspect ratio 3D microstructures made of the nanocomposite have been fabricated with a uniform surface morphology and with a resolution down to few micrometres. The embedded organic-capped Fe2O3 NCs drastically increase the stiffness and hardness of the epoxy based photoresist matrix, making the final material extremely interesting for manufacturing miniaturized polymer based mechanical devices and systems. In particular, the nanocomposite has been used as structural material for fabricating photoplastic Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) probes with integrated tips showing outstanding mechanical response and high resolution imaging performance. The fabricated probes consist of straight cantilevers with low stress-gradient and high quality factors, incorporating sharp polymeric tips. They present considerably improved performance compared to pure epoxy based photoresist AFM probes, and to commercial silicon AFM probes.We report on the synthesis, characterization and application of a novel nanocomposite made of a negative tone epoxy based photoresist modified with organic-capped Fe2O3 nanocrystals (NCs). The mechanical properties of the nanocomposite drastically improve upon incorporation of a suitable concentration of NCs in the polymer, without deteriorating its photolithography performance. High aspect ratio 3D microstructures made of the nanocomposite have been fabricated with a uniform surface morphology and with a resolution down to few micrometres. The embedded organic-capped Fe2O3 NCs drastically increase the stiffness and hardness of the epoxy based photoresist matrix, making the

  4. The joint effects of room temperature ionic liquids and ordered media on fluorescence characteristics of estrogens in water and methanol.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huili; Duan, Ailian; Dahlgren, Randy A; Li, Yanyan; Li, Changli; Wang, Wenwei; Zeng, Aibing; Wang, Xuedong

    2014-07-15

    This study investigated the steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence properties of 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) and 17β-estradiol (E2) in the presence of ordered media (β-cyclodextrins (β-CD) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)). In addition, we analyzed the effects of four room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) on the fluorescence intensities (FIs) of EE2/β-CD and E2/β-CD inclusion complexes in methanol. Both β-CD and CTAB enhanced the fluorescence of EE2 and E2. The FIs of EE2 and E2 with β-CD or CTAB in methanol were greater than those in water, possibly resulting from decreased oxygen-quenching in H2O molecules. β-CD and CTAB may form inclusion complexes with estrogen in both water and methanol. The inclusion ratio of the complex was 1:1 and the inclusion constant (K) values in water were greater than those in methanol. The fluorescence lifetimes were 2.50 and 4.13 ns for EE2 and 2.58 and 4.03 ns for E2 in aqueous solution and methanol, respectively. The changing trend of fluorescence lifetimes for EE2 and E2 in β-CD or CTAB was similar to the steady-state FIs. The four RTILs had a significant quenching effect on the FIs of EE2/β-CD and E2/β-CD, and the quenching process for EE2/β-CD and E2/β-CD by RTILs was demonstrated to be a dynamic quenching mechanism. Fluorescent data obtained from these complex systems provide a theoretical foundation for understanding the interaction mechanisms between ordered media and RTILs in the analysis of estrogens.

  5. The joint effects of room temperature ionic liquids and ordered media on fluorescence characteristics of estrogens in water and methanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huili; Duan, Ailian; Dahlgren, Randy A.; Li, Yanyan; Li, Changli; Wang, Wenwei; Zeng, Aibing; Wang, Xuedong

    2014-07-01

    This study investigated the steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence properties of 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) and 17β-estradiol (E2) in the presence of ordered media (β-cyclodextrins (β-CD) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)). In addition, we analyzed the effects of four room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) on the fluorescence intensities (FIs) of EE2/β-CD and E2/β-CD inclusion complexes in methanol. Both β-CD and CTAB enhanced the fluorescence of EE2 and E2. The FIs of EE2 and E2 with β-CD or CTAB in methanol were greater than those in water, possibly resulting from decreased oxygen-quenching in H2O molecules. β-CD and CTAB may form inclusion complexes with estrogen in both water and methanol. The inclusion ratio of the complex was 1:1 and the inclusion constant (K) values in water were greater than those in methanol. The fluorescence lifetimes were 2.50 and 4.13 ns for EE2 and 2.58 and 4.03 ns for E2 in aqueous solution and methanol, respectively. The changing trend of fluorescence lifetimes for EE2 and E2 in β-CD or CTAB was similar to the steady-state FIs. The four RTILs had a significant quenching effect on the FIs of EE2/β-CD and E2/β-CD, and the quenching process for EE2/β-CD and E2/β-CD by RTILs was demonstrated to be a dynamic quenching mechanism. Fluorescent data obtained from these complex systems provide a theoretical foundation for understanding the interaction mechanisms between ordered media and RTILs in the analysis of estrogens.

  6. Motion induced second order temperature and y-type anisotropies after the subtraction of linear dipole in the CMB maps

    SciTech Connect

    Sunyaev, Rashid A.; Khatri, Rishi E-mail: khatri@mpa-garching.mpg.de

    2013-03-01

    y-type spectral distortions of the cosmic microwave background allow us to detect clusters and groups of galaxies, filaments of hot gas and the non-uniformities in the warm hot intergalactic medium. Several CMB experiments (on small areas of sky) and theoretical groups (for full sky) have recently published y-type distortion maps. We propose to search for two artificial hot spots in such y-type maps resulting from the incomplete subtraction of the effect of the motion induced dipole on the cosmic microwave background sky. This dipole introduces, at second order, additional temperature and y-distortion anisotropy on the sky of amplitude few μK which could potentially be measured by Planck HFI and Pixie experiments and can be used as a source of cross channel calibration by CMB experiments. This y-type distortion is present in every pixel and is not the result of averaging the whole sky. This distortion, calculated exactly from the known linear dipole, can be subtracted from the final y-type maps, if desired.

  7. Long-range charge order in the low-temperature insulating phase of PrNiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medarde, M.; Fernández-Díaz, M. T.; Lacorre, Ph.

    2008-12-01

    We report the observation of a static long-range 2Ni3+→Ni3+δ+Ni3-δ charge redistribution in PrNiO3 below TMI=130K by means of high-resolution powder neutron diffraction. In contrast to previous structural studies, these present data show that the symmetry of the low-temperature insulating phase is not orthorhombic but monoclinic P21/n . The two available Ni sites host contracted and expanded NiO6 octahedra which alternate along the three pseudocubic perovskite axes, suggesting the existence of a Ni3+δ/Ni3-δ charge order similar to that reported for the nickelates with heavier lanthanide ions. The difference between the average Ni-O distances in the two Ni sites at T/TMI=0.08 is 0.052(2)Å , which is almost two times smaller than the value reported for LuNiO3 at T/TMI=0.50 [0.084(4)Å] . This result suggests a progressive decrease in δ by approaching the itinerant limit and gives further support to the charge disproportionation mechanism as an origin of the metal-insulator transition in the whole RNiO3 family.

  8. High aspect ratio AFM Probe processing by helium-ion-beam induced deposition.

    PubMed

    Onishi, Keiko; Guo, Hongxuan; Nagano, Syoko; Fujita, Daisuke

    2014-11-01

    A Scanning Helium Ion Microscope (SHIM) is a high resolution surface observation instrument similar to a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) since both instruments employ finely focused particle beams of ions or electrons [1]. The apparent difference is that SHIMs can be used not only for a sub-nanometer scale resolution microscopic research, but also for the applications of very fine fabrication and direct lithography of surfaces at the nanoscale dimensions. On the other hand, atomic force microscope (AFM) is another type of high resolution microscopy which can measure a three-dimensional surface morphology by tracing a fine probe with a sharp tip apex on a specimen's surface.In order to measure highly uneven and concavo-convex surfaces by AFM, the probe of a high aspect ratio with a sharp tip is much more necessary than the probe of a general quadrangular pyramid shape. In this paper we report the manufacture of the probe tip of the high aspect ratio by ion-beam induced gas deposition using a nanoscale helium ion beam of SHIM.Gas of platinum organic compound was injected into the sample surface neighborhood in the vacuum chamber of SHIM. The decomposition of the gas and the precipitation of the involved metal brought up a platinum nano-object in a pillar shape on the normal commercial AFM probe tip. A SHIM system (Carl Zeiss, Orion Plus) equipped with the gas injection system (OmniProbe, OmniGIS) was used for the research. While the vacuum being kept to work, we injected platinum organic compound ((CH3)3(CH3C5H4)Pt) into the sample neighborhood and irradiated the helium ion beam with the shape of a point on the apex of the AFM probe tip. It is found that we can control the length of the Pt nano-pillar by irradiation time of the helium ion beam. The AFM probe which brought up a Pt nano-pillar is shown in Figure 1. It is revealed that a high-aspect-ratio Pt nano-pillar of ∼40nm diameter and up to ∼2000 nm length can be grown. In addition, for possible heating

  9. Influence of the tip mass and position on the AFM cantilever dynamics: coupling between bending, torsion and flexural modes.

    PubMed

    Mokhtari-Nezhad, F; Saidi, A R; Ziaei-Rad, S

    2009-08-01

    The effects of the geometrical asymmetric related to tip position as a concentrated mass, on the sensitivity of all three vibration modes, lateral excitation (LE), torsional resonance (TR) and vertical excitation (VE), of an atomic force microscopy (AFM) microcantilever have been analyzed. The effects of the tip mass and its position are studied to report the novel results to estimating the vibration behavior of AFM such as resonance frequency and amplitude of the microcantilever. In this way, to achieve more accurate results, the coupled motion in all three modes is considered. In particular, it is investigated that performing the coupled motion in analysis of AFM microcantilever is almost necessary. It is shown that the tip mass and its position have significant effects on vibrational responses. The results show that considering the tip mass decreases the resonance frequencies particularly on high-order modes. However, dislocating of tip position has an inverse effect that causes an increase in the resonance frequencies. In addition, it has been shown that the amplitude of the AFM microcantilever is affected by the influences of tip and its position. These effects are caused by the interaction between flexural and torsional motion due to the moment of inertia of the tip mass. PMID:19559530

  10. Simultaneous AFM nano-patterning and imaging for photomask repair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keyvani, Aliasghar; Tamer, Mehmet S.; van Es, Maarten H.; Sadeghian, Hamed

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we present a new AFM based nano-patterning technique that can be used for fast defect repairing of high resolution photomasks and possibly other high-speed nano-patterning applications. The proposed method works based on hammering the sample with tapping mode AFM followed by wet cleaning of the residuals. On the area where a specific pattern should be written, the tip-sample interaction force is tuned in a controlled manner by changing the excitation frequency of the cantilever without interrupting the imaging process. Using this method several patterns where transferred to different samples with imaging speed. While the pattern was transferred to the sample in each tracing scan line, the patterned sample was imaged in retracing scan line, thus the outcome was immediately visible during the experiment.

  11. BOREAS AFM-5 Level-1 Upper Air Network Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barr, Alan; Hrynkiw, Charmaine; Newcomer, Jeffrey A. (Editor); Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Airborne Fluxes and Meteorology (AFM)-5 team collected and processed data from the numerous radiosonde flights during the project. The goals of the AFM-05 team were to provide large-scale definition of the atmosphere by supplementing the existing Atmospheric Environment Service (AES) aerological network, both temporally and spatially. This data set includes basic upper-air parameters collected from the network of upper-air stations during the 1993, 1994, and 1996 field campaigns over the entire study region. The data are contained in tabular ASCII files. The level-1 upper-air network data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files also are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  12. Insights into Epoxy Network Nanostructural Heterogeneity Using AFM-IR.

    PubMed

    Morsch, Suzanne; Liu, Yanwen; Lyon, Stuart B; Gibbon, Simon R

    2016-01-13

    The first direct observation of a chemically heterogeneous nanostructure within an epoxy resin is reported. Epoxy resins comprise the matrix component of many high performance composites, coatings and adhesives, yet the molecular network structure that underpins the performance of these industrially essential materials is not well understood. Internal nodular morphologies have repeatedly been reported for epoxy resins analyzed using SEM or AFM, yet the origin of these features remains a contentious subject, and epoxies are still commonly assumed to be chemically homogeneous. Uniquely, in this contribution we use the recently developed AFM-IR technique to eliminate previous differences in interpretation, and establish that nodule features correspond to heterogeneous network connectivity within an epoxy phenolic formulation.

  13. MDI: integrity index of cytoskeletal fibers observed by AFM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manghi, Massimo; Bruni, Luca; Croci, Simonetta

    2016-06-01

    The Modified Directional Index (MDI) is a form factor of the angular spectrum computed from the 2D Fourier transform of an image marking the prevalence of rectilinear features throughout the picture. We study some properties of the index and we apply it to AFM images of cell cytoskeleton regions featuring patterns of rectilinear nearly parallel actin filaments as in the case of microfilaments grouped in bundles. The analysis of AFM images through MDI calculation quantifies the fiber directionality changes which could be related to fiber damages. This parameter is applied to the images of Hs 578Bst cell line, non-tumoral and not immortalized human epithelial cell line, irradiated with X-rays at doses equivalent to typical radiotherapy treatment fractions. In the reported samples, we could conclude that the damages are mainly born to the membrane and not to the cytoskeleton. It could be interesting to test the parameter also using other kinds of chemical or physical agents.

  14. Quantitative nano-mechanics of biological cells with AFM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, Igor

    2013-03-01

    The importance of study of living cells is hard to overestimate. Cell mechanics is a relatively young, yet not a well-developed area. Besides just a fundamental interest, large practical need has emerged to measure cell mechanics quantitatively. Recent studies revealed a significant correlation between stiffness of biological cells and various human diseases, such as cancer, malaria, arthritis, and even aging. However, really quantitative studies of mechanics of biological cells are virtually absent. It is not even clear if the cell, being a complex and heterogeneous object, can be described by the elastic modulus at all. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a natural instrument to study properties of cells in their native environments. Here we will demonstrate that quantitative measurements of elastic modulus of cells with AFM are possible. Specifically, we will show that the ``cell body'' (cell without ``brush'' surface layer, a non-elastic layer surrounding cells) typically demonstrates the response of a homogeneous elastic medium up to the deformation of 10-20%, but if and only if a) the cellular brush layer is taken into account, b) rather dull AFM probes are used. This will be justified with the help of the strong condition of elastic behavior of material: the elastic modulus is shown to be independent on the indentation depth. We will also demonstrate that an attempt either to ignore the brush layer or to use sharp AFM probes will result in the violation of the strong condition, which implies impossibility to use the concept of the elastic modulus to describe cell mechanics in such experiments. Examples of quantitative measurements of the Young's modulus of the cell body and the cell brush parameters will be given for various cells. Address when submitting: Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 13699

  15. Nanoscale fabrication of a peptide layer using an AFM probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Chikashi; Miyamoto, Chie; Obataya, Ikuo; Nakamura, Noriyuki; Miyake, Jun

    2004-12-01

    Scanning probe microscopy has been applied in many studies to manipulate atoms or molecules. In particular, force spectroscopy using an atomic force microscope (AFM) is a powerful tool to elucidate intermolecular or intramolecular interactions and provide mechanical information. If enzymes could retain their activity when immobilized on probes, not only could enzyme-substrate interactions be investigated but also the probes could be used for precise biomolecular manipulation at the nano-scale. In our study, a method based on "Enzymatic Nanolithography" was successfully performed in a buffered solution using Staphylococcal serine V8 protease and AFM. To estimate the fabricating activity of the protease immobilized on the AFM tip to peptides immobilized on a substrate, we designed and synthesized peptides that showed enzymatic action specific to the protease. When the protease digested the reporter peptide a quencher residue was released from the main flame of the peptide and resulted in fluorescence. In the designed 9 mer peptides, TAMRA functioned as a good quencher for FAM. After contact of the protease-immobilized tip to the reporter peptide layer, a fluorescent area was observed by microscopic imaging.

  16. Confocal Raman-AFM, A New Tool for Materials Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Ute

    2005-03-01

    Characterization of heterogeneous systems, e.g. polymers, on the nanometer scale continues to grow in importance and to impact key applications in the field of materials science, nanotechnology and catalysis. The development of advanced polymeric materials for such applications requires detailed information about the physical and chemical properties of these materials on the nanometer scale. However, some details about the phase-separation process in polymers are difficult to study with conventional characterization techniques due to the inability of these methods to chemically differentiate materials with good spatial resolution, without damage, staining or preferential solvent washing. The CR-AFM is a breakthrough in microscopy. It combines three measuring techniques in one instrument: a high resolution confocal optical microscope, an extremely sensitive Raman spectroscopy system, and an Atomic Force Microscope. Using this instrument, the high spatial and topographical resolution obtained with an AFM can be directly linked to the chemical information gained by Confocal Raman spectroscopy. To demonstrate the capabilities of this unique combination of measuring techniques, polymer blend films, spin coated on glass substrates, have been characterized. AFM measurements reveal the structural and mechanical properties of the films, whereas Raman spectral images show the chemical composition of the blends.

  17. In situ hydrodynamic lateral force calibration of AFM colloidal probes.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Sangjin; Franck, Christian

    2011-11-01

    Lateral force microscopy (LFM) is an application of atomic force microscopy (AFM) to sense lateral forces applied to the AFM probe tip. Recent advances in tissue engineering and functional biomaterials have shown a need for the surface characterization of their material and biochemical properties under the application of lateral forces. LFM equipped with colloidal probes of well-defined tip geometries has been a natural fit to address these needs but has remained limited to provide primarily qualitative results. For quantitative measurements, LFM requires the successful determination of the lateral force or torque conversion factor of the probe. Usually, force calibration results obtained in air are used for force measurements in liquids, but refractive index differences between air and liquids induce changes in the conversion factor. Furthermore, in the case of biochemically functionalized tips, damage can occur during calibration because tip-surface contact is inevitable in most calibration methods. Therefore, a nondestructive in situ lateral force calibration is desirable for LFM applications in liquids. Here we present an in situ hydrodynamic lateral force calibration method for AFM colloidal probes. In this method, the laterally scanned substrate surface generated a creeping Couette flow, which deformed the probe under torsion. The spherical geometry of the tip enabled the calculation of tip drag forces, and the lateral torque conversion factor was calibrated from the lateral voltage change and estimated torque. Comparisons with lateral force calibrations performed in air show that the hydrodynamic lateral force calibration method enables quantitative lateral force measurements in liquid using colloidal probes.

  18. Near-Field Spectroscopy with Nanoparticles Deposited by AFM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Mark S.

    2008-01-01

    An alternative approach to apertureless near-field optical spectroscopy involving an atomic-force microscope (AFM) entails less complexity of equipment than does a prior approach. The alternative approach has been demonstrated to be applicable to apertureless near-field optical spectroscopy of the type using an AFM and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), and is expected to be equally applicable in cases in which infrared or fluorescence spectroscopy is used. Apertureless near-field optical spectroscopy is a means of performing spatially resolved analyses of chemical compositions of surface regions of nanostructured materials. In apertureless near-field spectroscopy, it is common practice to utilize nanostructured probe tips or nanoparticles (usually of gold) having shapes and dimensions chosen to exploit plasmon resonances so as to increase spectroscopic-signal strengths. To implement the particular prior approach to which the present approach is an alternative, it is necessary to integrate a Raman spectrometer with an AFM and to utilize a special SERS-active probe tip. The resulting instrumentation system is complex, and the tasks of designing and constructing the system and using the system to acquire spectro-chemical information from nanometer-scale regions on a surface are correspondingly demanding.

  19. Influence of interstitial Mn on spin order and dynamics in the room-temperature ferromagnet Mn1+δSb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Alice

    Mn1+δSb is a well-known, high Curie temperature, ferromagnetic metal. It has particular importance because it, and closely related MnBi, show promise as alternatives to rare-earth-containing permanent magnets, and as magneto-optic media. To exploit these materials' useful properties, it is desirable to tune and optimize the magnetic properties. To achieve this, the magnetic interactions, and the effects of doping and defects must be understood. In Mn1+δSb the magnetic order is highly sensitive to the interstitial Mn ion content, δ, suggesting a route to tune the properties. However, detailed theoretical and experimental investigations of the effect of the interstitial ion, Mn2, have been lacking, probably due to a prevailing view in the literature that the Mn2 site is nonmagnetic. We examine the magnetic state of Mn2, and its influence on the magnetic properties of Mn1+δSb. We use a combination of neutron scattering techniques alongside detailed calculations to show that the Mn2 site is in-fact magnetic, and has a dramatic impact on the magnetic dynamics in Mn1+δSb. An unusual, broad, intense feature is identified in the magnetic dynamics which cannot be explained by the long-range symmetry of the material. This reveals an area in which current theoretical/modeling techniques limit our ability to understand the magnetic excitations revealed by neutron scattering. This investigation elucidates important aspects of the behavior of Mn1+δSb, whilst highlighting requirements for future research to understand the major influence of the interstitial ion on the magnetic properties.

  20. A review of the application of atomic force microscopy (AFM) in food science and technology.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shaoyang; Wang, Yifen

    2011-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a powerful nanoscale analysis technique used in food area. This versatile technique can be used to acquire high-resolution sample images and investigate local interactions in air or liquid surroundings. In this chapter, we explain the principles of AFM and review representative applications of AFM in gelatin, casein micelle, carrageenan, gellan gum, starch, and interface. We elucidate new knowledge revealed with AFM as well as ways to use AFM to obtain morphology and rheology information in different food fields.

  1. Dinosaur body temperatures determined from isotopic (¹³C-¹⁸O) ordering in fossil biominerals.

    PubMed

    Eagle, Robert A; Tütken, Thomas; Martin, Taylor S; Tripati, Aradhna K; Fricke, Henry C; Connely, Melissa; Cifelli, Richard L; Eiler, John M

    2011-07-22

    The nature of the physiology and thermal regulation of the nonavian dinosaurs is the subject of debate. Previously, arguments have been made for both endothermic and ectothermic metabolisms on the basis of differing methodologies. We used clumped isotope thermometry to determine body temperatures from the fossilized teeth of large Jurassic sauropods. Our data indicate body temperatures of 36° to 38°C, which are similar to those of most modern mammals. This temperature range is 4° to 7°C lower than predicted by a model that showed scaling of dinosaur body temperature with mass, which could indicate that sauropods had mechanisms to prevent excessively high body temperatures being reached because of their gigantic size.

  2. Effect of nitrogen fertilizer, root branch order and temperature on respiration and tissue N concentration of fine roots in Larix gmelinii and Fraxinus mandshurica.

    PubMed

    Jia, Shuxia; Wang, Zhengquan; Li, Xingpeng; Zhang, Xiaoping; McLaughlin, Neil B

    2011-07-01

    Root respiration is closely related to root morphology, yet it is unclear precisely how to distinguish respiration-related root physiological functions within the branching fine root system. Root respiration and tissue N concentration were examined for different N fertilization treatments, sampling dates, branch orders and temperatures of larch (Larix gmelinii L.) and ash (Fraxinus mandshurica L.) using the excised roots method. The results showed that N fertilization enhanced both root respiration and tissue N concentration for all five branch orders. The greatest increases in average root respiration for N fertilization treatment were 13.30% in larch and 18.25% in ash at 6°C. However, N fertilization did not change the seasonal dynamics of root respiration. Both root respiration and root tissue N concentration decreased with increase in root branch order. First-order (finest) roots exhibited the highest respiration rates and tissue N concentrations out of the five root branch orders examined. There was a highly significant linear relationship between fine root N concentration and root respiration rate. Root N concentration explained >60% of the variation in respiration rate at any given combination of root order and temperature. Root respiration showed a classical exponential relationship with temperature, with the Q(10) for root respiration in roots of different branching orders ranging from 1.62 to 2.20. The variation in root respiration by order illustrates that first-order roots are more metabolically active, suggesting that roots at different branch order positions have different physiological functions. The highly significant relationship between root respiration at different branch orders and root tissue N concentration suggests that root tissue N concentration may be used as a surrogate for root respiration, simplifying future research into the C dynamics of rooting systems. PMID:21849591

  3. Anomalous pressure dependence of magnetic ordering temperature in Tb revealed by resistivity measurements to 141 GPa. Comparison with Gd and Dy

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, J.; Fabbris, G.; Haskel, D.; Schilling, J. S.

    2015-05-26

    In previous studies the pressure dependence of the magnetic ordering temperature To of Dy was found to exhibit a sharp increase above its volume collapse pressure of 73 GPa, appearing to reach temperatures well above ambient at 157 GPa. In a search for a second such lanthanide, electrical resistivity measurements were carried out on neighboring Tb to 141 GPa over the temperature range 3.8 - 295 K. Below Tb’s volume collapse pressure of 53 GPa, the pressure dependence To(P) mirrors that of both Dy and Gd. However, at higher pressures To(P) for Tb becomes highly anomalous. This result, together with the very strong suppression of superconductivity by dilute Tb ions in Y, suggests that extreme pressure transports Tb into an unconventional magnetic state with an anomalously high magnetic ordering temperature.

  4. Anomalous pressure dependence of magnetic ordering temperature in Tb revealed by resistivity measurements to 141 GPa. Comparison with Gd and Dy

    DOE PAGES

    Lim, J.; Fabbris, G.; Haskel, D.; Schilling, J. S.

    2015-05-26

    In previous studies the pressure dependence of the magnetic ordering temperature To of Dy was found to exhibit a sharp increase above its volume collapse pressure of 73 GPa, appearing to reach temperatures well above ambient at 157 GPa. In a search for a second such lanthanide, electrical resistivity measurements were carried out on neighboring Tb to 141 GPa over the temperature range 3.8 - 295 K. Below Tb’s volume collapse pressure of 53 GPa, the pressure dependence To(P) mirrors that of both Dy and Gd. However, at higher pressures To(P) for Tb becomes highly anomalous. This result, together withmore » the very strong suppression of superconductivity by dilute Tb ions in Y, suggests that extreme pressure transports Tb into an unconventional magnetic state with an anomalously high magnetic ordering temperature.« less

  5. AFM review study on pox viruses and living cells.

    PubMed

    Ohnesorge, F M; Hörber, J K; Häberle, W; Czerny, C P; Smith, D P; Binnig, G

    1997-10-01

    Single living cells were studied in growth medium by atomic force microscopy at a high--down to one image frame per second--imaging rate over time periods of many hours, stably producing hundreds of consecutive scans with a lateral resolution of approximately 30-40 nm. The cell was held by a micropipette mounted onto the scanner-piezo as shown in Häberle, W., J. K. H. Hörber, and G. Binnig. 1991. Force microscopy on living cells. J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B9:1210-0000. To initiate specific processes on the cell surface the cells had been infected with pox viruses as reported earlier and, most likely, the liberation of a progeny virion by the still-living cell was observed, hence confirming and supporting earlier results (Häberle, W., J. K. H. Hörber, F. Ohnesorge, D. P. E. Smith, and G. Binnig. 1992. In situ investigations of single living cells infected by viruses. Ultramicroscopy. 42-44:1161-0000; Hörber, J. K. H., W. Häberle, F. Ohnesorge, G. Binnig, H. G. Liebich, C. P. Czerny, H. Mahnel, and A. Mayr. 1992. Investigation of living cells in the nanometer regime with the atomic force microscope. Scanning Microscopy. 6:919-930). Furthermore, the pox viruses used were characterized separately by AFM in an aqueous environment down to the molecular level. Quasi-ordered structural details were resolved on a scale of a few nm where, however, image distortions and artifacts due to multiple tip effects are probably involved--just as in very high resolution (<15-20 nm) images on the cells. Although in a very preliminary manner, initial studies on the mechanical resonance properties of a single living (noninfected) cell, held by the micropipette, have been performed. In particular, frequency response spectra were recorded that indicate elastic properties and enough stiffness of these cells to make the demonstrated rapid scanning of the imaging tip plausible. Measurements of this kind, especially if they can be proven to be cell-type specific, may perhaps have a large

  6. Experimental and theoretical study of the temperature and concentration dependence of the short-range order in Pt-V alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Bolloc'h, David; Caudron, René; Finel, Alphonse

    1998-02-01

    We present a detailed theoretical and experimental study of the short-range order in the Pt1-cVc system at two concentrations (c=14 and c=19). In situ neutron-scattering experiments were performed in order to measure the short-range-order parameters in the disordered phase. We found a drastic effect of the concentration on the short-range order: in Pt3V, the diffuse intensity is spread along the (1k0) directions with maxima at the (100) positions, despite the stability at low temperature of a DO22 phase. In contrast, the diffuse intensity in Pt8V displays a splitting around the (100) positions with incommensurate maxima. Through inverse Monte Carlo simulations the two experiments yield, within the Ising model, two sets of effective-pair interactions. Despite quite different short-range-order patterns, the interactions seem nearly concentration independent with a dominant first-neighbors interaction V1. This concentration independence allows us to predict the ordered states and the ordering temperatures. In particular, at low temperatures, these interactions stabilize a new phase of composition A5B, which to our knowledge has not been observed until now. Finally, we analyze the origin and behavior of the incommensurate split peaks in Pt8V within a high-temperature expansion and show analytically that the splitting is due to a large decrease of the influence of V1 on the short-range order as the concentration and/or the temperature decreases. This analysis shows also that the splitting distance should decrease with increasing temperature, in agreement with our Monte Carlo simulations, and in contrast with all the other alloys which have already been investigated, either experimentally or theoretically. More generally, we discuss the origin of the temperature behavior of a splitting distance in relation with the location in q space of the incommensurate maxima. Using very simple arguments, we show, provided the restriction that the first-neighbor interactions are

  7. Solvent-mediated repair and patterning of surfaces by AFM

    SciTech Connect

    Elhadj, S; Chernov, A; De Yoreo, J

    2007-10-30

    A tip-based approach to shaping surfaces of soluble materials with nanometer-scale control is reported. The proposed method can be used, for example, to eliminate defects and inhomogeneities in surface shape, repair mechanical or laser-induced damage to surfaces, or perform 3D lithography on the length scale of an AFM tip. The phenomenon that enables smoothing and repair of surfaces is based on the transport of material from regions of high- to low-curvature within the solution meniscus formed in a solvent-containing atmosphere between the surface in question and an AFM tip scanned over the surface. Using in situ AFM measurements of the kinetics of surface remodeling on KDP (KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}) crystals in humid air, we show that redistribution of solute material during relaxation of grooves and mounds is driven by a reduction in surface free energy as described by the Gibbs-Thomson law. We find that the perturbation from a flat interface evolves according to the diffusion equation where the effective diffusivity is determined by the product of the surface stiffness and the step kinetic coefficient. We also show that, surprisingly, if the tip is instead scanned over or kept stationary above an atomically flat area of the surface, a convex structure is formed with a diameter that is controlled by the dimensions of the meniscus, indicating that the presence of the tip and meniscus reduces the substrate chemical potential beneath that of the free surface. This allows one to create nanometer-scale 3D structures of arbitrary shape without the removal of substrate material or the use of extrinsic masks or chemical compounds. Potential applications of these tip-based phenomena are discussed.

  8. Image Analysis and Length Estimation of Biomolecules Using AFM

    PubMed Central

    Sundstrom, Andrew; Cirrone, Silvio; Paxia, Salvatore; Hsueh, Carlin; Kjolby, Rachel; Gimzewski, James K.; Reed, Jason; Mishra, Bud

    2014-01-01

    There are many examples of problems in pattern analysis for which it is often possible to obtain systematic characterizations, if in addition a small number of useful features or parameters of the image are known a priori or can be estimated reasonably well. Often, the relevant features of a particular pattern analysis problem are easy to enumerate, as when statistical structures of the patterns are well understood from the knowledge of the domain. We study a problem from molecular image analysis, where such a domain-dependent understanding may be lacking to some degree and the features must be inferred via machine-learning techniques. In this paper, we propose a rigorous, fully automated technique for this problem. We are motivated by an application of atomic force microscopy (AFM) image processing needed to solve a central problem in molecular biology, aimed at obtaining the complete transcription profile of a single cell, a snapshot that shows which genes are being expressed and to what degree. Reed et al. (“Single molecule transcription profiling with AFM,” Nanotechnology, vol. 18, no. 4, 2007) showed that the transcription profiling problem reduces to making high-precision measurements of biomolecule backbone lengths, correct to within 20–25 bp (6–7.5 nm). Here, we present an image processing and length estimation pipeline using AFM that comes close to achieving these measurement tolerances. In particular, we develop a biased length estimator on trained coefficients of a simple linear regression model, biweighted by a Beaton–Tukey function, whose feature universe is constrained by James–Stein shrinkage to avoid overfitting. In terms of extensibility and addressing the model selection problem, this formulation subsumes the models we studied. PMID:22759526

  9. Dry powder inhaler: influence of humidity on topology and adhesion studied by AFM.

    PubMed

    Bérard, V; Lesniewska, E; Andrès, C; Pertuy, D; Laroche, C; Pourcelot, Y

    2002-01-31

    In the dry powder inhalers (DPIs), the adhesion results of the interactions between the active substance and the excipient. The carrier and the micronized drug particle morphologies are believed to affect the delivery of the drug. In this work, the couple studied was the lactose monohydrate and micronized zanamivir, used for the treatment of influenza. In a first approach, observations by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) have shown that the relative humidity (RH) greatly influenced the zanamivir amount fixed on the lactose monohydrate surface. This paper deals with the direct measurement in controlled atmosphere by atomic force microscopy (AFM) of the forces and the interaction ranges between a zanamivir probe and a lactose substrate. Selected zanamivir crystals were attached to the standard AFM probe. Different RH have been used in order to determine influent parameters permitting to identify the nature of adhesion forces between them. This study demonstrated that the increase of RH modified progressively the surface topology of the two components and increased the adhesion force.

  10. Direct measurement of optical force induced by near-field plasmonic cavity using dynamic mode AFM

    DOE PAGES

    Guan, Dongshi; Hang, Zhi Hong; Marset, Zsolt; Liu, Hui; Kravchenko, Ivan I.; Chan, Ho Bun; Chan, C. T.; Tong, Penger

    2015-11-20

    Plasmonic nanostructures have attracted much attention in recent years because of their potential applications in optical manipulation through near-field enhancement. Continuing experimental efforts have been made to develop accurate techniques to directly measure the near-field optical force induced by the plasmonic nanostructures in the visible frequency range. In this work, we report a new application of dynamic mode atomic force microscopy (DM-AFM) in the measurement of the enhanced optical force acting on a nano-structured plasmonic resonant cavity. The plasmonic cavity is made of an upper gold-coated glass sphere and a lower quartz substrate patterned with an array of subwavelength goldmore » disks. In the near-field when the sphere is positioned close to the disk array, plasmonic resonance is excited in the cavity and the induced force by a 1550 nm infrared laser is found to be increased by an order of magnitude compared with the photon pressure generated by the same laser light. Lastly, the experiment demonstrates that DM-AFM is a powerful tool for the study of light induced forces and their enhancement in plasmonic nanostructures.« less

  11. Direct measurement of optical force induced by near-field plasmonic cavity using dynamic mode AFM

    SciTech Connect

    Guan, Dongshi; Hang, Zhi Hong; Marset, Zsolt; Liu, Hui; Kravchenko, Ivan I.; Chan, Ho Bun; Chan, C. T.; Tong, Penger

    2015-11-20

    Plasmonic nanostructures have attracted much attention in recent years because of their potential applications in optical manipulation through near-field enhancement. Continuing experimental efforts have been made to develop accurate techniques to directly measure the near-field optical force induced by the plasmonic nanostructures in the visible frequency range. In this work, we report a new application of dynamic mode atomic force microscopy (DM-AFM) in the measurement of the enhanced optical force acting on a nano-structured plasmonic resonant cavity. The plasmonic cavity is made of an upper gold-coated glass sphere and a lower quartz substrate patterned with an array of subwavelength gold disks. In the near-field when the sphere is positioned close to the disk array, plasmonic resonance is excited in the cavity and the induced force by a 1550 nm infrared laser is found to be increased by an order of magnitude compared with the photon pressure generated by the same laser light. Lastly, the experiment demonstrates that DM-AFM is a powerful tool for the study of light induced forces and their enhancement in plasmonic nanostructures.

  12. Matrix of rectangular pores obtained by AFM nanoindentation and electrolytic oxidation of Al

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belca, I. D.; Petkovic, M.; Stojadinovic, S.; Kasalica, B.; Belca, J. S.; Zekovic, Lj. D.

    2011-07-01

    AFM nanoindentation is used for pretexturing of Al sample intended for anodic oxidation in porous film-forming electrolytes. The rectangular quadratic and non-quadratic matrices of nanoindents were made by means of an AFM with diamond tip. The period of the 2D array of nanoindented concaves ranged from ˜50 to ˜370 nm. The pitch of the holes ranged from 13 to 170 nm. After anodization in water solutions of three different acids (0.3 M sulfuric, 0.3 M oxalic and 0.3 M phosphoric) at voltages chosen according to matrix period (20, 30 and 160 V), the well-arranged matrices of rectangular pores were obtained. The rectangular symmetry of the pretextured Al surface almost ideally transferred on porous alumina matrix, maintaining the highly ordered arrangement of the pores and rectangular cross section trough the whole film thickness with high pore depth to aperture size aspect ratio. During prolonged anodization in phosphoric acid, standard cells on the boundary of nanoindented area disturbed the arrangement and shape of quadratic cells.

  13. Structural changes of polysulfone membrane use for hemodialysis in the consecutive regime: nanometric analysis by AFM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batina, Nikola; Acosta García, Ma. Cristina; Avalos Pérez, Angélica; Alberto Ramírez, Mario; Franco, Martha; Pérez Gravas, Héctor; Cadena Méndez, Miguel

    2013-08-01

    Nowadays, the hemodialytic treatment of patients with either acute or chronic renal failure has been improved by promoting biocompatibility in the use of new materials and improve membrane surface characteristics. Low and high flux polysulfone membranes (PM) used in dialysis and ultra filtration have been studied in order to understand the geometry and surface chemistry of the pores at inner (nanometric) and outer (micrometric) membrane parts. The surface changes of polysulfone cartridge membrane (PM) during different number of consecutive reuse trials: after 1st, 10th and 23th times of use. The morphology of the hollow fibers surfaces was studied by means of the atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging and the surface roughness analysis. The roughness of both inner and outer part of PM surface increases with numbers of reuse trails. Thus, small and medium size pores were wiped out when the number of uses changed from zero to 23 on the outer surface. The pore density decreases. The inner part of membrane shows some nanometric size deformation in forms of new openings and raptures. The AFM analysis show differences in the PM morphology at the nanometric level, not previously revealed, which could be important in the evaluation of the PM.

  14. Cell mechanics as a marker for diseases: Biomedical applications of AFM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rianna, Carmela; Radmacher, Manfred

    2016-08-01

    Many diseases are related to changes in cell mechanics. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) is one of the most suitable techniques allowing the investigation of both topography and mechanical properties of adherent cells with high spatial resolution under physiological conditions. Over the years the use of this technique in medical and clinical applications has largely increased, resulting in the notion of cell mechanics as a biomarker to discriminate between different physiological and pathological states of cells. Cell mechanics has proven to be a biophysical fingerprint able discerning between cell phenotypes, unraveling processes in aging or diseases, or even detecting and diagnosing cellular pathologies. We will review in this report some of the works on cell mechanics investigated by AFM with clinical and medical relevance in order to clarify the state of research in this field and to highlight the role of cell mechanics in the study of pathologies, focusing on cancer, blood and cardiovascular diseases. At the request of all authors of the paper, and with the agreement of the Proceedings Editor, an updated version of this article was published on 26 September 2016. The original version supplied to AIP Publishing contained blurred figures introduced during the PDF conversion process. Moreover, Equations (5), (6), and (7) were not correctly cited in the text. These errors have been corrected in the updated and republished article.

  15. Direct Measurement of Optical Force Induced by Near-Field Plasmonic Cavity Using Dynamic Mode AFM

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Dongshi; Hang, Zhi Hong; Marcet, Zsolt; Liu, Hui; Kravchenko, I. I.; Chan, C. T.; Chan, H. B.; Tong, Penger

    2015-01-01

    Plasmonic nanostructures have attracted much attention in recent years because of their potential applications in optical manipulation through near-field enhancement. Continuing experimental efforts have been made to develop accurate techniques to directly measure the near-field optical force induced by the plasmonic nanostructures in the visible frequency range. In this work, we report a new application of dynamic mode atomic force microscopy (DM-AFM) in the measurement of the enhanced optical force acting on a nano-structured plasmonic resonant cavity. The plasmonic cavity is made of an upper gold-coated glass sphere and a lower quartz substrate patterned with an array of subwavelength gold disks. In the near-field when the sphere is positioned close to the disk array, plasmonic resonance is excited in the cavity and the induced force by a 1550 nm infrared laser is found to be increased by an order of magnitude compared with the photon pressure generated by the same laser light. The experiment demonstrates that DM-AFM is a powerful tool for the study of light induced forces and their enhancement in plasmonic nanostructures. PMID:26586455

  16. Theoretical modelling of AFM for bimetallic tip-substrate interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozzolo, Guillermo; Ferrante, John

    1991-01-01

    Recently, a new technique for calculating the defect energetics of alloys based on Equivalent Crystal Theory was developed. This new technique successfully predicts the bulk properties for binary alloys as well as segregation energies in the dilute limit. The authors apply this limit for the calculation of energy and force as a function of separation of an atomic force microscope (AFM) tip and substrate. The study was done for different combinations of tip and sample materials. The validity of the universality discovered for the same metal interfaces is examined for the case of different metal interactions.

  17. An approach towards 3D sensitive AFM cantilevers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koops, Richard; Fokkema, Vincent

    2014-04-01

    The atomic force microscope (AFM) tapping mode is a highly sensitive local probing technique that is very useful to study and measure surface properties down to the atomic scale. The tapping mode is mostly implemented using the resonance of the first bending mode of the cantilever and therefore provides sensitivity mainly along the direction of this oscillation. Driven by the semiconductor industry, there is an increasing need for accurate measurements of nanoscale structures for side wall characterization by AFM that requires additional sensitivity in the lateral direction. The conventional tapping mode has been augmented by various authors, for example by tilting the cantilever system (Cho et al 2011 Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82 023707) to access the sidewall or using a torsion mode (Dai et al 2011 Meas. Sci. Technol. 22 094009) of the cantilever to provide additional lateral sensitivity. These approaches however trade lateral sensitivity for vertical sensitivity or still lack sensitivity in the remaining lateral direction. We present an approach towards true 3D sensitivity for AFM cantilevers based on simultaneous excitation and optical detection of multiple cantilever resonance modes along three axes. Tuning the excitation of the cantilever to specific frequencies provides a mechanism to select only those cantilever modes that have the desired characteristics. Additionally, cantilever engineering has been used to design and create a substructure within the cantilever that has been optimized for specific resonance behavior around 4 MHz. In contrast to the conventional approach of using a piezo to actuate the cantilever modulation, we present results on photo-thermal excitation using an intensity modulated low-power laser source. By tightly focusing the excitation spot on the cantilever we were able to attain a deflection efficiency of 0.7 nm µW-1 for the first bending mode. The presented approach results in an efficient all optical excitation and deflection detection

  18. The Advancing State of AF-M315E Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masse, Robert; Spores, Ronald A.; McLean, Chris

    2014-01-01

    The culmination of twenty years of applied research in hydroxyl ammonium nitrate (HAN)-based monopropellants, the NASA Space Technology mission Directorate's (STMD) Green Propellant Infusion Mission (GPIM) will achieve the first on-orbit demonstration of an operational AF-M315E green propellant propulsion system by the end of 2015. Following an contextual overview of the completed flight design of the GPIM propellant storage and feed system, results of first operation of a flight-representative heavyweight 20-N engineering model thruster (to be conducted in mid-2014) are presented with performance comparisons to prior lab model (heavyweight) test articles.

  19. High-Pressure Single-Crystal Neutron Scattering Study of Magnetic and Fe Vacancy Orders in (Tl,Rb)2Fe4Se5 Superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Feng; Bao, Wei; Chi, Song-Xue; Antonio, M. dos Santos; Jamie, J. Molaison; Fang, Ming-Hu; Wang, Hang-Dong; Mao, Qian-Hui; Wang, Jin-Chen; Liu, Juan-Juan; Sheng, Jie-Ming

    2014-12-01

    The magnetic and iron vacancy orders in superconducting (Tl,Rb)2Fe4Se5 single-crystals are investigated by using a high-pressure neutron diffraction technique. Similar to the temperature effect, the block antiferromagnetic order gradually decreases upon increasing pressure while the Fe vacancy superstructural order remains intact before its precipitous disappearance at the critical pressure Pc = 8.3 GPa. Combined with previously determined Pc for superconductivity, our phase diagram under pressure reveals the concurrence of the block AFM order, the √5 × √5 iron vacancy order and superconductivity for the 245 superconductor. A synthesis of current experimental data in a coherent physical picture is attempted.

  20. Tapping mode AFM evidence for an amorphous reticular phase in a condensation-cured hybrid elastomer: alpha,omega-dihydroxypoly(dimethylsiloxane)/poly(diethoxysiloxane)/fumed silica nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Ogoshi, Tomoki; Fujiwara, Tomoko; Bertolucci, Massimo; Galli, Giancarlo; Chiellini, Emo; Chujo, Yoshiki; Wynne, Kenneth J

    2004-10-01

    A new surface phenomenon is reported for hybrid nanocomposites comprising (1) a low Tg poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) phase cross-linked by (2) a siliceous phase (SP) generated by in situ hydrolysis/condensation of poly(diethoxysiloxane) (PDES), and (3) fumed silica nanoparticles (FSN). After ambient temperature cure, tapping mode atomic force microscopy (TM-AFM) easily reveals near-surface FSN. For nanocomposites with higher PDES content, FSN surprisingly "disappear" after a further cure at 100 degrees C. The observation is explained by further condensation of extant siliceous fragments creating an amorphous reticular phase, which acts as a mechanical barrier between the FSN and the AFM tip. PMID:15453759

  1. SU-8 hollow cantilevers for AFM cell adhesion studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Vincent; Behr, Pascal; Drechsler, Ute; Polesel-Maris, Jérôme; Potthoff, Eva; Vörös, Janos; Zambelli, Tomaso

    2016-05-01

    A novel fabrication method was established to produce flexible, transparent, and robust tipless hollow atomic force microscopy (AFM) cantilevers made entirely from SU-8. Channels of 3 μm thickness and several millimeters length were integrated into 12 μm thick and 40 μm wide cantilevers. Connected to a pressure controller, the devices showed high sealing performance with no leakage up to 6 bars. Changing the cantilever lengths from 100 μm to 500 μm among the same wafer allowed the targeting of various spring constants ranging from 0.5 to 80 N m-1 within a single fabrication run. These hollow polymeric AFM cantilevers were operated in the optical beam deflection configuration. To demonstrate the performance of the device, single-cell force spectroscopy experiments were performed with a single probe detaching in a serial protocol more than 100 Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cells from plain glass and glass coated with polydopamine while measuring adhesion forces in the sub-nanoNewton range. SU-8 now offers a new alternative to conventional silicon-based hollow cantilevers with more flexibility in terms of complex geometric design and surface chemistry modification.

  2. SU-8 hollow cantilevers for AFM cell adhesion studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Vincent; Behr, Pascal; Drechsler, Ute; Polesel-Maris, Jérôme; Potthoff, Eva; Vörös, Janos; Zambelli, Tomaso

    2016-05-01

    A novel fabrication method was established to produce flexible, transparent, and robust tipless hollow atomic force microscopy (AFM) cantilevers made entirely from SU-8. Channels of 3 μm thickness and several millimeters length were integrated into 12 μm thick and 40 μm wide cantilevers. Connected to a pressure controller, the devices showed high sealing performance with no leakage up to 6 bars. Changing the cantilever lengths from 100 μm to 500 μm among the same wafer allowed the targeting of various spring constants ranging from 0.5 to 80 N m‑1 within a single fabrication run. These hollow polymeric AFM cantilevers were operated in the optical beam deflection configuration. To demonstrate the performance of the device, single-cell force spectroscopy experiments were performed with a single probe detaching in a serial protocol more than 100 Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cells from plain glass and glass coated with polydopamine while measuring adhesion forces in the sub-nanoNewton range. SU-8 now offers a new alternative to conventional silicon-based hollow cantilevers with more flexibility in terms of complex geometric design and surface chemistry modification.

  3. AFM analysis of bleaching effects on dental enamel microtopography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedreira de Freitas, Ana Carolina; Espejo, Luciana Cardoso; Botta, Sergio Brossi; Teixeira, Fernanda de Sa; Luz, Maria Aparecida A. Cerqueira; Garone-Netto, Narciso; Matos, Adriana Bona; Salvadori, Maria Cecilia Barbosa da Silveira

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to test a new methodology to evaluate the effects of 35% hydrogen peroxide agent on the microtopography of sound enamel using an atomic force microscope (AFM). The buccal sound surfaces of three extracted human lower incisors were used, without polishing the surfaces to maintain them with natural morphology. These unpolished surfaces were subjected to bleaching procedure with 35% hydrogen peroxide that consisted of 4 applications of the bleaching agent on enamel surfaces for 10 min each application. Surface images were obtained in a 15 μm × 15 μm area using an AFM. The roughness (Ra and RMS) and the power spectral density (PSD) were obtained before and after the bleaching treatment. As results we could inquire that the PSD analyses were very suitable to identifying the morphological changes on the surfaces, while the Ra and RMS parameters were insufficient to represent the morphological alterations promoted by bleaching procedure on enamel. The morphological wavelength in the range of visible light spectrum (380-750 nm) was analyzed, showing a considerable increase of the PSD with the bleaching treatment.

  4. Viscoelasticity of gelatin surfaces probed by AFM noise analysis.

    PubMed

    Benmouna, Farida; Johannsmann, Diethelm

    2004-01-01

    The viscoelastic properties of surfaces of swollen gelatin were investigated by analyzing the Brownian motion of an atomic force microscopy (AFM) cantilever in contact with the gel surface. A micron-sized glass sphere attached to the AFM cantilever is used as the dynamic probe. When the sphere approaches the gelatin surface, there is a static repulsive force without a jump into contact. The cantilever's Brownian movement is monitored in parallel, providing access to the dynamic sphere-surface interaction as quantified by the dynamic spring constant, kappa, and the drag coefficient, xi. Gelatin is used as a model substance for a variety of other soft surfaces, where the stiffness of the gel can be varied via the solvent quality, the bloom number, and the pH. The modulus derived from the static force-distance curve is in the kPa range, consistent with the literature. However, the dynamic spring constant as derived from the Brownian motion is much larger than the static differential spring constant dF/dz. On retraction, one observes a rather strong adhesion hysteresis. The strength of the bridge (as given by the dynamic spring constant and the drag coefficient) is very small. PMID:15745019

  5. Analysis of AFM cantilever dynamics close to sample surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habibnejad Korayem, A.; Habibnejad Korayem, Moharam; Ghaderi, Reza

    2013-07-01

    For imaging and manipulation of biological specimens application of atomic force microscopy (AFM) in liquid is necessary. In this paper, tapping-mode AFM cantilever dynamics in liquid close to sample surface is modeled and simulated by well defining the contact forces. The effect of cantilever tilting angle has been accounted carefully. Contact forces have some differences in liquid in comparison to air or vacuum in magnitude or formulation. Hydrodynamic forces are also applied on the cantilever due to the motion in liquid. A continuous beam model is used with its first mode and forward-time simulation method for simulation of its hybrid dynamics and the frequency response and amplitude versus separation diagrams are extracted. The simulation results show a good agreement with experimental results. The resonance frequency in liquid is so small in comparison to air due to additional mass and also additional damping due to the viscosity of the liquid around. The results show that the effect of separation on free vibration amplitude is great. Its effect on resonance frequency is considerable too.

  6. Absence of Significant Structural Changes Near the Magnetic Ordering Temperature in Small-ion Rare Earth Perovskite RMnO3

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, T.; Ty, T.; Chen, H.; Abeykoon, A. M. M.; Chen, Y. -S.; Ahn, K. H.

    2014-11-14

    The detailed structural measurements on multiple length scales were conducted on a new perovskite phase of ScMnO3, and on orthorhombic LuMnO3 as a benchmark. Complementary density functional theory (DFT) calculations were carried out, and predict that ScMnO3 possesses E-phase magnetic order at low temperature with displacements of the Mn sites (relative to the high temperature state) of ~0.07 Å, compared to ~0.04 Å predicted for LuMnO3. However, detailed local, intermediate and long-range structural measurements by x-ray pair distribution function analysis, single crystal x-ray diffraction and x-ray absorption spectroscopy, find no local or long-range distortions on crossing into the low temperature E-phase of the magnetically ordered state. Our measurements place upper limits on any structural changes to be at most one order of magnitude lower than DFT predictions and suggest that this theoretical approach does not properly account for the spin–lattice coupling in these oxides and may possibly predict the incorrect magnetic order at low temperatures. The results suggest that the electronic contribution to the electrical polarization dominates and should be more accurately treated in theoretical models.

  7. Application of Novel Molecular Field Theory to Helical Antiferromagnetic Ordering in EuCo2P2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, D. C.; Sangeetha, N. S.

    A formulation of Weiss molecular field theory (MFT) was recently advanced for antiferromagnetic (AFM) systems of identical crystallographically-equivalent local moments interacting by Heisenberg exchange that does not utilize the concept of magnetic sublattices.1 This formulation has the attractive feature that the magnetic and thermal properties in magnetic fields H --> 0 depend only on the interactions of a representative spin with its neighbors, and thus allows the properties of collinear and coplanar noncollinear AFM structures to be understood and modeled on the same footing. Neutron diffraction measurements showed that EuCo2P2 with the bct ThCr2Si2 -type structure undergoes an AFM transition to a coplanar noncollinear c-axis helical AFM structure below the ordering temperature TN = 66 . 5 K.2 Here we report the properties and apply our MFT to model the anisotropic magnetic susceptibility of single-crystal EuCo2P2 below TN. Research supported by U.S. Department of Energy, Division of Materials Science and Engineering, under Contract No. DE-AC02-07CH11358.

  8. Cation ordering in orthopyroxenes and cooling rates of meteorites: Low temperature cooling rates of Estherville, Bondoc and Shaw

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganguly, J.; Yang, H.; Ghose, S.

    1993-01-01

    The cooling rates of meteorites provide important constraints on the size of their parent bodies, and their accretionary and evolutionary histories. However, the cooling rates obtained so far from the commonly used metallographic, radiometric and fission-track methods have been sometimes quite controversial, such as in the case of the mesosiderites and the meteorite Shaw. We have undertaken a systematic study of the cooling rates of meteorites using a different approach, which involves single crystal x-ray determination of Fe(2+)-Mg ordering in orthopyroxenes (OP(x)) in meteorites, subject to bulk compositional constraints, and numerical simulation of the evolution of the ordering state as a function of cooling rate, within the framework of the thermodynamic and kinetic principles governing cation ordering. We report the results obtained for OP(x) crystals from Shaw and two mesosiderites, Estherville and Bondoc.

  9. Nano-scale modification of electrical and magnetic properties on Fe3O4 thin film by AFM lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirooka, Motoyuki; Vilquin, Bertrand; Li, Runwei; Tanaka, Hidekazu; Kawai, Tomoji

    2004-03-01

    We report the nano-patterning of the Fe3O4(111) epitaxial ultrathin film with room temperature ferromagnetism using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Fe3O4 thin film with atomically flat surface were grown along the 'q111' rdirection using laser-molecular beam epitaxy on MgAl2O4(111) single crystal substrate. The nano-wires were constructed on Fe3O4 thin film by applying electric field between an AFM conductive tip and the surface of the film. The minimum width and height in the resulting nano-wire are 48 nm and 2 nm, respectively. The patterned region shows 105 times higher resistance than the unpatterned region of Fe3O4 film. Furthermore, magnetic force microscopy (MFM) measurements by phase detection also revealed that magnetization of the patterned region are strongly suppressed. Remarkably, phase shift became almost zero in the patterned region, including no magnetic field was detected. We consider that magnetization is decreased in the patterned region by AFM lithography.

  10. The importance of correcting for variable probe-sample interactions in AFM-IR spectroscopy: AFM-IR of dried bacteria on a polyurethane film.

    PubMed

    Barlow, Daniel E; Biffinger, Justin C; Cockrell-Zugell, Allison L; Lo, Michael; Kjoller, Kevin; Cook, Debra; Lee, Woo Kyung; Pehrsson, Pehr E; Crookes-Goodson, Wendy J; Hung, Chia-Suei; Nadeau, Lloyd J; Russell, John N

    2016-08-01

    AFM-IR is a combined atomic force microscopy-infrared spectroscopy method that shows promise for nanoscale chemical characterization of biological-materials interactions. In an effort to apply this method to quantitatively probe mechanisms of microbiologically induced polyurethane degradation, we have investigated monolayer clusters of ∼200 nm thick Pseudomonas protegens Pf-5 bacteria (Pf) on a 300 nm thick polyether-polyurethane (PU) film. Here, the impact of the different biological and polymer mechanical properties on the thermomechanical AFM-IR detection mechanism was first assessed without the additional complication of polymer degradation. AFM-IR spectra of Pf and PU were compared with FTIR and showed good agreement. Local AFM-IR spectra of Pf on PU (Pf-PU) exhibited bands from both constituents, showing that AFM-IR is sensitive to chemical composition both at and below the surface. One distinct difference in local AFM-IR spectra on Pf-PU was an anomalous ∼4× increase in IR peak intensities for the probe in contact with Pf versus PU. This was attributed to differences in probe-sample interactions. In particular, significantly higher cantilever damping was observed for probe contact with PU, with a ∼10× smaller Q factor. AFM-IR chemical mapping at single wavelengths was also affected. We demonstrate ratioing of mapping data for chemical analysis as a simple method to cancel the extreme effects of the variable probe-sample interactions. PMID:27403761

  11. High temperature magnetic order in Zn1-x Mn x SnSb2+MnSb nanocomposite ferromagnetic semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilanski, L.; Górska, M.; Ślawska-Waniewska, A.; Lewińska, S.; Szymczak, R.; Dynowska, E.; Podgórni, A.; Dobrowolski, W.; Ralević, U.; Gajić, R.; Romčević, N.; Fedorchenko, I. V.; Marenkin, S. F.

    2016-08-01

    We present studies of structural, magnetic, and electrical properties of Zn1-x Mn x SnSb2+MnSb nanocomposite ferromagnetic semiconductors with the average Mn-content, \\bar{x} , changing from 0.027 up to 0.138. The magnetic force microscope imaging done at room temperature shows the presence of a strong signal coming from MnSb clusters. Magnetic properties show the paramagnet-ferromagnet transition with the Curie temperature, T C, equal to about 522 K and the cluster-glass behavior with the transition temperature, T CG, equal to about 465 K, both related to MnSb clusters. The magnetotransport studies show that all investigated samples are p-type semiconductors with high hole concentration, p, changing from 1021 to 1022 cm-3. A large increase in the resistivity as a function of the magnetic field is observed at T  <  10 K and small magnetic fields, |B|<100 mT, for all the studied samples with a maximum amplitude of the magnetoresistance about 460% at T  =  1.4 K. The large increase in the resistivity is most probably caused by the appearance of the superconducting state in the samples at T  <  4.3 K.

  12. Micrometer-Scale Ordering of Silicon-Containing Block Copolymer Thin Films via High-Temperature Thermal Treatments.

    PubMed

    Giammaria, Tommaso Jacopo; Ferrarese Lupi, Federico; Seguini, Gabriele; Perego, Michele; Vita, Francesco; Francescangeli, Oriano; Wenning, Brandon; Ober, Christopher K; Sparnacci, Katia; Antonioli, Diego; Gianotti, Valentina; Laus, Michele

    2016-04-20

    Block copolymer (BCP) self-assembly is expected to complement conventional optical lithography for the fabrication of next-generation microelectronic devices. In this regard, silicon-containing BCPs with a high Flory-Huggins interaction parameter (χ) are extremely appealing because they form high-resolution nanostructures with characteristic dimensions below 10 nm. However, due to their slow self-assembly kinetics and low thermal stability, these silicon-containing high-χ BCPs are usually processed by solvent vapor annealing or in solvent-rich ambient at a low annealing temperature, significantly increasing the complexity of the facilities and of the procedures. In this work, the self-assembly of cylinder-forming polystyrene-block-poly(dimethylsiloxane-random-vinylmethylsiloxane) (PS-b-P(DMS-r-VMS)) BCP on flat substrates is promoted by means of a simple thermal treatment at high temperatures. Homogeneous PS-b-P(DMS-r-VMS) thin films covering the entire sample surface are obtained without any evidence of dewetting phenomena. The BCP arranges in a single layer of cylindrical P(DMS-r-VMS) nanostructures parallel-oriented with respect to the substrate. By properly adjusting the surface functionalization, the heating rate, the annealing temperature, and the processing time, one can obtain correlation length values larger than 1 μm in a time scale fully compatible with the stringent requirements of the microelectronic industry. PMID:27020526

  13. High-temperature environments of human evolution in East Africa based on bond ordering in paleosol carbonates

    PubMed Central

    Passey, Benjamin H.; Levin, Naomi E.; Cerling, Thure E.; Brown, Francis H.; Eiler, John M.

    2010-01-01

    Many important hominid-bearing fossil localities in East Africa are in regions that are extremely hot and dry. Although humans are well adapted to such conditions, it has been inferred that East African environments were cooler or more wooded during the Pliocene and Pleistocene when this region was a central stage of human evolution. Here we show that the Turkana Basin, Kenya—today one of the hottest places on Earth—has been continually hot during the past 4 million years. The distribution of 13C-18O bonds in paleosol carbonates indicates that soil temperatures during periods of carbonate formation were typically above 30 °C and often in excess of 35 °C. Similar soil temperatures are observed today in the Turkana Basin and reflect high air temperatures combined with solar heating of the soil surface. These results are specific to periods of soil carbonate formation, and we suggest that such periods composed a large fraction of integrated time in the Turkana Basin. If correct, this interpretation has implications for human thermophysiology and implies a long-standing human association with marginal environments. PMID:20534500

  14. UV laser ablation of intraocular lenses: SEM and AFM microscopy examination of the biomaterial surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spyratou, E.; Asproudis, I.; Tsoutsi, D.; Bacharis, C.; Moutsouris, K.; Makropoulou, M.; Serafetinides, A. A.

    2010-02-01

    Several new materials and patterns are studied for the formation and etching of intraocular lenses (IOLs), in order to improve their optical properties, to reduce the diffractive aberrations and to decrease the incidence of posterior capsular opacification. The aim of this study is to investigate the use of UV ( λ = 266 nm) laser pulses to ablate the intraocular lenses materials, and thus to provide an alternative to conventional surface shaping techniques for IOLs fabrication. Ablation experiments were conducted using various polymer substrates of hydrophobic acrylic IOLs and PMMA IOLs. We investigated the ablation efficiency and the morphology of the ablated area by imaging the surface modification with atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The morphological appearance of IOL samples reveals the effect of a photochemical and photothermal ablation mechanism.

  15. Supramolecular self-assembly of linear oligosilsesquioxanes on mica--AFM surface imaging and hydrophilicity studies.

    PubMed

    Kowalewska, Anna; Nowacka, Maria; Tracz, Adam; Makowski, Tomasz

    2015-06-28

    Linear oligomeric [2-(carboxymethylthio)ethylsilsesquioxanes] (LPSQ-COOH) adsorb spontaneously on muscovite mica and form smooth, well-ordered lamellar structures at the liquid-solid interface. Side carboxylic groups, having donor-acceptor character with regard to hydrogen bonds, are engaged both in multipoint molecule-to-substrate interactions and intermolecular cross-linking. The unique arrangement of silsesquioxane macromolecules, with COOH groups situated at the interface with air, produces highly hydrophilic surfaces of good thermal and solvolytic stability. Supramolecular assemblies of LPSQ-COOH were studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM), angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ARXPS) and attenuated total reflectance (ATR) FTIR spectroscopy. Comparative height profile analysis combined with ATR-FTIR studies of the spectral regions characteristic of carboxylic groups and C1s core level envelope by XPS confirmed specific interactions between LPSQ-COOH and mica.

  16. AFM of the ultrastructural and mechanical properties of lipid-raft-disrupted and/or cold-treated endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Li; Huang, Jie; Yu, Xiaoxue; Zhou, Xiaoqing; Gan, Chaoye; Li, Ming; Chen, Yong

    2014-02-01

    The nonionic detergent extraction at 4 °C and the cholesterol-depletion-induced lipid raft disruption are the two widely used experimental strategies for lipid raft research. However, the effects of raft disruption and/or cold treatment on the ultrastructural and mechanical properties of cells are still unclear. Here, we evaluated the effects of raft disruption and/or cold (4 °C) treatment on these properties of living human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). At first, the cholesterol-depletion-induced raft disruption was visualized by confocal microscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM) in combination with fluorescent quantum dots. Next, the cold-induced cell contraction and the formation of end-branched filopodia were observed by confocal microscopy and AFM. Then, the cell-surface ultrastructures were imaged by AFM, and the data showed that raft disruption and cold treatment induced opposite effects on cell-surface roughness (a significant decrease and a significant increase, respectively). Moreover, the cell-surface mechanical properties (stiffness and adhesion force) of raft-disrupted- and/or cold-treated HUVECs were measured by the force measurement function of AFM. We found that raft disruption and cold treatment induced parallel effects on cell stiffness (increase) or adhesion force (decrease) and that the combination of the two treatments caused dramatically strengthened effects. Finally, raft disruption was found to significantly impair cell migration as previously reported, whereas temporary cold treatment only caused a slight but nonsignificant decrease in cell migration performed at physiological temperature. Although the mechanisms for causing these results might be complicated and more in-depth studies will be needed, our data may provide important information for better understanding the effects of raft disruption or cold treatment on cells and the two strategies for lipid raft research.

  17. Intrinsically high-Q dynamic AFM imaging in liquid with a significantly extended needle tip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minary-Jolandan, Majid; Tajik, Arash; Wang, Ning; Yu, Min-Feng

    2012-06-01

    Atomic force microscope (AFM) probe with a long and rigid needle tip was fabricated and studied for high Q factor dynamic (tapping mode) AFM imaging of samples submersed in liquid. The extended needle tip over a regular commercially available tapping-mode AFM cantilever was sufficiently long to keep the AFM cantilever from submersed in liquid, which significantly minimized the hydrodynamic damping involved in dynamic AFM imaging of samples in liquid. Dynamic AFM imaging of samples in liquid at an intrinsic Q factor of over 100 and an operational frequency of over 200 kHz was demonstrated. The method has the potential to be extended to acquire viscoelastic material properties and provide truly gentle imaging of soft biological samples in physiological environments.

  18. Effect of tip mass on frequency response and sensitivity of AFM cantilever in liquid.

    PubMed

    Farokh Payam, Amir; Fathipour, Morteza

    2015-03-01

    The effect of tip mass on the frequency response and sensitivity of atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilever in the liquid environment is investigated. For this purpose, using Euler-Bernoulli beam theory and considering tip mass and hydrodynamic functions in a liquid environment, an expression for the resonance frequencies of AFM cantilever in liquid is derived. Then, based on this expression, the effect of the surface contact stiffness on the flexural mode of a rectangular AFM cantilever in fluid is investigated and compared with the case where the AFM cantilever operates in the air. The results show that in contrast with an air environment, the tip mass has no significant impact on the resonance frequency and sensitivity of the AFM cantilever in the liquid. Hence, analysis of AFM behaviour in liquid environment by neglecting the tip mass is logical. PMID:25562584

  19. On-board monitoring of 2-D spatially-resolved temperatures in cylindrical lithium-ion batteries: Part I. Low-order thermal modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Robert R.; Zhao, Shi; Howey, David A.

    2016-09-01

    Estimating the temperature distribution within Li-ion batteries during operation is critical for safety and control purposes. Although existing control-oriented thermal models - such as thermal equivalent circuits (TEC) - are computationally efficient, they only predict average temperatures, and are unable to predict the spatially resolved temperature distribution throughout the cell. We present a low-order 2D thermal model of a cylindrical battery based on a Chebyshev spectral-Galerkin (SG) method, capable of predicting the full temperature distribution with a similar efficiency to a TEC. The model accounts for transient heat generation, anisotropic heat conduction, and non-homogeneous convection boundary conditions. The accuracy of the model is validated through comparison with finite element simulations, which show that the 2-D temperature field (r, z) of a large format (64 mm diameter) cell can be accurately modelled with as few as 4 states. Furthermore, the performance of the model for a range of Biot numbers is investigated via frequency analysis. For larger cells or highly transient thermal dynamics, the model order can be increased for improved accuracy. The incorporation of this model in a state estimation scheme with experimental validation against thermocouple measurements is presented in the companion contribution (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378775316308163)

  20. High-pressure polymorph of LuFe2O4 with room-temperature antiferromagnetic order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damay, F.; Poienar, M.; Hervieu, M.; Guesdon, A.; Bourgeois, J.; Hansen, T.; Elkaïm, E.; Haines, J.; Hermet, P.; Konczewicz, L.; Hammouda, T.; Rouquette, J.; Martin, C.

    2015-06-01

    Branded for its potential electronic ferroelectricity, charge-ordered LuF e2O4 has a layered Fe triangular framework, whose topology is a source of degeneracy, both at the charge and spin levels. Here we present an in-depth characterization of LuF e2O4-h p , the high-pressure (h p ) polymorph of LuF e2O4 , using electron, x-ray, and neutron diffraction, combined with transport and magnetization measurements. We show that LuF e2O4-h p is characterized by a misfit-related monoclinic structure, accommodating a buckled triangular [Lu] ∞ layer and two shifted adjacent rectangular [Fe] ∞ planes belonging to a distorted rock salt-type layer. The release of the geometric frustration of the Fe magnetic lattice in the h p form leads to collinear antiferromagnetic ordering at TN=380 K . Possible coexistence of charge and magnetic orders in this material opens research pathways for the design of tunable multifunctional devices using high-pressure techniques.

  1. Visualization of internal structure of banana starch granule through AFM.

    PubMed

    Peroni-Okita, Fernanda H G; Gunning, A Patrick; Kirby, Andrew; Simão, Renata A; Soares, Claudinéia A; Cordenunsi, Beatriz R

    2015-09-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a high resolution technique for studying the external and internal structures of starch granules. For this purpose granules were isolated from bananas and embedded in a non-penetrating resin. To achieve image contrast of the ultrastructure, the face of the cut blocks were wetted in steam and force modulation mode imaging was used. Images of starch from green bananas showed large variation of height across the granule due to a locational specific absorption of water and swelling of amorphous regions; the data reveal that the center of the granules are structurally different and have different viscoelastic properties. Images of starches from ripe bananas showed an even greater different level of organization: absence of growth rings around the hilum; the central region of the granule is richer in amylose; very porous surface with round shaped dark structures; the size of blocklets are larger than the green fruits. PMID:26005137

  2. Mechanical Characterization of Photo-crosslinkable Hydrogels with AFM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenna, Alyssa; Byun, Myunghwan; Hayward, Ryan; Aidala, Katherine

    2012-02-01

    Stimuli-responsive hydrogel films formed from photo-crosslinkable polymers are versatile materials for controlled drug delivery devices, three-dimensional micro-assemblies, and components in microfluidic systems. For such applications, it is important to understand both the mechanical properties and the dynamics responses of these materials. We describe the use of atomic force microscope (AFM) based indentation experiments to characterize the properties of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) copolymer films, crosslinked by activation of pendent benzophenone units using ultraviolet light. In particular, we study how the elastic modulus of the material, determined using the Johnson, Kendall, and Roberts model, depends on UV dose, and simultaneously investigate stress relaxation in these materials in the context of viscoelastic and poroelastic relaxation models.

  3. AFM of self-assembled lambda DNA-histone networks.

    PubMed

    Liu, YuYing; Guthold, Martin; Snyder, Matthew J; Lu, HongFeng

    2015-10-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to investigate the self-assembly behavior of λ-DNA and histones at varying histone:DNA ratios. Without histones and at the lowest histone:DNA ratio (less than one histone per 1000 base pairs of DNA), the DNA appeared as individual (uncomplexed), double-stranded DNA molecules. At increasing histone concentrations (one histone per 500, 250 and 167 base pairs of DNA), the DNA molecules started to form extensive polygonal networks of mostly pentagons and hexagons. The observed networks might be one of the naturally occurring, stable DNA-histone structures. The condensing effects of the divalent cations Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) on the DNA-histone complexes were also investigated. The networks persisted at high Mg(2+) concentration (20mM) and the highest histone concentration. At high Ca(2+) concentration and the highest histone concentration, the polygonal network disappeared and, instead, individual, tightly condensed aggregates were formed. PMID:26141439

  4. Modeling AFM Induced Mechanical Deformation of Living Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Rudd, R E; McElfresh, M; Balhorn, R; Allen, M J; Belak, J

    2002-11-15

    Finite element modeling has been applied to study deformation of living cells in Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and particularly Recognition Force Microscopy (RFM). The abstract mechanical problem of interest is the response to RFM point loads of an incompressible medium enclosed in a fluid membrane. Cells are soft systems, susceptible to large deformations in the course of an RFM measurement. Often the local properties such as receptor anchoring forces, the reason for the measurement, are obscured by the response of the cell as a whole. Modeling can deconvolute these effects. This facilitates experimental efforts to have reproducible measurements of mechanical and chemical properties at specific kinds of receptor sites on the membrane of a living cell. In this article we briefly review the RFM technique for cells and the problems it poses, and then report on recent progress in modeling the deformation of cells by a point load.

  5. Using 2D Correlation Analysis to Enhance Spectral Information Available from Highly Spatially Resolved AFM-IR Spectra.

    PubMed

    Marcott, Curtis; Lo, Michael; Hu, Qichi; Kjoller, Kevin; Boskey, Adele; Noda, Isao

    2014-07-01

    The recent combination of atomic force microscopy and infrared spectroscopy (AFM-IR) has led to the ability to obtain IR spectra with nanoscale spatial resolution, nearly two orders-of-magnitude better than conventional Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) microspectroscopy. This advanced methodology can lead to significantly sharper spectral features than are typically seen in conventional IR spectra of inhomogeneous materials, where a wider range of molecular environments are coaveraged by the larger sample cross section being probed. In this work, two-dimensional (2D) correlation analysis is used to examine position sensitive spectral variations in datasets of closely spaced AFM-IR spectra. This analysis can reveal new key insights, providing a better understanding of the new spectral information that was previously hidden under broader overlapped spectral features. Two examples of the utility of this new approach are presented. Two-dimensional correlation analysis of a set of AFM-IR spectra were collected at 200-nm increments along a line through a nucleation site generated by remelting a small spot on a thin film of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate). There are two different crystalline carbonyl band components near 1720 cm(-1) that sequentially disappear before a band at 1740 cm(-1) due to more disordered material appears. In the second example, 2D correlation analysis of a series of AFM-IR spectra spaced every 1 micrometer of a thin cross section of a bone sample measured outward from an osteon center of bone growth. There are many changes in the amide I and phosphate band contours, suggesting changes in the bone structure are occurring as the bone matures.

  6. Application of the Discrete Wavelet Transform to SEM and AFM Micrographs for Quantitative Analysis of Complex Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Workman, Michael J; Serov, Alexey; Halevi, Barr; Atanassov, Plamen; Artyushkova, Kateryna

    2015-05-01

    The discrete wavelet transform (DWT) has found significant utility in process monitoring, filtering, and feature isolation of SEM, AFM, and optical images. Current use of the DWT for surface analysis assumes initial knowledge of the sizes of the features of interest in order to effectively isolate and analyze surface components. Current methods do not adequately address complex, heterogeneous surfaces in which features across multiple size ranges are of interest. Further, in situations where structure-to-property relationships are desired, the identification of features relevant for the function of the material is necessary. In this work, the DWT is examined as a tool for quantitative, length-scale specific surface metrology without prior knowledge of relevant features or length-scales. A new method is explored for determination of the best wavelet basis to minimize variation in roughness and skewness measurements with respect to change in position and orientation of surface features. It is observed that the size of the wavelet does not directly correlate with the size of features on the surface, and a method to measure the true length-scale specific roughness of the surface is presented. This method is applied to SEM and AFM images of non-precious metal catalysts, yielding new length-scale specific structure-to-property relationships for chemical speciation and fuel cell performance. The relationship between SEM and AFM length-scale specific roughness is also explored. Evidence is presented that roughness distributions of SEM images, as measured by the DWT, is representative of the true surface roughness distribution obtained from AFM.

  7. Quadrupolar Spin Orders in FeSe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhentao; Nevidomskyy, Andriy

    Motivated by the absence of long-range magnetic order and the strong spin fluctuations observed in the Fe-based superconductor FeSe, we study spin-1 model on a square lattice up to next-nearest neighbor Heisenberg and biquadratic spin exchanges. The zero-temperature variational phase diagram gives the conventional antiferromagnetic order and also more exotic quadrupolar spin phases. These quadrupolar phases do not host long-range magnetic order and preserve time-reversal symmetry, but break the spin SU(2) symmetry. In particular, we observe a robust ferroquadrupolar order (FQ) in immediate proximity to the columnar AFM phase. We envision that FeSe may be positioned within the FQ phase close to the phase boundary. Using the flavor-wave technique, we calculate the structure factor inside the FQ phase and find a Goldstone mode emerging from Q = (0 , 0) , which however bears zero spectral weight at ω = 0 due to time reversal symmetry. At the same time, we observe strong spin fluctuations near (π , 0) / (0 , π) , which agrees with the recent neutron scattering experiments. Further, we calculate the higher order interactions between the (π , 0) and (0 , π) spin fluctuations inside the FQ phase, which may shed light on the C4 symmetry breaking in the nematic phase of FeSe.

  8. Numerical simulations of mixing under supercritical pressures of a shear coaxial injector using a high-order method: effect of outer jet temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terashima, H.; Koshi, M.

    2016-07-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) simulation of N2/H2 mixing for a coaxial injector under a supercritical pressure of 10 MPa is conducted using a highorder numerical method. Two outer H2 jets with injection temperatures of approximately 52 and 462 K are applied while an inner N2 jet with an injection temperature of approximately 97 K is applied. The mean and fluctuation properties and instantaneous flow fields are discussed in order to characterize the detailed mixing features for the two injection conditions. A clear dependence of dense-core length on the momentum flux ratio is also demonstrated.

  9. AFM tip effect on a thin liquid film.

    PubMed

    Ledesma-Alonso, R; Legendre, D; Tordjeman, Ph

    2013-06-25

    We study the interaction between an AFM probe and a liquid film deposited over a flat substrate. We investigate the effects of the physical and geometrical parameters, with a special focus on the film thickness E, the probe radius R, and the distance D between the probe and the free surface. Deformation profiles have been calculated from the numerical simulations of the Young-Laplace equation by taking into account the probe/liquid and the liquid/substrate interactions, characterized by the Hamaker constants, Hpl and Hls. We demonstrate that the deformation of a shallow film is determined by a particular characteristic length λF = (2πγE(4)/Hls)(1/2), resulting from the balance between the capillary force (γ is the surface tension) and the van der Waals liquid/substrate attraction. For the case of a bulk liquid, the extent of the interface deformation is simply controlled by the capillary length λC = (γ/Δρg)(1/2). These trends point out two asymptotic regimes, which in turn are bounded by two characteristic film thicknesses Eg = (Hls/2πΔρg)(1/4) and Eγ = (R(2)Hls/2πγ)(1/4). For E > Eg, the bulk behavior is recovered, and for E < Eγ, we show the existence of a particular shallow film regime in which a localized tip effect is observed. This tip effect is characterized by the small magnitude of the deformation and an important restriction of its radial extent λF localized below the probe. In addition, we have found that the film thickness has a significant effect on the threshold separation distance Dmin below which the irreversible jump-to-contact process occurs: Dmin is probe radius-dependent for the bulk whereas it is film-thickness-dependent for shallow films. These results have an important impact on the optimal AFM scanning conditions. PMID:23721486

  10. Reply to "Comment on 'Temperature-dependent orientational ordering on a spherical surface modeled with a lattice spin model' ".

    PubMed

    Luo, Alan M; Wenk, Stefan; Ilg, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    In Romano's Comment [Phys. Rev. E 91, 046501 (2015)] on Sec. II of our paper [Phys. Rev. E 90, 022502 (2014)], the author suggests that our findings concerning the nature of the ordering transition of our modified Lebwohl-Lasher model with two-dimensional planar rotators on a planar lattice are inconsistent with known mathematical results. We argue in this Reply that our findings are in fact in agreement with previous mathematical and simulation results and that the criticisms raised by Romano have no impact on the results presented in our paper.

  11. Direct evidence for charge ordering and electronic phase separation in Bi xSr 1-xMnO 3 at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, A.; Samanta, S. B.; Awana, V. P. S.; Kishan, H.; Awasthi, A. M.; Bhardwaj, S.; Narlikar, A. V.; Frontera, C.; Garcia-Munoz, J. L.

    2005-12-01

    We present a study of charge ordering and electronic phase separation (EPS) phenomenon in Bi xSr 1-xMnO 3, for an exhaustive range of x (0.25⩽ x⩽0.75), by STM/STS at room temperature (RT) and specific heat measurements at high temperatures (350-650 K). Atomically resolved STM images of the samples, in real space, show the presence of stripe-like charge-ordered (CO) phase coexisting with charge-disordered (CD) phase. The STM images further reveal that the fraction of CO phase increases with an increase in x. The conductance spectra of these phases measured at nano level by STS are discussed. The transition to CO phase above RT is corroborated by specific heat measurements in all samples, giving a TCO( x) phase diagram for this system.

  12. Thermal evolution of the spin ordering at the concomitant spin-orbital rearrangement temperature in RVO3 (R=Lu, Yb and Tm)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Tapati; Ivanov, Sergey A.; Bazuev, G. V.; Nordblad, Per; Mathieu, Roland

    2016-07-01

    Synthesis, crystal structure and magnetization measurements of phase pure polycrystalline RVO3 (R=Lu, Yb and Tm) are reported. The compounds were stabilized in the orthorhombic structure by thermal treatment of the respective precursors (RVO4) in a reducing atmosphere. Special pressure treatment was carried out during the synthesis to ensure phase pure samples without secondary phases. Magnetization measurements reveal the presence of two spin ordering temperatures in the samples. Interestingly, at the lower spin ordering temperature, TSO2, the uncompensated excess moment of the antiferromagnetic spin structure has different field dependences above and below TSO2, causing a jump in the thermal evolution of the magnetization that changes sign with increasing field strength. This jump is associated with the reported magnetic and orbital rearrangement in the samples, and the different spin configurations in the C- and G-type antiferromagnetic structures.

  13. A Model for Step Height, Edge Slope and Linewidth Measurements Using AFM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xuezeng; Vorburger, Theodore V.; Fu, Joseph; Song, John; Nguyen, Cattien V.

    2003-09-01

    Nano-scale linewidth measurements are performed in semiconductor manufacturing and in the data storage industry and will become increasingly important in micro-mechanical engineering. With the development of manufacturing technology in recent years, the sizes of linewidths are steadily shrinking and are in the range of hundreds of nanometers. As a result, it is difficult to achieve accurate measurement results for nanometer scale linewidth, primarily because of the interaction volume of electrons in materials for an SEM probe or the tip size of an AFM probe. However, another source of methods divergence is the mathematical model of the line itself. In order to reduce the methods divergences caused by different measurement methods and instruments for an accurate determination of nanometer scale linewidth parameters, a metrological model and algorithm are proposed for linewidth measurements with AFM. The line profile is divided into 5 parts with 19 sections and 20 key derived points. Each section is fitted by a least squares straight line, so that the profile can be represented by a set of straight lines and 6 special points, or by a 20×2 matrix of fitted points and a 6×2 matrix of starter points. According to the algorithm, WT and WTF, WM and WMF, WB and WBF represent the widths at the top, the middle and the bottom of the line profile before and after the least squares fitting, respectively. AL and AR represent the left and right sidewall angles, and H represents the step height of the line profile. Based on this algorithm, software has been developed using MATLAB for the calculation of width and height parameters of the line profile. A NIST nanometer scale linewidth artifact developed at NIST's Electronics and Electrical Engineering Laboratory (EEEL) was measured using a commercial AFM with nanotube tips. The measured linewidth profiles are analyzed using our model, algorithm and software. The model developed in this paper is straightforward to understand, and

  14. Variable-temperature Fourier-transform infrared studies of poly(L-lactic acid) in different states of order: A 2DCOS and PCMW2D analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Pudun; Unger, Miriam; Pfeifer, Frank; Siesler, Heinz W.

    2016-11-01

    Variable-temperature Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra of a predominantly amorphous and a semi-crystalline poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) film were measured between 30 °C and 170 °C in order to investigate their temperature-dependent structural changes as a function of the initial state of order. For an in-depth analysis of the spectral variations in the carbonyl stretching band region (1803-1722 cm-1) two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2DCOS) and perturbation-correlation moving-window two-dimensional (PCMW2D) analyses were applied. Significant spectral changes were observed during heating of the amorphous PLLA sample whereas the semi-crystalline specimen showed only slight band shifts as a function of the external perturbation. The PCMW2D results suggested that for efficient 2DCOS analyses the heating process should be split up in two temperature intervals. These analyses then provided information on the recrystallization of the amorphous regions, the presence of an intermediate state of order and a sequence scenario for the observed spectral changes.

  15. Enhanced magnetic ordering temperature and dielectric behavior in off-stoichiometric Ca3Cu1-xMn1+xO6 (x=0.07)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rayaprol, S.; Kaushik, S. D.; Iyer, K. K.; Sampathkumaran, E. V.

    2015-12-01

    A marginally Cu deficient compound Ca3Cu0.93Mn1.07O6, derived from Ca3CuMnO6 was studied for its structural and magnetic properties using magnetization, heat capacity, dielectric studies and neutron diffraction. Interestingly enough, this off-stoichiometry leads to long-range magnetic order at a much higher temperature of ~23 K, compared to that reported (5.3 K) for the stoichiometric compound, thereby strengthening our earlier proposal that this system is an example for an 'order by disorder' phenomenon. It is also intriguing to note that another anomaly is observed in ac susceptibility and dielectric measurements around 110 K, which has not been observed in the stoichiometric compound and we attribute to intrachain interactions. The magnetic structure of Ca3Cu0.93Mn1.07O6 obtained from the analysis of temperature-dependent neutron diffraction data is found to be of a ferrimagnetic type. Ca3Cu0.93Mn1.07O6 also exhibits dielectric anomalies in the vicinity of the two magnetic ordering temperatures. Overall, this off-stoichiometric composition presents an interesting situation in comparison with the literature results on stoichiometric composition.

  16. Spin-glass freezing above the ordering temperature for the Kondo ferromagnet CeNi{sub 0.4}Cu{sub 0.6}

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez Sal, J.C.; Garcia Soldevilla, J.; Blanco, J.A.; Espeso, J.I.; Rodriguez Fernandez, J.; Luis, F.; Bartolome, F.; Bartolome, J.

    1997-11-01

    The low-temperature magnetic and transport properties of the orthorhombic CeNi{sub 0.4}Cu{sub 0.6} compound have been determined from the analysis of specific heat, ac magnetic susceptibility, electrical resistivity, elastic and inelastic neutron scattering. These measurements present intriguing experimental results that could not be explained within the usual phenomenology of Ce-based compounds. C{sub p} and {chi}{sub ac} present anomalies around 1 K corresponding to ferromagnetic order as confirmed by neutron diffraction. The magnetic structure is collinear with very reduced moments, 0.6{mu}{sub B}/Ce lying in the b direction. Additionally, a clear Kondo behavior is observed with a Kondo temperature T{sub K}=1.9K estimated from quasielastic neutron scattering. Above the ordering temperature, further anomalies are observed in C{sub p} and {chi}{sub ac} that could not be explained as originating from crystal electric field or Kondo effects. From the frequency and field dependence of the {chi}{sub ac}, above T{sub c}, a spin-glass state with a freezing temperature T{sub f}=2K is proposed for this compound. This unusual magnetic behavior is discussed in terms of mixed (positive and negative) Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida interactions, randomness (structural disorder), large hybridization (Kondo effect), and strong magnetocrystalline anisotropy (crystal electric field effects). {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  17. BOREAS AFM-1 NOAA/ATDD Long-EZ Aircraft Flux data Over the SSA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, Timothy L.; Baldocchi, Dennis; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David E. (Editor); Gunter, Laureen; Dumas, Ed; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This data set contains measurements from the Airborne Flux and Meteorology (AFM)-1 National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration/Atmospheric Turbulence and Diffusion Division (NOAA/ATDD) Long-EZ Aircraft collected during the 1994 Intensive Field Campaigns (IFCs) at the southern study area (SSA). These measurements were made from various instruments mounted on the aircraft. The data that were collected include aircraft altitude, wind direction, wind speed, air temperature, potential temperature, water mixing ratio, U and V components of wind velocity, static pressure, surface radiative temperature, downwelling and upwelling total radiation, downwelling and upwelling longwave radiation, net radiation, downwelling and upwelling photosynthectically active radiation (PAR), greenness index, CO2 concentration, O3 concentration, and CH4 concentration. There are also various columns that indicate the standard deviation, skewness, kurtosis, and trend of some of these data. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The NOAA/ATDD Long-EZ aircraft flux data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  18. Thermal instability of DLC film surface morphology - an AFM study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maheswaran, R.; Thiruvadigal, D. John; Gopalakrishnan, C.

    2012-06-01

    The surface morphology of the DLC film during thermal annealing at particular temperature above the graphitization temperature shows blistering and buckling and also delaminates from the substrate. The DLC film shows poor thermal stability at higher temperature.

  19. Hematite/silver nanoparticle bilayers on mica--AFM, SEM and streaming potential studies.

    PubMed

    Morga, Maria; Adamczyk, Zbigniew; Oćwieja, Magdalena; Bielańska, Elżbieta

    2014-06-15

    Bilayers of hematite/silver nanoparticles were obtained in the self-assembly process and thoroughly characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and in situ streaming potential measurements. The hematite nanoparticles, forming a supporting layer, were 22 nm in diameter, exhibiting an isoelectric point at pH 8.9. The silver nanoparticles, used to obtain an external layer, were 29 nm in diameter, and remained negative within the pH range 3 to 11. In order to investigate the particle deposition, mica sheets were used as a model solid substrate. The coverage of the supporting layer was adjusted by changing the bulk concentration of the hematite suspension and the deposition time. Afterward, silver nanoparticle monolayers of controlled coverage were deposited under the diffusion-controlled transport. The coverage of bilayers was determined by a direct enumeration of deposited particles from SEM micrographs and AFM images. Additionally, the formation of the hematite/silver bilayers was investigated by streaming potential measurements carried out under in situ conditions. The effect of the mica substrate and the coverage of a supporting layer on the zeta potential of bilayers was systematically studied. It was established that for the coverage exceeding 0.20, the zeta potential of bilayers was independent on the substrate and the supporting layer coverage. This behavior was theoretically interpreted in terms of the 3D electrokinetic model. Beside significance for basic sciences, these measurements allowed to develop a robust method of preparing nanoparticle bilayers of controlled properties, having potential applications in catalytic processes.

  20. Oscillatory structural forces due to nonionic surfactant micelles: data by colloidal-probe AFM vs theory.

    PubMed

    Christov, Nikolay C; Danov, Krassimir D; Zeng, Yan; Kralchevsky, Peter A; von Klitzing, Regine

    2010-01-19

    Micellar solutions of nonionic surfactants Brij 35 and Tween 20 are confined between two surfaces in a colloidal-probe atomic-force microscope (CP-AFM). The experimentally detected oscillatory forces due to the layer-by-layer expulsion of the micelles agree very well with the theoretical predictions for hard-sphere fluids. While the experiment gives parts of the stable branches of the force curve, the theoretical model allows reconstruction of the full oscillatory curve. Therewith, the strength and range of the ordering could be determined. The resulting aggregation number from the fits of the force curves for Brij 35 is close to 70 and exhibits a slight tendency to increase with the surfactant concentration. The last layer of micelles cannot be pressed out. The measured force-vs-distance curve has nonequilibrium portions, which represent "jumps" from one to another branch of the respective equilibrium oscillatory curve. In the case of Brij 35, at concentrations <150 mM spherical micelles are present and the oscillation period is close to the micelle diameter, slightly decreasing with the rise of concentration. For elongated micelles (at concentration 200 mM), no harmonic oscillations are observed anymore; instead, the period increases with the decrease of film thickness. In the case of Tween 20, the force oscillations are almost suppressed, which implies that the micelles of this surfactant are labile and are demolished by the hydrodynamic shear stresses due to the colloidal-probe motion. The comparison of the results for the two surfactants demonstrates that in some cases the micelles can be destroyed by the CP-AFM, but in other cases they can be stable and behave as rigid particles. This behavior correlates with the characteristic times of the slow micellar relaxation process for these surfactants.

  1. Fast fabrication of self-ordered anodic porous alumina on oriented aluminum grains by high acid concentration and high temperature anodization.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chuan; Ngan, Alfonso H W

    2013-05-31

    Anodic porous alumina, which exhibits a characteristic nanohoneycomb structure, has been used in a wide range of nanotechnology applications. The conventional fabrication method of mild anodization (MA) requires a prolonged anodization time which is impractical for batch processing, and self-ordered porous structures can only be formed within narrow processing windows so that the dimensions of the resultant structures are extremely limited. The alternative hard anodization (HA) may easily result in macroscopic defects on the alumina surface. In this work, by systematically varying the anodization conditions including the substrate grain orientation, electrolyte concentration, temperature, voltage, and time, a new oxalic acid based anodization method, called high acid concentration and high temperature anodization (HHA), is found, which can result in far better self-ordering of the porous structures at rates 7-26 times faster than MA, under a continuous voltage range of 30-60 V on (001) oriented Al grains. Unlike HA, no macroscopic defects appear under the optimum self-ordered conditions of HHA at 40 V, even for pore channels grown up to high aspect ratios of more than 3000. Compared to MA and HA, HHA provides more choices of self-ordered nano-porous structures with fast and mechanically stable formation features for practical applications. PMID:23619572

  2. BOREAS AFM-12 1-km AVHRR Seasonal Land Cover Classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steyaert, Lou; Hall, Forrest G.; Newcomer, Jeffrey A. (Editor); Knapp, David E. (Editor); Loveland, Thomas R.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Airborne Fluxes and Meteorology (AFM)-12 team's efforts focused on regional scale Surface Vegetation and Atmosphere (SVAT) modeling to improve parameterization of the heterogeneous BOREAS landscape for use in larger scale Global Circulation Models (GCMs). This regional land cover data set was developed as part of a multitemporal one-kilometer Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) land cover analysis approach that was used as the basis for regional land cover mapping, fire disturbance-regeneration, and multiresolution land cover scaling studies in the boreal forest ecosystem of central Canada. This land cover classification was derived by using regional field observations from ground and low-level aircraft transits to analyze spectral-temporal clusters that were derived from an unsupervised cluster analysis of monthly Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) image composites (April-September 1992). This regional data set was developed for use by BOREAS investigators, especially those involved in simulation modeling, remote sensing algorithm development, and aircraft flux studies. Based on regional field data verification, this multitemporal one-kilometer AVHRR land cover mapping approach was effective in characterizing the biome-level land cover structure, embedded spatially heterogeneous landscape patterns, and other types of key land cover information of interest to BOREAS modelers.The land cover mosaics in this classification include: (1) wet conifer mosaic (low, medium, and high tree stand density), (2) mixed coniferous-deciduous forest (80% coniferous, codominant, and 80% deciduous), (3) recent visible bum, vegetation regeneration, or rock outcrops-bare ground-sparsely vegetated slow regeneration bum (four classes), (4) open water and grassland marshes, and (5) general agricultural land use/ grasslands (three classes). This land cover mapping approach did not detect small subpixel-scale landscape

  3. Beyond topography - enhanced imaging of cometary dust with the MIDAS AFM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentley, M. S.; Torkar, K.; Jeszenszky, H.; Romstedt, J.

    2013-09-01

    The MIDAS atomic force microscope (AFM) onboard the Rosetta spacecraft is primarily designed to return the 3D shape and structure of cometary dust particles collected at comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko [1]. Commercial AFMs have, however, been further developed to measure many other sample properties. The possibilities to make such measurements with MIDAS are explored here.

  4. Nano-Wilhelmy investigation of dynamic wetting properties of AFM tips through tip-nanobubble interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuliang; Wang, Huimin; Bi, Shusheng; Guo, Bin

    2016-07-01

    The dynamic wetting properties of atomic force microscopy (AFM) tips are of much concern in many AFM-related measurement, fabrication, and manipulation applications. In this study, the wetting properties of silicon and silicon nitride AFM tips are investigated through dynamic contact angle measurement using a nano-Wilhelmy balance based method. This is done by capillary force measurement during extension and retraction motion of AFM tips relative to interfacial nanobubbles. The working principle of the proposed method and mathematic models for dynamic contact angle measurement are presented. Geometric models of AFM tips were constructed using scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) images taken from different view directions. The detailed process of tip-nanobubble interaction was investigated using force-distance curves of AFM on nanobubbles. Several parameters including nanobubble height, adhesion and capillary force between tip and nanobubbles are extracted. The variation of these parameters was studied over nanobubble surfaces. The dynamic contact angles of the AFM tips were calculated from the capillary force measurements. The proposed method provides direct measurement of dynamic contact angles for AFM tips and can also be taken as a general approach for nanoscale dynamic wetting property investigation.

  5. Nano-Wilhelmy investigation of dynamic wetting properties of AFM tips through tip-nanobubble interaction

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuliang; Wang, Huimin; Bi, Shusheng; Guo, Bin

    2016-01-01

    The dynamic wetting properties of atomic force microscopy (AFM) tips are of much concern in many AFM-related measurement, fabrication, and manipulation applications. In this study, the wetting properties of silicon and silicon nitride AFM tips are investigated through dynamic contact angle measurement using a nano-Wilhelmy balance based method. This is done by capillary force measurement during extension and retraction motion of AFM tips relative to interfacial nanobubbles. The working principle of the proposed method and mathematic models for dynamic contact angle measurement are presented. Geometric models of AFM tips were constructed using scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) images taken from different view directions. The detailed process of tip-nanobubble interaction was investigated using force-distance curves of AFM on nanobubbles. Several parameters including nanobubble height, adhesion and capillary force between tip and nanobubbles are extracted. The variation of these parameters was studied over nanobubble surfaces. The dynamic contact angles of the AFM tips were calculated from the capillary force measurements. The proposed method provides direct measurement of dynamic contact angles for AFM tips and can also be taken as a general approach for nanoscale dynamic wetting property investigation. PMID:27452115

  6. Profiles of second- to fourth-order moments of turbulent temperature fluctuations in the convective boundary layer: first measurements with rotational Raman lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrendt, A.; Wulfmeyer, V.; Hammann, E.; Muppa, S. K.; Pal, S.

    2015-05-01

    The rotational Raman lidar (RRL) of the University of Hohenheim (UHOH) measures atmospheric temperature profiles with high resolution (10 s, 109 m). The data contain low-noise errors even in daytime due to the use of strong UV laser light (355 nm, 10 W, 50 Hz) and a very efficient interference-filter-based polychromator. In this paper, the first profiling of the second- to fourth-order moments of turbulent temperature fluctuations is presented. Furthermore, skewness profiles and kurtosis profiles in the convective planetary boundary layer (CBL) including the interfacial layer (IL) are discussed. The results demonstrate that the UHOH RRL resolves the vertical structure of these moments. The data set which is used for this case study was collected in western Germany (50°53'50.56'' N, 6°27'50.39'' E; 110 m a.s.l.) on 24 April 2013 during the Intensive Observations Period (IOP) 6 of the HD(CP)2 (High-Definition Clouds and Precipitation for advancing Climate Prediction) Observational Prototype Experiment (HOPE). We used the data between 11:00 and 12:00 UTC corresponding to 1 h around local noon (the highest position of the Sun was at 11:33 UTC). First, we investigated profiles of the total noise error of the temperature measurements and compared them with estimates of the temperature measurement uncertainty due to shot noise derived with Poisson statistics. The comparison confirms that the major contribution to the total statistical uncertainty of the temperature measurements originates from shot noise. The total statistical uncertainty of a 20 min temperature measurement is lower than 0.1 K up to 1050 m a.g.l. (above ground level) at noontime; even for single 10 s temperature profiles, it is smaller than 1 K up to 1020 m a.g.l. Autocovariance and spectral analyses of the atmospheric temperature fluctuations confirm that a temporal resolution of 10 s was sufficient to resolve the turbulence down to the inertial subrange. This is also indicated by the integral scale of

  7. Elastic modulus measurements at variable temperature: Validation of atomic force microscopy techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natali, Marco; Reggente, Melania; Passeri, Daniele; Rossi, Marco

    2016-06-01

    The development of polymer-based nanocomposites to be used in critical thermal environments requires the characterization of their mechanical properties, which are related to their chemical composition, size, morphology and operating temperature. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been proven to be a useful tool to develop techniques for the mechanical characterization of these materials, thanks to its nanometer lateral resolution and to the capability of exerting ultra-low loads, down to the piconewton range. In this work, we demonstrate two techniques, one quasi-static, i.e., AFM-based indentation (I-AFM), and one dynamic, i.e., contact resonance AFM (CR-AFM), for the mechanical characterization of compliant materials at variable temperature. A cross-validation of I-AFM and CR-AFM has been performed by comparing the results obtained on two reference materials, i.e., low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and polycarbonate (PC), which demonstrated the accuracy of the techniques.

  8. Search for the First-Order Liquid-to-Liquid Phase Transition in Low-Temperature Confined Water by Neutron Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Sow-Hsin; Wang, Zhe; Kolesnikov, Alexander I; Zhang, Yang; Liu, Kao-Hsiang

    2013-01-01

    It has been conjectured that a 1st order liquid-to-liquid (L-L) phase transition (LLPT) between high density liquid (HDL) and low density liquid (LDL) in supercooled water may exist, as a thermodynamic extension to the liquid phase of the 1st order transition established between the two bulk solid phases of amorphous ice, the high density amorphous ice (HDA) and the low density amorphous ice (LDA). In this paper, we first recall our previous attempts to establish the existence of the 1st order L-L phase transition through the use of two neutron scattering techniques: a constant Q elastic diffraction study of isobaric temperature scan of the D2O density, namely, the equation of state (EOS) measurements. A pronounced density hysteresis phenomenon in the temperature scan of the density above P = 1500 bar is observed which gives a plausible evidence of crossing the 1st order L-L phase transition line above this pressure; an incoherent quasi-elastic scattering measurements of temperature-dependence of the alpha-relaxation time of H2O at a series of pressures, namely, the study of the Fragile-to-Strong dynamic crossover (FSC) phenomenon as a function of pressure which we interpreted as the results of crossing the Widom line in the one-phase region. In this new experiment, we used incoherent inelastic neutron scattering (INS) to measure the density of states (DOS) of H atoms in H2O molecules in confined water as function of temperature and pressure, through which we may be able to follow the emergence of the LDL and HDL phases at supercooled temperature and high pressures. We here report for the first time the differences of librational and translational DOSs between the hypothetical HDL and LDL phases, which are similar to the corresponding differences between the well-established HDA and LDA ices. This is plausible evidence that the HDL and LDL phases are the thermodynamic extensions of the corresponding amorphous solid water HDA and LDA ices.

  9. Search for the first-order liquid-to-liquid phase transition in low-temperature confined water by neutron scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Sow-Hsin; Wang, Zhe; Kolesnikov, Alexander I.; Zhang, Yang; Liu, Kao-Hsiang

    2013-02-01

    It has been conjectured that a 1st order liquid-to-liquid (L-L) phase transition (LLPT) between high density liquid (HDL) and low density liquid (LDL) in supercooled water may exist, as a thermodynamic extension to the liquid phase of the 1st order transition established between the two bulk solid phases of amorphous ice, the high density amorphous ice (HDA) and the low density amorphous ice (LDA). In this paper, we first recall our previous attempts to establish the existence of the 1st order L-L phase transition through the use of two neutron scattering techniques: a constant Q elastic diffraction study of isobaric temperature scan of the D2O density, namely, the equation of state (EOS) measurements. A pronounced density hysteresis phenomenon in the temperature scan of the density above P = 1500 bar is observed which gives a plausible evidence of crossing the 1st order L-L phase transition line above this pressure; an incoherent quasi-elastic scattering measurements of temperature-dependence of the α-relaxation time of H2O at a series of pressures, namely, the study of the Fragile-to-Strong dynamic crossover (FSC) phenomenon as a function of pressure which we interpreted as the results of crossing the Widom line in the one-phase region. In this new experiment, we used incoherent inelastic neutron scattering (INS) to measure the density of states (DOS) of H atoms in H2O molecules in confined water as function of temperature and pressure, through which we may be able to follow the emergence of the LDL and HDL phases at supercooled temperature and high pressures. We here report for the first time the differences of librational and translational DOSs between the hypothetical HDL and LDL phases, which are similar to the corresponding differences between the well-established HDA and LDA ices. This is plausible evidence that the HDL and LDL phases are the thermodynamic extensions of the corresponding amorphous solid water HDA and LDA ices.

  10. Optical study of the antiferromagnetic ordered state in electron-overdoped Ca0.77Nd0.23FeAs2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Run; Xu, Bing; Dai, Yaomin; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Jinyun; Qiu, Ziyang; Qiu, Xianggang

    2016-06-01

    In Ca1 -xRxFeAs2 (R =rare earth), an antiferromagnetic (AFM) phase as well as a structural transition have been reported, even in the electron-overdoped regime. Here, we investigated the temperature-dependent in-plane optical spectroscopy of overdoped Ca0.77Nd0.23FeAs2 . Upon entering the AFM state, we found an abrupt reduction of low-frequency (500-2000 cm-1) spectral weight in the optical conductivity. In sharp contrast to the parent compounds of the 122 system, where spin-density-wave gaps have been clearly observed in the AFM state, a gap signature is absent in Ca0.77Nd0.23FeAs2 . This may be a consequence of the poor nesting condition between the hole and electron pockets. However, a spectral weight analysis shows that the reduced spectral weight at low frequency is transferred to the high-frequency range (≳4000 cm-1), pointing to a localization effect. These observations suggest that the AFM order in Ca0.77Nd0.23FeAs2 is most likely to originate from a localized nature rather than Fermi-surface nesting.

  11. AFM imaging of functionalized double-walled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Lamprecht, C; Danzberger, J; Lukanov, P; Tîlmaciu, C-M; Galibert, A-M; Soula, B; Flahaut, E; Gruber, H J; Hinterdorfer, P; Ebner, A; Kienberger, F

    2009-07-01

    We present a comparative study of several non-covalent approaches to disperse, debundle and non-covalently functionalize double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWNTs). We investigated the ability of bovine serum albumin (BSA), phospholipids grafted onto amine-terminated polyethylene glycol (PL-PEG(2000)-NH(2)), as well as a combination thereof, to coat purified DWNTs. Topographical imaging with the atomic force microscope (AFM) was used to assess the coating of individual DWNTs and the degree of debundling and dispersion. Topographical images showed that functionalized DWNTs are better separated and less aggregated than pristine DWNTs and that the different coating methods differ in their abilities to successfully debundle and disperse DWNTs. Height profiles indicated an increase in the diameter of DWNTs depending on the functionalization method and revealed adsorption of single molecules onto the nanotubes. Biofunctionalization of the DWNT surface was achieved by coating DWNTs with biotinylated BSA, providing for biospecific binding of streptavidin in a simple incubation step. Finally, biotin-BSA-functionalized DWNTs were immobilized on an avidin layer via the specific avidin-biotin interaction. PMID:19375857

  12. Conductive probe AFM measurements of conjugated molecular wires.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Takao; Mizutani, Wataru; Liang, Tien-Tzu; Azehara, Hiroaki; Miyake, Koji; Sasaki, Shinya; Tokumoto, Hiroshi

    2003-12-01

    The electrical conduction of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) made from conjugated molecules was measured using conductive probe atomic force microscopy (CP-AFM), with a focus on the molecular structural effect on conduction. First, the electrical conduction of SAMs made from phenylene oligomer SAMs was measured. The resistances through the monolayers increased exponentially with an increase in molecular length and the decay constants of transconductance beta were about 0.45 to 0.61 A(-1) measured at lower bias region. We further investigated the influence of applied load on the resistances. The resistances through terphenyl SAMs increased with an increase in the applied load up to 14 nN. Second, using an insertion technique into insulating alkanethiol SAMs, the electrical conduction of single conjugated terphenyl methanethiol and oligo(para-phenylenevinylene) (OPV) molecules embedded into insulating alkanethiol SAMs were measured. Electrical currents through these single molecules of OPVs were estimated to be larger than those through single terphenyl molecules, suggesting that the OPV structure can increase the electrical conduction of single molecules. Third, apparent negative differential resistance (NDR) was observed at higher bias measurements of SAMs. The appearance of NDR might be related to roughness of SAM surface, because apparent NDR was often observed on rough surfaces. In any case, the tip-molecule contact condition strongly affected carrier transport through metal tip/SAM/metal junction.

  13. AFM Investigation of Liquid-Filled Polymer Microcapsules Elasticity.

    PubMed

    Sarrazin, Baptiste; Tsapis, Nicolas; Mousnier, Ludivine; Taulier, Nicolas; Urbach, Wladimir; Guenoun, Patrick

    2016-05-10

    Elasticity of polymer microcapsules (MCs) filled with a liquid fluorinated core is studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Accurately characterized spherical tips are employed to obtain the Young's moduli of MCs having four different shell thicknesses. We show that those moduli are effective ones because the samples are composites. The strong decrease of the effective MC elasticity (from 3.0 to 0.1 GPa) as the shell thickness decreases (from 200 to 10 nm) is analyzed using a novel numerical approach. This model describes the evolution of the elasticity of a coated half-space according to the contact radius, the thickness of the film, and the elastic moduli of bulk materials. This numerical model is consistent with the experimental data and allows simulating the elastic behavior of MCs at high frequencies (5 MHz). While the quasi-static elasticity of the MCs is found to be very dependent on the shell thickness, the high frequency (5 MHz) elastic behavior of the core leads to a stable behavior of the MCs (from 2.5 to 3 GPa according to the shell thickness). Finally, the effect of thermal annealing on the MCs elasticity is investigated. The Young's modulus is found to decrease because of the reduction of the shell thickness due to the loss of the polymer. PMID:27058449

  14. AFM-based force microsensor for a microrobot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatikow, Sergej; Fahlbusch, Stephan

    2001-10-01

    Microrobots are the result of increasing research activities at the border between microsystem technology and robotics. Today already, robots with dimensions of a few cubic- centimeters can be developed. Like conventional robots, microrobots represent a complex system that usually contains several different types of actuators and sensors. The measurement of gripping forces is the most important sensor application in micromanipulation besides visual servoing to protect the parts from too high surface pressures and thereby damage during the assembly process. Very small forces in the range of 200 (mu) N down to 0.1 (mu) N or even less have to be sensed. Thus, the aim of our current research activities is the development of a high-resolution integrated force microsensor for measuring gripping forces in a microhandling robot. On the one hand, the sensor should be a device for teleoperated manipulation tasks in a flexible microhandling station. On the other hand, typical microhandling operations should to a large extend be automated with the aid of computer-based signal processing of sensor information. The user should be provided with an interface for teleoperated manipulation and an interface for partially automated manipulation of microobjects. In this paper, a concept for the measurement of gripping forces in microrobotics using piezoresistive AFM (atomic force microscope) cantilevers is introduced. Further on, the concept of a microrobot-based SEM station and its applications are presented.

  15. Spontaneous bidirectional ordering of CH3NH3+ in lead iodide perovskites at room temperature: The origins of the tetragonal phase

    PubMed Central

    Deretzis, Ioannis; Di Mauro, Bruno N.; Alberti, Alessandra; Pellegrino, Giovanna; Smecca, Emanuele; La Magna, Antonino

    2016-01-01

    CH3NH3PbI3 is a hybrid organic-inorganic material with a perovskite structure and a temperature-dependent polymorphism whose origins are still unclear. Here we perform ab initio molecular dynamics simulations in order to investigate the structural properties and atom dynamics of CH3NH3PbI3 at room temperature. Starting from different initial configurations, we find that a single-crystalline system undergoes a spontaneous ordering process which brings the ions to alternately point towards the center of two out of the six faces of the cubic framework, i.e. towards the 〈100〉 and 〈010〉 directions. This bidirectional ordering gives rise to a preferential distortion of the inorganic lattice on the a-b plane, shaping the observed tetragonal symmetry of the system. The process requires tens of picoseconds for CH3NH3PbI3 supercells with just eight ions. PMID:27079383

  16. Experimental evidence of ultrathin polymer film stratification by AFM force spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Delorme, Nicolas; Chebil, Mohamed Souheib; Vignaud, Guillaume; Le Houerou, Vincent; Bardeau, Jean-François; Busselez, Rémi; Gibaud, Alain; Grohens, Yves

    2015-06-01

    By performing Atomic Force Microscopy measurements of pull-off force as a function of the temperature, we were able to probe the dynamic of supported thin polystyrene (PS) films. Thermal transitions induce modifications in the surface energy, roughness and surface modulus that are clearly detected by AFM and related to PS chain relaxation mechanisms. We demonstrated the existence of three transition temperatures that can be associated to the relaxation of polymer chains located at different depth regions within the polymer film. Independently of the film thickness, we have confirmed the presence of a region of high mobility for the polymer chains at the free interface. The thickness of this region is estimated to be above 7nm. The detection of a transition only present for film thicker than the gyration radius Rg is linked to the dynamics of polymer chains in a bulk conformation (i.e. not in contact with the free interface). We claim here that our results demonstrate, in agreement with other techniques, the stratification of thin polymer film depth profile in terms of relaxation behavior. PMID:26087914

  17. Cyclic Degradation of Co49Ni21Ga30 High-Temperature Shape Memory Alloy: On the Roles of Dislocation Activity and Chemical Order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krooß, P.; Kadletz, P. M.; Somsen, C.; Gutmann, M. J.; Chumlyakov, Y. I.; Schmahl, W. W.; Maier, H. J.; Niendorf, T.

    2016-03-01

    Conventional shape memory alloys (SMAs), such as binary Ni-Ti, are typically limited to service temperatures below 100 °C. Recent studies on Co-Ni-Ga high-temperature SMAs revealed the potential that these alloys can be used up to temperatures of about 400 °C. Analysis of the cyclic functional properties showed that degradation in these alloys is mainly triggered by intensive dislocation motion. However, data on the cyclic stress-strain response and the mechanisms leading to functional degradation of Co-Ni-Ga above 300 °C were missing in open literature. Current results reveal that above 300 °C diffusion-controlled mechanisms, e.g., precipitation of secondary phases and changes in the chemical degree of order, seem to dictate cyclic instability. Detailed neutron and transmission electron microscopy analyses following superelastic cycling in a temperature range of 200-400 °C were employed to characterize the changes in degradation behavior above 300 °C.

  18. Ordering, incommensuration, and phase transitions in pyrrhotite. Part II: A high-temperature X-ray powder diffraction and thermomagnetic study

    SciTech Connect

    Li, F.; Franzen, H.F.

    1996-10-01

    High-temperature X-ray diffraction (HTXRD) has been combined with thermomagnetic measurements to study synthetic and natural pyrrhotites. The temperature dependence of the properties observed in DTA, thermomagnetic and diffraction measurements indicates that transitions consistently occur upon heating and cooling so long as the sample is kept below 400{degrees}C, but if the ultimate heating temperature is higher than 550{degrees}C the transitions are altered, probably due to the loss of sulfur. The previously proposed transition sequence for Fe{sub 7}S{sub 8} was supported by HTXRD observation, especially on natural monoclinic pyrrhotite. For intermediate pyrrhotite, the principal ordering was found to be the formation of Kagome nets, and it was found that the vertical stacking sequences that are commensurate along the c axis yield antiferromagnetic characteristics. Based on the changes observed in the HTXRD patterns it is proposed that the mechanism for an observed magnetic {lambda}-transition between the temperatures 150 and 250{degrees}C is the transformation of a commensurate structure with ABCD layering of Kagome nets into a vacancy-disordered structure with the same c modulation.

  19. Neutron-diffraction measurements of an antiferromagnetic semiconducting phase in the vicinity of the high-temperature superconducting state of K(x)Fe(2-y)Se2.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jun; Cao, Huibo; Bourret-Courchesne, E; Lee, D-H; Birgeneau, R J

    2012-12-28

    The recently discovered K-Fe-Se high-temperature superconductor has caused heated debate regarding the nature of its parent compound. Transport, angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, and STM measurements have suggested that its parent compound could be insulating, semiconducting, or even metallic [M. H. Fang, H.-D. Wang, C.-H. Dong, Z.-J. Li, C.-M. Feng, J. Chen, and H. Q. Yuan, Europhys. Lett. 94, 27009 (2011); F. Chen et al., Phys. Rev. X 1, 021020 (2011); and W. Li et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 057003 (2012)]. Because the magnetic ground states associated with these different phases have not yet been identified and the relationship between magnetism and superconductivity is not fully understood, the real parent compound of this system remains elusive. Here, we report neutron-diffraction experiments that reveal a semiconducting antiferromagnetic (AFM) phase with rhombus iron vacancy order. The magnetic order of the semiconducting phase is the same as the stripe AFM order of the iron pnictide parent compounds. Moreover, while the sqrt[5]×sqrt[5] block AFM phase coexists with superconductivity, the stripe AFM order is suppressed by it. This leads us to conjecture that the new semiconducting magnetic ordered phase is the true parent phase of this superconductor. PMID:23368605

  20. Atomically resolved force microscopy at room temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Morita, Seizo

    2014-04-24

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) can now not only image individual atoms but also construct atom letters using atom manipulation method even at room temperature (RT). Therefore, the AFM is the second generation atomic tool following the scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). However the AFM can image even insulating atoms, and also directly measure/map the atomic force and potential at the atomic scale. Noting these advantages, we have been developing a bottom-up nanostructuring system at RT based on the AFM. It can identify chemical species of individual atoms and then manipulate selected atom species to the predesigned site one-by-one to assemble complex nanostructures consisted of multi atom species at RT. Here we introduce our results toward atom-by-atom assembly of composite nanostructures based on the AFM at RT including the latest result on atom gating of nano-space for atom-by-atom creation of atom clusters at RT for semiconductor surfaces.

  1. Inhibition of cold rolled steel corrosion by Tween-20 in sulfuric acid: weight loss, electrochemical and AFM approaches.

    PubMed

    Mu, Guannan; Li, Xianghong

    2005-09-01

    The inhibiting action of a nonionic surfactant of Tween-20 on the corrosion of cold rolled steel (CRS) in 0.5-7.0 M sulfuric acid (H(2)SO(4)) was studied by weight loss and potentiodynamic polarization methods. Atomic force microscope (AFM) provided the surface conditions. The results show that inhibition efficiency increases with the inhibitor concentration, while it decreases with the sulfuric acid concentration. The adsorption of inhibitor on the cold rolled steel surface obeys the Langmuir adsorption isotherm equation. Effect of immersion time was studied and discussed. The effect of temperature on the corrosion behavior of cold rolled steel was also studied at four temperatures ranging from 30 to 60 degrees C, the thermodynamic parameters such as adsorption heat, adsorption free energy, and adsorption entropy were calculated. The results revealed that the adsorption was physisorption mechanism. A kinetic study of cold rolled steel in uninhibited and inhibited acid was also discussed. The kinetic parameters such as apparent activation energy, pre-exponential factor, rate constant, and reaction constant were calculated for the reactions of corrosion. The inhibition effect is satisfactorily explained by both thermodynamic and kinetic models. Polarization curves show that Tween-20 is a cathodic-type inhibitor in sulfuric acid. The results obtained from weight loss and potentiodynamic polarization are in good agreement, and the Tween-20 inhibition action could also be evidenced by surface AFM images.

  2. Atomic long-range order effects on Curie temperature and adiabatic spin-wave dynamics in strained Fe-Co alloy films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schönecker, Stephan; Li, Xiaoqing; Johansson, Börje; Vitos, Levente

    2016-08-01

    The strained Fe-Co alloy in body-centered tetragonal (bct) structure has raised considerable interest due to its giant uniaxial magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy. On the basis of the classical Heisenberg Hamiltonian with ab initio interatomic exchange interactions, we perform a theoretical study of fundamental finite temperature magnetic properties of Fe1 -xCox alloy films as a function of three variables: chemical composition 0.3 ≤x ≤0.8 , bct geometry [a ,c (a )] arising from in-plane strain and associated out-of-plane relaxation, and atomic long-range order (ALRO). The Curie temperatures TC(x ,a ) obtained from Monte Carlo simulations display a competition between a pronounced dependence on tetragonality, strong ferromagnetism in the Co-rich alloy, and the beginning instability of ferromagnetic order in the Fe-rich alloy when c /a →√{2 } . Atomic ordering enhances TC and arises mainly due to different distributions of atoms in neighboring coordination shells rather than altering exchange interactions significantly. We investigate the ordering effect on the shape of the adiabatic spin-wave spectrum for selected pairs (x ,a ) . Our results indicate that long-wavelength acoustic spin-wave excitations show dependencies on x , a , and ALRO similar to those of TC. The directional anisotropy of the spin-wave stiffness d (x ,a ) peaks in narrow ranges of composition and tetragonality. ALRO exhibits a strong effect on d for near equiconcentration Fe-Co. We also discuss our findings in the context of employing Fe-Co as perpendicular magnetic recording medium.

  3. High-temperature order-disorder transitions in the skutterudites CoGe{sub 1.5}Q{sub 1.5} (Q=S, Te)

    SciTech Connect

    Kaltzoglou, Andreas; Powell, Anthony V.; Knight, Kevin S.; Vaqueiro, Paz

    2013-02-15

    The temperature dependence of anion ordering in the skutterudites CoGe{sub 1.5}Q{sub 1.5} (Q=S, Te) has been investigated by powder neutron diffraction. Both materials adopt a rhombohedral structure at room temperature (space group R3{sup Macron} ) in which the anions are ordered trans to each other within Ge{sub 2}Q{sub 2} rings. In CoGe{sub 1.5}S{sub 1.5}, anion ordering is preserved up to the melting point of 950 Degree-Sign C. However, rhombohedral CoGe{sub 1.5}Te{sub 1.5} undergoes a phase transition at 610 Degree-Sign C involving a change to cubic symmetry (space group Im3{sup Macron }). In the high-temperature modification, there is a statistical distribution of anions over the available sites within the Ge{sub 2}Te{sub 2} rings. The structural transition involves a reduction in the degree of distortion of the Ge{sub 2}Te{sub 2} rings which progressively transform from a rhombus to a rectangular shape. The effect of this transition on the thermoelectric properties has been investigated. - Graphical abstract: Powder neutron diffraction reveals that the skutterudite CoGe{sub 1.5}Te{sub 1.5} undergoes a phase transition at 610 Degree-Sign C, involving the disordering of the anions within the Ge{sub 2}Te{sub 2} rings. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CoGe{sub 1.5}S{sub 1.5} retains an ordered skutterudite structure up to 950 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CoGe{sub 1.5}Te{sub 1.5} undergoes an order-disorder phase transition at 610 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Below 610 Degree-Sign C, anions are arranged trans to each other within Ge{sub 2}Te{sub 2} rings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Above 610 Degree-Sign C, anions are statistically distributed within the Ge{sub 2}Te{sub 2} rings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of the phase transition on the thermal conductivity is discussed.

  4. Profiles of second- to third-order moments of turbulent temperature fluctuations in the convective boundary layer: first measurements with Rotational Raman Lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrendt, A.; Wulfmeyer, V.; Hammann, E.; Muppa, S. K.; Pal, S.

    2014-11-01

    The rotational Raman lidar of the University of Hohenheim (UHOH) measures atmospheric temperature profiles during daytime with high resolution (10 s, 109 m). The data contain low noise errors even in daytime due to the use of strong UV laser light (355 nm, 10 W, 50 Hz) and a very efficient interference-filter-based polychromator. In this paper, we present the first profiling of the second- to forth-order moments of turbulent temperature fluctuations as well as of skewness and kurtosis in the convective boundary layer (CBL) including the interfacial layer (IL). The results demonstrate that the UHOH RRL resolves the vertical structure of these moments. The data set which is used for this case study was collected in western Germany (50°53'50.56'' N, 6°27'50.39'' E, 110 m a.s.l.) within one hour around local noon on 24 April 2013 during the Intensive Observations Period (IOP) 6 of the HD(CP)2 Observational Prototype Experiment (HOPE), which is embedded in the German project HD(CP)2 (High-Definition Clouds and Precipitation for advancing Climate Prediction). First, we investigated profiles of the noise variance and compared it with estimates of the statistical temperature measurement uncertainty Δ T based on Poisson statistics. The agreement confirms that photon count numbers obtained from extrapolated analog signal intensities provide a lower estimate of the statistical errors. The total statistical uncertainty of a 20 min temperature measurement is lower than 0.1 K up to 1050 m a.g.l. at noontime; even for single 10 s temperature profiles, it is smaller than 1 K up to 1000 m a.g.l.. Then we confirmed by autocovariance and spectral analyses of the atmospheric temperature fluctuations that a temporal resolution of 10 s was sufficient to resolve the turbulence down to the inertial subrange. This is also indicated by the profile of the integral scale of the temperature fluctuations, which was in the range of 40 to 120 s in the CBL. Analyzing then profiles of the second

  5. Dissolution of uranophane: An AFM, XPS, SEM and ICP study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindler, Michael; Freund, Michael; Hawthorne, Frank C.; Burns, Peter C.; Maurice, Patricia A.

    2009-05-01

    Dissolution experiments on single crystals of uranophane and uranophane-β, Ca(H 2O) 5[(UO 2)(SiO 3(OH)] 2, from the Shinkolobwe mine of the Democratic Republic of Congo, were done in an aqueous HCl solution of pH 3.5 for 3 h, in HCl solutions of pH 2 for 5, 10 and 30 min, and in Pb 2+-, Ba-, Sr-, Ca- and Mg-HCl solutions of pH 2 for 30 min. The basal surfaces of the treated uranophane crystals were examined using atomic-force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Solutions after dissolution experiments on single crystals and synthetic powders were analysed with inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The morphology of the observed etch pits (measured by AFM) were compared to the morphology, predicted on the basis of the bond-valence deficiency of polyhedron chains along the edges of the basal surface. Etch pits form in HCl solutions of pH 2. Their decrease in depth with the duration of the dissolution experiment is explained with the stepwave dissolution model, which describes the lowering of the surrounding area of an etch pit with continuous waves of steps emanated from the etch pit into the rest of the crystal surface. Hillocks form in an HCl solution of pH 3.5, and the chemical composition of the surface (as indicated by XPS) shows that these hillocks are the result of the precipitation of a uranyl-hydroxy-hydrate phase. Well-orientated hillocks form on the surface of uranophane in a SrCl 2-HCl solution of pH 2. They are part of an aged silica coating of composition Si 2O 2(OH) 4(H 2O) n. An amorphous layer forms on the surface of uranophane in a MgCl 2-HCl solution of pH 2, which has a composition and structure similar to silicic acid. Small crystallites of uranyl-hydroxy-hydrate phases form on the surface of uranophane after treatment in Pb(NO 3) 2-HCl and BaCl 2-HCl solutions of pH 2. Dissolution experiments on synthetic uranophane powders

  6. AFM nanoscale indentation in air of polymeric and hybrid materials with highly different stiffness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suriano, Raffaella; Credi, Caterina; Levi, Marinella; Turri, Stefano

    2014-08-01

    In this study, nanomechanical properties of a variety of polymeric materials was investigated by means of AFM. In particular, selecting different AFM probes, poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) bulk samples, sol-gel hybrid thin films and hydrated hyaluronic acid hydrogels were indented in air to determine the elastic modulus. The force-distance curves and the indentation data were found to be greatly affected by the cantilever stiffness and by tip geometry. AFM indentation tests show that the choice of the cantilever spring constant and of tip shape is crucially influenced by elastic properties of samples. When adhesion-dominated interactions occur between the tip and the surface of samples, force-displacement curves reveal that a suitable functionalization of AFM probes allows the control of such interactions and the extraction of Young' modulus from AFM curves that would be otherwise unfeasible. By applying different mathematical models depending on AFM probes and materials under investigation, the values of Young's modulus were obtained and compared to those measured by rheological and dynamic mechanical analysis or to literature data. Our results show that a wide range of elastic moduli (10 kPa-10 GPa) can be determined by AFM in good agreement with those measured by conventional macroscopic measurements.

  7. XPS and AFM Study of GaAs Surface Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Contreras-Guerrero, R.; Wallace, R. M.; Aguirre-Francisco, S.; Herrera-Gomez, A.; Lopez-Lopez, M.

    2008-11-13

    Obtaining smooth and atomically clean surfaces is an important step in the preparation of a surface for device manufacturing. In this work different processes are evaluated for cleaning a GaAs surface. A good surface cleaning treatment is that which provides a high level of uniformity and controllability of the surface. Different techniques are useful as cleaning treatments depending on the growth process to be used. The goal is to remove the oxygen and carbon contaminants and then form a thin oxide film to protect the surface, which is easy to remove later with thermal desorption mechanism like molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) with minimal impact to the surface. In this study, atomic force microscopy (AFM), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) were used to characterize the structure of the surface, the composition, as well as detect oxygen and carbon contaminant on the GaAs surface. This study consists in two parts. The first part the surface was subjected to different chemical treatments. The chemical solutions were: (a)H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}:H{sub 2}O{sub 2}:H{sub 2}O(4:1:100), (b) HCl: H{sub 2}O(1:3), (c)NH{sub 4}OH 29%. The treatments (a) and (b) reduced the oxygen on the surface. Treatment (c) reduces carbon contamination. In the second part we made MOS devices on the surfaces treated. They were characterized by CV and IV electrical measurements. They show frequency dispersion.

  8. Mechanical properties of complex biological systems using AFM-based force spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, John Stephen

    An atomic force microscope (AFM) was designed and built to study the mechanical properties of small collagen fibrils and the plasma membrane of living cells. Collagen is a major component of bone, skin and connective tissues, and is abundant in the extracellular matrix (ECM). Because of its abundance, an understanding of how disease affects collagen mechanics is crucial in disease prevention efforts. Two levels of type I collagen structure were investigated, subfibrils (on the order of 1 mum in length) and longer fibrils. Comparisons were made between measurements of wild-type (wt) collagen and collagen from the mouse model of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). Significant differences between OI and wt collagen were observed, primarily that intermolecular bonds in OI collagen fibrils are weaker than in wt, or not ruptured, as in the case of OI subfibrils. As cells interact with collagen in the ECM, the mechanical properties of the plasma membrane are also of great interest. Membrane tethers were extracted from living cells under varied conditions in order to assess the contributions of membrane-associated macromolecules such as the actin cytoskeleton and the glycocalyx, and intracellular signaling. Tether extraction force was found to be sensitive to all of these altered conditions, suggesting that tether extraction may be used to monitor various cellular processes.

  9. First-order antiferro-ferromagnetic transition in Fe(49)(Rh(0.93)Pd(0.07))(51) under simultaneous application of magnetic field and external pressure.

    PubMed

    Kushwaha, Pallavi; Bag, Pallab; Rawat, R; Chaddah, P

    2012-03-01

    A magnetic field-pressure-temperature (H-P-T) phase diagram for first-order antiferromagnetic (AFM) to ferromagnetic (FM) transitions in Fe(49)(Rh(0.93)Pd(0.07))(51) has been constructed using resistivity measurements under simultaneous application of magnetic field (up to 8 T) and pressure (up to 20 kbar). The temperature dependence of resistivity (ρ-T) shows that the width of the transition and the extent of hysteresis decreases with pressure and increases with magnetic field. By exploiting opposing trends of dT(N)/dP and dT(N)/dH (where T(N) is the first-order transition temperature), the relative effects of temperature, magnetic field and pressure on disorder-broadened first-order transitions has been studied. For this, a set of H and P values are chosen for which T(N)(H(1),P(1)) = T(N)(H(2),P(2)). Measurements for such combinations of H and P show that the temperature dependence of resistivity is similar, i.e. the broadening (in temperature) of transition as well as the extent of hysteresis remains independent of H and P. Isothermal magnetoresistance measurements under various constant pressures show that even though the critical field required for AFM-FM transition depends on applied pressure, the extent of hysteresis as well as transition width (in magnetic field) remains constant with varying pressure.

  10. The formation of liquid bridge in different operating modes of AFM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Zheng; Sun, Yan; Ding, WenXuan; Wang, ZaiRan

    2016-09-01

    The liquid bridge is one of the principal factors that cause artifacts in ambient-pressure atomic force microscope (AFM) images. Additionally, it is the main component of the adhesion force in ambient conditions. To understand the AFM imaging mechanism and the sample characteristics, it is essential to study the liquid bridge. This study interprets the physical mechanism involved in liquid bridge formation, which is composed of three different physical processes: the squeezing process, capillary condensation, and liquid film flow. We discuss the contributions of these three mechanisms to the volume and the capillary force of the liquid bridge in different AFM operation modes.

  11. MetaRep, an extended CMAS 3D program to visualize mafic (CMAS, ACF-S, ACF-N) and pelitic (AFM-K, AFM-S, AKF-S) projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    France, Lydéric; Nicollet, Christian

    2010-06-01

    MetaRep is a program based on our earlier program CMAS 3D. It is developed in MATLAB ® script. MetaRep objectives are to visualize and project major element compositions of mafic and pelitic rocks and their minerals in the pseudo-quaternary projections of the ACF-S, ACF-N, CMAS, AFM-K, AFM-S and AKF-S systems. These six systems are commonly used to describe metamorphic mineral assemblages and magmatic evolutions. Each system, made of four apices, can be represented in a tetrahedron that can be visualized in three dimensions with MetaRep; the four tetrahedron apices represent oxides or combination of oxides that define the composition of the projected rock or mineral. The three-dimensional representation allows one to obtain a better understanding of the topology of the relationships between the rocks and minerals and relations. From these systems, MetaRep can also project data in ternary plots (for example, the ACF, AFM and AKF ternary projections can be generated). A functional interface makes it easy to use and does not require any knowledge of MATLAB ® programming. To facilitate the use, MetaRep loads, from the main interface, data compiled in a Microsoft Excel ™ spreadsheet. Although useful for scientific research, the program is also a powerful tool for teaching. We propose an application example that, by using two combined systems (ACF-S and ACF-N), provides strong confirmation in the petrological interpretation.

  12. Temperature-induced inversion of elution order in the chromatographic enantioseparation of 1,1'-bi-2-naphthol on an immobilized polysaccharide-based chiral stationary phase.

    PubMed

    Yao, Bixia; Zhan, Fengping; Yu, Guangyan; Chen, Zhifen; Fan, Wenjing; Zeng, Xiongping; Zeng, Qingle; Weng, Wen

    2009-07-10

    In this work, the enantioseparations of 1,1'-bi-2-naphthol (BINOL) and its three derivatives were performed on an immobilized polysaccharide-based chiral stationary phase, Chiralpak IA, under normal-phase mode. The effects of the content of polar modifier in the mobile phase and the column temperature on the retention and enantioseparation were investigated in detail. Temperature-induced inversion of elution order for BINOL was observed directly when n-hexane/2-propanol (92/8, v/v) was used as mobile phase. The isoenantioselective temperature (T(iso)) was calculated to be 31.4 degrees C. When n-hexane/2-propanol/THF (93/2/5, v/v/v) was used as mobile phase, the T(iso) value decreased to -8.2 degrees C. Entropically driven enantioseparation which had practical application was obtained successfully (separation factor being 1.189 and 1.332 at 25 degrees C and 50 degrees C, respectively). The corresponding thermodynamic parameters for other three binaphthyl compounds were compared with that for BINOL. Some inferences about chiral recognition mechanism were stressed.

  13. Influence of metal ions on the order-disorder transition temperature of the Ba-M-O (M: La, Y, In, or Ga) system

    SciTech Connect

    Mitamura, Takashi; Ogino, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Hidehiko . Dept. of Applied Chemistry); Mori, Toshiyuki; Yamamura, Hiroshi . Tsukuba Research Lab.)

    1993-08-01

    Preparation of BaLa[sub 2]O[sub 4], Ba[sub 3]Y[sub 4]O[sub 9], Ba[sub 2]In[sub 2]O[sub 5], and Ba[sub 3]Ga[sub 2]O[sub 6] powders and their sintering were investigated in Ar or air. These sintered bodies with perovskite-related structure were synthesized by reaction sintering, using mixed powders in the atomic ratios of Ba/La = 1, Ba/Y = 0.75, Ba/In = 1, and Ba/Ga = 1.5. The order-disorder transition temperatures of the BaLa[sub 2]O[sub 4], Ba[sub 3]Y[sub 4]O[sub 9], Ba[sub 2]In[sub 2]O[sub 5], and Ba[sub 3]Ga[sub 2]O[sub 6], sintered bodies were 270, 350, 880, and 1,230 C, respectively. It was found that the temperatures were influenced by the ionic radius of cations in B sites, and the transition temperatures decreased with increasing ionic radius.

  14. Highly conductive Cu2-xS nanoparticle films through room-temperature processing and an order of magnitude enhancement of conductivity via electrophoretic deposition.

    PubMed

    Otelaja, Obafemi O; Ha, Don-Hyung; Ly, Tiffany; Zhang, Haitao; Robinson, Richard D

    2014-11-12

    A facile room-temperature method for assembling colloidal copper sulfide (Cu2-xS) nanoparticles into highly electrically conducting films is presented. Ammonium sulfide is utilized for connecting the nanoparticles via ligand removal, which transforms the as-deposited insulating films into highly conducting films. Electronic properties of the treated films are characterized with a combination of Hall effect measurements, field-effect transistor measurements, temperature-dependent conductivity measurements, and capacitance-voltage measurements, revealing their highly doped p-type semiconducting nature. The spin-cast nanoparticle films have carrier concentration of ∼ 10(19) cm(-3), Hall mobilities of ∼ 3 to 4 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), and electrical conductivities of ∼ 5 to 6 S · cm(-1). Our films have hole mobilities that are 1-4 orders of magnitude higher than hole mobilities previously reported for heat-treated nanoparticle films of HgTe, InSb, PbS, PbTe, and PbSe. We show that electrophoretic deposition (EPD) as a method for nanoparticle film assembly leads to an order of magnitude enhancement in film conductivity (∼ 75 S · cm(-1)) over conventional spin-casting, creating copper sulfide nanoparticle films with conductivities comparable to bulk films formed through physical deposition methods. The X-ray diffraction patterns of the Cu2-xS films, with and without ligand removal, match the Djurleite phase (Cu(1.94)S) of copper sulfide and show that the nanoparticles maintain finite size after the ammonium sulfide processing. The high conductivities reported are attributed to better interparticle coupling through the ammonium sulfide treatment. This approach presents a scalable room-temperature route for fabricating highly conducting nanoparticle assemblies for large-area electronic and optoelectronic applications.

  15. Ultra-large scale AFM of lipid droplet arrays: investigating the ink transfer volume in dip pen nanolithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Förste, Alexander; Pfirrmann, Marco; Sachs, Johannes; Gröger, Roland; Walheim, Stefan; Brinkmann, Falko; Hirtz, Michael; Fuchs, Harald; Schimmel, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    There are only few quantitative studies commenting on the writing process in dip-pen nanolithography with lipids. Lipids are important carrier ink molecules for the delivery of bio-functional patters in bio-nanotechnology. In order to better understand and control the writing process, more information on the transfer of lipid material from the tip to the substrate is needed. The dependence of the transferred ink volume on the dwell time of the tip on the substrate was investigated by topography measurements with an atomic force microscope (AFM) that is characterized by an ultra-large scan range of 800 × 800 μm2. For this purpose arrays of dots of the phospholipid1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine were written onto planar glass substrates and the resulting pattern was imaged by large scan area AFM. Two writing regimes were identified, characterized of either a steady decline or a constant ink volume transfer per dot feature. For the steady state ink transfer, a linear relationship between the dwell time and the dot volume was determined, which is characterized by a flow rate of about 16 femtoliters per second. A dependence of the ink transport from the length of pauses before and in between writing the structures was observed and should be taken into account during pattern design when aiming at best writing homogeneity. The ultra-large scan range of the utilized AFM allowed for a simultaneous study of the entire preparation area of almost 1 mm2, yielding good statistic results.

  16. Ultra-large scale AFM of lipid droplet arrays: investigating the ink transfer volume in dip pen nanolithography.

    PubMed

    Förste, Alexander; Pfirrmann, Marco; Sachs, Johannes; Gröger, Roland; Walheim, Stefan; Brinkmann, Falko; Hirtz, Michael; Fuchs, Harald; Schimmel, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    There are only few quantitative studies commenting on the writing process in dip-pen nanolithography with lipids. Lipids are important carrier ink molecules for the delivery of bio-functional patters in bio-nanotechnology. In order to better understand and control the writing process, more information on the transfer of lipid material from the tip to the substrate is needed. The dependence of the transferred ink volume on the dwell time of the tip on the substrate was investigated by topography measurements with an atomic force microscope (AFM) that is characterized by an ultra-large scan range of 800 × 800 μm(2). For this purpose arrays of dots of the phospholipid1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine were written onto planar glass substrates and the resulting pattern was imaged by large scan area AFM. Two writing regimes were identified, characterized of either a steady decline or a constant ink volume transfer per dot feature. For the steady state ink transfer, a linear relationship between the dwell time and the dot volume was determined, which is characterized by a flow rate of about 16 femtoliters per second. A dependence of the ink transport from the length of pauses before and in between writing the structures was observed and should be taken into account during pattern design when aiming at best writing homogeneity. The ultra-large scan range of the utilized AFM allowed for a simultaneous study of the entire preparation area of almost 1 mm(2), yielding good statistic results. PMID:25854547

  17. Electrical characterization of FIB processed metal layers for reliable conductive-AFM on ZnO microstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pea, M.; Maiolo, L.; Giovine, E.; Rinaldi, A.; Araneo, R.; Notargiacomo, A.

    2016-05-01

    We report on the conductive-atomic force microscopy (C-AFM) study of metallic layers in order to find the most suitable configuration for electrical characterization of individual ZnO micro-pillars fabricated by focused ion beam (FIB). The electrical resistance between the probe tip and both as deposited and FIB processed metal layers (namely, Cr, Ti, Au and Al) has been investigated. Both chromium and titanium evidenced a non homogenous and non ohmic behaviour, non negligible scanning probe induced anodic oxidation associated to electrical measurements, and after FIB milling they exhibited significantly higher tip-sample resistance. Aluminium had generally a more apparent non conductive behaviour. Conversely, gold films showed very good tip-sample conduction properties being less sensitive to FIB processing than the other investigated metals. We found that a reliable C-AFM electrical characterization of ZnO microstructures obtained by FIB machining is feasible by using a combination of metal films as top contact layer. An Au/Ti bilayer on top of ZnO was capable to sustain the FIB fabrication process and to form a suitable ohmic contact to the semiconductor, allowing for reliable C-AFM measurement. To validate the consistency of this approach, we measured the resistance of ZnO micropillars finding a linear dependence on the pillar height, as expected for an ohmic conductor, and evaluated the resistivity of the material. This procedure has the potential to be downscaled to nanometer size structures by a proper choice of metal films type and thickness.

  18. Tuning the Curie temperature of L1{sub 0} ordered FePt thin films through site-specific substitution of Rh

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Dongbin; Sun, Cheng-Jun E-mail: msecgm@nus.edu.sg; Heald, Steve M.; Chen, Jing-Sheng; Chow, Gan Moog E-mail: msecgm@nus.edu.sg; Zhou, Tie-Jun; Bergman, Anders; Sanyal, Biplab

    2014-10-14

    In structurally ordered magnetic thin films, the Curie temperature (T{sub C}) of ferromagnetic films depends on the exchange integral of the short range ordered neighboring atoms. The exchange integral may be adjusted by controlling the elemental substitutional concentration at the lattice site of interest. We show how to control the T{sub C} in high anisotropy L1{sub 0} Fe{sub 50}Pt{sub 50} magnetic thin films by substituting Rh into the Pt site. Rh substitution in L1{sub 0} FePt modified the local atomic environment and the corresponding electronic properties, while retaining the ordered L1{sub 0} phase. The analysis of extended x-ray Absorption Fine Structure spectra shows that Rh uniformly substitutes for Pt in L1{sub 0} FePt. A model of antiferromagnetic defects caused by controlled Rh substitution of the Pt site, reducing the T{sub C,} is proposed to interpret this phenomenon and its validity is further examined by ab initio density functional calculations.

  19. Anomalous current-voltage characteristics along the c-axis in YBaCuO thin films prepared by MOCVD and AFM lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Shuu'ichirou; Kawaguchi, Atsushi; Oda, Shunri

    1997-12-01

    We have proposed a fabrication process of intrinsic Josephson junctions (IJJs) using AFM lithography and successfully obtained IJJs in YBaCuO thin films deposited by MOCVD. A sample shows clear hysteresis and 23 voltage steps related to IJJs in the I- V curve. The maximum width of a step is about 2 mV at 5 K. We discuss the I- V characteristics and estimate the order of the parameters for the IJJ.

  20. AFM and EDX Study of Self Assembled Pt Nanostructures on PEDOT Thin Films under Ambient Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senevirathne, Indrajith; Mohney, Austin; Buchheit, Joshua; Goonewardene, Anura

    2011-03-01

    Noble metal nanostructure systems on conductive polymer thin films under ambient conditions are interesting due to their use in BioMEMS and hybrid systems further and considering the physics of the polymer - metal interactions The observed nanostructures have deformed spherical shape. The Pt was magnetron sputter deposited at RT (300K), PEDOT Baytron P 60nm thick, spin coated on glass slides cleaned with acetone and IPA. The system was studied using ambient IC mode Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) for its structure. Elemental composition/distribution of the system was measured with Energy Dispersive X ray Spectroscopy (EDX). Pt nanostructures on the surface observed to be likely Volmer - Weber growth mode At Pt coverage of 120 ML, nanostructures had a mean diameter of 32 nm and mean height of 5 nm. When annealing at 15min at 473K systems changes to smaller nanostructures coexisting with bigger structures of mean diameter of 120 nm and mean height of 36 nm. Elemental/morphological variations when annealed at successively higher temperatures were also investigated. NSF Grant #: 0923047 and PASSHE FPDC (LOU # 2010-LHU-03).

  1. Study of pluronic F68 molecules on silicon with Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Retamal, M. J.; Volkmann, U. G.; Samith, V. D.

    2011-03-01

    The triblock copolymer pluronic F68 belongs to a class of amphiphilic nonionic surfactants, relevant for applications in medicine, which includes transport of drugs to selective targets in the human body. In the present work, pluronic F68 films have been deposited on Si/SiO2 substrates. Previous to deposition, Si/SiO2 substrates were cleaned in acid and afterwards rinsed with ultra pure water. This cleaning method leaves intact the silicon oxide layer and provides a hydrophilic surface. The aliquots were prepared from aqueous solutions, obtaining different concentrations, which were deposited on the substrates and dried at room temperature. Each of these dispersions is in the range from 0.5 x 10-4 M to 10.0 x 10-4 M. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) shows changes in the morphology of the films, caused by the gradual increase of concentration. These changes occur in a narrow range of concentrations, attributed to the critical micelle concentration (CMC). Supramolecular structures (clusters) coexist at the CMC and above, forming 3D structures such as ``dendritics.'' The percentage of F68 coverage on the substrate depends on the increase in molar concentration. In a ``coverage vs. molar concentration'' plot we obtain a curve with an inflection point that coincides with the CMC reported for a variety of techniques and conditions.

  2. Identifying individual chemical bonds in single-molecule chemical reaction products using nc-AFM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickenburg, Sebastian; de Oteyza, Dimas G.; Chen, Yen-Chia; Riss, Alexander; Tsai, Hsin-Zon; Pedramrazi, Zahra; Bradley, Aaron J.; Ugeda, Miguel M.; Gorman, Patrick; Etkin, Grisha; Mowbray, Duncan J.; Perez, Alejandro; Rubio, Angel; Crommie, Michael F.; Fischer, Felix R.

    2014-03-01

    Determining reaction pathways and products is an integral part of chemical synthesis. Ensemble measurements are commonly used, but identifying products of complex reactions at surfaces presents a significant challenge. Here we present a non-contact AFM (nc-AFM) study to directly address this issue. We followed the change of the chemical structures, from reactants to products of enediyne cyclization reactions on metal surfaces. Thermal annealing of enediynes induced a series of cyclization cascades leading to radical species and the formation of dimers. Atomically resolved nc-AFM images reveal the precise chemical structure and the formation of chemical bonds between single molecular units. With the support of DFT calculations, we identified the underlying chemical pathways and barriers, demonstrating the potential of this atomically resolved AFM technique to study unknown reaction products in surface chemistry at the single-molecule level.

  3. Fabrication of cone-shaped boron doped diamond and gold nanoelectrodes for AFM-SECM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avdic, A.; Lugstein, A.; Wu, M.; Gollas, B.; Pobelov, I.; Wandlowski, T.; Leonhardt, K.; Denuault, G.; Bertagnolli, E.

    2011-04-01

    We demonstrate a reliable microfabrication process for a combined atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) measurement tool. Integrated cone-shaped sensors with boron doped diamond (BDD) or gold (Au) electrodes were fabricated from commercially available AFM probes. The sensor formation process is based on mature semiconductor processing techniques, including focused ion beam (FIB) machining, and highly selective reactive ion etching (RIE). The fabrication approach preserves the geometry of the original AFM tips resulting in well reproducible nanoscaled sensors. The feasibility and functionality of the fully featured tips are demonstrated by cyclic voltammetry, showing good agreement between the measured and calculated currents of the cone-shaped AFM-SECM electrodes.

  4. Fabrication of cone-shaped boron doped diamond and gold nanoelectrodes for AFM-SECM.

    PubMed

    Avdic, A; Lugstein, A; Wu, M; Gollas, B; Pobelov, I; Wandlowski, T; Leonhardt, K; Denuault, G; Bertagnolli, E

    2011-04-01

    We demonstrate a reliable microfabrication process for a combined atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) measurement tool. Integrated cone-shaped sensors with boron doped diamond (BDD) or gold (Au) electrodes were fabricated from commercially available AFM probes. The sensor formation process is based on mature semiconductor processing techniques, including focused ion beam (FIB) machining, and highly selective reactive ion etching (RIE). The fabrication approach preserves the geometry of the original AFM tips resulting in well reproducible nanoscaled sensors. The feasibility and functionality of the fully featured tips are demonstrated by cyclic voltammetry, showing good agreement between the measured and calculated currents of the cone-shaped AFM-SECM electrodes.

  5. Fabrication of cone-shaped boron doped diamond and gold nanoelectrodes for AFM-SECM.

    PubMed

    Avdic, A; Lugstein, A; Wu, M; Gollas, B; Pobelov, I; Wandlowski, T; Leonhardt, K; Denuault, G; Bertagnolli, E

    2011-04-01

    We demonstrate a reliable microfabrication process for a combined atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) measurement tool. Integrated cone-shaped sensors with boron doped diamond (BDD) or gold (Au) electrodes were fabricated from commercially available AFM probes. The sensor formation process is based on mature semiconductor processing techniques, including focused ion beam (FIB) machining, and highly selective reactive ion etching (RIE). The fabrication approach preserves the geometry of the original AFM tips resulting in well reproducible nanoscaled sensors. The feasibility and functionality of the fully featured tips are demonstrated by cyclic voltammetry, showing good agreement between the measured and calculated currents of the cone-shaped AFM-SECM electrodes. PMID:21368355

  6. Facile preparation of ordered mesoporous MnCo2O4 for low-temperature selective catalytic reduction of NO with NH3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Mingying; Zhan, Sihui; Yu, Hongbing; Zhu, Dandan; Wang, Shengqiang

    2015-01-01

    Ordered mesoporous MnCo2O4 nanomaterials were successfully prepared through the nanocasting route using SBA-15 and KIT-6 as hard templates. These mesoporous nanomaterials were characterized using XRD, BET, TEM, NH3-TPD, H2-TPR, NO-TPD, XPS and DRIFT. The low temperature selective catalytic reduction (SCR) activity of NO with NH3 was investigated, which revealed that 3D-MnCo2O4 using KIT-6 as a template can totally clean all NO over a wide temperature range of 100-250 °C with a gas hourly space velocity (GHSV) of 32 000 h-1, while 2D-MnCo2O4 with SBA-15 as a template had 95% conversion rate at the same condition. 3D-MnCo2O4 showed the best performance to clean NO due to its typical three-dimensional porous structure, large specific surface area, abundant active surface oxygen species and Lewis acid sites. All the results indicate that a novel, cheap catalyst for catalytic removal of NO can be designed by controlling the morphology at the nanoscale.Ordered mesoporous MnCo2O4 nanomaterials were successfully prepared through the nanocasting route using SBA-15 and KIT-6 as hard templates. These mesoporous nanomaterials were characterized using XRD, BET, TEM, NH3-TPD, H2-TPR, NO-TPD, XPS and DRIFT. The low temperature selective catalytic reduction (SCR) activity of NO with NH3 was investigated, which revealed that 3D-MnCo2O4 using KIT-6 as a template can totally clean all NO over a wide temperature range of 100-250 °C with a gas hourly space velocity (GHSV) of 32 000 h-1, while 2D-MnCo2O4 with SBA-15 as a template had 95% conversion rate at the same condition. 3D-MnCo2O4 showed the best performance to clean NO due to its typical three-dimensional porous structure, large specific surface area, abundant active surface oxygen species and Lewis acid sites. All the results indicate that a novel, cheap catalyst for catalytic removal of NO can be designed by controlling the morphology at the nanoscale. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Low-angle XRD

  7. A Multifunctional Frontloading Approach for Repeated Recycling of a Pressure-Controlled AFM Micropipette

    PubMed Central

    Roder, Phillip; Hille, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    Fluid force microscopy combines the positional accuracy and force sensitivity of an atomic force microscope (AFM) with nanofluidics via a microchanneled cantilever. However, adequate loading and cleaning procedures for such AFM micropipettes are required for various application situations. Here, a new frontloading procedure is described for an AFM micropipette functioning as a force- and pressure-controlled microscale liquid dispenser. This frontloading procedure seems especially attractive when using target substances featuring high costs or low available amounts. Here, the AFM micropipette could be filled from the tip side with liquid from a previously applied droplet with a volume of only a few μL using a short low-pressure pulse. The liquid-loaded AFM micropipettes could be then applied for experiments in air or liquid environments. AFM micropipette frontloading was evaluated with the well-known organic fluorescent dye rhodamine 6G and the AlexaFluor647-labeled antibody goat anti-rat IgG as an example of a larger biological compound. After micropipette usage, specific cleaning procedures were tested. Furthermore, a storage method is described, at which the AFM micropipettes could be stored for a few hours up to several days without drying out or clogging of the microchannel. In summary, the rapid, versatile and cost-efficient frontloading and cleaning procedure for the repeated usage of a single AFM micropipette is beneficial for various application situations from specific surface modifications through to local manipulation of living cells, and provides a simplified and faster handling for already known experiments with fluid force microscopy. PMID:26636981

  8. Using XAFS, EDAX and AFM in comparative study of various natural and synthetic emeralds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parikh, P.; Saini, N. L.; Dalela, S.; Bhardwaj, D. M.; Fernandes, S.; Gupta, R. P.; Garg, K. B.

    2003-01-01

    We have performed XAFS, EDAX and AFM studies on some natural and synthetic emeralds. While the XAFS results yield information on changes in the valence of the Cr ion and the n-n distance the AFM is used to determine the areal atomic density on surface of the crystals. It is a pilot study to explore if the three techniques can offer a possible way of distinguishing between the natural and synthetic emeralds and the results are promising.

  9. A Multifunctional Frontloading Approach for Repeated Recycling of a Pressure-Controlled AFM Micropipette.

    PubMed

    Roder, Phillip; Hille, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    Fluid force microscopy combines the positional accuracy and force sensitivity of an atomic force microscope (AFM) with nanofluidics via a microchanneled cantilever. However, adequate loading and cleaning procedures for such AFM micropipettes are required for various application situations. Here, a new frontloading procedure is described for an AFM micropipette functioning as a force- and pressure-controlled microscale liquid dispenser. This frontloading procedure seems especially attractive when using target substances featuring high costs or low available amounts. Here, the AFM micropipette could be filled from the tip side with liquid from a previously applied droplet with a volume of only a few μL using a short low-pressure pulse. The liquid-loaded AFM micropipettes could be then applied for experiments in air or liquid environments. AFM micropipette frontloading was evaluated with the well-known organic fluorescent dye rhodamine 6G and the AlexaFluor647-labeled antibody goat anti-rat IgG as an example of a larger biological compound. After micropipette usage, specific cleaning procedures were tested. Furthermore, a storage method is described, at which the AFM micropipettes could be stored for a few hours up to several days without drying out or clogging of the microchannel. In summary, the rapid, versatile and cost-efficient frontloading and cleaning procedure for the repeated usage of a single AFM micropipette is beneficial for various application situations from specific surface modifications through to local manipulation of living cells, and provides a simplified and faster handling for already known experiments with fluid force microscopy. PMID:26636981

  10. Impact of galactosylceramides on the nanomechanical properties of lipid bilayer models: an AFM-force spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Gumí-Audenis, Berta; Sanz, Fausto; Giannotti, Marina I

    2015-07-21

    Galactosylceramides (GalCer) are glycosphingolipids bound to a monosaccharide group, responsible for inducing extensive hydrogen bonds that yield their alignment and accumulation in the outer leaflet of the biological membrane together with cholesterol (Chol) in rafts. In this work, the influence of GalCer on the nanomechanical properties of supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) based on DPPC (1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) and DLPC (1,2-didodecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocoline) as model systems was assessed. Phosphatidylcholine (PC):GalCer SLBs were characterized by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), in both imaging and force spectroscopy (AFM-FS) modes. Comparing both PC systems, we determined that the behaviour of SLB mixtures is governed by the PC phase-like state at the working temperature. While a phase segregated system is observed for DLPC:GalCer SLBs, GalCer are found to be dissolved in DPPC SLBs for GalCer contents up to 20 mol%. In both systems, the incorporation of GalCer intensifies the nanomechanical properties of SLBs. Interestingly, segregated domains of exceptionally high mechanical stability are formed in DLPC:GalCer SLBs. Finally, the role of 20 mol% Chol in GalCer organization and function in the membranes was assessed. Both PC model systems displayed phase segregation and remarkable nanomechanical stability when GalCer and Chol coexist in SLBs. PMID:26058499

  11. Zeta potential, contact angles, and AFM imaging of protein conformation adsorbed on hybrid nanocomposite surfaces.

    PubMed

    Pinho, Ana C; Piedade, Ana P

    2013-08-28

    The sputtering deposition of gold (Au) and poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) was used to prepare a nanocomposite hybrid thin film suitable for protein adsorption while maintaining the native conformation of the biological material. The monolithic PTFE and the nanocomposite PTFE/Au thin films, with Au content up to 1 at %, were co-deposited by r.f. magnetron sputtering using argon as a discharge gas and deposited onto 316L stainless steel substrates, the most commonly used steel in biomaterials. The deposited thin films, before and after bovine serum albumin (BSA) adsorption, were thoroughly characterized with special emphasis on the surface properties/characteristics by atomic force microscopy (AFM), zeta potential, and static and dynamic contact angle measurements, in order to assess the relationship between structure and conformational changes. The influence of a pre-adsorbed peptide (RGD) was also evaluated. The nanotopographic and chemical changes induced by the presence of gold in the nanocomposite thin films enable RGD bonding, which is critical for the maintenance of the BSA native conformation after adsorption.

  12. Insight into mechanics of AFM tip-based nanomachining: bending of cantilevers and machined grooves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Musawi, R. S. J.; Brousseau, E. B.; Geng, Y.; Borodich, F. M.

    2016-09-01

    Atomic force microscope (AFM) tip-based nanomachining is currently the object of intense research investigations. Values of the load applied to the tip at the free end of the AFM cantilever probe used for nanomachining are always large enough to induce plastic deformation on the specimen surface contrary to the small load values used for the conventional contact mode AFM imaging. This study describes an important phenomenon specific for AFM nanomachining in the forward direction: under certain processing conditions, the deformed shape of the cantilever probe may change from a convex to a concave orientation. The phenomenon can principally change the depth and width of grooves machined, e.g. the grooves machined on a single crystal copper specimen may increase by 50% on average following such a change in the deformed shape of the cantilever. It is argued that this phenomenon can take place even when the AFM-based tool is operated in the so-called force-controlled mode. The study involves the refined theoretical analysis of cantilever probe bending, the analysis of experimental signals monitored during the backward and forward AFM tip-based machining and the inspection of the topography of produced grooves.

  13. Insight into mechanics of AFM tip-based nanomachining: bending of cantilevers and machined grooves.

    PubMed

    Al-Musawi, R S J; Brousseau, E B; Geng, Y; Borodich, F M

    2016-09-23

    Atomic force microscope (AFM) tip-based nanomachining is currently the object of intense research investigations. Values of the load applied to the tip at the free end of the AFM cantilever probe used for nanomachining are always large enough to induce plastic deformation on the specimen surface contrary to the small load values used for the conventional contact mode AFM imaging. This study describes an important phenomenon specific for AFM nanomachining in the forward direction: under certain processing conditions, the deformed shape of the cantilever probe may change from a convex to a concave orientation. The phenomenon can principally change the depth and width of grooves machined, e.g. the grooves machined on a single crystal copper specimen may increase by 50% on average following such a change in the deformed shape of the cantilever. It is argued that this phenomenon can take place even when the AFM-based tool is operated in the so-called force-controlled mode. The study involves the refined theoretical analysis of cantilever probe bending, the analysis of experimental signals monitored during the backward and forward AFM tip-based machining and the inspection of the topography of produced grooves. PMID:27532247

  14. Fabrication of carbon nanotube AFM probes using the Langmuir-Blodgett technique.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Hyeok; Kang, Won-Seok; Choi, Bung-Sam; Choi, Sung-Wook; Kim, Jae-Ho

    2008-09-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT)-tipped atomic force microscopy (AFM) probes have shown a significant potential for obtaining high-resolution imaging of nanostructure and biological materials. In this paper, we report a simple method to fabricate single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) nanoprobes for AFM using the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique. Thiophenyl-modified SWNTs (SWNT-SHs) through amidation of SWNTs in chloroform allowed to be spread and form a stable Langmuir monolayer at the water/air interface. A simple two-step transfer process was used: (1) dipping conventional AFM probes into the Langmuir monolayer and (2) lifting the probes from the water surface. This results in the attachment of SWNTs onto the tips of AFM nanoprobes. We found that the SWNTs assembled on the nanoprobes were well-oriented and robust enough to maintain their shape and direction even after successive scans. AFM measurements of a nano-porous alumina substrate and deoxyribonucleic acid using SWNT-modified nanoprobes revealed that the curvature diameter of the nanoprobes was less than 3 nm and a fine resolution was obtained than that from conventional AFM probes. We also demonstrate that the LB method is a scalable process capable of simultaneously fabricating a large number of SWNT-modified nanoprobes.

  15. High-temperature, continuous-wave operation of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers with metal-metal waveguides and third-order distributed feedback.

    PubMed

    Wienold, M; Röben, B; Schrottke, L; Sharma, R; Tahraoui, A; Biermann, K; Grahn, H T

    2014-02-10

    Currently, different competing waveguide and resonator concepts exist for terahertz quantum-cascade lasers (THz QCLs). We examine the continuous-wave (cw) performance of THz QCLs with single-plasmon (SP) and metal-metal (MM) waveguides fabricated from the same wafer. While SP QCLs are superior in terms of output power, the maximum operating temperature for MM QCLs is typically much higher. For SP QCLs, we observed cw operation up to 73 K as compared to 129 K for narrow (≤ 15 μm) MM QCLs. In the latter case, single-mode operation and a narrow beam profile were achieved by applying third-order distributed-feedback gratings and contact pads which are optically insulated from the intended resonators. We present a quantitative analytic model for the beam profile, which is based on experimentally accessible parameters.

  16. Low-temperature synthesis of high-ordered anatase TiO2 nanotube array films coated with exposed {001} nanofacets

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Jie; Huang, Zhennan; Zhu, Jihao; Kou, Shengzhong; Zhang, Xiaobin; Yang, Hangsheng

    2015-01-01

    High-ordered anatase TiO2 nanotube array films coated with exposed high-reactive {001} nanofacets were fabricated by a modified hydrothermal method using amorphous anodic TiO2 nanotube arrays (ATONAs) as starting materials. It was found that the reaction between gas phase HF and solid ATONAs played a key role in the transformation process from amorphous to anatase TiO2, and the TiO2 tubular structure kept unchanged during the surface modification with an exposed {001} facets up to 76.5%, which could be attributed to the low reaction temperature of 130 °C. Our study provided a novel route for the facile preparation of {001} facets exposed anatase TiO2. PMID:26634815

  17. Low-Temperature Pseudomorphic Transformation of Ordered Hierarchical Macro-mesoporous SiO 2 /C Nanocomposite to SiC via Magnesiothermic Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Yifeng; Zhang, Fan; Hu, Yong-Sheng; Sun, Xiaohong; Zhang, Yichi; Lee, Hyung Ik; Chen, Liquan; Stucky, Galen D.

    2010-04-01

    A magnesiothermic reduction synthesis approach is reported for direct conversion of SiO₂/C composite nanostructures to corresponding SiC materials without losing their nanostructure morphologies. Crystalline SiC materials can be obtained by this approach at a temperature as low as 600 °C, only approximately half of that applied in the generally used carbothermal reduction and preceramic polymer pyrolysis methods. An ordered hierarchical macro-mesoporous SiC material was synthesized for the first time as a demonstration. This pseudomorphic transformation can be regarded as a general synthesis method for different kinds of SiC nanostructures, and it can also be readily extended to other metal carbide materials as well as TiC.

  18. Antiferromagnetic ordering in spin-chain multiferroic Gd{sub 2}BaNiO{sub 5} studied by electronic spin resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Y. M.; Ruan, M. Y.; Cheng, J. J.; Sun, Y. C.; Ouyang, Z. W. Xia, Z. C.; Rao, G. H.

    2015-06-14

    High-field electron spin resonance (ESR) has been employed to study the antiferromagnetic (AFM) ordering state (T < T{sub N} = 55 K) of spin-chain multiferroic Gd{sub 2}BaNiO{sub 5}. The spin reorientation at T{sub SR} = 24 K is well characterized by the temperature-dependent ESR spectra. The magnetization data evidence a field-induced spin-flop transition at 2 K. The frequency-field relationship of the ESR data can be explained by conventional AFM resonance theory with uniaxial anisotropy, in good agreement with magnetization data. Related discussion on zero-field spin gap is presented.

  19. Note: A method for minimizing oxide formation during elevated temperature nanoindentation

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, I. C.; Hodge, A. M.; Garcia-Sanchez, E.

    2014-09-15

    A standardized method to protect metallic samples and minimize oxide formation during elevated-temperature nanoindentation was adapted to a commercial instrument. Nanoindentation was performed on Al (100), Cu (100), and W (100) single crystals submerged in vacuum oil at 200 °C, while the surface morphology and oxidation was carefully monitored using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results were compared to room temperature and 200 °C nanoindentation tests performed without oil, in order to evaluate the feasibility of using the oil as a protective medium. Extensive surface characterization demonstrated that this methodology is effective for nanoscale testing.

  20. Lattice cluster theory of associating telechelic polymers. III. Order parameter and average degree of self-assembly, transition temperature, and specific heat.

    PubMed

    Dudowicz, Jacek; Freed, Karl F; Douglas, Jack F

    2012-05-21

    The lattice cluster theory of strongly interacting, structured polymer fluids is applied to determine the thermodynamic properties of solutions of telechelic polymers that may associate through bifunctional end groups. Hence, this model represents a significant albeit natural extension of a diverse array of prior popular equilibrium polymerization models in which structureless "bead" monomers associate into chain-like clusters under equilibrium conditions. In particular, the thermodynamic description of the self-assembly of linear telechelic chains in small molecule solvents (initiated in Paper II) is systematically extended through calculations of the order parameter Φ and average degree of self-assembly, the self-assembly transition temperature T(p), and the specific heat C(V) of solutions of telechelic molecules. Special focus is placed on examining how molecular and thermodynamic parameters, such as the solution composition φ, temperature T, microscopic interaction energies (ε(s) and ε), and length M of individual telechelic chains, influence the computed thermodynamic quantities that are commonly used to characterize self-assembling systems.

  1. Facile preparation of ordered mesoporous MnCo2O4 for low-temperature selective catalytic reduction of NO with NH3.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Mingying; Zhan, Sihui; Yu, Hongbing; Zhu, Dandan; Wang, Shengqiang

    2015-02-14

    Ordered mesoporous MnCo2O4 nanomaterials were successfully prepared through the nanocasting route using SBA-15 and KIT-6 as hard templates. These mesoporous nanomaterials were characterized using XRD, BET, TEM, NH3-TPD, H2-TPR, NO-TPD, XPS and DRIFT. The low temperature selective catalytic reduction (SCR) activity of NO with NH3 was investigated, which revealed that 3D-MnCo2O4 using KIT-6 as a template can totally clean all NO over a wide temperature range of 100-250 °C with a gas hourly space velocity (GHSV) of 32,000 h(-1), while 2D-MnCo2O4 with SBA-15 as a template had 95% conversion rate at the same condition. 3D-MnCo2O4 showed the best performance to clean NO due to its typical three-dimensional porous structure, large specific surface area, abundant active surface oxygen species and Lewis acid sites. All the results indicate that a novel, cheap catalyst for catalytic removal of NO can be designed by controlling the morphology at the nanoscale.

  2. Fe, Ti ordering and octahedral distortions in acentric neptunite: Temperature dependent X-ray and neutron structure refinements and Mössbauer spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunz, Martin; Armbruster, Thomas; Lager, George A.; Schultz, Arthur J.; Goyette, Rick J.; Lottermoser, Werner; Amthauer, Georg

    1991-10-01

    Single-crystal X-ray and neutron structure refinements carried out on neptunite (KNa2Li(Fe, Mg, Mn)2Ti2Si8O24) from San Benito, California at various temperatures (neutrons: 15 K and 293 K; X-rays: 110 K, 293 K and 493 K) indicate that this mineral crystallizes in the acentric space group Cc ( T=293K: a=16.427 Å, b=12.478 Å, c=9.975 Å, β= 115.56°, Z=4, V=1844.53 Å3) due to ordering of octahedrally coordinated metals (Ti, Fe, Mn, Mg). In the neptunite structure, Ti and (Fe, Mn, Mg) octahedra share edges to form chains that run along [110] and [110]. These chains are, in turn, linked through shared corners along [001]. The resulting octahedral framework is interwoven by a similar [Si8O22] tetrahedral framework. Li, Na and K occupy 6-, 8- and 10- coordinated sites within the framework. The metal-containing polyhedra show strong distortions at all temperatures. In particular, Ti exhibits a strong off-center displacement (≈0.25 Å) within its octahedron, leading to four Ti-O distances of 2.0 Å, one of 2.2 Å and one of 1.7 Å. The displaced Ti position is in good agreement with a position that minimizes differences between ionic bond strengths and is interpreted as an energy minimum in an ionic potential model. Mössbauer spectra collected at 77 K, 293 K and 400 K indicate all Fe to be present as octahedral Fe2+. Although two distinct Fe positions were found in the structure, 77 K and 293 K spectra display only one quadrupole doublet. Two Fe sites can only be resolved in the 400 K spectrum. It is suggested that the temperature dependence of octahedral edge distortions is responsible for the separation of the Mössbauer doublets.

  3. Grain size effects on charge-ordering, phase segregation and related properties of rare-earth manganates, Nd 0.5A 0.5MnO 3 (A=Ca or Sr)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudheendra, L.; Chinh, H. D.; Raju, A. R.; Raychaudhuri, A. K.; Rao, C. N. R.

    2002-04-01

    Grain size has marked effects on charge-ordering and other properties of Nd 0.5A 0.5MnO 3 (A=Ca or Sr). Thus, the antiferromagnetic (AFM) transition in Nd 0.5Ca 0.5MnO 3 is observed distinctly only in samples sintered at 1273 K or higher. The sample with a small grain size (sintered at 1173 K) shows evidence for greater ferromagnetic (FM) interaction at low temperatures, probably due to phase segregation. The FM transition as well as the charge-ordering transition in Nd 0.5Sr 0.5MnO 3 becomes sharper in samples sintered at 1273 K or higher. The sample sintered at 1173 K does not show the AFM-CO transition around 150 K and is FM down to low temperatures; the apparent Tc- Tco gap decreases with the increase in the grain size. The samples sintered at lower temperatures (<1673 K) show evidence for greater segregation of the AFM and FM domains.

  4. High magnetic ordering temperature in the perovskites Sr4-xLaxFe3ReO12 (x= 0.0, 1.0, 2.0)

    SciTech Connect

    Hodges, Jason P; Retuerto, Maria; Greenblatt, Martha; Li, Man-Rong; Croft, Mark; Ramanujachary, Kandalam V.; Go, Yong Bok; Nowik, Israel; Hadermann, Joke; Herber, R. H.; Ignatov, Alexander Y

    2012-01-01

    A series of perovskites Sr4-xLaxFe3ReO12 (x = 0.0, 1.0, 2.0) has been prepared by wet chemistry methods. The structure analyses by powder x-ray, neutron diffraction and electron microscopy show that these compounds adopt simple perovskite structures without cation ordering over the B sites: tetragonal (I4/mcm) for x = 0.0 and 1.0 and orthorhombic (Pbmn) for x = 2.0. The oxidation state of the cations in the compound with x = 0.0 appear to be Fe3+/4+ and Re7+ and decrease for both with La substitution as evidenced by x-ray absorption spectroscopy. All the compounds are antiferromagnetically ordered above room temperature, as demonstrated by M ssbauer spectroscopy and the magnetic structures, which were determined by powder neutron diffraction. The substitution of Sr by La strongly affects the magnetic properties with an increase of TN up to ~ 750 K.

  5. Field-induced polar order at the Néel temperature of chromium in rare-earth orthochromites: Interplay of rare-earth and Cr magnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajeswaran, B.; Khomskii, D. I.; Zvezdin, A. K.; Rao, C. N. R.; Sundaresan, A.

    2012-12-01

    We report field-induced switchable polarization (P ˜ 0.2-0.8 μC/cm2) below the Néel temperature of chromium (TNCr) in weakly ferromagnetic rare-earth orthochromites, RCrO3 (R = rare earth) but only when the rare-earth ion is magnetic. Intriguingly, the polarization in ErCrO3 (TC = 133 K) disappears at a spin-reorientation (Morin) transition (TSR˜22 K) below which the weak ferromagnetism associated with the Cr sublattice also disappears, demonstrating the crucial role of weak ferromagnetism in inducing the polar order. Further, the polarization (P) is strongly influenced by an applied magnetic field, indicating a strong magnetoelectric effect. We suggest that the polar order occurs in RCrO3, due to the combined effect of the poling field that breaks the symmetry and the exchange field on the R ion from the Cr sublattice that stabilizes the polar state. We propose that a similar mechanism could work in the isostructural rare-earth orthoferrites RFeO3 as well.

  6. Combining node-centered parallel radiation transport and higher-order multi-material cell-centered hydrodynamics methods in three-temperature radiation hydrodynamics code TRHD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sijoy, C. D.; Chaturvedi, S.

    2016-06-01

    Higher-order cell-centered multi-material hydrodynamics (HD) and parallel node-centered radiation transport (RT) schemes are combined self-consistently in three-temperature (3T) radiation hydrodynamics (RHD) code TRHD (Sijoy and Chaturvedi, 2015) developed for the simulation of intense thermal radiation or high-power laser driven RHD. For RT, a node-centered gray model implemented in a popular RHD code MULTI2D (Ramis et al., 2009) is used. This scheme, in principle, can handle RT in both optically thick and thin materials. The RT module has been parallelized using message passing interface (MPI) for parallel computation. Presently, for multi-material HD, we have used a simple and robust closure model in which common strain rates to all materials in a mixed cell is assumed. The closure model has been further generalized to allow different temperatures for the electrons and ions. In addition to this, electron and radiation temperatures are assumed to be in non-equilibrium. Therefore, the thermal relaxation between the electrons and ions and the coupling between the radiation and matter energies are required to be computed self-consistently. This has been achieved by using a node-centered symmetric-semi-implicit (SSI) integration scheme. The electron thermal conduction is calculated using a cell-centered, monotonic, non-linear finite volume scheme (NLFV) suitable for unstructured meshes. In this paper, we have described the details of the 2D, 3T, non-equilibrium, multi-material RHD code developed with a special attention to the coupling of various cell-centered and node-centered formulations along with a suite of validation test problems to demonstrate the accuracy and performance of the algorithms. We also report the parallel performance of RT module. Finally, in order to demonstrate the full capability of the code implementation, we have presented the simulation of laser driven shock propagation in a layered thin foil. The simulation results are found to be in good

  7. Dot arrays of L1{sub 0}-type FePt ordered alloy perpendicular films fabricated using low-temperature sputter film deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Shimatsu, T.; Aoi, H.; Inaba, Y.; Kataoka, H.; Sayama, J.; Okamoto, S.; Kitakami, O.

    2011-04-01

    Using ultrahigh vacuum sputter film deposition, we fabricated L1{sub 0}-type Fe{sub 50}Pt{sub 50} ordered alloy perpendicular films on MgO(001) single-crystal substrates and 2.5 in. glass disks at low substrate temperatures of 200-350 deg. C. Then we examined the magnetic properties of the dot arrays made from these films. The uniaxial magnetic anisotropy K{sub u} for L1{sub 0}-type FePt films (10 nm in thickness) deposited with a Pd underlayer on MgO(001) substrates reached about 2 x 10{sup 7} erg/cm{sup 3} at the substrate temperature T{sub s} of 200 deg. C, and 3 x 10{sup 7} erg/cm{sup 3} at T{sub s} = 250 deg. C. The order parameter S was about 0.46 at T{sub s} = 300 deg. C. Moreover, K{sub u} for L1{sub 0}-FePt films fabricated on glass disks using MgO/Cr underlayers shows 3.4 x 10{sup 7} erg/cm{sup 3} at T{sub s} = 300 deg. C, which was almost equal to that for FePt single-crystal films deposited on Pd/MgO(001). The switching field distribution {sigma}/H{sub c} for dot arrays made from L1{sub 0}-FePt film [5 nm in thickness, on Pd/MgO(001) at T{sub s} = 250 deg. C] was small; {sigma}/H{sub c}= 0.11 for a dot diameter of 15 nm. This value was smaller than that of hcp-Co{sub 75}Pt{sub 25} dot arrays ({sigma}/H{sub c} = 0.18). The difference was mainly attributable to the degree of the easy axis distribution. This result demonstrates the homogeneous formation of a L1{sub 0}-type ordered structure in the FePt layers.

  8. Two-dimensional magnetic correlations and partial long-range order in geometrically frustrated CaOFeS with triangle lattice of Fe ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, S. F.; Huang, Q.; Lin, Z. P.; Li, Z. L.; Wu, X. Z.; Ying, T. P.; Wang, G.; Chen, X. L.

    2015-03-01

    We report the results on the structure, transport, and magnetic properties of a layered oxysulfide CaOFeS with a stacked triangle lattice of Fe ions. The susceptibility data show a broad maximum near 120 K, indicating the existence of two-dimensional (2D) short-range ordering in this compound. Features associated with long-range antiferromagnetic (AFM) phase transition are seen below 40 K. Meanwhile, a very small heat-capacity anomaly is detected around 35 K, and most of the measured magnetic entropy is lost during the 2D ordering process. Both crystal and magnetic structures were studied by neutron powder diffraction at 300, 125, 40, and 6 K. The structure was refined based on space group P 63m c with a =3.759 98 (4 ) and c =11.383 51 (16 ) Å at ambient temperature. Low-temperature diffraction reveals 2D magnetic correlations between Fe moments without showing significant structural distortion. Warren peak shape analysis of the neutron-diffraction data at 2 θ near 18° is employed to characterize the correlation length in the 2D magnetic state with lowering temperature. The geometrically frustrated compound is found to gradually condense into a partial long-range ordered state with AFM coupled Fe layers between 40.6 and 26 K. The resulting partially ordered magnetic structure is a G -type Ising AFM with a propagation vector of k =(1 /2 ,1 /2 ,0 ) and an ordered magnetic moment of 2.59 (3 ) μB/Fe along c at 6 K.

  9. Emergent long-range magnetic ordering in manganite superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burganov, Bulat; Macke, Sebastian; Monkman, Eric; Adamo, Carolina; Shai, Daniel; Schlom, Darrell; Sawatzky, George; Shen, Kyle

    2015-03-01

    Complex oxides composed into atomically precise heterostructures host a plethora of new phenomena driven by interface effects, dimensionality, correlations and strain. An example is emergent ferromagnetism in the superlattices (SL) of LaMnO3/SrMnO3 and the dimensionality-driven metal insulator transition, still not well understood theoretically. We use soft x-ray scattering combined with SQUID magnetometry to determine the magnetic and orbital ordering in the (LaMnO3)2n /(SrMnO3)n SL for n =1,2,3,4. By composition this system is close to colossal-magnetoresistive La2/3Sr1/3MnO3, an FM metal below 400K. The system undergoes a metal-insulator transition with higher n and is believed to have a complex magnetic ordering. We observe an unexpected long-range order in the n =4 sample where the magnetic period is equal to two chemical periods. The observed half-order Bragg peaks show strong linear and no circular dichroism. The temperature and polarization dependence of reflectometry points towards alignment between A-type AFM orders in the neighboring LaMnO3 layers, which is very unusual and indicates a long range interaction acting across the thick SrMnO3 layers with nominally G-type spin configuration. We simulate the reflectometry data for several model spin configurations to further elucidate the nature of this ordering.

  10. A rapid and automated relocation method of an AFM probe for high-resolution imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Peilin; Yu, Haibo; Shi, Jialin; Jiao, Niandong; Wang, Zhidong; Wang, Yuechao; Liu, Lianqing

    2016-09-01

    The atomic force microscope (AFM) is one of the most powerful tools for high-resolution imaging and high-precision positioning for nanomanipulation. The selection of the scanning area of the AFM depends on the use of the optical microscope. However, the resolution of an optical microscope is generally no larger than 200 nm owing to wavelength limitations of visible light. Taking into consideration the two determinants of relocation—relative angular rotation and positional offset between the AFM probe and nano target—it is therefore extremely challenging to precisely relocate the AFM probe to the initial scan/manipulation area for the same nano target after the AFM probe has been replaced, or after the sample has been moved. In this paper, we investigate a rapid automated relocation method for the nano target of an AFM using a coordinate transformation. The relocation process is both simple and rapid; moreover, multiple nano targets can be relocated by only identifying a pair of reference points. It possesses a centimeter-scale location range and nano-scale precision. The main advantages of this method are that it overcomes the limitations associated with the resolution of optical microscopes, and that it is label-free on the target areas, which means that it does not require the use of special artificial markers on the target sample areas. Relocation experiments using nanospheres, DNA, SWCNTs, and nano patterns amply demonstrate the practicality and efficiency of the proposed method, which provides technical support for mass nanomanipulation and detection based on AFM for multiple nano targets that are widely distributed in a large area.

  11. A rapid and automated relocation method of an AFM probe for high-resolution imaging.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Peilin; Yu, Haibo; Shi, Jialin; Jiao, Niandong; Wang, Zhidong; Wang, Yuechao; Liu, Lianqing

    2016-09-30

    The atomic force microscope (AFM) is one of the most powerful tools for high-resolution imaging and high-precision positioning for nanomanipulation. The selection of the scanning area of the AFM depends on the use of the optical microscope. However, the resolution of an optical microscope is generally no larger than 200 nm owing to wavelength limitations of visible light. Taking into consideration the two determinants of relocation-relative angular rotation and positional offset between the AFM probe and nano target-it is therefore extremely challenging to precisely relocate the AFM probe to the initial scan/manipulation area for the same nano target after the AFM probe has been replaced, or after the sample has been moved. In this paper, we investigate a rapid automated relocation method for the nano target of an AFM using a coordinate transformation. The relocation process is both simple and rapid; moreover, multiple nano targets can be relocated by only identifying a pair of reference points. It possesses a centimeter-scale location range and nano-scale precision. The main advantages of this method are that it overcomes the limitations associated with the resolution of optical microscopes, and that it is label-free on the target areas, which means that it does not require the use of special artificial markers on the target sample areas. Relocation experiments using nanospheres, DNA, SWCNTs, and nano patterns amply demonstrate the practicality and efficiency of the proposed method, which provides technical support for mass nanomanipulation and detection based on AFM for multiple nano targets that are widely distributed in a large area. PMID:27559679

  12. Development of a 3D-AFM for true 3D measurements of nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Gaoliang; Häßler-Grohne, Wolfgang; Hüser, Dorothee; Wolff, Helmut; Danzebrink, Hans-Ulrich; Koenders, Ludger; Bosse, Harald

    2011-09-01

    The development of advanced lithography requires highly accurate 3D metrology methods for small line structures of both wafers and photomasks. Development of a new 3D atomic force microscopy (3D-AFM) with vertical and torsional oscillation modes is introduced in this paper. In its configuration, the AFM probe is oscillated using two piezo actuators driven at vertical and torsional resonance frequencies of the cantilever. In such a way, the AFM tip can probe the surface with a vertical and a lateral oscillation, offering high 3D probing sensitivity. In addition, a so-called vector approach probing (VAP) method has been applied. The sample is measured point-by-point using this method. At each probing point, the tip is approached towards the surface until the desired tip-sample interaction is detected and then immediately withdrawn from the surface. Compared to conventional AFMs, where the tip is kept continuously in interaction with the surface, the tip-sample interaction time using the VAP method is greatly reduced and consequently the tip wear is reduced. Preliminary experimental results show promising performance of the developed system. A measurement of a line structure of 800 nm height employing a super sharp AFM tip could be performed with a repeatability of its 3D profiles of better than 1 nm (p-v). A line structure of a Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt photomask with a nominal width of 300 nm has been measured using a flared tip AFM probe. The repeatability of the middle CD values reaches 0.28 nm (1σ). A long-term stability investigation shows that the 3D-AFM has a high stability of better than 1 nm within 197 measurements taken over 30 h, which also confirms the very low tip wear.

  13. Strength by atomic force microscopy (AFM): Molecular dynamics of water layer squeezing on magnesium oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendall, K.; Dhir, Aman; Yong, Chin W.

    2010-11-01

    Localised strength testing of materials is often carried out in an atomic force microscope (AFM), as foreseen by Kelly in his book Strong Solids (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1966). During AFM indentation experiments, contamination can strongly influence the observed strength and theoretical interpretation of the results is a major problem. Here, we use molecular dynamics computer modelling to describe the contact of NaCl and MgO crystal probes onto surfaces, comparable to an AFM experiment. Clean NaCl gave elastic, brittle behaviour in contact simulations at 300 K, whereas MgO was more plastic, leading to increased toughness. This paper also considers the strength of an oxide substrate contaminated by water molecules and tested by indentation with a pyramidal probe of oxide crystal. Recent theory on the effect of liquid contaminant layers on surface strength has been mainly focussed on Lennard Jones (LJ) molecules with some studies on alcohols and water, described by molecular dynamics, which allows the molecules to be squeezed out as the crystal lattice is deformed. In this work, we have focused on water by studying the forces between a magnesium oxide (MgO) atomic force microscope (AFM) probe and an MgO slab. Force versus separation has been plotted as the AFM probe was moved towards and away from the substrate. Simulation results showed that the water layers could be removed in steps, giving up to four force peaks. The last monolayer of water could not be squeezed out, even at pressures where MgO deformed plastically. Interestingly, with water present, strength was reduced, but more in tensile than compressive measurements. In conclusion, water contaminating the oxide surface in AFM strength testing is structured. Water layer squeezing removal can be predicted by molecular modelling, which may be verified by AFM experiments to show that water can influence the strength of perfect crystals at the nanometre scale.

  14. A software tool for STED-AFM correlative super-resolution microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koho, Sami; Deguchi, Takahiro; Löhmus, Madis; Näreoja, Tuomas; Hänninen, Pekka E.

    2015-03-01

    Multi-modal correlative microscopy allows combining the strengths of several imaging techniques to provide unique contrast. However it is not always straightforward to setup instruments for such customized experiments, as most microscope manufacturers use their own proprietary software, with limited or no capability to interface with other instruments - this makes correlation of the multi-modal data extremely challenging. We introduce a new software tool for simultaneous use of a STimulated Emission Depletion (STED) microscope with an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). In our experiments, a Leica TCS STED commercial super-resolution microscope, together with an Agilent 5500ilm AFM microscope was used. With our software, it is possible to synchronize the data acquisition between the STED and AFM instruments, as well as to perform automatic registration of the AFM images with the super-resolution STED images. The software was realized in LabVIEW; the registration part was also implemented as an ImageJ script. The synchronization was realized by controlling simple trigger signals, also available in the commercial STED microscope, with a low-cost National Instruments USB-6501 digital I/O card. The registration was based on detecting the positions of the AFM tip inside the STED fieldof-view, which were then used as registration landmarks. The registration should work on any STED and tip-scanning AFM microscope combination, at nanometer-scale precision. Our STED-AFM correlation method has been tested with a variety of nanoparticle and fixed cell samples. The software will be released under BSD open-source license.

  15. Lipid asymmetry in DLPC/DSPC supported lipid bilayers, a combined AFM and fluorescence microscopy study

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, W; Blanchette, C D; Ratto, T V; Longo, M L

    2005-06-20

    A fundamental attribute of cell membranes is transmembrane asymmetry, specifically the formation of ordered phase domains in one leaflet that are compositionally different from the opposing leaflet of the bilayer. Using model membrane systems, many previous studies have demonstrated the formation of ordered phase domains that display complete transmembrane symmetry but there have been few reports on the more biologically relevant asymmetric membrane structures. Here we report on a combined atomic force microscopy (AFM) and fluorescence microscopy study whereby we observe three different states of transmembrane symmetry in phase-separated supported bilayers formed by vesicle fusion. We find that if the leaflets differ in gel-phase area fraction, then the smaller domains in one leaflet are in registry with the larger domains in the other leaflet and the system is dynamic. In a presumed lipid flip-flop process similar to Ostwald Ripening, the smaller domains in one leaflet erode away while the large domains in the other leaflet grow until complete compositional asymmetry is reached and remains stable. We have quantified this evolution and determined that the lipid flip-flop event happens most frequently at the interface between symmetric and asymmetric DSPC domains. If both leaflets have nearly identical area fraction of gel-phase, gel-phase domains are in registry and are static in comparison to the first state. The stability of these three DSPC domain distributions, the degree of registry observed, and the domain immobility have direct biological significance with regards to maintenance of lipid asymmetry in living cell membranes, communication between inner leaflet and outer leaflet, membrane adhesion, and raft mobility.

  16. A calorimetric study on the low temperature dynamics of doped ice V and its reversible phase transition to hydrogen ordered ice XIII.

    PubMed

    Salzmann, Christoph G; Radaelli, Paolo G; Finney, John L; Mayer, Erwin

    2008-11-01

    Doped ice V samples made from solutions containing 0.01 M HCl (DCl), HF (DF), or KOH (KOD) in H(2)O (D(2)O) were slow-cooled from 250 to 77 K at 0.5 GPa. The effect of the dopant on the hydrogen disorder --> order transition and formation of hydrogen ordered ice XIII was studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) with samples recovered at 77 K. DSC scans of acid-doped samples are consistent with a reversible ice XIII <--> ice V phase transition at ambient pressure, showing an endothermic peak on heating due to the hydrogen ordered ice XIII --> disordered ice V phase transition, and an exothermic peak on subsequent cooling due to the ice V --> ice XIII phase transition. The equilibrium temperature (T(o)) for the ice V <--> ice XIII phase transition is 112 K for both HCl doped H(2)O and DCl doped D(2)O. From the maximal enthalpy change of 250 J mol(-1) on the ice XIII --> ice V phase transition and T(o) of 112 K, the change in configurational entropy for the ice XIII --> ice V transition is calculated as 2.23 J mol(-1) K(-1) which is 66% of the Pauling entropy. For HCl, the most effective dopant, the influence of HCl concentration on the formation of ice XIII was determined: on decreasing the concentration of HCl from 0.01 to 0.001 M, its effectiveness is only slightly lowered. However, further HCl decrease to 0.0001 M drastically lowered its effectiveness. HF (DF) doping is less effective in inducing formation of ice XIII than HCl (DCl) doping. On heating at a rate of 5 K min(-1), kinetic unfreezing starts in pure ice V at approximately 132 K, whereas in acid doped ice XIII it starts at about 105 K due to acceleration of reorientation of water molecules. KOH doping does not lead to formation of hydrogen ordered ice XIII, a result which is consistent with our powder neutron diffraction study (C. G. Salzmann, P. G. Radaelli, A. Hallbrucker, E. Mayer, J. L. Finney, Science, 2006, 311, 1758). We further conjecture whether or not ice XIII has a stable region in

  17. Hybrid Metrology and 3D-AFM Enhancement for CD Metrology Dedicated to 28 nm Node and Below Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Foucher, J.; Faurie, P.; Dourthe, L.

    2011-11-10

    The measurement accuracy is becoming one of the major components that have to be controlled in order to guarantee sufficient production yield. Already at the R and D level, we have to come up with the accurate measurements of sub-40 nm dense trenches and contact holes coming from 193 immersion lithography or E-Beam lithography. Current production CD (Critical Dimension) metrology techniques such as CD-SEM (CD-Scanning Electron Microscope) and OCD (Optical Critical Dimension) are limited in relative accuracy for various reasons (i.e electron proximity effect, outputs parameters correlation, stack influence, electron interaction with materials...). Therefore, time for R and D is increasing, process windows degrade and finally production yield can decrease because you cannot manufactured correctly if you are unable to measure correctly. A new high volume manufacturing (HVM) CD metrology solution has to be found in order to improve the relative accuracy of production environment otherwise current CD Metrology solution will very soon get out of steam.In this paper, we will present a potential Hybrid CD metrology solution that smartly tuned 3D-AFM (3D-Atomic Force Microscope) and CD-SEM data in order to add accuracy both in R and D and production. The final goal for 'chip makers' is to improve yield and save R and D and production costs through real-time feedback loop implement on CD metrology routines. Such solution can be implemented and extended to any kind of CD metrology solution. In a 2{sup nd} part we will discuss and present results regarding a new AFM3D probes breakthrough with the introduction of full carbon tips made will E-Beam Deposition process. The goal is to overcome the current limitations of conventional flared silicon tips which are definitely not suitable for sub-32 nm nodes production.

  18. Alumina decorated TiO2 nanotubes with ordered mesoporous walls as high sensitivity NO(x) gas sensors at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Lü, Renjiang; Zhou, Wei; Shi, Keying; Yang, Ying; Wang, Lei; Pan, Kai; Tian, Chungui; Ren, Zhiyu; Fu, Honggang

    2013-09-21

    Alumina (Al2O3) decorated anatase TiO2 nanotubes with ordered mesoporous pore walls (Al2O3/meso-TiO2 nanotubes) are successfully synthesized through vacuum pressure induction technology, and then combined with the thermal decomposition of a mesoporous TiO2 sol precursor, inside the cylindrical nanochannels of an anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) template. The decorated Al2O3 was formed by in situ deposition via direct reaction of the strong acid sol precursor and the nanochannel wall of the AAO template. The resultant Al2O3/meso-TiO2 nanotubes are characterized in detail by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and N2 adsorption-desorption. The experimental results reveal that the Al2O3/meso-TiO2 nanotubes have a tubular structure with an average diameter of ∼200 nm and highly ordered mesopores in the tubular walls. The Al2O3 is distributed evenly on the anatase TiO2 nanotubes. Moreover, the Al2O3/meso-TiO2 nanotubes possess a large specific surface area (136 m(2) g(-1)) and narrow mesopore size distribution (∼10 nm). By using NO(x) as a probe molecule, the Al2O3/meso-TiO2 nanotube films exhibit better sensing performance than that of mesoporous TiO2 nanotubes, in terms of their high sensitivity, fast response-recovery time, and good stability in air at room temperature. The outstanding performance in the gas sensing ability of Al2O3/meso-TiO2 nanotubes is a result of their one-dimensional tubular and mesoporous nanostructures, advantageous for the adsorption and diffusion of NO(x) gas. In addition, the sensing response is greatly improved by virtue of the decorated Al2O3 on the surfaces of the TiO2 nanotubes, which acts as an energy barrier to suppress charge recombination. The structural properties of the Al2O3/meso-TiO2 nanotubes makes them a viable novel gas sensor material at room temperature.

  19. Polymer coatings on conductive polypyrroles surface characterization by XPS, ToFSIMS, inverse gas chromatography and AFM

    SciTech Connect

    Chehimi, M.M.; Abel, M.; Delamar, M.; Watts, J.F.; Zhdan, P.A.

    1996-01-01

    The study of PMMA adsorption on some conducting polypyrroles (PPys) using a variety of surface analytical techniques is reported. PMMA adsorption was monitored by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), time of flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (ToF-SIMS) and inverse gas chromatography (IGC). XPS and ToF-SIMS permit to determine the surface composition of PMMA-coated PPy surfaces vs the solvent nature, temperature and the PPy dopant anion. Both techniques show that acid-base interactions may govern PMMA adsorption. IGC was used to determine the coating morphology by monitoring the surface energy of the coated PPy powders. It is suggested that homogeneity of PMMA coatings increases with decreasing solvent power. Preliminary atomic force microscopy (AFM) results on PMMA films cast on flat PPy surfaces confirm the IGC observation. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  20. AFM study of the plastic deformation of polysynthetically-twinned (PST) TiAl crystals in soft orientation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yali; Pope, David P

    2006-05-01

    PST TiAl samples with a nominal composition of Ti52Al48 were deformed at room temperature with compression axis inclined to the lamellar interfaces by 45 degrees and one of the side surface normal directions set to be (112). The deformation structures on the free surfaces of the deformed samples were investigated using Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). It was found that in-plane shear (shear in planes parallel to lamellar interfaces) is the dominant deformation mode in all gamma domains and most of the deformation traces on the free surfaces are parallel to lamellar interfaces. Out-of-plane shear (shear in planes inclined to lamellar interfaces) also occurs but contributes much less to the macroscopic strain. This selective activation of deformation modes leads to a highly anisotropic deformation behavior in PST crystals with this orientation. PMID:16646014

  1. AFM probes fabricated with masked maskless combined anisotropic etching and p+ surface doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jianqiang; Li, Xinxin; Bao, Haifei; Zuo, Guomin; Wang, Yuelin; Feng, Fei; Yu, Zhenyin; Ge, Xiaohong

    2006-02-01

    The paper presents a newly developed high-yield micro-fabrication technology for single-crystalline silicon atomic force microscope (AFM) probes. Both the tips and the cantilevers are simultaneously formed by a masked-maskless combined anisotropic etching process. Compared to a conventional tip-to-cantilever sequential fabrication scheme, this tip-and-cantilever simultaneous formation can effectively increase fabrication yield by avoiding the tips damaged during the following processed photolithographic steps for defining the cantilevers. By heavy boron doping at the surface, the conductive AFM probe provides an electrical path to the electric ground of the AFM that helps to eliminate the electrostatic accumulation of charges and, therefore, eliminate undesirable electrostatic forces between the probes and the samples. A fabrication yield as high as 90% has been obtained for the AFM probes for 4 inch wafers. The tips after oxidation-sharpening treatment generally have a radius of 10-30 nm. The cantilever spring constant can be well controlled in the range of 0.025-40 N m-1. High-quality sample scanning results with the formed AFM probes are obtained with a slightly better resolution than that from commercial probes without surface conductive treatment.

  2. AFM Bio-Mechanical Investigation of the Taxol Treatment of Breast Cancer Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Dylan; Patel, Dipika; Monjaraz, Fernando; Park, Soyeun

    2009-10-01

    Cancerous cells are known to be softer and easier to deform than normal cells. Changes in mechanical properties originate from the alteration of the actin cytoskeleton. The mechanism of cancer treatment using Taxol is related to the stabilization of microtubules. It has been shown that Taxol binds to polymerized tublin, stabilizes it against disassembly, and consequently inhibits cell division. An accurate quantitative study still lacks to relate the microtubule stabilizing effect with the cellular mechanical properties. We utilized our AFM to study changes in elastic properties of treated breast cancer cells. The AFM has several advantages for precise force measurements on a localized region with nanometer lateral dimension. In previous AFM studies, measurable contributions from the underlying hard substrate have been an obstacle to accurately determine the properties on thin samples. We modified our AFM tip to obtain the exact deformation profile as well as reducing the high stresses produced. We have probed depth profiles of mechanical properties of the taxol-treated and untreated cells by varying the indentation depth of the AFM-nanoindenting experiments.

  3. AFM1 in Milk: Physical, Biological, and Prophylactic Methods to Mitigate Contamination

    PubMed Central

    Giovati, Laura; Magliani, Walter; Ciociola, Tecla; Santinoli, Claudia; Conti, Stefania; Polonelli, Luciano

    2015-01-01

    Aflatoxins (AFs) are toxic, carcinogenic, immunosuppressive secondary metabolites produced by some Aspergillus species which colonize crops, including many dietary staple foods and feed components. AFB1 is the prevalent and most toxic among AFs. In the liver, it is biotransformed into AFM1, which is then excreted into the milk of lactating mammals, including dairy animals. AFM1 has been shown to be cause of both acute and chronic toxicoses. The presence of AFM1 in milk and dairy products represents a worldwide concern since even small amounts of this metabolite may be of importance as long-term exposure is concerned. Contamination of milk may be mitigated either directly, decreasing the AFM1 content in contaminated milk, or indirectly, decreasing AFB1 contamination in the feed of dairy animals. Current strategies for AFM1 mitigation include good agricultural practices in pre-harvest and post-harvest management of feed crops (including storage) and physical or chemical decontamination of feed and milk. However, no single strategy offers a complete solution to the issue. PMID:26512694

  4. Fractal analysis of AFM images of the surface of Bowman's membrane of the human cornea.

    PubMed

    Ţălu, Ştefan; Stach, Sebastian; Sueiras, Vivian; Ziebarth, Noël Marysa

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study is to further investigate the ultrastructural details of the surface of Bowman's membrane of the human cornea, using atomic force microscopy (AFM) images. One representative image acquired of Bowman's membrane of a human cornea was investigated. The three-dimensional (3-D) surface of the sample was imaged using AFM in contact mode, while the sample was completely submerged in optisol solution. Height and deflection images were acquired at multiple scan lengths using the MFP-3D AFM system software (Asylum Research, Santa Barbara, CA), based in IGOR Pro (WaveMetrics, Lake Oswego, OR). A novel approach, based on computational algorithms for fractal analysis of surfaces applied for AFM data, was utilized to analyze the surface structure. The surfaces revealed a fractal structure at the nanometer scale. The fractal dimension, D, provided quantitative values that characterize the scale properties of surface geometry. Detailed characterization of the surface topography was obtained using statistical parameters, in accordance with ISO 25178-2: 2012. Results obtained by fractal analysis confirm the relationship between the value of the fractal dimension and the statistical surface roughness parameters. The surface structure of Bowman's membrane of the human cornea is complex. The analyzed AFM images confirm a fractal nature of the surface, which is not taken into account by classical surface statistical parameters. Surface fractal dimension could be useful in ophthalmology to quantify corneal architectural changes associated with different disease states to further our understanding of disease evolution.

  5. Effect of AFM probe geometry on visco-hyperelastic characterization of soft materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boccaccio, Antonio; Lamberti, Luciano; Papi, Massimiliano; De Spirito, Marco; Pappalettere, Carmine

    2015-08-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) nanoindentation is very suited for nano- and microscale mechanical characterization of soft materials. Although the structural response of polymeric networks that form soft matter depends on viscous effects caused by the relative slippage of polymeric chains, the usual assumption made in the AFM-based characterization is that the specimen behaves as a purely elastic material and viscous forces are negligible. However, for each geometric configuration of the AFM tip, there will be a limit indentation rate above which viscous effects must be taken into account to correctly determine mechanical properties. A parametric finite element study conducted on 12 geometric configurations of a blunt cone AFM tip (overall, the study included about 200 finite element analyses) allowed us to determine the limit indentation rate for each configuration. The selected tip dimensions cover commercially available products and account for changes in tip geometry caused by serial measurements. Nanoindentation rates cover typical experimental conditions set in AFM bio-measurements on soft matter. Viscous effects appear to be more significant in the case of sharper tips. This implies that, if quantitative data on sample viscosity are not available, using a rounded indenter and carrying out experiments below the limit indentation rate will allow errors in the determination of mechanical properties to be minimized.

  6. Electronic structure and the origin of the high ordering temperature in SrRu2O6

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, David J.

    2015-06-16

    SrRu2O6 is a layered honeycomb-lattice material with an extraordinarily high magnetic ordering temperature. We investigated this material using density functional calculations. We find that the energy scales for moment formation and ordering are similar and high. Additionally, we find that the magnetic anisotropy is high and favors moments oriented along the c axis. This provides an explanation for the exceptionally high ordering temperature. Finally, the compound is found to be semiconducting at the bare density functional level, even without magnetic order. Lastly, we discuss experimental consequences of this scenario for the high ordering temperature.

  7. Magnetic structures of the low temperature phase of Mn3(VO4)2 - towards understanding magnetic ordering between adjacent Kagomé layers.

    PubMed

    Clemens, Oliver; Rohrer, Jochen; Nénert, Gwilherm

    2016-01-01

    In this article we report on a detailed analysis of the magnetic structures of the magnetic phases of the low temperature (lt-) phase of Mn3(VO4)2 (=Mn3V2O8) with a Kagomé staircase structure determined by means of powder neutron diffraction. Two magnetic transitions were found at ∼25 K (HT1 phase, Cmc'a') and ∼17 K (LT1 phase, Pmc'a'), in excellent agreement with previous reports. The LT1 phase is characterized by commensurate magnetic ordering of the magnetic moments on two magnetic sites of the Mn1a/b (2a + 2d) and Mn2 (8i) ions of the nuclear structure (where for the latter site two different overall orientations of magnetic moments within the ab-plane (Mn2a and Mn2b) can be distinguished. This results in mainly antiferromagnetic interactions between edge-sharing Mn-octahedra within the Kagomé planes. The HT1 phase is characterised by strong spin frustration resulting from the loss of ordering of the magnetic moments of Mn2a/b ions along the b-axis. Both magnetic structures are in agreement with the previously reported ferrimagnetic properties of lt-Mn3(VO4)2 and shed light on the magnetic phase diagram of the compound reported previously. The magnetic structures are discussed with respect to superexchange interaction pathways within the Kagomé layers, which appear to be predominantly antiferromagnetic. The magnetic structures of Mn3(VO4)2 are different compared to those reported for Ni3(VO4)2 and Co3(VO4)2 and represent an unique commensurate way out of spin frustration for compounds with strong antiferromagnetic superexchange interactions within the Kagomé layers. Additionally, we derive a superexchange model, which will be called redox-mediated M-M(')(d(0))-M superexchange and which can help to understand the exclusively ferromagnetic ordering of adjacent Kagomé layers found only for lt-Mn3(VO4)2.

  8. Magnetic structures of the low temperature phase of Mn3(VO4)2 - towards understanding magnetic ordering between adjacent Kagomé layers.

    PubMed

    Clemens, Oliver; Rohrer, Jochen; Nénert, Gwilherm

    2016-01-01

    In this article we report on a detailed analysis of the magnetic structures of the magnetic phases of the low temperature (lt-) phase of Mn3(VO4)2 (=Mn3V2O8) with a Kagomé staircase structure determined by means of powder neutron diffraction. Two magnetic transitions were found at ∼25 K (HT1 phase, Cmc'a') and ∼17 K (LT1 phase, Pmc'a'), in excellent agreement with previous reports. The LT1 phase is characterized by commensurate magnetic ordering of the magnetic moments on two magnetic sites of the Mn1a/b (2a + 2d) and Mn2 (8i) ions of the nuclear structure (where for the latter site two different overall orientations of magnetic moments within the ab-plane (Mn2a and Mn2b) can be distinguished. This results in mainly antiferromagnetic interactions between edge-sharing Mn-octahedra within the Kagomé planes. The HT1 phase is characterised by strong spin frustration resulting from the loss of ordering of the magnetic moments of Mn2a/b ions along the b-axis. Both magnetic structures are in agreement with the previously reported ferrimagnetic properties of lt-Mn3(VO4)2 and shed light on the magnetic phase diagram of the compound reported previously. The magnetic structures are discussed with respect to superexchange interaction pathways within the Kagomé layers, which appear to be predominantly antiferromagnetic. The magnetic structures of Mn3(VO4)2 are different compared to those reported for Ni3(VO4)2 and Co3(VO4)2 and represent an unique commensurate way out of spin frustration for compounds with strong antiferromagnetic superexchange interactions within the Kagomé layers. Additionally, we derive a superexchange model, which will be called redox-mediated M-M(')(d(0))-M superexchange and which can help to understand the exclusively ferromagnetic ordering of adjacent Kagomé layers found only for lt-Mn3(VO4)2. PMID:26585499

  9. X-AFm stabilization as a mechanism of bypassing conversion phenomena in calcium aluminate cements

    SciTech Connect

    Falzone, Gabriel; Balonis, Magdalena; Sant, Gaurav

    2015-06-15

    Phase conversion phenomena are often observed in calcium aluminate cements (CACs), when the water-rich hydrates (e.g., CAH{sub 10}, C{sub 2}AH{sub 8}) formed at early ages, at temperatures ≤ 30 °C, expel water in time to form more compact, less water-rich structures (C{sub 3}AH{sub 6}). The phase conversions follow a path regulated by the thermodynamic stabilities (solubilities) of phases. Based on this premise, it is proposed that conversion phenomena in CACs can be bypassed by provoking the precipitation of phases more preferred than those typically encountered along the conversion pathway. Therefore, X-AFm formation (where in this case, X = NO{sub 3}{sup −}) triggered by the sequential addition of calcium nitrate (Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} = CN) additives is identified as a new means of bypassing conversion. A multi-method approach comprising X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal analytics, and evaluations of the compressive strength is applied to correlate phase balances and properties of CAC systems cured at 25 °C and 45 °C. The results highlight the absence of the C{sub 3}AH{sub 6} phase across all systems and the curing conditions considered, with enhanced strengths being noted, when sufficient quantities of CN are added. The experimental outcomes are supported by insights gained from thermodynamic calculations which highlight thermodynamic selectivity as a means of regulating and controlling the evolutions of solid phase balances using inorganic salts in CACs, and more generally in cementing material systems.

  10. AFM characterization of nonwoven material functionalized by ZnO sputter coating

    SciTech Connect

    Deng Bingyao; Yan Xiong; Wei Qufu Gao Weidong

    2007-10-15

    Sputter coatings provide new approaches to the surface functionalization of textile materials. In this study, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) nonwoven material was used as a substrate for creating functional nanostructures on the fiber surfaces. A magnetron sputter coating was used to deposit functional zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures onto the nonwoven substrate. The evolution of the surface morphology of the fibers in the nonwoven web was examined using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The AFM observations revealed a significant difference in the morphology of the fibers before and after the sputter coating. The AFM images also indicated the effect of the sputtering conditions on the surface morphology of the fibers. The increase in the sputtering time led to the growth of the ZnO grains on the fiber surfaces. The higher pressure in the sputtering chamber could cause the formation of larger grains on the fiber surfaces. The higher power used also generated larger grains on the fiber surfaces.

  11. Quantitative atomic resolution force imaging on epitaxial graphene with reactive and nonreactive AFM probes.

    PubMed

    Boneschanscher, Mark P; van der Lit, Joost; Sun, Zhixiang; Swart, Ingmar; Liljeroth, Peter; Vanmaekelbergh, Daniël

    2012-11-27

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images of graphene and graphite show contrast with atomic periodicity. However, the contrast patterns vary depending on the atomic termination of the AFM tip apex and the tip-sample distance, hampering the identification of the atomic positions. Here, we report quantitative AFM imaging of epitaxial graphene using inert (carbon-monoxide-terminated) and reactive (iridium-terminated) tips. The atomic image contrast is markedly different with these tip terminations. With a reactive tip, we observe an inversion from attractive to repulsive atomic contrast with decreasing tip-sample distance, while a nonreactive tip only yields repulsive atomic contrast. We are able to identify the atoms with both tips at any tip-sample distance. This is a prerequisite for future structural and chemical analysis of adatoms, defects, and the edges of graphene nanostructures, crucial for understanding nanoscale graphene devices.

  12. Custom AFM for X-ray beamlines: in situ biological investigations under physiological conditions.

    PubMed

    Gumí-Audenis, B; Carlà, F; Vitorino, M V; Panzarella, A; Porcar, L; Boilot, M; Guerber, S; Bernard, P; Rodrigues, M S; Sanz, F; Giannotti, M I; Costa, L

    2015-11-01

    A fast atomic force microscope (AFM) has been developed that can be installed as a sample holder for grazing-incidence X-ray experiments at solid/gas or solid/liquid interfaces. It allows a wide range of possible investigations, including soft and biological samples under physiological conditions (hydrated specimens). The structural information obtained using the X-rays is combined with the data gathered with the AFM (morphology and mechanical properties), providing a unique characterization of the specimen and its dynamics in situ during an experiment. In this work, lipid monolayers and bilayers in air or liquid environment have been investigated by means of AFM, both with imaging and force spectroscopy, and X-ray reflectivity. In addition, this combination allows the radiation damage induced by the beam on the sample to be studied, as has been observed on DOPC and DPPC supported lipid bilayers under physiological conditions. PMID:26524300

  13. Custom AFM for X-ray beamlines: in situ biological investigations under physiological conditions

    PubMed Central

    Gumí-Audenis, B.; Carlà, F.; Vitorino, M. V.; Panzarella, A.; Porcar, L.; Boilot, M.; Guerber, S.; Bernard, P.; Rodrigues, M. S.; Sanz, F.; Giannotti, M. I.; Costa, L.

    2015-01-01

    A fast atomic force microscope (AFM) has been developed that can be installed as a sample holder for grazing-incidence X-ray experiments at solid/gas or solid/liquid interfaces. It allows a wide range of possible investigations, including soft and biological samples under physiological conditions (hydrated specimens). The structural information obtained using the X-rays is combined with the data gathered with the AFM (morphology and mechanical properties), providing a unique characterization of the specimen and its dynamics in situ during an experiment. In this work, lipid monolayers and bilayers in air or liquid environment have been investigated by means of AFM, both with imaging and force spectroscopy, and X-ray reflectivity. In addition, this combination allows the radiation damage induced by the beam on the sample to be studied, as has been observed on DOPC and DPPC supported lipid bilayers under physiological conditions. PMID:26524300

  14. Imaging and force measurement of LDL and HDL by AFM in air and liquid

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Chaoye; Ao, Meiying; Liu, Zhanghua; Chen, Yong

    2015-01-01

    The size and biomechanical properties of lipoproteins are tightly correlated with their structures/functions. While atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been used to image lipoproteins the force measurement of these nano-sized particles is missing. We detected that the sizes of LDL and HDL in liquid are close to the commonly known values. The Young’s modulus of LDL or HDL is ∼0.4 GPa which is similar to that of some viral capsids or nanovesicles but greatly larger than that of various liposomes. The adhesive force of LDL or HDL is small (∼200 pN). The comparison of AFM detection in air and liquid was also performed which is currently lacking. Our data may provide useful information for better understanding and AFM detection of lipoproteins. PMID:25893163

  15. Mapping site-specific endonuclease binding to DNA by direct imaging with AFM

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, D.P.; Thundat, T.; Doktycz, M.J.; Kerper, P.S.; Warmack, R.J.; Modrich, P.; Isfort, R.J.

    1995-12-31

    Physical mapping of DNA can be accomplished by direct AFM imaging of site specific proteins bound to DNA molecules. Using Gln-111, a mutant of EcoRI endonuclease with a specific affinity for EcoRI sites 1,000 times greater than wild type enzyme but with cleavage rate constants reduced by a factor of 10{sup 4}, the authors demonstrate site-specific mapping by direct AFM imaging. Images are presented showing specific-site binding of Gln-111 to plasmids having either one (pBS{sup +}) or two (pMP{sup 32}) EcoRI sites. Identification of the Gln-111/DNA complex is greatly enhanced by biotinylation of the complex followed by reaction with streptavidin gold prior to imaging. Image enhancement coupled with improvements in the preparation techniques for imaging large DNA molecules, such as lambda DNA (47 kb), has the potential to contribute to direct AFM restriction mapping of cosmid-sized genomic DNAs.

  16. Review and perspectives of AFM application on the study of deformable drop/bubble interactions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Li, Kai; Ma, Mengyu; Jin, Hang; Angeli, Panagiota; Gong, Jing

    2015-11-01

    The applications of Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) on the study of dynamic interactions and film drainage between deformable bodies dispersed in aqueous solutions are reviewed in this article. Novel experimental designs and recent advances in experimental methodologies are presented, which show the advantage of using AFM as a tool for probing colloidal interactions. The effects of both DLVO and non-DLVO forces on the colloid stabilization mechanism are discussed. Good agreement is found between the force - drop/bubble deformation behaviour revealed by AFM measurements and the theoretical modeling of film drainage process, giving a convincing explanation of the occurrence of certain phenomenon. However, the behaviour and shape of deformable drops as they approach or retract is still not well resolved. In addition, when surfactants are present further research is needed on the absorption of surfactant molecules into the interfaces, their mobility and the effects on interfacial film properties.

  17. Mapping site-specific endonuclease binding to DNA by direct imaging with atomic force microscopy (AFM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, David P.; Thundat, Thomas G.; Modrich, P.; Isfort, R. J.; Doktycz, Mitchel J.; Kerper, P. S.; Warmack, R. J.

    1995-04-01

    Physical mapping of DNA can be accomplished by direct AFM imaging of site specific proteins bound to DNA molecules. Using Gln-111, a mutant of EcoRI endonuclease with a specific affinity for EcoRI sites 1000 times greater than wild type enzyme but with cleavage rate constants reduced by a factor of 104, we demonstrate site-specific mapping by direct AFM imaging. Images are presented showing specific-site binding of Gln-111 to plasmids having either one (pBS+) or two (pMP32) EcoRI sites. Identification of the Gln-111/DNA complex is greatly enhanced by biotinylation of the complex followed by reaction with streptavidin gold prior to imaging. Image enhancement coupled with improvements in our preparation techniques for imaging large DNA molecules, such as lambda DNA (47 kb), has the potential to contribute to direct AFM restriction mapping of cosmid-sized genomic DNAs.

  18. AFM-assisted fabrication of thiol SAM pattern with alternating quantified surface potential

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Thiol self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) are widely used in many nano- and bio-technology applications. We report a new approach to create and characterize a thiol SAMs micropattern with alternating charges on a flat gold-coated substrate using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM). We produced SAMs-patterns made of alternating positively charged, negatively charged, and hydrophobic-terminated thiols by an automated AFM-assisted manipulation, or nanografting. We show that these thiol patterns possess only small topographical differences as revealed by AFM, and distinguished differences in surface potential (20-50 mV), revealed by KPFM. The pattern can be helpful in the development of biosensor technologies, specifically for selective binding of biomolecules based on charge and hydrophobicity, and serve as a model for creating surfaces with quantified alternating surface potential distribution. PMID:21711703

  19. Iterative control approach to high-speed force-distance curve measurement using AFM: time-dependent response of PDMS example.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyong-Soo; Lin, Zhiqun; Shrotriya, Pranav; Sundararajan, Sriram; Zou, Qingze

    2008-08-01

    Force-distance curve measurements using atomic force microscope (AFM) has been widely used in a broad range of areas. However, currently force-curve measurements are hampered the its low speed of AFM. In this article, a novel inversion-based iterative control technique is proposed to dramatically increase the speed of force-curve measurements. Experimental results are presented to show that by using the proposed control technique, the speed of force-curve measurements can be increased by over 80 times--with no loss of spatial resolution--on a commercial AFM platform and with a standard cantilever. High-speed force curve measurements using this control technique are utilized to quantitatively study the time-dependent elastic modulus of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS). The force-curves employ a broad spectrum of push-in (load) rates, spanning two-order differences. The elastic modulus measured at low-speed compares well with the value obtained from dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) test, and the value of the elastic modulus increases as the push-in rate increases, signifying that a faster external deformation rate transitions the viscoelastic response of PDMS from that of a rubbery material toward a glassy one. PMID:18467033

  20. FRAME (Force Review Automation Environment): MATLAB-based AFM data processor.

    PubMed

    Partola, Kostyantyn R; Lykotrafitis, George

    2016-05-01

    Data processing of force-displacement curves generated by atomic force microscopes (AFMs) for elastic moduli and unbinding event measurements is very time consuming and susceptible to user error or bias. There is an evident need for consistent, dependable, and easy-to-use AFM data processing software. We have developed an open-source software application, the force review automation environment (or FRAME), that provides users with an intuitive graphical user interface, automating data processing, and tools for expediting manual processing. We did not observe a significant difference between manually processed and automatically processed results from the same data sets.

  1. FRAME (Force Review Automation Environment): MATLAB-based AFM data processor.

    PubMed

    Partola, Kostyantyn R; Lykotrafitis, George

    2016-05-01

    Data processing of force-displacement curves generated by atomic force microscopes (AFMs) for elastic moduli and unbinding event measurements is very time consuming and susceptible to user error or bias. There is an evident need for consistent, dependable, and easy-to-use AFM data processing software. We have developed an open-source software application, the force review automation environment (or FRAME), that provides users with an intuitive graphical user interface, automating data processing, and tools for expediting manual processing. We did not observe a significant difference between manually processed and automatically processed results from the same data sets. PMID:26972765

  2. Direct visualization of the trimeric structure of the ASIC1a channel, using AFM imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Carnally, Stewart M.; Dev, Harveer S.; Stewart, Andrew P.; Barrera, Nelson P.; Van Bemmelen, Miguel X.; Schild, Laurent; Henderson, Robert M.; Edwardson, J.Michael

    2008-08-08

    There has been confusion about the subunit stoichiometry of the degenerin family of ion channels. Recently, a crystal structure of acid-sensing ion channel (ASIC) 1a revealed that it assembles as a trimer. Here, we used atomic force microscopy (AFM) to image unprocessed ASIC1a bound to mica. We detected a mixture of subunit monomers, dimers and trimers. In some cases, triple-subunit clusters were clearly visible, confirming the trimeric structure of the channel, and indicating that the trimer sometimes disaggregated after adhesion to the mica surface. This AFM-based technique will now enable us to determine the subunit arrangement within heteromeric ASICs.

  3. Probing the PEDOT:PSS/cell interface with conductive colloidal probe AFM-SECM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knittel, P.; Zhang, H.; Kranz, C.; Wallace, G. G.; Higgins, M. J.

    2016-02-01

    Conductive colloidal probe Atomic Force-Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy (AFM-SECM) is a new approach, which employs electrically insulated AFM probes except for a gold-coated colloid located at the end of the cantilever. Hence, force measurements can be performed while biasing the conductive colloid under physiological conditions. Moreover, such colloids can be modified by electrochemical polymerization resulting, e.g. in conductive polymer-coated spheres, which in addition may be loaded with specific dopants. In contrast to other AFM-based single cell force spectroscopy measurements, these probes allow adhesion measurements at the cell-biomaterial interface on multiple cells in a rapid manner while the properties of the polymer can be changed by applying a bias. In addition, spatially resolved electrochemical information e.g., oxygen reduction can be obtained simultaneously. Conductive colloid AFM-SECM probes modified with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) are used for single cell force measurements in mouse fibroblasts and single cell interactions are investigated as a function of the applied potential.Conductive colloidal probe Atomic Force-Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy (AFM-SECM) is a new approach, which employs electrically insulated AFM probes except for a gold-coated colloid located at the end of the cantilever. Hence, force measurements can be performed while biasing the conductive colloid under physiological conditions. Moreover, such colloids can be modified by electrochemical polymerization resulting, e.g. in conductive polymer-coated spheres, which in addition may be loaded with specific dopants. In contrast to other AFM-based single cell force spectroscopy measurements, these probes allow adhesion measurements at the cell-biomaterial interface on multiple cells in a rapid manner while the properties of the polymer can be changed by applying a bias. In addition, spatially resolved electrochemical

  4. Resonance Frequency Analysis for Surface-Coupled AFM Cantilever in Liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Mirman, B; Kalinin, Sergei V

    2008-01-01

    Shifts in the resonance frequencies of surface-coupled atomic force microscope (AFM) probes are used as the basis for the detection mechanisms in a number of scanning probe microscopy techniques including atomic force acoustic microscopy (AFAM), force modulation microscopy, and resonance enhanced piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM). Here, we analyze resonance characteristics for AFM cantilever coupled to surface in liquid environment, and derive approximate expressions for resonant frequencies as a function of vertical and lateral spring constant of the tip-surface junction. This analysis provides a simplified framework for the interpretation of AFAM and PFM data in ambient, liquid, and vacuum environments.

  5. AFM and XPA data on structural features and properties of films and powders based on naphthalocyanines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramonova, A. G.; Nakusov, A. T.; Sozanov, V. G.; Bliev, A. P.; Magkoev, T. T.

    2015-06-01

    The template synthesis is used to produce powders and films based on naphthalocyanines and the corresponding metal complexes (Pc, CuPc, and NiPc). The atomic-force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray phase analysis (XPA) are employed in the study of structure and phase of fine powders and nanostructured films. The AFM data are used to determine the orientation and density of primary particles packed in the film. The XPA method is used to study the chemical composition and crystal structure of the synthesized samples. The regularities related to the structural features that affect the electrophysical properties of the films under study are revealed.

  6. Study on the AFM Force Spectroscopy method for elastic modulus measurement of living cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demichelis, A.; Pavarelli, S.; Mortati, L.; Sassi, G.; Sassi, M.

    2013-09-01

    The cell elasticity gives information about its pathological state and metastatic potential. The aim of this paper is to study the AFM Force Spectroscopy technique with the future goal of realizing a reference method for accurate elastic modulus measurement in the elasticity range of living cells. This biological range has not been yet explored with a metrological approach. Practical hints are given for the realization of a Sylgard elasticity scale. Systematic effects given by the sample curing thickness and nanoindenter geometry have been found with regards of the measured elastic modulus. AFM measurement reproducibility better than 20% is obtained in the entire investigated elastic modulus scale of 101 - 104 kPa.

  7. Second order phase transition temperature of single crystals of Gd5Si1.3Ge2.7 and Gd5Si1.4Ge2.6

    DOE PAGES

    Hadimani, R. L.; Melikhov, Y.; Schlagel, D. L.; Lograsso, T. A.; Dennis, K. W.; McCallum, R. W.; Jiles, D. C.

    2015-01-30

    Gd5(SixGe1–x)4 has mixed phases in the composition range 0.32 < x < 0.41, which have not been widely studied. In this paper, we have synthesized and indexed single crystal samples of Gd5Si1.3Ge2.7 and Gd5Si1.4Ge2.6. In this study, we have investigated the first order and second order phase transition temperatures of these samples using magnetic moment vs. temperature and magnetic moment vs. magnetic field at different temperatures. We have used a modified Arrott plot technique that was developed and reported by us previously to determine the “hidden” second order phase transition temperature of the orthorhombic II phase.

  8. An Evaluation of the Impacts of AF-M315E Propulsion Systems for Varied Mission Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deans, Matthew C.; Oleson, Steven R.; Fittje, James; Colozza, Anthony; Packard, Tom; Gyekenyesi, John; McLean, Christopher H.; Spores, Ronald A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the AF-M315E COMPASS study is to identify near-term (3-5 years) and long term (5 years +) opportunities for infusion, specifically the thruster and associated component technologies being developed as part of the GPIM project. Develop design reference missions which show the advantages of the AF-M315E green propulsion system. Utilize a combination of past COMPASS designs and selected new designs to demonstrate AF-M315E advantages. Use the COMPASS process to show the puts and takes of using AF-M315E at the integrated system level.

  9. Low temperature transformation from antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic order in impurity system Ge:As near the insulator-metal phase transition

    SciTech Connect

    Veinger, A. I.; Zabrodskii, A. G.; Tisnek, T. V.; Goloshchapov, S. I.; Semenikhin, P. V.; Makarova, T. L.

    2014-08-20

    The low-temperature transformation from antiparallel to parallel spin orientation in a nonmagnetic compensated system Ge:As semiconductor near the metal-insulator phase transition has been experimentally observed. This effect is manifested in the temperature dependences of the impurity magnetic susceptibility obtained by integration of the spin resonance absorption line. These dependences show that the spin density falls in the medium temperature range (10-100 K) and grows at low temperatures. The effect is confirmed by the specific temperature features of the g-factor and inverse magnetic susceptibility. As the relative content of a compensating impurity (gallium) is made lower than 0.7, the transition temperature begins to decrease and, at a degree of compensation < 0.3, falls outside the temperature range under study (i.e., below 2 K)

  10. Diamond-modified AFM probes: from diamond nanowires to atomic force microscopy-integrated boron-doped diamond electrodes.

    PubMed

    Smirnov, Waldemar; Kriele, Armin; Hoffmann, René; Sillero, Eugenio; Hees, Jakob; Williams, Oliver A; Yang, Nianjun; Kranz, Christine; Nebel, Christoph E

    2011-06-15

    In atomic force microscopy (AFM), sharp and wear-resistant tips are a critical issue. Regarding scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM), electrodes are required to be mechanically and chemically stable. Diamond is the perfect candidate for both AFM probes as well as for electrode materials if doped, due to diamond's unrivaled mechanical, chemical, and electrochemical properties. In this study, standard AFM tips were overgrown with typically 300 nm thick nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) layers and modified to obtain ultra sharp diamond nanowire-based AFM probes and probes that were used for combined AFM-SECM measurements based on integrated boron-doped conductive diamond electrodes. Analysis of the resonance properties of the diamond overgrown AFM cantilevers showed increasing resonance frequencies with increasing diamond coating thicknesses (i.e., from 160 to 260 kHz). The measured data were compared to performed simulations and show excellent correlation. A strong enhancement of the quality factor upon overgrowth was also observed (120 to 710). AFM tips with integrated diamond nanowires are shown to have apex radii as small as 5 nm and where fabricated by selectively etching diamond in a plasma etching process using self-organized metal nanomasks. These scanning tips showed superior imaging performance as compared to standard Si-tips or commercially available diamond-coated tips. The high imaging resolution and low tip wear are demonstrated using tapping and contact mode AFM measurements by imaging ultra hard substrates and DNA. Furthermore, AFM probes were coated with conductive boron-doped and insulating diamond layers to achieve bifunctional AFM-SECM probes. For this, focused ion beam (FIB) technology was used to expose the boron-doped diamond as a recessed electrode near the apex of the scanning tip. Such a modified probe was used to perform proof-of-concept AFM-SECM measurements. The results show that high-quality diamond probes can be fabricated, which are

  11. Structural, AFM, MFM and magnetic studies of LaMnO3 thin films prepared by atomic layer deposition method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimri, Mukesh Chandra; Khanduri, Himani; Vasala, Sami; Leinberg, Silver; Løhmus, Rünno; Krustok, Jüri; Karppinen, Maarit; Stern, Raivo

    2013-03-01

    Structural, microstructural and magnetic properties of the thin films of LaMnO3 (LMO) have been investigated and will be presented. Thin films were deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) method on silicon substrates. Effects of various process parameters have been studied on LMO thin films. Single phase perovskite crystal structure was confirmed from the X-ray diffraction and Raman spectra. SEM/AFM studies confirm the uniform and high quality films grown with grains in a range of 20-100 nm, depending on preparation conditions. MFM images measured at low temperature (65K), show different magnetic domains in films annealed in N2 and O2 environments. Stoichiometry, microstructure and magnetic properties of films strongly depend on annealing environments; however there was no change in their crystal structure. Curie temperature in those LMO thin films annealed in N2 and O2 atmospheres were 200 and 250K, respectively. Enhanced Curie temperature from the ideal value (~140 K) can be related to non-stoichiometry in our LMO films.

  12. AFM tip characterization by using FFT filtered images of step structures.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yongda; Xue, Bo; Hu, Zhenjiang; Zhao, Xuesen

    2016-01-01

    The measurement resolution of an atomic force microscope (AFM) is largely dependent on the radius of the tip. Meanwhile, when using AFM to study nanoscale surface properties, the value of the tip radius is needed in calculations. As such, estimation of the tip radius is important for analyzing results taken using an AFM. In this study, a geometrical model created by scanning a step structure with an AFM tip was developed. The tip was assumed to have a hemispherical cone shape. Profiles simulated by tips with different scanning radii were calculated by fast Fourier transform (FFT). By analyzing the influence of tip radius variation on the spectra of simulated profiles, it was found that low-frequency harmonics were more susceptible, and that the relationship between the tip radius and the low-frequency harmonic amplitude of the step structure varied monotonically. Based on this regularity, we developed a new method to characterize the radius of the hemispherical tip. The tip radii estimated with this approach were comparable to the results obtained using scanning electron microscope imaging and blind reconstruction methods. PMID:26517548

  13. Fracture Mechanics Testing of Titanium 6AL-4V in AF-M315E

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sampson, J. W.; Martinez, J.; McLean, C.

    2016-01-01

    The Green Propellant Infusion Mission (GPIM) will demonstrate the performance of AF-M315E monopropellant on orbit. Flight certification requires a safe-life analysis of the titanium alloy fuel tank to ensure inherent processing flaws will not cause failure during the design life of the tank. Material property inputs for this analysis require testing to determine the stress intensity factor for environment-assisted cracking (KEAC) of Ti 6Al-4V in combination with the AF-M315E monopropellant. Testing of single-edge notched, or SE(B), specimens representing the bulk tank membrane and weld material were performed in accordance with ASTM E1681. Specimens with fatigue pre-cracks were loaded into test fixtures so that the crack tips were exposed to AF-M315E at 50 C for a duration of 1,000 hours. Specimens that did not fail during exposure were opened to inspect the crack surfaces for evidence of crack growth. The threshold stress intensity value, KEAC, is the highest applied stress intensity that produced neither a failure of the specimen during the exposure nor showed evidence of crack growth. The threshold stress intensity factor for environment-assisted cracking of the Ti 6Al-4V forged tank material was found to be at least 22 ksivin and at least 31 ksivin for the weld material when exposed to AF-M315E monopropellant.

  14. Tapping and contact mode imaging of native chromosomes and extraction of genomic DNA using AFM tips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yingchun; Arakawa, Hideo; Osada, Toshiya; Ikai, Atsushi

    2002-03-01

    It is very important both in medicine and biology to clarify the chromosomal structure to understand its functions. In a standard cytogenetic procedure, chromosomes are often fixed in a mixture of acetic acid and methanol. This process most likely changes the mechanical property of chromosomes. We adopted a method to prepare native and unfixed chromosomes from mouse 3T3 cells and used tapping and contact mode atomic force microscopy (AFM) to image and manipulate them. Modified AFM tips were used to image chromosomes in contact mode in air, and then the chromosome samples were immobilized on a substrate and placed in a buffer solution to pull out DNA-histone complexes from them after they were optimally treated with trypsin. From the AFM images, we could see several bands and granular structures on chromosomes. We obtained force curves indicating long fiber extensions from native chromosomes both with low (in high concentration of NaCl) and high forces (physiological conditions). The result suggested that the degree of chromosome condensation decreased in high concentration of salt. It agrees with the known fact of histone H1 dissociation in a high concentration of salt. We intend to pull out DNA-histone complexes from chromosomes for later molecular operations on them using an AFM.

  15. Nanomechanical probing of soft matter through hydrophobic AFM tips fabricated by two-photon polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suriano, Raffaella; Zandrini, Tommaso; De Marco, Carmela; Osellame, Roberto; Turri, Stefano; Bragheri, Francesca

    2016-04-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) nanoindentation of soft materials is a powerful tool for probing mechanical properties of biomaterials. Though many results have been reported in this field over the last decade, adhesion forces between the tip and the sample hinder the elastic modulus measurement when hydrophilic soft samples are investigated. Here, two-photon polymerization (2PP) technology was used to fabricate hydrophobic perfluoropolyether-based AFM tips. The hydrophobic 2PP tips allowed us to overcome the limitations of commercial and functionalized tips as well as to successfully measure the elastic modulus of medically relevant soft materials in air. Our results obtained in the characterization of poly(dimethyl siloxane) and polyethylene glycol hydrogels showed lower adhesion forces over a larger measurement range when compared to measurements performed with commercial tips. The elastic moduli measured by means of hydrophobic 2PP AFM tips were also found to be comparable to those obtained using conventional techniques for macroscopic samples. We successfully showed that the hydrophobic AFM tips developed by this highly versatile technology enable the study of mechanical properties of soft matter, benefiting from reduced sample-tip interactions, and a custom-made shape and dimension of the tips.

  16. The structure of high-methoxyl sugar acid gels of citrus pectin as determined by AFM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Images of native high methoxyl sugar acid gels (HMSAG) were obtained by atomic force microscopy (AFM) in the Tapping ModeTM. Electronic thinning of the pectin strands to one pixel wide allowed the pectin network to be viewed in the absence of variable strand widths related to preferentially solvate...

  17. Difference in cellular mechanics of cancer and normal cervical cells as seen with the AFM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, Igor; Iyer, Swaminathan; Subba-Rao, Venkatesh; Woodworth, Craig

    2006-03-01

    Oncogenically transformed cells differ from their normal counter parts in many aspects, including organization and the amount of cytoskeleton. Consequently it is natural to expect to see the difference in cellular mechanics. Here we will present the study of such differences by using atomic force microscopy (AFM) in-vitro. So far the present research is the first study of mechanics of cervical cells, and the third comparative study of differences between mechanics of cancer and normal cells down with the help of AFM. Using a micron size silica ball as the AFM probe, we presumably do not overstress the cell surface as it can be in the case of the sharp AFM tip, and consequently, we may use the classical Hertz model. In contrast to the reported previously studies (bladder and fibroblast cells), we found that oncogenically transformed cervical cells are more rigid than the normal cells. The reason for such difference will be discussed. To demonstrate the complexity of the problem, we study cell mechanics in detail. The Young's modulus of rigidity clearly shows two separate regions of rigidity depending on the depth of the probe penetration. There may be two alternative explanations of the difference in rigidity of this top layer: it is either the cell membrane layer or detected long-range (presumably steric) forces due to the molecular ``brush'' of glycocalyx molecules. Experiments and modal calculations will be presented to choose between these two possibilities.

  18. Accurate calibration and uncertainty estimation of the normal spring constant of various AFM cantilevers.

    PubMed

    Song, Yunpeng; Wu, Sen; Xu, Linyan; Fu, Xing

    2015-03-10

    Measurement of force on a micro- or nano-Newton scale is important when exploring the mechanical properties of materials in the biophysics and nanomechanical fields. The atomic force microscope (AFM) is widely used in microforce measurement. The cantilever probe works as an AFM force sensor, and the spring constant of the cantilever is of great significance to the accuracy of the measurement results. This paper presents a normal spring constant calibration method with the combined use of an electromagnetic balance and a homemade AFM head. When the cantilever presses the balance, its deflection is detected through an optical lever integrated in the AFM head. Meanwhile, the corresponding bending force is recorded by the balance. Then the spring constant can be simply calculated using Hooke's law. During the calibration, a feedback loop is applied to control the deflection of the cantilever. Errors that may affect the stability of the cantilever could be compensated rapidly. Five types of commercial cantilevers with different shapes, stiffness, and operating modes were chosen to evaluate the performance of our system. Based on the uncertainty analysis, the expanded relative standard uncertainties of the normal spring constant of most measured cantilevers are believed to be better than 2%.

  19. High spatial resolution surface imaging and analysis of fungal cells using SEM and AFM.

    PubMed

    Kaminskyj, Susan G W; Dahms, Tanya E S

    2008-06-01

    We review the use of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and force spectroscopy (FS) for probing the ultrastructure, chemistry, physical characteristics and motion of fungal cells. When first developed, SEM was used to image fixed/dehydrated/gold coated specimens, but here we describe more recent SEM developments as they apply to fungal cells. CryoSEM offers high resolution for frozen fungal samples, whereas environmental SEM allows the analysis of robust samples (e.g. spores) under ambient conditions. Dual beam SEM, the most recently developed, adds manipulation capabilities along with element detection. AFM has similar lateral and better depth resolution compared to SEM, and can image live cells including growing fungal hyphae. FS can analyze cell wall chemistry, elasticity and dynamic cell characteristics. The integration of AFM with optical microscopy will allow examination of individual molecules or cellular structures in the context of fungal cell architecture. SEM and AFM are complementary techniques that are clarifying our understanding of fungal biology. PMID:18068995

  20. Study of Thin Oxide Films with NC-AFM: Atomically Resolved Imaging and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyde, M.; Simon, G. H.; König, T.

    Results presented in the following show structural analysis of metaloxide surfaces and the extraction of physical quantities from the force field above such a surface by noncontact atomic force microscopy (NC-AFM). The measurements have been performed with our dual mode NC-AFM/STM in ultrahigh vacuum at 5 K. The introduction will be followed by a description of the experimental setup, including the ultrahigh vacuum cryogenic environment and our tuning fork tunneling current and force sensor. The sensor parameters affecting the measurements are given together with an amplitude characterization method. In the next section, a structure determination of ultrathin Alumina/NiAl(110) is shown. Atomic resolution could be achieved throughout both reflection domain unit cells. NC-AFM reveals details of morphological features, interconnections to substrate-film interactions, and comparability to theory also with respect to topographic height. In the last section, we present measurements beyond imaging, namely spectroscopy data taken on thin MgO films grown on Ag(001). Force-distance measurements based on atomically resolved NC-AFM images of these films have been taken. Inequivalent sites could be resolved and their effect on nucleation and adsorption processes is debated. Furthermore, work function shift measurements on different MgO film thicknesses grown on Ag(001) are studied and the impact of this shift on the catalytic properties of adsorbed metal species is discussed.

  1. Afm Measrurements of Martian Soil Particles Using Mems Technology - Results from the PHOENIX Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautsch, S.; Parrat, D.; de Rooij, N. F.; Staufer, U.; Morookian, J. M.; Hecht, M. H.; Vijendran, S.; Sykulska, H.; Pike, W. T.

    2011-12-01

    Light scattering experiments conducted on Mars indicated that soil particles have dimensions around 1 μm. Particles in that range play an important role in the gas exchange between sub-surface water ice and the atmosphere. Their shape can help tracing the geological history and may indicate past presence of liquid water. NASA's Phoenix mission therefore decided to analyze soil and dust particles in the sub-micrometer to a few micrometer range using an atomic force microscope (AFM) for the first time on another planet. The co-axially mounted AFM was capable of resolving particles with 10nm lateral resolution. A MEMS approach combined with mechatronic concepts for the scanner was selected for implementing the AFM. For redundancy, the sensor chip featured eight silicon cantilevers each with a 7 to 8 μm high tip. The cantilevers could be cleaved off if contaminated. During NASA's Phoenix Mission, which operated on the red planet from May to October 2008, we could demonstrate successful AFM operations. The instrument has executed 85 experiments of which 26 were needed for calibration. Of the remaining experiments about half (28) returned images where signatures of particles could be discerned.

  2. Using AFM to probe the complexation of DNA with anionic lipids mediated by Ca(2+): the role of surface pressure.

    PubMed

    Luque-Caballero, Germán; Martín-Molina, Alberto; Sánchez-Treviño, Alda Yadira; Rodríguez-Valverde, Miguel A; Cabrerizo-Vílchez, Miguel A; Maldonado-Valderrama, Julia

    2014-04-28

    Complexation of DNA with lipids is currently being developed as an alternative to classical vectors based on viruses. Most of the research to date focuses on cationic lipids owing to their spontaneous complexation with DNA. Nonetheless, recent investigations have revealed that cationic lipids induce a large number of adverse effects on DNA delivery. Precisely, the lower cytotoxicity of anionic lipids accounts for their use as a promising alternative. However, the complexation of DNA with anionic lipids (mediated by cations) is still in early stages and is not yet well understood. In order to explore the molecular mechanisms underlying the complexation of anionic lipids and DNA we proposed a combined methodology based on the surface pressure-area isotherms, Gibbs elasticity and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). These techniques allow elucidation of the role of the surface pressure in the complexation and visualization of the interfacial aggregates for the first time. We demonstrate that the DNA complexes with negatively charged model monolayers (DPPC/DPPS 4 : 1) only in the presence of Ca(2+), but is expelled at very high surface pressures. Also, according to the Gibbs elasticity plot, the complexation of lipids and DNA implies a whole fluidisation of the monolayer and a completely different phase transition map in the presence of DNA and Ca(2+). AFM imaging allows identification for the first time of specific morphologies associated with different packing densities. At low surface coverage, a branched net like structure is observed whereas at high surface pressure fibers formed of interfacial aggregates appear. In summary, Ca(2+) mediates the interaction between DNA and negatively charged lipids and also the conformation of the ternary system depends on the surface pressure. Such observations are important new generic features of the interaction between DNA and anionic lipids. PMID:24668321

  3. AFM-based mapping of the elastic properties of cell walls: at tissue, cellular, and subcellular resolutions.

    PubMed

    Peaucelle, Alexis

    2014-01-01

    We describe a recently developed method to measure mechanical properties of the surfaces of plant tissues using atomic force microscopy (AFM) micro/nano-indentations, for a JPK AFM. Specifically, in this protocol we measure the apparent Young's modulus of cell walls at subcellular resolutions across regions of up to 100 µmx100 µm in floral meristems, hypocotyls, and roots. This requires careful preparation of the sample, the correct selection of micro-indenters and indentation depths. To account for cell wall properties only, measurements are performed in highly concentrated solutions of mannitol in order to plasmolyze the cells and thus remove the contribution of cell turgor pressure. In contrast to other extant techniques, by using different indenters and indentation depths, this method allows simultaneous multiscale measurements, i.e. at subcellular resolutions and across hundreds of cells comprising a tissue. This means that it is now possible to spatially-temporally characterize the changes that take place in the mechanical properties of cell walls during development, enabling these changes to be correlated with growth and differentiation. This represents a key step to understand how coordinated microscopic cellular changes bring about macroscopic morphogenetic events. However, several limitations remain: the method can only be used on fairly small samples (around 100 µm in diameter) and only on external tissues; the method is sensitive to tissue topography; it measures only certain aspects of the tissue's complex mechanical properties. The technique is being developed rapidly and it is likely that most of these limitations will be resolved in the near future. PMID:25080133

  4. Implications of the contact radius to line step (CRLS) ratio in AFM for nanotribology measurements.

    PubMed

    Helt, James M; Batteas, James D

    2006-07-01

    Investigating the mechanisms of defect generation and growth at surfaces on the nanometer scale typically requires high-resolution tools such as the atomic force microscope (AFM). To accurately assess the kinetics and activation parameters of defect production over a wide range of loads (F(z)), the AFM data should be properly conditioned. Generally, AFM wear trials are performed over an area defined by the length of the slow (L(sscan)) and fast scan axes. The ratio of L(sscan) to image resolution (res, lines per image) becomes an important experimental parameter in AFM wear trials because it defines the magnitude of the line step (LS = L(sscan)/res), the distance the AFM tip steps along the slow scan axis. Comparing the contact radius (a) to the line step (LS) indicates that the overlap of successive scans will result unless the contact radius-line step ratio (CRLS) is < or =(1)/(2). If this relationship is not considered, then the scan history (e.g., contact frequency) associated with a single scan is not equivalent at different loads owing to the scaling of contact radius with load (a proportional variant F(z)(1/3)). Here, we present a model in conjunction with empirical wear tests on muscovite mica to evaluate the effects of scan overlap on surface wear. Using the Hertz contact mechanics definition of a, the CRLS model shows that scan overlap pervades AFM wear trials even under low loads. Such findings indicate that simply counting the number of scans (N(scans)) in an experiment underestimates the full history conveyed to the surface by the tip and translates into an error in the actual extent to which a region on the surface is contacted. Utilizing the CRLS method described here provides an approach to account for image scan history accurately and to predict the extent of surface wear. This general model also has implications for any AFM measurement where one wishes to correlate scan-dependent history to image properties as well as feature resolution in scanned

  5. Implications of the contact radius to line step (CRLS) ratio in AFM for nanotribology measurements.

    PubMed

    Helt, James M; Batteas, James D

    2006-07-01

    Investigating the mechanisms of defect generation and growth at surfaces on the nanometer scale typically requires high-resolution tools such as the atomic force microscope (AFM). To accurately assess the kinetics and activation parameters of defect production over a wide range of loads (F(z)), the AFM data should be properly conditioned. Generally, AFM wear trials are performed over an area defined by the length of the slow (L(sscan)) and fast scan axes. The ratio of L(sscan) to image resolution (res, lines per image) becomes an important experimental parameter in AFM wear trials because it defines the magnitude of the line step (LS = L(sscan)/res), the distance the AFM tip steps along the slow scan axis. Comparing the contact radius (a) to the line step (LS) indicates that the overlap of successive scans will result unless the contact radius-line step ratio (CRLS) is < or =(1)/(2). If this relationship is not considered, then the scan history (e.g., contact frequency) associated with a single scan is not equivalent at different loads owing to the scaling of contact radius with load (a proportional variant F(z)(1/3)). Here, we present a model in conjunction with empirical wear tests on muscovite mica to evaluate the effects of scan overlap on surface wear. Using the Hertz contact mechanics definition of a, the CRLS model shows that scan overlap pervades AFM wear trials even under low loads. Such findings indicate that simply counting the number of scans (N(scans)) in an experiment underestimates the full history conveyed to the surface by the tip and translates into an error in the actual extent to which a region on the surface is contacted. Utilizing the CRLS method described here provides an approach to account for image scan history accurately and to predict the extent of surface wear. This general model also has implications for any AFM measurement where one wishes to correlate scan-dependent history to image properties as well as feature resolution in scanned

  6. AFM Studies of Lunar Soils and Application to the Mars 2001 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weitz, C. M.; Anderson, M. S.; Marshall, J.

    1999-01-01

    The upcoming Mars 01 mission will carry an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) as part of the Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment (MECA) instrument. By operating in a tapping mode, the AFM is capable of sub-nanometer resolution in three dimensions and can distinguish between substances of different compositions by employing phase contrast imaging. To prepare for the Mars 01 mission, we are testing the AFM on a lunar soil to determine its ability to define particle shapes and sizes and grain-surface textures. The test materials are from the Apollo 17 soil 79221, which is a mixture of agglutinates, impact and volcanic beads, and mare and highland rock and mineral fragments. The majority of the lunar soil particles are less than 100 microns in size, comparable to the sizes estimated for martian dust. We have used the AFM to examine several different soil particles at various resolutions. The instrument has demonstrated the ability to identify parallel ridges characteristic of twinning on a 150 micron plagioclase feldspar particle. Extremely small (10-100 nanometer) adhering particles are visible on the surface of the feldspar grain, and they appear elongate with smooth surfaces. Phase contrast imaging of the nanometer particles shows several compositions to be present. When the AFM was applied to a 100 micron glass spherule, it was possible to define an extremely smooth surface; this is in clear contrast to results from a basalt fragment which exhibited a rough surface texture. Also visible on the surface of the glass spherule were chains of 100 nanometer and smaller impact melt droplets. For the '01 Mars mission, the AFM is intended to define the size and shape distributions of soil particles, in combination with the NMCA optical microscope system and images from the Robot Arm Camera (RAC). These three data sets will provide a means of assessing potentially hazardous soil and dust properties. The study that we have conducted on the lunar soils now suggests that the

  7. Structural impact of cations on lipid bilayer models: nanomechanical properties by AFM-force spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Redondo-Morata, Lorena; Giannotti, Marina I; Sanz, Fausto

    2014-02-01

    Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) has become an invaluable tool for studying the micro- and nanoworlds. As a stand-alone, high-resolution imaging technique and force transducer, it defies most other surface instrumentation in ease of use, sensitivity and versatility. The main strength of AFM relies on the possibility to operate in an aqueous environment on a wide variety of biological samples, from single molecules - DNA or proteins - to macromolecular assemblies like biological membranes. Understanding the effect of mechanical stress on membranes is of primary importance in biophysics, since cells are known to perform their function under a complex combination of forces. In the later years, AFM-based Force-Spectroscopy (AFM-FS) has provided a new vista on membrane mechanics in a confined area within the nanometer realm, where most of the specific molecular interactions take place. Lipid membranes are electrostatically charged entities that physiologically coexist with electrolyte solutions. Thus, specific interactions with ions are a matter of considerable interest. The distribution of ions in the solution and their interaction with the membranes are factors that substantially modify the structure and dynamics of the cell membranes. Furthermore, signaling processes are modified by the membrane capability of retaining ions. Supported Lipid Bilayers (SLBs) are a versatile tool to investigate phospholipid membranes mimicking biological surfaces. In the present contribution, we review selected experiments on the mechanical stability of SLBs as models of lipid membranes by means of AFM-FS, with special focus on the effect of cations and ionic strength in the overall nanomechanical stability. PMID:24341385

  8. Local suppression of the hidden-order phase by impurities in URu2Si2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezzoli, Maria E.; Graf, Matthias J.; Haule, Kristjan; Kotliar, Gabriel; Balatsky, Alexander V.

    2011-06-01

    We consider the effects of impurities on the enigmatic hidden order (HO) state of the heavy-fermion material URu2Si2. In particular, we focus on local effects of Rh impurities as a tool to probe the suppression of the HO state. To study local properties, we introduce a lattice free energy, where the time invariant HO order parameter Ψ and local antiferromagnetic (AFM) order parameter M are competing orders. Near each Rh atom, the HO order parameter is suppressed, creating a hole in which local AFM order emerges as a result of competition. These local holes are created in the fabric of the HO state like in a Swiss cheese and “filled” with droplets of AFM order. We compare our analysis with recent NMR results on U(RhxRu1-x)2Si2 and find good agreement with the data.

  9. Versatile method for AFM-tip functionalization with biomolecules: fishing a ligand by means of an in situ click reaction.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rakesh; Ramakrishna, Shivaprakash N; Naik, Vikrant V; Chu, Zonglin; Drew, Michael E; Spencer, Nicholas D; Yamakoshi, Yoko

    2015-04-21

    A facile and universal method for the functionalization of an AFM tip has been developed for chemical force spectroscopy (CFS) studies of intermolecular interactions of biomolecules. A click reaction between tripod-acetylene and an azide-linker-ligand molecule was successfully carried out on the AFM tip surface and used for the CFS study of ligand-receptor interactions.

  10. High-Pressure Single-Crystal Neutron Scattering Study of Magnetic and Fe Vacancy Orders in (Tl,Rb)2 Fe4 Se5 Superconductor

    DOE PAGES

    Ye, Feng; Bao, Wei; Chi, Song-Xue; Santos, Antonio M. dos; Molaison, Jamie J.; Fang, Ming-Hu; Wang, Hang-Dong; Mao, Qian-Hui; Wang, Jin-Chen; Liu, Juan-Juan; et al

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the magnetic and iron vacancy orders in superconducting (Tl,Rb)2Fe4Se5 single-crystals by using a high-pressure neutron diffraction technique. Similar to the temperature effect, the block antiferromagnetic order gradually decreases upon increasing pressure while the Fe vacancy superstructural order remains intact before its precipitous disappearance at the critical pressure Pc = 8.3 GPa. Combined with previously determined Pc for superconductivity, our phase diagram under pressure reveals the concurrence of the block AFM order, the √5 × √5 iron vacancy order and superconductivity for the 245 superconductor. Lastly, a synthesis of current experimental data in a coherent physical picture is attempted.

  11. Finite-temperature second-order many-body perturbation and Hartree–Fock theories for one-dimensional solids: An application to Peierls and charge-density-wave transitions in conjugated polymers

    SciTech Connect

    He, Xiao; Ryu, Shinsei; Hirata, So

    2014-01-14

    Finite-temperature extensions of ab initio Gaussian-basis-set spin-restricted Hartree–Fock (HF) and second-order many-body perturbation (MP2) theories are implemented for infinitely extended, periodic, one-dimensional solids and applied to the Peierls and charge-density-wave (CDW) transitions in polyyne and all-trans polyacetylene. The HF theory predicts insulating CDW ground states for both systems in their equidistant structures at low temperatures. In the same structures, they turn metallic at high temperatures. Starting from the “dimerized” low-temperature equilibrium structures, the systems need even higher temperatures to undergo a Peierls transition, which is accompanied by geometric as well as electronic distortions from dimerized to non-dimerized forms. The conventional finite-temperature MP2 theory shows a sign of divergence in any phase at any nonzero temperature and is useless. The renormalized finite-temperature MP2 (MP2R) theory is divergent only near metallic electronic structures, but is well behaved elsewhere. MP2R also predicts CDW and Peierls transitions occurring at two different temperatures. The effect of electron correlation is primarily to lower the Peierls transition temperature.

  12. Finite-temperature second-order many-body perturbation and Hartree-Fock theories for one-dimensional solids: an application to Peierls and charge-density-wave transitions in conjugated polymers.

    PubMed

    He, Xiao; Ryu, Shinsei; Hirata, So

    2014-01-14

    Finite-temperature extensions of ab initio Gaussian-basis-set spin-restricted Hartree-Fock (HF) and second-order many-body perturbation (MP2) theories are implemented for infinitely extended, periodic, one-dimensional solids and applied to the Peierls and charge-density-wave (CDW) transitions in polyyne and all-trans polyacetylene. The HF theory predicts insulating CDW ground states for both systems in their equidistant structures at low temperatures. In the same structures, they turn metallic at high temperatures. Starting from the "dimerized" low-temperature equilibrium structures, the systems need even higher temperatures to undergo a Peierls transition, which is accompanied by geometric as well as electronic distortions from dimerized to non-dimerized forms. The conventional finite-temperature MP2 theory shows a sign of divergence in any phase at any nonzero temperature and is useless. The renormalized finite-temperature MP2 (MP2R) theory is divergent only near metallic electronic structures, but is well behaved elsewhere. MP2R also predicts CDW and Peierls transitions occurring at two different temperatures. The effect of electron correlation is primarily to lower the Peierls transition temperature.

  13. High throughput nanofabrication of silicon nanowire and carbon nanotube tips on AFM probes by stencil-deposited catalysts.

    PubMed

    Engstrom, Daniel S; Savu, Veronica; Zhu, Xueni; Bu, Ian Y Y; Milne, William I; Brugger, Juergen; Boggild, Peter

    2011-04-13

    A new and versatile technique for the wafer scale nanofabrication of silicon nanowire (SiNW) and multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT) tips on atomic force microscope (AFM) probes is presented. Catalyst material for the SiNW and MWNT growth was deposited on prefabricated AFM probes using aligned wafer scale nanostencil lithography. Individual vertical SiNWs were grown epitaxially by a catalytic vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) process and MWNTs were grown by a plasma-enhanced chemical vapor (PECVD) process on the AFM probes. The AFM probes were tested for imaging micrometers-deep trenches, where they demonstrated a significantly better performance than commercial high aspect ratio tips. Our method demonstrates a reliable and cost-efficient route toward wafer scale manufacturing of SiNW and MWNT AFM probes. PMID:21446752

  14. Characterization of single 1.8-nm Au nanoparticle attachments on AFM tips for single sub-4-nm object pickup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Hui-Wen; Chang, Yuan-Chih; Tang, Song-Nien; Yuan, Chi-Tsu; Tang, Jau; Tseng, Fan-Gang

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents a novel method for the attachment of a 1.8-nm Au nanoparticle (Au-NP) to the tip of an atomic force microscopy (AFM) probe through the application of a current-limited bias voltage. The resulting probe is capable of picking up individual objects at the sub-4-nm scale. We also discuss the mechanisms involved in the attachment of the Au-NP to the very apex of an AFM probe tip. The Au-NP-modified AFM tips were used to pick up individual 4-nm quantum dots (QDs) using a chemically functionalized method. Single QD blinking was reduced considerably on the Au-NP-modified AFM tip. The resulting AFM tips present an excellent platform for the manipulation of single protein molecules in the study of single protein-protein interactions.

  15. Low temperature and magnetic field behaviour of the (Cr{sub 84}Re{sub 16}){sub 89.6}V{sub 10.4} alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, B. S. Sheppard, C. J.; Prinsloo, A. R. E.; Lodya, L.

    2014-05-07

    Measurements of the temperature (T) dependence of the magnetic susceptibility (χ) and electrical resistance (R) on an antiferromagnetic (AFM) (Cr{sub 84}Re{sub 16}){sub 89.6}V{sub 10.4} alloy are reported in order to probe the existence of quantum critical behaviour (QCB) utilizing static magnetic fields (H) as a tuning parameter. The results indicate that an increase in H suppresses T{sub N} in such a way that it varies exponentially with increasing H. R(T) measurements show evidence of possible superconducting (SC) behaviour below 1 K at H = 0 T. These results therefore indicate the coexistence of the AFM and SC phases in the (Cr{sub 84}Re{sub 16}){sub 89.6}V{sub 10.4} alloy.

  16. AFM combines functional and morphological analysis of peripheral myelinated and demyelinated nerve fibers.

    PubMed

    Heredia, Alejandro; Bui, Chin Chu; Suter, Ueli; Young, Peter; Schäffer, Tilman E

    2007-10-01

    Demyelination of the myelinated peripheral or central axon is a common pathophysiological step in the clinical manifestation of several human diseases of the peripheral and the central nervous system such as the majority of Charcot-Marie-Tooth syndromes and multiple sclerosis, respectively. The structural degradation of the axon insulating myelin sheath has profound consequences for ionic conduction and nerve function in general, but also affects the micromechanical properties of the nerve fiber. We have for the first time investigated mechanical properties of rehydrated, isolated peripheral nerve fibers from mouse using atomic force microscopy (AFM). We have generated quantitative maps of elastic modulus along myelinated and demyelinated axons, together with quantitative maps of axon topography. This study shows that AFM can combine functional and morphological analysis of neurological tissue at the level of single nerve fibers.

  17. SEM and AFM images of pyrite surfaces after bioleaching by the indigenous Thiobacillus thiooxidans.

    PubMed

    Liu, H-L; Chen, B-Y; Lan, Y-W; Cheng, Y-C

    2003-09-01

    The bioleaching mechanism of pyrite by the indigenous Thiobacillus thiooxidans was examined with the aid of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) images of the pyrite surface. The presence of pyrite eliminated the lag phase during growth of this microorganism. This was due to the stimulatory effect on cell growth of the slight amount of Cu2+ that had leached from the pyrite. Zn2+ was found to be much more readily solubilized than Cu2+. The efficiency of bioleaching was four times higher than that of chemical leaching. SEM images provided evidence of direct cell attachment onto the pyrite surface, thereby enhancing the bioleaching rate. Furthermore, extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) were found on the pyrite surface after 4 days of oxidation. AFM images showed that the pyrite surface area positively correlated with the oxidation rate. A combination of direct and indirect mechanism is probably responsible for the oxidation of pyrite by T. thiooxidans.

  18. Accurate and precise calibration of AFM cantilever spring constants using laser Doppler vibrometry.

    PubMed

    Gates, Richard S; Pratt, Jon R

    2012-09-21

    Accurate cantilever spring constants are important in atomic force microscopy both in control of sensitive imaging and to provide correct nanomechanical property measurements. Conventional atomic force microscope (AFM) spring constant calibration techniques are usually performed in an AFM. They rely on significant handling and often require touching the cantilever probe tip to a surface to calibrate the optical lever sensitivity of the configuration. This can damage the tip. The thermal calibration technique developed for laser Doppler vibrometry (LDV) can be used to calibrate cantilevers without handling or touching the tip to a surface. Both flexural and torsional spring constants can be measured. Using both Euler-Bernoulli modeling and an SI traceable electrostatic force balance technique as a comparison we demonstrate that the LDV thermal technique is capable of providing rapid calibrations with a combination of ease, accuracy and precision beyond anything previously available.

  19. Surface electrical properties of stainless steel fibres: An AFM-based study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Jun; D'Haese, Cécile; Nysten, Bernard

    2015-03-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) electrical modes were used to study the surface electrical properties of stainless steel fibres. The surface electrical conductivity was studied by current sensing AFM and I-V spectroscopy. Kelvin probe force microscopy was used to measure the surface contact potential. The oxide film, known as passivation layer, covering the fibre surface gives rise to the observation of an apparently semiconducting behaviour. The passivation layer generally exhibits a p-type semiconducting behaviour, which is attributed to the predominant formation of chromium oxide on the surface of the stainless steel fibres. At the nanoscale, different behaviours are observed from points to points, which may be attributed to local variations of the chemical composition and/or thickness of the passivation layer. I-V curves are well fitted with an electron tunnelling model, indicating that electron tunnelling may be the predominant mechanism for electron transport.

  20. Determination of work of adhesion of biological cell under AFM bead indentation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xinyao; Siamantouras, E; Liu, K K; Liu, X

    2016-03-01

    Hertz contact theory has been widely used for the determination of cell elasticity based on AFM indentation experiments. In light of the adhesive contact between AFM tip and cell, this study applied Johnson-Kendall-Roberts (JKR) model to fit the indentation force-displacement (F-D) curves reported previously. A MIN6 cell has been modeled as first a sphere and then a flattened cell with different thicknesses. The results have shown that both basic JKR model and "generalized" JKR model can best describe the unloading force-displacement behaviors of the indentation curves. The Young׳s modulus of the cell and the work of adhesion of the cell-indenter interface are obtained. In comparison to the Hertzian contact model, the JKR model provides obviously better fitting to the experimental results, indicating that the adhesion is significant in the cell interaction. PMID:26688423

  1. AFM imaging reveals the tetrameric structure of the TRPM8 channel

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, Andrew P.; Egressy, Kinga; Lim, Annabel; Edwardson, J. Michael

    2010-04-02

    Several members of the transient receptor potential (TRP) channel superfamily have been shown to assemble as tetramers. Here we have determined the subunit stoichiometry of the transient receptor potential M8 (TRPM8) channel using atomic force microscopy (AFM). TRPM8 channels were isolated from transfected cells, and complexes were formed between the channels and antibodies against a V5 epitope tag present on each subunit. The complexes were then subjected to AFM imaging. A frequency distribution of the molecular volumes of antibody decorated channels had a peak at 1305 nm{sup 3}, close to the expected size of a TRPM8 tetramer. The frequency distribution of angles between pairs of bound antibodies had two peaks, at 93{sup o} and 172{sup o}, confirming that the channel assembles as a tetramer. We suggest that this assembly pattern is common to all members of the TRP channel superfamily.

  2. BOREAS AFM-5 Level-2 Upper Air Network Standard Pressure Level Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barr, Alan; Hrynkiw, Charmaine; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Newcomer, Jeffrey A. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS AFM-5 team collected and processed data from the numerous radiosonde flights during the project. The goals of the AFM-05 team were to provide large-scale definition of the atmosphere by supplementing the existing AES aerological network, both temporally and spatially. This data set includes basic upper-air parameters interpolated at 0.5 kiloPascal increments of atmospheric pressure from data collected from the network of upper-air stations during the 1993, 1994, and 1996 field campaigns over the entire study region. The data are contained in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884) or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  3. Mode coupling in a hanging-fiber AFM used as a rheological probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devailly, C.; Laurent, J.; Steinberger, A.; Bellon, L.; Ciliberto, S.

    2014-06-01

    We analyze the advantages and drawbacks of a method which measures the viscosity of liquids at microscales, using a thin glass fiber fixed on the tip of a cantilever of an ultra-low-noise Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). When the fiber is dipped into a liquid, the dissipation of the cantilever-fiber system, which is linked to the liquid viscosity, can be computed from the power spectral density of the thermal fluctuations of the cantilever deflection. The high sensitivity of the AFM allows us to show the existence and to develop a model of the coupling between the dynamics of the fiber and that of the cantilever. This model, which accurately fits the experimental data, gives also more insights into the dynamics of coupled microdevices in a viscous environment.

  4. AFM characterization of nanobubble formation and slip condition in oxygenated and electrokinetically altered fluids.

    PubMed

    Bhushan, Bharat; Pan, Yunlu; Daniels, Stephanie

    2013-02-15

    Nanobubbles are gas-filled features that spontaneously form at the interface of hydrophobic surfaces and aqueous solutions. In this study, an atomic force microscope (AFM) was used to characterize the morphology of nanobubbles formed on hydrophobic polystyrene (PS) and octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) films immersed in DI water, saline, saline with oxygen and an electrokinetically altered saline solution produced with Taylor-Couette-Poiseuille flow under elevated oxygen pressure. AFM force spectroscopy was used to evaluate hydrodynamic and electrostatic forces and boundary slip condition in various fluids. The effect of solution, electric field and surface charge on shape, size and density of nanobubbles as well as slip length was quantified and the results and underlying mechanisms are presented in this paper.

  5. Characterization of the polycaprolactone melt crystallization: complementary optical microscopy, DSC, and AFM studies.

    PubMed

    Speranza, V; Sorrentino, A; De Santis, F; Pantani, R

    2014-01-01

    The first stages of the crystallization of polycaprolactone (PCL) were studied using several techniques. The crystallization exotherms measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were analyzed and compared with results obtained by polarized optical microscopy (POM), rheology, and atomic force microscope (AFM). The experimental results suggest a strong influence of the observation scale. In particular, the AFM, even if limited on time scale, appears to be the most sensitive technique to detect the first stages of crystallization. On the contrary, at least in the case analysed in this work, rheology appears to be the least sensitive technique. DSC and POM provide closer results. This suggests that the definition of induction time in the polymer crystallization is a vague concept that, in any case, requires the definition of the technique used for its characterization.

  6. Force-controlled manipulation of single cells: from AFM to FluidFM.

    PubMed

    Guillaume-Gentil, Orane; Potthoff, Eva; Ossola, Dario; Franz, Clemens M; Zambelli, Tomaso; Vorholt, Julia A

    2014-07-01

    The ability to perturb individual cells and to obtain information at the single-cell level is of central importance for addressing numerous biological questions. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) offers great potential for this prospering field. Traditionally used as an imaging tool, more recent developments have extended the variety of cell-manipulation protocols. Fluidic force microscopy (FluidFM) combines AFM with microfluidics via microchanneled cantilevers with nano-sized apertures. The crucial element of the technology is the connection of the hollow cantilevers to a pressure controller, allowing their operation in liquid as force-controlled nanopipettes under optical control. Proof-of-concept studies demonstrated a broad spectrum of single-cell applications including isolation, deposition, adhesion and injection in a range of biological systems. PMID:24856959

  7. High precision attachment of silver nanoparticles on AFM tips by dielectrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Leiterer, Christian; Wünsche, Erik; Singh, Prabha; Albert, Jens; Köhler, Johann M; Deckert, Volker; Fritzsche, Wolfgang

    2016-05-01

    AFM tips are modified with silver nanoparticles using an AC electrical field. The used technique works with sub-micron precision and also does not require chemical modification of the tip. Based on the electrical parameters applied in the process, particle density and particle position on the apex of the tip can be adjusted. The feasibility of the method is proven by subsequent tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS) measurements using the fabricated tips as a measurement probe. Since this modification process itself does not require any lithographic processing, the technique can be easily adapted to modify AFM tips with a variety of nanostructures with pre-defined properties, while being parallelizable for a potential commercial application.

  8. Carbon nanotube/carbon nanotube composite AFM probes prepared using ion flux molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chesmore, Grace; Roque, Carrollyn; Barber, Richard

    The performance of carbon nanotube-carbon nanotube composite (CNT/CNT composite) atomic force microscopy (AFM) probes is compared to that of conventional Si probes in AFM tapping mode. The ion flux molding (IFM) process, aiming an ion beam at the CNT probe, aligns the tip to a desired angle. The result is a relatively rigid tip that is oriented to offset the cantilever angle. Scans using these probes reveal an improvement in image accuracy over conventional tips, while allowing higher aspect ratio imaging of 3D surface features. Furthermore, the lifetimes of CNT-CNT composite tips are observed to be longer than both conventional tips and those claimed for other CNT technologies. Novel applications include the imaging of embiid silk. Supported by the Clare Boothe Luce Research Scholars Award and Carbon Design Innovations.

  9. Development of a novel nanoindentation technique by utilizing a dual-probe AFM system

    PubMed Central

    Sahin, Ferat; Yablon, Dalia

    2015-01-01

    Summary A novel instrumentation approach to nanoindentation is described that exhibits improved resolution and depth sensing. The approach is based on a multi-probe scanning probe microscopy (SPM) tool that utilizes tuning-fork based probes for both indentation and depth sensing. Unlike nanoindentation experiments performed with conventional AFM systems using beam-bounce technology, this technique incorporates a second probe system with an ultra-high resolution for depth sensing. The additional second probe measures only the vertical movement of the straight indenter attached to a tuning-fork probe with a high spring constant and it can also be used for AFM scanning to obtain an accurate profiling. Nanoindentation results are demonstrated on silicon, fused silica, and Corning Eagle Glass. The results show that this new approach is viable in terms of accurately characterizing mechanical properties of materials through nanoindentation with high accuracy, and it opens doors to many other exciting applications in the field of nanomechanical characterization. PMID:26665072

  10. Characterization and Optimization of Quartz Tuning Fork-Based Force Sensors for Combined STM/AFM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellanos-Gomez, Andres; Agraït, Nicolás; Rubio-Bollinger, Gabino

    This chapter will be divided in two main parts. In the first one, we will show a detailed analysis of the dynamics of quartz tuning fork resonators which are being increasingly used in scanning probe microscopy as force sensors. We will also show that a coupled harmonic oscillators model, which includes a finite coupling between the prongs, is in remarkable agreement with the observed motion of the tuning forks. Relevant parameters for the tuning fork performance such as the effective spring constant can be obtained from our analysis. In the second one, we will present an implementation of a quartz tuning fork supplemented with optimized tips based on carbon fibers. The remarkable electrical and mechanical properties of carbon fiber make these tips more suitable for combined and/or simultaneous STM and AFM than conventional metallic tips. The fabrication and the characterization of these carbon fiber tips as well as their performance in STM/AFM will be detailed.

  11. In vitro study of AFB1 and AFM1 effects on human lymphoblastoid Jurkat T-cell model.

    PubMed

    Luongo, D; Russo, R; Balestrieri, A; Marzocco, S; Bergamo, P; Severino, L

    2014-10-01

    Aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) is a mycotoxin produced by Aspergillus spp. that can occur as a natural contaminant in foods and feeds of vegetable origin. Post-ingestion, AFB(1) can be metabolized in the liver of mammals into hydroxylated aflatoxin M(1) (AFM(1)) that is excreted with milk. Although several studies have been carried out to evaluate effects of AFB(1) on the immune system, studies regarding AFM(1) are moreover lacking. The aim of the current study was to investigate effects of AFB(1) and AFM(1) on immune function using a lymphoblastoid Jurkat T-cell line as an experimental model. Both AFB(1) and AFM(1) produced significant decreases in Jurkat cell proliferation, whereas only minor effects were noted on interleukin (IL)-2 and interferon (IFN)-γ cytokines mRNA expression in stimulated cells that had been pre-incubated with AFB(1) and AFM(1). Particularly, AFB(1), but not AFM(1), at the highest concentration (50 µM) induced a marked increase in IL-8 mRNA expression. The results of the current study suggested the existence of a concentration threshold for AFB(1) and AFM(1) needed to exert biological activity on cell viability and innate immunity.

  12. Aflatoxin M1 Concentration in Various Dairy Products: Evidence for Biologically Reduced Amount of AFM1 in Yoghurt

    PubMed Central

    RAHIMIRAD, Amir; MAALEKINEJAD, Hassan; OSTADI, Araz; YEGANEH, Samal; FAHIMI, Samira

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1), a carcinogenic substance is found in milk and dairy products. The effect of season and type of dairy products on AFMi level in northern Iran was investigated in this study. Methods Three hundred samples (each season 75 samples) including raw and pasteurized milk, yoghurt, cheese, and cream samples were collected from three distinct milk producing farms. The samples were subjected to chemical and solid phase extractions and were analyzed by using HPLC technique. Recovery percentages, limit of detection and limit of quantification values were determined. Results Seventy percent and 98% were the minimum and maximum recoveries for cheese and raw milk, respectively and 0.021 and 0.063 ppb were the limit of detection and limit of quantification values for AFM1. We found that in autumn and winter the highest level (0.121 ppb) of AFM1 in cheese and cream samples and failed to detect any AFM1 in spring samples. Interestingly, our data showed that the yoghurt samples had the lowest level of AFM1 in all seasons. Conclusion There are significant differences between the AFM1 levels in dairy products in various seasons and also various types of products, suggesting spring and summer yoghurt samples as the safest products from AFM1 level point of view. PMID:25927044

  13. Liquid solution delivery through the pulled nanopipette combined with QTF-AFM system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Sangmin; Stambaugh, Corey; Kim, Gunn; Lee, Manhee; Kim, Yonghee; Lee, Kunyoung; Jhe, Wonho

    2012-02-01

    Nanopipette is a versatile fluidic tool for biochemical analysis, controlled liquid delivery in bio-nanotechnology. However, most of the researches have been performed in solution based system, thus it is challenge to study nanofluidic properties of the liquid solution delivery through the nanopipette in ambient conditions. In this work, we demonstrated the liquid ejection, dispersion, and subsequent deposition of the nanoparticles via a 30 nm aperture pipette based on the quartz tuning fork -- atomic force microscope (QTF-AFM) combined nanopipette system.

  14. Morphological analysis of stainless steel scale like surface morphology using STM and AFM

    SciTech Connect

    Vignal, V.; Olive, J.M.; Desjardins, D.; Roux, J.C.; Genton, V.

    1997-12-19

    A combined atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) investigation of stainless steel like surface morphology formed either in electropolishing bath or in HNO{sub 3} medium is reported. A new numerical technique using the Nanoscope III software is proposed. The dimension, slope and orientation of scales can be easily determined. Moreover, grain boundaries structure and probable oxides present in the upper part of the film can be deduced.

  15. The NTA-His6 bond is strong enough for AFM single-molecular recognition studies.

    PubMed

    Verbelen, Claire; Gruber, Hermann J; Dufrêne, Yves F

    2007-01-01

    There is a need in current atomic force microscopy (AFM) molecular recognition studies for generic methods for the stable, functional attachment of proteins on tips and solid supports. In the last few years, the site-directed nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA)-polyhistidine (Hisn) system has been increasingly used towards this goal. Yet, a crucial question in this context is whether the NTA-Hisn bond is sufficiently strong for ensuring stable protein immobilization during force spectroscopy measurements. Here, we measured the forces between AFM tips modified with NTA-terminated alkanethiols and solid supports functionalized with His6-Gly-Cys peptides in the presence of Ni2+. The force histogram obtained at a loading rate of 6600 pN s(-1) showed three maxima at rupture forces of 153 +/- 57 pN, 316 +/- 50 pN and 468 +/- 44 pN, that we attribute primarily to monovalent and multivalent interactions between a single His6 moiety and one, two and three NTA groups, respectively. The measured forces are well above the 50-100 pN unbinding forces typically observed by AFM for receptor-ligand pairs. The plot of adhesion force versus log (loading rate) revealed a linear regime, from which we deduced a kinetic off-rate constant of dissociation, k(off) approximately 0.07 s(-1). This value is in the range of that estimated for the multivalent interaction involving two NTA, using fluorescence measurements, and may account for an increased binding stability of the NTA-His6 bond. We conclude that the NTA-His6 system is a powerful, well-suited platform for the stable, oriented immobilization of proteins in AFM single-molecule studies. PMID:17712775

  16. Study of mechanical behavior of AFM silicon tips under mechanical load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopycinska-Mueller, M.; Gluch, J.; Köhler, B.

    2016-11-01

    In this paper we address critical issues concerning calibration of AFM based methods used for nanoscale mechanical characterization of materials. It has been shown that calibration approaches based on macroscopic models for contact mechanics may yield excellent results in terms of the indentation modulus of the sample, but fail to provide a comprehensive and actual information concerning the tip–sample contact radius or the mechanical properties of the tip. Explanations for the severely reduced indentation modulus of the tip included the inadequacies of the models used for calculations of the tip–sample contact stiffness, discrepancies in the actual and ideal shape of the tip, presence of the amorphous silicon phase within the silicon tip, as well as negligence of the actual size of the stress field created in the tip during elastic interactions. To clarify these issues, we investigated the influence of the mechanical load applied to four AFM silicon tips on their crystalline state by exposing them to systematically increasing loads, evaluating the character of the tip–sample interactions via the load-unload stiffness curves, and assessing the state of the tips from HR-TEM images. The results presented in this paper were obtained in a series of relatively simple and basic atomic force acoustic microscopy (AFAM) experiments. The novel combination of TEM imaging of the AFM tips with the analysis of the load-unload stiffness curves gave us a detailed insight into their mechanical behavior under load conditions. We were able to identify the limits for the elastic interactions, as well as the hallmarks for phase transformation and dislocation formation and movement. The comparison of the physical dimensions of the AFM tips, geometry parameters determined from the values of the contact stiffness, and the information on the crystalline state of the tips allowed us a better understanding of the nanoscale contact.

  17. Crystallization of Probucol in Nanoparticles Revealed by AFM Analysis in Aqueous Solution.

    PubMed

    Egami, Kiichi; Higashi, Kenjirou; Yamamoto, Keiji; Moribe, Kunikazu

    2015-08-01

    The crystallization behavior of a pharmaceutical drug in nanoparticles was directly evaluated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) force curve measurements in aqueous solution. A ternary spray-dried sample (SPD) was prepared by spray drying the organic solvent containing probucol (PBC), hypromellose (HPMC), and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The amorphization of PBC in the ternary SPD was confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and solid-state 13C NMR measurements. A nanosuspension containing quite small particles of 25 nm in size was successfully prepared immediately after dispersion of the ternary SPD into water. Furthermore, solution-state 1H NMR measurements revealed that a portion of HPMC coexisted with PBC as a mixed state in the freshly prepared nanosuspension particles. After storing the nanosuspension at 25 °C, a gradual increase in the size of the nanoparticles was observed, and the particle size changed to 93.9 nm after 7 days. AFM enabled the direct observation of the morphology and agglomeration behavior of the nanoparticles in water. Moreover, AFM force-distance curves were changed from (I) to (IV), depending on the storage period, as follows: (I) complete indentation within an applied force of 1 nN, (II) complete indentation with an applied force of 1-5 nN, (III) partial indentation with an applied force of 5 nN, and (IV) nearly no indentation with an applied force of 5 nN. This stiffness increase of the nanoparticles was attributed to gradual changes in the molecular state of PBC from the amorphous to the crystal state. Solid-state 13C NMR measurements of the freeze-dried samples demonstrated the presence of metastable PBC Form II crystals in the stored nanosuspension, strongly supporting the AFM results.

  18. Fracture Growth Testing of Titanium 6AL-4V in AF-M315E

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sampson, Jeffrey W.; Martinez, Jonathan; McLean, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The Green Propellant Infusion Mission (GPIM) will demonstrate the performance of AF-M315E monopropellant in orbit. Flight certification requires a safe-life analysis of the titanium alloy fuel tank to ensure inherent flaws will not cause failure during the design life. Material property inputs for this analysis require testing to determine the stress intensity factor for environmentally-assisted cracking (K (sub EAC)) of Ti 6Al-4V in combination with the AF-M315E monopropellant. Testing of single-edge notched specimens SE(B) representing the bulk tank membrane and weld material were performed in accordance with ASTM E1681. Specimens with fatigue pre-cracks were loaded into test fixtures so that the crack tips were exposed to the monopropellant at 50 degrees Centigrade for a duration of 1,000 hours. Specimens that did not fail during exposure were opened to inspect the crack surfaces for evidence of crack growth. The threshold stress intensity value, KEAC, is the highest applied stress intensity that produced neither a failure of the specimen during the exposure nor showed evidence of crack growth. The threshold stress intensity factor of the Ti 6Al-4V forged tank material when exposed to AF-M315E monopropellant was found to be at least 22.0 kilopounds per square inch. The stress intensity factor of the weld material was at least 31.3 kilopounds per square inch.

  19. Analysis of time-resolved interaction force mode AFM imaging using active and passive probes.

    PubMed

    Giray Oral, Hasan; Parlak, Zehra; Levent Degertekin, F

    2012-09-01

    We present an in-depth analysis of time-resolved interaction force (TRIF) mode imaging for atomic force microscopy (AFM). A nonlinear model of an active AFM probe, performing simultaneous topography and material property imaging on samples with varying elasticity and adhesion is implemented in Simulink®. The model is capable of simulating various imaging modes, probe structures, sample material properties, tip-sample interaction force models, and actuation and feedback schemes. For passive AFM cantilevers, the model is verified by comparing results from the literature. As an example of an active probe, the force sensing integrated readout and active tip (FIRAT) probe is used. Simulation results indicate that the active and damped nature of FIRAT provides a significant level of control over the force applied to the sample, minimizing sample indentation and topography error. Active tip control (ATC) preserves constant contact time during force control for stable contact while preventing the loss of material property information such as elasticity and adhesive force. Simulation results are verified by TRIF mode imaging of the samples with both soft and stiff regions. PMID:22813887

  20. Rational fabrication of a gold-coated AFM TERS tip by pulsed electrodeposition.

    PubMed

    Yang, Li-Kun; Huang, Teng-Xiang; Zeng, Zhi-Cong; Li, Mao-Hua; Wang, Xiang; Yang, Fang-Zu; Ren, Bin

    2015-11-21

    Reproducible fabrication of sharp gold- or silver-coated tips has become the bottleneck issue in tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, especially for atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based TERS. Herein, we developed a novel method based on pulsed electrodeposition to coat a thin gold layer over atomic force microscopy (AFM) tips to produce plasmonic TERS tips with high reproducibility. We systematically investigated the influence of the deposition potential and step time on the surface roughness and sharpness. This method allows the rational control of the radii of gold-coated TERS tips from a few to hundreds of nanometers, which allows us to systematically study the dependence of the TERS enhancement on the radius of the gold-coated AFM tip. The maximum TERS enhancement was achieved for the tip radius in the range of 60-75 nm in the gap mode. The coated gold layer has a strong adhesion with the silicon tip surface, which is highly stable in water, showing the great potential for application in the aqueous environment. PMID:26482226

  1. Brain Tumor Classification Using AFM in Combination with Data Mining Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Huml, Marlene; Silye, René; Zauner, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    Although classification of astrocytic tumors is standardized by the WHO grading system, which is mainly based on microscopy-derived, histomorphological features, there is great interobserver variability. The main causes are thought to be the complexity of morphological details varying from tumor to tumor and from patient to patient, variations in the technical histopathological procedures like staining protocols, and finally the individual experience of the diagnosing pathologist. Thus, to raise astrocytoma grading to a more objective standard, this paper proposes a methodology based on atomic force microscopy (AFM) derived images made from histopathological samples in combination with data mining techniques. By comparing AFM images with corresponding light microscopy images of the same area, the progressive formation of cavities due to cell necrosis was identified as a typical morphological marker for a computer-assisted analysis. Using genetic programming as a tool for feature analysis, a best model was created that achieved 94.74% classification accuracy in distinguishing grade II tumors from grade IV ones. While utilizing modern image analysis techniques, AFM may become an important tool in astrocytic tumor diagnosis. By this way patients suffering from grade II tumors are identified unambiguously, having a less risk for malignant transformation. They would benefit from early adjuvant therapies. PMID:24062997

  2. Extension of gravity center method for diameter calibration of polystyrene standard particles with a metrological AFM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misumi, Ichiko; Takahata, Keiji; Sugawara, Kentaro; Gonda, Satoshi; Ehara, Kensei

    2012-06-01

    In the particle diameter calibration using metrological AFM, the distance between center points of neighboring two particles is referred to as "lateral diameter" when a single-layer close-packed structure of particles is successfully formed. The distance between an apex of a particle and a substrate is referred to as "vertical diameter." In the previous studies, lateral diameter was calculated by manually selecting and extracting a line profile from metrological AFM data and directly applying a method to calculate a pitch of one-dimensional grating. As the manual line profile extraction depends on who does it, however, there is a possibility that calculated lateral diameter is varied from person to person. We developed a technology to calibrate diameter of polystyrene latex (PSL) particles by using our metrological AFM. In this study, the gravity center method is extended to three dimensions to calculate position of and the center of gravity in each particle. Lateral diameter, which was defined as distance between gravity centers of neighboring two particles, is calibrated and uncertainty in the lateral diameter calibration is evaluated. Deformation of particles was also estimated by using Young's modulus of thin film PSL and bulk PSL.

  3. Fabrication of nanochannels with ladder nanostructure at the bottom using AFM nanoscratching method

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This letter presents a novel atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based nanomanufacturing method combining the tip scanning with the high-precision stage movement to fabricate nanochannels with ladder nanostructure at the bottom by continuous scanning with a fixed scan size. Different structures can be obtained according to the matching relation of the tip feeding velocity and the precision stage moving velocity. This relationship was first studied in detail to achieve nanochannels with different ladder nanostructures at the bottom. Machining experiments were then performed to fabricate nanochannels on an aluminum alloy surface to demonstrate the capability of this AFM-based fabrication method presented in this study. Results show that the feed value and the tip orientation in the removing action play important roles in this method which has a significant effect on the machined surfaces. Finally, the capacity of this method to fabricate a large-scale nanochannel was also demonstrated. This method has the potential to advance the existing AFM tip-based nanomanufacturing technique of the formation these complex structures by increasing the removal speed, simplifying the processing procedure and achieving the large-scale nanofabrication. PMID:24940171

  4. Single-cycle-PLL detection for real-time FM-AFM applications.

    PubMed

    Schlecker, Benedikt; Dukic, Maja; Erickson, Blake; Ortmanns, Maurits; Fantner, Georg; Anders, Jens

    2014-04-01

    In this paper we present a novel architecture for phase-locked loop (PLL) based high-speed demodulation of frequency-modulated (FM) atomic force microscopy (AFM) signals. In our approach, we use single-sideband (SSB) frequency upconversion to translate the AFM signal from the position sensitive detector to a fixed intermediate frequency (IF) of 10 MHz. In this way, we fully benefit from the excellent noise performance of PLL-based FM demodulators still avoiding the intrinsic bandwidth limitation of such systems. In addition, the upconversion to a fixed IF renders the PLL demodulator independent of the cantilever's resonance frequency, allowing the system to work with a large range of cantilever frequencies. To investigate if the additional noise introduced by the SSB upconverter degrades the system noise figure we present a model of the AM-to-FM noise conversion in PLLs incorporating a phase-frequency detector. Using this model, we can predict an upper corner frequency for the demodulation bandwidth above which the converted noise from the single-sideband upconverter becomes the dominant noise source and therefore begins to deteriorate the overall system performance. The approach is validated by both electrical and AFM measurements obtained with a PCB-based prototype implementing the proposed demodulator architecture.

  5. Bacterial adhesion to protein-coated surfaces: An AFM and QCM-D study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strauss, Joshua; Liu, Yatao; Camesano, Terri A.

    2009-09-01

    Bacterial adhesion to biomaterials, mineral surfaces, or other industrial surfaces is strongly controlled by the way bacteria interact with protein layers or organic matter and other biomolecules that coat the materials. Despite this knowledge, many studies of bacterial adhesion are performed under clean conditions, instead of in the presence of proteins or organic molecules. We chose fetal bovine serum (FBS) as a model protein, and prepared FBS films on quartz crystals. The thickness of the FBS layer was characterized using atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging under liquid and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D). Next, we characterized how the model biomaterial surface would interact with the nocosomial pathogen Staphylococcus epidermidis. An AFM probe was coated with S. epidermidis cells and used to probe a gold slide that had been coated with FBS or another protein, fibronectin (FN). These experiments show that AFM and QCM-D can be used in complementary ways to study the complex interactions between bacteria, proteins, and surfaces.

  6. Measuring protein isoelectric points by AFM-based force spectroscopy using trace amounts of sample.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shifeng; Zhu, Xiaoying; Jańczewski, Dominik; Lee, Serina Siew Chen; He, Tao; Teo, Serena Lay Ming; Vancso, G Julius

    2016-09-01

    Protein charge at various pH and isoelectric point (pI) values is important in understanding protein function. However, often only trace amounts of unknown proteins are available and pI measurements cannot be obtained using conventional methods. Here, we show a method based on the atomic force microscope (AFM) to determine pI using minute quantities of proteins. The protein of interest is immobilized on AFM colloidal probes and the adhesion force of the protein is measured against a positively and a negatively charged substrate made by layer-by-layer deposition of polyelectrolytes. From the AFM force-distance curves, pI values with an estimated accuracy of ±0.25 were obtained for bovine serum albumin, myoglobin, fibrinogen and ribonuclease A over a range of 4.7-9.8. Using this method, we show that the pI of the 'footprint' of the temporary adhesive proteins secreted by the barnacle cyprid larvae of Amphibalanus amphitrite is in the range 9.6-9.7. PMID:27454881

  7. Nanoscopic imaging of mechanical properties of metal films with magnetic-force-controlled AFM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, S.-I.; Yamada, H.; Matsushige, K.; Ishida, T.; Mizutani, W.; Tokumoto, H.

    1999-08-01

    We have succeeded in measuring the Young's moduli of inorganic films with a diamond tip of 160-200 nm in diameter using magnetic-force-controlled atomic force microscopy (MFC-AFM). The measurement of Young's moduli was carried out by detecting the tip amplitude on the sample with an applied force of 20 nN. This technique was applied successfully to obtain Young's moduli mapping of gold islands with 1 nm thickness and nickel films with 10 nm thickness. We obtained an effective spring constant of 3000 N m -1 on gold and 21 000 N m -1 on nickel using MFC-AFM. We could normalize the effective area of the contact radius between the tip and the sample. A value of 350 GPa was derived for the Young's modulus of the nickel film, indicative of the elasticity of native nickel oxide (NiO 2). This shows that the MFC-AFM technique measures the mechanical properties of a thin layer on top of the sample.

  8. Structure and Permeability of Ion-channels by Integrated AFM and Waveguide TIRF Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, Srinivasan; Arce, Fernando Teran; Patel, Nirav R.; Quist, Arjan P.; Cohen, Daniel A.; Lal, Ratnesh

    2014-01-01

    Membrane ion channels regulate key cellular functions and their activity is dependent on their 3D structure. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images 3D structure of membrane channels placed on a solid substrate. Solid substrate prevents molecular transport through ion channels thus hindering any direct structure-function relationship analysis. Here we designed a ~70 nm nanopore to suspend a membrane, allowing fluidic access to both sides. We used these nanopores with AFM and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM) for high resolution imaging and molecular transport measurement. Significantly, membranes over the nanopore were stable for repeated AFM imaging. We studied structure-activity relationship of gap junction hemichannels reconstituted in lipid bilayers. Individual hemichannels in the membrane overlying the nanopore were resolved and transport of hemichannel-permeant LY dye was visualized when the hemichannel was opened by lowering calcium in the medium. This integrated technique will allow direct structure-permeability relationship of many ion channels and receptors. PMID:24651823

  9. APOBEC3G Interacts with ssDNA by Two Modes: AFM Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shlyakhtenko, Luda S.; Dutta, Samrat; Banga, Jaspreet; Li, Ming; Harris, Reuben S.; Lyubchenko, Yuri L.

    2015-10-01

    APOBEC3G (A3G) protein has antiviral activity against HIV and other pathogenic retroviruses. A3G has two domains: a catalytic C-terminal domain (CTD) that deaminates cytidine, and a N-terminal domain (NTD) that binds to ssDNA. Although abundant information exists about the biological activities of A3G protein, the interplay between sequence specific deaminase activity and A3G binding to ssDNA remains controversial. We used the topographic imaging and force spectroscopy modalities of Atomic Force Spectroscopy (AFM) to characterize the interaction of A3G protein with deaminase specific and nonspecific ssDNA substrates. AFM imaging demonstrated that A3G has elevated affinity for deaminase specific ssDNA than for nonspecific ssDNA. AFM force spectroscopy revealed two distinct binding modes by which A3G interacts with ssDNA. One mode requires sequence specificity, as demonstrated by stronger and more stable complexes with deaminase specific ssDNA than with nonspecific ssDNA. Overall these observations enforce prior studies suggesting that both domains of A3G contribute to the sequence specific binding of ssDNA.

  10. AFM and pulsed laser ablation methods for Cultural Heritage: application to archeometric analysis of stone artifacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barberio, M.; Veltri, S.; Stranges, F.; Bonanno, A.; Xu, F.; Antici, P.

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we introduce the use of the atomic force microscope (AFM) and of the pulsed laser ablation as methods for morphological diagnostic with nanoscale precision of archeological artifacts and corrosive patina removal from stone artifacts. We test our methodology on stone artifacts extracted from the Church of Sotterra (located in Calabria, South Italy). The AFM microscopy was compared with different petrographic, chemical, optical and morphological analysis methods for identifying the textural characteristics, evaluating the state of preservation and formulating some hypotheses about the provenance and composition of the impurity patina located on the artifact surfaces. We demonstrate that with the nanometric precision obtained with AFM microscopy, it is possible to distinguish the different states of preservation, much better than using conventional petrographic methods. The surface's roughness is evaluated from very small artifact's fragments, reducing the coring at micrometric scale with a minimal damage to the artworks. After the diagnosis, we performed restoration tests using the pulsed laser ablation (PLA) method and compared it with the more common micro-sandblasting under dry conditions. We find that the PLA is highly effective for the removal of the surficial patina, with a control of a few hundreds of nanometers in the cleaning of surface, without introducing chemical or morphological damages to the artifacts. Moreover, PLA can be easily implemented in underwater conditions; this has the great advantage that stone and pottery artifacts for marine archeological sites do not need to be removed from the site.

  11. If mechanics of cells can be described by elastic modulus in AFM indentation experiments?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, Igor; Dokukin, Maxim; Guz, Nataliia; Kalaparthi, Vivekanand

    2014-03-01

    We study the question if cells, being highly heterogeneous objects, can be described with an elastic modulus (the Young's modulus) in a self-consistent way. We analyze the elastic modulus using indentation done with AFM of human cervical epithelial cells. Both sharp (cone) and dull AFM probes were used. The indentation data collected were processed through different elastic models. The cell was considered as a homogeneous elastic medium which had either smooth spherical boundary (Hertz/Sneddon models) or the boundary covered with a layer of glycocalyx and membrane protrusions (``brush'' models). Validity of these approximations was investigated. Specifically, we tested the independence of the elastic modulus of the indentation depth, which is assumed in these models. We demonstrate that only one model shows consistency with treating cells as homogeneous elastic medium, the bush model when processing the indentation data collected with the dull probe. The elastic modulus demonstrates strong depth dependence in all other three models. We conclude that it is possible to describe the elastic properties of the cell body by means of an effective elastic modulus in a self-consistent way when using the brush model to analyze data collected with a dull AFM probe.

  12. EEMD based pitch evaluation method for accurate grating measurement by AFM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Changsheng; Yang, Shuming; Wang, Chenying; Jiang, Zhuangde

    2016-09-01

    The pitch measurement and AFM calibration precision are significantly influenced by the grating pitch evaluation method. This paper presents the ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) based pitch evaluation method to relieve the accuracy deterioration caused by high and low frequency components of scanning profile during pitch evaluation. The simulation analysis shows that the application of EEMD can improve the pitch accuracy of the FFT-FT algorithm. The pitch error is small when the iteration number of the FFT-FT algorithms was 8. The AFM measurement of the 500 nm-pitch one-dimensional grating shows that the EEMD based pitch evaluation method could improve the pitch precision, especially the grating line position precision, and greatly expand the applicability of the gravity center algorithm when particles and impression marks were distributed on the sample surface. The measurement indicates that the nonlinearity was stable, and the nonlinearity of x axis and forward scanning was much smaller than their counterpart. Finally, a detailed pitch measurement uncertainty evaluation model suitable for commercial AFMs was demonstrated and a pitch uncertainty in the sub-nanometer range was achieved. The pitch uncertainty was reduced about 10% by EEMD.

  13. Measuring protein isoelectric points by AFM-based force spectroscopy using trace amounts of sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Shifeng; Zhu, Xiaoying; Jańczewski, Dominik; Lee, Serina Siew Chen; He, Tao; Teo, Serena Lay Ming; Vancso, G. Julius

    2016-09-01

    Protein charge at various pH and isoelectric point (pI) values is important in understanding protein function. However, often only trace amounts of unknown proteins are available and pI measurements cannot be obtained using conventional methods. Here, we show a method based on the atomic force microscope (AFM) to determine pI using minute quantities of proteins. The protein of interest is immobilized on AFM colloidal probes and the adhesion force of the protein is measured against a positively and a negatively charged substrate made by layer-by-layer deposition of polyelectrolytes. From the AFM force-distance curves, pI values with an estimated accuracy of ±0.25 were obtained for bovine serum albumin, myoglobin, fibrinogen and ribonuclease A over a range of 4.7-9.8. Using this method, we show that the pI of the ‘footprint’ of the temporary adhesive proteins secreted by the barnacle cyprid larvae of Amphibalanus amphitrite is in the range 9.6-9.7.

  14. Nano-scale Topographical Studies on the Growth Cones of Nerve Cells using AFM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durkaya, Goksel; Zhong, Lei; Rehder, Vincent; Dietz, Nikolaus

    2009-11-01

    Nerve cells are the fundamental units which are responsible for intercommunication within the nervous system. The neurites, fibrous cable-like extensions for information delivery, of nerve cells are tipped by highly motile sensory structures known as the growth cones which execute important functions; neural construction, decision making and navigation during development and regeneration of the nervous system. The highly dynamic subcomponents of the growth cones are important in neural activity. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) is the most powerful microscopy technique which is capable of imaging without conductivity constraint and in liquid media. AFM providing nano-scale topographical information on biological structures is also informative on the physical properties such as: elasticity, adhesion, and softness. This contribution focuses on AFM analysis of the growth cones of the nerve cells removed from the buccal ganglion of Helisoma trivolvis. The results of nano-scale topography and softness analysis on growth cone central domain, filopodia and overlying lamellopodium (veil) are presented. The subcomponents of the growth cones of different nerve cells are compared to each other. The results of the analysis are linked to the mechanical properties and internal molecular density distribution of the growth cones.

  15. Measuring protein isoelectric points by AFM-based force spectroscopy using trace amounts of sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Shifeng; Zhu, Xiaoying; Jańczewski, Dominik; Lee, Serina Siew Chen; He, Tao; Teo, Serena Lay Ming; Vancso, G. Julius

    2016-09-01

    Protein charge at various pH and isoelectric point (pI) values is important in understanding protein function. However, often only trace amounts of unknown proteins are available and pI measurements cannot be obtained using conventional methods. Here, we show a method based on the atomic force microscope (AFM) to determine pI using minute quantities of proteins. The protein of interest is immobilized on AFM colloidal probes and the adhesion force of the protein is measured against a positively and a negatively charged substrate made by layer-by-layer deposition of polyelectrolytes. From the AFM force–distance curves, pI values with an estimated accuracy of ±0.25 were obtained for bovine serum albumin, myoglobin, fibrinogen and ribonuclease A over a range of 4.7–9.8. Using this method, we show that the pI of the ‘footprint’ of the temporary adhesive proteins secreted by the barnacle cyprid larvae of Amphibalanus amphitrite is in the range 9.6–9.7.

  16. Advantages and limitations of OM, SEM, TEM and AFM in the study of ancient decorated pottery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arenas-Alatorre, J.; Silva-Velazquez, Y.; Alva Medina, A.; Rivera, M.

    2010-03-01

    This paper presents results from the study of two fragments of pre-Hispanic pottery, decorated with red pigment, using Optical Microscopy (OM), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Magnetic Force Microscopy (MFM). Capabilities and limitations of these techniques in the analysis of archaeological material are highlighted with special emphasis on TEM, AFM and MFM due to their contribution in the study of the pigment layer at micro and nano scale. The analyzed samples come from the archaeological sites of El Tajin and Xochicalco, both in Mexico. Results of conventional TEM and HRTEM analysis of the red pigment showed nanometric Fe2O3 particles in both samples but different particle shape and size distributions: specimen from El Tajin presented irregular particles between 50-100 nm while that from Xochicalco exhibited semispherical shapes in the 3-25 nm range. AFM images showed the topography of the pigments, which are related to the texture of their surface and thus to the production process. Finally, MFM showed different contrast regions suggesting the presence of ferromagnetic elements forming clusters and domain orientations on the color layer.

  17. High-temperature orbital, charge, and structural phase transitions in the cation-ordered manganites TbBaMn{sub 2}O{sub 6} and YBaMn{sub 2}O{sub 6}

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Anthony J.; Attfield, J. Paul; Redfern, Simon A.T.

    2005-11-01

    The high-temperature structures and phase transitions of the cation-ordered manganite perovskites TbBaMn{sub 2}O{sub 6} and YBaMn{sub 2}O{sub 6} have been studied by powder neutron diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. TbBaMn{sub 2}O{sub 6} undergoes an unprecedented transition from a charge and antiferro-orbitally ordered phase to a charge and ferro-orbitally ordered structure at 94.5 deg. C, and the charge and orbital ordering melts at 200 deg. C. An orthorhombic Cmmm phase with rotational order of MnO{sub 6} octahedra is observed above the transition, and at 514 deg. C this transforms to the aristotype tetragonal P4/mmm arrangement. YBaMn{sub 2}O{sub 6} is charge and ferro-orbitally ordered up to 225 deg. C. Above this charge ordering transition, a C2/m phase with two rotational orders is found. This transforms to the Cmmm structure at 437 deg. C. Discontinuities in volume and volume expansion, and a limited phase coexistence region are observed at the charge ordering transitions, whereas the other transitions are continuous.

  18. Simulation of CNT-AFM tip based on finite element analysis for targeted probe of the biological cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousefi, Amin Termeh; Mahmood, Mohamad Rusop; Miyake, Mikio; Ikeda, Shoichiro

    2016-07-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are potentially ideal tips for atomic force microscopy (AFM) due to the robust mechanical properties, nano scale diameter and also their ability to be functionalized by chemical and biological components at the tip ends. This contribution develops the idea of using CNTs as an AFM tip in computational analysis of the biological cell's. Finite element analysis employed for each section and displacement of the nodes located in the contact area was monitored by using an output database (ODB). This reliable integration of CNT-AFM tip process provides a new class of high performance nanoprobes for single biological cell analysis.

  19. Order Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibeault, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Change orders. The words can turn the stomachs of administrators. Horror stories about change orders create fear and distrust among school officials, designers and builders. Can change orders be avoided? If car manufacturers can produce millions of intricately designed vehicles, why can't the same quality control be achieved on a construction…

  20. 3-Dimensional atomic scale structure of the ionic liquid-graphite interface elucidated by AM-AFM and quantum chemical simulations.

    PubMed

    Page, Alister J; Elbourne, Aaron; Stefanovic, Ryan; Addicoat, Matthew A; Warr, Gregory G; Voïtchovsky, Kislon; Atkin, Rob

    2014-07-21

    In situ amplitude modulated atomic force microscopy (AM-AFM) and quantum chemical simulations are used to resolve the structure of the highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG)-bulk propylammonium nitrate (PAN) interface with resolution comparable with that achieved for frozen ionic liquid (IL) monolayers using STM. This is the first time that (a) molecular resolution images of bulk IL-solid interfaces have been achieved, (b) the lateral structure of the IL graphite interface has been imaged for any IL, (c) AM-AFM has elucidated molecular level structure immersed in a viscous liquid and (d) it has been demonstrated that the IL structure at solid surfaces is a consequence of both thermodynamic and kinetic effects. The lateral structure of the PAN-graphite interface is highly ordered and consists of remarkably well-defined domains of a rhomboidal superstructure composed of propylammonium cations preferentially aligned along two of the three directions in the underlying graphite lattice. The nanostructure is primarily determined by the cation. Van der Waals interactions between the propylammonium chains and the surface mean that the cation is enriched in the surface layer, and is much less mobile than the anion. The presence of a heterogeneous lateral structure at an ionic liquid-solid interface has wide ranging ramifications for ionic liquid applications, including lubrication, capacitive charge storage and electrodeposition.

  1. Using a CBL Unit, a Temperature Sensor, and a Graphing Calculator to Model the Kinetics of Consecutive First-Order Reactions as Safe In-Class Demonstrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore-Russo, Deborah A.; Cortes-Figueroa, Jose E.; Schuman, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    The use of Calculator-Based Laboratory (CBL) technology, the graphing calculator, and the cooling and heating of water to model the behavior of consecutive first-order reactions is presented, where B is the reactant, I is the intermediate, and P is the product for an in-class demonstration. The activity demonstrates the spontaneous and consecutive…

  2. Higher order nonlinear equations for the dust-acoustic waves in a dusty plasma with two temperature-ions and nonextensive electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Emamuddin, M.; Yasmin, S.; Mamun, A. A.

    2013-04-15

    The nonlinear propagation of dust-acoustic waves in a dusty plasma whose constituents are negatively charged dust, Maxwellian ions with two distinct temperatures, and electrons following q-nonextensive distribution, is investigated by deriving a number of nonlinear equations, namely, the Korteweg-de-Vries (K-dV), the modified Korteweg-de-Vries (mK-dV), and the Gardner equations. The basic characteristics of the hump (positive potential) and dip (negative potential) shaped dust-acoustic (DA) Gardner solitons are found to exist beyond the K-dV limit. The effects of two temperature ions and electron nonextensivity on the basic features of DA K-dV, mK-dV, and Gardner solitons are also examined. It has been observed that the DA Gardner solitons exhibit negative (positive) solitons for qq{sub c}) (where q{sub c} is the critical value of the nonextensive parameter q). The implications of our results in understanding the localized nonlinear electrostatic perturbations existing in stellar polytropes, quark-gluon plasma, protoneutron stars, etc. (where ions with different temperatures and nonextensive electrons exist) are also briefly addressed.

  3. High temperature magnetic order in Zn1‑x Mn x SnSb2+MnSb nanocomposite ferromagnetic semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilanski, L.; Górska, M.; Ślawska-Waniewska, A.; Lewińska, S.; Szymczak, R.; Dynowska, E.; Podgórni, A.; Dobrowolski, W.; Ralević, U.; Gajić, R.; Romčević, N.; Fedorchenko, I. V.; Marenkin, S. F.

    2016-08-01

    We present studies of structural, magnetic, and electrical properties of Zn1‑x Mn x SnSb2+MnSb nanocomposite ferromagnetic semiconductors with the average Mn-content, \\bar{x} , changing from 0.027 up to 0.138. The magnetic force microscope imaging done at room temperature shows the presence of a strong signal coming from MnSb clusters. Magnetic properties show the paramagnet-ferromagnet transition with the Curie temperature, T C, equal to about 522 K and the cluster-glass behavior with the transition temperature, T CG, equal to about 465 K, both related to MnSb clusters. The magnetotransport studies show that all investigated samples are p-type semiconductors with high hole concentration, p, changing from 1021 to 1022 cm‑3. A large increase in the resistivity as a function of the magnetic field is observed at T  <  10 K and small magnetic fields, |B|<100 mT, for all the studied samples with a maximum amplitude of the magnetoresistance about 460% at T  =  1.4 K. The large increase in the resistivity is most probably caused by the appearance of the superconducting state in the samples at T  <  4.3 K.

  4. Linking of Sensor Molecules with Amino Groups to Amino-Functionalized AFM Tips

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The measuring tip of an atomic force microscope (AFM) can be upgraded to a specific biosensor by attaching one or a few biomolecules to the apex of the tip. The biofunctionalized tip is then used to map cognate target molecules on a sample surface or to study biophysical parameters of interaction with the target molecules. The functionality of tip-bound sensor molecules is greatly enhanced if they are linked via a thin, flexible polymer chain. In a typical scheme of tip functionalization, reactive groups are first generated on the tip surface, a bifunctional cross-linker is then attached with one of its two reactive ends, and finally the probe molecule of interest is coupled to the free end of the cross-linker. Unfortunately, the most popular functional group generated on the tip surface is the amino group, while at the same time, the only useful coupling functions of many biomolecules (such as antibodies) are also NH2 groups. In the past, various tricks or detours were applied to minimize the undesired bivalent reaction of bifunctional linkers with adjacent NH2 groups on the tip surface. In the present study, an uncompromising solution to this problem was found with the help of a new cross-linker (“acetal-PEG-NHS”) which possesses one activated carboxyl group and one acetal-protected benzaldehyde function. The activated carboxyl ensures rapid unilateral attachment to the amino-functionalized tip, and only then is the terminal acetal group converted into the amino-reactive benzaldehyde function by mild treatment (1% citric acid, 1–10 min) which does not harm the AFM tip. As an exception, AFM tips with magnetic coating become demagnetized in 1% citric acid. This problem was solved by deprotecting the acetal group before coupling the PEG linker to the AFM tip. Bivalent binding of the corresponding linker (“aldehyde-PEG-NHS”) to adjacent NH2 groups on the tip was largely suppressed by high linker concentrations. In this way, magnetic AFM tips could be

  5. Short-range Incommensurate Magnetic Order Near the Superconducting Phase Boundary in Fe1+δTe1−xSex

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, J.; Xu, G.; Xu, Z.; Lin, Z.W.; Li, Q.; Ratcliff, W.; Gu, G.; Tranquada, J.M.

    2009-09-10

    We performed elastic neutron-scattering and magnetization measurements on Fe{sub 1.07}Te{sub 0.75}Se{sub 0.25} and FeTe{sub 0.7}Se{sub 0.3}. Short-range incommensurate magnetic order is observed in both samples. In the former sample with higher Fe content, a broad magnetic peak appears around (0.46,0,0.5) at low temperature, while in FeTe{sub 0.7}Se{sub 0.3}, the broad magnetic peak is found to be closer to the antiferromagnetic (AFM) wave vector (0.5,0,0.5). The incommensurate peaks are only observed on one side of the AFM wave vector for both samples, which can be modeled in terms of an imbalance of ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic correlations between nearest-neighbor spins. We also find that with higher Se (and lower Fe) concentration, the magnetic order becomes weaker while the superconducting temperature and volume increase.

  6. Enhanced magnetization with unusual low temperature magnetic ordering behaviour and spin reorientation in holmium-modified multiferroic BiFeO3 perovskite ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Hemant; Yadav, K. L.

    2015-05-01

    Holmium-doped Bi1-xHoxFeO3 (x = 0, 0.025, 0.05, 0.075 and 0.10) perovskite ceramics were synthesized by a rapid liquid phase quenching process. The structural analysis performed using x-ray diffraction suggested phase formation with distorted rhombohedral structure in all the synthesized ceramic samples. Rietveld analysis of x-ray diffraction patterns and Raman spectroscopy also confirmed the distorted perovskite structure with R3c symmetry. Optical studies showed characteristic bending vibrations of O - Fe - O, Fe - O stretching and visible range PL emissions in modified BiFeO3 ceramics. Ferromagnetic characteristics were shown by all the holmium-doped samples at room temperature and 5 K. Very high saturation magnetization (at 7 T), four to six times higher at 5 K than at 300 K, is observed for holmium-doped ceramic samples. A complex temperature dependence of magnetization behaviour is observed for holmium-doped samples, which is indicative of a spin reorientation in doped ceramics.

  7. Temperature-induced reversible first-order single crystal to single crystal phase transition in Boc-γ(4)(R)Val-Val-OH: interplay of enthalpy and entropy.

    PubMed

    Pal, Rumpa; Reddy, M B Madhusudana; Dinesh, Bhimareddy; Balaram, Padmanabhan; Guru Row, Tayur N

    2014-10-01

    Crystals of Boc-γ(4)(R)Val-Val-OH undergo a reversible first-order single crystal to single crystal phase transition at Tc ≈ 205 K from the orthorhombic space group P22121 (Z' = 1) to the monoclinic space group P21 (Z' = 2) with a hysteresis of ∼2.1 K. The low-temperature monoclinic form is best described as a nonmerohedral twin with ∼50% contributions from its two components. The thermal behavior of the dipeptide crystals was characterized by differential scanning calorimetry experiments. Visual changes in birefringence of the sample during heating and cooling cycles on a hot-stage microscope with polarized light supported the phase transition. Variable-temperature unit cell check measurements from 300 to 100 K showed discontinuity in the volume and cell parameters near the transition temperature, supporting the first-order behavior. A detailed comparison of the room-temperature orthorhombic form with the low-temperature (100 K) monoclinic form revealed that the strong hydrogen-bonding motif is retained in both crystal systems, whereas the non-covalent interactions involving side chains of the dipeptide differ significantly, leading to a small change in molecular conformation in the monoclinic form as well as a small reorientation of the molecules along the ac plane. A rigid-body thermal motion analysis (translation, libration, screw; correlation of translation and libration) was performed to study the crystal entropy. The reversible nature of the phase transition is probably the result of an interplay between enthalpy and entropy: the low-temperature monoclinic form is enthalpically favored, whereas the room-temperature orthorhombic form is entropically favored.

  8. An AFM-based pit-measuring method for indirect measurements of cell-surface membrane vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xiaojun; Chen, Yuan; Chen, Yong

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • Air drying induced the transformation of cell-surface membrane vesicles into pits. • An AFM-based pit-measuring method was developed to measure cell-surface vesicles. • Our method detected at least two populations of cell-surface membrane vesicles. - Abstract: Circulating membrane vesicles, which are shed from many cell types, have multiple functions and have been correlated with many diseases. Although circulating membrane vesicles have been extensively characterized, the status of cell-surface membrane vesicles prior to their release is less understood due to the lack of effective measurement methods. Recently, as a powerful, micro- or nano-scale imaging tool, atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been applied in measuring circulating membrane vesicles. However, it seems very difficult for AFM to directly image/identify and measure cell-bound membrane vesicles due to the similarity of surface morphology between membrane vesicles and cell surfaces. Therefore, until now no AFM studies on cell-surface membrane vesicles have been reported. In this study, we found that air drying can induce the transformation of most cell-surface membrane vesicles into pits that are more readily detectable by AFM. Based on this, we developed an AFM-based pit-measuring method and, for the first time, used AFM to indirectly measure cell-surface membrane vesicles on cultured endothelial cells. Using this approach, we observed and quantitatively measured at least two populations of cell-surface membrane vesicles, a nanoscale population (<500 nm in diameter peaking at ∼250 nm) and a microscale population (from 500 nm to ∼2 μm peaking at ∼0.8 μm), whereas confocal microscopy only detected the microscale population. The AFM-based pit-measuring method is potentially useful for studying cell-surface membrane vesicles and for investigating the mechanisms of membrane vesicle formation/release.

  9. Long-Range Magnetic Ordering and Switching of Magnetic State by Electric Field in Porous Phosphorene.

    PubMed

    Hashmi, Arqum; Farooq, M Umar; Hong, Jisang

    2016-02-18

    We explored the possibility of long-range magnetic ordering in two-dimensional porous phosphorene (PP) layer by means of ab-initio calculations. The self-passivated pore geometry showed a nonmagnetic state while the pore geometry with dangling bond at two zigzag edges with a distance of 7.7 Å preferred an antiferromagnetic ordering (AFM). Pore to pore magnetic interaction with a distance of 13.5 Å between two pores was found to be remarkably long ranged, and this emerges from the interactions between the magnetic tails of the edge states in the armchair direction. The AFM state was persisted by the oxidation of the edge. Interestingly, the long-range AFM ordering changed to long-range ferromagnetic (FM) ordering by external electric field. The results are noteworthy in the interplay between electric field and electronic spin degree of freedom in phosphorene studies and may also open a promising way to explore phosphorene-based spintronics devices.

  10. Size-depressed critical temperatures for the order-disorder transition of FePt, CoPt, FePb, Cu2S, and ZnS nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, R.; Zhou, Z. F.; Yang, X. X.; Guo, N. G.; Qi, W. H.; Sun, C. Q.

    2013-01-01

    The size dependency of the critical temperature (TC) for the order-disorder phase transitions of both the bimetallic and the chalcogenide nanoclusters is shown to follow the rule of bond order-length-strength correlation. The loss of the cohesive energy of the undercoordinated atoms in the surface skin dictates the structural stability. Theoretical reproduction of the size TC trends of FePt, CoPt, FePb, Cu2S, and ZnS nanostructures not only confirms our expectations without involving the concepts of surface energy or entropy used for continuum bulk materials but also provides guideline for engineering nanostructured alloys or compounds.

  11. Versatile method for AFM-tip functionalization with biomolecules: fishing a ligand by means of an in situ click reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Rakesh; Ramakrishna, Shivaprakash N.; Naik, Vikrant V.; Chu, Zonglin; Drew, Michael E.; Spencer, Nicholas D.; Yamakoshi, Yoko

    2015-04-01

    A facile and universal method for the functionalization of an AFM tip has been developed for chemical force spectroscopy (CFS) studies of intermolecular interactions of biomolecules. A click reaction between tripod-acetylene and an azide-linker-ligand molecule was successfully carried out on the AFM tip surface and used for the CFS study of ligand-receptor interactions.A facile and universal method for the functionalization of an AFM tip has been developed for chemical force spectroscopy (CFS) studies of intermolecular interactions of biomolecules. A click reaction between tripod-acetylene and an azide-linker-ligand molecule was successfully carried out on the AFM tip surface and used for the CFS study of ligand-receptor interactions. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details with synthesis and characterization of compounds. Procedures for modifications of Au surfaces and AFM tips. AFM images and full PM-IRRAS spectra of modified surfaces. Detailed procedure for QCM measurement. A table showing ligand-receptor interaction probability. NMR, IR and MS charts. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr01495f

  12. Effect of magnetic field applied along the a-axis on the thermal expansion and first-order transition temperature of single crystal Gd5(Si2Ge2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, M. G.; Jiles, D. C.; Lee, S. J.; Paulsen, J. A.; Snyder, J. E.

    2002-03-01

    The giant magnetocaloric material Gd5(SixGe(1-x))4 is known among other things for its unusual first order simultaneous structural and magnetic transition from monoclinic/paramagnetic to orthorhombic/ferromagnetic over the composition range 0.24< x <0.5. Thermal expansion measurements were made on this material to study the effect of magnetic field on the first order transition using single crystal Gd5(Si2Ge2). A magnetic field was applied along the a-axis with strengths of H = 0 kOe, 10 kOe, 15 kOe, 20 kOe and 25 kOe. Thermal expansion was measured on both heating and cooling. On cooling, the transition temperatures were found to be 267K, 271.6K, 273K, 276K, 278.6K respectively. On heating, the transition temperatures shifted to 269K, 274K, 276K, 279K, 281.5K respectively, showing hysteresis in a first order transition. This hysteresis of 2-3K observed during the cooling and heating cycle, was confirmed by in-situ magnetic force microscopy (MFM). The magnetic field increased the transition temperature by 0.5 K per 1kOe for either cooling or heating. This means that application of a magnetic field can change the Curie temperature for this intriguing intermetallic compound. The key to enhancement of the Curie temperature lies in the suppression of one dimensional vibration of the Gd atoms in the lattice. For Gd in Gd5(Si2Ge2)lattice, the applied magnetic field energy is equal to the change in thermal energy that occurs for one dimensional vibration of the Gd atoms. The magnetic moment on the Gd atoms needed to account for this was calculated to be 7.44Bohr magneton, which compares very well to the established value 7.94Bohr magneton per isolated Gd ion.

  13. High-Pressure Single-Crystal Neutron Scattering Study of Magnetic and Fe Vacancy Orders in (Tl,Rb)2 Fe4 Se5 Superconductor

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Feng; Bao, Wei; Chi, Song-Xue; Santos, Antonio M. dos; Molaison, Jamie J.; Fang, Ming-Hu; Wang, Hang-Dong; Mao, Qian-Hui; Wang, Jin-Chen; Liu, Juan-Juan; Sheng, Jie-Ming

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the magnetic and iron vacancy orders in superconducting (Tl,Rb)2Fe4Se5 single-crystals by using a high-pressure neutron diffraction technique. Similar to the temperature effect, the block antiferromagnetic order gradually decreases upon increasing pressure while the Fe vacancy superstructural order remains intact before its precipitous disappearance at the critical pressure Pc = 8.3 GPa. Combined with previously determined Pc for superconductivity, our phase diagram under pressure reveals the concurrence of the block AFM order, the √5 × √5 iron vacancy order and superconductivity for the 245 superconductor. Lastly, a synthesis of current experimental data in a coherent physical picture is attempted.

  14. Studying Chemical Reactions, One Bond at a Time, with Single Molecule AFM Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, Julio M.

    2008-03-01

    The mechanisms by which mechanical forces regulate the kinetics of a chemical reaction are unknown. In my lecture I will demonstrate how we use single molecule force-clamp spectroscopy and protein engineering to study the effect of force on the kinetics of thiol/disulfide exchange. Reduction of disulfide bond via the thiol/disulfide exchange chemical reaction is crucial in regulating protein function and is of common occurrence in mechanically stressed proteins. While reduction is thought to proceed through a substitution nucleophilic bimolecular (SN2) reaction, the role of a mechanical force in modulating this chemical reaction is unknown. We apply a constant stretching force to single engineered disulfide bonds and measure their rate of reduction by dithiothreitol (DTT). We find that while the reduction rate is linearly dependent on the concentration of DTT, it is exponentially dependent on the applied force, increasing 10-fold over a 300 pN range. This result predicts that the disulfide bond lengthens by 0.34 å at the transition state of the thiol/disulfide exchange reaction. In addition to DTT, we also study the reduction of the engineered disulfide bond by the E. coli enzyme thioredoxin (Trx). Thioredoxins are enzymes that catalyze disulfide bond reduction in all organisms. As before, we apply a mechanical force in the range of 25-450 pN to the engineered disulfide bond substrate and monitor the reduction of these bonds by individual enzymes. In sharp contrast with the data obtained with DTT, we now observe two alternative forms of the catalytic reaction, the first requiring a reorientation of the substrate disulfide bond, causing a shortening of the substrate polypeptide by 0.76±0.07 å, and the second elongating the substrate disulfide bond by 0.21±0.01 å. These results support the view that the Trx active site regulates the geometry of the participating sulfur atoms, with sub-ångström precision, in order to achieve efficient catalysis. Single molecule

  15. Microscopic theory of resonant soft-x-ray scattering in materials with charge order: the example of charge stripes in high-temperature cuprate superconductors.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, David; Abanin, Dmitry; Abbamonte, Peter; Demler, Eugene

    2013-03-29

    We present a microscopic theory of resonant soft-x-ray scattering that accounts for the delocalized character of valence electrons. Unlike past approaches based on local form factors, our functional determinant method treats realistic band structures. This method builds upon earlier theoretical work in mesoscopic physics and accounts for excitonic effects as well as the orthogonality catastrophe arising from interaction between the core hole and the valence band electrons. We show that the two-peak structure observed near the O K edge of stripe-ordered La1.875Ba0.125CuO4 is due to dynamical nesting within the canonical cuprate band structure. Our results provide evidence for reasonably well-defined, high-energy quasiparticles in cuprates and establish resonant soft-x-ray scattering as a bulk-sensitive probe of the electron quasiparticles.

  16. Microscopic theory of resonant soft-x-ray scattering in materials with charge order: the example of charge stripes in high-temperature cuprate superconductors.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, David; Abanin, Dmitry; Abbamonte, Peter; Demler, Eugene

    2013-03-29

    We present a microscopic theory of resonant soft-x-ray scattering that accounts for the delocalized character of valence electrons. Unlike past approaches based on local form factors, our functional determinant method treats realistic band structures. This method builds upon earlier theoretical work in mesoscopic physics and accounts for excitonic effects as well as the orthogonality catastrophe arising from interaction between the core hole and the valence band electrons. We show that the two-peak structure observed near the O K edge of stripe-ordered La1.875Ba0.125CuO4 is due to dynamical nesting within the canonical cuprate band structure. Our results provide evidence for reasonably well-defined, high-energy quasiparticles in cuprates and establish resonant soft-x-ray scattering as a bulk-sensitive probe of the electron quasiparticles. PMID:23581360

  17. Measurement of Cationic and Intracellular Modulation of Integrin Binding Affinity by AFM-Based Nanorobot

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Kevin C.; Yang, Ruiguo; Zeng, Bixi; Song, Bo; Wang, Shouye; Xi, Ning; Basson, Marc D.

    2013-01-01

    Integrins are dynamic transmembrane cation-dependent heterodimers that both anchor cells in position and transduce signals into and out of cells. We used an atomic force microscope (AFM)-based nanorobotic system to measure integrin-binding forces in intact human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells. The AFM-based nanorobot enables human-directed, high-accuracy probe positioning and site-specific investigations. Functionalizing the AFM probe with an arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD)-containing sequence (consensus binding sequence for integrins) allowed us to detect a series of peptide-cell membrane interactions with a median binding force of 115.1 ± 4.9 pN that were not detected in control interactions. Chelating divalent cations from the culture medium abolished these interactions, as did inhibiting intracellular focal adhesion kinase (FAK) using Y15. Adding 1 mM Mg2+ to the medium caused a rightward shift in the force-binding curve. Adding 1 mM Ca2+ virtually abolished the RGD-membrane specific interactions and blocked the Mg2+ effects. Cell adhesion assays demonstrated parallel effects of divalent cations and the FAK inhibitor on cell adhesion. These results demonstrate direct modulation of integrin-binding affinity by both divalent cations and intracellular signal inhibition. Additionally, three binding states (nonspecific, specific inactivated, and specific activated) were delineated from affinity measurements. Although other research has assumed that this process of integrin conformational change causes altered ligand binding, in this work we directly measured these three states in individual integrins in a physiologically based study. PMID:23823222

  18. Cell visco-elasticity measured with AFM and optical trapping at sub-micrometer deformations.

    PubMed

    Nawaz, Schanila; Sánchez, Paula; Bodensiek, Kai; Li, Sai; Simons, Mikael; Schaap, Iwan A T

    2012-01-01

    The measurement of the elastic properties of cells is widely used as an indicator for cellular changes during differentiation, upon drug treatment, or resulting from the interaction with the supporting matrix. Elasticity is routinely quantified by indenting the cell with a probe of an AFM while applying nano-Newton forces. Because the resulting deformations are in the micrometer range, the measurements will be affected by the finite thickness of the cell, viscous effects and even cell damage induced by the experiment itself. Here, we have analyzed the response of single 3T3 fibroblasts that were indented with a micrometer-sized bead attached to an AFM cantilever at forces from 30-600 pN, resulting in indentations ranging from 0.2 to 1.2 micrometer. To investigate the cellular response at lower forces up to 10 pN, we developed an optical trap to indent the cell in vertical direction, normal to the plane of the coverslip. Deformations of up to two hundred nanometers achieved at forces of up to 30 pN showed a reversible, thus truly elastic response that was independent on the rate of deformation. We found that at such small deformations, the elastic modulus of 100 Pa is largely determined by the presence of the actin cortex. At higher indentations, viscous effects led to an increase of the apparent elastic modulus. This viscous contribution that followed a weak power law, increased at larger cell indentations. Both AFM and optical trapping indentation experiments give consistent results for the cell elasticity. Optical trapping has the benefit of a lower force noise, which allows a more accurate determination of the absolute indentation. The combination of both techniques allows the investigation of single cells at small and large indentations and enables the separation of their viscous and elastic components. PMID:23028915

  19. Unspecific membrane protein-lipid recognition: combination of AFM imaging, force spectroscopy, DSC and FRET measurements.

    PubMed

    Borrell, Jordi H; Montero, M Teresa; Morros, Antoni; Domènech, Òscar

    2015-11-01

    In this work, we will describe in quantitative terms the unspecific recognition between lactose permease (LacY) of Escherichia coli, a polytopic model membrane protein, and one of the main components of the inner membrane of this bacterium. Supported lipid bilayers of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (POPE) and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoglycerol (POPG) (3:1, mol/mol) in the presence of Ca(2+) display lateral phase segregation that can be distinguished by atomic force microscopy (AFM) as well as force spectroscopy. LacY shows preference for fluid (Lα) phases when it is reconstituted in POPE : POPG (3:1, mol/mol) proteoliposomes at a lipid-to-protein ratio of 40. When the lipid-to-protein ratio is decreased down to 0.5, two domains can be distinguished by AFM. While the upper domain is formed by self-segregated units of LacY, the lower domain is constituted only by phospholipids in gel (Lβ) phase. On the one hand, classical differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements evidenced the segregation of a population of phospholipids and point to the existence of a boundary region at the lipid-protein interface. On the other hand, Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) measurements in solution evidenced that POPE is selectively recognized by LacY. A binary pseudophase diagram of POPE : POPG built from AFM observations enables to calculate the composition of the fluid phase where LacY is inserted. These results are consistent with a model where POPE constitutes the main component of the lipid-LacY interface segregated from the fluid bulk phase where POPG predominates.

  20. Evaluation of surface alterations in different retreatment nickel-titanium files: AFM and SEM study.

    PubMed

    Can Sağlam, Baran; Görgül, Güliz

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the surface changes of nickel titanium (Ni-Ti) rotary retreatment files after three and five uses. Furthermore, the effects of 2% sodium hypochlorite and chloroform solutions and sterilization procedures on the NiTi rotary retreatment surfaces were investigated. ProTaper Retreatment files, R-endo files, and Mtwo retreatment files were used for this study. The palatinal roots of maxillary molar teeth were obturated with gutta percha and Ah26. Retreatment procedures were performed with these retreatment file systems. The surface changes of untreated NiTi rotary files that were used three and five times, immersed in NaOCl and chloroform and subjected to sterilization procedures were investigated with atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The RMS values, three dimensional images and SEM images at various magnifications were obtained. RMS values showed that all three NiTi rotary retreatment file systems showed significant deteriorations after three and five uses. Cracks, damages and spiral construction deteriorations were detected in the SEM images after three and five uses. Furthermore, the Mtwo 15 file was broken off after five uses. AFM data indicated that 2% NaOCl caused significant surface deteriorations on NiTi rotary files and both AFM and SEM evaluation showed that chloroform solution and sterilization procedures did not cause significant surface deteriorations. In conclusion, ProTaper retreatment, R-endo, and Mtwo retreatment files showed surface damages depending on retreatment procedures. Clinicians have to consider that retreatment files always have a tendency to break off after the third time they have been used.