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Sample records for afp surveillance system

  1. Evaluation of the Acute Flacid Paralysis (AFP) Surveillance System in Bikita District Masvingo Province 2010

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background AFP is a rare syndrome and serves as a proxy for poliomyelitis. The main objective of AFP surveillance is to detect circulating wild polio virus and provide data for developing effective prevention and control strategies as well planning and decision making. Bikita district failed to detect a case for the past two years. Findings A total of 31 health workers from 14 health centres were interviewed. Health worker knowledge on AFP was low in Bikita. The system was acceptable, flexible, and representative but not stable and not sensitive since it missed1 AFP case. The system was not useful to the district since data collected was not locally used in anyway. The cost of running the system was high. The district had no adequate resources to run the system. Reasons for not reporting cases was that the mothers were not bringing children with AFP and ignorance of health workers on syndromes captured under AFP. Conclusion Health worker’s knowledge on AFP was low and all interviewed workers needed training surveillance. The system was found to be flexible but unacceptable. Reasons for failure to detect AFP cases could be, no cases reporting to the centres, lack of knowledge on health workers hence failure to recognise symptoms, high staff turnover. PMID:24742014

  2. Poliomyelitis surveillance.

    PubMed

    1998-04-01

    Attention to the 4 poliomyelitis surveillance indicators approved by the International Commission for the Certification of Poliomyelitis Eradication (ICCPE) in 1994, has deteriorated since the Americas were declared free from wild poliovirus. The indicators are designed to measure the performance of health services and the sensitivity of the surveillance system to detect wild poliovirus circulating in the community. Sensitivity is the most important characteristic of the poliomyelitis surveillance system and it is measured by the rate of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) per 100,000 under age 15 years. As of March 21, 1998, the AFP rate reached its lowest level yet in the Americas, with only Bolivia, Chile, and Honduras presenting an acceptable rate (the analysis does not include the US and Canada). The other countries in the Caribbean region and Latin America had rates under 1 AFP case per 100,000 children under age 15. It follows that only 6% of children under age 15 in the region are currently protected by a sensitive AFP surveillance system. Poliovirus may therefore be circulating silently in the region. Renewed attention must be given to the AFP surveillance indicators. PMID:12321498

  3. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System

    MedlinePlus

    ... What's this? Submit Button Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir New ... Minority Data Released! The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors six types of health-risk behaviors ...

  4. Mobile security surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolnikov, Andre

    2006-05-01

    The necessity to control certain areas from outside intrusion or, vice versa, preventing subjects/objects (e.g. prisoners) from leaving a controlled area has brought to life numerous designs of surveillance systems for the above-mentioned tasks. Fibers, laser beams, microwaves, etc have been used for decades to provide an alarm signal, should anyone or anything cross a light, radio beam or break a fiber. However, it is difficult to distinguish a stray animal from a human being, or even a snow ball from the first two using the conventional surveillance designs. False alarms render practically useless the above means, especially for field applications. It is possible, nonetheless, to set up an automatic system that discriminates objects/subjects crossing the control line/perimeter - a statistical approach which includes time series analysis is proposed as a solution for the problem.

  5. Bodygraphic Injury Surveillance System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuboi, Toshiki; Kitamura, Koji; Nishida, Yoshihumi; Motomura, Yoichi; Takano, Tachio; Yamanaka, Tatsuhiro; Mizoguchi, Hiroshi

    This paper proposes a new technology,``a bodygraphic injury surveillance system (BISS)'' that not only accumulates accident situation data but also represents injury data based on a human body coordinate system in a standardized and multilayered way. Standardized and multilayered representation of injury enables accumulation, retrieval, sharing, statistical analysis, and modeling causalities of injury across different fields such as medicine, engineering, and industry. To confirm the effectiveness of the developed system, the authors collected 3,685 children's injury data in cooperation with a hospital. As new analyses based on the developed BISS, this paper shows bodygraphically statistical analysis and childhood injury modeling using the developed BISS and Bayesian network technology.

  6. Wallops Ship Surveillance System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Donna C.

    2011-01-01

    Approved as a Wallops control center backup system, the Wallops Ship Surveillance Software is a day-of-launch risk analysis tool for spaceport activities. The system calculates impact probabilities and displays ship locations relative to boundary lines. It enables rapid analysis of possible flight paths to preclude the need to cancel launches and allow execution of launches in a timely manner. Its design is based on low-cost, large-customer- base elements including personal computers, the Windows operating system, C/C++ object-oriented software, and network interfaces. In conformance with the NASA software safety standard, the system is designed to ensure that it does not falsely report a safe-for-launch condition. To improve the current ship surveillance method, the system is designed to prevent delay of launch under a safe-for-launch condition. A single workstation is designated the controller of the official ship information and the official risk analysis. Copies of this information are shared with other networked workstations. The program design is divided into five subsystems areas: 1. Communication Link -- threads that control the networking of workstations; 2. Contact List -- a thread that controls a list of protected item (ocean vessel) information; 3. Hazard List -- threads that control a list of hazardous item (debris) information and associated risk calculation information; 4. Display -- threads that control operator inputs and screen display outputs; and 5. Archive -- a thread that controls archive file read and write access. Currently, most of the hazard list thread and parts of other threads are being reused as part of a new ship surveillance system, under the SureTrak project.

  7. Systems for persistent surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Keith

    2011-09-01

    The requirements for a persistent wide-area surveillance system are discussed in the context of evolving military operations. Significant emphasis has been placed on the development of new sensing technologies to meet the challenges posed by asymmetric threats. Within the UK, the Electro-Magnetic Remote Sensing Defence Technology Centre (EMRS DTC) has supported the research and development of new capabilities including radio-frequency (RF) and electro-optic (EO) systems, as well as work on sensor exploitation, with a goal of developing solutions for enhancing situational awareness. This activity has been supported by field trials to determine the efficacy of competing technologies in relation to realistic threat scenarios.

  8. Sonoma Persistent Surveillance System

    SciTech Connect

    Pennington, D M

    2006-03-24

    Sonoma offers the first cost-effective, broad-area, high-resolution, real-time motion imagery system for surveillance applications. Sonoma is unique in its ability to provide continuous, real-time video imagery of an area the size of a small city with resolutions sufficient to track 8,000 moving objects in the field of view. At higher resolutions and over smaller areas, Sonoma can even track the movement of individual people. The visual impact of the data available from Sonoma is already causing a paradigm shift in the architecture and operation of other surveillance systems. Sonoma is expected to cost just one-tenth the price of comparably sized sensor systems. Cameras mounted on an airborne platform constantly monitor an area, feeding data to the ground for real-time analysis. Sonoma was designed to provide real-time data for actionable intelligence in situations such as monitoring traffic, special events, border security, and harbors. If a Sonoma system had been available in the aftermath of the Katrina and Rita hurricanes, emergency responders would have had real-time information on roads, water levels, and traffic conditions, perhaps saving many lives.

  9. Smart sensing surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Charles; Chu, Kai-Dee; O'Looney, James; Blake, Michael; Rutar, Colleen

    2010-04-01

    An effective public safety sensor system for heavily-populated applications requires sophisticated and geographically-distributed infrastructures, centralized supervision, and deployment of large-scale security and surveillance networks. Artificial intelligence in sensor systems is a critical design to raise awareness levels, improve the performance of the system and adapt to a changing scenario and environment. In this paper, a highly-distributed, fault-tolerant, and energy-efficient Smart Sensing Surveillance System (S4) is presented to efficiently provide a 24/7 and all weather security operation in crowded environments or restricted areas. Technically, the S4 consists of a number of distributed sensor nodes integrated with specific passive sensors to rapidly collect, process, and disseminate heterogeneous sensor data from near omni-directions. These distributed sensor nodes can cooperatively work to send immediate security information when new objects appear. When the new objects are detected, the S4 will smartly select the available node with a Pan- Tilt- Zoom- (PTZ) Electro-Optics EO/IR camera to track the objects and capture associated imagery. The S4 provides applicable advanced on-board digital image processing capabilities to detect and track the specific objects. The imaging detection operations include unattended object detection, human feature and behavior detection, and configurable alert triggers, etc. Other imaging processes can be updated to meet specific requirements and operations. In the S4, all the sensor nodes are connected with a robust, reconfigurable, LPI/LPD (Low Probability of Intercept/ Low Probability of Detect) wireless mesh network using Ultra-wide band (UWB) RF technology. This UWB RF technology can provide an ad-hoc, secure mesh network and capability to relay network information, communicate and pass situational awareness and messages. The Service Oriented Architecture of S4 enables remote applications to interact with the S4

  10. Smart sensing surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Charles; Chu, Kai-Dee; O'Looney, James; Blake, Michael; Rutar, Colleen

    2010-04-01

    Unattended ground sensor (UGS) networks have been widely used in remote battlefield and other tactical applications over the last few decades due to the advances of the digital signal processing. The UGS network can be applied in a variety of areas including border surveillance, special force operations, perimeter and building protection, target acquisition, situational awareness, and force protection. In this paper, a highly-distributed, fault-tolerant, and energyefficient Smart Sensing Surveillance System (S4) is presented to efficiently provide 24/7 and all weather security operation in a situation management environment. The S4 is composed of a number of distributed nodes to collect, process, and disseminate heterogeneous sensor data. Nearly all S4 nodes have passive sensors to provide rapid omnidirectional detection. In addition, Pan- Tilt- Zoom- (PTZ) Electro-Optics EO/IR cameras are integrated to selected nodes to track the objects and capture associated imagery. These S4 camera-connected nodes will provide applicable advanced on-board digital image processing capabilities to detect and track the specific objects. The imaging detection operations include unattended object detection, human feature and behavior detection, and configurable alert triggers, etc. In the S4, all the nodes are connected with a robust, reconfigurable, LPI/LPD (Low Probability of Intercept/ Low Probability of Detect) wireless mesh network using Ultra-wide band (UWB) RF technology, which can provide an ad-hoc, secure mesh network and capability to relay network information, communicate and pass situational awareness and messages. The S4 utilizes a Service Oriented Architecture such that remote applications can interact with the S4 network and use the specific presentation methods. The S4 capabilities and technologies have great potential for both military and civilian applications, enabling highly effective security support tools for improving surveillance activities in densely crowded

  11. Excluding polio in areas of inadequate surveillance in the final stages of eradication in China.

    PubMed Central

    Hoekstra, E. J.; Chai, F.; Wang, X. J.; Zhang, X. L.; Yu, J. J.; Bilous, J.

    2000-01-01

    In 1996, China adopted a virological classification of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) cases for its surveillance system. Only AFP cases with wild poliovirus in stool specimens are confirmed as polio. Cases with adequate stool specimens that are negative for wild poliovirus are not counted. This paper describes a methodology to rule out poliomyelitis in AFP cases with inadequate stool specimens. National surveillance data were analysed using dot maps to detect clusters of AFP cases with high-risk factors for poliomyelitis. The surveillance system and vaccine coverage were assessed during field investigations. Four clusters of AFP cases were identified, but no poliomyelitis cases. Programmatic failures in the identified high-risk areas included low vaccination rates, poor stool specimen collection and inadequate AFP surveillance. Programme strategies were implemented to correct the identified failures. Use of this methodology provides strong evidence consistent with the absence of wild poliovirus in China. PMID:10812727

  12. The Development of Surveillance Systems.

    PubMed

    Henderson, D A

    2016-03-01

    Surveillance systems in public health practice have increased in number and sophistication with advances in data collection, analysis, and communication. When the Communicable Disease Center (now the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) was founded some 70 years ago, surveillance referred to the close observation of individuals with suspected smallpox, plague, or cholera. Alexander Langmuir, head of the Epidemiology Branch, redefined surveillance as the epidemiology-based critical factor in infectious disease control. I joined Langmuir as assistant chief in 1955 and was appointed chief of the Surveillance Section in 1961. In this paper, I describe Langmuir's redefinition of surveillance. Langmuir asserted that its proper use in public health meant the systematic reporting of infectious diseases, the analysis and epidemiologic interpretation of data, and both prompt and widespread dissemination of results. I outline the Communicable Disease Center's first surveillance systems for malaria, poliomyelitis, and influenza. I also discuss the role of surveillance in the global smallpox eradication program, emphasizing that the establishment of systematic reporting systems and prompt action based on results were critical factors of the program. PMID:26928219

  13. Alberta Congenital Anomalies Surveillance System.

    PubMed Central

    Lowry, R B; Thunem, N Y; Anderson-Redick, S

    1989-01-01

    The Alberta Congenital Anomalies Surveillance System was started in 1966 in response to the thalidomide tragedy earlier in the decade. It was one of four provincial surveillance systems on which the federal government relied for baseline statistics of congenital anomalies. The government now collects data from six provinces and one territory. The Alberta Congenital Anomaly Surveillance System originally depended on three types of notification to the Division of Vital Statistics, Department of Health, Government of Alberta: birth notice and certificates of death and stillbirth; increased sources of ascertainment have greatly improved data quality. We present the data for 1980-86 and compare the prevalence rates of selected anomalies with the rates from three other surveillance systems. Surveillance systems do not guarantee that a new teratogen will be detected, but they are extremely valuable for testing hypotheses regarding causation. At the very least they provide baseline data with which to compare any deviation or trend. For many, if not most, congenital anomalies total prevention is not possible; however, surveillance systems can be used to measure progress in prevention. PMID:2819634

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION, TEST REPORT OF CONTROL OF BIOAEROSOLS IN HVAC SYSTEMS, AIRFLOW PRODUCTS AFP30

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of the AFP30 air filter for dust and bioaerosol filtration manufactured by Airflow Products. The pressure drop across the filter was 62 Pa clean and 247 Pa dust loaded. The filtration effici...

  15. SETI radio spectrum surveillance system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crow, B.; Lokshin, A.; Marina, M.; Ching, L.

    1985-01-01

    The SETI Radio Spectrum Surveillance System (SRSSS) will provide a data base for assessing the radio frequency interference (RFI) environment for SETI and minimizing RFI disruptions during the search. The system's hardware and software are described and the sensitivity of the system is discussed.

  16. Reasons and circumstances for the late notification of Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP) cases in health facilities in Luanda

    PubMed Central

    Macama, Arciolanda; Okeibunor, Joseph; Grando, Silvia; Djibaoui, Karim; Yameogo, Robert Koudounoaga; Morais, Alda; Gasasira, Alex Ntale; Mbaye, Salla; Mihigo, Richard; Nshimirimana, Deo

    2014-01-01

    Introduction As the polio eradication effort enters the end game stage, surveillance for Acute Flaccid Paralysis in children becomes a pivotal tool. Thus given the gaps in AFP surveillance as identified in the cases of late notification, this study was designed to explore the reasons and circumstances responsible for late notification of AFP and collection of inadequate stools (more than 14 days of onset of paralysis until collection of the 2nd stool specimen) of AFP cases in health facilities equipped to manage AFP cases. Methods Eleven AFP cases with inadequate stools were reported from January 2 to July 8, 2012 - Epidemiological Weeks 1-27. The families of these cases were interviewed with an in-depth interview guide. The staff of the seven health units, where they later reported, was also enlisted for the study which used in-depth interview guide in eliciting information from them. Results Ignorance and wrong perception of the etiology of the cases as well as dissatisfaction with the health units as the major reasons for late reporting of AFP cases. The first port of call is usually alternative health care system such as traditional healers and spiritualists because the people hold the belief that the problem is spiritually induced. The few, who make it to health units, are faced with ill equipped rural health workers who wait for the arrival of more qualified staff, who may take days to do so. Conclusion An understanding of the health seeking behavior of the population is germane to effective AFP surveillance. There is thus a need to tailor AFP surveillance to the health seeking behavior of the populations and expand it to community structures. PMID:25426197

  17. Smart sensing surveillance video system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Charles; Szu, Harold

    2016-05-01

    An intelligent video surveillance system is able to detect and identify abnormal and alarming situations by analyzing object movement. The Smart Sensing Surveillance Video (S3V) System is proposed to minimize video processing and transmission, thus allowing a fixed number of cameras to be connected on the system, and making it suitable for its applications in remote battlefield, tactical, and civilian applications including border surveillance, special force operations, airfield protection, perimeter and building protection, and etc. The S3V System would be more effective if equipped with visual understanding capabilities to detect, analyze, and recognize objects, track motions, and predict intentions. In addition, alarm detection is performed on the basis of parameters of the moving objects and their trajectories, and is performed using semantic reasoning and ontologies. The S3V System capabilities and technologies have great potential for both military and civilian applications, enabling highly effective security support tools for improving surveillance activities in densely crowded environments. It would be directly applicable to solutions for emergency response personnel, law enforcement, and other homeland security missions, as well as in applications requiring the interoperation of sensor networks with handheld or body-worn interface devices.

  18. Industrial process surveillance system

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Kenneth C.; Wegerich, Stephan W.; Singer, Ralph M.; Mott, Jack E.

    1998-01-01

    A system and method for monitoring an industrial process and/or industrial data source. The system includes generating time varying data from industrial data sources, processing the data to obtain time correlation of the data, determining the range of data, determining learned states of normal operation and using these states to generate expected values, comparing the expected values to current actual values to identify a current state of the process closest to a learned, normal state; generating a set of modeled data, and processing the modeled data to identify a data pattern and generating an alarm upon detecting a deviation from normalcy.

  19. Industrial Process Surveillance System

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Kenneth C.; Wegerich, Stephan W; Singer, Ralph M.; Mott, Jack E.

    2001-01-30

    A system and method for monitoring an industrial process and/or industrial data source. The system includes generating time varying data from industrial data sources, processing the data to obtain time correlation of the data, determining the range of data, determining learned states of normal operation and using these states to generate expected values, comparing the expected values to current actual values to identify a current state of the process closest to a learned, normal state; generating a set of modeled data, and processing the modeled data to identify a data pattern and generating an alarm upon detecting a deviation from normalcy.

  20. Industrial process surveillance system

    DOEpatents

    Gross, K.C.; Wegerich, S.W.; Singer, R.M.; Mott, J.E.

    1998-06-09

    A system and method are disclosed for monitoring an industrial process and/or industrial data source. The system includes generating time varying data from industrial data sources, processing the data to obtain time correlation of the data, determining the range of data, determining learned states of normal operation and using these states to generate expected values, comparing the expected values to current actual values to identify a current state of the process closest to a learned, normal state; generating a set of modeled data, and processing the modeled data to identify a data pattern and generating an alarm upon detecting a deviation from normalcy. 96 figs.

  1. Poliomyelitis in Oman: acute flaccid paralysis surveillance leading to early detection and rapid response to a type 3 outbreak.

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, S. E.; Suleiman, A. J.; Mehta, F. R.; al-Dhahry, S. H.; el-Bualy, M. S.

    1994-01-01

    Countries are increasingly requesting guidance on carrying out acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance, aimed at detecting and confirming all cases of acute paralytic poliomyelitis. The experience of Oman provides many lessons in this respect. AFP surveillance in Oman was established systematically. First, an epidemiologist was assigned to coordinate surveillance, and a laboratory for performing polio-virus isolation was identified. Next, operational guidelines for AFP surveillance were developed and widely promoted among health staff. The quality of the system has been monitored for more than 3 years with selected performance indicators. From January 1990 to April 1993, 49 AFP cases were reported, corresponding to an average annual rate of 2.1 AFP cases per 100,000 children aged less than 15 years. A total of 98% of the AFP cases were investigated within 48 hours of being reported; two stool samples were obtained from 94% of the cases. Following complete investigation, nearly a third of the reported AFP cases were classified as being clinically compatible with Guillain-Barré syndrome. Four AFP cases, all reported in 1991, were confirmed to be due to wild type 3 poliovirus. Because AFP surveillance detected these cases rapidly, Oman was able to carry out outbreak control measures promptly and more than 350,000 extra doses of oral poliovirus vaccine were delivered to children under 6 years of age. PMID:7867136

  2. System for maritime surveillance aid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Kazuo; Yamada, Kimio; Kiriya, Nobuo

    1997-02-01

    A system to aid maritime surveillance is being studied to search for small floating objects like a life raft or to detect oil spill more reliably and efficiently. The system consists of sensors, an image processor and a display so as to reject unnecessary noise in the sea surface images, and then to detect and identify the objects to be searched. This paper describes the optical sensor system with an infrared camera and a TV camera. The infrared camera detects 3-5 micrometers waveband by 512 by 512 solid state sensing elements. The systems was used to gather images on different sea areas in summer and winter by aircraft and on the ground. Typical images are presented to demonstrate the validity of the sensor system to search for small flowing objects. The influences of air and water temperature, weather and observation altitude upon the images are discussed. Image processing techniques like filtering or image superposition are also described to suppress noise.

  3. Battlefield Optical Surveillance System (BOSS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ireland, Robert J.

    1997-02-01

    The battlefield optical surveillance system (BOSS) was developed for DARPA by the U.S. Air Force's Phillips Laboratory. BOSS is a HMMWV mounted laser surveillance and deterrence system. It is intended to be used to detect and to deter potentially hostile individuals, snipers and groups of agitators. The BOSS integrates the following: (1) a thermal camera (8-12 micrometer FLIR), that detects and cues to possible targets, (2) a 45 watt, 808 nm (near IR), air- cooled laser which provides covert illumination and designation for a day/night camera to acquire said target and attain a high-resolution image using night vision equipment, and (3) a 1 watt, 532 nm (green) laser that overtly illuminates and designates the target. It also has significant deterring effects both physiological and psychological on individuals and crowds. BOSS offers the potential capability to detect snipers before the first shot is fired. Detection of optical augmentations and the thermal characteristics of a sniper allows for this early detection. The integration of BOSS with acoustic sniper detection systems are being explored.

  4. Surveillance systems to track progress toward global polio eradication - worldwide, 2012-2013.

    PubMed

    Levitt, Alexandra; Diop, Ousmane M; Tangermann, Rudolf H; Paladin, Fem; Kamgang, Jean Baptiste; Burns, Cara C; Chenoweth, Paul J; Goel, Ajay; Wassilak, Steven G F

    2014-04-25

    In 2012, the World Health Assembly of the World Health Organization (WHO) declared completion of polio eradication a programmatic emergency. Polio cases are detected through surveillance of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) cases and subsequent testing of stool specimens for polioviruses (PVs) at WHO-accredited laboratories within the Global Polio Laboratory Network (GPLN). AFP surveillance is supplemented by environmental surveillance, testing sewage samples from selected sites for PVs. Virologic surveillance, including genomic sequencing to identify isolates by genotype and measure divergence between isolates, guides Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) activities by confirming the presence of PV, tracking chains of PV transmission, and highlighting gaps in AFP surveillance quality. This report provides AFP surveillance quality indicators at national and subnational levels during 2012-2013 for countries that experienced PV cases during 2009-2013 in the WHO African Region (AFR) and Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR), the remaining polio-endemic regions. It also summarizes the results of environmental surveillance and reviews indicators assessing the timeliness of reporting of PV isolation and of virus strain characterization globally. Regional-level performance indicators for timely reporting of PV isolation were met in five of six WHO regions in 2012 and 2013. Of 30 AFR and EMR countries that experienced cases of PV (wild poliovirus [WPV], circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus [cVDPV], or both) during 2009-2013, national performance indicator targets for AFP surveillance and collection of adequate specimens were met in 27 (90%) countries in 2012 and 22 (73%) in 2013. In 17 (57%) countries, ≥80% of the population lived in subnational areas meeting both AFP performance indicators in 2012, decreasing to 13 (43%) in 2013. To achieve polio eradication and certify interruption of PV transmission, intensive efforts to strengthen and maintain AFP surveillance are

  5. System For Surveillance Of Spectral Signals

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Kenneth C.; Wegerich, Stephan; Criss-Puszkiewicz, Cynthia; Wilks, Alan D.

    2003-04-22

    A method and system for monitoring at least one of a system, a process and a data source. A method and system have been developed for carrying out surveillance, testing and modification of an ongoing process or other source of data, such as a spectroscopic examination. A signal from the system under surveillance is collected and compared with a reference signal, a frequency domain transformation carried out for the system signal and reference signal, a frequency domain difference function established. The process is then repeated until a full range of data is accumulated over the time domain and a Sequential Probability Ratio Test methodology applied to determine a three-dimensional surface plot characteristic of the operating state of the system under surveillance.

  6. System for surveillance of spectral signals

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Kenneth C.; Wegerich, Stephan W.; Criss-Puszkiewicz, Cynthia; Wilks, Alan D.

    2006-02-14

    A method and system for monitoring at least one of a system, a process and a data source. A method and system have been developed for carrying out surveillance, testing and modification of an ongoing process or other source of data, such as a spectroscopic examination. A signal from the system under surveillance is collected and compared with a reference signal, a frequency domain transformation carried out for the system signal and reference signal, a frequency domain difference function established. The process is then repeated until a full range of data is accumulated over the time domain and a Sequential Probability Ratio Test ("SPRT") methodology applied to determine a three-dimensional surface plot characteristic of the operating state of the system under surveillance.

  7. System for surveillance of spectral signals

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Kenneth C.; Wegerich, Stephan W.; Criss-Puszkiewicz, Cynthia; Wilks, Alan D.

    2001-01-01

    A method and system for monitoring at least one of a system, a process and a data source. A method and system have been developed for carrying out surveillance, testing and modification of an ongoing process or other source of data, such as a spectroscopic examination. A signal from the system under surveillance is collected and compared with a reference signal, a frequency domain transformation carried out for the system signal and reference signal, a frequency domain difference function established. The process is then repeated until a full range of data is accumulated over the time domain and a SPRT sequential probability ratio test methodology applied to determine a three-dimensional surface plot characteristic of the operating state of the system under surveillance.

  8. System For Surveillance Of Spectral Signals

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Kenneth C.; Wegerich, Stephan W.; Criss-Puszkiewicz, Cynthia; Wilks, Alan D.

    2004-10-12

    A method and system for monitoring at least one of a system, a process and a data source. A method and system have been developed for carrying out surveillance, testing and modification of an ongoing process or other source of data, such as a spectroscopic examination. A signal from the system under surveillance is collected and compared with a reference signal, a frequency domain transformation carried out for the system signal and reference signal, a frequency domain difference function established. The process is then repeated until a full range of data is accumulated over the time domain and a Sequential Probability Ratio Test ("SPRT") methodology applied to determine a three-dimensional surface plot characteristic of the operating state of the system under surveillance.

  9. Laser Surveillance System for Spent Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Fiarman, S.; Zucker, M. S.; Bieber, Jr., A. M.

    1980-01-01

    A laser surveillance system installed at spent fuel storage pools (SFSP's) will provide the safeguard inspector with specific knowledge of spent fuel movement that cannot be obtained with current surveillance systems. The laser system will allow for the division of the pool's spent fuel inventory into two populations - those assemblies which have been moved and those which haven't - which is essential for maximizing the efficiency and effectiveness of the inspection effort. We have designed, constructed, and tested a full size laser system operating in air and have used an array of 6 zircaloy BWR tubes to simulate an assembly. The reflective signal from the zircaloy rods is a strong function of position of the assembly, but in all cases is easily discernable from the reference scan of the background with no assembly. A design for a SFSP laser surveillance system incorporating laser ranging is discussed. 10 figures.

  10. Light armored vehicle reconnaissance and surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbeau, Nicolas R.

    1994-10-01

    The Canadian Department of National Defence (DND) has established a requirement for a fleet of reconnaissance vehicles equipped with a modern surveillance system to be used in a wide variety of scenarios. This includes conventional operations within NATO, contingency operations in troubled areas as well as UN peacekeeping missions. As such, the Light Armored Vehicles Reconnaissance and Surveillance System will be the first 24 hour all- weather reconnaissance system integrated into a combat vehicle. This paper intends to describe how the operational requirements defined by DND were translated into sensor and system requirements. After a summary of the current configuration, it focuses on product pre-planned improvements and future needs.

  11. Self tuning system for industrial surveillance

    DOEpatents

    Stephan, Wegerich W; Jarman, Kristin K.; Gross, Kenneth C.

    2000-01-01

    A method and system for automatically establishing operational parameters of a statistical surveillance system. The method and system performs a frequency domain transition on time dependent data, a first Fourier composite is formed, serial correlation is removed, a series of Gaussian whiteness tests are performed along with an autocorrelation test, Fourier coefficients are stored and a second Fourier composite is formed. Pseudorandom noise is added, a Monte Carlo simulation is performed to establish SPRT missed alarm probabilities and tested with a synthesized signal. A false alarm test is then emperically evaluated and if less than a desired target value, then SPRT probabilities are used for performing surveillance.

  12. An emergency response UAV Surveillance System.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Pedro A; Geckle, William J; Barton, Jeffrey D; Samsundar, John; Gao, Tia; Brown, Myron Z; Martin, Sean R

    2006-01-01

    A system using Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs), equipped for real time telemetry of video imagery, sensor support data, and GPS/INS navigation, is being developed to provide situational awareness (SA) to the central command of mass casualty incident response. UAVs provide an inexpensive and safe means of acquiring video surveillance in chaotic disaster scenes, while being durable and non-intrusive. The system provides autonomous surveillance of defined perimeters, video tracking and active following of targets of interest, and real time cueing to other imaging UAVs.

  13. Surveillance Systems to Track Progress Toward Polio Eradication--Worldwide, 2014-2015.

    PubMed

    Snider, Cynthia J; Diop, Ousmane M; Burns, Cara C; Tangermann, Rudolph H; Wassilak, Steven G F

    2016-04-01

    Global efforts to eradicate polio began in 1988, and polio-free certification has been achieved in four of the six World Health Organization (WHO) regions. Nigeria was removed from WHO's list of countries with endemic polio in September 2015, achieving an important milestone toward interruption of wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission in the African Region (1). Afghanistan and Pakistan, both in the Eastern Mediterranean Region, were the only countries to report WPV cases in 2015. Previously reported outbreaks caused by WPV importation during 2013-2014 have ended (2,3). The primary means for detecting poliovirus transmission is surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) among children aged <15 years (4,5). Stool specimens collected from children with AFP are tested for both WPV and vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) in WHO-accredited laboratories within the Global Polio Laboratory Network (GPLN). In selected locations, AFP surveillance is supplemented with environmental surveillance (testing sewage for poliovirus) (6). Testing of stool and sewage samples includes genomic sequencing to characterize poliovirus isolates; results are used to map poliovirus transmission and identify gaps in AFP surveillance. This report presents poliovirus surveillance data from 2014 and 2015, focusing on the 20 countries in the African Region and six in the Eastern Mediterranean Region that reported a WPV or circulating VDPV (cVDPV) case during 2011-2015, including Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone, which were most affected by the 2014-2015 Ebola virus disease (Ebola) outbreak.

  14. Surveillance Systems to Track Progress Toward Polio Eradication--Worldwide, 2014-2015.

    PubMed

    Snider, Cynthia J; Diop, Ousmane M; Burns, Cara C; Tangermann, Rudolph H; Wassilak, Steven G F

    2016-04-01

    Global efforts to eradicate polio began in 1988, and polio-free certification has been achieved in four of the six World Health Organization (WHO) regions. Nigeria was removed from WHO's list of countries with endemic polio in September 2015, achieving an important milestone toward interruption of wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission in the African Region (1). Afghanistan and Pakistan, both in the Eastern Mediterranean Region, were the only countries to report WPV cases in 2015. Previously reported outbreaks caused by WPV importation during 2013-2014 have ended (2,3). The primary means for detecting poliovirus transmission is surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) among children aged <15 years (4,5). Stool specimens collected from children with AFP are tested for both WPV and vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) in WHO-accredited laboratories within the Global Polio Laboratory Network (GPLN). In selected locations, AFP surveillance is supplemented with environmental surveillance (testing sewage for poliovirus) (6). Testing of stool and sewage samples includes genomic sequencing to characterize poliovirus isolates; results are used to map poliovirus transmission and identify gaps in AFP surveillance. This report presents poliovirus surveillance data from 2014 and 2015, focusing on the 20 countries in the African Region and six in the Eastern Mediterranean Region that reported a WPV or circulating VDPV (cVDPV) case during 2011-2015, including Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone, which were most affected by the 2014-2015 Ebola virus disease (Ebola) outbreak. PMID:27054558

  15. System specification for the integrated monitoring and surveillance system

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    This System Specification establishes the requirements for the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA) Integrated Monitoring and Surveillance System (IMSS). In this document, ``Integrated Monitoring and Surveillance System`` is used to describe the concept of integrated sensors, computers, personnel, and systems that perform the functions of sensing conditions, acquiring data, monitoring environmental safety and health, controlling and accounting for materials, monitoring material stability, monitoring container integrity, transferring data, and analyzing, reporting, and storing data. This concept encompasses systems (e.g. sensors, personnel, databases, etc.) that are already in place at the sites but may require modifications or additions to meet all identified surveillance requirements. The purpose of this System Specification is to provide Department of Energy (DOE) sites that store plutonium materials with a consolidation of all known requirements for the storage and surveillance of 3013 packages of stabilized plutonium metals and oxides. This compilation may be used (1) as a baseline for surveillance system design specifications where 3013 packages of stabilized plutonium metals and oxides will be stored and monitored; (2) as a checklist for evaluating existing surveillance systems to ensure that all requirements are met for the storage and surveillance of 3013 packages of stabilized plutonium metals and oxides; and (3) as a baseline for preparing procurement specifications tailored for site specific storage and surveillance of 3013 packages of stabilized plutonium metals and oxides.

  16. Laser surveillance system for spent fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Fiarman, S; Zucker, M S; Bieber, Jr, A M

    1980-01-01

    A laser surveillance system installed at spent fuel storage pools will provide the safeguard inspector with specific knowledge of spent fuel movement that cannot be obtained with current surveillance systems. The laser system will allow for the division of the pool's spent fuel inventory into two populations - those assemblies which have been moved and those which haven't - which is essential for maximizing the efficiency and effectiveness of the inspection effort. We have designed, constructed, and tested a laser system and have used it with a simulated BWR assembly. The reflected signal from the zircaloy rods depends on the position of the assembly, but in all cases is easily discernable from the reference scan of background with no assembly.

  17. Systems pharmacology augments drug safety surveillance.

    PubMed

    Lorberbaum, T; Nasir, M; Keiser, M J; Vilar, S; Hripcsak, G; Tatonetti, N P

    2015-02-01

    Small molecule drugs are the foundation of modern medical practice, yet their use is limited by the onset of unexpected and severe adverse events (AEs). Regulatory agencies rely on postmarketing surveillance to monitor safety once drugs are approved for clinical use. Despite advances in pharmacovigilance methods that address issues of confounding bias, clinical data of AEs are inherently noisy. Systems pharmacology-the integration of systems biology and chemical genomics-can illuminate drug mechanisms of action. We hypothesize that these data can improve drug safety surveillance by highlighting drugs with a mechanistic connection to the target phenotype (enriching true positives) and filtering those that do not (depleting false positives). We present an algorithm, the modular assembly of drug safety subnetworks (MADSS), to combine systems pharmacology and pharmacovigilance data and significantly improve drug safety monitoring for four clinically relevant adverse drug reactions.

  18. Systems pharmacology augments drug safety surveillance.

    PubMed

    Lorberbaum, T; Nasir, M; Keiser, M J; Vilar, S; Hripcsak, G; Tatonetti, N P

    2015-02-01

    Small molecule drugs are the foundation of modern medical practice, yet their use is limited by the onset of unexpected and severe adverse events (AEs). Regulatory agencies rely on postmarketing surveillance to monitor safety once drugs are approved for clinical use. Despite advances in pharmacovigilance methods that address issues of confounding bias, clinical data of AEs are inherently noisy. Systems pharmacology-the integration of systems biology and chemical genomics-can illuminate drug mechanisms of action. We hypothesize that these data can improve drug safety surveillance by highlighting drugs with a mechanistic connection to the target phenotype (enriching true positives) and filtering those that do not (depleting false positives). We present an algorithm, the modular assembly of drug safety subnetworks (MADSS), to combine systems pharmacology and pharmacovigilance data and significantly improve drug safety monitoring for four clinically relevant adverse drug reactions. PMID:25670520

  19. Which surveillance systems were operational after Typhoon Haiyan?

    PubMed Central

    Villa, Eireen; Pacho, Agnes; Galvan, Maria Adona; Corpuz, Aura

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Effective disease surveillance is vital for a successful disaster response. This study assessed the functionality of the three disease surveillance systems used post-Haiyan: Philippine Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (PIDSR), Event-based Surveillance and Response (ESR) and Surveillance in Post Extreme Emergencies and Disasters (SPEED). Methods A survey of 45 government health officers from affected areas was conducted in March 2014. The survey documented when each of the systems was operational and included questions that ranked the functionality of the three surveillance systems and whether they complemented each other. Results Two of 11 (18%) surveillance units had an operational SPEED system pre-event. PIDSR and ESR remained operational in five of 11 (45%) surveillance units without interruption of reporting. Ten surveillance units (91%) rated PIDSR as functional post-Typhoon; eight (72.7%) considered ESR functional. SPEED was rated as functional by three (27%) surveillance units. Seven of 11 (63.6%) surveillance units rated the three systems as being complementary to each other. Discussion In most of the areas affected by Typhoon Haiyan, the routine surveillance systems (PIDSR and ESR) were not disrupted; although, in Leyte it took seven weeks for these to be operational. Although SPEED is recommended for activation within 48 hours after a disaster, this did not occur in most of the surveyed areas. Most of the surveillance units rated PIDSR, ESR and SPEED to be complementary to each other. PMID:26767139

  20. Surveillance systems for intermodal transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakovlev, Sergej; Voznak, Miroslav; Andziulis, Arunas

    2015-05-01

    Intermodal container monitoring is considered a major security issue in many major logistic companies and countries worldwide. Current representation of the problem, we face today, originated in 2002, right after the 9/11 attacks. Then, a new worldwide Container Security Initiative (CSI, 2002) was considered that shaped the perception of the transportation operations. Now more than 80 larger ports all over the world contribute to its further development and integration into everyday transportation operations and improve the regulations for the developing regions. Although, these new improvements allow us to feel safer and secure, constant management of transportation operations has become a very difficult problem for conventional data analysis methods and information systems. The paper deals with a proposal of a whole new concept for the improvement of the Containers Security Initiative (CSI) by virtually connecting safety, security processes and systems. A conceptual middleware approach with deployable intelligent agent modules is proposed to be used with possible scenarios and a testbed is used to test the solution. Middleware examples are visually programmed using National Instruments LabView software packages and Wireless sensor network hardware modules. An experimental software is used to evaluate he solution. This research is a contribution to the intermodal transportation and is intended to be used as a means or the development of intelligent transport systems.

  1. Future trends in compact TV surveillance systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gaertner, K.; Heaysman, B.; Vodrazka, P.

    1985-01-01

    Up to now the IAEA's Safeguards Surveillance Program has been based upon 8 mm film camera systems. As this type of equipment availability is controlled by the needs of the amateur market, the Agency is forced to follow the changing world trend in replacing film with video. The eventual substitution of film with video systems should be influenced by two design approaches, namely integrated systems, resembling physically the present film cameras, and/or remote camera-control unit systems. This paper describes experiments being carried out on both types by some Member States as well as the Agency's activities in this field.

  2. 17 CFR 38.156 - Automated trade surveillance system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Automated trade surveillance... DESIGNATED CONTRACT MARKETS Compliance With Rules § 38.156 Automated trade surveillance system. A designated contract market must maintain an automated trade surveillance system capable of detecting and...

  3. 17 CFR 38.156 - Automated trade surveillance system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Automated trade surveillance... DESIGNATED CONTRACT MARKETS Compliance With Rules § 38.156 Automated trade surveillance system. A designated contract market must maintain an automated trade surveillance system capable of detecting and...

  4. An integrated national mortality surveillance system for death registration and mortality surveillance, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shiwei; Wu, Xiaoling; Lopez, Alan D; Wang, Lijun; Cai, Yue; Page, Andrew; Yin, Peng; Liu, Yunning; Li, Yichong; Liu, Jiangmei; You, Jinling; Zhou, Maigeng

    2016-01-01

    In China, sample-based mortality surveillance systems, such as the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention's disease surveillance points system and the Ministry of Health's vital registration system, have been used for decades to provide nationally representative data on health status for health-care decision-making and performance evaluation. However, neither system provided representative mortality and cause-of-death data at the provincial level to inform regional health service needs and policy priorities. Moreover, the systems overlapped to a considerable extent, thereby entailing a duplication of effort. In 2013, the Chinese Government combined these two systems into an integrated national mortality surveillance system to provide a provincially representative picture of total and cause-specific mortality and to accelerate the development of a comprehensive vital registration and mortality surveillance system for the whole country. This new system increased the surveillance population from 6 to 24% of the Chinese population. The number of surveillance points, each of which covered a district or county, increased from 161 to 605. To ensure representativeness at the provincial level, the 605 surveillance points were selected to cover China's 31 provinces using an iterative method involving multistage stratification that took into account the sociodemographic characteristics of the population. This paper describes the development and operation of the new national mortality surveillance system, which is expected to yield representative provincial estimates of mortality in China for the first time.

  5. Alpha-Fetoprotein Detection of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Leads to a Standardized Analysis of Dynamic AFP to Improve Screening Based Detection.

    PubMed

    Bird, Thomas G; Dimitropoulou, Polyxeni; Turner, Rebecca M; Jenks, Sara J; Cusack, Pearce; Hey, Shiying; Blunsum, Andrew; Kelly, Sarah; Sturgeon, Catharine; Hayes, Peter C; Bird, Sheila M

    2016-01-01

    Detection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) through screening can improve outcomes. However, HCC surveillance remains costly, cumbersome and suboptimal. We tested whether and how serum Alpha-Fetoprotein (AFP) should be used in HCC surveillance. Record linkage, dedicated pathways for management and AFP data-storage identified i) consecutive highly characterised cases of HCC diagnosed in 2009-14 and ii) a cohort of ongoing HCC-free patients undergoing regular HCC surveillance from 2009. These two well-defined Scottish patient cohorts enabled us to test the utility of AFP surveillance. Of 304 cases of HCC diagnosed over 6 years, 42% (129) were identified by a dedicated HCC surveillance programme. Of these 129, 47% (61) had a detectable lesion first identified by screening ultrasound (US) but 38% (49) were prompted by elevated AFP. Despite pre-HCC diagnosis AFP >20kU/L being associated with poor outcome, 'AFP-detected' tumours were offered potentially curative management as frequently as 'US-detected' HCCs; and had comparable survival. Linearity of serial log10-transformed AFPs in HCC cases and in the screening 'HCC-free' cohort (n = 1509) provided indicators of high-risk AFP behaviour in HCC cases. An algorithm was devised in static mode, then tested dynamically. A case/control series in hepatitis C related disease demonstrated highly significant detection (p<1.72*10-5) of patients at high risk of developing HCC. These data support the use of AFP in HCC surveillance. We show proof-of-principle that an automated and further refine-able algorithmic interpretation of AFP can identify patients at higher risk of HCC. This approach could provide a cost-effective, user-friendly and much needed addition to US surveillance. PMID:27308823

  6. Alpha-Fetoprotein Detection of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Leads to a Standardized Analysis of Dynamic AFP to Improve Screening Based Detection

    PubMed Central

    Dimitropoulou, Polyxeni; Turner, Rebecca M.; Jenks, Sara J.; Hey, Shiying; Blunsum, Andrew; Kelly, Sarah; Sturgeon, Catharine; Hayes, Peter C.; Bird, Sheila M.

    2016-01-01

    Detection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) through screening can improve outcomes. However, HCC surveillance remains costly, cumbersome and suboptimal. We tested whether and how serum Alpha-Fetoprotein (AFP) should be used in HCC surveillance. Record linkage, dedicated pathways for management and AFP data-storage identified i) consecutive highly characterised cases of HCC diagnosed in 2009–14 and ii) a cohort of ongoing HCC-free patients undergoing regular HCC surveillance from 2009. These two well-defined Scottish patient cohorts enabled us to test the utility of AFP surveillance. Of 304 cases of HCC diagnosed over 6 years, 42% (129) were identified by a dedicated HCC surveillance programme. Of these 129, 47% (61) had a detectable lesion first identified by screening ultrasound (US) but 38% (49) were prompted by elevated AFP. Despite pre-HCC diagnosis AFP >20kU/L being associated with poor outcome, ‘AFP-detected’ tumours were offered potentially curative management as frequently as ‘US-detected’ HCCs; and had comparable survival. Linearity of serial log10-transformed AFPs in HCC cases and in the screening ‘HCC-free’ cohort (n = 1509) provided indicators of high-risk AFP behaviour in HCC cases. An algorithm was devised in static mode, then tested dynamically. A case/control series in hepatitis C related disease demonstrated highly significant detection (p<1.72*10−5) of patients at high risk of developing HCC. These data support the use of AFP in HCC surveillance. We show proof-of-principle that an automated and further refine-able algorithmic interpretation of AFP can identify patients at higher risk of HCC. This approach could provide a cost-effective, user-friendly and much needed addition to US surveillance. PMID:27308823

  7. Neural network based system for equipment surveillance

    DOEpatents

    Vilim, Richard B.; Gross, Kenneth C.; Wegerich, Stephan W.

    1998-01-01

    A method and system for performing surveillance of transient signals of an industrial device to ascertain the operating state. The method and system involves the steps of reading into a memory training data, determining neural network weighting values until achieving target outputs close to the neural network output. If the target outputs are inadequate, wavelet parameters are determined to yield neural network outputs close to the desired set of target outputs and then providing signals characteristic of an industrial process and comparing the neural network output to the industrial process signals to evaluate the operating state of the industrial process.

  8. Neural network based system for equipment surveillance

    DOEpatents

    Vilim, R.B.; Gross, K.C.; Wegerich, S.W.

    1998-04-28

    A method and system are disclosed for performing surveillance of transient signals of an industrial device to ascertain the operating state. The method and system involves the steps of reading into a memory training data, determining neural network weighting values until achieving target outputs close to the neural network output. If the target outputs are inadequate, wavelet parameters are determined to yield neural network outputs close to the desired set of target outputs and then providing signals characteristic of an industrial process and comparing the neural network output to the industrial process signals to evaluate the operating state of the industrial process. 33 figs.

  9. In situ hybridization of neuropeptide-encoding transcripts afp-1, afp-3, and afp-4 in neurons of the nematode Ascaris suum.

    PubMed

    Nanda, Jennifer Cho; Stretton, Antony O W

    2010-03-15

    The gene transcripts encoding both the AF8 and AF2 neuropeptides of the nematode Ascaris suum have been identified, cloned, and sequenced. The AF8 transcript (afp-3) encodes five identical copies of AF8; each peptide-encoding region is flanked by the appropriate dibasic or monobasic cleavage processing sites. The AF2 transcript (afp-4) encodes three identical copies of AF2 along with the appropriate cleavage sites. In contrast, the afp-1 transcript (Edison et al. [1997] Peptides 18:929-935) encodes six different AF peptides (AF3, 4, 10, 13, 14, 20) which all share a -PGVLRFamide C-terminus but have different N-terminal sequences. By using in situ hybridization, gene transcript expression patterns of afp-1, afp-3, and afp-4 (As-flp-18, As-flp-6, and As-flp-14, respectively, in the naming convention proposed by Blaxter et al. [1997] Parasitol Today 13:416-417) were determined in the adult A. suum anterior nervous system. Each gene transcript can be localized to a different subset of neurons. These subsets of neurons are different from the subsets of Caenorhabditis elegans neurons that were shown to express identical or similar peptides by the use of promoter GFP constructs (Kim and Li [2004] J Comp Neurol 475:540-550). PMID:20058230

  10. The development of an evaluation framework for injury surveillance systems

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Rebecca J; Williamson, Ann M; O'Connor, Rod

    2009-01-01

    Background Access to good quality information from injury surveillance is essential to develop and monitor injury prevention activities. To determine if information obtained from surveillance is of high quality, the limitations and strengths of a surveillance system are often examined. Guidelines have been developed to assist in evaluating certain types of surveillance systems. However, to date, no standard guidelines have been developed to specifically evaluate an injury surveillance system. The aim of this research is to develop a framework to guide the evaluation of injury surveillance systems. Methods The development of an Evaluation Framework for Injury Surveillance Systems (EFISS) involved a four stage process. First, a literature review was conducted to identify an initial set of characteristics that were recognised as important and/or had been recommended to be assessed in an evaluation of a surveillance system. Second, this set of characteristics was assessed using SMART criteria. Third, those surviving were presented to an expert panel using a two round modified-Delphi study to gain an alternative perspective on characteristic definitions, practicality of assessment, and characteristic importance. Finally, a rating system was created for the EFISS characteristics. Results The resulting EFISS consisted of 18 characteristics that assess three areas of an injury surveillance system – five characteristics assess data quality, nine characteristics assess the system's operation, and four characteristics assess the practical capability of an injury surveillance system. A rating system assesses the performance of each characteristic. Conclusion The development of the EFISS builds upon existing evaluation guidelines for surveillance systems and provides a framework tailored to evaluate an injury surveillance system. Ultimately, information obtained through an evaluation of an injury data collection using the EFISS would be useful for agencies to recommend how a

  11. HIV surveillance systems in the Asia Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Loo, Virginia; Saidel, Tobi; Reddy, Amala; Htin, Khin Cho Win; Shwe, Ye Yu; Verbruggen, Bob

    2012-07-01

    In 2011, the United Nations Joint Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) Regional Support Team for Asia-Pacific conducted a stock-taking process of available strategic information in the Asia Pacific region. This paper summarizes the progress of HIV surveillance for 20 countries in the region, covering population size estimates of key populations at higher risk, HIV case reporting, HIV sentinel surveillance and probability surveys of behavioural and biological markers. Information on surveillance activities was obtained from publically available surveillance reports and protocols, supplemented by personal communication with the UNAIDS monitoring and evaluation advisers and surveillance experts in country. Key findings include substantial efforts in broadening the number and types of HIV surveillance components included in national HIV surveillance systems and adopting approaches to make surveillance more cost-efficient, such as integrating routine programme monitoring data and passive surveillance case reporting systems. More investment in regularly analysing and applying surveillance data to programme strengthening at the subnational level is needed but will require additional capacity-building and resources. The ability to triangulate multiple sources of surveillance data into a more comprehensive view of the HIV epidemic will be enhanced if more investment is made in better documentation and dissemination of surveillance activities and findings. PMID:23908915

  12. Real-time wideband holographic surveillance system

    DOEpatents

    Sheen, David M.; Collins, H. Dale; Hall, Thomas E.; McMakin, Douglas L.; Gribble, R. Parks; Severtsen, Ronald H.; Prince, James M.; Reid, Larry D.

    1996-01-01

    A wideband holographic surveillance system including a transceiver for generating a plurality of electromagnetic waves; antenna for transmitting the electromagnetic waves toward a target at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; the transceiver also receiving and converting electromagnetic waves reflected from the target to electrical signals at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; a computer for processing the electrical signals to obtain signals corresponding to a holographic reconstruction of the target; and a display for displaying the processed information to determine nature of the target. The computer has instructions to apply a three dimensional backward wave algorithm.

  13. Real-time holographic surveillance system

    DOEpatents

    Collins, H.D.; McMakin, D.L.; Hall, T.E.; Gribble, R.P.

    1995-10-03

    A holographic surveillance system is disclosed including means for generating electromagnetic waves; means for transmitting the electromagnetic waves toward a target at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; means for receiving and converting electromagnetic waves reflected from the target to electrical signals at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; means for processing the electrical signals to obtain signals corresponding to a holographic reconstruction of the target; and means for displaying the processed information to determine nature of the target. The means for processing the electrical signals includes means for converting analog signals to digital signals followed by a computer means to apply a backward wave algorithm. 21 figs.

  14. Real-time wideband holographic surveillance system

    DOEpatents

    Sheen, D.M.; Collins, H.D.; Hall, T.E.; McMakin, D.L.; Gribble, R.P.; Severtsen, R.H.; Prince, J.M.; Reid, L.D.

    1996-09-17

    A wideband holographic surveillance system including a transceiver for generating a plurality of electromagnetic waves; antenna for transmitting the electromagnetic waves toward a target at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; the transceiver also receiving and converting electromagnetic waves reflected from the target to electrical signals at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; a computer for processing the electrical signals to obtain signals corresponding to a holographic reconstruction of the target; and a display for displaying the processed information to determine nature of the target. The computer has instructions to apply a three dimensional backward wave algorithm. 28 figs.

  15. Real-time holographic surveillance system

    DOEpatents

    Collins, H. Dale; McMakin, Douglas L.; Hall, Thomas E.; Gribble, R. Parks

    1995-01-01

    A holographic surveillance system including means for generating electromagnetic waves; means for transmitting the electromagnetic waves toward a target at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; means for receiving and converting electromagnetic waves reflected from the target to electrical signals at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; means for processing the electrical signals to obtain signals corresponding to a holographic reconstruction of the target; and means for displaying the processed information to determine nature of the target. The means for processing the electrical signals includes means for converting analog signals to digital signals followed by a computer means to apply a backward wave algorithm.

  16. SCORPION II persistent surveillance system update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coster, Michael; Hunt, Cassandra

    2011-06-01

    This paper highlights the most recently added features and benefits available in the latest generation of Northrop Grumman SCORPION II persistent surveillance and target recognition systems. By leveraging smaller, lighter, and more power efficient SCORPION II sensor and universal gateway components, with foliage penetrating ad-hoc network communications, persistent field programmable systems that are easier to conceal can be optimized for both image capture and data exfiltration. In addition to the SCORPION II suite of sensor components, a growing list of over sixty different sensor and camera types from a variety of manufacturers have been integrated with the SCORPION Gateway family. In addition to updating several different COP systems, SCORPION and SCORPION II data can be directly processed using a common sensor status graphical user interface (GUI) that allows for viewing and analysis of images and sensor data from hundreds of SCORPION system gateways on single or multiple displays.

  17. Acute Flaccid Paralysis and Its Differential Diagnosis in in Kurdistan Province, Western Iran; an 11-Year Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Soltani, Jafar; Esmailnasab, Nader; Roshani, Daem; Karimi, Mohamad; Amjadi, Mohamad-Jamil

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective The surveillance of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) is a key strategy for monitoring the progress of poliomyelitis eradication and is a sensitive measure for detecting potential cases of poliomyelitis and poliovirus infection. This study was conducted to describe the characteristics of patients reported with AFP, and to evaluate the performance of the surveillance system in Kurdistan province, western Iran, using indicators recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). Methods This observational study was conducted from January 2000 to December 2010 at the Kurdistan Center for Disease Control and the Department of Pediatrics. All children who fulfilled the WHO definition for AFP were included in our study. The stool samples of all the children were sent for poliovirus isolation. All the patients were evaluated for 60 days after the onset of symptoms to identify the signs of residual weakness. Findings One-hundred thirty nine children aged <15 years were reported to the Center for Diseases Control with AFP. In 138 (99%) stool samples no poliovirus was isolated. None of the patients was diagnosed as having acute poliomyelitis or polio-compatible paralysis. Guillain-Barré syndrome was the most frequent final diagnosis (79 cases) followed by Transverse Myelitis (7 cases) and Encephalitis (6 cases). By detecting 1.3 to 3.6 (mean 3.2) AFP cases per 100 000 population in Kurdistan during the study period, we achieved the WHO target for AFP surveillance. All performance indicators but one consistently met the WHO requirements and therefore demonstrated the effectiveness of the AFP surveillance program in Kurdistan. Conclusion The effective surveillance system in Kurdistan and its evaluation may serve as a model for the surveillance of other infectious diseases. PMID:25535530

  18. Unattended digital video surveillance: A system prototype for EURATOM safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Chare, P.; Goerten, J.; Wagner, H.; Rodriguez, C.; Brown, J.E.

    1994-09-01

    Ever increasing capabilities in video and computer technology have changed the face of video surveillance. From yesterday`s film and analog video tape-based systems, we now emerge into the digital era with surveillance systems capable of digital image processing, image analysis, decision control logic, and random data access features -- all of which provide greater versatility with the potential for increased effectiveness in video surveillance. Digital systems also offer other advantages such as the ability to ``compress`` data, providing increased storage capacities and the potential for allowing longer surveillance Periods. Remote surveillance and system to system communications are also a benefit that can be derived from digital surveillance systems. All of these features are extremely important in today`s climate Of increasing safeguards activity and decreasing budgets -- Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Safeguards Systems Group and the EURATOM Safeguards Directorate have teamed to design and implement a period surveillance system that will take advantage of the versatility of digital video for facility surveillance system that will take advantage of the versatility of digital video for facility surveillance and data review. In this Paper we will familiarize you with system components and features and report on progress in developmental areas such as image compression and region of interest processing.

  19. Internet-based surveillance systems for monitoring emerging infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Milinovich, Gabriel J; Williams, Gail M; Clements, Archie C A; Hu, Wenbiao

    2014-02-01

    Emerging infectious diseases present a complex challenge to public health officials and governments; these challenges have been compounded by rapidly shifting patterns of human behaviour and globalisation. The increase in emerging infectious diseases has led to calls for new technologies and approaches for detection, tracking, reporting, and response. Internet-based surveillance systems offer a novel and developing means of monitoring conditions of public health concern, including emerging infectious diseases. We review studies that have exploited internet use and search trends to monitor two such diseases: influenza and dengue. Internet-based surveillance systems have good congruence with traditional surveillance approaches. Additionally, internet-based approaches are logistically and economically appealing. However, they do not have the capacity to replace traditional surveillance systems; they should not be viewed as an alternative, but rather an extension. Future research should focus on using data generated through internet-based surveillance and response systems to bolster the capacity of traditional surveillance systems for emerging infectious diseases.

  20. Mental health surveillance and information systems.

    PubMed

    Gater, R; Chisholm, D; Dowrick, C

    2015-07-01

    Routine information systems for mental health in many Eastern Mediterranean Region countries are rudimentary or absent, making it difficult to understand the needs of local populations and to plan accordingly. Key components for mental health surveillance and information systems are: national commitment and leadership to ensure that relevant high quality information is collected and reported; a minimum data set of key mental health indicators; intersectoral collaboration with appropriate data sharing; routine data collection supplemented with periodic surveys; quality control and confidentiality; and technology and skills to support data collection, sharing and dissemination. Priority strategic interventions include: (1) periodically assessing and reporting the mental health resources and capacities available using standardized methodologies; (2) routine collection of information and reporting on service availability, coverage and continuity, for priority mental disorders disaggregated by age, sex and diagnosis; and (3) mandatory recording and reporting of suicides at the national level (using relevant ICD codes). PMID:26442892

  1. Traffic Flow Wide-Area Surveillance system

    SciTech Connect

    Allgood, G.O.; Ferrell, R.K.; Kercel, S.W.; Abston, R.A.

    1994-09-01

    Traffic management can be thought of as a stochastic queuing process where the serving time at one of its control points is dynamically linked to the global traffic pattern, which is, in turn, dynamically linked to the control point. For this closed-loop system to be effective, the traffic management system must sense and interpret a large spatial projection of data originating from multiple sensor suites. This concept is the basis for the development of a Traffic Flow Wide-Area Surveillance (TFWAS) system. This paper presents the results of a study by Oak Ridge National Laboratory to define the operational specifications and characteristics, to determine the constraints, and to examine the state of technology of a TFWAS system in terms of traffic management and control. In doing so, the functions and attributes of a TFWAS system are mapped into an operational structure consistent with the Intelligent Vehicle Highway System (IVHS) concept and the existing highway infrastructure. This mapping includes identifying candidate sensor suites and establishing criteria, requirements, and performance measures by which these systems can be graded in their ability and practicality to meet the operational requirements of a TFWAS system. In light of this, issues such as system integration, applicable technologies, impact on traffic management and control, and public acceptance are addressed.

  2. A method for active surveillance of selected communicable diseases.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, M J

    2000-09-01

    In 1991, an initiative was launched in the Western Pacific Region of WHO to eradicate poliomyelitis by the year 2000. Confirmation of eradication requires a certification process, in which specific criteria must be met. A hospital-based surveillance system was developed. It was sensitive enough to detect, at least one case of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) per 100,000 children under age 15 per year, which is considered the "background rate" of AFP. This system was instituted in 1997 in most countries in the Pacific, and included measles and neonatal tetanus as well as AFP. By mid-1998, 53 hospitals in the Pacific were submitting monthly forms indicating whether or not AFP, suspect measles, or neonatal tetanus had been seen in the preceding month. Compliance was excellent, with over 80% of forms submitted to WHO in 1998, thus meeting the certification standard. In 1999 a proposal was made to expand this method, in selected countries, to encompass most conditions presenting with acute fever plus rash, thus including, for example, cases of rubella and dengue. Important aspects of such surveillance include the capacity to confirm diagnoses in the laboratory, and to take effective public health action. A coordinated laboratory network had been established previously for virological analysis of stool specimens for conditions causing AFP, but laboratory support for other conditions is currently the responsibility of individual hospitals to arrange.

  3. Risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma may impair the performance of biomarkers: a comparison of AFP, DCP, and AFP-L3.

    PubMed

    Volk, Michael L; Hernandez, Jose C; Su, Grace L; Lok, Anna S; Marrero, Jorge A

    2007-01-01

    Current surveillance strategies for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are applied uniformly in patients with cirrhosis, regardless of their cancer risk. The aim of this study was to compare the performance characteristics of the biomarkers alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), des-gamma carboxyprothrombin (DCP), and lectin-bound AFP (AFP-L3) in the diagnosis of HCC, and to determine the effect of risk factors for HCC on test performance. Eighty-four patients with HCC and 169 patients with cirrhosis were enrolled and their serum analyzed for total AFP, AFP-L3 and DCP. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed to determine the performance characteristics. DCP was significantly better than total AFP or AFP-L3 in differentiating HCC from cirrhosis, with a sensitivity of 86% and specificity of 93%. When subjects were divided into two groups by their risk for HCC, all 3 markers had a lower sensitivity and area under the ROC curve in the high-risk group compared to the low-risk group. In conclusion, DCP has the best performance characteristics of all 3 serum markers for the diagnosis of HCC. Serum biomarkers may be less sensitive and specific in the highest risk patients.

  4. Asset surveillance system: apparatus and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bickford, Randall L. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    System and method for providing surveillance of an asset comprised of numerically fitting at least one mathematical model to obtained residual data correlative to asset operation; storing at least one mathematical model in a memory; obtaining a current set of signal data from the asset; retrieving at least one mathematical model from the memory, using the retrieved mathematical model in a sequential hypothesis test for determining if the current set of signal data is indicative of a fault condition; determining an asset fault cause correlative to a determined indication of a fault condition; providing an indication correlative to a determined fault cause, and an action when warranted. The residual data can be mode partitioned, a current mode of operation can be determined from the asset, and at least one mathematical model can be retrieved from the memory as a function of the determined mode of operation.

  5. Web surveillance system using platform-based design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Shin-Yo; Tsai, Tsung-Han

    2004-04-01

    A revolutionary methodology of SOPC platform-based design environment for multimedia communications will be developed. We embed a softcore processor to perform the image compression in FPGA. Then, we plug-in an Ethernet daughter board in the SOPC development platform system. Afterward, a web surveillance platform system is presented. The web surveillance system consists of three parts: image capture, web server and JPEG compression. In this architecture, user can control the surveillance system by remote. By the IP address configures to Ethernet daughter board, the user can access the surveillance system via browser. When user access the surveillance system, the CMOS sensor presently capture the remote image. After that, it will feed the captured image with the embedded processor. The embedded processor immediately performs the JPEG compression. Afterward, the user receives the compressed data via Ethernet. To sum up of the above mentioned, the all system will be implemented on APEX20K200E484-2X device.

  6. Survey of Clostridium difficile infection surveillance systems in Europe, 2011.

    PubMed

    Kola, Axel; Wiuff, Camilla; Akerlund, Thomas; van Benthem, Birgit H; Coignard, Bruno; Lyytikäinen, Outi; Weitzel-Kage, Doris; Suetens, Carl; Wilcox, Mark H; Kuijper, Ed J; Gastmeier, Petra

    2016-07-21

    To develop a European surveillance protocol for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), existing national CDI surveillance systems were assessed in 2011. A web-based electronic form was provided for all national coordinators of the European CDI Surveillance Network (ECDIS-Net). Of 35 national coordinators approached, 33 from 31 European countries replied. Surveillance of CDI was in place in 14 of the 31 countries, comprising 18 different nationwide systems. Three of 14 countries with CDI surveillance used public health notification of cases as the route of reporting, and in another three, reporting was limited to public health notification of cases of severe CDI. The CDI definitions published by the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID) and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) were widely used, but there were differing definitions to distinguish between community- and healthcare-associated cases. All CDI surveillance systems except one reported annual national CDI rates (calculated as number of cases per patient-days). Only four surveillance systems regularly integrated microbiological data (typing and susceptibility testing results). Surveillance methods varied considerably between countries, which emphasises the need for a harmonised European protocol to allow consistent monitoring of the CDI epidemiology at European level. The results of this survey were used to develop a harmonised EU-wide hospital-based CDI surveillance protocol. PMID:27469420

  7. 75 FR 81512 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aviation Communication & Surveillance Systems (ACSS) Traffic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ... Communication & Surveillance Systems (ACSS) Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) Units AGENCY... identified in this proposed AD, contact Aviation Communication & Surveillance Systems, LLC, 19810 North 7th... received reports of anomalies with the Aviation Communication & Surveillance Systems (ACSS) Traffic...

  8. Electronic integrated disease surveillance system and pathogen asset control system.

    PubMed

    Wahl, Tom G; Burdakov, Aleksey V; Oukharov, Andrey O; Zhilokov, Azamat K

    2012-01-01

    Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System (EIDSS) has been used to strengthen and support monitoring and prevention of dangerous diseases within One Health concept by integrating veterinary and human surveillance, passive and active approaches, case-based records including disease-specific clinical data based on standardised case definitions and aggregated data, laboratory data including sample tracking linked to each case and event with test results and epidemiological investigations. Information was collected and shared in secure way by different means: through the distributed nodes which are continuously synchronised amongst each other, through the web service, through the handheld devices. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System provided near real time information flow that has been then disseminated to the appropriate organisations in a timely manner. It has been used for comprehensive analysis and visualisation capabilities including real time mapping of case events as these unfold enhancing decision making. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System facilitated countries to comply with the IHR 2005 requirements through a data transfer module reporting diseases electronically to the World Health Organisation (WHO) data center as well as establish authorised data exchange with other electronic system using Open Architecture approach. Pathogen Asset Control System (PACS) has been used for accounting, management and control of biological agent stocks. Information on samples and strains of any kind throughout their entire lifecycle has been tracked in a comprehensive and flexible solution PACS.Both systems have been used in a combination and individually. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System and PACS are currently deployed in the Republics of Kazakhstan, Georgia and Azerbaijan as a part of the Cooperative Biological Engagement Program (CBEP) sponsored by the US Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA).

  9. Electronic integrated disease surveillance system and pathogen asset control system.

    PubMed

    Wahl, Tom G; Burdakov, Aleksey V; Oukharov, Andrey O; Zhilokov, Azamat K

    2012-01-01

    Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System (EIDSS) has been used to strengthen and support monitoring and prevention of dangerous diseases within One Health concept by integrating veterinary and human surveillance, passive and active approaches, case-based records including disease-specific clinical data based on standardised case definitions and aggregated data, laboratory data including sample tracking linked to each case and event with test results and epidemiological investigations. Information was collected and shared in secure way by different means: through the distributed nodes which are continuously synchronised amongst each other, through the web service, through the handheld devices. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System provided near real time information flow that has been then disseminated to the appropriate organisations in a timely manner. It has been used for comprehensive analysis and visualisation capabilities including real time mapping of case events as these unfold enhancing decision making. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System facilitated countries to comply with the IHR 2005 requirements through a data transfer module reporting diseases electronically to the World Health Organisation (WHO) data center as well as establish authorised data exchange with other electronic system using Open Architecture approach. Pathogen Asset Control System (PACS) has been used for accounting, management and control of biological agent stocks. Information on samples and strains of any kind throughout their entire lifecycle has been tracked in a comprehensive and flexible solution PACS.Both systems have been used in a combination and individually. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System and PACS are currently deployed in the Republics of Kazakhstan, Georgia and Azerbaijan as a part of the Cooperative Biological Engagement Program (CBEP) sponsored by the US Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA). PMID:23327375

  10. Secure Video Surveillance System (SVSS) for unannounced safeguards inspections.

    SciTech Connect

    Galdoz, Erwin G. , Rio de Janeiro, Brazil); Pinkalla, Mark

    2010-09-01

    The Secure Video Surveillance System (SVSS) is a collaborative effort between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC). The joint project addresses specific requirements of redundant surveillance systems installed in two South American nuclear facilities as a tool to support unannounced inspections conducted by ABACC and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The surveillance covers the critical time (as much as a few hours) between the notification of an inspection and the access of inspectors to the location in facility where surveillance equipment is installed. ABACC and the IAEA currently use the EURATOM Multiple Optical Surveillance System (EMOSS). This outdated system is no longer available or supported by the manufacturer. The current EMOSS system has met the project objective; however, the lack of available replacement parts and system support has made this system unsustainable and has increased the risk of an inoperable system. A new system that utilizes current technology and is maintainable is required to replace the aging EMOSS system. ABACC intends to replace one of the existing ABACC EMOSS systems by the Secure Video Surveillance System. SVSS utilizes commercial off-the shelf (COTS) technologies for all individual components. Sandia National Laboratories supported the system design for SVSS to meet Safeguards requirements, i.e. tamper indication, data authentication, etc. The SVSS consists of two video surveillance cameras linked securely to a data collection unit. The collection unit is capable of retaining historical surveillance data for at least three hours with picture intervals as short as 1sec. Images in .jpg format are available to inspectors using various software review tools. SNL has delivered two SVSS systems for test and evaluation at the ABACC Safeguards Laboratory. An additional 'proto-type' system remains

  11. [Reporting system of Chinese food and nutrition surveillance in 1998].

    PubMed

    He, W; Fu, G; Wang, Y

    2000-09-01

    The software of reporting system for Chinese food and nutrition surveillance in 1998 is the key part of China Food and Nutrition Surveillance System (CFNSS) in 1998. By means of modern information technology to process the contents of questionnaires of CFNSS, and using professional software to conduct data analysis, useful information has been created. The software consists of 4 modules: data entry program for CFNSS, anthropometric calculation, data analysis and data transmission. It is also an open system, the users can use the tool offered by the system to conduct further analysis based on their own situation, and even developing a surveillance system.

  12. In Search of Consensus: Role Versus Belief Systems in Bureaucratic Bargaining. An American Foreign Policy Simulation (AFPS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Heidi H.; Moreno, Dario V.

    Reported are results from two runs of the simulation "Bureaucratic Bargaining," developed to help students understand the inherent tension between roles and belief systems in American foreign policy decision making. To determine their belief systems, 165 students enrolled in an introductory international relations course were tested with a…

  13. Mobile phone-based syndromic surveillance system, Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Rosewell, Alexander; Ropa, Berry; Randall, Heather; Dagina, Rosheila; Hurim, Samuel; Bieb, Sibauk; Datta, Siddhartha; Ramamurthy, Sundar; Mola, Glen; Zwi, Anthony B; Ray, Pradeep; MacIntyre, C Raina

    2013-11-01

    The health care system in Papua New Guinea is fragile, and surveillance systems infrequently meet international standards. To strengthen outbreak identification, health authorities piloted a mobile phone-based syndromic surveillance system and used established frameworks to evaluate whether the system was meeting objectives. Stakeholder experience was investigated by using standardized questionnaires and focus groups. Nine sites reported data that included 7 outbreaks and 92 cases of acute watery diarrhea. The new system was more timely (2.4 vs. 84 days), complete (70% vs. 40%), and sensitive (95% vs. 26%) than existing systems. The system was simple, stable, useful, and acceptable; however, feedback and subnational involvement were weak. A simple syndromic surveillance system implemented in a fragile state enabled more timely, complete, and sensitive data reporting for disease risk assessment. Feedback and provincial involvement require improvement. Use of mobile phone technology might improve the timeliness and efficiency of public health surveillance.

  14. Early Warning Expert System for Equipment Operability Surveillance

    1996-12-18

    EWES is an Al-based expert system for signal validation and sensor operability surveillance in industrial applications that require high-reliability, high-sensitivity annunciation of degraded sensors, discrepant signals, or the onset or incipience of system disturbances.

  15. Surveillance Analysis Computer System (SACS) software requirements specification (SRS)

    SciTech Connect

    Glasscock, J.A.; Flanagan, M.J.

    1995-09-01

    This document is the primary document establishing requirements for the Surveillance Analysis Computer System (SACS) Database, an Impact Level 3Q system. The purpose is to provide the customer and the performing organization with the requirements for the SACS Project.

  16. Flexible surveillance system architecture for prototyping video content analysis algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijnhoven, R. G. J.; Jaspers, E. G. T.; de With, P. H. N.

    2006-01-01

    Many proposed video content analysis algorithms for surveillance applications are very computationally intensive, which limits the integration in a total system, running on one processing unit (e.g. PC). To build flexible prototyping systems of low cost, a distributed system with scalable processing power is therefore required. This paper discusses requirements for surveillance systems, considering two example applications. From these requirements, specifications for a prototyping architecture are derived. An implementation of the proposed architecture is presented, enabling mapping of multiple software modules onto a number of processing units (PCs). The architecture enables fast prototyping of new algorithms for complex surveillance applications without considering resource constraints.

  17. Real Time Wide Area Radiation Surveillance System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biafore, M.

    2012-04-01

    We present the REWARD project, financed within the FP7 programme, theme SEC-2011.1.5-1 (Development of detection capabilities of difficult to detect radioactive sources and nuclear materials - Capability Project). Within this project, we propose a novel mobile system for real time, wide area radiation surveillance. The system is based on the integration of new miniaturized solid-state radiation sensors: a CdZnTe detector for gamma radiation and a high efficiency neutron detector based on novel silicon technologies. The sensing unit will include a wireless communication interface to send the data remotely to a monitoring base station which also uses a GPS system to calculate the position of the tag. The system will also incorporate middleware and high level software to provide web-service interfaces for the exchange of information, and that will offer top level functionalities as management of users, mobile tags and environment data and alarms, database storage and management and a web-based graphical user interface. Effort will be spent to ensure that the software is modular and re-usable across as many architectural levels as possible. Finally, an expert system will continuously analyze the information from the radiation sensor and correlate it with historical data from the tag location in order to generate an alarm when an abnormal situation is detected. The system will be useful for many different scenarios, including such lost radioactive sources and radioactive contamination. It will be possible to deploy in emergency units and in general in any type of mobile or static equipment. The sensing units will be highly portable thanks to their low size and low energy consumption. The complete system will be scalable in terms of complexity and cost and will offer very high precision on both the measurement and the location of the radiation. The modularity and flexibility of the system will allow for a realistic introduction to the market. Authorities may start with a

  18. Use of penetration monitoring in safeguards systems. [Containment and surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Kaiser, S.; Bleck, M.E.

    1981-01-01

    A method for the performance assessment of penetration monitoring systems has been developed within the Containment and Surveillance Subgroup of the International Working Group on Reprocessing Plant Safeguards. The paper examines the use of this method and concludes that the technique is extremely useful in containment and surveillance system design and could also be valuable in operational safeguards systems providing the information generated was used with the care appropriate to the inherent assumptions.

  19. Development and use of a population based injury surveillance system: the All Wales Injury Surveillance System (AWISS)

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, R; Jones, S; Kemp, A; Sibert, J; Shepherd, J; Richmond, P; Bartlett, C; Palmer, S

    2002-01-01

    This report details the development and use of a population based emergency room surveillance system in the UK. Despite some difficulties in accessing high quality data the system has stimulated a considerable number of research and intervention projects. While surveillance systems with high quality data collection and coding parameters remain the gold standard, imperfect systems, particularly if population based, can play a substantial part in stimulating injury prevention initiatives. PMID:11928983

  20. Artificial antigen-presenting cells expressing AFP158-166 peptide and interleukin-15 activate AFP-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Longhao; Guo, Hao; Jiang, Ruoyu; Lu, Li; Liu, Tong; Zhang, Zhixiang; He, Xianghui

    2016-01-01

    Professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) are potent generators of tumor antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) for adoptive immunotherapy; however, generation of APCs is cumbersome, expensive, and subject to the tumor microenvironment. Artificial APCs (aAPCs) have been developed as a cost-effective alternative to APCs. We developed a cellular aAPC that efficiently generated alpha-fetoprotein (AFP)-specific CTLs. We genetically modified the human B cell lymphoma cell line BJAB with a lentiviral vector to establish an aAPC called BA15. The expression of AFP158-166-HLA-A*02:01 complex, CD80, CD86, and interleukin (IL)-15 in BA15 cells was assessed. The efficiency of BA15 at generating AFP-specific CTLs and the specific cytotoxicity of CTLs against AFP+ cells were also determined. BA15 cells expressed high levels of AFP158-166 peptide, HLA-A2, CD80, CD86, and IL-15. BA15 cells also exhibited higher efficiency in generating AFP-specific CTLs than did dendritic cells. These CTLs had greater cytotoxicity against AFP+ hepatocellular carcinoma cells than did CTLs obtained from dendritic cells in vitro and in vivo. Our novel aAPC system could provide a robust platform for the generation of functional AFP-specific CTLs for adoptive immunotherapy of hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:27007051

  1. A comparison of active adverse event surveillance systems worldwide.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Lin; Moon, Jinhee; Segal, Jodi B

    2014-08-01

    Post-marketing drug surveillance for adverse drug events (ADEs) has typically relied on spontaneous reporting. Recently, regulatory agencies have turned their attention to more preemptive approaches that use existing data for surveillance. We conducted an environmental scan to identify active surveillance systems worldwide that use existing data for the detection of ADEs. We extracted data about the systems' structures, data, and functions. We synthesized the information across systems to identify common features of these systems. We identified nine active surveillance systems. Two systems are US based-the FDA Sentinel Initiative (including both the Mini-Sentinel Initiative and the Federal Partner Collaboration) and the Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD); two are Canadian-the Canadian Network for Observational Drug Effect Studies (CNODES) and the Vaccine and Immunization Surveillance in Ontario (VISION); and two are European-the Exploring and Understanding Adverse Drug Reactions by Integrative Mining of Clinical Records and Biomedical Knowledge (EU-ADR) Alliance and the Vaccine Adverse Event Surveillance and Communication (VAESCO). Additionally, there is the Asian Pharmacoepidemiology Network (AsPEN) and the Shanghai Drug Monitoring and Evaluative System (SDMES). We identified two systems in the UK-the Vigilance and Risk Management of Medicines (VRMM) Division and the Drug Safety Research Unit (DSRU), an independent academic unit. These surveillance systems mostly use administrative claims or electronic medical records; most conduct pharmacovigilance on behalf of a regulatory agency. Either a common data model or a centralized model is used to access existing data. The systems have been built using national data alone or via partnership with other countries. However, active surveillance systems using existing data remain rare. North America and Europe have the most population coverage; with Asian countries making good advances. PMID:25022829

  2. Status of the AFP project in the ATLAS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taševský, Marek

    2015-04-01

    Status of the AFP project in the ATLAS experiment is summarized. The AFP system is composed of a tracker to detect intact, diffractively scattered protons, and of a time-of-flight detector serving to suppress background from pile-up interactions. The whole system, located around 210 m from the main ATLAS detector, is placed in Roman Pots which move detectors from and to the incident proton beams. A typical distance of the closest approach of the tracker to these beams is 2-3 mm. The main physics motivation lies in measuring diffractive processes in runs with not a very high amount of pile-up.

  3. Status of the AFP project in the ATLAS experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Taševský, Marek

    2015-04-10

    Status of the AFP project in the ATLAS experiment is summarized. The AFP system is composed of a tracker to detect intact, diffractively scattered protons, and of a time-of-flight detector serving to suppress background from pile-up interactions. The whole system, located around 210 m from the main ATLAS detector, is placed in Roman Pots which move detectors from and to the incident proton beams. A typical distance of the closest approach of the tracker to these beams is 2–3 mm. The main physics motivation lies in measuring diffractive processes in runs with not a very high amount of pile-up.

  4. Health & Demographic Surveillance System Profile: The Rufiji Health and Demographic Surveillance System (Rufiji HDSS).

    PubMed

    Mrema, Sigilbert; Kante, Almamy M; Levira, Francis; Mono, Amaniel; Irema, Kahema; de Savigny, Don; Masanja, Honorati

    2015-04-01

    The Rufiji Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) was established in October 1998 to evaluate the impact on burden of disease of health system reforms based on locally generated data, prioritization, resource allocation and planning for essential health interventions. The Rufiji HDSS collects detailed information on health and survival and provides a framework for population-based health research of relevance to local and national health priorities.In December 2012 the population under surveillance was about 105,503 people, residing in 19,315 households. Monitoring of households and members within households is undertaken in regular 6-month cycles known as 'rounds'. Self reported information is collected on demographic, household, socioeconomic and geographical characteristics. Verbal autopsy is conducted using standardized questionnaires, to determine probable causes of death. In conjunction with core HDSS activities, the ongoing studies in Rufiji HDSS focus on maternal and new-born health, evaluation of safety of artemether-lumefantrine (AL) exposure in early pregnancy and the clinical safety of a fixed dose of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHA-PQP) in the community. Findings of studies conducted in Rufiji HDSS can be accessed at www.ihi.or.tz/IHI-Digital-Library. PMID:25747869

  5. AFP — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    AFP is a major plasma protein produced by the yolk sac and the liver during fetal life. Alpha-fetoprotein expression in adults is often associated with hepatoma or teratoma. However, hereditary persistance of alpha-fetoprotein may also be found in individuals with no obvious pathology. The protein is thought to be the fetal counterpart of serum albumin, and the alpha-fetoprotein and albumin genes are present in tandem in the same transcriptional orientation on chromosome 4. Alpha-fetoprotein is found in monomeric as well as dimeric and trimeric forms, and binds copper, nickel, fatty acids and bilirubin.

  6. [Proposal to establish an environmental contaminants surveillance system in Colombia].

    PubMed

    Huertas, Jancy Andrea

    2015-08-01

    Environmental pollution is a growing problem that negatively impacts health with social and economic high costs. In this sense, coordinated surveillance of conditions, risks, exposures and health effects related to pollution is a useful tool to guide decision-making processes. The objective of this essay was to describe a surveillance system for environmental contaminants in Colombia and its design background. Using the technical guidelines proposed by the Pan American Health Organization, a literature review was conducted to identify the key elements to be included in such surveillance system and to establish which of these elements were already present in the Colombian context. Moreover, these findings were compared with successful experiences in Latin America. The surveillance system includes five components: Epidemiological, environmental and biological surveillance, clinical monitoring and recommendations to guide policies or interventions. The key factors for a successful surveillance system are: interdisciplinary and inter-sector work, clear definition of functions, activities, data sources and information flow. The implementation of the system will be efficient if the structures and tools existing in each country are taken into account. The most important stakeholders are inter-sector public health and environmental commissions and government institutions working in research and surveillance issues related to health, sanitation, environment, drugs and food regulation and control. In conclusion, Colombia has the technical resources and a normative framework to design and implement the surveillance system. However, stakeholders´ coordination is essential to ensure the efficacy of the system so it may guide the implementation of cost-effective actions in environmental health. PMID:26535737

  7. [Proposal to establish an environmental contaminants surveillance system in Colombia].

    PubMed

    Huertas, Jancy Andrea

    2015-08-01

    Environmental pollution is a growing problem that negatively impacts health with social and economic high costs. In this sense, coordinated surveillance of conditions, risks, exposures and health effects related to pollution is a useful tool to guide decision-making processes. The objective of this essay was to describe a surveillance system for environmental contaminants in Colombia and its design background. Using the technical guidelines proposed by the Pan American Health Organization, a literature review was conducted to identify the key elements to be included in such surveillance system and to establish which of these elements were already present in the Colombian context. Moreover, these findings were compared with successful experiences in Latin America. The surveillance system includes five components: Epidemiological, environmental and biological surveillance, clinical monitoring and recommendations to guide policies or interventions. The key factors for a successful surveillance system are: interdisciplinary and inter-sector work, clear definition of functions, activities, data sources and information flow. The implementation of the system will be efficient if the structures and tools existing in each country are taken into account. The most important stakeholders are inter-sector public health and environmental commissions and government institutions working in research and surveillance issues related to health, sanitation, environment, drugs and food regulation and control. In conclusion, Colombia has the technical resources and a normative framework to design and implement the surveillance system. However, stakeholders´ coordination is essential to ensure the efficacy of the system so it may guide the implementation of cost-effective actions in environmental health.

  8. Internet-based surveillance systems for monitoring emerging infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Milinovich, Gabriel J; Williams, Gail M; Clements, Archie C A; Hu, Wenbiao

    2014-02-01

    Emerging infectious diseases present a complex challenge to public health officials and governments; these challenges have been compounded by rapidly shifting patterns of human behaviour and globalisation. The increase in emerging infectious diseases has led to calls for new technologies and approaches for detection, tracking, reporting, and response. Internet-based surveillance systems offer a novel and developing means of monitoring conditions of public health concern, including emerging infectious diseases. We review studies that have exploited internet use and search trends to monitor two such diseases: influenza and dengue. Internet-based surveillance systems have good congruence with traditional surveillance approaches. Additionally, internet-based approaches are logistically and economically appealing. However, they do not have the capacity to replace traditional surveillance systems; they should not be viewed as an alternative, but rather an extension. Future research should focus on using data generated through internet-based surveillance and response systems to bolster the capacity of traditional surveillance systems for emerging infectious diseases. PMID:24290841

  9. Laboratory for testing electro-optical surveillance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrzanowski, K.

    2011-05-01

    A modern laboratory capable to carry out expanded tests of all types of electro-optical surveillance systems (thermal imagers, TV/LLLTV cameras, night vision devices, laser range finders/designators/illuminators, multi-sensor surveillance systems) and basic modules of such surveillance systems (IR FPA/CCD/CMOS/EBAPS sensors, image intensifier tubes, optical objectives) was developed and is presented in this paper. The laboratory can be treated as a both scientific and technical achievement due to its several features. First, all important parameters of modern electro-optical surveillance systems or parameters of basic modules of such systems can be measured. Second, the laboratory is built using a set of semi-independent modular test stations. This modular concept enables easy creations of many versions optimized for different applications. Third, interpretation of the measurement data is supported by a set of specialized computer simulation programs. Fourth, all tests stations in the laboratory were developed by the same design team and are based on similar test concepts.. Because of these features the laboratory of electro-optical surveillance technology presented in this paper can be an optimal solutions for scientific centers or industrial companies who plan to enter and make quick progress in all main areas of surveillance technology.

  10. Surveillance for quality assessment: IV. Surveillance using a hospital information system.

    PubMed

    Classen, D C; Burke, J P; Pestotnik, S L; Evans, R S; Stevens, L E

    1991-04-01

    Hospital surveillance for infection control purposes is a well-accepted method of following nosocomial infections in U.S. hospitals. However, hospital surveillance is being increasingly performed for nosocomial events in noninfectious areas, such as quality assurance and other areas of outcomes research. For the continued development of hospital surveillance in all these areas, dramatic growth in the amount of information collected will occur. To accommodate this growth and to validate new approaches in these areas, large amounts of data collection will be necessary. Collection of these data will be quite difficult without the creation of clinical hospital data bases in which large amounts of information are collected as a routine part of patient care, not as an elaborate addition to patient care. Automated hospital information systems, such as the HELP system, can facilitate the conduct of ongoing hospital surveillance not only in infection control but also in a broad range of areas, such as quality improvement outcomes research and cost-containment areas. PMID:2061582

  11. Conceptual framework for nutrition surveillance systems.

    PubMed

    Mock, N B; Bertrand, W E

    1993-01-01

    This article describes the evolution of nutrition surveillance as an intervention strategy and presents a framework for improving the usefulness of nutrition surveillance programs. It seems clear that such programs' impact on nutritional well-being will depend increasingly on their ability to reach and influence decision-makers. Therefore, it is important to consider political and social forces, and also to realize that if a program is too decentralized or too far removed from key decision-makers, its ability to influence resource flows may be limited. It is of course important that the surveillance information provided be appropriate and of good quality. Therefore, the data collected should be analyzed to ensure they are accurate and representative. Once that has been done, relevant findings should be presented in a readily understandable form designed to meet the intended recipients' information needs. Such findings should also be disseminated to all important decision-maker constituencies, including external donors of nutrition assistance and the general public.

  12. Next Generation Space Surveillance System-of-Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McShane, B.

    2014-09-01

    International economic and military dependence on space assets is pervasive and ever-growing in an environment that is now congested, contested, and competitive. There are a number of natural and man-made risks that need to be monitored and characterized to protect and preserve the space environment and the assets within it. Unfortunately, today's space surveillance network (SSN) has gaps in coverage, is not resilient, and has a growing number of objects that get lost. Risks can be efficiently and effectively mitigated, gaps closed, resiliency improved, and performance increased within a next generation space surveillance network implemented as a system-of-systems with modern information architectures and analytic techniques. This also includes consideration for the newest SSN sensors (e.g. Space Fence) which are born Net-Centric out-of-the-box and able to seamlessly interface with the JSpOC Mission System, global information grid, and future unanticipated users. Significant opportunity exists to integrate legacy, traditional, and non-traditional sensors into a larger space system-of-systems (including command and control centers) for multiple clients through low cost sustainment, modification, and modernization efforts. Clients include operations centers (e.g. JSpOC, USSTRATCOM, CANSPOC), Intelligence centers (e.g. NASIC), space surveillance sensor sites (e.g. AMOS, GEODSS), international governments (e.g. Germany, UK), space agencies (e.g. NASA), and academic institutions. Each has differing priorities, networks, data needs, timeliness, security, accuracy requirements and formats. Enabling processes and technologies include: Standardized and type accredited methods for secure connections to multiple networks, machine-to-machine interfaces for near real-time data sharing and tip-and-queue activities, common data models for analytical processing across multiple radar and optical sensor types, an efficient way to automatically translate between differing client and

  13. Towards an electronic national injury surveillance system in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Alanazi, F; Hussain, S A; Mandil, A; Alamro, N

    2015-02-01

    Given the need for a uniform, comprehensive, electronic nationwide surveillance system for injuries in Saudi Arabia, a system was designed with the objectives of establishing an epidemiologic profile of injuries in the country; evaluating injury indicators on an ongoing basis; identifying high-risk groups requiring specific interventions; monitoring and evaluating interventions for effectiveness; and producing reports to assist in planning and resource allocation. A special form for this purpose was designed, modified from validated forms used elsewhere for injury surveillance. This initiative of the Ministry of Health is also expected to help validate data collected by other sectors, such as the Ministry of Interior. This paper reviews the milestones of building the system and aims to prompt a debate within the scientific community, especially within the Eastern Mediterranean Region, about the best way to design injury surveillance systems for the Region in order to fine-tune the proposed system before its full-scale implementation. PMID:25876826

  14. Use of outcomes to evaluate surveillance systems for bioterrorist attacks

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Syndromic surveillance systems can potentially be used to detect a bioterrorist attack earlier than traditional surveillance, by virtue of their near real-time analysis of relevant data. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis using the area under the curve (AUC) as a comparison metric has been recommended as a practical evaluation tool for syndromic surveillance systems, yet traditional ROC curves do not account for timeliness of detection or subsequent time-dependent health outcomes. Methods Using a decision-analytic approach, we predicted outcomes, measured in lives, quality adjusted life years (QALYs), and costs, for a series of simulated bioterrorist attacks. We then evaluated seven detection algorithms applied to syndromic surveillance data using outcomes-weighted ROC curves compared to simple ROC curves and timeliness-weighted ROC curves. We performed sensitivity analyses by varying the model inputs between best and worst case scenarios and by applying different methods of AUC calculation. Results The decision analytic model results indicate that if a surveillance system was successful in detecting an attack, and measures were immediately taken to deliver treatment to the population, the lives, QALYs and dollars lost could be reduced considerably. The ROC curve analysis shows that the incorporation of outcomes into the evaluation metric has an important effect on the apparent performance of the surveillance systems. The relative order of performance is also heavily dependent on the choice of AUC calculation method. Conclusions This study demonstrates the importance of accounting for mortality, morbidity and costs in the evaluation of syndromic surveillance systems. Incorporating these outcomes into the ROC curve analysis allows for more accurate identification of the optimal method for signaling a possible bioterrorist attack. In addition, the parameters used to construct an ROC curve should be given careful consideration. PMID

  15. [The effect of anti-human AFP serum for AFP producing stomach cancer xenotransplanted nude mice].

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Y; Akimoto, R; Mai, M; Sakai, T; Sudo, K

    1984-04-01

    The effect of anti-human alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) on growth, serum AFP levels and histological changes of two lines of AFP producing stomach cancer serially xenotransplanted in nude mice were examined. The efficacy of anti-human AFP antibody on tumor growth was observed specifically for the tumor producing AFP, but there was great difference on growth between two lines. The AFP levels of the serum disclosed a rapid decrease after administration of antibody and maintained as level of Ong/ml for a long period. On histopathologic examination, there were not observed any changes on the tumor cells and structure and necrotic change was not demonstrated. By the immunohistochemical examination (PAP method), anti-human AFP antibody was identified in tumor even 50 th days later after injection.

  16. Midkine Increases Diagnostic Yield in AFP Negative and NASH-Related Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Vongsuvanh, Roslyn; van der Poorten, David; Iseli, Tristan; Strasser, Simone I.; McCaughan, Geoffrey W.; George, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Robust biomarkers for population-level hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) surveillance are lacking. We compared serum midkine (MDK), dickkopf-1 (DKK1), osteopontin (OPN) and AFP for HCC diagnosis in 86 HCC patients matched to 86 cirrhotics, 86 with chronic liver disease (CLD) and 86 healthy controls (HC). Based on the performance of each biomarker, we assessed a separate longitudinal cohort of 28 HCC patients, at and before cancer diagnosis. Serum levels of MDK and OPN were higher in HCC patients compared to cirrhosis, CLD and HC groups. DKK1 was not different between cases and controls. More than half of HCC patients had normal AFP. In this AFP-negative HCC cohort, 59.18% (n = 29/49) had elevated MDK, applying the optimal cut-off of 0.44 ng/ml. Using AFP ≥ 20 IU/ml or MDK ≥ 0.44 ng/ml, a significantly greater number (76.7%; n = 66/86) of HCC cases were detected. The area under the receiver operating curve for MDK was superior to AFP and OPN in NASH-HCC diagnosis. In the longitudinal cohort, MDK was elevated in 15/28 (54%) of HCC patients at diagnosis, of whom 67% had elevated MDK 6 months prior. Conclusion: AFP and MDK have a complementary role in HCC detection. MDK increases the diagnostic yield in AFP-negative HCC and has greater diagnostic performance than AFP, OPN and DKK-1 in the diagnosis of NASH-HCC. Additionally, MDK has a promising role in the pre-clinical diagnosis of HCC. PMID:27219517

  17. Information systems to support surveillance for malaria elimination.

    PubMed

    Ohrt, Colin; Roberts, Kathryn W; Sturrock, Hugh J W; Wegbreit, Jennifer; Lee, Bruce Y; Gosling, Roly D

    2015-07-01

    Robust and responsive surveillance systems are critical for malaria elimination. The ideal information system that supports malaria elimination includes: rapid and complete case reporting, incorporation of related data, such as census or health survey information, central data storage and management, automated and expert data analysis, and customized outputs and feedback that lead to timely and targeted responses. Spatial information enhances such a system, ensuring cases are tracked and mapped over time. Data sharing and coordination across borders are vital and new technologies can improve data speed, accuracy, and quality. Parts of this ideal information system exist and are in use, but have yet to be linked together coherently. Malaria elimination programs should support the implementation and refinement of information systems to support surveillance and response and ensure political and financial commitment to maintain the systems and the human resources needed to run them. National malaria programs should strive to improve the access and utility of these information systems and establish cross-border data sharing mechanisms through the use of standard indicators for malaria surveillance. Ultimately, investment in the information technologies that support a timely and targeted surveillance and response system is essential for malaria elimination. PMID:26013378

  18. Influenza Virus Surveillance in Coordinated Swine Production Systems, United States

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Bryan S.; DeBeauchamp, Jennifer; Stigger-Rosser, Evelyn; Franks, John; Crumpton, Jeri Carol; Turner, Jasmine; Darnell, Daniel; Jeevan, Trushar; Kayali, Ghazi; Harding, Abbey; Webby, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    To clarify the epidemiology of influenza A viruses in coordinated swine production systems to which no animals from outside the system are introduced, we conducted virologic surveillance during September 2012–September 2013. Animal age, geographic location, and farm type were found to affect the prevalence of these viruses. PMID:26402228

  19. Information Systems to Support Surveillance for Malaria Elimination

    PubMed Central

    Ohrt, Colin; Roberts, Kathryn W.; Sturrock, Hugh J. W.; Wegbreit, Jennifer; Lee, Bruce Y.; Gosling, Roly D.

    2015-01-01

    Robust and responsive surveillance systems are critical for malaria elimination. The ideal information system that supports malaria elimination includes: rapid and complete case reporting, incorporation of related data, such as census or health survey information, central data storage and management, automated and expert data analysis, and customized outputs and feedback that lead to timely and targeted responses. Spatial information enhances such a system, ensuring cases are tracked and mapped over time. Data sharing and coordination across borders are vital and new technologies can improve data speed, accuracy, and quality. Parts of this ideal information system exist and are in use, but have yet to be linked together coherently. Malaria elimination programs should support the implementation and refinement of information systems to support surveillance and response and ensure political and financial commitment to maintain the systems and the human resources needed to run them. National malaria programs should strive to improve the access and utility of these information systems and establish cross-border data sharing mechanisms through the use of standard indicators for malaria surveillance. Ultimately, investment in the information technologies that support a timely and targeted surveillance and response system is essential for malaria elimination. PMID:26013378

  20. IASM: A System for the Intelligent Active Surveillance of Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Bo; Chen, Hechang; Gu, Xiao; Bai, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Malaria, a life-threatening infectious disease, spreads rapidly via parasites. Malaria prevention is more effective and efficient than treatment. However, the existing surveillance systems used to prevent malaria are inadequate, especially in areas with limited or no access to medical resources. In this paper, in order to monitor the spreading of malaria, we develop an intelligent surveillance system based on our existing algorithms. First, a visualization function and active surveillance were implemented in order to predict and categorize areas at high risk of infection. Next, socioeconomic and climatological characteristics were applied to the proposed prediction model. Then, the redundancy of the socioeconomic attribute values was reduced using the stepwise regression method to improve the accuracy of the proposed prediction model. The experimental results indicated that the proposed IASM predicted malaria outbreaks more close to the real data and with fewer variables than other models. Furthermore, the proposed model effectively identified areas at high risk of infection. PMID:27563343

  1. IASM: A System for the Intelligent Active Surveillance of Malaria.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinlei; Yang, Bo; Huang, Jing; Chen, Hechang; Gu, Xiao; Bai, Yuan; Du, Zhanwei

    2016-01-01

    Malaria, a life-threatening infectious disease, spreads rapidly via parasites. Malaria prevention is more effective and efficient than treatment. However, the existing surveillance systems used to prevent malaria are inadequate, especially in areas with limited or no access to medical resources. In this paper, in order to monitor the spreading of malaria, we develop an intelligent surveillance system based on our existing algorithms. First, a visualization function and active surveillance were implemented in order to predict and categorize areas at high risk of infection. Next, socioeconomic and climatological characteristics were applied to the proposed prediction model. Then, the redundancy of the socioeconomic attribute values was reduced using the stepwise regression method to improve the accuracy of the proposed prediction model. The experimental results indicated that the proposed IASM predicted malaria outbreaks more close to the real data and with fewer variables than other models. Furthermore, the proposed model effectively identified areas at high risk of infection. PMID:27563343

  2. A national surveillance system for newly acquired HIV infection in Australia. National HIV Surveillance Committee.

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, A M; Gertig, D M; Crofts, N; Kaldor, J M

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The purpose of this study was to describe the establishment of a national surveillance system for newly acquired human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and present the first 3 years' results. METHODS. All new cases of diagnosed HIV infection were reported to the national HIV surveillance center through state and territory health authorities. Information sought on each case included evidence of whether the infection had been newly acquired, defined by the diagnosis of HIV seroconversion illness or by the report of a negative or indeterminate HIV antibody test result occurring within the 12 months prior to diagnosis of infection. RESULTS. Of 3602 reported cases of HIV infection in adults and adolescents newly diagnosed in Australia between 1991 and 1993, 11.4% were identified as newly acquired. The majority (85%) of cases of newly diagnosed HIV infection occurred among men who reported homosexual contact, and 15% of these cases were identified as newly acquired. Average age at diagnosis was 31 years for cases of newly acquired infection and 34 years for other cases. CONCLUSIONS. Surveillance for newly acquired HIV infection has been established at a national level in Australia and provides valuable information for planning primary HIV prevention programs. PMID:7998631

  3. Distributed visual-target-surveillance system in wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xue; Wang, Sheng; Bi, Daowei

    2009-10-01

    A wireless sensor network (WSN) is a powerful unattended distributed measurement system, which is widely used in target surveillance because of its outstanding performance in distributed sensing and signal processing. This paper introduces a multiview visual-target-surveillance system in WSN, which can autonomously implement target classification and tracking with collaborative online learning and localization. The proposed system is a hybrid system of single-node and multinode fusion. It is constructed on a peer-to-peer (P2P)-based computing paradigm and consists of some simple but feasible methods for target detection and feature extraction. Importantly, a support-vector-machine-based semisupervised learning method is used to achieve online classifier learning with only unlabeled samples. To reduce the energy consumption and increase the accuracy, a novel progressive data-fusion paradigm is proposed for online learning and localization, where a feasible routing method is adopted to implement information transmission with the tradeoff between performance and cost. Experiment results verify that the proposed surveillance system is an effective, energy-efficient, and robust system for real-world application. Furthermore, the P2P-based progressive data-fusion paradigm can improve the energy efficiency and robustness of target surveillance.

  4. 77 FR 6000 - Airworthiness Directives; Aviation Communication & Surveillance Systems (ACSS) Traffic Alert and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-07

    ... Communication & Surveillance Systems (ACSS) Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) Units AGENCY... airworthiness directive (AD): 2012-02-08 Aviation Communication & Surveillance Systems, LLC: Amendment 39-16931.... ADDRESSES: For service information identified in this AD, contact Aviation Communication &...

  5. Neural Network Based System for Equipment Startup Surveillance

    1996-12-18

    NEBSESS is a system for equipment surveillance and fault detection which relies on a neural-network based means for diagnosing disturbances during startup and for automatically actuating the Sequential Probability Ratio Test (SPRT) as a signal validation means during steady-state operation.

  6. Nutrition Counts. Massachusetts Nutrition Surveillance System. FY90 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiecha, Jean L.; And Others

    "Nutrition Counts," the pediatric portion of the Massachusetts Department of Public Health's (MDPH) Nutrition Surveillance System, monitors and describes aspects of nutritional status among groups of young children in the state. This report presents cross-sectional data describing 5,176 infants and young children in Massachusetts. Of these, 3,181…

  7. 32 CFR 637.20 - Security surveillance systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Security surveillance systems. 637.20 Section 637.20 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.20...

  8. 32 CFR 637.20 - Security surveillance systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Security surveillance systems. 637.20 Section 637.20 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.20...

  9. 32 CFR 637.20 - Security surveillance systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Security surveillance systems. 637.20 Section 637.20 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.20...

  10. 32 CFR 637.20 - Security surveillance systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Security surveillance systems. 637.20 Section 637.20 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.20...

  11. 32 CFR 637.20 - Security surveillance systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Security surveillance systems. 637.20 Section 637.20 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.20...

  12. Considerations on a VXI based digital image surveillance system

    SciTech Connect

    Gaertner, K.J.; Neumann, G.; Richter, B.

    1995-12-31

    In 1992 the International Atomic Energy Agency established the IAEA Integrated Safeguards Instrumentation Programme (I{sup 2}SIP) which provides a conceptual framework to guide new equipment development activities. One of the main goals of I{sup 2}SIP is to define the optimum structure of future safeguards equipment inventory that would enable the integration of containment, surveillance and unattended radiation monitoring modules for application in facilities with complex safeguards systems. This approach implies a modular equipment structure in both hardware and software. In December 1993, a Consultants Meeting concluded that the VXI instrument bus (VXIbus) standard does not appear to have any technical limitations that will inhibit the use of I{sup 2}SIP and should be considered the first choice for future safeguards equipment. The Agency`s development plan for Digital Image Surveillance (DIS) is part of the I{sup 2}SIP and has defined the need for `distributed systems`, i.e. for multichannel surveillance systems, which should accommodate the integration aspect and meet requirements for both mail-in of recorded information to the Agency and remote surveillance. The paper describes the basic considerations that have led to the selection of the VXI bus to be used for such a system including the different modules emphasizing the integration issue.

  13. Dengue surveillance in the French armed forces: a dengue sentinel surveillance system in countries without efficient local epidemiological surveillance.

    PubMed

    de Laval, Franck; Dia, Aissata; Plumet, Sébastien; Decam, Christophe; Leparc Goffart, Isabelle; Deparis, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Surveillance of travel-acquired dengue could improve dengue risk estimation in countries without ability. Surveillance in the French army in 2010 to 2011 highlighted 330 dengue cases, mainly in French West Indies and Guiana: DENV-1 circulated in Guadeloupe, Martinique, French Guiana, New Caledonia, Djibouti; DENV-3 in Mayotte and Djibouti; and DENV-4 in French Guiana.

  14. Dengue surveillance in the French armed forces: a dengue sentinel surveillance system in countries without efficient local epidemiological surveillance.

    PubMed

    de Laval, Franck; Dia, Aissata; Plumet, Sébastien; Decam, Christophe; Leparc Goffart, Isabelle; Deparis, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Surveillance of travel-acquired dengue could improve dengue risk estimation in countries without ability. Surveillance in the French army in 2010 to 2011 highlighted 330 dengue cases, mainly in French West Indies and Guiana: DENV-1 circulated in Guadeloupe, Martinique, French Guiana, New Caledonia, Djibouti; DENV-3 in Mayotte and Djibouti; and DENV-4 in French Guiana. PMID:23809078

  15. Design of natural user interface of indoor surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Lili; Liu, Dan; Jiang, Mu-Jin; Cao, Ning

    2015-03-01

    Conventional optical video surveillance systems usually just record what they view, but they can't make sense of what they are viewing. With lots of useless video information stored and transmitted, waste of memory space and increasing the bandwidth are produced every day. In order to reduce the overall cost of the system, and improve the application value of the monitoring system, we use the Kinect sensor with CMOS infrared sensor, as a supplement to the traditional video surveillance system, to establish the natural user interface system for indoor surveillance. In this paper, the architecture of the natural user interface system, complex background monitoring object separation, user behavior analysis algorithms are discussed. By the analysis of the monitoring object, instead of the command language grammar, when the monitored object need instant help, the system with the natural user interface sends help information. We introduce the method of combining the new system and traditional monitoring system. In conclusion, theoretical analysis and experimental results in this paper show that the proposed system is reasonable and efficient. It can satisfy the system requirements of non-contact, online, real time, higher precision and rapid speed to control the state of affairs at the scene.

  16. Surveillance of Traumatic Firefighter Fatalities: An Assessment of Four Systems

    PubMed Central

    Estes, Chris R.; Marsh, Suzanne M.; Castillo, Dawn N.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Firefighters regularly respond to hazardous situations that put them at risk for fatal occupational injuries. Traumatic occupational fatality surveillance is a foundation for understanding the problem and developing prevention strategies. We assessed four surveillance systems for their utility in characterizing firefighter fatalities and informing prevention measures. Methods We examined three population-based systems (the Bureau of Labor Statistics' Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries and systems maintained by the United States Fire Administration and the National Fire Protection Association) and one case-based system (data collected through the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Fire Fighter Fatality Investigation and Prevention Program). From each system, we selected traumatic fatalities among firefighters for 2003–2006. Then we compared case definitions, methods for case ascertainment, variables collected, and rate calculation methods. Results Overall magnitude of fatalities differed among systems. The population-based systems were effective in characterizing the circumstances of traumatic firefighter fatalities. The case-based surveillance system was effective in formulating detailed prevention recommendations, which could not be made based on the population-based data alone. Methods for estimating risk were disparate and limited fatality rate comparisons between firefighters and other workers. Conclusions The systems included in this study contribute toward a greater understanding of firefighter fatalities. Areas of improvement for these systems should continue to be identified as they are used to direct research and prevention efforts. PMID:21800748

  17. Launching a National Surveillance System after an earthquake --- Haiti, 2010.

    PubMed

    2010-08-01

    On January 12, 2010, Haiti experienced a magnitude-7.0 earthquake; Haitian government officials estimated that 230,000 persons died and 300,000 were injured. At the time, Haiti had no system capable of providing timely surveillance on a wide range of health conditions. Within 2 weeks, Haiti's Ministry of Public Health and Population (MSPP), the Pan-American Health Organization (PAHO), CDC, and other national and international agencies launched the National Sentinel Site Surveillance (NSSS) System. The objectives were to monitor disease trends, detect outbreaks, and characterize the affected population to target relief efforts. Fifty-one hospital and clinic surveillance sites affiliated with the U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) were selected to report daily counts by e-mail or telephone for 25 specified reportable conditions. During January 25-April 24, 2010, a total of 42,361 persons had a reportable condition; of these, 54.5% were female, and 32.6% were aged <5 years. Nationally, the three most frequently reported specified conditions were acute respiratory infection (ARI) (16.3%), suspected malaria (10.3%), and fever of unknown cause (10.0%). Injuries accounted for 12.0% of reported conditions. No epidemics or disease clusters were detected. The number of reports decreased over time. NSSS is ongoing and currently transitioning into becoming a long-term national surveillance system for Haiti. NSSS data could assist decision makers in allocation of resources and identifying effective public health interventions. However, data reporting and quality could be improved by additional surveillance education for health-care providers, laboratory confirmation of cases of disease, and Internet-based weekly reporting.

  18. Millimeter-wave high-resolution holographic surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMakin, Douglas L.; Sheen, David M.; Collins, H. D.; Hall, Thomas E.; Smith, Russell R.

    1994-03-01

    A prototype millimeter wave holographic surveillance system has been developed and demonstrated at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The prototype millimeter wave holographic surveillance system developed at PNL consists of a sequentially switched 2 X 64 element array coupled to a 35 GHz bi-static transceiver. The sequentially switched array of antennas can be used to obtain the holographic data at high speed by electronically sequencing the antennas along one dimension and performing a mechanical scan along the other dimension. A 1D mechanical scan can be performed in about one second. The prototype system scans an aperture of 0.75 by 2.05 m. This system has been demonstrated and images have been obtained on volunteers at Sea-Tac International airport in Seattle, Washington.

  19. An active vision system for multitarget surveillance in dynamic environments.

    PubMed

    Bakhtari, Ardevan; Benhabib, Beno

    2007-02-01

    This paper presents a novel agent-based method for the dynamic coordinated selection and positioning of active-vision cameras for the simultaneous surveillance of multiple objects-of-interest as they travel through a cluttered environment with a-priori unknown trajectories. The proposed system dynamically adjusts not only the orientation but also the position of the cameras in order to maximize the system's performance by avoiding occlusions and acquiring images with preferred viewing angles. Sensor selection and positioning are accomplished through an agent-based approach. The proposed sensing-system reconfiguration strategy has been verified via simulations and implemented on an experimental prototype setup for automated facial recognition. Both simulations and experimental analyses have shown that the use of dynamic sensors along with an effective online dispatching strategy may tangibly improve the surveillance performance of a sensing system.

  20. NASA's Systems Engineering Approaches for Addressing Public Health Surveillance Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vann, Timi

    2003-01-01

    NASA's systems engineering has its heritage in space mission analysis and design, including the end-to-end approach to managing every facet of the extreme engineering required for successful space missions. NASA sensor technology, understanding of remote sensing, and knowledge of Earth system science, can be powerful new tools for improved disease surveillance and environmental public health tracking. NASA's systems engineering framework facilitates the match between facilitates the match between partner needs and decision support requirements in the areas of 1) Science/Data; 2) Technology; 3) Integration. Partnerships between NASA and other Federal agencies are diagrammed in this viewgraph presentation. NASA's role in these partnerships is to provide systemic and sustainable solutions that contribute to the measurable enhancement of a partner agency's disease surveillance efforts.

  1. A GIS-driven integrated real-time surveillance pilot system for national West Nile virus dead bird surveillance in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Shuai, Jiangping; Buck, Peter; Sockett, Paul; Aramini, Jeff; Pollari, Frank

    2006-01-01

    Background An extensive West Nile virus surveillance program of dead birds, mosquitoes, horses, and human infection has been launched as a result of West Nile virus first being reported in Canada in 2001. Some desktop and web GIS have been applied to West Nile virus dead bird surveillance. There have been urgent needs for a comprehensive GIS services and real-time surveillance. Results A pilot system was developed to integrate real-time surveillance, real-time GIS, and Open GIS technology in order to enhance West Nile virus dead bird surveillance in Canada. Driven and linked by the newly developed real-time web GIS technology, this integrated real-time surveillance system includes conventional real-time web-based surveillance components, integrated real-time GIS components, and integrated Open GIS components. The pilot system identified the major GIS functions and capacities that may be important to public health surveillance. The six web GIS clients provide a wide range of GIS tools for public health surveillance. The pilot system has been serving Canadian national West Nile virus dead bird surveillance since 2005 and is adaptable to serve other disease surveillance. Conclusion This pilot system has streamlined, enriched and enhanced national West Nile virus dead bird surveillance in Canada, improved productivity, and reduced operation cost. Its real-time GIS technology, static map technology, WMS integration, and its integration with non-GIS real-time surveillance system made this pilot system unique in surveillance and public health GIS. PMID:16626490

  2. Expert system for online surveillance of nuclear reactor coolant pumps

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Kenny C.; Singer, Ralph M.; Humenik, Keith E.

    1993-01-01

    An expert system for online surveillance of nuclear reactor coolant pumps. This system provides a means for early detection of pump or sensor degradation. Degradation is determined through the use of a statistical analysis technique, sequential probability ratio test, applied to information from several sensors which are responsive to differing physical parameters. The results of sequential testing of the data provide the operator with an early warning of possible sensor or pump failure.

  3. High-resolution full-panoramic imaging surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerbyson, Gerald M.

    2002-08-01

    This paper describes new class of high-resolution electro-optical imaging search and surveillance system (visual and/or IR). This new system uniquely provides continuous real-time situation-awareness and response, with immediate detection of approaching/ emerging threats, and rapid assessment of a situation, permitting immediate response/ reaction to counter the threat. As such it is uniquely suited for a very wide variety of diverse surveillance applications, especially in the areas of security and defense. The system provides an uninterrupted real-time, effectively live, imaging-display coverage of the entire 360 degree(s) panorama, all evaluated in real time at the full resolution of the imaging sensor. The image resolution for the full 360 degree(s) panorama collected by the sensor, and displayed by the display module, is unprecedentedly high, typically at least 20 megapixels (e.g., 2,000 pixels vertically by 20,000 pixels in circumference). The associated scene-scan cycle time is typically a second or less. This level of performance assures earliest detection of distant targets and highest-quality evaluation of the targets. Two alternative means of surveillance evaluation are available: the Direct-View (Observer) Surveillance Evaluation, and the Semi-Automated Surveillance Evaluation, with visual verification by the observer personnel. The resulting surveillance capability is unprecedented, simultaneously providing a) assured target detection anywhere within the 360 degree(s) panorama, b) classification, c) localization, d) tracking, and e) target status and activity monitoring, all without the need for any external tip-off or cueing inputs to the system. The greatest value of this unique situation-awareness capability is primarily in situations requiring high-confidence protection of high-value vehicles or installations located inside a relatively open and unobstructed region wherein hostile threats could quickly appear at any time and from any direction. An

  4. An intelligent crowdsourcing system for forensic analysis of surveillance video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahboub, Khalid; Gadgil, Neeraj; Ribera, Javier; Delgado, Blanca; Delp, Edward J.

    2015-03-01

    Video surveillance systems are of a great value for public safety. With an exponential increase in the number of cameras, videos obtained from surveillance systems are often archived for forensic purposes. Many automatic methods have been proposed to do video analytics such as anomaly detection and human activity recognition. However, such methods face significant challenges due to object occlusions, shadows and scene illumination changes. In recent years, crowdsourcing has become an effective tool that utilizes human intelligence to perform tasks that are challenging for machines. In this paper, we present an intelligent crowdsourcing system for forensic analysis of surveillance video that includes the video recorded as a part of search and rescue missions and large-scale investigation tasks. We describe a method to enhance crowdsourcing by incorporating human detection, re-identification and tracking. At the core of our system, we use a hierarchal pyramid model to distinguish the crowd members based on their ability, experience and performance record. Our proposed system operates in an autonomous fashion and produces a final output of the crowdsourcing analysis consisting of a set of video segments detailing the events of interest as one storyline.

  5. System integration and development for biological warfare agent surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mark, Jacob A.; Green, Lance D.; Deshpande, Alina; White, P. Scott

    2007-04-01

    A wide variety of technical needs exist for surveillance, monitoring, identifying, or detecting pathogens with potential use as biological terrorism or warfare agents. Because the needs vary greatly among diverse applications, tailored systems are needed that meet performance, information, and cost requirements. A systems perspective allows developers to identify chokepoints for each application, and focus R&D investments on the limiting factors. Surveillance and detection systems are comprised of three primary components: information (markers), chemistries (assays), and instrumentation for "readout". Careful consideration of these components within the context of each application will allow for increases in efficiency and performance not generally realized when researchers focus on a single component in isolation. In fact, many application requirements can be met with simple novel combinations of existing technologies, without the need for huge investments in basic research. Here we discuss some of the key parameters for surveillance, detection, and identification of biothreat agents, and provide examples of focused development that addresses key bottlenecks, and greatly improve system performance.

  6. Towards photometry pipeline of the Indonesian space surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priyatikanto, Rhorom; Religia, Bahar; Rachman, Abdul; Dani, Tiar

    2015-09-01

    Optical observation through sub-meter telescope equipped with CCD camera becomes alternative method for increasing orbital debris detection and surveillance. This observational mode is expected to eye medium-sized objects in higher orbits (e.g. MEO, GTO, GSO & GEO), beyond the reach of usual radar system. However, such observation of fast moving objects demands special treatment and analysis technique. In this study, we performed photometric analysis of the satellite track images photographed using rehabilitated Schmidt Bima Sakti telescope in Bosscha Observatory. The Hough transformation was implemented to automatically detect linear streak from the images. From this analysis and comparison to USSPACECOM catalog, two satellites were identified and associated with inactive Thuraya-3 satellite and Satcom-3 debris which are located at geostationary orbit. Further aperture photometry analysis revealed the periodicity of tumbling Satcom-3 debris. In the near future, it is not impossible to apply similar scheme to establish an analysis pipeline for optical space surveillance system hosted in Indonesia.

  7. Secure Video Surveillance System Acquisition Software

    SciTech Connect

    2009-12-04

    The SVSS Acquisition Software collects and displays video images from two cameras through a VPN, and store the images onto a collection controller. The software is configured to allow a user to enter a time window to display up to 2 1/2, hours of video review. The software collects images from the cameras at a rate of 1 image per second and automatically deletes images older than 3 hours. The software code operates in a linux environment and can be run in a virtual machine on Windows XP. The Sandia software integrates the different COTS software together to build the video review system.

  8. Secure Video Surveillance System Acquisition Software

    2009-12-04

    The SVSS Acquisition Software collects and displays video images from two cameras through a VPN, and store the images onto a collection controller. The software is configured to allow a user to enter a time window to display up to 2 1/2, hours of video review. The software collects images from the cameras at a rate of 1 image per second and automatically deletes images older than 3 hours. The software code operates in amore » linux environment and can be run in a virtual machine on Windows XP. The Sandia software integrates the different COTS software together to build the video review system.« less

  9. Reconciling surveillance systems with limited resources: an evaluation of passive surveillance for rabies in an endemic setting.

    PubMed

    Craighead, Laura; Gilbert, William; Subasinghe, Dynatra; Häsler, Barbara

    2015-10-01

    Surveillance systems for rabies in endemic regions are often subject to severe constraints in terms of resources. The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) and the World Health Organisation (WHO) propose the use of an active surveillance system to substantiate claims of disease freedom, including rabies. However, many countries do not have the resources to establish active surveillance systems for rabies and the testing of dead dogs poses logistical challenges. This paper explores the potential of using a scenario tree model parameterised with data collected via questionnaires and interviews to estimate the sensitivity of passive surveillance, assessing its potential as a viable low-cost alternative to active surveillance systems. The results of this explorative study illustrated that given a large enough sample size, in this case the entire population of Colombo City, the sensitivity of passive surveillance can be 100% even at a low disease prevalence (0.1%), despite the low sensitivity of individual surveillance components (mean values in the range 4.077×10(-5)-1.834×10(-3) at 1% prevalence). In addition, logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with increased recognition of rabies in dogs and reporting of rabies suspect dogs. Increased recognition was observed amongst dog owners (OR 3.8 (CI, 1.3-10.8)), people previously bitten by dogs (OR 5.9 (CI, 2.2-15.9)) and people who believed they had seen suspect dogs in the past (OR 4.7 (CI, 1.8-12.9)). Increased likelihood of reporting suspect dogs was observed amongst dog owners (OR 5.3 (CI, 1.1-25)). Further work is required to validate the data collection tool and the assumptions made in the model with respect to sample size in order to develop a robust methodology for evaluating passive rabies surveillance.

  10. A novel surveillance system for rescue and military operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Win, Yin Thu; Ashraf, Muhammad Waseem; Afzulpurkar, Nitin; Tayyaba, Shahzadi; Htun, Hla Thar; Punyasai, Chumnarm

    2011-10-01

    In this paper, a novel design of ultrasonic based surveillance system for rescue and military operations has been presented. The developed system consists of electronic module, transmitter, receiver, digital to analogue converter, liquid crystal display (LCD) and power supply. First, the mathematical model has been presented for the object detection system. Then the numerical simulation has been performed using Matlab plate form. The experiments have been conducted using ultrasonic frequencies. The thin cloth, thin curtain, thick curtain, paper and transparent plastic have been considered as a media during experiments. The presented system is highly accurate for object detection behind the obstacle.

  11. Demonstration of a noise-surveillance system at a PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, C.M.

    1982-01-01

    The automated surveillance system has monitored the Sequoyah Nuclear Plant during its first fuel cycle. The system was able to acceptably adapt to different plant operating conditions. While evaluations are still ongoing, results indicate that the system was able to adapt to signals with different statistical character and that the discriminants are useful in detecting spectral changes. The system monitored long-term noise behavior, detected spectra that differ from what is considered normal, and provided concise storage of spectra together with the plant operating condition associated with the stored spectra.

  12. Profile: The Karonga Health and Demographic Surveillance System

    PubMed Central

    Crampin, Amelia C; Dube, Albert; Mboma, Sebastian; Price, Alison; Chihana, Menard; Jahn, Andreas; Baschieri, Angela; Molesworth, Anna; Mwaiyeghele, Elnaeus; Branson, Keith; Floyd, Sian; McGrath, Nuala; Fine, Paul E M; French, Neil; Glynn, Judith R; Zaba, Basia

    2012-01-01

    The Karonga Health and Demographic Surveillance System (Karonga HDSS) in northern Malawi currently has a population of more than 35 000 individuals under continuous demographic surveillance since completion of a baseline census (2002–2004). The surveillance system collects data on vital events and migration for individuals and for households. It also provides data on cause-specific mortality obtained by verbal autopsy for all age groups, and estimates rates of disease for specific presentations via linkage to clinical facility data. The Karonga HDSS provides a structure for surveys of socio-economic status, HIV sero-prevalence and incidence, sexual behaviour, fertility intentions and a sampling frame for other studies, as well as evaluating the impact of interventions, such as antiretroviral therapy and vaccination programmes. Uniquely, it relies on a network of village informants to report vital events and household moves, and furthermore is linked to an archive of biological samples and data from population surveys and other studies dating back three decades. PMID:22729235

  13. A Behavior Based Control System for Surveillance UAVs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyekan, John; Lu, Bowen; Li, Bo; Gu, Dongbing; Hu, Huosheng

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) is required to carry out duties such as surveillance, reconnaissance, search and rescue and security patrol missions. Autonomous operation of UAVs is a key to the success of these missions. In this chapter, we propose to use a behavior based control architecture to implement autonomous operation for UAV surveillance missions. This control architecture consists of two layers: a low level control layer and a behavior layer. The low level control layer decomposes 3D motion of UAVs into several atomic actions, such as yaw, roll, pitch, altitude, and 2D position control. These atomic actions together serve as a basis for the behavior layer. The behavior layer consists of a number of necessary behaviors used for surveillance missions, including take-off, object tracking, hovering, landing, trajectory following, obstacle avoidance amongst other behaviors. These behaviors can be instantiated individually or collectively to fulfill the required missions issued by human operators. To evaluate the proposed control architecture, the commercially available DraganFlyer QuadRotor was used as the UAV platform. With the aid of an indoor positioning system, several atomic actions and a group of behaviors were developed for the DraganFlyer. Real testing experiments were conducted to demonstrate the feasibility and performance of the proposed system.

  14. Expert system for surveillance and diagnosis of breach fuel elements

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Kenny C.

    1989-01-01

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for surveillance and diagnosis of breached fuel elements in a nuclear reactor. A delayed neutron monitoring system provides output signals indicating the delayed neutron activity and age and the equivalent recoil areas of a breached fuel element. Sensors are used to provide outputs indicating the status of each component of the delayed neutron monitoring system. Detectors also generate output signals indicating the reactor power level and the primary coolant flow rate of the reactor. The outputs from the detectors and sensors are interfaced with an artificial intelligence-based knowledge system which implements predetermined logic and generates output signals indicating the operability of the reactor.

  15. Expert system for surveillance and diagnosis of breach fuel elements

    DOEpatents

    Gross, K.C.

    1988-01-21

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for surveillance and diagnosis of breached fuel elements in a nuclear reactor. A delayed neutron monitoring system provides output signals indicating the delayed neutron activity and age and the equivalent recoil area of a breached fuel element. Sensors are used to provide outputs indicating the status of each component of the delayed neutron monitoring system. Detectors also generate output signals indicating the reactor power level and the primary coolant flow rate of the reactor. The outputs from the detectors and sensors are interfaced with an artificial intelligence-based knowledge system which implements predetermined logic and generates output signals indicating the operability of the reactor. 2 figs.

  16. Was the French clinical surveillance system of bovine brucellosis influenced by the occurrence and surveillance of other abortive diseases?

    PubMed

    Bronner, Anne; Morignat, Eric; Touratier, Anne; Gache, Kristel; Sala, Carole; Calavas, Didier

    2015-03-01

    The bovine brucellosis clinical surveillance system implemented in France aims to detect early any case of bovine brucellosis, a disease of which the country has been declared free since 2005. It relies on the mandatory notification of every bovine abortion. Following the spread of the Schmallenberg virus (SBV) in France in 2012 and 2013, and the implementation in 2012 of a clinical surveillance programme of Q fever based on abortion notifications in ten pilot départements, our objective was to study whether these two events influenced the brucellosis clinical surveillance system. The proportion of notifying farmers was analyzed over each semester from June 1, 2009 to June 30, 2013 according to the size and production type of herds, SBV status of départements and the implementation of the Q fever surveillance. Our analysis showed a slight increase in the proportion of notifying farmers as départements became infected by SBV, and after the implementation of Q fever surveillance (during the first semester of 2013). These variations might be explained by an increase in abortion occurrence (congenital deformities in newborns, due to SBV) and/or by an increase in farmers' and veterinarians' awareness (due to the spread of SBV and the implementation of the Q fever surveillance). These results highlight the difficulties in interpreting variations in the proportion of notifying farmers as a consequence of an increase in abortion occurrence. As bovine abortion surveillance can play an important role in the early warning for several diseases, there is a need to explore other ways to monitor abortions in cattle, such as syndromic surveillance using the dates of artificial insemination or calving data.

  17. Millimeter wave, high-resolution, holographic surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMakin, D. L.; Sheen, D. M.; Collins, H. D.; Hall, T. E.; Smith, R. R.; Droppo, J. G., Jr.

    Millimeter wave holographic imaging systems capable of imaging through clothing to detect contraband, metal, plastic, or ceramic weapons may provided a practical solution to personnel inspection needs in mass transportation centers. Traditional inspection systems, such as metal detectors and x-ray imaging systems, have limitations for the detection of concealed weapons. Metal detectors are limited because they cannot detect plastic weapons and x-ray imaging systems are limited in use due to radiological health considerations. A prototype millimeter wave holographic surveillance system has been developed and demonstrated at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The prototype millimeter wave holographic surveillance system developed at PNL consists of a sequentially switched 2 (times) 64 element array coupled to a 35 GHz bi-static transceiver. The sequentially switched array of antennas can be used to obtain the holographic data at high speed by electronically sequencing the antennas along one dimension and performing a mechanical scan along the other dimension. A one-dimensional mechanical scan be be performed in about one second. The prototype system scans an aperture of 0.75 by 2.05. This system has been demonstrated and images have been obtained on volunteers at Sea-Tac International airport in Seattle, Washington.

  18. Effects of a type I antifreeze protein (AFP) on the melting of frozen AFP and AFP+solute aqueous solutions studied by NMR microimaging experiment.

    PubMed

    Ba, Yong; Mao, Yougang; Galdino, Luiz; Günsen, Zorigoo

    2013-01-01

    The effects of a type I AFP on the bulk melting of frozen AFP solutions and frozen AFP+solute solutions were studied through an NMR microimaging experiment. The solutes studied include sodium chloride and glucose and the amino acids alanine, threonine, arginine, and aspartic acid. We found that the AFP is able to induce the bulk melting of the frozen AFP solutions at temperatures lower than 0 °C and can also keep the ice melted at higher temperatures in the AFP+solute solutions than those in the corresponding solute solutions. The latter shows that the ice phases were in super-heated states in the frozen AFP+solute solutions. We have tried to understand the first experimental phenomenon via the recent theoretical prediction that type I AFP can induce the local melting of ice upon adsorption to ice surfaces. The latter experimental phenomenon was explained with the hypothesis that the adsorption of AFP to ice surfaces introduces a less hydrophilic water-AFP-ice interfacial region, which repels the ionic/hydrophilic solutes. Thus, this interfacial region formed an intermediate chemical potential layer between the water phase and the ice phase, which prevented the transfer of water from the ice phase to the water phase. We have also attempted to understand the significance of the observed melting phenomena to the survival of organisms that express AFPs over cold winters. PMID:23860838

  19. Syndromic surveillance for health information system failures: a feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Mei-Sing; Magrabi, Farah; Coiera, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the applicability of a syndromic surveillance method to the early detection of health information technology (HIT) system failures. Methods A syndromic surveillance system was developed to monitor a laboratory information system at a tertiary hospital. Four indices were monitored: (1) total laboratory records being created; (2) total records with missing results; (3) average serum potassium results; and (4) total duplicated tests on a patient. The goal was to detect HIT system failures causing: data loss at the record level; data loss at the field level; erroneous data; and unintended duplication of data. Time-series models of the indices were constructed, and statistical process control charts were used to detect unexpected behaviors. The ability of the models to detect HIT system failures was evaluated using simulated failures, each lasting for 24 h, with error rates ranging from 1% to 35%. Results In detecting data loss at the record level, the model achieved a sensitivity of 0.26 when the simulated error rate was 1%, while maintaining a specificity of 0.98. Detection performance improved with increasing error rates, achieving a perfect sensitivity when the error rate was 35%. In the detection of missing results, erroneous serum potassium results and unintended repetition of tests, perfect sensitivity was attained when the error rate was as small as 5%. Decreasing the error rate to 1% resulted in a drop in sensitivity to 0.65–0.85. Conclusions Syndromic surveillance methods can potentially be applied to monitor HIT systems, to facilitate the early detection of failures. PMID:23184193

  20. Evolution of an integrated public health surveillance system.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Derek A; Ford, Nancy; Tlusty, Susan; Bodurtha, Joann N

    2011-01-01

    There is a growing recognition in maternal and child health of the importance of social, behavioral, biological, and genetic factors across the entire life course. Unfortunately, most state maternal and child health surveillance systems are not designed to readily address longitudinal research questions or track and follow children across multiple programs over time. The Virginia Department of Health (VDH) recently integrated its birth defects registry, newborn hearing screening tracking and management system, and electronic birth certificate (EBC) into a robust, Web-based surveillance system called the Virginia Vital Events and Screening Tracking System (VVESTS). Completely redesigning the existing birth defects and newborn hearing screening system (the Virginia Infant Screening and Infant Tracking System--VISITS I) with minimal disruption of ongoing reporting presented a number of challenges. Because VVESTS had different requirements such as required fields and data validations, extensive data preparation was required to ensure that existing VISITS I data would be included in the new system (VISITS II). Efforts included record deduplication, conversion of free text fields into discrete variables, dealing with missing/invalid data, and linkage with birth certificate data. VISITS II serves multiple program needs; improves data quality and security; automates linkages within families, across programs, and over time; and improves the ability of VDH to provide children with birth defects and their families necessary follow-up services and enhanced care coordination.

  1. Surveillance system and method having an adaptive sequential probability fault detection test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bickford, Randall L. (Inventor); Herzog, James P. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    System and method providing surveillance of an asset such as a process and/or apparatus by providing training and surveillance procedures that numerically fit a probability density function to an observed residual error signal distribution that is correlative to normal asset operation and then utilizes the fitted probability density function in a dynamic statistical hypothesis test for providing improved asset surveillance.

  2. Surveillance system and method having an adaptive sequential probability fault detection test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herzog, James P. (Inventor); Bickford, Randall L. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    System and method providing surveillance of an asset such as a process and/or apparatus by providing training and surveillance procedures that numerically fit a probability density function to an observed residual error signal distribution that is correlative to normal asset operation and then utilizes the fitted probability density function in a dynamic statistical hypothesis test for providing improved asset surveillance.

  3. Surveillance System and Method having an Adaptive Sequential Probability Fault Detection Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bickford, Randall L. (Inventor); Herzog, James P. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    System and method providing surveillance of an asset such as a process and/or apparatus by providing training and surveillance procedures that numerically fit a probability density function to an observed residual error signal distribution that is correlative to normal asset operation and then utilizes the fitted probability density function in a dynamic statistical hypothesis test for providing improved asset surveillance.

  4. Rotavirus Surveillance at a WHO-Coordinated Invasive Bacterial Disease Surveillance Site in Bangladesh: A Feasibility Study to Integrate Two Surveillance Systems

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, ASM Nawshad Uddin; Arumugam, Rajesh; Marzan, Mahfuza; Saha, Shampa; Arifeen, Shams El; Baqui, Abdullah H.; Black, Robert E.; Kang, Gagandeep; Saha, Samir Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) currently coordinates rotavirus diarrhea and invasive bacterial disease (IBD) surveillance at 178 sentinel sites in 60 countries. However, only 78 sites participate in both surveillance systems using a common sentinel site. Here, we explored the feasibility of extending a WHO-IBD surveillance platform to generate data on the burden of rotaviral diarrhea and its epidemiological characteristics to prepare the countries to measure the impact of rotaviral vaccine. A six-month (July to December, 2012) surveillance, managed by IBD team, collected stool samples and clinical data from under-five children with acute watery diarrhea at an IBD sentinel site. Samples were tested for rotavirus antigen by ELISA and genotyped by PCR at the regional reference laboratory (RRL). Specimens were collected from 79% (n = 297) of eligible cases (n = 375); 100% of which were tested for rotavirus by ELISA and 54% (159/297) of them were positive. At RRL, all the cases were confirmed by PCR and genotyped (99%; 158/159). The typing results revealed the predominance of G12 (40%; 64/159) genotype, followed by G1 (31%; 50/159) and G9 (19%; 31/159). All in all, this exploratory surveillance collected the desired demographic and epidemiological data and achieved almost all the benchmark indicators of WHO, starting from enrollment number to quality assurance through a number of case detection, collection, and testing of specimens and genotyping of strains at RRL. The success of this WHO-IBD site in achieving these benchmark indicators of WHO can be used by WHO as a proof-of-concept for considering integration of rotavirus surveillance with WHO-IBD platforms, specifically in countries with well performing IBD site and no ongoing rotavirus surveillance. PMID:27096958

  5. Rotavirus Surveillance at a WHO-Coordinated Invasive Bacterial Disease Surveillance Site in Bangladesh: A Feasibility Study to Integrate Two Surveillance Systems.

    PubMed

    Tanmoy, Arif Mohammad; Ahmed, Asm Nawshad Uddin; Arumugam, Rajesh; Hossain, Belal; Marzan, Mahfuza; Saha, Shampa; Arifeen, Shams El; Baqui, Abdullah H; Black, Robert E; Kang, Gagandeep; Saha, Samir Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) currently coordinates rotavirus diarrhea and invasive bacterial disease (IBD) surveillance at 178 sentinel sites in 60 countries. However, only 78 sites participate in both surveillance systems using a common sentinel site. Here, we explored the feasibility of extending a WHO-IBD surveillance platform to generate data on the burden of rotaviral diarrhea and its epidemiological characteristics to prepare the countries to measure the impact of rotaviral vaccine. A six-month (July to December, 2012) surveillance, managed by IBD team, collected stool samples and clinical data from under-five children with acute watery diarrhea at an IBD sentinel site. Samples were tested for rotavirus antigen by ELISA and genotyped by PCR at the regional reference laboratory (RRL). Specimens were collected from 79% (n=297) of eligible cases (n=375); 100% of which were tested for rotavirus by ELISA and 54% (159/297) of them were positive. At RRL, all the cases were confirmed by PCR and genotyped (99%; 158/159). The typing results revealed the predominance of G12 (40%; 64/159) genotype, followed by G1 (31%; 50/159) and G9 (19%; 31/159). All in all, this exploratory surveillance collected the desired demographic and epidemiological data and achieved almost all the benchmark indicators of WHO, starting from enrollment number to quality assurance through a number of case detection, collection, and testing of specimens and genotyping of strains at RRL. The success of this WHO-IBD site in achieving these benchmark indicators of WHO can be used by WHO as a proof-of-concept for considering integration of rotavirus surveillance with WHO-IBD platforms, specifically in countries with well performing IBD site and no ongoing rotavirus surveillance.

  6. A multisensor system for airborne surveillance of oil pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edgerton, A. T.; Ketchal, R.; Catoe, C.

    1973-01-01

    The U.S. Coast Guard is developing a prototype airborne oil surveillance system for use in its Marine Environmental Protection Program. The prototype system utilizes an X-band side-looking radar, a 37-GHz imaging microwave radiometer, a multichannel line scanner, and a multispectral low light level system. The system is geared to detecting and mapping oil spills and potential pollution violators anywhere within a 25 nmi range of the aircraft flight track under all but extreme weather conditions. The system provides for false target discrimination and maximum identification of spilled materials. The system also provides an automated detection alarm, as well as a color display to achieve maximum coupling between the sensor data and the equipment operator.

  7. Global Tobacco Surveillance System (GTSS): purpose, production, and potential.

    PubMed

    2005-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and Canadian Public Health Association (CPHA) developed the Global Tobacco Surveillance System (GTSS) to assist all 192 WHO Member States in collecting data on youth and adult tobacco use. The flexible GTSS system includes common data items but allows countries to include important unique information at their discretion. It uses a common survey methodology, similar field procedures for data collection, and similar data management and processing techniques. The GTSS includes collection of data through three surveys: the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) for youth, and the Global School Personnel Survey (GSPS) and the Global Health Professional Survey (GHPS) for adults. GTSS data potentially can be applied in four ways. First, countries and research partners can disseminate data through publications, presentations, and an active GTSS web site. Second, countries can use GTSS data to inform politicians about the tobacco problem in their country, leading to new policy decisions to prevent and control tobacco use. Third, GTSS can provide countries with valuable feedback to evaluate and improve Country National Action Plans or develop new plans. Fourth, in response to the WHO FCTC call for countries to use consistent methods and procedures in their surveillance efforts, GTSS offers such consistency in sampling procedures, core questionnaire items, training infield procedures, and analysis of data across all survey sites. The GTSS represents the most comprehensive tobacco surveillance system ever developed and implemented. As an example, this paper describes development of the GYTS and discusses potential uses of the data. Sample data were drawn from 38 sites in 24 countries in the African Region, 82 sites in 35 countries in the Americas Region, 20 sites in 17 countries and the Gaza Strip/West Bank region in the Eastern Mediterranean Region, 25 sites in 22 countries in the European

  8. [Spatial orientation of pilot using a cockpit exterior surveillance system].

    PubMed

    Chuntul, A V; Lapa, V V; Davydov, V V

    2013-01-01

    Spatial orientation of pilots using a cockpit exterior surveillance system was tested in real nighttime helicopter flights. Major factors complicating adequate spatial orientation and provoking visual illusions in pilots are lack of information for spatial depth (relation) perception in two-dimensional TV images altering their position along the horizontal and vertical lines of trajectory and simultaneous piloting and target search-identification operations. Reliability of pilot's spatial orientation could be improved by displaying on the exterior imaging screen also relevant flight navigation parameters.

  9. Markov random fields for static foreground classification in surveillance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzsimons, Jack K.; Lu, Thomas T.

    2014-09-01

    We present a novel technique for classifying static foreground in automated airport surveillance systems between abandoned and removed objects by representing the image as a Markov Random Field. The proposed algorithm computes and compares the net probability of the region of interest before and after the event occurs, hence finding which fits more naturally with their respective backgrounds. Having tested on a dataset from the PETS 2006, PETS 2007, AVSS20074, CVSG, VISOR, CANDELA and WCAM datasets, the algorithm has shown capable of matching the results of the state-of-the-art, is highly parallel and has a degree of robustness to noise and illumination changes.

  10. Real-time wideband cylindrical holographic surveillance system

    DOEpatents

    Sheen, David M.; McMakin, Douglas L.; Hall, Thomas E.; Severtsen, Ronald H.

    1999-01-01

    A wideband holographic cylindrical surveillance system including a transceiver for generating a plurality of electromagnetic waves; antenna for transmitting the electromagnetic waves toward a target at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; the transceiver also receiving and converting electromagnetic waves reflected from the target to electrical signals at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; a computer for processing the electrical signals to obtain signals corresponding to a holographic reconstruction of the target; and a display for displaying the processed information to determine nature of the target. The computer has instructions to apply Fast Fourier Transforms and obtain a three dimensional cylindrical image.

  11. Real-time wideband cylindrical holographic surveillance system

    DOEpatents

    Sheen, D.M.; McMakin, D.L.; Hall, T.E.; Severtsen, R.H.

    1999-01-12

    A wideband holographic cylindrical surveillance system is disclosed including a transceiver for generating a plurality of electromagnetic waves; antenna for transmitting the electromagnetic waves toward a target at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; the transceiver also receiving and converting electromagnetic waves reflected from the target to electrical signals at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; a computer for processing the electrical signals to obtain signals corresponding to a holographic reconstruction of the target; and a display for displaying the processed information to determine nature of the target. The computer has instructions to apply Fast Fourier Transforms and obtain a three dimensional cylindrical image. 13 figs.

  12. Situation exploration in a persistent surveillance system with multidimensional data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habibi, Mohammad S.

    2013-03-01

    There is an emerging need for fusing hard and soft sensor data in an efficient surveillance system to provide accurate estimation of situation awareness. These mostly abstract, multi-dimensional and multi-sensor data pose a great challenge to the user in performing analysis of multi-threaded events efficiently and cohesively. To address this concern an interactive Visual Analytics (VA) application is developed for rapid assessment and evaluation of different hypotheses based on context-sensitive ontology spawn from taxonomies describing human/human and human/vehicle/object interactions. A methodology is described here for generating relevant ontology in a Persistent Surveillance System (PSS) and demonstrates how they can be utilized in the context of PSS to track and identify group activities pertaining to potential threats. The proposed VA system allows for visual analysis of raw data as well as metadata that have spatiotemporal representation and content-based implications. Additionally in this paper, a technique for rapid search of tagged information contingent to ranking and confidence is explained for analysis of multi-dimensional data. Lastly the issue of uncertainty associated with processing and interpretation of heterogeneous data is also addressed.

  13. Validation of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Sleep Questions

    PubMed Central

    Jungquist, Carla R.; Mund, Jaime; Aquilina, Alan T.; Klingman, Karen; Pender, John; Ochs-Balcom, Heather; van Wijngaarden, Edwin; Dickerson, Suzanne S.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objective: Sleep problems may constitute a risk for health problems, including cardiovascular disease, depression, diabetes, poor work performance, and motor vehicle accidents. The primary purpose of this study was to assess the validity of the current Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) sleep questions by establishing the sensitivity and specificity for detection of sleep/ wake disturbance. Methods: Repeated cross-sectional assessment of 300 community dwelling adults over the age of 18 who did not wear CPAP or oxygen during sleep. Reliability and validity testing of the BRFSS sleep questions was performed comparing to BFRSS responses to data from home sleep study, actigraphy for 14 days, Insomnia Severity Index, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, and PROMIS-57. Results: Only two of the five BRFSS sleep questions were found valid and reliable in determining total sleep time and excessive daytime sleepiness. Conclusions: Refinement of the BRFSS questions is recommended. Citation: Jungquist CR, Mund J, Aquilina AT, Klingman K, Pender J, Ochs-Balcom H, van Wijngaarden E, Dickerson SS. Validation of the behavioral risk factor surveillance system sleep questions. J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(3):301–310. PMID:26446246

  14. Profile: The Niakhar Health and Demographic Surveillance System

    PubMed Central

    Delaunay, Valerie; Douillot, Laetitia; Diallo, Aldiouma; Dione, Djibril; Trape, Jean-François; Medianikov, Oleg; Raoult, Didier; Sokhna, Cheikh

    2013-01-01

    The Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) in Niakhar, a rural area of Senegal, is located 135 km east of Dakar. The HDSS was established in 1962 by the Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD) of Senegal to face the shortcomings of the civil registration system and provide demographic indicators. Some 65 villages in the Niakhar area were followed annually by the HDSS from 1962–1969. The study zone was reduced to 8 villages from 1969–1983, and from then on the HDSS was extended to include 22 other villages, covering a total of 30 villages for a population estimated at 43 000 in January 2012. Thus, 8 villages in the Niakhar area have been under demographic surveillance for almost 50 years and 30 villages for 30 years. Vital events, migrations, marital changes, pregnancies, and immunizations are routinely recorded every 4 months. The HDSS data base also includes epidemiological, economic, and environmental information obtained from specific surveys. Data were collected through annual rounds from 1962 to 1987. The rounds became weekly from 1987–1997, followed by routine visits conducted every 3 months between 1997 and 2007 and every 4 months since then. The data collected in the HDSS are not open to access, but can be fairly shared under conditions of collaboration and endowment. PMID:24062286

  15. Profile: The Kilifi Health and Demographic Surveillance System (KHDSS).

    PubMed

    Scott, J Anthony G; Bauni, Evasius; Moisi, Jennifer C; Ojal, John; Gatakaa, Hellen; Nyundo, Christopher; Molyneux, Catherine S; Kombe, Francis; Tsofa, Benjamin; Marsh, Kevin; Peshu, Norbert; Williams, Thomas N

    2012-06-01

    The Kilifi Health and Demographic Surveillance System (KHDSS), located on the Indian Ocean coast of Kenya, was established in 2000 as a record of births, pregnancies, migration events and deaths and is maintained by 4-monthly household visits. The study area was selected to capture the majority of patients admitted to Kilifi District Hospital. The KHDSS has 260 000 residents and the hospital admits 4400 paediatric patients and 3400 adult patients per year. At the hospital, morbidity events are linked in real time by a computer search of the population register. Linked surveillance was extended to KHDSS vaccine clinics in 2008. KHDSS data have been used to define the incidence of hospital presentation with childhood infectious diseases (e.g. rotavirus diarrhoea, pneumococcal disease), to test the association between genetic risk factors (e.g. thalassaemia and sickle cell disease) and infectious diseases, to define the community prevalence of chronic diseases (e.g. epilepsy), to evaluate access to health care and to calculate the operational effectiveness of major public health interventions (e.g. conjugate Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine). Rapport with residents is maintained through an active programme of community engagement. A system of collaborative engagement exists for sharing data on survival, morbidity, socio-economic status and vaccine coverage.

  16. Establishment, test and evaluation of a prototype volcano surveillance system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, P. L.; Eaton, J. P.; Endo, E.; Harlow, D.; Marquez, D.; Allen, R.

    1973-01-01

    A volcano-surveillance system utilizing 23 multilevel earthquake counters and 6 biaxial borehole tiltmeters is being installed and tested on 15 volcanoes in 4 States and 4 foreign countries. The purpose of this system is to give early warning when apparently dormant volcanoes are becoming active. The data are relayed through the ERTS-Data Collection System to Menlo Park for analysis. Installation was completed in 1972 on the volcanoes St. Augustine and Iliamna in Alaska, Kilauea in Hawaii, Baker, Rainier and St. Helens in Washington, Lassen in California, and at a site near Reykjavik, Iceland. Installation continues and should be completed in April 1973 on the volcanoes Santiaguito, Fuego, Agua and Pacaya in Guatemala, Izalco in El Salvador and San Cristobal, Telica and Cerro Negro in Nicaragua.

  17. Application of infrared uncooled cameras in surveillance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dulski, R.; Bareła, J.; Trzaskawka, P.; PiÄ tkowski, T.

    2013-10-01

    The recent necessity to protect military bases, convoys and patrols gave serious impact to the development of multisensor security systems for perimeter protection. One of the most important devices used in such systems are IR cameras. The paper discusses technical possibilities and limitations to use uncooled IR camera in a multi-sensor surveillance system for perimeter protection. Effective ranges of detection depend on the class of the sensor used and the observed scene itself. Application of IR camera increases the probability of intruder detection regardless of the time of day or weather conditions. It also simultaneously decreased the false alarm rate produced by the surveillance system. The role of IR cameras in the system was discussed as well as technical possibilities to detect human being. Comparison of commercially available IR cameras, capable to achieve desired ranges was done. The required spatial resolution for detection, recognition and identification was calculated. The simulation of detection ranges was done using a new model for predicting target acquisition performance which uses the Targeting Task Performance (TTP) metric. Like its predecessor, the Johnson criteria, the new model bounds the range performance with image quality. The scope of presented analysis is limited to the estimation of detection, recognition and identification ranges for typical thermal cameras with uncooled microbolometer focal plane arrays. This type of cameras is most widely used in security systems because of competitive price to performance ratio. Detection, recognition and identification range calculations were made, and the appropriate results for the devices with selected technical specifications were compared and discussed.

  18. The integrated proactive surveillance system for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haibin; Yatawara, Mahendra; Huang, Shao-Chi; Dudley, Kevin; Szekely, Christine; Holden, Stuart; Piantadosi, Steven

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present the design and implementation of the integrated proactive surveillance system for prostate cancer (PASS-PC). The integrated PASS-PC is a multi-institutional web-based system aimed at collecting a variety of data on prostate cancer patients in a standardized and efficient way. The integrated PASS-PC was commissioned by the Prostate Cancer Foundation (PCF) and built through the joint of efforts by a group of experts in medical oncology, genetics, pathology, nutrition, and cancer research informatics. Their main goal is facilitating the efficient and uniform collection of critical demographic, lifestyle, nutritional, dietary and clinical information to be used in developing new strategies in diagnosing, preventing and treating prostate cancer.The integrated PASS-PC is designed based on common industry standards - a three tiered architecture and a Service- Oriented Architecture (SOA). It utilizes open source software and programming languages such as HTML, PHP, CSS, JQuery, Drupal and MySQL. We also use a commercial database management system - Oracle 11g. The integrated PASS-PC project uses a "confederation model" that encourages participation of any interested center, irrespective of its size or location. The integrated PASS-PC utilizes a standardized approach to data collection and reporting, and uses extensive validation procedures to prevent entering erroneous data. The integrated PASS-PC controlled vocabulary is harmonized with the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Thesaurus. Currently, two cancer centers in the USA are participating in the integrated PASS-PC project.THE FINAL SYSTEM HAS THREE MAIN COMPONENTS: 1. National Prostate Surveillance Network (NPSN) website; 2. NPSN myConnect portal; 3. Proactive Surveillance System for Prostate Cancer (PASS-PC). PASS-PC is a cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG) compatible product. The integrated PASS-PC provides a foundation for collaborative prostate cancer research. It has been built to

  19. Systems Approaches to Animal Disease Surveillance and Resource Allocation: Methodological Frameworks for Behavioral Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rich, Karl M.; Denwood, Matthew J.; Stott, Alistair W.; Mellor, Dominic J.; Reid, Stuart W. J.; Gunn, George J.

    2013-01-01

    While demands for animal disease surveillance systems are growing, there has been little applied research that has examined the interactions between resource allocation, cost-effectiveness, and behavioral considerations of actors throughout the livestock supply chain in a surveillance system context. These interactions are important as feedbacks between surveillance decisions and disease evolution may be modulated by their contextual drivers, influencing the cost-effectiveness of a given surveillance system. This paper identifies a number of key behavioral aspects involved in animal health surveillance systems and reviews some novel methodologies for their analysis. A generic framework for analysis is discussed, with exemplar results provided to demonstrate the utility of such an approach in guiding better disease control and surveillance decisions. PMID:24348922

  20. A community based surveillance system for perinatal and neonatal care.

    PubMed

    Dyal Chand, A; Khale, M

    1989-11-01

    The impact of maternal health services on perinatal and neonatal mortality depends on both the quantitative and qualitative coverage of pregnant women with obstetric services. In rural areas this becomes all the more difficult because of the requirement of a large decentralized infrastructure extending from village based health workers and subcentres to the Primary Health Centre and tertiary levels of referral. An effective introduction of socio-cultural, biomedical and managerial interventions is required to reduce perinatal and neonatal mortality. A community based surveillance and monitoring system is central to and facilitates the introduction of all other interventions. Finally, the system operated by grass-root level workers is a motivational tool for achieving expected levels of performance. PMID:2630471

  1. Complement - a key system for immune surveillance and homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Ricklin, Daniel; Hajishengallis, George; Yang, Kun; Lambris, John D.

    2010-01-01

    Nearly a century after the significance of the human complement system was recognized we have come to realize that its versatile functions extend far beyond the elimination of microbes. Indeed, complement acts as a rapid and efficient immune surveillance system that has distinct effects on healthy and altered host cells and foreign intruders. By eliminating cellular debris and infectious microbes, orchestrating immune responses, and sending `danger' signals, complement contributes substantially to homeostasis, but it may also take action against healthy cells if not properly controlled. This review describes our updated view of the function, structure, and dynamics of the complement network, highlights its interconnection with immunity at large and with other endogenous pathways, and illustrates its dual role in homeostasis and disease. PMID:20720586

  2. Methodology of the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System--2013.

    PubMed

    Brener, Nancy D; Kann, Laura; Shanklin, Shari; Kinchen, Steve; Eaton, Danice K; Hawkins, Joseph; Flint, Katherine H

    2013-03-01

    Priority health-risk behaviors (i.e., interrelated and preventable behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among youths and adults) often are established during childhood and adolescence and extend into adulthood. The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS), established in 1991, monitors six categories of priority health-risk behaviors among youths and young adults: 1) behaviors that contribute to unintentional injuries and violence; 2) sexual behaviors that contribute to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, other sexually transmitted diseases, and unintended pregnancy; 3) tobacco use; 4) alcohol and other drug use; 5) unhealthy dietary behaviors; and 6) physical inactivity. In addition, YRBSS monitors the prevalence of obesity and asthma among this population. YRBSS data are obtained from multiple sources including a national school-based survey conducted by CDC as well as schoolbased state, territorial, tribal, and large urban school district surveys conducted by education and health agencies. These surveys have been conducted biennially since 1991 and include representative samples of students in grades 9-12. In 2004, a description of the YRBSS methodology was published (CDC. Methodology of the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System. MMWR 2004;53 [No RR-12]). Since 2004, improvements have been made to YRBSS, including increases in coverage and expanded technical assistance.This report describes these changes and updates earlier descriptions of the system, including questionnaire content; operational procedures; sampling, weighting, and response rates; data-collection protocols; data-processing procedures; reports and publications; and data quality. This report also includes results of methods studies that systematically examined how different survey procedures affect prevalence estimates. YRBSS continues to evolve to meet the needs of CDC and other data users through the ongoing revision of the questionnaire

  3. Methodology of the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System--2013.

    PubMed

    Brener, Nancy D; Kann, Laura; Shanklin, Shari; Kinchen, Steve; Eaton, Danice K; Hawkins, Joseph; Flint, Katherine H

    2013-03-01

    Priority health-risk behaviors (i.e., interrelated and preventable behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among youths and adults) often are established during childhood and adolescence and extend into adulthood. The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS), established in 1991, monitors six categories of priority health-risk behaviors among youths and young adults: 1) behaviors that contribute to unintentional injuries and violence; 2) sexual behaviors that contribute to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, other sexually transmitted diseases, and unintended pregnancy; 3) tobacco use; 4) alcohol and other drug use; 5) unhealthy dietary behaviors; and 6) physical inactivity. In addition, YRBSS monitors the prevalence of obesity and asthma among this population. YRBSS data are obtained from multiple sources including a national school-based survey conducted by CDC as well as schoolbased state, territorial, tribal, and large urban school district surveys conducted by education and health agencies. These surveys have been conducted biennially since 1991 and include representative samples of students in grades 9-12. In 2004, a description of the YRBSS methodology was published (CDC. Methodology of the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System. MMWR 2004;53 [No RR-12]). Since 2004, improvements have been made to YRBSS, including increases in coverage and expanded technical assistance.This report describes these changes and updates earlier descriptions of the system, including questionnaire content; operational procedures; sampling, weighting, and response rates; data-collection protocols; data-processing procedures; reports and publications; and data quality. This report also includes results of methods studies that systematically examined how different survey procedures affect prevalence estimates. YRBSS continues to evolve to meet the needs of CDC and other data users through the ongoing revision of the questionnaire

  4. Non-polio enteroviruses associated with acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) and facial paralysis (FP) cases in Romania, 2001-2008.

    PubMed

    Persu, Ana; Băicuş, Anda; Stavri, Simona; Combiescu, Mariana

    2009-01-01

    Acute flaccid paralysis is a complex clinical syndrome, with a wide variety of possible etiologies and with clinical manifestations that can vary according to age or geographical region. Enteroviruses (polioviruses and non-polio enteroviruses) are among the viral agents that can cause AFP. AFP surveillance is important for public health through its use in monitoring poliomyelitis, in the context of the Global Initiative to eradicate this disease. The current paper aims to assess the non-polio enteroviruses (NPEV) association with AFP and FP cases registered in Romania in the period 2001-2008 and to identify prevalent serotypes. Within the framework of Surveillance of AFP Cases Program, were collected samples from 579 children with AFP or FP (3.069 samples). The samples were processed and inoculated onto two types of cell culture (RD and L20B), according to WHO protocol. The identification of isolated viruses has been done by the reaction of seroneutralization with pools of specific antiserum and then with monospecific antiserum for confirmation. NPEV were isolated from 58 cases (123 positive samples). During the analyzed period, 23 NPEV serotypes have circulated (15 Echo serotypes and 8 coxsackie serotypes). The most frequently identified were the Echoviruses 13 and 11 and the coxsackie A viruses. 88% of positive cases have occurred in children between 1 and 5 years. As seasonal distribution, the peak of NPEV circulation was in the months August-September (36.2%). The paper provides information about NPEV circulation in Romania in the past 8 years, about its association with the AFP and FP and it indicates the need for monitoring NPEV circulation even after the eradication of poliomyelitis.

  5. The 2008 Okuda lecture: Management of hepatocellular carcinoma: from surveillance to molecular targeted therapy.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Masatoshi

    2010-03-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is responsible for approximately 600,000-700,000 deaths worldwide. It is highly prevalent in the Asia-Pacific region and Africa, and is increasing in Western countries. Alpha fetoprotein (AFP) alone is insufficient for HCC screening. A combination with other tumor markers, such as PIVKA-II and AFP-L3, and periodical ultrasound surveillance is necessary. Sensitivity of AFP in depicting HCC is highest, followed by PIVKA-II and AFP-L3, but the order of the specificity is inverse, AFP-L3, PIVKA-II, and AFP. Sonazoid-enhanced ultrasound (US) is extremely useful to characterize hepatic tumors equal to or more than multidetector row computed tomography (MDCT). Sonazoid-enhanced US with defect re-perfusion imaging is a breakthrough technique in the treatment of HCC. Defect re-perfusion imaging will markedly change the therapeutic strategy for liver cancer. Gd-EOB-DTPA-magnetic resonance imaging is a newly developed imaging technique in the detection and diagnosis of HCC. It is the most sensitive tool in the differentiation of early HCC from dysplastic nodules. Regarding the treatment strategy, there has been no established systemic chemotherapy for advanced HCC, except for Sorafenib. Empirically, intrahepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy using implanted reservoir port is known to be effective in response rate and overall survival for advanced HCC with vascular invasion. Sorafenib in combination with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization or adjuvant use after ablation or resection will significantly prolong the life expectancy if ongoing clinical trials provide positive results. In conclusion, it is expected that readers will gain deeper insight into the latest progress and updated diagnosis and treatment of HCC described in this review.

  6. A system safety approach to the FAA surveillance process

    SciTech Connect

    Werner, P.W.; Olson, D.R.

    1997-08-08

    As commercial air travel grows in terms of the number of passenger miles flown, there is expected to be a corresponding dramatic increase in the absolute number of accidents. This despite an enviable safety record and a very low accident rate. The political environment is such that an increase in the absolute number of accidents is not acceptable, with a stated goal of a factor of five reduction in the aviation fatal accident rate within ten years. The objective of this project is to develop an improved surveillance process that will provide measurements of the current state-of-health and predictions of future state of health of aircraft, operators, facilities, and personnel. Methodologies developed for nuclear weapon safety, in addition to more well known system safety and high-consequence engineering techniques, will be used in this approach.

  7. Applying participatory approaches in the evaluation of surveillance systems: A pilot study on African swine fever surveillance in Corsica.

    PubMed

    Calba, Clémentine; Antoine-Moussiaux, Nicolas; Charrier, François; Hendrikx, Pascal; Saegerman, Claude; Peyre, Marisa; Goutard, Flavie L

    2015-12-01

    The implementation of regular and relevant evaluations of surveillance systems is critical in improving their effectiveness and their relevance whilst limiting their cost. The complex nature of these systems and the variable contexts in which they are implemented call for the development of flexible evaluation tools. Within this scope, participatory tools have been developed and implemented for the African swine fever (ASF) surveillance system in Corsica (France). The objectives of this pilot study were, firstly, to assess the applicability of participatory approaches within a developed environment involving various stakeholders and, secondly, to define and test methods developed to assess evaluation attributes. Two evaluation attributes were targeted: the acceptability of the surveillance system and its the non-monetary benefits. Individual semi-structured interviews and focus groups were implemented with representatives from every level of the system. Diagramming and scoring tools were used to assess the different elements that compose the definition of acceptability. A contingent valuation method, associated with proportional piling, was used to assess the non-monetary benefits, i.e., the value of sanitary information. Sixteen stakeholders were involved in the process, through 3 focus groups and 8 individual semi-structured interviews. Stakeholders were selected according to their role in the system and to their availability. Results highlighted a moderate acceptability of the system for farmers and hunters and a high acceptability for other representatives (e.g., private veterinarians, local laboratories). Out of the 5 farmers involved in assessing the non-monetary benefits, 3 were interested in sanitary information on ASF. The data collected via participatory approaches enable relevant recommendations to be made, based on the Corsican context, to improve the current surveillance system. PMID:26489602

  8. Health surveillance: proposal for a tool to evaluate technological arrangements in local health systems.

    PubMed

    Silva, Gerluce Alves Pontes da; Vieira-da-Silva, Ligia Maria

    2008-11-01

    In order to identify the various meanings ascribed to health surveillance, the authors conducted a systematic review of articles published from January 1990 to August 2005 in the following databases: LILACS, SciELO, CAPES, MEDLINE, and Web of Science. A total of 144 abstracts were read and 18 full texts of Brazilian articles were selected for in-depth analysis, leading to the design of a typology for technological arrangements related to the various meanings: (i) traditional epidemiological surveillance, with communicable diseases as the main object; (ii) public health surveillance, as the municipal component of the national health surveillance system; and (iii) health surveillance, a technological mode of organizing health practices in a given territory. The proposed typology can contribute to research on surveillance practices in local health systems. It can also serve as a template for data collection and analysis. The meanings ascribed to the three types are discussed in light of public health's historical development as a field. PMID:19009127

  9. The return of thalidomide: are birth defects surveillance systems ready?

    PubMed

    Yang, Q; Khoury, M J; James, L M; Olney, R S; Paulozzi, L J; Erickson, J D

    1997-12-19

    In the 1960s, thalidomide caused limb deficiencies in thousands of infants worldwide. The limb deficiencies were frequently of the intercalary type. As a result, numerous countries started birth defect surveillance programs. In 1967, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) started the Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program (MACDP), a population-based surveillance system, to provide early warning against new teratogens. Recent studies have shown that thalidomide may be beneficial for a range of conditions, including cancer and AIDS, and it may once again become widely available. Here, we examine the ability of MACDP to detect an increase in the birth prevalence of limb deficiency as an early warning of fetal exposure to thalidomide. We calculated base rates for all limb deficiencies, for bilateral nonsyndromic intercalary or preaxial deficiencies, and for all nonsyndromic intercalary limb deficiencies among Atlanta infants born from 1968 through 1993. We used relative risk estimates from previous studies and a range of pregnancy exposure rates for thalidomide. We tested the statistical power of MACDP to detect subtle changes in the birth prevalence of these defects using Poisson and cumulative sum (CUSUM) techniques. The base rates for all limb deficiencies, for bilateral intercalary or preaxial deficiencies, and for all intercalary limb deficiencies, were 0.53, 0.035, and 0.022/1,000, and the estimated relative risks were 175, 4,570, and 8,180, respectively. We varied the assumed rate of exposure to thalidomide from 1/10,000 to 5/100. With a 1/1,000 exposure rate, both Poisson and CUSUM techniques will detect a rate change in intercalary limb deficiency in about 6 months of monitoring, and a rate change in bilateral intercalary or preaxial deficiencies in about 12 months of monitoring. When monitoring all limb deficiencies, a pregnancy exposure rate of 3.5% or less would go unnoticed by the Poisson method and would take more than 50 years for the CUSUM

  10. Success Factors of European Syndromic Surveillance Systems: A Worked Example of Applying Qualitative Comparative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ziemann, Alexandra; Fouillet, Anne; Brand, Helmut; Krafft, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Syndromic surveillance aims at augmenting traditional public health surveillance with timely information. To gain a head start, it mainly analyses existing data such as from web searches or patient records. Despite the setup of many syndromic surveillance systems, there is still much doubt about the benefit of the approach. There are diverse interactions between performance indicators such as timeliness and various system characteristics. This makes the performance assessment of syndromic surveillance systems a complex endeavour. We assessed if the comparison of several syndromic surveillance systems through Qualitative Comparative Analysis helps to evaluate performance and identify key success factors. Materials and Methods We compiled case-based, mixed data on performance and characteristics of 19 syndromic surveillance systems in Europe from scientific and grey literature and from site visits. We identified success factors by applying crisp-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis. We focused on two main areas of syndromic surveillance application: seasonal influenza surveillance and situational awareness during different types of potentially health threatening events. Results We found that syndromic surveillance systems might detect the onset or peak of seasonal influenza earlier if they analyse non-clinical data sources. Timely situational awareness during different types of events is supported by an automated syndromic surveillance system capable of analysing multiple syndromes. To our surprise, the analysis of multiple data sources was no key success factor for situational awareness. Conclusions We suggest to consider these key success factors when designing or further developing syndromic surveillance systems. Qualitative Comparative Analysis helped interpreting complex, mixed data on small-N cases and resulted in concrete and practically relevant findings. PMID:27182731

  11. 77 FR 52742 - Public Meeting-Strengthening the National Medical Device Postmarket Surveillance System; Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-30

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the following public meeting entitled ``Public Meeting--Strengthening the National Medical Device Postmarket Surveillance System.'' The purpose of the meeting is to solicit public feedback regarding the medical device postmarket surveillance system in the United...

  12. Low-Cost National Media-Based Surveillance System for Public Health Events, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Ao, Trong T.; Rahman, Mahmudur; Haque, Farhana; Chakraborty, Apurba; Hossain, M. Jahangir; Haider, Sabbir; Alamgir, A.S.M.; Sobel, Jeremy; Luby, Stephen P.

    2016-01-01

    We assessed a media-based public health surveillance system in Bangladesh during 2010–2011. The system is a highly effective, low-cost, locally appropriate, and sustainable outbreak detection tool that could be used in other low-income, resource-poor settings to meet the capacity for surveillance outlined in the International Health Regulations 2005. PMID:26981877

  13. Low-Cost National Media-Based Surveillance System for Public Health Events, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Ao, Trong T; Rahman, Mahmudur; Haque, Farhana; Chakraborty, Apurba; Hossain, M Jahangir; Haider, Sabbir; Alamgir, A S M; Sobel, Jeremy; Luby, Stephen P; Gurley, Emily S

    2016-04-01

    We assessed a media-based public health surveillance system in Bangladesh during 2010-2011. The system is a highly effective, low-cost, locally appropriate, and sustainable outbreak detection tool that could be used in other low-income, resource-poor settings to meet the capacity for surveillance outlined in the International Health Regulations 2005.

  14. An autonomous surveillance system for blind sources localization and separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Sean; Kulkarni, Raghavendra; Duraiswamy, Srikanth

    2013-05-01

    This paper aims at developing a new technology that will enable one to conduct an autonomous and silent surveillance to monitor sound sources stationary or moving in 3D space and a blind separation of target acoustic signals. The underlying principle of this technology is a hybrid approach that uses: 1) passive sonic detection and ranging method that consists of iterative triangulation and redundant checking to locate the Cartesian coordinates of arbitrary sound sources in 3D space, 2) advanced signal processing to sanitizing the measured data and enhance signal to noise ratio, and 3) short-time source localization and separation to extract the target acoustic signals from the directly measured mixed ones. A prototype based on this technology has been developed and its hardware includes six B and K 1/4-in condenser microphones, Type 4935, two 4-channel data acquisition units, Type NI-9234, with a maximum sampling rate of 51.2kS/s per channel, one NI-cDAQ 9174 chassis, a thermometer to measure the air temperature, a camera to view the relative positions of located sources, and a laptop to control data acquisition and post processing. Test results for locating arbitrary sound sources emitting continuous, random, impulsive, and transient signals, and blind separation of signals in various non-ideal environments is presented. This system is invisible to any anti-surveillance device since it uses the acoustic signal emitted by a target source. It can be mounted on a robot or an unmanned vehicle to perform various covert operations, including intelligence gathering in an open or a confined field, or to carry out the rescue mission to search people trapped inside ruins or buried under wreckages.

  15. Cloning and characterization of a novel Gladiolus hybridus AFP family gene (GhAFP-like) related to corm dormancy.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian; Seng, Shanshan; Carianopol, Carina; Sui, Juanjuan; Yang, Qiuyan; Zhang, Fengqin; Jiang, Huiru; He, Junna; Yi, Mingfang

    2016-02-26

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is an important phytohormone controlling seed dormancy. AFPs (ABA INSENSITIVE FIVE BINDING PROTEINS) are reported to be negative regulators of the ABA signaling pathway. The involvement of AFPs in dormant vegetative organs remains poorly understood. Here, we isolated and characterized a novel AFP family member from Gladiolus dormant cormels, GhAFP-like, containing three conserved domains of the AFP family. Quantitative PCR analysis revealed that GhAFP-like was expressed in dormant organs and its expression was down-regulated along with corm storage. GhAFP-like was verified to be a nuclear-localized protein. Overexpressing GhAFP-like in Arabidopsis thaliana not only showed weaker seed dormancy with insensitivity to ABA, but also changed the expression of some ABA related genes. In addition, a primary root elongation assay showed GhAFP-like may involve in auxin signaling response. The results in this study indicate that GhAFP-like acts as a negative regulator in ABA signaling and is related to dormancy. PMID:26826388

  16. How a visual surveillance system hypothesizes how you behave.

    PubMed

    Micheloni, C; Piciarelli, C; Foresti, G L

    2006-08-01

    In the last few years, the installation of a large number of cameras has led to a need for increased capabilities in video surveillance systems. It has, indeed, been more and more necessary for human operators to be helped in the understanding of ongoing activities in real environments. Nowadays, the technology and the research in the machine vision and artificial intelligence fields allow one to expect a new generation of completely autonomous systems able to reckon the behaviors of entities such as pedestrians, vehicles, and so forth. Hence, whereas the sensing aspect of these systems has been the issue considered the most so far, research is now focused mainly on more newsworthy problems concerning understanding. In this article, we present a novel method for hypothesizing the evolution of behavior. For such purposes, the system is required to extract useful information by means of low-level techniques for detecting and maintaining track of moving objects. The further estimation of performed trajectories, together with objects classification, enables one to compute the probability distribution of the normal activities (e.g., trajectories). Such a distribution is defined by means of a novel clustering technique. The resulting clusters are used to estimate the evolution of objects' behaviors and to speculate about any intention to act dangerously. The provided solution for hypothesizing behaviors occurring in real environments was tested in the context of an outdoor parking lot

  17. AFP-L3 — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    AFP-L3, also known as lectin-bound AFP, is an isoform of AFP, a major plasma protein produced by the yolk sac and the liver during fetal life. Alpha-fetoprotein expression in adults is often associated with hepatoma or teratoma. The L3 isoform is specific to malignant tumors and its detected presence may serve to identify patients who could benefit from monitoring for the development of HCC in high risk populations (i.e. chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis).

  18. The radish defensins RsAFP1 and RsAFP2 act synergistically with caspofungin against Candida albicans biofilms.

    PubMed

    Vriens, Kim; Cools, Tanne L; Harvey, Peta J; Craik, David J; Braem, Annabel; Vleugels, Jozef; De Coninck, Barbara; Cammue, Bruno P A; Thevissen, Karin

    2016-01-01

    The radish defensin RsAFP2 was previously characterized as a peptide with potent antifungal activity against several plant pathogenic fungi and human pathogens, including Candida albicans. RsAFP2 induces apoptosis and impairs the yeast-to-hypha transition in C. albicans. As the yeast-to-hypha transition is considered important for progression to mature biofilms, we analyzed the potential antibiofilm activity of recombinant (r)RsAFP2, heterologously expressed in Pichia pastoris, against C. albicans biofilms. We found that rRsAFP2 prevents C. albicans biofilm formation with a BIC-2 (i.e., the minimal rRsAFP2 concentration that inhibits biofilm formation by 50% as compared to control treatment) of 1.65 ± 0.40 mg/mL. Moreover, biofilm-specific synergistic effects were observed between rRsAFP2 doses as low as 2.5 μg/mL to 10 μg/mL and the antimycotics caspofungin and amphotericin B, pointing to the potential of RsAFP2 as a novel antibiofilm compound. In addition, we characterized the solution structure of rRsAFP2 and compared it to that of RsAFP1, another defensin present in radish seeds. These peptides have similar amino acid sequences, except for two amino acids, but rRsAFP2 is more potent than RsAFP1 against planktonic and biofilm cultures. Interestingly, as in case of rRsAFP2, also RsAFP1 acts synergistically with caspofungin against C. albicans biofilms in a comparable low dose range as rRsAFP2. A structural comparison of both defensins via NMR analysis revealed that also rRsAFP2 adopts the typical cysteine-stabilized αβ-motif of plant defensins, however, no structural differences were found between these peptides that might result in their differential antifungal/antibiofilm potency. This further suggests that the conserved structure of RsAFP1 and rRsAFP2 bears the potential to synergize with antimycotics against C. albicans biofilms. PMID:26592804

  19. Traffic flow wide-area surveillance system definition

    SciTech Connect

    Allgood, G.O.; Ferrell, R.K.; Kercel, S.W.; Abston, R.A.; Carnal, C.L.; Moynihan, P.I.

    1994-11-01

    Traffic Flow Wide-Area Surveillance (TFWAS) is a system for assessing the state of traffic flow over a wide area for enhanced traffic control and improved traffic management and planning. The primary purpose of a TFWAS system is to provide a detailed traffic flow description and context description to sophisticated traffic management and control systems being developed or envisioned for the future. A successful TFWAS system must possess the attributes of safety, reconfigurability, reliability, and expandability. The primary safety premise of TFWAS is to ensure that no action or failure of the TFWAS system or its components can result in risk of injury to humans. A wide variety of communication techniques is available for use with TFWAS systems. These communication techniques can be broken down into two categories, landlines and wireless. Currently used and possible future traffic sensing technologies have been examined. Important criteria for selecting TFWAS sensors include sensor capabilities, costs, operational constraints, sensor compatibility with the infrastructure, and extent. TFWAS is a concept that can take advantage of the strengths of different traffic sensing technologies, can readily adapt to newly developed technologies, and can grow with the development of new traffic control strategies. By developing innovative algorithms that will take information from a variety of sensor types and develop descriptions of traffic flows over a wide area, a more comprehensive understanding of the traffic state can be provided to the control system to perform the most reasonable control actions over the entire wide area. The capability of characterizing the state of traffic over an entire region should revolutionize developments in traffic control strategies.

  20. Profile: Agincourt health and socio-demographic surveillance system.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Kathleen; Collinson, Mark A; Gómez-Olivé, F Xavier; Mokoena, Obed; Twine, Rhian; Mee, Paul; Afolabi, Sulaimon A; Clark, Benjamin D; Kabudula, Chodziwadziwa W; Khosa, Audrey; Khoza, Simon; Shabangu, Mildred G; Silaule, Bernard; Tibane, Jeffrey B; Wagner, Ryan G; Garenne, Michel L; Clark, Samuel J; Tollman, Stephen M

    2012-08-01

    The Agincourt health and socio-demographic surveillance system (HDSS), located in rural northeast South Africa close to the Mozambique border, was established in 1992 to support district health systems development led by the post-apartheid ministry of health. The HDSS (90 000 people), based on an annual update of resident status and vital events, now supports multiple investigations into the causes and consequences of complex health, population and social transitions. Observational work includes cohorts focusing on different stages along the life course, evaluation of national policy at population, household and individual levels and examination of household responses to shocks and stresses and the resulting pathways influencing health and well-being. Trials target children and adolescents, including promoting psycho-social well-being, preventing HIV transmission and reducing metabolic disease risk. Efforts to enhance the research platform include using automated measurement techniques to estimate cause of death by verbal autopsy, full 'reconciliation' of in- and out-migrations, follow-up of migrants departing the study area, recording of extra-household social connections and linkage of individual HDSS records with those from sub-district clinics. Fostering effective collaborations (including INDEPTH multi-centre work in adult health and ageing and migration and urbanization), ensuring cross-site compatibility of common variables and optimizing public access to HDSS data are priorities.

  1. Evolution of mosquito-based arbovirus surveillance systems in Australia.

    PubMed

    van den Hurk, Andrew F; Hall-Mendelin, Sonja; Johansen, Cheryl A; Warrilow, David; Ritchie, Scott A

    2012-01-01

    Control of arboviral disease is dependent on the sensitive and timely detection of elevated virus activity or the identification of emergent or exotic viruses. The emergence of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) in northern Australia revealed numerous problems with performing arbovirus surveillance in remote locations. A sentinel pig programme detected JEV activity, although there were a number of financial, logistical, diagnostic and ethical limitations. A system was developed which detected viral RNA in mosquitoes collected by solar or propane powered CO₂-baited traps. However, this method was hampered by trap-component malfunction, microbial contamination and large mosquito numbers which overwhelmed diagnostic capabilities. A novel approach involves allowing mosquitoes within a box trap to probe a sugar-baited nucleic-acid preservation card that is processed for expectorated arboviruses. In a longitudinal field trial, both Ross River and Barmah Forest viruses were detected numerous times from multiple traps over different weeks. Further refinements, including the development of unpowered traps and use of yeast-generated CO₂, could enhance the applicability of this system to remote locations. New diagnostic technology, such as next generation sequencing and biosensors, will increase the capacity for recognizing emergent or exotic viruses, while cloud computing platforms will facilitate rapid dissemination of data.

  2. Profile: Agincourt Health and Socio-demographic Surveillance System

    PubMed Central

    Kahn, Kathleen; Collinson, Mark A; Gómez-Olivé, F Xavier; Mokoena, Obed; Twine, Rhian; Mee, Paul; Afolabi, Sulaimon A; Clark, Benjamin D; Kabudula, Chodziwadziwa W; Khosa, Audrey; Khoza, Simon; Shabangu, Mildred G; Silaule, Bernard; Tibane, Jeffrey B; Wagner, Ryan G; Garenne, Michel L; Clark, Samuel J; Tollman, Stephen M

    2012-01-01

    The Agincourt health and socio-demographic surveillance system (HDSS), located in rural northeast South Africa close to the Mozambique border, was established in 1992 to support district health systems development led by the post-apartheid ministry of health. The HDSS (90 000 people), based on an annual update of resident status and vital events, now supports multiple investigations into the causes and consequences of complex health, population and social transitions. Observational work includes cohorts focusing on different stages along the life course, evaluation of national policy at population, household and individual levels and examination of household responses to shocks and stresses and the resulting pathways influencing health and well-being. Trials target children and adolescents, including promoting psycho-social well-being, preventing HIV transmission and reducing metabolic disease risk. Efforts to enhance the research platform include using automated measurement techniques to estimate cause of death by verbal autopsy, full ‘reconciliation’ of in- and out-migrations, follow-up of migrants departing the study area, recording of extra-household social connections and linkage of individual HDSS records with those from sub-district clinics. Fostering effective collaborations (including INDEPTH multi-centre work in adult health and ageing and migration and urbanization), ensuring cross-site compatibility of common variables and optimizing public access to HDSS data are priorities. PMID:22933647

  3. Work-Related Injury Surveillance in Vietnam: A National Reporting System Model

    PubMed Central

    Marucci-Wellman, Helen; Wegman, David H.; Leamon, Tom B.; Tuyet Binh, Ta Thi; Diep, Nguyen Bich; Kriebel, David

    2013-01-01

    Developing nations bear a substantial portion of the global burden of injury. Public health surveillance models in developing countries should recognize injury risks for all levels of society and all causes and should incorporate various groups of workers and industries, including subsistence agriculture. However, many developing nations do not have an injury registration system; current data collection methods result in gross national undercounts of injuries, failing to distinguish injuries that occur during work. In 2006, we established an active surveillance system in Vietnam’s Xuan Tien commune and investigated potential methods for surveillance of work-related injuries. On the basis of our findings, we recommend a national model for work-related injury surveillance in Vietnam that builds on the existing health surveillance system. PMID:24028255

  4. Work-related injury surveillance in Vietnam: a national reporting system model.

    PubMed

    Marucci-Wellman, Helen; Wegman, David H; Leamon, Tom B; Binh, Ta Thi Tuyet; Diep, Nguyen Bich; Kriebel, David

    2013-11-01

    Developing nations bear a substantial portion of the global burden of injury. Public health surveillance models in developing countries should recognize injury risks for all levels of society and all causes and should incorporate various groups of workers and industries, including subsistence agriculture. However, many developing nations do not have an injury registration system; current data collection methods result in gross national undercounts of injuries, failing to distinguish injuries that occur during work. In 2006, we established an active surveillance system in Vietnam's Xuan Tien commune and investigated potential methods for surveillance of work-related injuries. On the basis of our findings, we recommend a national model for work-related injury surveillance in Vietnam that builds on the existing health surveillance system.

  5. Functions and Requirements and Specifications for Replacement of the Computer Automated Surveillance System (CASS)

    SciTech Connect

    SCAIEF, C.C.

    1999-12-16

    This functions, requirements and specifications document defines the baseline requirements and criteria for the design, purchase, fabrication, construction, installation, and operation of the system to replace the Computer Automated Surveillance System (CASS) alarm monitoring.

  6. Assessment of national systems for the surveillance and monitoring of animal health.

    PubMed

    Hueston, W D

    1993-12-01

    Continued growth in international trade and the developing concepts of zoning and risk assessment demand effective assessment of national surveillance and monitoring systems for animal health. The ideal national epidemiological delivery system incorporates surveillance for disease agents, host monitoring and environmental assessment. An extensive veterinary infrastructure is necessary to support the ideal epidemiological delivery system. While the full spectrum of epidemiological services is represented worldwide, a standardized approach to assessing national surveillance and monitoring systems is proposed, in order to meet the emerging demand for scientifically-based import regulations.

  7. Surveillance of hazardous substances releases due to system interruptions, 2002.

    PubMed

    Orr, Maureen F; Ruckart, Perri Zeitz

    2007-04-11

    The Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (HSEES) system collected information on 9014 acute hazardous substance releases in 15 participating states in 2002. There were 3749 fixed-facility manufacturing events, of which 2100 involved "interruptions" to normal processing and 1649 "comparisons" that did not involve interruption. Equipment failure (69%) or intentional acts (20%) were the main root factor. Many events occurred in October and November in three states (Texas, Louisiana, and New Jersey), in three manufacturing industries (industrial and miscellaneous chemicals; petroleum refining; and plastics, synthetics, and resins). In interruption events, the substance categories most often released were mixtures, other inorganic substances, and volatile organic compounds and those most often causing injury were acids, chlorine, bases, and ammonia. Comparison events resulted in more acutely injured persons (408 versus 59) and more evacuees (11,318 versus 335) than interruption events and therefore may receive more public health attention. Because of the large number of interruption events, targeted prevention activities, including management of change procedures, lessons-learned implementation, process hazards analysis, and appropriate protection for workers could be economically advantageous and improve environmental quality. Efforts should focus on the identified areas of greater occurrence. The relationship of weather and equipment failure with interruption events needs further investigation.

  8. Design and implementation of a national public health surveillance system in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Sheikhali, Sami Adel; Abdallat, Mohammed; Mabdalla, Sultan; Al Qaseer, Bashir; Khorma, Rania; Malik, Mamunur; Profili, Maria Cristina; Rø, Gunnar; Haskew, John

    2016-04-01

    Understanding and improving the health status of communities depend on effective public health surveillance. Adoption of new technologies, standardised case definitions and clinical guidelines for accurate diagnosis, and access to timely and reliable data, remains a challenge for public health surveillance systems however and existing public health surveillance systems are often fragmented, disease specific, inconsistent and of poor quality. We describe the application of an enterprise architecture approach to the design, planning and implementation of a national public health surveillance system in Jordan. This enabled a well planned and collaboratively supported system to be built and implemented using consistent standards for data collection, management, reporting and use. The system is case-based and integrated and employs mobile information technology to aid collection of real-time, standardised data to inform and improve decision-making at different levels of the health system.

  9. Design and implementation of a national public health surveillance system in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Sheikhali, Sami Adel; Abdallat, Mohammed; Mabdalla, Sultan; Qaseer, Bashir Al; Khorma, Rania; Malik, Mamunur; Profili, Maria Cristina; Rø, Gunnar; Haskew, John

    2016-01-01

    Understanding and improving the health status of communities depend on effective public health surveillance. Adoption of new technologies, standardised case definitions and clinical guidelines for accurate diagnosis, and access to timely and reliable data, remains a challenge for public health surveillance systems however and existing public health surveillance systems are often fragmented, disease specific, inconsistent and of poor quality. We describe the application of an enterprise architecture approach to the design, planning and implementation of a national public health surveillance system in Jordan. This enabled a well planned and collaboratively supported system to be built and implemented using consistent standards for data collection, management, reporting and use. The system is case-based and integrated and employs mobile information technology to aid collection of real-time, standardised data to inform and improve decision-making at different levels of the health system. PMID:26878763

  10. Cost analysis of an integrated vaccine-preventable disease surveillance system in Costa Rica✩

    PubMed Central

    Toscano, C.M.; Vijayaraghavan, M.; Salazar-Bolaños, H.M.; Bolaños-Acuña, H.M.; Ruiz-González, A.I.; Barrantes-Solis, T.; Fernández-Vargas, I.; Panero, M.S.; de Oliveira, L.H.; Hyde, T.B.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Following World Health Organization recommendations set forth in the Global Framework for Immunization Monitoring and Surveillance, Costa Rica in 2009 became the first country to implement integrated vaccine-preventable disease (iVPD) surveillance, with support from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO). As surveillance for diseases prevented by new vaccines is integrated into existing surveillance systems, these systems could cost more than routine surveillance for VPDs targeted by the Expanded Program on Immunization. Objectives We estimate the costs associated with establishing and subsequently operating the iVPD surveillance system at a pilot site in Costa Rica. Methods We retrospectively collected data on costs incurred by the institutions supporting iVPD surveillance during the preparatory (January 2007 through August 2009) and implementation (September 2009 through August 2010) phases of the iVPD surveillance project in Costa Rica. These data were used to estimate costs for personnel, meetings, infrastructure, office equipment and supplies, transportation, and laboratory facilities. Costs incurred by each of the collaborating institutions were also estimated. Results During the preparatory phase, the estimated total cost was 128,000 U.S. dollars (US$), including 64% for personnel costs. The preparatory phase was supported by CDC and PAHO. The estimated cost for 1 year of implementation was US$ 420,000, including 58% for personnel costs, 28% for laboratory costs, and 14% for meeting, infrastructure, office, and transportation costs combined. The national reference laboratory and the PAHO Costa Rica office incurred 64% of total costs, and other local institutions supporting iVPD surveillance incurred the remaining 36%. Conclusions Countries planning to implement iVPD surveillance will require adequate investments in human resources, laboratories, data management, reporting, and

  11. A global survey of adverse event following immunization surveillance systems for pregnant women and their infants

    PubMed Central

    Cassidy, Christine; MacDonald, Noni E.; Steenbeek, Audrey; Ortiz, Justin R.; Zuber, Patrick L. F.; Top, Karina A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Strengthening antenatal care as a platform for maternal immunization is a priority of the World Health Organization (WHO). Systematic surveillance for adverse events following immunization (AEFI) in pregnancy is needed to identify vaccine safety events. We sought to identify active and passive AEFI surveillance systems for pregnant women and infants. Representatives from all National Pharmacovigilance Centers and a convenience sample of vaccine safety experts were invited to complete a 14-item online survey in English, French or Spanish. The survey captured maternal immunization policies, and active and passive AEFI surveillance systems for pregnant women and infants in respondents' countries. The analysis was descriptive. We received responses from 51/185 (28%) invited persons from 47/148 (32%) countries representing all WHO regions, and low, middle and high-income countries. Thirty countries had national immunization policies targeting pregnant women. Eleven countries had active surveillance systems to detect serious AEFI in pregnant women and/or their infants, including six low and middle-income countries (LMIC). Thirty-nine countries had passive surveillance systems, including 23 LMIC. These active and passive surveillance programs cover approximately 8% and 56% of the worldwide annual birth cohort, respectively. Data from one active and four passive systems have been published. We identified 50 active and passive AEFI surveillance systems for pregnant women and infants, but few have published their findings. AEFI surveillance appears to be feasible in low and high resource settings. Further expansion of AEFI surveillance for pregnant women and sharing of vaccine safety information will provide additional evidence in support of maternal immunization policies. PMID:27159639

  12. Development of an Electronic Notification System for Influenza-Like Illness Sentinel Surveillance.

    PubMed

    Adnan, Mehnaz; Peterkin, Donald; Mackereth, Graham

    2016-01-01

    An electronic Influenza like Illness surveillance system developed to support general practices to electronically notify the cases of influenza like illness (ILI) for national sentinel surveillance in New Zealand. Content analysis was performed to capture the information necessary for ILI surveillance. An online form was implemented within the patient management system to record the details of ILI cases. A middleware framework was developed to manage the information flow between GPs and national influenza surveillance coordinators. The framework used an HL7 version 2.4 messaging standard to receive the notification data and Rhapsody integration engines to parse the message and store the information in national ILI data base. This paper presents the system design and implementation details of electronic ILI notification system. It presents data model designed to capture information for ILI case along with the HL7 messages structure implemented in the system. PMID:27440281

  13. Low-cost active optical system for fire surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utkin, A. B.; Lavrov, A. V.; Vilar, R. M.

    2009-06-01

    Detection of smoke plumes using active optical sensors provides many advantages with respect to passive methods of fire surveillance. However, the price of these sensors is often too high as compared to passive fire detection instruments, such as infrared and video cameras. This article describes robust and cost effective diode-laser optical sensor for automatic fire surveillance in industrial environment. Physical aspects of the sensing process allowing to simplify the hardware and software design, eventually leading to significant reduction of manufacturing and maintenance costs, are discussed.

  14. Feasibility of quantitative environmental surveillance in poliovirus eradication strategies.

    PubMed

    Lodder, W J; Buisman, A M; Rutjes, S A; Heijne, J C; Teunis, P F; de Roda Husman, A M

    2012-06-01

    The progress of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative is monitored by acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance supplemented with environmental surveillance in selected areas. To assess the sensitivity of environmental surveillance, stools from (re)vaccinated elderly persons with a low seroprevalence and from wastewater were concurrently collected and analyzed in the Netherlands over a prolonged period of time. A total number of 228 healthy individuals with different levels of immunity were challenged with monovalent oral polio vaccine serotype 1 or 3. Poliovirus concentrations were determined by the titration of fecal suspensions on poliovirus-sensitive L20B cells and of sewage concentrates by L20B monolayer plaque assay. Almost half of the individuals (45%) shed poliovirus on day 3 after challenge, which peaked (57%) on day 8 with an average poliovirus excretion of 1.3 × 10(5) TCID(50) per g of feces and gradually decreased to less than 5% on day 42. The virus concentrations in sewage peaked on days 6 to 8 at approximately 100 PFU per liter, remained high until day 14, and subsequently decreased to less than 10 PFU per liter on day 29. The estimated poliovirus concentration in sewage approximated the measured initial virus excretion in feces, within 1 log(10) variation, resulting in a sensitivity of detection of 100 infected but mostly asymptomatic individuals in tens of thousands of individuals. An additional second peak observed in sewage may indicate secondary transmission missed by enterovirus or AFP surveillance in patients. This enables the detection of circulating poliovirus by environmental surveillance, supporting its feasibility as an early warning system.

  15. Surveillance and Datalink Communication Performance Analysis for Distributed Separation Assurance System Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, William W.; Linse, Dennis J.; Alaverdi, Omeed; Ifarraguerri, Carlos; Seifert, Scott C.; Salvano, Dan; Calender, Dale

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of two technical enablers: Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast (ADS-B) and digital datalink communication, of the Federal Aviation Administration s Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) under two separation assurance (SA) system architectures: ground-based SA and airborne SA, on overall separation assurance performance. Datalink performance such as successful reception probability in both surveillance and communication messages, and surveillance accuracy are examined in various operational conditions. Required SA performance is evaluated as a function of subsystem performance, using availability, continuity, and integrity metrics to establish overall required separation assurance performance, under normal and off-nominal conditions.

  16. Applied learning-based color tone mapping for face recognition in video surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yew, Chuu Tian; Suandi, Shahrel Azmin

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, we present an applied learning-based color tone mapping technique for video surveillance system. This technique can be applied onto both color and grayscale surveillance images. The basic idea is to learn the color or intensity statistics from a training dataset of photorealistic images of the candidates appeared in the surveillance images, and remap the color or intensity of the input image so that the color or intensity statistics match those in the training dataset. It is well known that the difference in commercial surveillance cameras models, and signal processing chipsets used by different manufacturers will cause the color and intensity of the images to differ from one another, thus creating additional challenges for face recognition in video surveillance system. Using Multi-Class Support Vector Machines as the classifier on a publicly available video surveillance camera database, namely SCface database, this approach is validated and compared to the results of using holistic approach on grayscale images. The results show that this technique is suitable to improve the color or intensity quality of video surveillance system for face recognition.

  17. Survey of Communicable Diseases Surveillance System in Hospitals of Iran: A Qualitative Approach

    PubMed Central

    Dehcheshmeh, Nayeb Fadaei; Arab, Mohammad; Foroushani, Abbas Rahimi; Farzianpour, Fereshteh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Communicable Disease Surveillance and reporting is one of the key elements to combat against diseases and their control. Fast and timely recognition of communicable diseases can be helpful in controlling of epidemics. One of the main sources of management of communicable diseases reporting is hospitals that collect communicable diseases’ reports and send them to health authorities. One of the focal problems and challenges in this regard is incomplete and imprecise reports from hospitals. In this study, while examining the implementation processes of the communicable diseases surveillance in hospitals, non-medical people who were related to the program have been studied by a qualitative approach. Methods: This study was conducted using qualitative content analysis method. Participants in the study included 36 informants, managers, experts associated with health and surveillance of communicable diseases that were selected using targeted sampling and with diverse backgrounds and work experience (different experiences in primary health surveillance and treatment, Ministry levels, university staff and operations (hospitals and health centers) and sampling was continued until arrive to data saturation. Results: Interviews were analyzed after the elimination of duplicate codes and integration of them. Finally, 73 codes were acquired and categorized in 6 major themes and 21 levels. The main themes included: policy making and planning, development of resources, organizing, collaboration and participation, surveillance process, and monitoring and evaluation of the surveillance system. In point of interviewees, attention to these themes is necessary to develop effective and efficient surveillance system for communicable diseases. Conclusion: Surveillance system in hospitals is important in developing proper macro - policies in health sector, adoption of health related decisions and preventive plans appropriate to the existing situation. Compilation, changing

  18. New method for height estimation of subjects represented in photograms taken from video surveillance systems.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, Danilo; Sala, Remo; Cantatore, Angela; Poppa, Pasquale; Dufour, Michele; Grandi, Marco; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2007-11-01

    The article describes a method developed and applied by the authors for the purpose of determining the height of subjects taped on video surveillance systems. The determination of height is obtained by developing a virtual telecamera having the same characteristics of the video surveillance system with which the images have been shot. The results demonstrate that height is a parameter that can be accurately estimated with the method proposed, in the experimental conditions described, and consequently, can be utilized in probatory inquiry.

  19. The Establishment and Function of Schistosomiasis Surveillance System Towards Elimination in The People's Republic of China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L-J; Li, S-Z; Wen, L-Y; Lin, D-D; Abe, E M; Zhu, R; Du, Y; Lv, S; Xu, J; Webster, B L; Rollinson, D; Zhou, X-N

    2016-01-01

    Schistosoma japonicum is the main schistosome species in The People's Republic of China, causing intestinal schistosomiasis, a debilitating disease of public health importance. The People's Republic of China used to be heavily endemic with schistosomiasis, but great progress has been made through the vigorous efforts of the national control programmes in the last six decades. Presently, efforts are geared towards eliminating schistosomiasis from The People's Republic of China by the end of 2025 through effective schistosomiasis surveillance, an important component in the drive towards schistosomiasis elimination. Therefore, this article explicitly outlines the development and progress made in schistosomiasis surveillance since 1990 with a special focus on the new surveillance system in use. Although the surveillance system has steadily improved over the years, it is faced with many challenges. Hence, more efforts are needed to establish an effective and sensitive evaluation system for the national schistosomiasis elimination programme in The People's Republic of China. PMID:27137445

  20. A review of the surveillance systems of influenza in selected countries in the tropical region

    PubMed Central

    Sanicas, Melvin; Forleo, Eduardo; Pozzi, Gianni; Diop, Doudou

    2014-01-01

    Influenza viruses cause annual epidemics of respiratory tract disease that affect all age groups. Many developing countries do not have an influenza surveillance system or adequate laboratory capacity for virus detection. The objective of this study was to describe the influenza surveillance systems in the different countries in the tropics and to identify outstanding research needs. A questionnaire was designed and sent to 52 NICs and MoHs in the different countries in tropical Asia and Africa to gather information on the surveillance systems, sentinel sites, specimen and data collection, and laboratory testing. Replies were received from 32 NICs and MoHs (61.5% response) – 17 were located in tropical Asia and 15 in Africa. There are 20 WHO recognized NICs in tropical Asia and 14 in tropical Africa, all with virus isolation and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing capacity. Of the Asian countries, only Hong Kong and Singapore reported that the patient population from the sites represents the broader community. In tropical Africa, only Senegal has sentinel sites distributed all over the country contributing to the geographic representativeness of the surveillance system. The rest of the countries in Africa have just established their influenza surveillance system in the past decade and are working toward geographic expansion of the ILI and SARI sites. Limited laboratory capacity or infrastructure to perform influenza surveillance makes difficult to justify the importance of influenza vaccine or other influenza control measures as a strategy for improving population health in the tropical region. PMID:25745529

  1. Development of the Diabetes Technology Society Blood Glucose Monitor System Surveillance Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Klonoff, David C.; Lias, Courtney; Beck, Stayce; Parkes, Joan Lee; Kovatchev, Boris; Vigersky, Robert A.; Arreaza-Rubin, Guillermo; Burk, Robert D.; Kowalski, Aaron; Little, Randie; Nichols, James; Petersen, Matt; Rawlings, Kelly; Sacks, David B.; Sampson, Eric; Scott, Steve; Seley, Jane Jeffrie; Slingerland, Robbert; Vesper, Hubert W.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Inaccurate blood glucsoe monitoring systems (BGMSs) can lead to adverse health effects. The Diabetes Technology Society (DTS) Surveillance Program for cleared BGMSs is intended to protect people with diabetes from inaccurate, unreliable BGMS products that are currently on the market in the United States. The Surveillance Program will provide an independent assessment of the analytical performance of cleared BGMSs. Methods: The DTS BGMS Surveillance Program Steering Committee included experts in glucose monitoring, surveillance testing, and regulatory science. Over one year, the committee engaged in meetings and teleconferences aiming to describe how to conduct BGMS surveillance studies in a scientifically sound manner that is in compliance with good clinical practice and all relevant regulations. Results: A clinical surveillance protocol was created that contains performance targets and analytical accuracy-testing studies with marketed BGMS products conducted by qualified clinical and laboratory sites. This protocol entitled “Protocol for the Diabetes Technology Society Blood Glucose Monitor System Surveillance Program” is attached as supplementary material. Conclusion: This program is needed because currently once a BGMS product has been cleared for use by the FDA, no systematic postmarket Surveillance Program exists that can monitor analytical performance and detect potential problems. This protocol will allow identification of inaccurate and unreliable BGMSs currently available on the US market. The DTS Surveillance Program will provide BGMS manufacturers a benchmark to understand the postmarket analytical performance of their products. Furthermore, patients, health care professionals, payers, and regulatory agencies will be able to use the results of the study to make informed decisions to, respectively, select, prescribe, finance, and regulate BGMSs on the market. PMID:26481642

  2. Detection of poliovirus circulation by environmental surveillance in the absence of clinical cases in Israel and the Palestinian authority.

    PubMed

    Manor, Y; Handsher, R; Halmut, T; Neuman, M; Bobrov, A; Rudich, H; Vonsover, A; Shulman, L; Kew, O; Mendelson, E

    1999-06-01

    The global eradication of poliomyelitis, believed to be achievable around the year 2000, relies on strategies which include high routine immunization coverage and mass vaccination campaigns, along with continuous monitoring of wild-type virus circulation by using the laboratory-based acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance. Israel and the Palestinian Authority are located in a geographical region in which poliovirus is still endemic but have been free of poliomyelitis since 1988 as a result of intensive immunization programs and mass vaccination campaigns. To monitor the wild-type virus circulation, environmental surveillance of sewage samples collected monthly from 25 to 30 sites across the country was implemented in 1989 and AFP surveillance began in 1994. The sewage samples were processed in the laboratory with a double-selective tissue culture system, which enabled economical processing of large number of samples. Between 1989 and 1997, 2,294 samples were processed, and wild-type poliovirus was isolated from 17 of them in four clusters, termed "silent outbreaks," in September 1990 (type 3), between May and September 1991 (type 1), between October 1994 and June 1995 (type 1), and in December 1996 (type 1). Fifteen of the 17 positive samples were collected in the Gaza Strip, 1 was collected in the West Bank, and 1 was collected in the Israeli city of Ashdod, located close to the Gaza Strip. The AFP surveillance system failed to detect the circulating wild-type viruses. These findings further emphasize the important role that environmental surveillance can play in monitoring the eradication of polioviruses.

  3. Visual surveillance system for detection of moving objects by scene modelization in uncontrolled robotic environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdallah, Ahmad

    1997-06-01

    There is a growing demand for an automatic surveillance system for road traffic data and industrial workroom environments. These data are required for surveillance and control. The problem of diagnostic intruders in a dangerous areas, knocks generally to the illumination changes. From the beginning of this work, it was stated that, the device had to supervise a robotic environment, in real time, in order to detect the abnormal situations. This paper describes implementation of a fast algorithm of surveillance system that performs tracking of robot's manipulator arm and detection of moving objects. The aim of this work is to avoid collision between human and moving machines. This paper presents a new approach of surveillance allowing unpredictable robotics tasks and tolerant independent illumination changes. We present in our paper an original method to modelize the scene by an image spatial sampling and an algorithm to detect moving objects. The detection is based on the observation of changes between a reference and the current images.

  4. Status of the ATLAS Forward Physics (AFP) project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chytka, Ladislav; Atlas Collaboration

    2013-04-01

    The ATLAS Forward Physics (AFP) project plans to add a set of detectors - silicon 3D pixel tracking detectors and QUARTIC time of flight detectors - in the forward region of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. The AFP detectors will be placed around 210 m from the interaction point and are meant to detect protons produced at small angles. The detectors are to be housed in the so called Hamburg beam pipe - a movable beam pipe allowing horizontal movement of the detectors. The AFP is currently under approval with possible installation in 2014/15.

  5. Infectious disease surveillance in the 21st century: an integrated web-based surveillance and case management system.

    PubMed

    Troppy, Scott; Haney, Gillian; Cocoros, Noelle; Cranston, Kevin; DeMaria, Alfred

    2014-01-01

    The Massachusetts Virtual Epidemiologic Network (MAVEN) was deployed in 2006 by the Massachusetts Department of Public Health, Bureau of Infectious Disease to serve as an integrated, Web-based disease surveillance and case management system. MAVEN replaced program-specific, siloed databases, which were inaccessible to local public health and unable to integrate electronic reporting. Disease events are automatically created without human intervention when a case or laboratory report is received and triaged in real time to state and local public health personnel. Events move through workflows for initial notification, case investigation, and case management. Initial development was completed within 12 months and recent state regulations mandate the use of MAVEN by all 351 jurisdictions. More than 300 local boards of health are using MAVEN, there are approximately one million events, and 70 laboratories report electronically. MAVEN has demonstrated responsiveness and flexibility to emerging diseases while also streamlining routine surveillance processes and improving timeliness of notifications and data completeness, although the long-term resource requirements are significant.

  6. Communicable Diseases Surveillance System in East Azerbaijan Earthquake: Strengths and Weaknesses

    PubMed Central

    Babaie, Javad; Fatemi, Farin; Ardalan, Ali; Mohammadi, Hamed; Soroush, Mahmood

    2014-01-01

    Background: A Surveillance System was established for 19 diseases/syndromes in order to prevent and control communicable diseases after 2012 East Azerbaijan earthquakes. This study was conducted to investigate the strengths and weaknesses of the established SS. Methods: This study was carried out on an interview-based qualitative study using content analysis in 2012. Data was collected by semi-structured deep interviews and surveillance data. Fifteen interviews were conducted with experts and health system managers who were engaged in implementing the communicable disease surveillance system in the affected areas. The selection of participants was purposeful. Data saturation supported the sample size. The collected data was analyzed using the principles suggested by Strauss and Corbin. Results: Establishment of the disease surveillance system was rapid and inexpensive. It collected the required data fast. It also increased confidence in health authorities that the diseases would be under control in earthquake-stricken regions. Non estimated denominator for calculating the rates (incidence & prevalence), non-participation of the private sector and hospitals, rapid turnover of health staff and unfamiliarity with the definitions of the diseases were the weak points of the established disease SS. Conclusion: During the time when surveillance system was active, no significant outbreak of communicable diseases was reported. However, the surveillance system had some weaknesses. Thus, considering Iran’s susceptibility to various natural hazards, repeated exercises should be conducted in the preparedness phase to decrease the weaknesses. In addition, other types of surveillance system such as web-based or mobile-based systems should be piloted in disaster situations for future. PMID:25685619

  7. [Automated fertility and health surveillance systems in dairy cows. A review].

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Lisa; Martin, Rainer; Zerbe, Holm

    2016-08-17

    Automated surveillance systems have become increasingly important in dairy farming. This can be attributed to an increasing farm size with unaltered employee numbers, higher susceptibility of high-yielding animals to diseases and a general constraint to work more cost effectively. A variety of surveillance systems for different areas of application in dairy cow management are currently available. However, their applicability has not always been supported by scientific validation. With regards to the considerable costs in installing and running surveillance systems and to evaluate their practical aspects, further analyses are desirable. Considering the progress in computer-based systems in recent years, we are anticipating rapid developments in automated animal surveillance in the near future. Consequently, the need arises for veterinarians to understand the principles underlying such systems, to be able to assess their efficacy and to be capable of evaluating data derived from these systems in order to advise farmers appropriately. The aim of this study was to assess the benefits and limitations of current surveillance systems for oestrus-detection, partus-alarm and monitoring health status mainly with regards to metabolic disorders in dairy cows, but also for other selected areas of health monitoring. PMID:27465067

  8. Effectiveness of Implementation of Electronic Malaria Information System as the National Malaria Surveillance System in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background In moving toward malaria elimination, one strategy is to implement an active surveillance system for effective case management. Thailand has developed and implemented the electronic Malaria Information System (eMIS) capturing individualized electronic records of suspected or confirmed malaria cases. Objective The main purpose of this study was to determine how well the eMIS improves the quality of Thailand’s malaria surveillance system. In particular, the focus of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the eMIS in terms of the system users’ perception and the system outcomes (ie, quality of data) regarding the management of malaria patients. Methods A mixed-methods technique was used with the framework based on system effectiveness attributes: data quality, timeliness, simplicity, acceptability, flexibility, stability, and usefulness. Three methods were utilized: data records review, survey of system users, and in-depth interviews with key stakeholders. From the two highest endemic provinces, paper forms matching electronic records of 4455 noninfected and 784 malaria-infected cases were reviewed. Web-based anonymous questionnaires were distributed to all 129 eMIS data entry staff throughout Thailand, and semistructured interviews were conducted with 12 management-level officers. Results The eMIS is well accepted by system users at both management and operational levels. The data quality has enabled malaria personnel to perform more effective prevention and control activities. There is evidence of practices resulting in inconsistencies and logical errors in data reporting. Critical data elements were mostly completed, except for a few related to certain dates and area classifications. Timeliness in reporting a case to the system was acceptable with a delay of 3-4 days. The evaluation of quantitative and qualitative data confirmed that the eMIS has high levels of simplicity, acceptability, stability, and flexibility. Conclusions Overall, the

  9. Analysis of malaria surveillance data in Ethiopia: what can be learned from the Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response System?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Routine malaria surveillance data is useful for assessing incidence and trends over time, and in stratification for targeting of malaria control. The reporting completeness and potential bias of such data needs assessment. Methods Data on 17 malaria indicators were extracted from the Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response System database for July 2004 to June 2009 (Ethiopian calendar reporting years 1997 to 2001). Reporting units were standardized over time with 2007 census populations. The data were analysed to show reporting completeness, variation in risk by reporting unit, and incidence trends for malaria indicators. Results Reporting completeness, estimated as product of unit-month and health facility reporting, was over 80% until 2009, when it fell to 56% during a period of reorganization in the Ministry of Health. Nationally the average estimated annual incidence of reported total malaria for the calendar years 2005 to 2008 was 23.4 per 1000 persons, and of confirmed malaria was 7.6 per 1,000, with no clear decline in out-patient cases over the time period. Reported malaria in-patient admissions and deaths (averaging 6.4 per 10,000 and 2.3 per 100,000 per year respectively) declined threefold between 2005 and 2009, as did admissions and deaths reported as malaria with severe anaemia. Only 8 of 86 reporting units had average annual estimated incidence of confirmed malaria above 20 per 1,000 persons, while 26 units were consistently below five reported cases per 1,000 persons per year. Conclusion The Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response System functioned well over the time period mid 2004 to the end of 2008. The data suggest that the scale up of interventions has had considerable impact on malaria in-patient cases and mortality, as reported from health centres and hospitals. These trends must be regarded as relative (over space and time) rather than absolute. The data can be used to stratify areas for improved targeting of control

  10. NASA Low Visibility Landing and Surface Operations (LVLASO) Atlanta Demonstration: Surveillance Systems Performance Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassell, Rick; Evers, Carl; Hicok, Dan; Lee, Derrick

    1999-01-01

    NASA conducted a series of flight experiments at Hartsfield Atlanta International Airport as part of the Low Visibility Landing and Surface Operations (LVLASO) Program. LVLASO is one of the subelements of the NASA Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) Program, which is focused on providing technology and operating procedures for achieving clear-weather airport capacity in instrument-weather conditions, while also improving safety. LVLASO is investigating various technologies to be applied to airport surface operations, including advanced flight deck displays and surveillance systems. The purpose of this report is to document the performance of the surveillance systems tested as part of the LVLASO flight experiment. There were three surveillance sensors tested: primary radar using Airport Surface Detection Equipment (ASDE-3) and the Airport Movement Area Safety System (AMASS), Multilateration using the Airport Surface Target Identification System (ATIDS), and Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast (ADS-B) operating at 1090 MHz. The performance was compared to the draft requirements of the ICAO Advanced Surface Movement Guidance and Control System (A-SMGCS). Performance parameters evaluated included coverage, position accuracy, and update rate. Each of the sensors was evaluated as a stand alone surveillance system.

  11. Design, Implementation, and Evaluation of the Adolescents and Surveillance System for the Obesity Prevention Project.

    PubMed

    Tabacchi, Garden; Bianco, Antonino; Alessi, Nicola; Filippi, Anna Rita; Napoli, Giuseppe; Jemni, Monèm; Censi, Laura; Breda, João; Schumann, Nathali Lehmann; Firenze, Alberto; Vitale, Francesco; Mammina, Caterina

    2016-03-01

    The Adolescents Surveillance System for Obesity prevention (ASSO) Project aimed at developing standardized and web-based tools for collecting data on adolescents' obesity and its potential determinants. This has been implemented and piloted in the local area of Palermo city, Italy. The aim of the present study is to provide an overview of the Project's design, implementation, and evaluation, highlighting all the aspects for a potential scale-up of the surveillance system on the whole national territory and abroad, as a sustainable and effective source of data.The overall structure and management, the ASSO-toolkit, the ASSO-NutFit software, and all developed and used procedures for recruiting, training, and data collecting/analyzing are addressed. An interim evaluation has been performed through a feasibility study; a final Project evaluation has been performed reporting the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) and the attributes that a surveillance system should have.This article provides a detailed overview of the Project and highlights that ASSO can be considered a valid, logical, coherent, efficient, and sustainable surveillance system that is consistent with countries' needs and priorities.The system developed by the ASSO Project provides high-quality data and complies with several characteristics typical of a suitable surveillance system. It has a potential of being adopted within the National Health Service and other countries' Health Services for monitoring adolescents' obesity and its determinants, such as food intakes, behaviors, physical activity, and fitness profiles.

  12. Design, Implementation, and Evaluation of the Adolescents and Surveillance System for the Obesity Prevention Project

    PubMed Central

    Tabacchi, Garden; Bianco, Antonino; Alessi, Nicola; Filippi, Anna Rita; Napoli, Giuseppe; Jemni, Monèm; Censi, Laura; Breda, João; Schumann, Nathali Lehmann; Firenze, Alberto; Vitale, Francesco; Mammina, Caterina

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Adolescents Surveillance System for Obesity prevention (ASSO) Project aimed at developing standardized and web-based tools for collecting data on adolescents’ obesity and its potential determinants. This has been implemented and piloted in the local area of Palermo city, Italy. The aim of the present study is to provide an overview of the Project's design, implementation, and evaluation, highlighting all the aspects for a potential scale-up of the surveillance system on the whole national territory and abroad, as a sustainable and effective source of data. The overall structure and management, the ASSO-toolkit, the ASSO-NutFit software, and all developed and used procedures for recruiting, training, and data collecting/analyzing are addressed. An interim evaluation has been performed through a feasibility study; a final Project evaluation has been performed reporting the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) and the attributes that a surveillance system should have. This article provides a detailed overview of the Project and highlights that ASSO can be considered a valid, logical, coherent, efficient, and sustainable surveillance system that is consistent with countries’ needs and priorities. The system developed by the ASSO Project provides high-quality data and complies with several characteristics typical of a suitable surveillance system. It has a potential of being adopted within the National Health Service and other countries’ Health Services for monitoring adolescents’ obesity and its determinants, such as food intakes, behaviors, physical activity, and fitness profiles. PMID:27015195

  13. Design, Implementation, and Evaluation of the Adolescents and Surveillance System for the Obesity Prevention Project.

    PubMed

    Tabacchi, Garden; Bianco, Antonino; Alessi, Nicola; Filippi, Anna Rita; Napoli, Giuseppe; Jemni, Monèm; Censi, Laura; Breda, João; Schumann, Nathali Lehmann; Firenze, Alberto; Vitale, Francesco; Mammina, Caterina

    2016-03-01

    The Adolescents Surveillance System for Obesity prevention (ASSO) Project aimed at developing standardized and web-based tools for collecting data on adolescents' obesity and its potential determinants. This has been implemented and piloted in the local area of Palermo city, Italy. The aim of the present study is to provide an overview of the Project's design, implementation, and evaluation, highlighting all the aspects for a potential scale-up of the surveillance system on the whole national territory and abroad, as a sustainable and effective source of data.The overall structure and management, the ASSO-toolkit, the ASSO-NutFit software, and all developed and used procedures for recruiting, training, and data collecting/analyzing are addressed. An interim evaluation has been performed through a feasibility study; a final Project evaluation has been performed reporting the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) and the attributes that a surveillance system should have.This article provides a detailed overview of the Project and highlights that ASSO can be considered a valid, logical, coherent, efficient, and sustainable surveillance system that is consistent with countries' needs and priorities.The system developed by the ASSO Project provides high-quality data and complies with several characteristics typical of a suitable surveillance system. It has a potential of being adopted within the National Health Service and other countries' Health Services for monitoring adolescents' obesity and its determinants, such as food intakes, behaviors, physical activity, and fitness profiles. PMID:27015195

  14. Life and times: The development of a digital video surveillance system

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, C.A.

    1994-09-01

    Over the past few years Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Safeguards Systems Group has been working to develop an image-based digital surveillance system designed to provide continuous monitoring of nuclear materials in storage or process. The goal of such a system is to provide automated technologies that will ensure the security of the nuclear materials and ultimately reduce the frequency of required physical inventories. This paper discusses the highlights and low-lights we have encountered while designing, developing, and field-testing a digital video surveillance system.

  15. Low-cost inflatable lighter-than-air surveillance system for civilian applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiddy, Jason S.; Chen, Peter C.; Niemczuk, John B.

    2002-08-01

    Today's society places an extremely high price on the value of human life and injury. Whenever possible, police and paramilitary actions are always directed towards saving as many lives as possible, whether it is the officer, perpetrator, or innocent civilians. Recently, the advent of robotic systems has enable law enforcement agencies to perform many of the most dangerous aspects of their jobs from relative safety. This is especially true to bomb disposal units but it is also gaining acceptance in other areas. An area where small, remotely operated machines may prove effective is in local aerial surveillance. Currently, the only aerial surveillance assets generally available to law enforcement agencies are costly helicopters. Unfortunately, most of the recently developed unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) are directed towards military applications and have limited civilian use. Systems Planning and Analysis, Inc. (SPA) has conceived and performed a preliminary analysis of a low-cost, inflatable, lighter- than-air surveillance system that may be used in a number of military and law enforcement surveillance situations. The preliminary analysis includes the concept definition, a detailed trade study to determine the optimal configuration of the surveillance system, high-pressure inflation tests, and a control analysis. This paper will provide the details in these areas of the design and provide an insight into the feasibility of such a system.

  16. Real-Time Microbiology Laboratory Surveillance System to Detect Abnormal Events and Emerging Infections, Marseille, France.

    PubMed

    Abat, Cédric; Chaudet, Hervé; Colson, Philippe; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Raoult, Didier

    2015-08-01

    Infectious diseases are a major threat to humanity, and accurate surveillance is essential. We describe how to implement a laboratory data-based surveillance system in a clinical microbiology laboratory. Two historical Microsoft Excel databases were implemented. The data were then sorted and used to execute the following 2 surveillance systems in Excel: the Bacterial real-time Laboratory-based Surveillance System (BALYSES) for monitoring the number of patients infected with bacterial species isolated at least once in our laboratory during the study periodl and the Marseille Antibiotic Resistance Surveillance System (MARSS), which surveys the primary β-lactam resistance phenotypes for 15 selected bacterial species. The first historical database contained 174,853 identifications of bacteria, and the second contained 12,062 results of antibiotic susceptibility testing. From May 21, 2013, through June 4, 2014, BALYSES and MARSS enabled the detection of 52 abnormal events for 24 bacterial species, leading to 19 official reports. This system is currently being refined and improved.

  17. Big data for population-based cancer research: the integrated cancer information and surveillance system.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Anne-Marie; Olshan, Andrew F; Green, Laura; Meyer, Adrian; Wheeler, Stephanie B; Basch, Ethan; Carpenter, William R

    2014-01-01

    The Integrated Cancer Information and Surveillance System (ICISS) facilitates population-based cancer research by developing extensive information technology systems that can link and manage large data sets. Taking an interdisciplinary 'team science' approach, ICISS has developed data, systems, and methods that allow researchers to better leverage the power of big data to improve population health.

  18. 77 FR 52317 - Record of Decision for Surveillance Towed Array Sensor System Low Frequency Active Sonar

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Navy Record of Decision for Surveillance Towed Array Sensor System Low Frequency Active... Array Sensor System Low Frequency Active (SURTASS LFA) sonar systems with certain...

  19. Community-based surveillance and case management for suicide prevention: an American Indian tribally initiated system.

    PubMed

    Cwik, Mary F; Barlow, Allison; Goklish, Novalene; Larzelere-Hinton, Francene; Tingey, Lauren; Craig, Mariddie; Lupe, Ronnie; Walkup, John

    2014-06-01

    The National Strategy for Suicide Prevention highlights the importance of improving the timeliness, usefulness, and quality of national suicide surveillance systems, and expanding local capacity to collect relevant data. This article describes the background, methods, process data, and implications from the first-of-its-kind community-based surveillance system for suicidal and self-injurious behavior developed by the White Mountain Apache Tribe with assistance from Johns Hopkins University. The system enables local, detailed, and real-time data collection beyond clinical settings, with in-person follow-up to facilitate connections to care. Total reporting and the proportion of individuals seeking treatment have increased over time, suggesting that this innovative surveillance system is feasible, useful, and serves as a model for other communities and the field of suicide prevention.

  20. STS-39 AFP-675 CIRRIS-1A in OV-103's payload bay (PLB)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    STS-39's Air Force Program 675 (AFP-675) Uniformly Redundant Array (URA) and Cryogenic Infrared Radiance Instrumentation for Shuttle 1A (CIRRIS-1A) mounted on the experiment support system (ESS) pallet are documented in Discovery's, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103's, payload bay (PLB). Part of the ESS pallet power distribution system thermal covering is visible at the bottom of the frame. AFP-675 is a Department of Defense (DOD)-sponsored collection of experiments whose objective is to gather data on the Earth's atmosphere (aurora, Earth limb, and airglow), celestial objects, and the environment in and around the PLB. In the background are the aft PLB bulkhead, the vertical tail, and the orbital maneuvering system (OMS) pods.

  1. A life-course approach to measuring socioeconomic position in population health surveillance systems.

    PubMed

    Chittleborough, C R; Baum, F E; Taylor, A W; Hiller, J E

    2006-11-01

    Measuring socioeconomic position (SEP) in population chronic disease and risk factor surveillance systems is essential for monitoring socioeconomic inequalities in health over time. Life-course measures are an innovative way to supplement other SEP indicators in surveillance systems. A literature review examined the indicators of early-life SEP that could potentially be used in population health surveillance systems. The criteria of validity, relevance, reliability and deconstruction were used to determine the value of potential indicators. Early-life SEP indicators used in cross-sectional and longitudinal studies included education level, income, occupation, living conditions, family structure and residential mobility. Indicators of early-life SEP should be used in routine population health surveillance to monitor trends in the health and SEP of populations over time, and to analyse long-term effects of policies on the changing health of populations. However, these indicators need to be feasible to measure retrospectively, and relevant to the historical, geographical and sociocultural context in which the surveillance system is operating. PMID:17053288

  2. iWearSA: an intelligent wearable surveillance assistant system for perception of moving object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Lu; Li, Zushu; Chen, Dongyi

    2007-12-01

    In this paper, we propose iWearSA, an intelligent wearable surveillance assistant system for detecting moving object based on wearable computing technology. The chief objective of iWearSA is to help human complete the surveillance tasks. The research presented here addresses some special challenges and correlative modules in system design, and the block diagram of the iWearSA system is explained in detail. The hardware components used in iWearSA are mentioned. The availability of iWearSA is verified by guarding the kid's activity in public grassplot scenario.

  3. Surveillance of Legionella species in hospital water systems: the significance of detection method for environmental surveillance data.

    PubMed

    Asghari, Farzaneh Baghal; Nikaeen, Mahnaz; Hatamzadeh, Maryam; Hassanzadeh, Akbar

    2013-12-01

    Monitoring of hospital water systems to prevent and control nosocomial legionellosis is important from a public health perspective. This study was conducted to survey the prevalence of Legionella contamination of hospital waters. A total of 44 water samples from the hot-water system of 11 hospitals were tested for Legionella by a culture method and a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay with Legionella-specific primers to identify the more sensitive method. Some physicochemical parameters and heterotrophic plate counts of water samples for possible association with Legionella contamination were also determined. The contamination rate of hospitals in our study varied between 64% (eight of 11)-100% based on culture method and nested PCR, respectively. Of the 44 water samples examined, 23% were positive for Legionella spp. by the culture method, while the nested PCR assay using the primers LEG448-JRP revealed 66% of the water samples being positive. Given the importance of monitoring hospital water systems for the presence of Legionella spp., the present PCR assay proved highly applicable for practical and sensitive surveillance of Legionella in such water systems. In addition, rapid monitoring of Legionella contamination could eliminate the potential exposure of high-risk patients through effective control measures.

  4. Quality of health care surveillance systems: review and implementation in the Swiss setting.

    PubMed

    Luthi, Jean-Christophe; McClellan, William M; Flanders, W Dana; Pitts, Stephen; Burnand, Bernard

    2002-08-24

    Quality of health care has been a subject of attention for many years in the USA and in Europe. Since the introduction of the new federal law on insurance in 1996 it has evolved to a progressively more important issue within the Swiss health care system. In this review, some theoretical concepts of quality of health care, variations, and surveillance systems are explored. Examples of quality of health care surveillance systems that have been developed successfully in the USA, in Canada, in Australia, and in Europe are discussed. They all demonstrate the interest in creating a large range of quality indicators in the surveillance system and in evaluating hospital performance using a benchmark approach. Currently, the measurement of quality with appropriate indicators is a subject of intense debate between the Swiss Hospitals Association (H+) and the Swiss Health Insurance Consortium (Santésuisse). Examples of existing surveillance systems in Switzerland are the Outcome Verein in Zurich and the quality of care program of the Canton of Valais. The FoQual association has also contributed to the debate by reviewing six indicators, which could be used nationally for a healthcare surveillance system. In this debate it is important to stress that ideal quality indicators intended for use as measures of quality in Swiss hospitals need to be both appropriate and valid. Only indicators that fulfil these conditions should be integrated in a Swiss health care surveillance system. Priority needs to be given to quality indicators and methods with the highest level of evidence and with a solid scientific basis. PMID:12458446

  5. Twitter web-service for soft agent reporting in persistent surveillance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rababaah, Haroun; Shirkhodaie, Amir

    2010-04-01

    Persistent surveillance is an intricate process requiring monitoring, gathering, processing, tracking, and characterization of many spatiotemporal events occurring concurrently. Data associated with events can be readily attained by networking of hard (physical) sensors. Sensors may have homogeneous or heterogeneous (hybrid) sensing modalities with different communication bandwidth requirements. Complimentary to hard sensors are human observers or "soft sensors" that can report occurrences of evolving events via different communication devices (e.g., texting, cell phones, emails, instant messaging, etc.) to the command control center. However, networking of human observers in ad-hoc way is rather a difficult task. In this paper, we present a Twitter web-service for soft agent reporting in persistent surveillance systems (called Web-STARS). The objective of this web-service is to aggregate multi-source human observations in hybrid sensor networks rapidly. With availability of Twitter social network, such a human networking concept can not only be realized for large scale persistent surveillance systems (PSS), but also, it can be employed with proper interfaces to expedite rapid events reporting by human observers. The proposed technique is particularly suitable for large-scale persistent surveillance systems with distributed soft and hard sensor networks. The efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed technique is measured experimentally by conducting several simulated persistent surveillance scenarios. It is demonstrated that by fusion of information from hard and soft agents improves understanding of common operating picture and enhances situational awareness.

  6. Remote-Reading Safety and Safeguards Surveillance System for 3013 Containers

    SciTech Connect

    Lechelt, W. M.; Skorpik, J. R.; Silvers, K. L.; Szempruch, R. W.; Douglas, D. G.; Fein, K. O.

    2002-02-26

    At Hanford's Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP), plutonium oxide is being loaded into stainless steel containers for long-term storage on the Hanford Site. These containers consist of two weld-sealed stainless steel cylinders nested one within the other. A third container holds the plutonium within the inner cylinder. This design meets the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) storage standard, DOE-STD- 3013-2000, which anticipates a 50-year storage lifetime. The 3013 standard also requires a container surveillance program to continuously monitor pressure and to assure safeguards are adequate. However, the configuration of the container system makes using conventional measurement and monitoring methods difficult. To better meet the 3013 monitoring requirements, a team from Fluor Hanford (who manages the PFP), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and Vista Engineering Technologies, LLC, developed a safer, cost-efficient, remote PFP 3013 container surveillance system. This new surveillance system is a combination of two successfully deployed technologies: (1) a magnetically coupled pressure gauge developed by Vista Engineering and (2) a radio frequency (RF) tagging device developed by PNNL. This system provides continuous, 100% monitoring of critical parameters with the containers in place, as well as inventory controls. The 3013 container surveillance system consists of three main elements: (1) an internal magnetic pressure sensor package, (2) an instrument pod (external electronics package), and (3) a data acquisition storage and display computer. The surveillance system described in this paper has many benefits for PFP and DOE in terms of cost savings and reduced personnel exposure. In addition, continuous safety monitoring (i.e., internal container pressure and temperature) of every container is responsible nuclear material stewardship and fully meets and exceeds DOE's Integrated Surveillance Program requirements.

  7. Planning a food and nutrition surveillance system: the example of Honduras.

    PubMed Central

    Aranda-Pastor, J; Menchu, M T; Palma, R; Kevany, J P

    1978-01-01

    A description of the preliminary steps in establishing a food and nutrition surveillance system in a country of Central America is presented in outline. The system will provide the basis for policy formulation, program planning, and evaluation. It is organized on the basis of the participation and resources of seven national agencies and will operate at the local, regional, and central level. PMID:686199

  8. West Nile virus transmission: results from the integrated surveillance system in Italy, 2008 to 2015.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Caterina; Napoli, Christian; Venturi, Giulietta; Pupella, Simonetta; Lombardini, Letizia; Calistri, Paolo; Monaco, Federica; Cagarelli, Roberto; Angelini, Paola; Bellini, Romeo; Tamba, Marco; Piatti, Alessandra; Russo, Francesca; Palù, Giorgio; Chiari, Mario; Lavazza, Antonio; Bella, Antonino

    2016-09-15

    In Italy a national Plan for the surveillance of imported and autochthonous human vector-borne diseases (chikungunya, dengue, Zika virus disease and West Nile virus (WNV) disease) that integrates human and veterinary (animals and vectors) surveillance, is issued and revised annually according with the observed epidemiological changes. Here we describe results of the WNV integrated veterinary and human surveillance systems in Italy from 2008 to 2015. A real time data exchange protocol is in place between the surveillance systems to rapidly identify occurrence of human and animal cases and to define and update the map of affected areas i.e. provinces during the vector activity period from June to October. WNV continues to cause severe illnesses in Italy during every transmission season, albeit cases are sporadic and the epidemiology varies by virus lineage and geographic area. The integration of surveillance activities and a multidisciplinary approach made it possible and have been fundamental in supporting implementation of and/or strengthening preventive measures aimed at reducing the risk of transmission of WNV trough blood, tissues and organ donation and to implementing further measures for vector control.

  9. West Nile virus transmission: results from the integrated surveillance system in Italy, 2008 to 2015.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Caterina; Napoli, Christian; Venturi, Giulietta; Pupella, Simonetta; Lombardini, Letizia; Calistri, Paolo; Monaco, Federica; Cagarelli, Roberto; Angelini, Paola; Bellini, Romeo; Tamba, Marco; Piatti, Alessandra; Russo, Francesca; Palù, Giorgio; Chiari, Mario; Lavazza, Antonio; Bella, Antonino

    2016-09-15

    In Italy a national Plan for the surveillance of imported and autochthonous human vector-borne diseases (chikungunya, dengue, Zika virus disease and West Nile virus (WNV) disease) that integrates human and veterinary (animals and vectors) surveillance, is issued and revised annually according with the observed epidemiological changes. Here we describe results of the WNV integrated veterinary and human surveillance systems in Italy from 2008 to 2015. A real time data exchange protocol is in place between the surveillance systems to rapidly identify occurrence of human and animal cases and to define and update the map of affected areas i.e. provinces during the vector activity period from June to October. WNV continues to cause severe illnesses in Italy during every transmission season, albeit cases are sporadic and the epidemiology varies by virus lineage and geographic area. The integration of surveillance activities and a multidisciplinary approach made it possible and have been fundamental in supporting implementation of and/or strengthening preventive measures aimed at reducing the risk of transmission of WNV trough blood, tissues and organ donation and to implementing further measures for vector control. PMID:27684046

  10. West Nile virus transmission: results from the integrated surveillance system in Italy, 2008 to 2015

    PubMed Central

    Rizzo, Caterina; Napoli, Christian; Venturi, Giulietta; Pupella, Simonetta; Lombardini, Letizia; Calistri, Paolo; Monaco, Federica; Cagarelli, Roberto; Angelini, Paola; Bellini, Romeo; Tamba, Marco; Piatti, Alessandra; Russo, Francesca; Palù, Giorgio; Chiari, Mario; Lavazza, Antonio; Bella, Antonino

    2016-01-01

    In Italy a national Plan for the surveillance of imported and autochthonous human vector-borne diseases (chikungunya, dengue, Zika virus disease and West Nile virus (WNV) disease) that integrates human and veterinary (animals and vectors) surveillance, is issued and revised annually according with the observed epidemiological changes. Here we describe results of the WNV integrated veterinary and human surveillance systems in Italy from 2008 to 2015. A real time data exchange protocol is in place between the surveillance systems to rapidly identify occurrence of human and animal cases and to define and update the map of affected areas i.e. provinces during the vector activity period from June to October. WNV continues to cause severe illnesses in Italy during every transmission season, albeit cases are sporadic and the epidemiology varies by virus lineage and geographic area. The integration of surveillance activities and a multidisciplinary approach made it possible and have been fundamental in supporting implementation of and/or strengthening preventive measures aimed at reducing the risk of transmission of WNV trough blood, tissues and organ donation and to implementing further measures for vector control. PMID:27684046

  11. West Nile virus transmission: results from the integrated surveillance system in Italy, 2008 to 2015

    PubMed Central

    Rizzo, Caterina; Napoli, Christian; Venturi, Giulietta; Pupella, Simonetta; Lombardini, Letizia; Calistri, Paolo; Monaco, Federica; Cagarelli, Roberto; Angelini, Paola; Bellini, Romeo; Tamba, Marco; Piatti, Alessandra; Russo, Francesca; Palù, Giorgio; Chiari, Mario; Lavazza, Antonio; Bella, Antonino

    2016-01-01

    In Italy a national Plan for the surveillance of imported and autochthonous human vector-borne diseases (chikungunya, dengue, Zika virus disease and West Nile virus (WNV) disease) that integrates human and veterinary (animals and vectors) surveillance, is issued and revised annually according with the observed epidemiological changes. Here we describe results of the WNV integrated veterinary and human surveillance systems in Italy from 2008 to 2015. A real time data exchange protocol is in place between the surveillance systems to rapidly identify occurrence of human and animal cases and to define and update the map of affected areas i.e. provinces during the vector activity period from June to October. WNV continues to cause severe illnesses in Italy during every transmission season, albeit cases are sporadic and the epidemiology varies by virus lineage and geographic area. The integration of surveillance activities and a multidisciplinary approach made it possible and have been fundamental in supporting implementation of and/or strengthening preventive measures aimed at reducing the risk of transmission of WNV trough blood, tissues and organ donation and to implementing further measures for vector control.

  12. The surveillant assemblage.

    PubMed

    Haggerty, K D; Ericson, R V

    2000-12-01

    George Orwell's 'Big Brother' and Michel Foucault's 'panopticon' have dominated discussion of contemporary developments in surveillance. While such metaphors draw our attention to important attributes of surveillance, they also miss some recent dynamics in its operation. The work of Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari is used to analyse the convergence of once discrete surveillance systems. The resultant 'surveillant assemblage' operates by abstracting human bodies from their territorial settings, and separating them into a series of discrete flows. These flows are then reassembled in different locations as discrete and virtual 'data doubles'. The surveillant assemblage transforms the purposes of surveillance and the hierarchies of surveillance, as well as the institution of privacy. PMID:11140886

  13. Canadian Influenza Surveillance First Report: Methods of the National Recording System

    PubMed Central

    1977-01-01

    Because of the possibility of an influenza pandemic during the 1976-77 season or at least of a major new epidemic, a national surveillance project for influenza in Canada was established in the autumn of 1976 under the auspices of the College of Family Physicians of Canada and the Fédération des médecins omnipraticiens du Québec. The project augmented surveillance activities of the federal and provincial governments, explicitly avoiding duplication of effort and methods. An extensive network of sentinel physicians was recruited from among family doctors in all provinces, forming the National Recording System (NaReS). The emphasis of the plan was to generate the kind of information which family physicians are in a uniquely advantageous position to provide. The influenza surveillance project was the first one for the National Recording System.

  14. [Current phase of control of epidemiological surveillance of poliomyelitis in Spain].

    PubMed

    Tello Anchuela, Odorina

    2013-01-01

    In Spain, the last case of indigenous wild virus poliomyelitis occurred in 1988. Since then cases detected by the surveillance system are either imported cases, cases associated with vaccine or OPV derivatives (VDPV). The Plan of Action required for Certificate of Achievement of polio eradication began in 1997. The activities were agreed with the regions and approved by the Inter-territorial Council of Health. The plan integrates epidemiological surveillance and laboratory activities: - Implement an effective surveillance system acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) in children under 15 years - Achieve and maintain high immunization coverage (95% in the primary series in children under 2 years old). - Environmental monitoring through surveillance of enteroviruses. In the implementation of the Plan in Spain have remained high vaccination coverage and concern to avoid susceptible bags in vulnerable populations. Surveillance System Acute Flaccid Paralysis in children under 15 years has been consistently evaluated by the quality indicators related to the sensitivity, timeliness (in reporting and sampling) and the indicators for epidemiological research and laboratory. The challenges of polio surveillance are introducing cases: imported polio caused by wild poliovirus, vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) or poliovirus vaccine. Therefore, all activities should continue until a polio-free world.

  15. Adding Industry and Occupation Questions to the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System: New Opportunities in Public Health Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Tolliver, Rickey; Bui, Alison Grace; Warner, Amy; Van Dyke, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Industry and occupation variables are overlooked in many public health surveillance efforts, yet they are useful for describing the burden and distribution of various public health diseases, behaviors, and conditions. This study is the first ever analysis of the Colorado Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) to describe chronic conditions and risk behaviors by occupation. It is intended to provide a new perspective on this existing data source and demonstrate the value of occupation as a core demographic variable for public health research, policy, and practice. Methods Two standardized employment questions were included in the 2012 Colorado BRFSS survey and administered to eligible survey respondents who were employed, self-employed, or out of work for less than one year. Occupation data were coded using the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Industry and Occupation Computerized Coding System. We analyzed health behaviors and conditions by major occupation groups. We calculated prevalence estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results The prevalence of chronic conditions, health statuses, and risk behaviors (e.g., smoking and seatbelt use) varied significantly by occupation. For example, compared with all workers (93.6%, 95% CI 92.7, 94.5), significantly fewer workers in farming, forestry, fishing and construction, extraction jobs (87.0%, 95% CI 82.0, 92.0) reported always or nearly always wearing a seatbelt while driving. Additionally, significantly more office and administrative support workers (27.5%, 95% CI 22.5, 32.4) compared with all workers (20.6%, 95% CI 19.3, 22.0) were obese. Further observation and research is needed to understand the effects of occupation on health outcomes and behaviors. Conclusion There are no other Colorado state-level datasets that link health behaviors and chronic conditions with occupation. This study shows that the prevalence of chronic conditions and risk behaviors

  16. Significance of the development of a cardiovascular disease surveillance and reporting system in India.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Ken Russell

    2013-09-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the single largest cause of global morbidity and mortality and is the leading cause of death in the Indian subcontinent projected to contribute to deaths expected to double by 2015. The social and economic impact of these staggering projections highlight the need for a centralized effort to monitor and evaluate behavioral and physiological risk factors for CVD. Limited evidence on existing surveillance systems suggest that the key to an effective monitoring and evaluation (M and E) program for CVD surveillance in India relies upon the World Health Organization's STEP-wise model. Key recommendations for the Ministry of Health include the development of a national CVD surveillance program with expertise and a quality-improvement mechanism to receive continuous input from similar surveillance programs in likeminded countries. Structure of the surveillance system would include; (1) the development of process measures for CVD risk factor' based surveillance M and E systems for early detection of CVD at the local-level, (2) the development of trigger based data reporting responsibilities to State-based monitoring teams including incentives for accuracy in data reporting and the use of data-driven evidence to target risk specific intervention and prevention on Central Government monitoring teams with reporting feedback to the State and local-levels and (3) the creation of health policy to require the use of data to target risk specific prevention for intervention and developing local technical capacity. Such a system would provide significant cost and social benefits, presenting an evidence based data driven cost-effective business case for scale-up and potential use in areas comprising similar demographics. Future research should focus on the inclusion of a systematic critique of the reported data for the challenges to surveillance systems in India and the examination of the effect of an incentivized reporting system on the states. Further

  17. DXBC: a long distance wireless broadband communication system for coastal maritime surveillance applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vastianos, George E.; Argyreas, Nick D.; Xilouris, Chris K.; Thomopoulos, Stelios C. A.

    2015-05-01

    The field of Homeland Security focuses on the air, land, and sea borders surveillance in order to prevent illegal activities while facilitating lawful travel and trade. The achievement of this goal requires collaboration of complex decentralized systems and services, and transfer of huge amount of information between the remote surveillance areas and the command & control centers. It becomes obvious that the effectiveness of the provided security depends highly on the available communication capabilities between the interconnected areas. Although nowadays the broadband communication between remote places is presumed easy because of the extensive infrastructure inside residential areas, it becomes a real challenge when the required information should be acquired from locations where no infrastructure is available such as mountain or sea areas. The Integrated Systems Lab of NCSR Demokritos within the PERSEUS FP7- SEC-2011-261748 project has developed a wireless broadband telecommunication system that combines different communication channels from subGHz to microwave frequencies and provides secure IP connectivity between sea surveillance vessels and the Command and Control Centers (C3). The system was deployed in Fast Patrol Boats of the Hellenic Coast Guard that are used for maritime surveillance in sea boarders and tested successfully in two demonstration exercises for irregular migration and smuggling scenarios in the Aegean Archipelagos. This paper describes in detail the system architecture in terms of hardware and software and the evaluation measurements of the system communication capabilities.

  18. STS-39 AFP-675 and STP-1 MPESS in OV-103's payload bay (PLB)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    An overview of Discovery's, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103's, aft payload bay (PLB) documents a variety of STS-39's payloads. In the foreground is the Space Test Payload 1 (STP-1) multipurpose experiment support structure (MPESS) with the Spacecraft Kinetic Infrared Test (SKIRT) (left), ascent particle monitor (APM) (center), and advanced liquid feed experiment (ALFE) (two canisters) visible. Behind the STP-1 is the Air Force Program 675 (AFP-675) experiment support structure (ESS) with ESS tape recorders (left), Uniformly Redundant Array (URA) (front),and Cryogenic Infrared Radiance Instrumentation for Shuttle 1A (CIRRIS-1A) (center back) visible. The ESS pallet power distribution system thermal covering (gold-colored) is visible at the bottom. AFP-675 is a Department of Defense (DOD)-sponsored collection of experiments whose objective is to gather data on the Earth's atmosphere (aurora, Earth limb, and airglow), celestial objects, and the environment in and around the PLB. In the backgroun

  19. Object detection by optical correlator and intelligence recognition surveillance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Yunlong

    2013-09-01

    We report a recent work on robust object detection in high-resolution aerial imagery in urban environment for Intelligence, Surveillance and Recognition (ISR) missions. Our approaches used the simple linear iterative clustering (SLIC) algorithm, which combines regional and edge information to form the superpixels. The irregularity in size and shape of the superpixels measured with the Hausdorff distance served to determine the salient regions in the very large aerial images. Then, the car detection was performed with both the component-based approach and the featurebased approaches. We merged the superpixels with the statistical region merging (SRM) algorithm. The regions were described by the radiometric, geometrical moments and shape features, and classified using the Support Vector Machine (SVM). The cast shadow were detected and removed by a radiometry based tricolor attenuation model (TAM). Detection of object parts is less sensitive to occlusion, rotation, and changes in scale, view angle and illumination than detection of the object as whole. The object parts were combined to the object according to their unique spatial relations. On the other hand, we used the invariant scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) features to describe superpixels and classed them by the SVM as belong or not to the object. All along our recent work we still trace the brilliant ideas in early days by H. John Caulfield and other pioneers of optical pattern recognition, for improving the discrimination of the matched spatial filter with linear combinations of cross-correlations, which have been inherited transformed and reinvented to achieve tremendous progress.

  20. Anti-human AFP variant monoclonal antibody in radioimmunodetection of primary hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Wu, Meng-Chao; Chen, Han; Zhang, Bai-He; Qian, Guang-Xiang; Pan, Wen-Zhou; Qiang, Mei-Yu

    1997-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the affinity of AFP-R-LCA monoclonal antibody (AFP-R-LCA McAb) for AFP-positive primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. METHODS: AFP-R-LCA McAb was labeled by 131I. Eleven cases of HCC with AFP positivity, 6 with AFP negativity, and 4 with hepatitis B-related cirrhosis were investigated by radioimmunodetection. RESULTS: The 131I-AFP-R-LCA McAb immunoreacted with 9 of the HCC AFP-positive cases (9/11), but with none of the 6 AFP negative HCC cases or of the 4 cirrhosis patients. 131I-AFP-R-LCA McAb at a small dose (7.4 × 107 Bq/300 μg) was associated with no side effects as determined by the liver function test, prothrombin time (Pt) test and thyroid gland function test (P > 0.05). Two cases of AFP-positive HCC were not imaged because of large tumor size (diameter > 10 cm) and higher AFP concentration in serum (20000 μg/L). CONCLUSION: AFP-R-LCA McAb has a strong and special affinity to AFP-positive HCC cells and may be useful as a carrier for radioimmunodetection and radioimmunotherapy. PMID:27053873

  1. Privacy-aware access control for video data in intelligent surveillance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vagts, Hauke; Jakoby, Andreas

    2012-06-01

    Surveillance systems became powerful. Objects can be identified and intelligent surveillance services can generate events when a specific situation occurs. Such surveillance services can be organized in a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) to fulfill surveillance tasks for specific purposes. Therefore the services process information on a high level, e.g., just the position of an object. Video data is still required to visualize a situation to an operator and is required as evidence in court. Processing of personal related and sensitive information threatens privacy. To protect the user and to be compliant with legal requirements it must be ensured that sensitive information can only be processed for a defined propose by specific users or services. This work proposes an architecture for Access Control that enforces the separation of data between different surveillance tasks. Access controls are enforced at different levels: for the users starting the tasks, for the services within the tasks processing data stored in central store or calculated by other services and for sensor related services that extract information out of the raw data and provide them.

  2. Autonomous real-time ground ubiquitous surveillance-imaging system (ARGUS-IS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leininger, Brian; Edwards, Jonathan; Antoniades, John; Chester, David; Haas, Dan; Liu, Eric; Stevens, Mark; Gershfield, Charlie; Braun, Mike; Targove, James D.; Wein, Steve; Brewer, Paul; Madden, Donald G.; Shafique, Khurram Hassan

    2008-04-01

    Finding, tracking and monitoring events and activities of interest on a continuous basis remains one of our highest Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) requirements. Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) serve as one of the warfighter's primary and most responsive means for surveillance and gathering intelligence information and are becoming vital assets in military operations. This is demonstrated by their significant use in Afghanistan during Operation Enduring Freedom and in Iraq as part of Operation Iraqi Freedom. Lessons learned from these operations indicate that UAVs provide critical capabilities for enhancing situational awareness, intelligence gathering and force protection for our military forces. Current UAS high resolution electro-optics offers a small high resolution field of view (FOV). This narrow FOV is a limiting factor on the utility of the EO system. The UAS that are available offer persistence; however, the effectiveness of the EO system is limited by the sensors and available processing. DARPA is addressing this developing the next generation of persistent, very wide area surveillance with the Autonomous Real-time Ground Ubiquitous Surveillance - Imaging System (ARGUS-IS). The system will be capable of imaging an area of greater than 40 square kilometers with a Ground Space Distance (GSD) of 15 cm at video rates of greater than 12 Hz. This paper will discuss the elements of the ARGUS-IS program.

  3. Surveillance of aseptic central nervous system infections in Poland: is it meeting its objectives?

    PubMed

    Stefanoff, P; Rogalska, J; Zajkowska, J; Czerska, M; Seroka, W; Czarkowski, M P

    2011-01-01

    In Poland, a surveillance system capturing generic information on both diagnosed and undiagnosed aseptic central nervous system infections (ACI) has been in operation since 1966. This study evaluates to what extent the ACI surveillance is able to meet its objectives to monitor ACI trends and to detect signals of public health importance such as enteroviral outbreaks, tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) endemic foci, poliovirus appearance or emergence of new neurotropic viruses. Between 2004 and 2008, aetiology was established for 17% of ACI cases. Of the 1,994 reported ACI cases, 232 (11.6%) were diagnosed with TBE virus, 46 (2.3%) with enterovirus, 35 (1.8%) with herpesvirus, and 32 (1.6%) had other viral causes such as Epstein Barr virus or adenovirus. The system's performance varied between the provinces, with the frequency of suspected ACI cases referred for viral aetiology investigation in 2008 ranging from 1.98 to 285.4 samples per million inhabitants. The sensitivity of physicians' reporting, estimated as the proportion of hospitalised ACI cases reported to the surveillance system, was 48% nationally, with vast regional differences (range 30–91%). To conclude, the ACI surveillance system in Poland does currently not meet its objectives, due to limited availability of aetiological diagnosis and microbiological confirmation and to regional differences in reporting sensitivity. PMID:21801691

  4. Sensitivity of the Dengue Surveillance System in Brazil for Detecting Hospitalized Cases

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the sensitivity of the dengue surveillance system in detecting hospitalized cases in ten capital cities in Brazil from 2008 to 2013 using a probabilistic record linkage of two independent information systems hospitalization (SIH-SUS) adopted as the gold standard and surveillance (SINAN). Sensitivity was defined as the proportion of cases reported to the surveillance system amid the suspected hospitalized cases registered in SIH-SUS. Of the 48,174 hospitalizations registered in SIH-SUS, 24,469 (50.7%) were reported and registered in SINAN, indicating an overall sensitivity of 50.8% (95%CI 50.3–51.2). The observed sensitivity for each of the municipalities included in the study ranged from 22.0% to 99.1%. The combination of the two data sources identified 71,161 hospitalizations, an increase of 97.0% over SINAN itself. Our results allowed establishing the proportion of underreported dengue hospitalizations in the public health system in Brazil, highlighting the use of probabilistic record linkage as a valuable tool for evaluating surveillance systems. PMID:27192405

  5. Usage and data collection patterns for a novel web-based foodborne-disease surveillance system.

    PubMed

    Wethington, Holly; Bartlett, Paul

    2006-03-01

    This paper discusses the traditional system of foodborne-illness surveillance and provides a justification for increased syndromic surveillance of foodborne illness. A new Internet-based method for reporting foodborne disease is explained, and data entered by 7,500 visitors to the pilot Web site are described with respect to completeness and basic demographic factors. Data entry patterns show that visitors are willing to report a suspected case of foodborne illness online and do so in greater detail than is commonly obtained from traditional reports made over the telephone. PMID:16583551

  6. Application of an injury surveillance system to injuries at an industrial facility.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, C S; Cloeren, M; Schwartz, B S

    1993-08-01

    We developed a computerized surveillance database employing the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) and sampled three months of nonfatal injuries at a large industrial facility. Data from 197 injury visits to the plant medical department were collected. With the addition of some new AIS codes for injuries specific to the workplace, most injuries could be coded and severity scores calculated with good interrater reliability. Neither Maximum AIS nor Injury Severity Score (ISS) predicted restricted or lost work time. Because of its ease of automation and reliability, the AIS can serve as a useful tool for occupational injury surveillance, but its current severity scoring system is not predictive of disability.

  7. [Chronic diseases as a priority for the public health surveillance system in Spain].

    PubMed

    Mayoral Cortes, José María; Aragonés Sanz, Nuria; Godoy, Pere; Sierra Moros, María José; Cano Portero, Rosa; González Moran, Francisco; Pousa Ortega, Ánxela

    2016-01-01

    At present, epidemiological surveillance in Spain remains focused on the communicable diseases included in the list of notifiable diseases. However, there has been a change in epidemiological pattern that predominated until the last few decades of the twentieth century. Infectious diseases, which used to be the leading causes of morbidity and mortality, have given way to a predominance of chronic diseases. In this regard, progress has been made in the drafting and adoption of specific legal regulations on public health monitoring. However, Spain has yet to develop this legislation which, among other elements, includes the mandate to organize the surveillance of non-communicable diseases in Spain. This article aims to describe some points that should be considered in the development of a national surveillance system linked to existing strategies for the prevention and control of chronic diseases. PMID:26832857

  8. Comment: Toward a coordinated system for the surveillance of environmental health hazards.

    PubMed Central

    Hertz-Picciotto, I

    1996-01-01

    The rapid increases in the numbers and quantities of chemicals released into the environment have been accompanied by a lack of adequate prerelease testing for adverse health outcomes. Environmental health surveillance is used both to track changes in exposures that are known to have adverse health effects and to identify previously unrecognized hazards. Surveillance data can directly aid in the design of interventions to reduce the level of hazardous agents in the environment or the opportunities for human contact with them. Components of an ideal environmental health surveillance system are discussed. For well-recognized hazards, databases related to exposure alone are adequate. However, for uncovering previously unrecognized associations, linkage between exposure and outcome databases that are collected or aggregated at the same geographic scale and for regions of relatively homogeneous exposures are needed. PMID:8629713

  9. [Chronic diseases as a priority for the public health surveillance system in Spain].

    PubMed

    Mayoral Cortes, José María; Aragonés Sanz, Nuria; Godoy, Pere; Sierra Moros, María José; Cano Portero, Rosa; González Moran, Francisco; Pousa Ortega, Ánxela

    2016-01-01

    At present, epidemiological surveillance in Spain remains focused on the communicable diseases included in the list of notifiable diseases. However, there has been a change in epidemiological pattern that predominated until the last few decades of the twentieth century. Infectious diseases, which used to be the leading causes of morbidity and mortality, have given way to a predominance of chronic diseases. In this regard, progress has been made in the drafting and adoption of specific legal regulations on public health monitoring. However, Spain has yet to develop this legislation which, among other elements, includes the mandate to organize the surveillance of non-communicable diseases in Spain. This article aims to describe some points that should be considered in the development of a national surveillance system linked to existing strategies for the prevention and control of chronic diseases.

  10. Current trends from the USDA influenza a virus in swine surveillance system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A U.S. national surveillance system for influenza A viruses (IAV) in swine was initiated in 2009 with increasing participation to the present day. The objectives are to monitor genetic evolution of IAV in swine, make isolates available for research, diagnostic reagents, and vaccine development throu...

  11. Surveillance system and method having an operating mode partitioned fault classification model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bickford, Randall L. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A system and method which partitions a parameter estimation model, a fault detection model, and a fault classification model for a process surveillance scheme into two or more coordinated submodels together providing improved diagnostic decision making for at least one determined operating mode of an asset.

  12. Race, Ethnicity, and Self-Rated Health Status in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borrell, Luisa N.; Crawford, Natalie D.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the association between race and self-rated health status among Hispanic and non-Hispanic adults in the 2003 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey (N = 241,038). Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds of self-rated health as fair/poor for Hispanic Blacks, Hispanic Whites, and non-Hispanic Blacks as…

  13. Reassessing the WIC Effect: Evidence from the Pregnancy Nutrition Surveillance System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joyce, Ted; Racine, Andrew; Yunzal-Butler, Cristina

    2008-01-01

    Recent analyses differ on how effective the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) is at improving infant health. We use data from nine states that participate in the Pregnancy Nutrition Surveillance System to address limitations in previous work. With information on the mother's timing of WIC enrollment, we…

  14. Innovation of High-risk Infants Follow-up Surveillance System in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Jodeiry, Behzad; Heidarzadeh, Mohammad; Mirnia, Kayvan; Akrami, Forouzan; Heidarabadi, Seifoallah; Ebadi, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background: Early childhood development is one of the most social determinants of health that must be notified in order to reducing social gap and inequity. In spite of increasingly developing intensive neonatal care wards and decreasing neonatal mortality rate, there is no follow-up surveillance system to identify high-risk infants (HRI) and their health problems for timely intervention after discharge. This study was carried out to design and pilot high-risk infant follow-ups (HRIFs) surveillance system, in Alzahra Hospital, a tertiary level center of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences (TUOMS), in 2012–2013. Methods: In this qualitative research after studying international documents, consensus about criteria of HRIs accomplished by focus group discussion. Then, Delphi agreement technique was used to finalizing assessment timetable. In the second phase, we piloted the designed surveillance system in Alzahra Hospital, a tertiary level center of TUOMS. Pilot study was implemented by follow-up team organized in designed model at the first phase of the study. Then, the findings of the pilot study were being assessed by an expert panel. If the members agreed on made decisions, they were being placed on the agenda of the national committee of development care of newborns for final approval. Results: High-risk infants follow-up surveillance system was designed in following steps: Defining of evidence-based criteria of HRIs, organizing the follow-up team, regulating the organs and neurodevelopment assessment timetable, publishing a health certificate notebook for HRIs, and designing Access database software for data collection, report and evaluation. Conclusions: We designed and piloted HRIFs surveillance system, so this system was institutionalized in Alzahra Hospital, finally. It can be prepared to apply in the whole country, after detecting the quantitative outcomes and developing the program in East Azarbijan. PMID:25969705

  15. An Expert System And Simulation Approach For Sensor Management & Control In A Distributed Surveillance Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leon, Barbara D.; Heller, Paul R.

    1987-05-01

    A surveillance network is a group of multiplatform sensors cooperating to improve network performance. Network control is distributed as a measure to decrease vulnerability to enemy threat. The network may contain diverse sensor types such as radar, ESM (Electronic Support Measures), IRST (Infrared search and track) and E-0 (Electro-Optical). Each platform may contain a single sensor or suite of sensors. In a surveillance network it is desirable to control sensors to make the overall system more effective. This problem has come to be known as sensor management and control (SM&C). Two major facets of network performance are surveillance and survivability. In a netted environment, surveillance can be enhanced if information from all sensors is combined and sensor operating conditions are controlled to provide a synergistic effect. In contrast, when survivability is the main concern for the network, the best operating status for all sensors would be passive or off. Of course, improving survivability tends to degrade surveillance. Hence, the objective of SM&C is to optimize surveillance and survivability of the network. Too voluminous data of various formats and the quick response time are two characteristics of this problem which make it an ideal application for Artificial Intelligence. A solution to the SM&C problem, presented as a computer simulation, will be presented in this paper. The simulation is a hybrid production written in LISP and FORTRAN. It combines the latest conventional computer programming methods with Artificial Intelligence techniques to produce a flexible state-of-the-art tool to evaluate network performance. The event-driven simulation contains environment models coupled with an expert system. These environment models include sensor (track-while-scan and agile beam) and target models, local tracking, and system tracking. These models are used to generate the environment for the sensor management and control expert system. The expert system

  16. Wisconsin's environmental public health tracking network: information systems design for childhood cancer surveillance.

    PubMed

    Hanrahan, Lawrence P; Anderson, Henry A; Busby, Brian; Bekkedal, Marni; Sieger, Thomas; Stephenson, Laura; Knobeloch, Lynda; Werner, Mark; Imm, Pamela; Olson, Joseph

    2004-10-01

    In this article we describe the development of an information system for environmental childhood cancer surveillance. The Wisconsin Cancer Registry annually receives more than 25,000 incident case reports. Approximately 269 cases per year involve children. Over time, there has been considerable community interest in understanding the role the environment plays as a cause of these cancer cases. Wisconsin's Public Health Information Network (WI-PHIN) is a robust web portal integrating both Health Alert Network and National Electronic Disease Surveillance System components. WI-PHIN is the information technology platform for all public health surveillance programs. Functions include the secure, automated exchange of cancer case data between public health-based and hospital-based cancer registrars; web-based supplemental data entry for environmental exposure confirmation and hypothesis testing; automated data analysis, visualization, and exposure-outcome record linkage; directories of public health and clinical personnel for role-based access control of sensitive surveillance information; public health information dissemination and alerting; and information technology security and critical infrastructure protection. For hypothesis generation, cancer case data are sent electronically to WI-PHIN and populate the integrated data repository. Environmental data are linked and the exposure-disease relationships are explored using statistical tools for ecologic exposure risk assessment. For hypothesis testing, case-control interviews collect exposure histories, including parental employment and residential histories. This information technology approach can thus serve as the basis for building a comprehensive system to assess environmental cancer etiology.

  17. Statistical Model For Pseudo-Moving Objects Recognition In Video Surveillance Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishnyakov, B.; Egorov, A.; Sidyakin, S.; Malin, I.; Vizilter, Y.

    2014-08-01

    This paper considers a statistical approach to define pseudo-moving (false) objects in video surveillance systems by constructing systems of hypothesis with the criteria based on statistical behavioral particularities. The obtained results are integrated in two ways: using the Bayes' theorem or the logistic regression. FAR-FRR curves are plotted for each system of hypothesis and also for the decision rule. The results of the proposed methods are obtained on test video databases.

  18. Technical Description of the Distribute Project: A Community-based Syndromic Surveillance System Implementation

    PubMed Central

    Lober, William B.; Reeder, Blaine; Painter, Ian; Revere, Debra; Goldov, Kim; Bugni, Paul F.; McReynolds, Justin; Olson, Donald R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the design of a syndromic surveillance system implemented for community-based monitoring of influenza-like illness. The system began as collaboration between colleagues from state and large metropolitan area health jurisdictions, academic institutions, and the non-profit, International Society for Disease Surveillance. Over the six influenza seasons from 2006 to 2012, the system was automated and enhanced, with new features and infrastructure, and the resulting, reliable, enterprise grade system supported peer comparisons between 44 state and local public health jurisdictions who voluntarily contributed summarized data on influenza-like illness and gastrointestinal syndromes. The system was unusual in that it addressed the needs of a widely distributed, voluntary, community engaged in real-time data integration to support operational public health. PMID:24678377

  19. Technical Description of the Distribute Project: A Community-based Syndromic Surveillance System Implementation.

    PubMed

    Lober, William B; Reeder, Blaine; Painter, Ian; Revere, Debra; Goldov, Kim; Bugni, Paul F; McReynolds, Justin; Olson, Donald R

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the design of a syndromic surveillance system implemented for community-based monitoring of influenza-like illness. The system began as collaboration between colleagues from state and large metropolitan area health jurisdictions, academic institutions, and the non-profit, International Society for Disease Surveillance. Over the six influenza seasons from 2006 to 2012, the system was automated and enhanced, with new features and infrastructure, and the resulting, reliable, enterprise grade system supported peer comparisons between 44 state and local public health jurisdictions who voluntarily contributed summarized data on influenza-like illness and gastrointestinal syndromes. The system was unusual in that it addressed the needs of a widely distributed, voluntary, community engaged in real-time data integration to support operational public health. PMID:24678377

  20. 47 CFR 15.511 - Technical requirements for surveillance systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the procedures described in § 15.521. (f) Imaging systems operating under the provisions of this... bandwidth of an imaging system operating under the provisions of this section must be contained between...

  1. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System State-Added Questions: Leveraging an Existing Surveillance System to Improve Knowledge of Women's Reproductive Health.

    PubMed

    Boulet, Sheree L; Warner, Lee; Adamski, Alys; Smith, Ruben A; Burley, Kim; Grigorescu, Violanda

    2016-06-01

    As the prevalence of chronic conditions among women of reproductive age continues to rise, studies assessing the intersection of chronic disease and women's reproductive health status are increasingly needed. However, many data systems collect only limited information on women's reproductive health, thereby hampering the appraisal of risk and protective factors across the life span. One way to expand the study of women's health with minimal investment in time and resources is to integrate questions on reproductive health into existing surveillance systems. In 2013, previously validated questions on women's self-reported reproductive history, use of contraception, and infertility were added to the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) by seven states (Connecticut, Kentucky, Massachusetts, Mississippi, Ohio, Texas, and Utah); all female respondents aged 18-50 years were included in the pool of respondents for these state-added questions. Of 8691 women who completed the questions, 13.2% reported ever experiencing infertility and 59.8% of those at risk for unintended pregnancy reported using contraception at last intercourse. The information garnered from the state-added reproductive health questions can be augmented with the BRFSS core questions on health-related risk behaviors, chronic conditions, and use of preventive services. Expanding existing data collection systems with supplemental questions on women's reproductive health can provide important information on risk factors and outcomes that may not be available from other sources. PMID:27227657

  2. A Master-Slave Surveillance System to Acquire Panoramic and Multiscale Videos

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Hao

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a master-slave visual surveillance system that uses stationary-dynamic camera assemblies to achieve wide field of view and selective focus of interest. In this system, the fish-eye panoramic camera is capable of monitoring a large area, and the PTZ dome camera has high mobility and zoom ability. In order to achieve the precise interaction, preprocessing spatial calibration between these two cameras is required. This paper introduces a novel calibration approach to automatically calculate a transformation matrix model between two coordinate systems by matching feature points. In addition, a distortion correction method based on Midpoint Circle Algorithm is proposed to handle obvious horizontal distortion in the captured panoramic image. Experimental results using realistic scenes have demonstrated the efficiency and applicability of the system with real-time surveillance. PMID:24729750

  3. The Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program: a dynamic and innovative injury surveillance system

    PubMed Central

    Crain, J.; McFaull, S.; Thompson, W.; Skinner, R.; Do, M. T.; Fréchette, M.; Mukhi, S.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This status report on the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP), an emergency department-based injury and poisoning surveillance system, describes the result of migrating from a centralized data entry and coding process to a decentralized process, the web-based eCHIRPP system, in 2011. This secure system is improving the CHIRPP’s overall flexibility and timeliness, which are key attributes of an effective surveillance system. The integrated eCHIRPP platform enables near real-time data entry and access, has user-friendly data management and analysis tools, and allows for easier communication and connectivity across the CHIRPP network through an online collaboration centre. Current pilot testing of automated data monitoring and trend analysis tools—designed to monitor and flag incoming data according to predefined criteria (for example, a new consumer product)—is revealing eCHIRPP’s potential for providing early warnings of new hazards, issues and trends. PMID:27284703

  4. The potential capability of social media as a component of food safety and food terrorism surveillance systems.

    PubMed

    Newkirk, Ryan W; Bender, Jeff B; Hedberg, Craig W

    2012-02-01

    Social media (i.e., internet applications and platforms that allow users to create and share content) are a potentially rich data source for foodborne disease surveillance. This commentary qualitatively evaluates social media as a foodborne disease surveillance system component and discusses novel ways that social media may facilitate the detection of intentional and unintentional food contamination. PMID:22217109

  5. A 24-hour remote surveillance system for terrestrial wildlife studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sykes, P.W.; Ryman, W.E.; Kepler, C.B.; Hardy, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    The configuration, components, specifications and costs of a state-of-the-art closed-circuit television system with wide application for wildlife research and management are described. The principal system components consist of color CCTV camera with zoom lens, pan/tilt system, infrared illuminator, heavy duty tripod, coaxial cable, coaxitron system, half-duplex equalizing video/control amplifier, timelapse video cassette recorder, color video monitor, VHS video cassettes, portable generator, fuel tank and power cable. This system was developed and used in a study of Mississippi sandhiIl Crane (Grus canadensis pratensis) behaviors during incubation, hatching and fledging. The main advantages of the system are minimal downtime where a complete record of every event, its time of occurrence and duration, are permanently recorded and can be replayed as many times as necessary thereafter to retrieve the data. The system is particularly applicable for studies of behavior and predation, for counting individuals, or recording difficult to observe activities. The system can be run continuously for several weeks by two people, reducing personnel costs. This paper is intended to provide biologists who have litte knowledge of electronics with a system that might be useful to their specific needs. The disadvantages of this system are the initial costs (about $9800 basic, 1990-1991 U.S. dollars) and the time required to playback video cassette tapes for data retrieval, but the playback can be sped up when litte or no activity of interest is taking place. In our study, the positive aspects of the system far outweighed the negative.

  6. Surveillance of patients with acute flaccid paralysis in Finland: report of a pilot study.

    PubMed Central

    Hovi, T.; Stenvik, M.

    2000-01-01

    WHO recommends that surveillance of patients with acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) be used to demonstrate the eradication of wild poliovirus. In this article we report the results of a study to assess the frequency of AFP patients referred to Finnish hospitals and whether virological diagnostic coverage could be improved by repeated reminders and active feedback. For this purpose, we sent monthly questionnaires to all neurological and paediatric neurological units in Finland, requesting retrospective reporting on investigated paralytic patients with defined clinically relevant diagnoses, rather than AFP. Reminder letters included a pre-paid return envelope. Virological investigations were offered cost free. Of the 492 reporting forms sent, 415 (84%) were returned, evenly covering both the population and the study period (July 1997 to June 1998). Of the 90 patients reported, 83 were evaluable. The apparent incidences of the diagnoses covered were 1.6 per 100,000 at any age, and 1.0 per 100,000 for under--15-year-olds. Guillain-Barré syndrome was the most common diagnosis (0.80 per 100,000). The two faecal specimens required were virologically investigated in nine out of the 10 patients under 15 years of age, but in only 46% of all patients. Four adenovirus strains, but no polioviruses or other enteroviruses, were isolated. We conclude that a satisfactory monthly reporting system was readily established and that a sufficient number of patients with diagnoses resembling AFP are being referred to Finnish hospitals. Active feedback did not increase the proportion of virologically investigated patients to an acceptable level in all age groups. It is clear that other approaches must be used to quantify the circulation of poliovirus in Finland. PMID:10812725

  7. Assessment of the core and support functions of the Integrated Disease Surveillance system in Maharashtra, India

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Monitoring the progress of the Integrated Disease Surveillance (IDS) strategy is an important component to ensure its sustainability in the state of Maharashtra in India. The purpose of the study was to document the baseline performance of the system on its core and support functions and to understand the challenges for its transition from an externally funded “project” to a state owned surveillance “program”. Methods Multi-centre, retrospective cross-sectional evaluation study to assess the structure, core and support surveillance functions using modified WHO generic questionnaires. All 34 districts in the state and randomly identified 46 facilities and 25 labs were included in the study. Results Case definitions were rarely used at the periphery. Limited laboratory capacity at all levels compromised case and outbreak confirmation. Only 53% districts could confirm all priority diseases. Stool sample processing was the weakest at the periphery. Availability of transport media, trained staff, and rapid diagnostic tests were main challenges at the periphery. Data analysis was weak at both district and facility levels. Outbreak thresholds were better understood at facility level (59%) than at the district (18%). None of the outbreak indicator targets were met and submission of final outbreak report was the weakest. Feedback and training was significantly better (p < 0.0001) at district level (65%; 76%) than at facility level (15%; 37%). Supervision was better at the facility level (37%) than at district (18%) and so were coordination, communication and logistic resources. Contractual part time positions, administrative delays in recruitment, and vacancies (30%) were main human resource issues that hampered system performance. Conclusions Significant progress has been made in the core and support surveillance functions in Maharashtra, however some challenges exist. Support functions (laboratory, transport and communication equipment, training

  8. Design and implementation of a wireless video surveillance system based on ARM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yucheng; Han, Dantao; Yan, Juanli

    2011-06-01

    A wireless video surveillance system based on ARM was designed and implemented in this article. The newest ARM11 S3C6410 was used as the main monitoring terminal chip with the embedded Linux operating system. The video input was obtained by the analog CCD and transferred from analog to digital by the video chip TVP5150. The video was packed by RTP and transmitted by the wireless USB TL-WN322G+ after being compressed by H.264 encoders in S3C6410. Further more, the video images were preprocessed. It can detect the abnormities of the specified scene and the abnormal alarms. The video transmission definition is the standard definition 480P. The video stream can be real-time monitored. The system has been used in the real-time intelligent video surveillance of the specified scene.

  9. Image enhancement on the INVIS integrated night vision surveillance and observation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dijk, Judith; Schutte, Klamer; Toet, Alexander; Hogervorst, Maarten

    2010-04-01

    We present the design and first field trial results of the INVIS integrated night vision surveillance and observation system, in particular for the image enhancement techniques implemented. The INVIS is an all-day-andnight all-weather navigation and surveillance tool, combining three-band cameras. We present a processing pipeline for this system. The image quality of all individual sensor signals is enhanced through Dynamic Noise Reduction and Dynamic Super Resolution. The quality of the thermal image can be enhanced through Scene-Based Non-Uniformity Correction (SBNUC). The images are fused using natural tone mapping techniques. The contrast in the image can be improved using Local Adaptive Contrast Enhancement, applied before or after the tone mapping. These results show that the image enhancement techniques have an added value for image fusion systems.

  10. Web-Based Surveillance Systems for Human, Animal, and Plant Diseases.

    PubMed

    Madoff, Lawrence C; Li, Annie

    2014-02-01

    The emergence of infectious diseases, caused by novel pathogens or the spread of existing ones to new populations and regions, represents a continuous threat to humans and other species. The early detection of emerging human, animal, and plant diseases is critical to preventing the spread of infection and protecting the health of our species and environment. Today, more than 75% of emerging infectious diseases are estimated to be zoonotic and capable of crossing species barriers and diminishing food supplies. Traditionally, surveillance of diseases has relied on a hierarchy of health professionals that can be costly to build and maintain, leading to a delay or interruption in reporting. However, Internet-based surveillance systems bring another dimension to epidemiology by utilizing technology to collect, organize, and disseminate information in a more timely manner. Partially and fully automated systems allow for earlier detection of disease outbreaks by searching for information from both formal sources (e.g., World Health Organization and government ministry reports) and informal sources (e.g., blogs, online media sources, and social networks). Web-based applications display disparate information online or disperse it through e-mail to subscribers or the general public. Web-based early warning systems, such as ProMED-mail, the Global Public Health Intelligence Network (GPHIN), and Health Map, have been able to recognize emerging infectious diseases earlier than traditional surveillance systems. These systems, which are continuing to evolve, are now widely utilized by individuals, humanitarian organizations, and government health ministries. PMID:26082109

  11. A web-based video annotation system for crowdsourcing surveillance videos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadgil, Neeraj J.; Tahboub, Khalid; Kirsh, David; Delp, Edward J.

    2014-03-01

    Video surveillance systems are of a great value to prevent threats and identify/investigate criminal activities. Manual analysis of a huge amount of video data from several cameras over a long period of time often becomes impracticable. The use of automatic detection methods can be challenging when the video contains many objects with complex motion and occlusions. Crowdsourcing has been proposed as an effective method for utilizing human intelligence to perform several tasks. Our system provides a platform for the annotation of surveillance video in an organized and controlled way. One can monitor a surveillance system using a set of tools such as training modules, roles and labels, task management. This system can be used in a real-time streaming mode to detect any potential threats or as an investigative tool to analyze past events. Annotators can annotate video contents assigned to them for suspicious activity or criminal acts. First responders are then able to view the collective annotations and receive email alerts about a newly reported incident. They can also keep track of the annotators' training performance, manage their activities and reward their success. By providing this system, the process of video analysis is made more efficient.

  12. Web-Based Surveillance Systems for Human, Animal, and Plant Diseases.

    PubMed

    Madoff, Lawrence C; Li, Annie

    2014-02-01

    The emergence of infectious diseases, caused by novel pathogens or the spread of existing ones to new populations and regions, represents a continuous threat to humans and other species. The early detection of emerging human, animal, and plant diseases is critical to preventing the spread of infection and protecting the health of our species and environment. Today, more than 75% of emerging infectious diseases are estimated to be zoonotic and capable of crossing species barriers and diminishing food supplies. Traditionally, surveillance of diseases has relied on a hierarchy of health professionals that can be costly to build and maintain, leading to a delay or interruption in reporting. However, Internet-based surveillance systems bring another dimension to epidemiology by utilizing technology to collect, organize, and disseminate information in a more timely manner. Partially and fully automated systems allow for earlier detection of disease outbreaks by searching for information from both formal sources (e.g., World Health Organization and government ministry reports) and informal sources (e.g., blogs, online media sources, and social networks). Web-based applications display disparate information online or disperse it through e-mail to subscribers or the general public. Web-based early warning systems, such as ProMED-mail, the Global Public Health Intelligence Network (GPHIN), and Health Map, have been able to recognize emerging infectious diseases earlier than traditional surveillance systems. These systems, which are continuing to evolve, are now widely utilized by individuals, humanitarian organizations, and government health ministries.

  13. An automated system for public health surveillance of school absenteeism.

    PubMed

    Baer, Atar; Rodriguez, Carla V; Duchin, Jeffrey S

    2011-01-01

    Public Health-Seattle & King County established an automated system for monitoring school absenteeism data from 18 of 19 public school districts in King County, Washington. The system receives a daily aggregate count of the number of students enrolled and absent, stratified by school district, school name, and grade. A name and unique identifier are provided for each school and district, as well as the level (eg, elementary, middle, high, alternative, other) and zip code of each school. Files are transmitted to the health department daily and include data from the previous school day. Public Health-Seattle & King County developed a series of visualizations that summarize the data by day, week, and month for each level of stratification. The automated system for collecting and monitoring school absenteeism data was more acceptable, simple, timely, complete, and useful relative to traditional manual data collection methods. PMID:21135662

  14. Surveillance-response systems: the key to elimination of tropical diseases

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Tropical diseases remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Although combined health efforts brought about significant improvements over the past 20 years, communities in resource-constrained settings lack the means of strengthening their environment in directions that would provide less favourable conditions for pathogens. Still, the impact of infectious diseases is declining worldwide along with progress made regarding responses to basic health problems and improving health services delivery to the most vulnerable populations. The London Declaration on Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs), initiated by the World Health Organization’s NTD roadmap, set out the path towards control and eventual elimination of several tropical diseases by 2020, providing an impetus for local and regional disease elimination programmes. Tropical diseases are often patchy and erratic, and there are differing priorities in resources-limited and endemic countries at various levels of their public health systems. In order to identify and prioritize strategic research on elimination of tropical diseases, the ‘First Forum on Surveillance-Response System Leading to Tropical Diseases Elimination’ was convened in Shanghai in June 2012. Current strategies and the NTD roadmap were reviewed, followed by discussions on how to identify and critically examine prevailing challenges and opportunities, including inter-sectoral collaboration and approaches for elimination of several infectious, tropical diseases. A priority research agenda within a ‘One Health-One World’ frame of global health was developed, including (i) the establishment of a platform for resource-sharing and effective surveillance-response systems for Asia Pacific and Africa with an initial focus on elimination of lymphatic filariasis, malaria and schistosomiasis; (ii) development of new strategies, tools and approaches, such as improved diagnostics and antimalarial therapies; (iii) rigorous

  15. Surveillance-response systems: the key to elimination of tropical diseases.

    PubMed

    Tambo, Ernest; Ai, Lin; Zhou, Xia; Chen, Jun-Hu; Hu, Wei; Bergquist, Robert; Guo, Jia-Gang; Utzinger, Jürg; Tanner, Marcel; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2014-01-01

    Tropical diseases remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Although combined health efforts brought about significant improvements over the past 20 years, communities in resource-constrained settings lack the means of strengthening their environment in directions that would provide less favourable conditions for pathogens. Still, the impact of infectious diseases is declining worldwide along with progress made regarding responses to basic health problems and improving health services delivery to the most vulnerable populations. The London Declaration on Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs), initiated by the World Health Organization's NTD roadmap, set out the path towards control and eventual elimination of several tropical diseases by 2020, providing an impetus for local and regional disease elimination programmes. Tropical diseases are often patchy and erratic, and there are differing priorities in resources-limited and endemic countries at various levels of their public health systems. In order to identify and prioritize strategic research on elimination of tropical diseases, the 'First Forum on Surveillance-Response System Leading to Tropical Diseases Elimination' was convened in Shanghai in June 2012. Current strategies and the NTD roadmap were reviewed, followed by discussions on how to identify and critically examine prevailing challenges and opportunities, including inter-sectoral collaboration and approaches for elimination of several infectious, tropical diseases. A priority research agenda within a 'One Health-One World' frame of global health was developed, including (i) the establishment of a platform for resource-sharing and effective surveillance-response systems for Asia Pacific and Africa with an initial focus on elimination of lymphatic filariasis, malaria and schistosomiasis; (ii) development of new strategies, tools and approaches, such as improved diagnostics and antimalarial therapies; (iii) rigorous validation of

  16. A semantic based video indexing and retrieval system for maritime surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Hieu T.; Ramu, Prakash; Liu, Xiaoqing; Wei, Hai; Yadegar, Jacob

    2009-05-01

    Content-based video retrieval from archived image/video is a very attractive capability of modern intelligent video surveillance systems. This paper presents an innovative Semantic-Based Video Indexing and Retrieval (SBVIR) software toolkit to help users of intelligent video surveillance to easily and rapidly search the content of large video archives to conduct video-based forensic and image intelligence. Tailored for maritime environment, SBVIR is suited for surveillance applications in harbor, sea shores, or around ships. The system comprises two major modules: a video analytic module that performs automatic target detection, tracking, classification, activities recognition, and a retrieval module that performs data indexing, and information retrieval. SBVIR is capable of detecting and tracking objects from multiple cameras robustly in condition of dynamic water background and illumination changes. The system provides hierarchical target classification among a large ontology of watercraft classes, and is capable of recognizing a variety of boat activities. Video retrieval is achieved with both query-by-keyword and query-by-example. Users can query video content using semantic concepts selected from a large dictionary of objects and activities, display the history linked to a given target/activity, and search for anomalies. The user can interact with the system and provide feedbacks to tune the system for improved accuracy and relevance of retrieved data. SBVIR has been tested for real maritime surveillance scenarios and shown to be able to generate highly-semantic metadata tags that can be used during the retrieval to provide user with relevant and accurate data in real-time.

  17. Alcohol use in the Pacific region: Results from the STEPwise approach to surveillance, Global School‐Based Student Health Survey and Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System

    PubMed Central

    McKenzie, Jeanie; Girin, Natalie; Roth, Adam; Vivili, Paula; Williams, Gail; Hoy, Damian

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction and Aims Alcohol use is a leading risk factor for disease and injury in Pacific Island countries and territories (PICT). This paper examines drinking patterns across 20 PICTs. Design and Methods We synthesised published data from the STEPwise approach to surveillance or similar surveys for adults 25–64 years, and from the Global School‐Based Student Health surveys and Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) for youth. We examined current and heavy drinking, and for adults also frequency of consumption. Using YRBSS, we studied trends in youth alcohol use in US‐affiliated PICTs between 2001 and 2013. Results Alcohol consumption in adults and youth varied considerably across PICTs. In eight PICT populations, over 60% of male adults were current drinkers. Male adults consumed alcohol more frequently and engaged in heavy drinking more than female adults. Similar gender differences occurred in current and heavy drinking among youth. Across 10 PICTs, current drinking prevalence in males 13–15 years ranged from 10% to over 40%. Declines in alcohol use among grade 9–12 students were observed in YRBSS, although the magnitude differed by island and sex. Discussion and Conclusions Alcohol consumption varies widely between PICTs. There are marked gender differences in use and abstention. There is scope in PICTs for implementation of best practice strategies to reduce alcohol‐related harm. These need to be gender responsive and cognisant of concerning patterns of youth drinking. Strengthening surveillance of alcohol use and its consequences is vital to inform and monitor the impact of national and regional policies. [Kessaram T, McKenzie J, Girin N, Roth A, Vivili P, Williams G, Hoy D. Alcohol use in the Pacific region: Results from the STEPwise approach to surveillance, Global School‐Based Student Health Survey and Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System. Drug Alcohol Rev 2016;35:412–423] PMID:26358376

  18. Validation of a syndromic surveillance system using a general practitioner house calls network, Bordeaux, France.

    PubMed

    Flamand, C; Larrieu, S; Couvy, F; Jouves, B; Josseran, L; Filleul, L

    2008-06-19

    A new syndromic surveillance system has been developed in Bordeaux City, South West France, using a general practitioners' house calls network. Routinely collected, sociodemographic data, patients' complaints and medical diagnoses made at the end of the visit were monitored using syndrome groups such as influenza syndromes, bronchiolitis, gastrointestinal, respiratory syndromes and others, based on International Classification of Primary Care (ICPC)-2 codes. A process control chart was implemented in order to distinguish signals of interest from "background noise". In 2005 and 2006, a total of 303,936 visits were recorded. Seasonal epidemics of influenza-like illness, bronchiolitis or gastrointestinal were identified. The automated and real time nature of the system also allowed the early detection of unusual events such as an acute increase in the number of heat syndromes during the heat-wave that occurred in France in July 2006. This new system complements existing surveillance programs by assessing a large part of episodes of illness that do not require hospital admissions or the identification of an etiologic agent. Attributes and advantages of the system, such as timeliness and diagnostic specificity, demonstrated its utility and validity in term of syndromic surveillance purposes, and its extension at the national level is in process. PMID:18761939

  19. Applications of a sugar-based surveillance system to track arboviruses in wild mosquito populations.

    PubMed

    van den Hurk, Andrew F; Hall-Mendelin, Sonja; Townsend, Michael; Kurucz, Nina; Edwards, Jim; Ehlers, Gerhard; Rodwell, Chris; Moore, Frederick A; McMahon, Jamie L; Northill, Judith A; Simmons, Russell J; Cortis, Giles; Melville, Lorna; Whelan, Peter I; Ritchie, Scott A

    2014-01-01

    Effective arbovirus surveillance is essential to ensure the implementation of control strategies, such as mosquito suppression, vaccination, or dissemination of public warnings. Traditional strategies employed for arbovirus surveillance, such as detection of virus or virus-specific antibodies in sentinel animals, or detection of virus in hematophagous arthropods, have limitations as an early-warning system. A system was recently developed that involves collecting mosquitoes in CO2-baited traps, where the insects expectorate virus on sugar-baited nucleic acid preservation cards. The cards are then submitted for virus detection using molecular assays. We report the application of this system for detecting flaviviruses and alphaviruses in wild mosquito populations in northern Australia. This study was the first to employ nonpowered passive box traps (PBTs) that were designed to house cards baited with honey as the sugar source. Overall, 20/144 (13.9%) of PBTs from different weeks contained at least one virus-positive card. West Nile virus Kunjin subtype (WNVKUN), Ross River virus (RRV), and Barmah Forest virus (BFV) were detected, being identified in 13/20, 5/20, and 2/20 of positive PBTs, respectively. Importantly, sentinel chickens deployed to detect flavivirus activity did not seroconvert at two Northern Territory sites where four PBTs yielded WNVKUN. Sufficient WNVKUN and RRV RNA was expectorated onto some of the honey-soaked cards to provide a template for gene sequencing, enhancing the utility of the sugar-bait surveillance system for investigating the ecology, emergence, and movement of arboviruses.

  20. Visual Sensor Technology for Advanced Surveillance Systems: Historical View, Technological Aspects and Research Activities in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Foresti, Gian Luca; Micheloni, Christian; Piciarelli, Claudio; Snidaro, Lauro

    2009-01-01

    The paper is a survey of the main technological aspects of advanced visual-based surveillance systems. A brief historical view of such systems from the origins to nowadays is given together with a short description of the main research projects in Italy on surveillance applications in the last twenty years. The paper then describes the main characteristics of an advanced visual sensor network that (a) directly processes locally acquired digital data, (b) automatically modifies intrinsic (focus, iris) and extrinsic (pan, tilt, zoom) parameters to increase the quality of acquired data and (c) automatically selects the best subset of sensors in order to monitor a given moving object in the observed environment. PMID:22574011

  1. Reemerging Rabies and Lack of Systemic Surveillance in People’s Republic of China

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Rongliang; Zhang, Yongzhen; Dong, Guanmu; Rupprecht, Charles E.

    2009-01-01

    Rabies is a reemerging disease in China. The high incidence of rabies leads to numerous concerns: a potential carrier-dog phenomenon, undocumented transmission of rabies virus from wildlife to dogs, counterfeit vaccines, vaccine mismatching, and seroconversion testing in patients after their completion of postexposure prophylaxis (PEP). These concerns are all scientifically arguable given a modern understanding of rabies. Rabies reemerges periodically in China because of high dog population density and low vaccination coverage in dogs. Mass vaccination campaigns rather than depopulation of dogs should be a long-term goal for rabies control. Seroconversion testing after vaccination is not necessary in either humans or animals. Human PEP should be initiated on the basis of diagnosis of biting animals. Reliable national systemic surveillance of rabies-related human deaths and of animal rabies prevalence is urgently needed. A laboratory diagnosis–based epidemiologic surveillance system can provide substantial information about disease transmission and effective prevention strategies. PMID:19751575

  2. The development of a surveillance system to monitor emergency food relief in New York State.

    PubMed

    Campbell, C C; Weber, J; Pelletier, D; Dodds, J M

    1987-10-01

    A representative sample of emergency food relief (EFR) programs was selected on the basis of a census of 1,488 EFR programs in New York State. The census was a two-stage telephone survey. EFR was provided in every county although there was considerable variation in the amount of EFR per county. The soup kitchen and food pantry components of EFR had to be differentiated. The surveillance system was operational one year after the census began.

  3. Cell phone-based system (Chaak) for surveillance of immatures of dengue virus mosquito vectors.

    PubMed

    Lozano-Fuentes, Saul; Wedyan, Fadi; Hernandez-Garcia, Edgar; Sadhu, Devadatta; Ghosh, Sudipto; Bieman, James M; Tep-Chel, Diana; García-Rejón, Julián E; Eisen, Lars

    2013-07-01

    Capture of surveillance data on mobile devices and rapid transfer of such data from these devices into an electronic database or data management and decision support systems promote timely data analyses and public health response during disease outbreaks. Mobile data capture is used increasingly for malaria surveillance and holds great promise for surveillance of other neglected tropical diseases. We focused on mosquito-borne dengue, with the primary aims of: 1) developing and field-testing a cell phone-based system (called Chaak) for capture of data relating to the surveillance of the mosquito immature stages, and 2) assessing, in the dengue endemic setting of Mérida, Mexico, the cost-effectiveness of this new technology versus paper-based data collection. Chaak includes a desktop component, where a manager selects premises to be surveyed for mosquito immatures, and a cell phone component, where the surveyor receives the assigned tasks and captures the data. Data collected on the cell phone can be transferred to a central database through different modes of transmission, including near-real time where data are transferred immediately (e.g., over the Internet) or by first storing data on the cell phone for future transmission. Spatial data are handled in a novel, semantically driven, geographic information system. Compared with a pen-and-paper-based method, use of Chaak improved the accuracy and increased the speed of data transcription into an electronic database. The cost-effectiveness of using the Chaak system will depend largely on the up-front cost of purchasing cell phones and the recurring cost of data transfer over a cellular network.

  4. Cell Phone-Based System (Chaak) for Surveillance of Immatures of Dengue Virus Mosquito Vectors

    PubMed Central

    LOZANO–FUENTES, SAUL; WEDYAN, FADI; HERNANDEZ–GARCIA, EDGAR; SADHU, DEVADATTA; GHOSH, SUDIPTO; BIEMAN, JAMES M.; TEP-CHEL, DIANA; GARCÍA–REJÓN, JULIÁN E.; EISEN, LARS

    2014-01-01

    Capture of surveillance data on mobile devices and rapid transfer of such data from these devices into an electronic database or data management and decision support systems promote timely data analyses and public health response during disease outbreaks. Mobile data capture is used increasingly for malaria surveillance and holds great promise for surveillance of other neglected tropical diseases. We focused on mosquito-borne dengue, with the primary aims of: 1) developing and field-testing a cell phone-based system (called Chaak) for capture of data relating to the surveillance of the mosquito immature stages, and 2) assessing, in the dengue endemic setting of Mérida, México, the cost-effectiveness of this new technology versus paper-based data collection. Chaak includes a desktop component, where a manager selects premises to be surveyed for mosquito immatures, and a cell phone component, where the surveyor receives the assigned tasks and captures the data. Data collected on the cell phone can be transferred to a central database through different modes of transmission, including near-real time where data are transferred immediately (e.g., over the Internet) or by first storing data on the cell phone for future transmission. Spatial data are handled in a novel, semantically driven, geographic information system. Compared with a pen-and-paper-based method, use of Chaak improved the accuracy and increased the speed of data transcription into an electronic database. The cost-effectiveness of using the Chaak system will depend largely on the up-front cost of purchasing cell phones and the recurring cost of data transfer over a cellular network. PMID:23926788

  5. Global Ocean Surveillance With Electronic Intelligence Based Satellite System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatramanan, Haritha

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this proposal is to design our own ELINT based satellite system to detect and locate the target by using satellite Trilateration Principle. The target position can be found by measuring the radio signals arrived at three satellites using Time Difference of Arrival(TDOA) technique. To locate a target it is necessary to determine the satellite position. The satellite motion and its position is obtained by using Simplified General Perturbation Model(SGP4) in MATLAB. This SGP4 accepts satellite Two Line Element(TLE) data and returns the position in the form of state vectors. These state vectors are then converted into observable parameters and then propagated in space. This calculations can be done for satellite constellation and non - visibility periods can be calculated. Satellite Trilateration consists of three satellites flying in formation with each other. The satellite constellation design consists of three satellites with an inclination of 61.3° maintained at equal distances between each other. The design is performed using MATLAB and simulated to obtain the necessary results. The target's position can be obtained using the three satellites ECEF Coordinate system and its position and velocity can be calculated in terms of Latitude and Longitude. The target's motion is simulated to obtain the Speed and Direction of Travel.

  6. Canadian forces evaluation of the EPINATO Health Surveillance System in Bosnia-Herzegovina.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Jean L; Carew, Maureen T; Strauss, Barbara A

    2006-10-01

    The Canadian Forces (CF) adopted the EPINATO surveillance system in 1996 to monitor disease and injury morbidity in deployed settings. The Directorate of Force Health Protection, CF Health Services Group initiated an evaluation of EPINATO in Task Force Bosnia-Herzegovina in August 2003. Two methods were used to assess coding reliability: a chart audit and Sick Parade Register review. Stakeholder interviews were conducted evaluating data flow, reporting structure, and key system attributes. Reliability (K, 95% confidence interval) was good in 4 of 24 categories--sexually transmitted diseases, K = 0.75 (0.50, 1.00); eye disorders, K = 0.51 (0.15, 0.88); ears/nose/ throat, K = 0.51 (0.33, 0.69); lower respiratory infections, K = 0.49 (95% confidence interval 0.34, 0.65)-but otherwise was poor. EPINATO is not an effective, reliable tool for CF deployment health surveillance. An improved health surveillance system is required to ensure disease and injury aberrations are detected and optimal preventive programs and policies are in place for deployed CF military members.

  7. A national syndromic surveillance system for England and Wales using calls to a telephone helpline.

    PubMed

    Smith, G E; Cooper, D L; Loveridge, P; Chinemana, F; Gerard, E; Verlander, N

    2006-01-01

    Routine primary care data provide the means to monitor a variety of syndromes which could give early warning of health protection issues. In the United Kingdom, a national syndromic surveillance system, operated jointly by the UK Health Protection Agency (HPA) and NHS Direct (a national telephone health helpline), examines symptoms reported to NHS Direct. The aim of the system is to identify an increase in syndromes indicative of common infections and diseases, or the early stages of illness caused by the deliberate release of a biological or chemical agent. Data relating to 11 key symptoms/syndromes are received electronically from all 22 NHS Direct call centres covering England and Wales and analysed by the HPA on a daily basis. Statistically significant excesses in calls are automatically highlighted and assessed by a multi-disciplinary team. Although the surveillance system has characterised many sudden rises in syndromes reported to NHS Direct, no evidence of a biological or chemical attack has been detected. Benefits of this work, however, are early warning and tracking of rises in community morbidity (e.g. influenza-like illness, heatstroke); providing reassurance during times of perceived high risk (e.g. after the 7 July 2005 London bombs and December 2005 Buncefield oil depot fire); and timely surveillance data for influenza pandemic planning and epidemic modeling. PMID:17370968

  8. Context switching system and architecture for intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hershey, Paul C.; Graham, Christopher J.; Ledda, Leslie; Wang, Mu-Cheng

    2012-06-01

    Given the increasing utilization and dependence on ISR information, operators and imagery analysts monitoring intelligence feeds seek a capability to reduce processing overload in transformation of ISR data to actionable information. The objective they seek is improvement in time critical targeting (TCT) and response time for mission events. Existing techniques addressing this problem are inflexible and lack a dynamic environment for adaptation to changing mission events. This paper presents a novel approach to ISR information collection, processing, and response, called the ISR Context Switching System (ISR-CSS). ISR-CSS enables ground, sea, and airborne sensors to perform preliminary analysis and processing of data automatically at the platform before transferring actionable information back to ground-base operators and intelligence analysts. The on-platform processing includes a catalogue of filtering algorithms concatenated with associated compression algorithms that are automatically selected based on dynamic mission events. The filtering algorithms employ tunable parameters and sensitivities based on the original mission plan along with associated Essential Elements of Information (EEI), data type, and analyst/user preferences. As a mission progresses, ISR-CSS incorporates adaptive parameter updates (model-based, statistics-based, learning-based, and event-driven), providing increased tactical relevant data. If a mission transforms dramatically, where unexpected manual guidance is required, then ISR-CSS allows tactical end-user direct-to-sensor tasking. To address information overload, ISR-CSS provides the provision to filters and prioritize data according to end-user preferences. ISR-CSS dispenses mission-critical and timely actionable information for end-user utilization, enabling faster response to a greater range of threats across the mission spectrum.

  9. An opportunity analysis system for space surveillance experiments with the MSX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridharan, Ramaswamy; Duff, Gary; Hayes, Tony; Wiseman, Andy

    1994-01-01

    The Mid-Course Space Experiment consists of a set of payloads on a satellite being designed and built under the sponsorship of Ballistic Missile Defense Office. The MSX satellite will conduct a series of measurements of phenomenology of backgrounds, missile targets, plumes and resident space objects (RSO's); and will engage in functional demonstrations in support of detection, acquisition and tracking for ballistic missile defense and space-based space surveillance missions. A complex satellite like the MSX has several constraints imposed on its operation by the sensors, the supporting instrumentation, power resources, data recording capability, communications and the environment in which all these operate. This paper describes the implementation of an opportunity and feasibility analysis system, developed at Lincoln Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, specifically to support the experiments of the Principal Investigator for space-based surveillance.

  10. Sex and gender in the US health surveillance system: a call to action.

    PubMed

    Conron, Kerith J; Landers, Stewart J; Reisner, Sari L; Sell, Randall L

    2014-06-01

    Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) data have exposed significant sexual orientation disparities in health. Interest in examining the health of transgender youths, whose gender identities or expressions are not fully congruent with their assigned sex at birth, highlights limitations of the YRBS and the broader US health surveillance system. In 2009, we conducted the mixed-methods Massachusetts Gender Measures Project to develop and cognitively test measures for adolescent health surveillance surveys. A promising measure of transgender status emerged through this work. Further research is needed to produce accurate measures of assigned sex at birth and several dimensions of gender to further our understanding of determinants of gender disparities in health and enable strategic responses to address them.

  11. Sex and Gender in the US Health Surveillance System: A Call to Action

    PubMed Central

    Landers, Stewart J.; Reisner, Sari L.; Sell, Randall L.

    2014-01-01

    Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) data have exposed significant sexual orientation disparities in health. Interest in examining the health of transgender youths, whose gender identities or expressions are not fully congruent with their assigned sex at birth, highlights limitations of the YRBS and the broader US health surveillance system. In 2009, we conducted the mixed-methods Massachusetts Gender Measures Project to develop and cognitively test measures for adolescent health surveillance surveys. A promising measure of transgender status emerged through this work. Further research is needed to produce accurate measures of assigned sex at birth and several dimensions of gender to further our understanding of determinants of gender disparities in health and enable strategic responses to address them. PMID:24825193

  12. Sex and gender in the US health surveillance system: a call to action.

    PubMed

    Conron, Kerith J; Landers, Stewart J; Reisner, Sari L; Sell, Randall L

    2014-06-01

    Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) data have exposed significant sexual orientation disparities in health. Interest in examining the health of transgender youths, whose gender identities or expressions are not fully congruent with their assigned sex at birth, highlights limitations of the YRBS and the broader US health surveillance system. In 2009, we conducted the mixed-methods Massachusetts Gender Measures Project to develop and cognitively test measures for adolescent health surveillance surveys. A promising measure of transgender status emerged through this work. Further research is needed to produce accurate measures of assigned sex at birth and several dimensions of gender to further our understanding of determinants of gender disparities in health and enable strategic responses to address them. PMID:24825193

  13. Design study for a 16x zoom lens system for visible surveillance camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vella, Anthony; Li, Heng; Zhao, Yang; Trumper, Isaac; Gandara-Montano, Gustavo A.; Xu, Di; Nikolov, Daniel K.; Chen, Changchen; Brown, Nicolas S.; Guevara-Torres, Andres; Jung, Hae Won; Reimers, Jacob; Bentley, Julie

    2015-09-01

    *avella@ur.rochester.edu Design study for a 16x zoom lens system for visible surveillance camera Anthony Vella*, Heng Li, Yang Zhao, Isaac Trumper, Gustavo A. Gandara-Montano, Di Xu, Daniel K. Nikolov, Changchen Chen, Nicolas S. Brown, Andres Guevara-Torres, Hae Won Jung, Jacob Reimers, Julie Bentley The Institute of Optics, University of Rochester, Wilmot Building, 275 Hutchison Rd, Rochester, NY, USA 14627-0186 ABSTRACT High zoom ratio zoom lenses have extensive applications in broadcasting, cinema, and surveillance. Here, we present a design study on a 16x zoom lens with 4 groups (including two internal moving groups), designed for, but not limited to, a visible spectrum surveillance camera. Fifteen different solutions were discovered with nearly diffraction limited performance, using PNPX or PNNP design forms with the stop located in either the third or fourth group. Some interesting patterns and trends in the summarized results include the following: (a) in designs with such a large zoom ratio, the potential of locating the aperture stop in the front half of the system is limited, with ray height variations through zoom necessitating a very large lens diameter; (b) in many cases, the lens zoom motion has significant freedom to vary due to near zero total power in the middle two groups; and (c) we discuss the trade-offs between zoom configuration, stop location, packaging factors, and zoom group aberration sensitivity.

  14. Technical Description of RODS: A Real-time Public Health Surveillance System

    PubMed Central

    Tsui, Fu-Chiang; Espino, Jeremy U.; Dato, Virginia M.; Gesteland, Per H.; Hutman, Judith; Wagner, Michael M.

    2003-01-01

    This report describes the design and implementation of the Real-time Outbreak and Disease Surveillance (RODS) system, a computer-based public health surveillance system for early detection of disease outbreaks. Hospitals send RODS data from clinical encounters over virtual private networks and leased lines using the Health Level 7 (HL7) message protocol. The data are sent in real time. RODS automatically classifies the registration chief complaint from the visit into one of seven syndrome categories using Bayesian classifiers. It stores the data in a relational database, aggregates the data for analysis using data warehousing techniques, applies univariate and multivariate statistical detection algorithms to the data, and alerts users of when the algorithms identify anomalous patterns in the syndrome counts. RODS also has a Web-based user interface that supports temporal and spatial analyses. RODS processes sales of over-the-counter health care products in a similar manner but receives such data in batch mode on a daily basis. RODS was used during the 2002 Winter Olympics and currently operates in two states—Pennsylvania and Utah. It has been and continues to be a resource for implementing, evaluating, and applying new methods of public health surveillance. PMID:12807803

  15. System and technology considerations for space-based air traffic surveillance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaisnys, A.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the system trade-offs examined in a recent study of space-based air traffic surveillance. Three system options, each satisfying a set of different constraints, were considered. The main difference in the technology needed to implement the three systems was determined to be the size of the spacecraft antenna aperture. It was found that essentially equivalent position location accuracy could be achieved with apertures from 50 meters down to less than a meter in diameter, depending on the choice of signal structure and on the desired user update rate.

  16. Surveillance Analysis Computer System (SACS): Software requirements specification (SRS). Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Glasscock, J.A.

    1995-03-08

    This document is the primary document establishing requirements for the Surveillance Analysis Computer System (SACS) database, an Impact Level 3Q system. SACS stores information on tank temperatures, surface levels, and interstitial liquid levels. This information is retrieved by the customer through a PC-based interface and is then available to a number of other software tools. The software requirements specification (SRS) describes the system requirements for the SACS Project, and follows the Standard Engineering Practices (WHC-CM-6-1), Software Practices (WHC-CM-3-10) and Quality Assurance (WHC-CM-4-2, QR 19.0) policies.

  17. Poliomyelitis surveillance: the model used in India for polio eradication.

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, K.; Hlady, W. G.; Andrus, J. K.; Sarkar, S.; Fitzsimmons, J.; Abeykoon, P.

    2000-01-01

    Poliomyelitis surveillance in India previously involved the passive reporting of clinically suspected cases. The capacity for detecting the disease was limited because there was no surveillance of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP). In October 1997, 59 specially trained Surveillance Medical Officers were deployed throughout the country to establish active AFP surveillance; 11,533 units were created to report weekly on the occurrence of AFP cases at the district, state and national levels; timely case investigation and the collection of stool specimens from AFP cases was undertaken; linkages were made to support the polio laboratory network; and extensive training of government counterparts of the Surveillance Medical Officers was conducted. Data reported at the national level are analysed and distributed weekly. Annualized rates of non-polio AFP increased from 0.22 per 100,000 children aged under 15 years in 1997 to 1.39 per 100,000 in 1999. The proportion of cases with two adequate stools collected within two weeks of the onset of paralysis increased from 34% in 1997 to 68% in 1999. The number of polio cases associated with the isolation of wild poliovirus decreased from 211 in the first quarter of 1998 to 77 in the first quarter of 1999. Widespread transmission of wild poliovirus types 1 and 3 persists throughout the country; type 2 occurs only in Bihar and Uttar Pradesh. In order to achieve polio eradication in India during 2000, extra national immunization days and house-to-house mopping-up rounds should be organized. PMID:10812728

  18. Towards a global antibiotic resistance surveillance system: a primer for a roadmap

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The need for global data about the scale of antibiotic resistance (ABR) in a geographical explicit and timely manner has been identified by many stakeholders, including the World Health Organization. This primer should help defining the objectives, scale, scope, and structure of possible future efforts. Stakeholders and their expected information demands were identified to generate an inventory of surveillance objectives. For simplification, an original approach was chosen to bundle sets of objectives that represent common demands and can be addressed by common subject areas, which fall into three areas. Subject area I addresses clinical demands and focuses on patients; subject area II addresses public health demands by focusing on meta-populations; subject area III addresses infection control demands and focuses on pathogens. A division into these areas leads to a separation of surveillance activities suggesting a modular approach which can provide complementary information. Moreover, the modules address the conundrum of ABR at the complementary levels of 1) patient, 2) population, and 3) pathogen, which—rather conventionally—follow the operational and professional fault-lines of the main disciplines involved, namely clinical medicine, public health, and biology. Essential features that define different surveillance systems have been listed and taken into consideration when suggesting templates for future efforts. Putting ABR on the global health map is a daunting task as it requires acceptance, agreements, and engagement but also concessions at many different levels. Given the existing gaps in the global diagnostic service landscape only a step-wise approach which defines achievable aims, objectives, and milestones will succeed to produce a sustainable system of international co-operative surveillance of ABR. PMID:24694024

  19. Evaluation of a statewide non-name-based HIV surveillance system.

    PubMed

    Solomon, L; Flynn, C; Eldred, L; Caldeira, E; Wasserman, M P; Benjamin, G

    1999-11-01

    Recent advances in AIDS-related therapies have delayed the onset of AIDS-defining illnesses and reduced the usefulness of AIDS surveillance in assessing the incidence of early HIV disease and estimating future needs of the HIV-infected population. These changes have prompted renewed interest in expanding surveillance to include HIV and have engendered national debate on whether an HIV surveillance system should be based on reports of the names of infected individuals or employ non-name-based data codes. In 1994, the state of Maryland implemented a program to require HIV surveillance by unique identifier (UI) patient code. This evaluation of Maryland's program found that when complete, the 12-digit UI number provided a virtually unduplicated count 99.8% unique, was 99.9% unique with only the last four digits of the U.S. government Social Security Number (SSN), date of birth (DOB), and race, and 77.7% unique if the last four digits of the SSN were missing. Health care providers were willing to create the UI, with DOB and gender present 98.3% and 98.8% of the time, race was complete 84.1% and last four digits of SSN were complete 72.4%. The overall completeness of reporting for HIV tests was 87.8%.and 84.8%, respectively, using different methodologies. Evidence from the Maryland UI evaluation demonstrates that a non-name-based system can provide accurate, timely and valid data concerning the scope of the HIV epidemic, without the creation of state-wide name-based registry. PMID:10770348

  20. Active surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis in poliomyelitis high-risk areas in southern China.

    PubMed Central

    Chiba, Y.; Hikita, K.; Matuba, T.; Chosa, T.; Kyogoku, S.; Yu, J.; Wang, Z.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: On 29 October 2000 poliomyelitis was officially declared to have been eradicated from the Western Pacific Region. This article describes the results of surveillance for cases of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) in China during the final phase of the eradication effort. METHODS: We conducted hospital-based active surveillance in high-risk areas for poliomyelitis in 5 provinces of southern-China (Sichuan, Yunnan, Guizhou, Guangxi and Jiangxi) between 1995 and 1997 to determine the adequacy of reporting and laboratory diagnosis of cases of AFP. FINDINGS: A total of 1069 AFP cases occurring since 1993 were identified in 311 hospital visits. Less than 50% of AFP cases occurring in 1993 and 1994 had been reported by AFP surveillance, and laboratory diagnosis had been carried out on only a small proportion of these. However, improved cooperation between hospital sectors increased the rate of case reporting and laboratory diagnosis to 85% and 78%, respectively, in 1997. Despite this overall improvement, these two indicators were approximately 10-20% lower in Yunnan Province. Epidemiological analysis revealed that cases of clinical poliomyelitis accounted for as much as one-third of all AFP in 1993 and that some of these cases were clustered. Clusters were rarely observed after 1994. Active surveillance in the China-Myanmar border areas of Yunnan over 1995-96 detected 9 cross-border cases of clinical poliomyelitis, including 2 of wild poliomyelitis. Import of poliomyelitis was thus considered to have occurred frequently until 1996 in this border area of Yunnan. These data were important for the outbreak response immunization carried out in 1996 in the border prefectures of Yunnan. CONCLUSION: Our investigation confirmed a high level of AFP surveillance in poliomyelitis high-risk areas of the five provinces and provided valuable information on the interruption of wild poliovirus circulation in southern China that will be of use to countries in other regions that have

  1. Affordable Options for Ground-Based, Large-Aperture Optical Space Surveillance Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackermann, M.; Beason, J. D.; Kiziah, R.; Spillar, E.; Vestrand, W. T.; Cox, D.; McGraw, J.; Zimmer, P.; Holland, C.

    2013-09-01

    The Space Surveillance Telescope (SST) developed by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) - has demonstrated significant capability improvements over legacy ground-based optical space surveillance systems. To fulfill better the current and future space situational awareness (SSA) requirements, the Air Force would benefit from a global network of such telescopes, but the high cost to replicate the SST makes such an acquisition decision difficult, particularly in an era of fiscal austerity. Ideally, the Air Force needs the capabilities provided by the SST, but at a more affordable price. To address this issue, an informal study considered a total of 67 alternative optical designs, with each being evaluated for cost, complexity and SSA performance. One promising approach identified in the study uses a single mirror at prime focus with a small number of corrective lenses. This approach results in telescopes that are less complex and estimated to be less expensive than replicated SSTs. They should also be acquirable on shorter time scales. Another approach would use a modest network of smaller telescopes for space surveillance. This approach provides significant cost advantages but faces some challenges with very dim objects. In this paper, we examine the cost and SSA utility for each of the 67 designs considered.

  2. Improving National Data Systems for Surveillance of Suicide-related Events

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Robin; Hedegaard, Holly; Bossarte, Robert; Crosby, Alexander E.; Hanzlick, Randy; Roesler, Jon; Seider, Regina; Smith, Patricia; Warner, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    Background Describing the characteristics and patterns of suicidal behavior is an essential component in developing successful prevention efforts. The Data and Surveillance Task Force (DSTF) of the National Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention was charged with making recommendations for improving national data systems for public health surveillance of suicide-related problems, including suicidal thoughts, suicide attempts and deaths due to suicide. Data from the national systems can be used to draw attention to the magnitude of the problem and are useful for establishing national health priorities. National data can also be used to examine differences in rates across groups (e.g., sex, racial/ethnic, and age groups) and geographic regions, and are useful in identifying patterns in the mechanism of suicide, including those that rarely occur. Methods Using evaluation criteria from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the World Health Organization, and the U.S.-based Safe States Alliance, the DSTF reviewed 28 national data systems for feasibility of use in the surveillance of suicidal behavior, including deaths, non-fatal attempts and suicidal thoughts. The review criteria included such attributes as the aspects of the suicide-related spectrum (e.g., thoughts, attempts, deaths) covered by the system, how the data are collected (e.g., census, sample, survey, administrative data files, self-report, reporting by care providers), and the strengths and limitations of the survey or data system. Results The DSTF identified common strengths and challenges among the data systems based on the underlying data source (e.g., death records, health care provider records, population-based surveys, health insurance claims). From these findings, the DSTF proposed several recommendations for improving existing data systems, such as using standard language and definitions, adding new variables to existing surveys, expanding the geographic scope of surveys to include areas

  3. Design and prospective evaluation of a risk-based surveillance system for shrimp grow-out farms in northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marques, Ana Rita; Pereira, Marcelo; Ferreira Neto, Jose Soares; Ferreira, Fernando

    2015-12-01

    The farming of Pacific white shrimp Litopennaeus vannamei in northeast Brazil, has proven to be a promising sector. However, the farming of Pacific white shrimp in Brazil has been affected negatively by the occurrence of viral diseases, threatening this sector's expansion and sustainability. For this reason, the drafting of a surveillance system for early detection and definition of freedom from viral diseases, whose occurrence could result in high economic loses, is of the utmost importance. The stochastic model AquaVigil was implemented to prospectively evaluate different surveillance strategies to determine freedom from disease and identify the strategy with the lowest sampling efforts, making the best use of available resources through risk-based surveillance. The worked example presented was designed for regional application for the state of Ceará and can easily be applied to other Brazilian states. The AquaVigil model can analyse any risk-based surveillance system that considers a similar outline to the strategy here presented.

  4. The temporal relationship between drug supply indicators: an audit of international government surveillance systems

    PubMed Central

    Werb, Dan; Kerr, Thomas; Nosyk, Bohdan; Strathdee, Steffanie; Montaner, Julio; Wood, Evan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Illegal drug use continues to be a major threat to community health and safety. We used international drug surveillance databases to assess the relationship between multiple long-term estimates of illegal drug price and purity. Design We systematically searched for longitudinal measures of illegal drug supply indicators to assess the long-term impact of enforcement-based supply reduction interventions. Setting Data from identified illegal drug surveillance systems were analysed using an a priori defined protocol in which we sought to present annual estimates beginning in 1990. Data were then subjected to trend analyses. Main outcome measures Data were obtained from government surveillance systems assessing price, purity and/or seizure quantities of illegal drugs; systems with at least 10 years of longitudinal data assessing price, purity/potency or seizures were included. Results We identified seven regional/international metasurveillance systems with longitudinal measures of price or purity/potency that met eligibility criteria. In the USA, the average inflation-adjusted and purity-adjusted prices of heroin, cocaine and cannabis decreased by 81%, 80% and 86%, respectively, between 1990 and 2007, whereas average purity increased by 60%, 11% and 161%, respectively. Similar trends were observed in Europe, where during the same period the average inflation-adjusted price of opiates and cocaine decreased by 74% and 51%, respectively. In Australia, the average inflation-adjusted price of cocaine decreased 14%, while the inflation-adjusted price of heroin and cannabis both decreased 49% between 2000 and 2010. During this time, seizures of these drugs in major production regions and major domestic markets generally increased. Conclusions With few exceptions and despite increasing investments in enforcement-based supply reduction efforts aimed at disrupting global drug supply, illegal drug prices have generally decreased while drug purity has generally

  5. Dynamic region-of-interest acquisition and face tracking for intelligent surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Young-Ouk; Kim, Sangjin; Park, Chang-Woo; Sung, Ha-Gyeong; Paik, Joonki

    2004-05-01

    Recently, surveillance systems gain more attraction than simple CCTV systems, especially for complicated security environment. The major purpose of the proposed system is to monitor and track intruders. More specifically, accurate identification of each intruder is more important than simply recording what they are doing. Most existing surveillance systems simply keep recording the fixed viewing area, and some others adopt the tracking technique for wider coverage. Although panning and tilting the camera can extend the viewing area, only a few automatic zoom control techniques for acquiring the optimum ROI has been proposed. This paper describes a system for tracking multiple faces from input video sequences using facial convex hull-based facial segmentation and robust hausdorff distance. The proposed algorithm adapts skin color reference map in the YCbCr color space and hair color reference map in the RGB color space for classifying face region. Then, we obtain an initial face model with preprocessing and convex hull. For tracking, this algorithm computes displacement of the point set between frames using a robust hausdorff distance and the best possible displacement is selected. Finally, the initial face model is updated using the displacement. We provide experimental result to demonstrate the performance of the proposed tracking algorithm, which efficiently tracks rotating, and zooming faces as well as multiple faces in video sequences obtained from at CCD camera.

  6. Occupational injuries identified by an emergency department based injury surveillance system in Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Noe, R; Rocha, J; Clavel-Arcas, C; Aleman, C; Gonzales, M; Mock, C

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To identify and describe the work related injuries in both the formal and informal work sectors captured in an emergency department based injury surveillance system in Managua, Nicaragua. Setting: Urban emergency department in Managua, Nicaragua serving 200–300 patients per day. Methods: Secondary analysis from the surveillance system data. All cases indicating an injury while working and seen for treatment at the emergency department between 1 August 2001 and 31 July 2002 were included. There was no exclusion based on place of occurrence (home, work, school), age, or gender. Results: There were 3801 work related injuries identified which accounted for 18.6% of the total 20 425 injures captured by the surveillance system. Twenty seven work related fatalities were recorded, compared with the 1998 International Labor Organization statistic of 25 occupational fatalities for all of Nicaragua. Injuries occurring outside of a formal work location accounted for more than 60% of the work related injuries. Almost half of these occurred at home, while 19% occurred on the street. The leading mechanisms for work related injuries were falls (30%), blunt objects (28%), and stabs/cuts (23%). Falls were by far the most severe mechanism in the study, causing 37% of the work related deaths and more than half of the fractures. Conclusions: Occupational injuries are grossly underreported in Nicaragua. This study demonstrated that an emergency department can be a data source for work related injuries in developing countries because it captures both the formal and informal workforce injuries. Fall prevention initiatives could significantly reduce the magnitude and severity of occupational injuries in Managua, Nicaragua. PMID:15314050

  7. How Much Does a Verbal Autopsy Based Mortality Surveillance System Cost in Rural India?

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Rohina; Praveen, Deversetty; Jan, Stephen; Raju, Krishnam; Maulik, Pallab; Jha, Vivekanand; Lopez, Alan D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This paper aims to determine the cost of establishing and sustaining a verbal-autopsy based mortality surveillance system in rural India. Materials and Methods Deaths occurring in 45 villages (population 185,629) were documented over a 4-year period from 2003–2007 by 45 non-physician healthcare workers (NPHWs) trained in data collection using a verbal autopsy tool. Causes of death were assigned by 2 physicians for the first year and by one physician for the subsequent years. Costs were calculated for training of interviewers and physicians, data collection, verbal autopsy analysis, project management and infrastructure. Costs were divided by the number of deaths and the population covered in the year. Results Verbal-autopsies were completed for 96.7% (5786) of all deaths (5895) recorded. The annual cost in year 1 was INR 1,133,491 (USD 24,943) and the total cost per death was INR 757 (USD 16.66). These costs included training of NPHWs and physician reviewers Rs 67,025 (USD 1474), data collection INR 248,400 (USD 5466), dual physician review for cause of death assignment INR 375,000 (USD 8252), and project management INR 341,724 (USD 7520). The average annual cost to run the system each year was INR 822,717 (USD18104) and the cost per death was INR 549 (USD 12) for the next 3 years. Costs were reduced by using single physician review and shortened re-training sessions. The annual cost of running a surveillance system was INR 900,410 (USD 19814). Discussion This study provides detailed empirical evidence of the costs involved in running a mortality surveillance site using verbal-autopsy. PMID:25955389

  8. Evaluating the feasibility and participants' representativeness of an online nationwide surveillance system for influenza in France.

    PubMed

    Debin, Marion; Turbelin, Clément; Blanchon, Thierry; Bonmarin, Isabelle; Falchi, Alessandra; Hanslik, Thomas; Levy-Bruhl, Daniel; Poletto, Chiara; Colizza, Vittoria

    2013-01-01

    The increasing Internet coverage and the widespread use of digital devices offer the possibility to develop new digital surveillance systems potentially capable to provide important aid to epidemiological and public health monitoring and research. In France, a new nationwide surveillance system for influenza-like illness, GrippeNet.fr, was introduced since the 2011/2012 season based on an online participatory mechanism and open to the general population. We evaluate the recruitment and participation of users to the first pilot season with respect to similar efforts in Europe to assess the feasibility of establishing a participative network of surveillance in France. We further investigate the representativeness of the GrippeNet.fr population along a set of indicators on geographical, demographic, socio-economic and health aspects. Participation was widespread in the country and with rates comparable to other European countries with partnered projects running since a longer time. It was not representative of the general population in terms of age and gender, however all age classes were represented, including the older classes (65+ years old), generally less familiar with the digital world, but considered at high risk for influenza complications. Once adjusted on demographic indicators, the GrippeNet.fr population is found to be more frequently employed, with a higher education level and vaccination rate with respect to the general population. A similar propensity to commute for work to different regions was observed, and no significant difference was found for asthma and diabetes. Results show the feasibility of the system, provide indications to inform adjusted epidemic analyses, and highlight the presence of specific population groups that need to be addressed by targeted communication strategies to achieve a higher representativeness in the following seasons. PMID:24040020

  9. A practical indoor context-aware surveillance system with multi-Kinect sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Lili; You, Ying; Li, Tiezhu; Zhang, Shun

    2014-11-01

    In this paper we develop a novel practical application, which give scalable services to the end users when abnormal actives are happening. Architecture of the application has been presented consisting of network infrared cameras and a communication module. In this intelligent surveillance system we use Kinect sensors as the input cameras. Kinect is an infrared laser camera which its user can access the raw infrared sensor stream. We install several Kinect sensors in one room to track the human skeletons. Each sensor returns the body positions with 15 coordinates in its own coordinate system. We use calibration algorithms to calibrate all the body positions points into one unified coordinate system. With the body positions points, we can infer the surveillance context. Furthermore, the messages from the metadata index matrix will be sent to mobile phone through communication module. User will instantly be aware of an abnormal case happened in the room without having to check the website. In conclusion, theoretical analysis and experimental results in this paper show that the proposed system is reasonable and efficient. And the application method introduced in this paper is not only to discourage the criminals and assist police in the apprehension of suspects, but also can enabled the end-users monitor the indoor environments anywhere and anytime by their phones.

  10. Evaluation of the enterovirus laboratory surveillance system in Denmark, 2010 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Condell, Orla; Midgley, Sofie; Christiansen, Claus Bohn; Chen, Ming; Chen Nielsen, Xiaohui; Ellermann-Eriksen, Svend; Mølvadgaard, Mette; Schønning, Kristian; Vermedal Hoegh, Silje; Andersen, Peter Henrik; Voldstedlund, Marianne; Kølsen Fischer, Thea

    2016-05-01

    The primary aim of the Danish enterovirus (EV) surveillance system is to document absence of poliovirus infection. The conflict in Syria has left many children unvaccinated and movement from areas with polio cases to Europe calls for increased awareness to detect and respond to virus-transmission in a timely manner. We evaluate the national EV laboratory surveillance, to generate recommendations for system strengthening. The system was analysed for completeness of viral typing analysis and clinical information and timeliness of specimen collection, laboratory results and reporting of clinical information. Of 23,720 specimens screened, 2,202 (9.3%) were EV-positive. Submission of cerebrospinal fluid and faecal specimens from primary diagnostic laboratories was 79.5% complete (845/1,063), and varied by laboratory and patient age. EV genotypes were determined in 68.5% (979/1,430) of laboratory-confirmed cases, clinical information was available for 63.1% (903/1,430). Primary diagnostic results were available after a median of 1.4 days, typing results after 17 days, detailed clinical information after 33 days. The large number of samples typed demonstrated continued monitoring of EV-circulation in Denmark. The system could be strengthened by increasing the collection of supplementary faecal specimens, improving communication with primary diagnostic laboratories, adapting the laboratory typing methodology and collecting clinical information with electronic forms. PMID:27173593

  11. Improved hypertension control using a surveillance system in a neighborhood health center.

    PubMed

    Smith, D A; Schnall, P L

    1980-07-01

    The Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., Health Center has developed a simple inexpensive McBee Card Surveillance System for following approximately 2,000 registered patients with hypertension. The system has been in use for the past two years by three health teams. On a quarterly basis teams and physicians are given reports on the percentage of their hypertensive patients with controlled blood pressure (bp) (bp less than or equal to 140/90 for patients younger than 50; bp less than or equal to 160/95 for 50 or older). In addition, patients not seen in the past 4 months are identified for follow-up by family health workers. During the 2-year period that the system has been in operation, the three teams have increased their percentage of patients under control by 50%. Of 929 patients with hypertension, 411 were controlled at the inception of the study and 617 were controlled 2 years later. Such a simple surveillance and self-evaluaton system is readily applicable to all ambulatory care settings.

  12. Syndromic surveillance system based on near real-time cattle mortality monitoring.

    PubMed

    Torres, G; Ciaravino, V; Ascaso, S; Flores, V; Romero, L; Simón, F

    2015-05-01

    Early detection of an infectious disease incursion will minimize the impact of outbreaks in livestock. Syndromic surveillance based on the analysis of readily available data can enhance traditional surveillance systems and allow veterinary authorities to react in a timely manner. This study was based on monitoring the number of cattle carcasses sent for rendering in the veterinary unit of Talavera de la Reina (Spain). The aim was to develop a system to detect deviations from expected values which would signal unexpected health events. Historical weekly collected dead cattle (WCDC) time series stabilized by the Box-Cox transformation and adjusted by the minimum least squares method were used to build the univariate cycling regression model based on a Fourier transformation. Three different models, according to type of production system, were built to estimate the baseline expected number of WCDC. Two types of risk signals were generated: point risk signals when the observed value was greater than the upper 95% confidence interval of the expected baseline, and cumulative risk signals, generated by a modified cumulative sum algorithm, when the cumulative sums of reported deaths were above the cumulative sum of expected deaths. Data from 2011 were used to prospectively validate the model generating seven risk signals. None of them were correlated to infectious disease events but some coincided, in time, with very high climatic temperatures recorded in the region. The harvest effect was also observed during the first week of the study year. Establishing appropriate risk signal thresholds is a limiting factor of predictive models; it needs to be adjusted based on experience gained during the use of the models. To increase the sensitivity and specificity of the predictions epidemiological interpretation of non-specific risk signals should be complemented by other sources of information. The methodology developed in this study can enhance other existing early detection

  13. Radon awareness and testing behavior: Findings from the behavioral risk factor surveillance system, 1989-1992

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, E.S.; Eheman, C.R.; Garbe, P.L.

    1996-03-01

    Radon is considered an important environmental risk factor for lung cancer. Previous studies have shown that relatively few homes have been tested for radon. Results from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System from 1989-1992 show significant interstate and demographic variation in levels of radon awareness and home testing. There was evidence that levels of radon awareness and testing homes for radon have increased from 1989 through 1992. Although these trends in the data are encouraging, the data also suggest that continued education and other interventions may be necessary to reach the Public Health Service`s testing and mitigating objectives for residential radon. 10 refs., 3 tabs.

  14. Vitamin A deficiency in the Sudan: a call for a surveillance system.

    PubMed

    el Bushra, H E

    1992-05-01

    This short review summarizes all the published and unpublished reports on vitamin A deficiency in the Sudan in the last four decades. Different local terms used by people to indicate vitamin A deficiency were enlisted. There is evidence that vitamin A deficiency is a public health problem in eastern Sudan and among communities from western and southern Sudan living around Greater Khartoum, who were displaced from their homelands because of drought, famine conditions and civil unrest. There are reports indicative of vitamin A deficiency problem in the central and the far western provinces. There were no reports from the northern provinces. The need for a surveillance system was discussed.

  15. Integrated Disease Investigations and Surveillance planning: a systems approach to strengthening national surveillance and detection of events of public health importance in support of the International Health Regulations.

    PubMed

    Taboy, Celine H; Chapman, Will; Albetkova, Adilya; Kennedy, Sarah; Rayfield, Mark A

    2010-12-03

    The international community continues to define common strategic themes of actions to improve global partnership and international collaborations in order to protect our populations. The International Health Regulations (IHR[2005]) offer one of these strategic themes whereby World Health Organization (WHO) Member States and global partners engaged in biosecurity, biosurveillance and public health can define commonalities and leverage their respective missions and resources to optimize interventions. The U.S. Defense Threat Reduction Agency's Cooperative Biological Engagement Program (CBEP) works with partner countries across clinical, veterinary, epidemiological, and laboratory communities to enhance national disease surveillance, detection, diagnostic, and reporting capabilities. CBEP, like many other capacity building programs, has wrestled with ways to improve partner country buy-in and ownership and to develop sustainable solutions that impact integrated disease surveillance outcomes. Designing successful implementation strategies represents a complex and challenging exercise and requires robust and transparent collaboration at the country level. To address this challenge, the Laboratory Systems Development Branch of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and CBEP have partnered to create a set of tools that brings together key leadership of the surveillance system into a deliberate system design process. This process takes into account strengths and limitations of the existing system, how the components inter-connect and relate to one another, and how they can be systematically refined within the local context. The planning tools encourage cross-disciplinary thinking, critical evaluation and analysis of existing capabilities, and discussions across organizational and departmental lines toward a shared course of action and purpose. The underlying concepts and methodology of these tools are presented here.

  16. Establishment of a viral hepatitis surveillance system--Pakistan, 2009-2011.

    PubMed

    2011-10-14

    Hepatitis A is thought to infect almost all persons living in Pakistan by age 15 years, and hepatitis E is responsible for sporadic infections and outbreaks. The prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is estimated at 2.5% and the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, estimated at 4.8%, is one of the highest rates in the world. Hepatitis surveillance in Pakistan has been syndromic, failing to confirm infection, distinguish among viruses, or collect information on risk factors. To understand the epidemiology of viral hepatitis in Pakistan more clearly, the Ministry of Health (MOH) asked the Pakistan Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program (FELTP) to establish a hepatitis sentinel surveillance system in five large public hospitals in four provinces and Islamabad Capital Territory. This report describes the implementation of the viral hepatitis surveillance system in Pakistan and summarizes major findings from June 2010 through March 2011. A total of 712 cases of viral hepatitis were reported; newly reported HCV infection accounted for 53.2% of reported cases, followed by acute hepatitis A (19.8%), acute hepatitis E (12.2%), and newly reported HBV infection (10.8%). A history of health-care--related exposures, particularly receipt of therapeutic injections and infusions, commonly were reported by persons infected with HBV and HCV, and most patients reported drinking unboiled water. These findings point to the need for improved provider and community education about risks associated with unsafe injections, strengthening infection control practices in health facilities, increasing hepatitis B vaccination coverage, and improving access to clean drinking water in Pakistan.

  17. The pediatric disease spectrum in emergency departments across Pakistan: data from a pilot surveillance system

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background There is an increasing number of urgently ill and injured children being seen in emergency departments (ED) of developing countries. The pediatric disease burden in EDs across Pakistan is generally unknown. Our main objective was to determine the spectrum of disease and injury among children seen in EDs in Pakistan through a nationwide ED-based surveillance system. Methods Through the Pakistan National Emergency Department Surveillance (Pak-NEDS), data were collected from November 2010 to March 2011 in seven major tertiary care centers representing all provinces of Pakistan. These included five public and two private hospitals, with a collective annual census of over one million ED encounters. Results Of 25,052 children registered in Pak-NEDS (10% of all patients seen): 61% were male, 13% under 5 years, while almost 65% were between 10 to < 16 years. The majority (90%) were seen in public hospital EDs. About half the patients were discharged from the EDs, 9% admitted to hospitals and only 1.3% died in the EDs. Injury (39%) was the most common presenting complaint, followed by fever/malaise (19%) and gastrointestinal symptoms (18%). Injury was more likely in males vs. females (43% vs. 33%; p < 0.001), with a peak presentation in the 5-12 year age group (45%). Conclusions Pediatric patients constitute a smaller proportion among general ED users in Pakistan. Injury is the most common presenting complaint for children seen in the ED. These data will help in resource allocation for cost effective pediatric ED service delivery systems. Prospective longer duration surveillance is needed in more representative pediatric EDs across Pakistan. PMID:26691052

  18. Internet-based remote health self-checker symptom data as an adjuvant to a national syndromic surveillance system.

    PubMed

    Elliot, A J; Kara, E O; Loveridge, P; Bawa, Z; Morbey, R A; Moth, M; Large, S; Smith, G E

    2015-12-01

    Syndromic surveillance is an innovative surveillance tool used to support national surveillance programmes. Recent advances in the use of internet-based health data have demonstrated the potential usefulness of these health data; however, there have been limited studies comparing these innovative health data to existing established syndromic surveillance systems. We conducted a retrospective observational study to assess the usefulness of a national internet-based 'symptom checker' service for use as a syndromic surveillance system. NHS Direct online data were extracted for 1 August 2012 to 1 July 2013; a time-series analysis on the symptom categories self-reported by online users was undertaken and compared to existing telehealth syndromic data. There were 3·37 million online users of the internet-based self-checker compared to 1·43 million callers to the telephone triage health service. There was a good correlation between the online and telephone triage data for a number of syndromic indicators including cold/flu, difficulty breathing and eye problems; however, online data appeared to provide additional early warning over telephone triage health data. This assessment has illustrated some potential benefit of using internet-based symptom-checker data and provides the basis for further investigating how these data can be incorporated into national syndromic surveillance programmes.

  19. The Importance of Camera Calibration and Distortion Correction to Obtain Measurements with Video Surveillance Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cattaneo, C.; Mainetti, G.; Sala, R.

    2015-11-01

    Video surveillance systems are commonly used as important sources of quantitative information but from the acquired images it is possible to obtain a large amount of metric information. Yet, different methodological issues must be considered in order to perform accurate measurements using images. The most important one is the camera calibration, which is the estimation of the parameters defining the camera model. One of the most used camera calibration method is the Zhang's method, that allows the estimation of the linear parameters of the camera model. This method is very diffused as it requires a simple setup and it allows to calibrate cameras using a simple and fast procedure, but it does not consider lenses distortions, that must be taken into account with short focal lenses, commonly used in video surveillance systems. In order to perform accurate measurements, the linear camera model and the Zhang's method are improved in order to take nonlinear parameters into account and compensate the distortion contribute. In this paper we first describe the pinhole camera model that considers cameras as central projection systems. After a brief introduction to the camera calibration process and in particular the Zhang's method, we give a description of the different types of lens distortions and the techniques used for the distortion compensation. At the end some numerical example are shown in order to demonstrate the importance of the distortion compensation to obtain accurate measurements.

  20. A Semantic Autonomous Video Surveillance System for Dense Camera Networks in Smart Cities

    PubMed Central

    Calavia, Lorena; Baladrón, Carlos; Aguiar, Javier M.; Carro, Belén; Sánchez-Esguevillas, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a proposal of an intelligent video surveillance system able to detect and identify abnormal and alarming situations by analyzing object movement. The system is designed to minimize video processing and transmission, thus allowing a large number of cameras to be deployed on the system, and therefore making it suitable for its usage as an integrated safety and security solution in Smart Cities. Alarm detection is performed on the basis of parameters of the moving objects and their trajectories, and is performed using semantic reasoning and ontologies. This means that the system employs a high-level conceptual language easy to understand for human operators, capable of raising enriched alarms with descriptions of what is happening on the image, and to automate reactions to them such as alerting the appropriate emergency services using the Smart City safety network. PMID:23112607

  1. Development and test of video systems for airborne surveillance of oil spills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millard, J. P.; Arvesen, J. C.; Lewis, P. L.

    1975-01-01

    Five video systems - potentially useful for airborne surveillance of oil spills - were developed, flight tested, and evaluated. The systems are: (1) conventional black and white TV, (2) conventional TV with false color, (3) differential TV, (4) prototype Lunar Surface TV, and (5) field sequential TV. Wavelength and polarization filtering were utilized in all systems. Greatly enhanced detection of oil spills, relative to that possible with the unaided eye, was achieved. The most practical video system is a conventional TV camera with silicon-diode-array image tube, filtered with a Corning 7-54 filter and a polarizer oriented with its principal axis in the horizontal direction. Best contrast between oil and water was achieved when winds and sea states were low. The minimum detectable oil film thickness was about 0.1 micrometer.

  2. A semantic autonomous video surveillance system for dense camera networks in Smart Cities.

    PubMed

    Calavia, Lorena; Baladrón, Carlos; Aguiar, Javier M; Carro, Belén; Sánchez-Esguevillas, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a proposal of an intelligent video surveillance system able to detect and identify abnormal and alarming situations by analyzing object movement. The system is designed to minimize video processing and transmission, thus allowing a large number of cameras to be deployed on the system, and therefore making it suitable for its usage as an integrated safety and security solution in Smart Cities. Alarm detection is performed on the basis of parameters of the moving objects and their trajectories, and is performed using semantic reasoning and ontologies. This means that the system employs a high-level conceptual language easy to understand for human operators, capable of raising enriched alarms with descriptions of what is happening on the image, and to automate reactions to them such as alerting the appropriate emergency services using the Smart City safety network.

  3. A semantic autonomous video surveillance system for dense camera networks in Smart Cities.

    PubMed

    Calavia, Lorena; Baladrón, Carlos; Aguiar, Javier M; Carro, Belén; Sánchez-Esguevillas, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a proposal of an intelligent video surveillance system able to detect and identify abnormal and alarming situations by analyzing object movement. The system is designed to minimize video processing and transmission, thus allowing a large number of cameras to be deployed on the system, and therefore making it suitable for its usage as an integrated safety and security solution in Smart Cities. Alarm detection is performed on the basis of parameters of the moving objects and their trajectories, and is performed using semantic reasoning and ontologies. This means that the system employs a high-level conceptual language easy to understand for human operators, capable of raising enriched alarms with descriptions of what is happening on the image, and to automate reactions to them such as alerting the appropriate emergency services using the Smart City safety network. PMID:23112607

  4. A compact SEOP 3He neutron spin filter with AFP NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ino, Takashi; Arimoto, Yasushi; Shimizu, Hirohiko M.; Sakaguchi, Yoshifumi; Sakai, Kenji; Kira, Hiroshi; Shinohara, Takenao; Oku, Takayuki; Suzuki, Jun-ichi; Kakurai, Kazuhisa; Chang, Lieh-Jeng

    2012-02-01

    We developed AFP NMR in an aluminum container for polarized noble gas nuclei. The radio frequency magnetic field inside the aluminum container was designed from computer simulations. The polarization loss by the AFP spin flip of 3He was measured to be as low as 3.8×10-4. With this technique, a compact in-situ polarizing 3He neutron spin filter with AFP NMR is demonstrated.

  5. Methods for establishing a surveillance system for cardiovascular diseases in Indian industrial populations.

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, K. S.; Prabhakaran, D.; Chaturvedi, V.; Jeemon, P.; Thankappan, K. R.; Ramakrishnan, L.; Mohan, B. V. M.; Pandav, C. S.; Ahmed, F. U.; Joshi, P. P.; Meera, R.; Amin, R. B.; Ahuja, R. C.; Das, M. S.; Jaison, T. M.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To establish a surveillance network for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) risk factors in industrial settings and estimate the risk factor burden using standardized tools. METHODS: We conducted a baseline cross-sectional survey (as part of a CVD surveillance programme) of industrial populations from 10 companies across India, situated in close proximity to medical colleges that served as study centres. The study subjects were employees (selected by age and sex stratified random sampling) and their family members. Information on behavioural, clinical and biochemical determinants was obtained through standardized methods (questionnaires, clinical measurements and biochemical analysis). Data collation and analyses were done at the national coordinating centre. FINDINGS: We report the prevalence of CVD risk factors among individuals aged 20-69 years (n = 19 973 for the questionnaire survey, n = 10 442 for biochemical investigations); mean age was 40 years. The overall prevalence of most risk factors was high, with 50.9% of men and 51.9% of women being overweight, central obesity was observed among 30.9% of men and 32.8% of women, and 40.2% of men and 14.9% of women reported current tobacco use. Self-reported prevalence of diabetes (5.3%) and hypertension (10.9%) was lower than when measured clinically and biochemically (10.1% and 27.7%, respectively). There was marked heterogeneity in the prevalence of risk factors among the study centres. CONCLUSION: There is a high burden of CVD risk factors among industrial populations across India. The surveillance system can be used as a model for replication in India as well as other developing countries. PMID:16799730

  6. Systems Biology and Ratio-Based, Real-Time Disease Surveillance.

    PubMed

    Fair, J M; Rivas, A L

    2015-08-01

    Most infectious disease surveillance methods are not well fit for early detection. To address such limitation, here we evaluated a ratio- and Systems Biology-based method that does not require prior knowledge on the identity of an infective agent. Using a reference group of birds experimentally infected with West Nile virus (WNV) and a problem group of unknown health status (except that they were WNV-negative and displayed inflammation), both groups were followed over 22 days and tested with a system that analyses blood leucocyte ratios. To test the ability of the method to discriminate small data sets, both the reference group (n = 5) and the problem group (n = 4) were small. The questions of interest were as follows: (i) whether individuals presenting inflammation (disease-positive or D+) can be distinguished from non-inflamed (disease-negative or D-) birds, (ii) whether two or more D+ stages can be detected and (iii) whether sample size influences detection. Within the problem group, the ratio-based method distinguished the following: (i) three (one D- and two D+) data classes; (ii) two (early and late) inflammatory stages; (iii) fast versus regular or slow responders; and (iv) individuals that recovered from those that remained inflamed. Because ratios differed in larger magnitudes (up to 48 times larger) than percentages, it is suggested that data patterns are likely to be recognized when disease surveillance methods are designed to measure inflammation and utilize ratios.

  7. Comparison of Statistical Algorithms for the Detection of Infectious Disease Outbreaks in Large Multiple Surveillance Systems

    PubMed Central

    Farrington, C. Paddy; Noufaily, Angela; Andrews, Nick J.; Charlett, Andre

    2016-01-01

    A large-scale multiple surveillance system for infectious disease outbreaks has been in operation in England and Wales since the early 1990s. Changes to the statistical algorithm at the heart of the system were proposed and the purpose of this paper is to compare two new algorithms with the original algorithm. Test data to evaluate performance are created from weekly counts of the number of cases of each of more than 2000 diseases over a twenty-year period. The time series of each disease is separated into one series giving the baseline (background) disease incidence and a second series giving disease outbreaks. One series is shifted forward by twelve months and the two are then recombined, giving a realistic series in which it is known where outbreaks have been added. The metrics used to evaluate performance include a scoring rule that appropriately balances sensitivity against specificity and is sensitive to variation in probabilities near 1. In the context of disease surveillance, a scoring rule can be adapted to reflect the size of outbreaks and this was done. Results indicate that the two new algorithms are comparable to each other and better than the algorithm they were designed to replace. PMID:27513749

  8. The Validation of a Novel Surveillance System for Monitoring Bloodstream Infections in the Calgary Zone.

    PubMed

    Leal, Jenine R; Gregson, Daniel B; Church, Deirdre L; Henderson, Elizabeth A; Ross, Terry; Laupland, Kevin B

    2016-01-01

    Background. Electronic surveillance systems (ESSs) that utilize existing information in databases are more efficient than conventional infection surveillance methods. The objective was to assess an ESS for bloodstream infections (BSIs) in the Calgary Zone for its agreement with traditional medical record review. Methods. The ESS was developed by linking related data from regional laboratory and hospital administrative databases and using set definitions for excluding contaminants and duplicate isolates. Infections were classified as hospital-acquired (HA), healthcare-associated community-onset (HCA), or community-acquired (CA). A random sample of patients from the ESS was then compared with independent medical record review. Results. Among the 308 patients selected for comparative review, the ESS identified 318 episodes of BSI of which 130 (40.9%) were CA, 98 (30.8%) were HCA, and 90 (28.3%) were HA. Medical record review identified 313 episodes of which 136 (43.4%) were CA, 97 (30.9%) were HCA, and 80 (25.6%) were HA. Episodes of BSI were concordant in 304 (97%) cases. Overall, there was 85.5% agreement between ESS and medical record review for the classification of where BSIs were acquired (kappa = 0.78, 95% Confidence Interval: 0.75-0.80). Conclusion. This novel ESS identified and classified BSIs with a high degree of accuracy. This system requires additional linkages with other related databases. PMID:27375749

  9. Non-uniformity correction of infrared focal plane array in point target surveillance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jing; Xu, Zhenzhen; Wan, Qinqin

    2014-09-01

    We discuss the influence of non-uniformity and non-uniformity correction on point target detection in infrared surveillance system, and propose a non-uniformity correction approach which is based on signal intensity and sensor characteristics. Theoretical models are used to derive the combined effect of background clutter, sensor random noise, target, non-uniformity and correction error on the signal-to-noise-and-clutter ratio. From our analysis, it can be noted that background clutter intensity is successively modulated by sensor non-uniformity and non-uniformity correction, while sensor random noise is modulated by the non-uniformity correction process only. Furthermore, background clutter and sensor random noise are the key factors that affect the performance of a surveillance system, when it is used to detect point targets. The method presented in this paper takes all of the above into account, moreover, it considers the difference between scanning and staring focal plane array. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  10. Immune surveillance of the central nervous system in multiple sclerosis– Relevance for therapy and experimental models

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Rehana Z.; Hayardeny, Liat; Cravens, Petra C.; Yarovinsky, Felix; Eagar, Todd N.; Arellano, Benjamine; Deason, Krystin; Castro-Rojas, Cyd; Stüve, Olaf

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of central nervous system (CNS) autoimmune disorders frequently involves the reduction, or depletion of immune-competent cells. Alternatively, immune cells are being sequestered away from the target organ by interfering with their movement from secondary lymphoid organs, or their migration into tissues. These therapeutic strategies have been successful in multiple sclerosis (MS), the most prevalent autoimmune inflammatory disorder of the CNS. However, many of the agents that are currently approved or in clinical development also have severe potential adverse effects that stem from the very mechanisms that mediate their beneficial effects by interfering with CNS immune surveillance. This review will outline the main cellular components of the innate and adaptive immune system that participate in host defense and maintain immune surveillance of the CNS. Their pathogenic role in MS and its animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is also discussed. Furthermore, an experimental model is introduced that may assist in evaluating the effect of therapeutic interventions on leukocyte homeostasis and function within the CNS. This model or similar models may become a useful tool in the repertoire of pre-clinical tests of pharmacological agents to better explore their potential for adverse events. PMID:25282087

  11. Health system reform and the role of field sites based upon demographic and health surveillance.

    PubMed Central

    Tollman, S. M.; Zwi, A. B.

    2000-01-01

    Field sites for demographic and health surveillance have made well-recognized contributions to the evaluation of new or untested interventions, largely through efficacy trials involving new technologies or the delivery of selected services, e.g. vaccines, oral rehydration therapy and alternative contraceptive methods. Their role in health system reform, whether national or international, has, however, proved considerably more limited. The present article explores the characteristics and defining features of such field sites in low-income and middle-income countries and argues that many currently active sites have a largely untapped potential for contributing substantially to national and subnational health development. Since the populations covered by these sites often correspond with the boundaries of districts or subdistricts, the strategic use of information generated by demographic surveillance can inform the decentralization efforts of national and provincial health authorities. Among the areas of particular importance are the following: making population-based information available and providing an information resource; evaluating programmes and interventions; and developing applications to policy and practice. The question is posed as to whether their potential contribution to health system reform justifies arguing for adaptations to these field sites and expanded investment in them. PMID:10686747

  12. Epidemic dengue 1 in Brazil, 1986: evaluation of a clinically based dengue surveillance system.

    PubMed

    Dietz, V J; Gubler, D J; Rigau-Pérez, J G; Pinheiro, F; Schatzmayr, H G; Bailey, R; Gunn, R A

    1990-04-01

    In the last 15 years, dengue fever has emerged as a major health problem in tropical America. Prevention and control of epidemic disease are enhanced by the rapid identification of new or increased dengue activity. Most surveillance systems, however, identify cases by clinical case reports and, therefore, lack the sensitivity needed for early detection. During the 1986 dengue 1 epidemic in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, the authors evaluated the usefulness of a clinical case definition by comparing it with laboratory-confirmed infection status of residents in two cities. The case definition had a sensitivity of 64% and a false-positive rate of 57%. Thus, for every 100 laboratory-confirmed dengue infections, 230 cases were reported. Both infected and noninfected residents who used medical services and who lived in the city with the highest transmission were more likely to meet the case definition. Thus, factors unrelated to actual infection influenced the sensitivity. With the use of stepwise logistic regression, the authors analyzed combinations of patient symptoms and produced nine new hypothetical case definitions. However, none of the new definitions had a false-positive rate lower than 38%. This study emphasizes the need for laboratory-based dengue surveillance systems.

  13. Integrated Food Chain Surveillance System for Salmonella spp. in Mexico1

    PubMed Central

    Calva, Juan Jose; Estrada-Garcia, Maria Teresa; Leon, Veronica; Vazquez, Gabriela; Figueroa, Gloria; Lopez, Estela; Contreras, Jesus; Abbott, Jason; Zhao, Shaohua; McDermott, Patrick; Tollefson, Linda

    2008-01-01

    Few developing countries have foodborne pathogen surveillance systems, and none of these integrates data from humans, food, and animals. We describe the implementation of a 4-state, integrated food chain surveillance system (IFCS) for Salmonella spp. in Mexico. Significant findings were 1) high rates of meat contamination (21.3%–36.4%), 2) high rates of ceftriaxone-resistant S. Typhimurium in chicken, ill humans, and swine (77.3%, 66.3%, and 40.4% of S. Typhimurium T isolates, respectively), and 3) the emergence of ciprofloxacin resistance in S. Heidelberg (10.4%) and S. Typhimurium (1.7%) from swine. A strong association between Salmonella spp. contamination in beef and asymptomatic Salmonella spp. infection was only observed in the state with the lowest poverty level (Pearson r = 0.91, p<0.001). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of 311 S. Typhimurium isolates showed 14 clusters with 102 human, retail meat, and food-animal isolates with indistinguishable patterns. An IFCS is technically and economically feasible in developing countries and can effectively identify major public health priorities. PMID:18325258

  14. Self-monitoring surveillance system for prestressing tendons. Phase I small business innovation research

    SciTech Connect

    Tabatabai, H.

    1995-12-01

    Assured safety and operational reliability of post-tensioned concrete components of nuclear power plants are of great significance to the public, electric utilities, and regulatory agencies. Prestressing tendons provide principal reinforcement for containment and other structures. In this phase of the research effort, the feasibility of developing a passive surveillance system for identification of ruptures in tendon wires was evaluated and verified. The concept offers high potential for greatly increasing effectiveness of presently-utilized periodic tendon condition surveillance programs. A one-tenth scale ring model of the Palo Verde nuclear containment structure was built inside the Structural Laboratory. Dynamic scaling (similitude) relationships were used to relate measured sensor responses recorded during controlled wire breakages to the expected prototype containment tendon response. Strong and recognizable signatures were detected by the accelerometers used. It was concluded that the unbonded prestressing tendons provide an excellent path for transmission of stress waves resulting from wire breaks. Accelerometers placed directly on the bearing plates at the ends of tendons recorded high-intensity waveforms. Accelerometers placed elsewhere on concrete surfaces of the containment model revealed substantial attenuation and reduced intensities of captured waveforms. Locations of wire breaks could be determined accurately through measurement of differences in arrival times of the signal at the sensors. Pattern recognition systems to be utilized in conjunction with the proposed concept will provide a basis for an integrated and automated tool for identification of wire breaks.

  15. Comparison of Statistical Algorithms for the Detection of Infectious Disease Outbreaks in Large Multiple Surveillance Systems.

    PubMed

    Enki, Doyo G; Garthwaite, Paul H; Farrington, C Paddy; Noufaily, Angela; Andrews, Nick J; Charlett, Andre

    2016-01-01

    A large-scale multiple surveillance system for infectious disease outbreaks has been in operation in England and Wales since the early 1990s. Changes to the statistical algorithm at the heart of the system were proposed and the purpose of this paper is to compare two new algorithms with the original algorithm. Test data to evaluate performance are created from weekly counts of the number of cases of each of more than 2000 diseases over a twenty-year period. The time series of each disease is separated into one series giving the baseline (background) disease incidence and a second series giving disease outbreaks. One series is shifted forward by twelve months and the two are then recombined, giving a realistic series in which it is known where outbreaks have been added. The metrics used to evaluate performance include a scoring rule that appropriately balances sensitivity against specificity and is sensitive to variation in probabilities near 1. In the context of disease surveillance, a scoring rule can be adapted to reflect the size of outbreaks and this was done. Results indicate that the two new algorithms are comparable to each other and better than the algorithm they were designed to replace. PMID:27513749

  16. An update of the Near-Earth Asteroid Tracking/Maui Space Surveillance System (NEAT/MSSS) collaboration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bambery, R. J.; Helin, E. F.; Pravdo, S. H.; Lawrence, K. J.; Hicks, M. D.

    2002-01-01

    Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL) Near-Earth Asteroid Tracking (NEAT) program has two simultaneously-operating, autonomous search systems on two geographically-separated 1.2-m telescopes; one at the Maui Space Surveillance System (NEAT/MSSS) and the other on the Palomar Observatory's Oschin telescope (NEAT/Palomar). This paper will focus exclusively on the NEAT/MSSS system.

  17. Establishing a nationwide emergency department-based syndromic surveillance system for better public health responses in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Tsung-Shu Joseph; Shih, Fuh-Yuan Frank; Yen, Muh-Yong; Wu, Jiunn-Shyan Julian; Lu, Shiou-Wen; Chang, Kevin Chi-Ming; Hsiung, Chao; Chou, Jr-How; Chu, Yu-Tseng; Chang, Hang; Chiu, Chan-Hsien; Tsui, Fu-Chiang Richard; Wagner, Michael M; Su, Ih-Jen; King, Chwan-Chuen

    2008-01-01

    Background With international concern over emerging infectious diseases (EID) and bioterrorist attacks, public health is being required to have early outbreak detection systems. A disease surveillance team was organized to establish a hospital emergency department-based syndromic surveillance system (ED-SSS) capable of automatically transmitting patient data electronically from the hospitals responsible for emergency care throughout the country to the Centers for Disease Control in Taiwan (Taiwan-CDC) starting March, 2004. This report describes the challenges and steps involved in developing ED-SSS and the timely information it provides to improve in public health decision-making. Methods Between June 2003 and March 2004, after comparing various surveillance systems used around the world and consulting with ED physicians, pediatricians and internal medicine physicians involved in infectious disease control, the Syndromic Surveillance Research Team in Taiwan worked with the Real-time Outbreak and Disease Surveillance (RODS) Laboratory at the University of Pittsburgh to create Taiwan's ED-SSS. The system was evaluated by analyzing daily electronic ED data received in real-time from the 189 hospitals participating in this system between April 1, 2004 and March 31, 2005. Results Taiwan's ED-SSS identified winter and summer spikes in two syndrome groups: influenza-like illnesses and respiratory syndrome illnesses, while total numbers of ED visits were significantly higher on weekends, national holidays and the days of Chinese lunar new year than weekdays (p < 0.001). It also identified increases in the upper, lower, and total gastrointestinal (GI) syndrome groups starting in November 2004 and two clear spikes in enterovirus-like infections coinciding with the two school semesters. Using ED-SSS for surveillance of influenza-like illnesses and enteroviruses-related infections has improved Taiwan's pandemic flu preparedness and disease control capabilities. Conclusion

  18. [The ideation of the Emilia-Romagna surveillance system for arbovirosis following the experience from the Chikungunya outbreak 2007].

    PubMed

    Angelini, Paola; Mattivi, Andrea; Cagarelli, Roberto; Bellini, Romeo; Finarelli, Alba Carola

    2014-01-01

    Since 2008 the Emilia-Romagna Regional public health authority activated a regional Plan for arbovirosis surveillance and control, focused on Chikungunya, Dengue and West Nile. The Plan integrates sanitary, entomological and veterinary surveillance allowing a prompt adoption of efficient measures, aiming at the prevention and reduction of arbovirosis transmission risk. Following the 2007 Chikungunya outbreak, no autochthonous Chikungunya or Dengue cases has been registered, while an increase of confirmed imported cases of Dengue and Chikungunya has been observed. The integrated surveillance system allowed a prompt, appropriate and efficient intervention in 98.2% of imported suspected cases. The humanWNND (West Nile Neuroinvasive Disease) surveillance reported confirmed cases in 2008, 2009 and then in 2013 and 2014. In all cases the entomological and ornithological surveillance detected WNV circulation well in advance respect to the appearance of the first human case. The integration of information provided by different surveillance sources allows to evaluate, even through the vector index (VI) calculation, the risk of transmission, to optimize preventive measures on blood, tissues and organs donation and to implement further measures of vector fight.

  19. Occlusion detection for highway traffic analysis with vision-based surveillance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoneyama, Akio; Yeh, Chia-Hung; Kuo, C.-C. Jay J.

    2003-08-01

    The vision-based traffic monitoring system provides an attractive solution in extracting various traffic parameters such as the count, speed, flow and concentration from the processing of video data captured by a camera system. The detection accuracy is however affected by various environment factors such as shadow, occlusion, and lighting. Among these, the occurrence of occlusion is one of the major problems. In this work, a new scheme is proposed to detect the occlusion and determine the exact location of each vehicle. The proposed algorithm is based on the matching of images from multiple cameras. In the proposed scheme, we do not need edge detection, region segmentation, and camera calibration operations, which often suffer from the variation of environmental conditions. Experimental results are given to verify that the proposed technique is effective for vision-based highway surveillance systems.

  20. Vehicular ad hoc network for a surveillance system using multifrequency band enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunruangses, Montree; Sunat, Khamron; Mitatha, Somsak; Yupapin, Preecha P.

    2010-09-01

    We present a new design of a surveillance system via a vehicular ad hoc network (VANET) integrated by a 3-G or 4-G cellular wireless network. We propose dense wavelength division multiplexing wavelength enhancement for increasing the channel capacity and signal security. Increase in the number of channels can be obtained by increasing the wavelength density. Signal security is introduced by a specific wavelength filter controlled by the central operator. Optical communication wavelength enhancement is reviewed. The advantage of this proposed system is that it can easily be implemented and incorporated into the existing communication link in either a cellular or ad hoc wireless system, where signal security and hence privacy can be provided.

  1. [Protocol and quality control for Chinese food and nutrition surveillance system in 1998 (1998 CFNSS)].

    PubMed

    He, W

    2000-09-01

    Establishment of Chinese Food and Nutrition Surveillance System is of great importance in providing information on food consumption behavior and nutrition status of the people which is essential for health, economic planning and agriculture development. Sampling of CFNSS is based on the 145 sites Disease Surveillance Point (DSP) System built by Ministry of Health, and in conjunction with the 600 sites Household Social Economic Survey System founded by State Statistics Bureau. According to indicator system developed by the Ministry of Health for stratification, strata of urban, general rural and less-developed rural were defined and 40 sites were randomly sampled as national sample. The CFNSS sample was the common sub-sample of DSP system and the SSB Household Survey System that makes sharing of information resources possible. The 40 sites are distributed in 26 Provinces/Municipalities/Autonomous Regions. All the sites information was collected on body weight and height of children under 6 years of age, and questionnaire covering the basic family information, feeding practice and disease, health conditions of the households were surveyed by interviews. Whole year food consumption data collected at the sampled households by SSB Urban Household Survey Team and Rural Household Survey Team in the previous year was provided. Comprehensive data analysis was done to formulate the information on the relationship of food, nutrition and health. The protocol, methodologies and principles for the survey are described. 5 sites of CFNSS were selected for quality evaluation on the anthropometric measurement and questionnaire interview. The body weight and length of 20 children of 3-5 years of age in each of 5 sites was measured again. The result showed that the completeness of questionnaires interview was 96%, the rate of logic error was zero. There was no significant difference between the results measured by supervisor and investigator and no significant error on repeated

  2. A new omni-directional multi-camera system for high resolution surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cogal, Omer; Akin, Abdulkadir; Seyid, Kerem; Popovic, Vladan; Schmid, Alexandre; Ott, Beat; Wellig, Peter; Leblebici, Yusuf

    2014-05-01

    Omni-directional high resolution surveillance has a wide application range in defense and security fields. Early systems used for this purpose are based on parabolic mirror or fisheye lens where distortion due to the nature of the optical elements cannot be avoided. Moreover, in such systems, the image resolution is limited to a single image sensor's image resolution. Recently, the Panoptic camera approach that mimics the eyes of flying insects using multiple imagers has been presented. This approach features a novel solution for constructing a spherically arranged wide FOV plenoptic imaging system where the omni-directional image quality is limited by low-end sensors. In this paper, an overview of current Panoptic camera designs is provided. New results for a very-high resolution visible spectrum imaging and recording system inspired from the Panoptic approach are presented. The GigaEye-1 system, with 44 single cameras and 22 FPGAs, is capable of recording omni-directional video in a 360°×100° FOV at 9.5 fps with a resolution over (17,700×4,650) pixels (82.3MP). Real-time video capturing capability is also verified at 30 fps for a resolution over (9,000×2,400) pixels (21.6MP). The next generation system with significantly higher resolution and real-time processing capacity, called GigaEye-2, is currently under development. The important capacity of GigaEye-1 opens the door to various post-processing techniques in surveillance domain such as large perimeter object tracking, very-high resolution depth map estimation and high dynamicrange imaging which are beyond standard stitching and panorama generation methods.

  3. A Web-Based, Hospital-Wide Health Care-Associated Bloodstream Infection Surveillance and Classification System: Development and Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Yi-Ju; Wu, Jung-Hsuan; Lin, Hui-Chi; Chen, Ming-Yuan; Ping, Xiao-Ou; Sun, Chun-Chuan; Shang, Rung-Ji; Sheng, Wang-Huei; Lai, Feipei; Chang, Shan-Chwen

    2015-01-01

    Background Surveillance of health care-associated infections is an essential component of infection prevention programs, but conventional systems are labor intensive and performance dependent. Objective To develop an automatic surveillance and classification system for health care-associated bloodstream infection (HABSI), and to evaluate its performance by comparing it with a conventional infection control personnel (ICP)-based surveillance system. Methods We developed a Web-based system that was integrated into the medical information system of a 2200-bed teaching hospital in Taiwan. The system automatically detects and classifies HABSIs. Results In this study, the number of computer-detected HABSIs correlated closely with the number of HABSIs detected by ICP by department (n=20; r=.999 P<.001) and by time (n=14; r=.941; P<.001). Compared with reference standards, this system performed excellently with regard to sensitivity (98.16%), specificity (99.96%), positive predictive value (95.81%), and negative predictive value (99.98%). The system enabled decreasing the delay in confirmation of HABSI cases, on average, by 29 days. Conclusions This system provides reliable and objective HABSI data for quality indicators, improving the delay caused by a conventional surveillance system. PMID:26392229

  4. Biomarkers: evaluation of clinical utility in surveillance and early diagnosis for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Song, Peipei; Tang, Qi; Feng, Xiaobin; Tang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common cancer and the second most common cause of death from cancer worldwide. Strategies to surveil and diagnose HCC in an earlier stage are urgently needed since this is when curable interventions can be offered to achieve long-term disease-free survival. Over the past few decades, research has suggested measuring alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) concentration and performing abdominal ultrasound (US) as part of routine surveillance of HCC every 6 months for high-risk patients, and many HCC guidelines worldwide have also recommended these examinations. Over the past 5 years, however, the role of serum biomarkers in HCC surveillance and diagnosis has diminished due to advances in imaging modalities. AFP was excluded from the surveillance and/or diagnostic criteria in the HCC guidelines published by some Western countries. In Asian countries, serum biomarkers such as AFP, the Lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive fraction of AFP (AFP-L3), and des-γ-carboxyprothrombin (DCP) are still recommended for HCC surveillance and are being used as an adjunctive diagnostic tool in accordance with HCC guidelines. Moreover, novel biomarkers including Dickkopf-1 (DKK1), midkine (MDK), and microRNA (miRNA) are being studied in this regard. China accounts for 50% of HCC cases worldwide, so identifying biomarkers of HCC is paramount. Recent studies have indicated the clinical utility of simultaneous measurement of AFP and DCP for the early detection of HCC in China. They are predominantly used for cases caused by HBV infection. Additional large-scale prospective studies should be conducted to establish the utility of these biomarkers. PMID:27438343

  5. Evaluation of the National Human Immunodeficiency Virus Surveillance System for the 2011 Diagnosis Year

    PubMed Central

    Karch, Debra L.; Chen, Mi; Tang, Tian

    2015-01-01

    Context In 2009, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention completed migration of all 59 surveillance project areas (PAs) from the case-based HIV/AIDS Reporting System to the document-based Enhanced HIV/AIDS Reporting System. Objectives We conducted a PA-level assessment of Enhanced HIV/AIDS Reporting System process and outcome standards for HIV infection cases. Design Process standards were reported by PAs and outcome standards were calculated using standardized Centers for Disease Control and Prevention SAS code. Setting A total of 59 PAs including 50 US states, the District of Columbia, 6 separately funded cities (Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles County, New York City, Philadelphia, and San Francisco), and 2 territories (Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands). Participants Cases diagnosed or reported to the PA surveillance system between January 1, 2011, and December 31, 2011, using data collected through December 2012. Main Outcome Measures Process standards for death ascertainment and intra- and interstate case de-duplication; outcome standards for completeness and timeliness of case reporting, data quality, intrastate duplication rate, risk factor ascertainment, and completeness of initial CD4 and viral load reporting. Results Fifty-five of 59 PAs (93%) reported linking cases to state vital records death certificates during 2012, 76% to the Social Security Death Master File, and 59% to the National Death Index. Seventy percent completed monthly intrastate, and 63% completed semiannual interstate de-duplication. Eighty-three percent met the 85% or more case ascertainment standard, and 92% met the 66% or more timeliness standard; 75% met the 97% or more data quality standard; all PAs met the 5% or less intrastate duplication rate; 41% met the 85% or more risk factor ascertainment standard; 90% met the 50% or more standard for initial CD4; and 93% met the same standard for viral load reporting. Overall, 7% of PAs met all 11 process and outcome standards

  6. Detection and Tracking of Dynamic Objects by Using a Multirobot System: Application to Critical Infrastructures Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Canosa, Gonzalo; Giner, Jaime del Cerro; Barrientos, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The detection and tracking of mobile objects (DATMO) is progressively gaining importance for security and surveillance applications. This article proposes a set of new algorithms and procedures for detecting and tracking mobile objects by robots that work collaboratively as part of a multirobot system. These surveillance algorithms are conceived of to work with data provided by long distance range sensors and are intended for highly reliable object detection in wide outdoor environments. Contrary to most common approaches, in which detection and tracking are done by an integrated procedure, the approach proposed here relies on a modular structure, in which detection and tracking are carried out independently, and the latter might accept input data from different detection algorithms. Two movement detection algorithms have been developed for the detection of dynamic objects by using both static and/or mobile robots. The solution to the overall problem is based on the use of a Kalman filter to predict the next state of each tracked object. Additionally, new tracking algorithms capable of combining dynamic objects lists coming from either one or various sources complete the solution. The complementary performance of the separated modular structure for detection and identification is evaluated and, finally, a selection of test examples discussed. PMID:24526305

  7. Combining Google Earth and GIS mapping technologies in a dengue surveillance system for developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Aileen Y; Parrales, Maria E; Jimenez, Javier; Sobieszczyk, Magdalena E; Hammer, Scott M; Copenhaver, David J; Kulkarni, Rajan P

    2009-01-01

    Background Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne illness that places significant burden on tropical developing countries with unplanned urbanization. A surveillance system using Google Earth and GIS mapping technologies was developed in Nicaragua as a management tool. Methods and Results Satellite imagery of the town of Bluefields, Nicaragua captured from Google Earth was used to create a base-map in ArcGIS 9. Indices of larval infestation, locations of tire dumps, cemeteries, large areas of standing water, etc. that may act as larval development sites, and locations of the homes of dengue cases collected during routine epidemiologic surveying were overlaid onto this map. Visual imagery of the location of dengue cases, larval infestation, and locations of potential larval development sites were used by dengue control specialists to prioritize specific neighborhoods for targeted control interventions. Conclusion This dengue surveillance program allows public health workers in resource-limited settings to accurately identify areas with high indices of mosquito infestation and interpret the spatial relationship of these areas with potential larval development sites such as garbage piles and large pools of standing water. As a result, it is possible to prioritize control strategies and to target interventions to highest risk areas in order to eliminate the likely origin of the mosquito vector. This program is well-suited for resource-limited settings since it utilizes readily available technologies that do not rely on Internet access for daily use and can easily be implemented in many developing countries for very little cost. PMID:19627614

  8. Social determinants and risk factors for tuberculosis in national surveillance systems in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Hovhannesyan, A.

    2015-01-01

    Setting: National tuberculosis programmes (NTPs) of the 53 Member States of the World Health Organization (WHO) European Region. Objectives: To identify the social determinants and underlying risk factors for tuberculosis (TB) as routinely monitored by NTPs and to identify those feasible and appropriate to be included in the annual reporting to the joint European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) WHO reporting platform. Design: A semi-structured questionnaire sent to 53 national TB surveillance correspondents. Results: A total of 47 countries submitted questionnaires; most of the countries collect a number of social determinants and risk factors that are not requested for reporting to the Joint ECDC-WHO Reporting Platform. Occupation/employment, homelessness, diabetes mellitus and use of alcohol are collected by the majority of countries, but without standardised definitions. Conclusions: Four social determinants/risk factors are already included in the national TB surveillance systems of the majority of countries and could be incorporated in the annual reporting to the Joint ECDC/WHO Reporting Platform. Standardised epidemiological case definitions need to be adopted. PMID:26399291

  9. Monitoring the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines into West Africa: design and implementation of a population-based surveillance system.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, Grant A; Plumb, Ian D; Sambou, Sana; Saha, Debasish; Uchendu, Uchendu; Akinsola, Bolanle; Ikumapayi, Usman N; Baldeh, Ignatius; Usuf, Effua; Touray, Kebba; Jasseh, Momodou; Howie, Stephen R C; Wattiaux, Andre; Lee, Ellen; Knoll, Maria Deloria; Levine, Orin S; Greenwood, Brian M; Adegbola, Richard A; Hill, Philip C

    2012-01-01

    Routine use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) in developing countries is expected to lead to a significant reduction in childhood deaths. However, PCVs have been associated with replacement disease with non-vaccine serotypes. We established a population-based surveillance system to document the direct and indirect impact of PCVs on the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and radiological pneumonia in those aged 2 months and older in The Gambia, and to monitor changes in serotype-specific IPD. Here we describe how this surveillance system was set up and is being operated as a partnership between the Medical Research Council Unit and the Gambian Government. This surveillance system is expected to provide crucial information for immunisation policy and serves as a potential model for those introducing routine PCV vaccination in diverse settings.

  10. Thermal surveillance of volcanoes of the Cascade Range and Iceland utilizing ERTS DCP systems and imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, J. D. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Significant results of the thermal surveillance of volcanoes experiment during 1972 included the design, construction, emplacement, and successful operation at volcanic sites in the Cascade Range, North America and on Surtsey, Iceland, of automated thermistor arrays which transmit ground and fumarole temperatures via the ERTS-1 data communication system to Goddard Space Flight Center. Temperature, radiance, and anomalous heat flow variations are being plotted by a U.S. Geological Survey IBM 360/65 computer program to show daily fluctuations at each of the sites. Results are being compiled in conjunction with NASA and USGS aircraft infrared survey data to provide thermal energy yield estimates during the current repose period of several Cascade Range volcanic systems. ERTS-1 MSS images have provided new information on the extent of structural elements controlling thermal emission at Lassen Volcanic National Park.

  11. Intelligent Surveillance System Design Based on Independent Component Analysis and Wireless Sensor Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Long; Ogawa, Masatoshi; Kigawa, Youichi; Ogai, Harutoshi

    This paper explores the development of a real time intelligent surveillance system using the technology of pattern recognition based on independent component analysis (ICA) and a novel matching method as a reaction to perceptions of insecurity in sensitive spaces. An array of motion images of people are caught by micro digital cameras on board and transferred through wireless network to FPGA board. The feature points of the shot image and the image in database are extracted out using ICA algorithm in embedded PowerPC. The most similar images are picked up from the image database, which is classified to different clusters, and the potential insecurity level of invaders is detected. Furthermore the respective locations are connected by wireless network. The system of hardware and software co-design is implemented on Xilinx FPGA with the performance of high efficiency, low power consumption and easy integration with other devices.

  12. Towards an intelligent decision support system for public health surveillance - a qualitative analysis of information needs.

    PubMed

    Mera, Maritza; González, Carolina; López, Diego M

    2014-01-01

    Public health information systems are often implemented considering the functionalities and requirements established by administrative staff or researchers, but sometimes ignoring the particular needs of decision makers. This paper describes a proposal to support the design of a Decision Support System for Public Health Surveillance in Colombia, by conducting a qualitative study to identify the real needs of people involved in decision making processes. Based on the study results, an intelligent computational component that supports Data Analysis Automation, Prediction of future scenarios and the identification of new Behavioral Patterns is proposed. The component will be implemented using the Case Based Reasoning methodology, which will be integrated as a new component of the Open Source DHIS2 Platform, enabling public health decision-making.

  13. Environmental surveillance for polioviruses in the Global Polio Eradication Initiative.

    PubMed

    Asghar, Humayun; Diop, Ousmane M; Weldegebriel, Goitom; Malik, Farzana; Shetty, Sushmitha; El Bassioni, Laila; Akande, Adefunke O; Al Maamoun, Eman; Zaidi, Sohail; Adeniji, Adekunle J; Burns, Cara C; Deshpande, Jagadish; Oberste, M Steve; Lowther, Sara A

    2014-11-01

    This article summarizes the status of environmental surveillance (ES) used by the Global Polio Eradication Initiative, provides the rationale for ES, gives examples of ES methods and findings, and summarizes how these data are used to achieve poliovirus eradication. ES complements clinical acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance for possible polio cases. ES detects poliovirus circulation in environmental sewage and is used to monitor transmission in communities. If detected, the genetic sequences of polioviruses isolated from ES are compared with those of isolates from clinical cases to evaluate the relationships among viruses. To evaluate poliovirus transmission, ES programs must be developed in a manner that is sensitive, with sufficiently frequent sampling, appropriate isolation methods, and specifically targeted sampling sites in locations at highest risk for poliovirus transmission. After poliovirus ceased to be detected in human cases, ES documented the absence of endemic WPV transmission and detected imported WPV. ES provides valuable information, particularly in high-density populations where AFP surveillance is of poor quality, persistent virus circulation is suspected, or frequent virus reintroduction is perceived. Given the benefits of ES, GPEI plans to continue and expand ES as part of its strategic plan and as a supplement to AFP surveillance.

  14. The Validity of Injury Surveillance System Measures of Assault: A Lesson from the Study of Violence in Alaska

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Darryl S.

    2010-01-01

    This article considers the validity of estimates of intentional violence using a statewide injury recording system: the Alaska Trauma Registry (ATR). One benefit of using data from an injury surveillance system is that its records are generated without police involvement, thereby reducing the likelihood of undercounting. However, there is reason…

  15. Two New Real-Time PCR-based Surveillance Systems for “Candidatus Liberibacter” Species Detection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We developed two novel surveillance systems for “Candidatus Liberibacter” (CL) species detection and identification. The first system is called “single tube dual primer Taq-Man PCR” (STDP). The procedure involves two sequential rounds of PCR using the CL asiaticus species-specific outer and inner pr...

  16. Enhanced communication and coordination in the public health surveillance component of the Cincinnati Drinking Water Contamination Warning System.

    PubMed

    Dangel, Chrissy; Allgeier, Steven C; Gibbons, Darcy; Haas, Adam; Simon, Katie

    2012-03-01

    Effective communication and coordination are critical when investigating a possible drinking water contamination incident. A contamination warning system is designed to detect water contamination by initiating a coordinated, effective response to mitigate significant public health and economic consequences. This article describes historical communication barriers during water contamination incidents and discusses how these barriers were overcome through the public health surveillance component of the Cincinnati Drinking Water Contamination Warning System, referred to as the "Cincinnati Pilot." By enhancing partnerships in the public health surveillance component of the Cincinnati Pilot, information silos that existed in each organization were replaced with interagency information depots that facilitated effective decision making.

  17. Sexually Transmitted Diseases Surveillance, 2012: Gonorrhea

    MedlinePlus

    ... and 44.1% among women. Gonococcal Isolate Surveillance Project Antimicrobial resistance remains an important consideration in the ... 4–9 In 1986, the Gonococcal Isolate Surveillance Project (GISP), a national sentinel surveillance system, was established ...

  18. Autonomous surveillance for biosecurity.

    PubMed

    Jurdak, Raja; Elfes, Alberto; Kusy, Branislav; Tews, Ashley; Hu, Wen; Hernandez, Emili; Kottege, Navinda; Sikka, Pavan

    2015-04-01

    The global movement of people and goods has increased the risk of biosecurity threats and their potential to incur large economic, social, and environmental costs. Conventional manual biosecurity surveillance methods are limited by their scalability in space and time. This article focuses on autonomous surveillance systems, comprising sensor networks, robots, and intelligent algorithms, and their applicability to biosecurity threats. We discuss the spatial and temporal attributes of autonomous surveillance technologies and map them to three broad categories of biosecurity threat: (i) vector-borne diseases; (ii) plant pests; and (iii) aquatic pests. Our discussion reveals a broad range of opportunities to serve biosecurity needs through autonomous surveillance.

  19. Autonomous surveillance for biosecurity.

    PubMed

    Jurdak, Raja; Elfes, Alberto; Kusy, Branislav; Tews, Ashley; Hu, Wen; Hernandez, Emili; Kottege, Navinda; Sikka, Pavan

    2015-04-01

    The global movement of people and goods has increased the risk of biosecurity threats and their potential to incur large economic, social, and environmental costs. Conventional manual biosecurity surveillance methods are limited by their scalability in space and time. This article focuses on autonomous surveillance systems, comprising sensor networks, robots, and intelligent algorithms, and their applicability to biosecurity threats. We discuss the spatial and temporal attributes of autonomous surveillance technologies and map them to three broad categories of biosecurity threat: (i) vector-borne diseases; (ii) plant pests; and (iii) aquatic pests. Our discussion reveals a broad range of opportunities to serve biosecurity needs through autonomous surveillance. PMID:25744760

  20. Insurance claims data: a possible solution for a national sports injury surveillance system? An evaluation of data information against ASIDD and consensus statements on sports injury surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Åman, Malin; Forssblad, Magnus; Henriksson-Larsén, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Background Before preventive actions can be suggested for sports injuries at the national level, a solid surveillance system is required in order to study their epidemiology, risk factors and mechanisms. There are guidelines for sports injury data collection and classifications in the literature for that purpose. In Sweden, 90% of all athletes (57/70 sports federations) are insured with the same insurance company and data from their database could be a foundation for studies on acute sports injuries at the national level. Objective To evaluate the usefulness of sports injury insurance claims data in sports injury surveillance at the national level. Method A database with 27 947 injuries was exported to an Excel file. Access to the corresponding text files was also obtained. Data were reviewed on available information, missing information and dropouts. Comparison with ASIDD (Australian Sports Injury Data Dictionary) and existing consensus statements in the literature (football (soccer), rugby union, tennis, cricket and thoroughbred horse racing) was performed in a structured manner. Result Comparison with ASIDD showed that 93% of the suggested data items were present in the database to at least some extent. Compliance with the consensus statements was generally high (13/18). Almost all claims (83%) contained text information concerning the injury. Conclusions Relatively high-quality sports injury data can be obtained from a specific insurance company at the national level in Sweden. The database has the potential to be a solid base for research on acute sports injuries in different sports at the national level. PMID:24928588

  1. Implementation of a Dual Containment/Surveillance System utilizing scene-change detection and radio frequency technology

    SciTech Connect

    FITZGERALD, ERIC; KOENIG, RICHARD

    2005-06-27

    This paper will examine the implementation of scene-change detection and radio frequency technology within a Dual Containment/Surveillance (C/S) System. Additionally, this paper will examine the human performance factors in the operation of these systems. Currently, Westinghouse Savannah River Company utilizes the Continuous Item Monitoring and Surveillance System (CIMS) in the performance of Dual C/S to monitor special nuclear materials within International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safeguards and Domestic Safeguards. CIMS is comprised of the Material Monitoring System (MMS) (R), a multi-media electronic surveillance system developed by Sandia National Laboratory which incorporates the use of active seals commonly called Radio Frequency Tamper Indicating Devices (RFTIDs), NT Vision (R) as developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory, a Microsoft Windows NT (R) based operating system providing for domestic scene-change detection and the Digital Multi-Camera Optical Surveillance System (DMOS) (R) which provides scene-change detection for IAEA. Although this paper will focus on the implementation of Dual C/S utilizing the Continuous Item Monitoring and Surveillance System, the necessity for a thorough review of Safeguards and Security requirements with organizations and personnel having minimal to no prior MPC&A training will also be covered. Successful Dual C/S implementation plans must consider not only system design and failure modes, but must also be accompanied with the appropriate ''mind shift'' within operations and technical personnel. This is required to ensure completion of both physical and electronic activities, and system design changes are performed conscientiously and with full awareness of MPC&A requirements.

  2. Determination of the expression of fish antifreeze protein (AFP) in 7th generation transgenic mice tissues and serum.

    PubMed

    Bagis, Haydar; Tas, Arzu; Kankavi, Orhan

    2008-06-01

    In this study, the presence of antifreeze protein (AFP) gene expression through successive generations in transgenic mice carrying the chimeric gene construct of the coding sequence for the AFP protein from ocean pout was investigated. AFP transgenic hemizygote mice were used for AFP gene expression. AFP genome expressions in transgenic mice were analyzed by Western blotting, and tissue location of AFP protein was shown by immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence techniques. Seventh transgenic mice from the established founders demonstrated the expression of AFP in organs such as the skin, oviduct, lung, kidney and liver tissues and serum except for the heart. Our results demonstrate successful expression of AFP gene products in several tissues and serum of transgenic mice, the association of in vivo expressed AFP protein, for the first time. These results indicate that the coding sequence for the AFP protein gene (ocean pout type III AFP gene) could be integrated and stably transcribed and expressed in the 7th generation of transgenic mice. In conclusion transgenic mouse lines would be a good model for the cryostudy of AFP and for the determination of AFP roles in several organs and tissues.

  3. Establishing a web-based integrated surveillance system for early detection of infectious disease epidemic in rural China: a field experimental study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A crucial goal of infectious disease surveillance is the early detection of epidemics, which is essential for disease control. In China, the current surveillance system is based on confirmed case reports. In rural China, it is not practical for health units to perform laboratory tests to confirm disease and people are more likely to get 'old' and emerging infectious diseases due to poor living conditions and closer contacts with wild animals and poultry. Syndromic surveillance, which collects non-specific syndromes before diagnosis, has great advantages in promoting the early detection of epidemics and reducing the necessities of disease confirmation. It will be especially effective for surveillance in resource poor settings. Methods/Design This is a field experimental study. The experimental tool is an innovative electronic surveillance system, combining syndromic surveillance with the existing case report surveillance in four selected counties in China. In the added syndromic surveillance, three types of data are collected including patients' major symptoms from health clinics, pharmaceutical sales from pharmacies and absenteeism information from primary school. In order to evaluate the early warning capability of the new added syndromic surveillance, the timelines and validity of the alert signals will be analyzed in comparison with the traditional case reporting system. The acceptability, feasibility and economic evaluation of the whole integrated surveillance system will be conducted in a before and after study design. Discussions Although syndromic surveillance system has mostly been established in developed areas, there are opportunities and advantages of developing it in rural China. The project will contribute to knowledge, experience and evidence on the establishment of an integrated surveillance system, which aims to provide early warning of disease epidemics in developing countries. PMID:22305256

  4. Development and piloting of an exposure database and surveillance system for DOE cleanup operations. Department of Energy.

    PubMed

    LaMontagne, Anthony D; Van Dyke, Michael V; Martyny, John W; Simpson, Mark W; Holwager, Lee Ann; Clausen, Bret M; Ruttenber, A James

    2002-01-01

    An industrial hygiene exposure database and surveillance system was developed in partnership between National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)-funded independent investigators and practicing industrial hygienists at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) in Golden, Colo. RFETS is a former U.S. Department of Energy nuclear weapons plant that is now in cleanup phase. This project is presented as a case study in the development of an exposure database and surveillance system in terms that are generalizable to most other industries and work contexts. Steps include gaining organizational support; defining system purpose and scope; defining database elements and coding; planning practical and efficient analysis strategies; incorporating reporting capabilities; and anticipating communication strategies that maximize the probability that surveillance findings will feed back to preventive applications. For each of these topics, the authors describe both general considerations as well as the specific choices made for this system. An important feature of the system is a two-tier task-coding scheme comprising 33 categories of task groups. Examples of grouped analyses of exposure data captured during the system pilot period demonstrate applications to exposure control, medical surveillance, and other preventive measures. PMID:11975659

  5. Development and piloting of an exposure database and surveillance system for DOE cleanup operations. Department of Energy.

    PubMed

    LaMontagne, Anthony D; Van Dyke, Michael V; Martyny, John W; Simpson, Mark W; Holwager, Lee Ann; Clausen, Bret M; Ruttenber, A James

    2002-01-01

    An industrial hygiene exposure database and surveillance system was developed in partnership between National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)-funded independent investigators and practicing industrial hygienists at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) in Golden, Colo. RFETS is a former U.S. Department of Energy nuclear weapons plant that is now in cleanup phase. This project is presented as a case study in the development of an exposure database and surveillance system in terms that are generalizable to most other industries and work contexts. Steps include gaining organizational support; defining system purpose and scope; defining database elements and coding; planning practical and efficient analysis strategies; incorporating reporting capabilities; and anticipating communication strategies that maximize the probability that surveillance findings will feed back to preventive applications. For each of these topics, the authors describe both general considerations as well as the specific choices made for this system. An important feature of the system is a two-tier task-coding scheme comprising 33 categories of task groups. Examples of grouped analyses of exposure data captured during the system pilot period demonstrate applications to exposure control, medical surveillance, and other preventive measures.

  6. Object Occlusion Detection Using Automatic Camera Calibration for a Wide-Area Video Surveillance System.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jaehoon; Yoon, Inhye; Paik, Joonki

    2016-06-25

    This paper presents an object occlusion detection algorithm using object depth information that is estimated by automatic camera calibration. The object occlusion problem is a major factor to degrade the performance of object tracking and recognition. To detect an object occlusion, the proposed algorithm consists of three steps: (i) automatic camera calibration using both moving objects and a background structure; (ii) object depth estimation; and (iii) detection of occluded regions. The proposed algorithm estimates the depth of the object without extra sensors but with a generic red, green and blue (RGB) camera. As a result, the proposed algorithm can be applied to improve the performance of object tracking and object recognition algorithms for video surveillance systems.

  7. The anatomical and cellular basis of immune surveillance in the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Ransohoff, Richard M; Engelhardt, Britta

    2012-09-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) comprises the brain, spinal cord, optic nerves and retina, and contains post-mitotic, delicate cells. As the rigid coverings of the CNS render swelling dangerous and destructive, inflammatory reactions must be carefully controlled in CNS tissues. Nevertheless, effector immune responses that protect the host during CNS infection still occur in the CNS. Here, we describe the anatomical and cellular basis of immune surveillance in the CNS, and explain how this shapes the unique immunology of these tissues. The Review focuses principally on insights gained from the study of autoimmune responses in the CNS and to a lesser extent on models of infectious disease. Furthermore, we propose a new model to explain how antigen-specific T cell responses occur in the CNS.

  8. The classification of AIDS cases: concordance between two AIDS surveillance systems in Italy.

    PubMed Central

    Serraino, D; Franceschi, S; Dal Maso, L; Lepri, A C; Tirelli, U; Rezza, G

    1995-01-01

    This study assessed the concordance between the transmission classification of 725 acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) cases by the Italian AIDS Registry (the national surveillance system) and the classification of the same cases by the Italian Cooperative Group on AIDS-Related Tumors. A high degree of concordance emerged for intravenous drug users in both sexes (kappa = 0.88; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.84, 0.92), for homosexual men (kappa = 0.83; 95% CI = 0.79, 0.87), and for persons infected through contaminated blood or blood derivatives (kappa = 1.00). The concordance was lower among heterosexual men (kappa = 0.51; 95% CI = 0.37, 0.65) and especially among men whose risk group was not determined (kappa = 0.28; 95% CI = 0.12, 0.44). The discrepancies observed among heterosexual men indicate a need for continuing and accurate monitoring of AIDS reporting by transmission category. PMID:7625506

  9. Australia's notifiable disease status, 2010: annual report of the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System.

    PubMed

    Milton, Alison; Stirzaker, Stefan; Trungove, Mark; Knuckey, Dougald; Martin, Nicolee; Hastie, Chris; Pennington, Kate; Sloan-Gardner, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Gerard; Knope, Katrina; Martinek, Samantha; Mills, Lucas; Barry, Christina; Wright, Phil; Power, Mark

    2012-03-01

    In 2010, 65 diseases and conditions were nationally notifiable in Australia. States and territories reported a total of 209,079 notifications of communicable diseases to the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System, a decrease of 12% on the number of notifications in 2009. This decrease was largely due to a reduction of influenza compared with the influenza A(H1N1) pandemic 2009. In 2010, the most frequently notified diseases were sexually transmissible infections (86,620 notifications, 41.4% of total notifications), vaccine preventable diseases (61,964 notifications, 29.6% of total notifications), and gastrointestinal diseases (31,548 notifications, 15.1% of total notifications). There were 18,302 notifications of bloodborne diseases; 8,244 notifications of vectorborne diseases; 1,866 notifications of other bacterial infections; 532 notifications of zoonoses and 3 notifications of quarantinable diseases. PMID:23153082

  10. Object Occlusion Detection Using Automatic Camera Calibration for a Wide-Area Video Surveillance System

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jaehoon; Yoon, Inhye; Paik, Joonki

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an object occlusion detection algorithm using object depth information that is estimated by automatic camera calibration. The object occlusion problem is a major factor to degrade the performance of object tracking and recognition. To detect an object occlusion, the proposed algorithm consists of three steps: (i) automatic camera calibration using both moving objects and a background structure; (ii) object depth estimation; and (iii) detection of occluded regions. The proposed algorithm estimates the depth of the object without extra sensors but with a generic red, green and blue (RGB) camera. As a result, the proposed algorithm can be applied to improve the performance of object tracking and object recognition algorithms for video surveillance systems. PMID:27347978

  11. Surveillance system and method having parameter estimation and operating mode partitioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bickford, Randall L. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A system and method for monitoring an apparatus or process asset including creating a process model comprised of a plurality of process submodels each correlative to at least one training data subset partitioned from an unpartitioned training data set and each having an operating mode associated thereto; acquiring a set of observed signal data values from the asset; determining an operating mode of the asset for the set of observed signal data values; selecting a process submodel from the process model as a function of the determined operating mode of the asset; calculating a set of estimated signal data values from the selected process submodel for the determined operating mode; and determining asset status as a function of the calculated set of estimated signal data values for providing asset surveillance and/or control.

  12. Surveillance system and method having parameter estimation and operating mode partitioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bickford, Randall L. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A system and method for monitoring an apparatus or process asset including partitioning an unpartitioned training data set into a plurality of training data subsets each having an operating mode associated thereto; creating a process model comprised of a plurality of process submodels each trained as a function of at least one of the training data subsets; acquiring a current set of observed signal data values from the asset; determining an operating mode of the asset for the current set of observed signal data values; selecting a process submodel from the process model as a function of the determined operating mode of the asset; calculating a current set of estimated signal data values from the selected process submodel for the determined operating mode; and outputting the calculated current set of estimated signal data values for providing asset surveillance and/or control.

  13. A blind signal separation method for single-channel electromagnetic surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Lihui; Qi, Zhilong; Li, Shuai; Tang, Bin

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, a blind signal separation (BSS) methodology for simultaneously received multisystem frequency-overlapped signals in a single-channel (SC) electromagnetic surveillance system is proposed using fast independent component analysis (FastICA) in a dynamical embedding (DE) framework. Firstly, an appropriate DE matrix is constructed out of a series of delay vectors from the SC recording. The lag-time and the dimensional of embedding matrix setting principal are introduced in details. Next, multiple independent components (ICs) are calculated by decomposing the embedding matrix through FastICA algorithm, and ICs can be regarded as a convenient expansion basis of the original signals. Then, these ICs are projected back into the measurement space. After that, these projected ICs are classified and used for recovering the sources of interest based on their independent nature and their power density spectrum. Numerical simulation results obtained in evaluating the proposed methodology's performance confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  14. Object Occlusion Detection Using Automatic Camera Calibration for a Wide-Area Video Surveillance System.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jaehoon; Yoon, Inhye; Paik, Joonki

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an object occlusion detection algorithm using object depth information that is estimated by automatic camera calibration. The object occlusion problem is a major factor to degrade the performance of object tracking and recognition. To detect an object occlusion, the proposed algorithm consists of three steps: (i) automatic camera calibration using both moving objects and a background structure; (ii) object depth estimation; and (iii) detection of occluded regions. The proposed algorithm estimates the depth of the object without extra sensors but with a generic red, green and blue (RGB) camera. As a result, the proposed algorithm can be applied to improve the performance of object tracking and object recognition algorithms for video surveillance systems. PMID:27347978

  15. A Methodological Approach to Small Area Estimation for the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System.

    PubMed

    Pierannunzi, Carol; Xu, Fang; Wallace, Robyn C; Garvin, William; Greenlund, Kurt J; Bartoli, William; Ford, Derek; Eke, Paul; Town, G Machell

    2016-07-14

    Public health researchers have used a class of statistical methods to calculate prevalence estimates for small geographic areas with few direct observations. Many researchers have used Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data as a basis for their models. The aims of this study were to 1) describe a new BRFSS small area estimation (SAE) method and 2) investigate the internal and external validity of the BRFSS SAEs it produced. The BRFSS SAE method uses 4 data sets (the BRFSS, the American Community Survey Public Use Microdata Sample, Nielsen Claritas population totals, and the Missouri Census Geographic Equivalency File) to build a single weighted data set. Our findings indicate that internal and external validity tests were successful across many estimates. The BRFSS SAE method is one of several methods that can be used to produce reliable prevalence estimates in small geographic areas.

  16. A Methodological Approach to Small Area Estimation for the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Fang; Wallace, Robyn C.; Garvin, William; Greenlund, Kurt J.; Bartoli, William; Ford, Derek; Eke, Paul; Town, G. Machell

    2016-01-01

    Public health researchers have used a class of statistical methods to calculate prevalence estimates for small geographic areas with few direct observations. Many researchers have used Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data as a basis for their models. The aims of this study were to 1) describe a new BRFSS small area estimation (SAE) method and 2) investigate the internal and external validity of the BRFSS SAEs it produced. The BRFSS SAE method uses 4 data sets (the BRFSS, the American Community Survey Public Use Microdata Sample, Nielsen Claritas population totals, and the Missouri Census Geographic Equivalency File) to build a single weighted data set. Our findings indicate that internal and external validity tests were successful across many estimates. The BRFSS SAE method is one of several methods that can be used to produce reliable prevalence estimates in small geographic areas. PMID:27418213

  17. The Antifungal Plant Defensin HsAFP1 from Heuchera sanguinea Induces Apoptosis in Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Aerts, An M.; Bammens, Leen; Govaert, Gilmer; Carmona-Gutierrez, Didac; Madeo, Frank; Cammue, Bruno P. A.; Thevissen, Karin

    2011-01-01

    Plant defensins are active against plant and human pathogenic fungi (such as Candida albicans) and baker's yeast. However, they are non-toxic to human cells, providing a possible source for treatment of fungal infections. In this study, we characterized the mode of action of the antifungal plant defensin HsAFP1 from coral bells by screening the Saccharomyces cerevisiae deletion mutant library for mutants with altered HsAFP1 sensitivity and verified the obtained genetic data by biochemical assays in S. cerevisiae and C. albicans. We identified 84 genes, which when deleted conferred at least fourfold hypersensitivity or resistance to HsAFP1. A considerable part of these genes were found to be implicated in mitochondrial functionality. In line, sodium azide, which blocks the respiratory electron transport chain, antagonized HsAFP1 antifungal activity, suggesting that a functional respiratory chain is indispensable for HsAFP1 antifungal action. Since mitochondria are the main source of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), we investigated the ROS-inducing nature of HsAFP1. We showed that HsAFP1 treatment of C. albicans resulted in ROS accumulation. As ROS accumulation is one of the phenotypic markers of apoptosis in yeast, we could further demonstrate that HsAFP1 induced apoptosis in C. albicans. These data provide novel mechanistic insights in the mode of action of a plant defensin. PMID:21993350

  18. Surveillance of a Ventilated Rack System for Corynebacterium bovis by Sampling Exhaust-Air Manifolds

    PubMed Central

    Manuel, Christopher A; Pugazhenthi, Umarani; Leszczynski, Jori K

    2016-01-01

    Corynebacterium bovis causes an opportunistic infection of nude (Foxn1, nu/nu) mice, leading to nude mouse hyperkeratotic dermatitis (scaly skin disease). Enzootic in many nude mouse colonies, C. bovis spreads rapidly to naive nude mice, despite modern husbandry practices, and is very difficult to eradicate. To facilitate rapid detection in support of eradication efforts, we investigated a surveillance method based on quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) evaluation of swabs collected from the horizontal exhaust manifold (HEM) of an IVC rack system. We first evaluated the efficacy of rack sanitation methods for removing C. bovis DNA from the HEM of racks housing endemic colonies of infected nude mice. Pressurized water used to flush the racks’ air exhaust system followed by a standard rack-washer cycle was ineffective in eliminating C. bovis DNA. Only after autoclaving did all sanitized racks test negative for C. bovis DNA. We then measured the effects of stage of infection (early or established), cage density, and cage location on the rack on time-to-detection at the HEM. Stage of infection significantly affected time-to-detection, independent of cage location. Early infections required 7.3 ± 1.2 d whereas established infections required 1 ± 0 d for detection of C. bovis at the HEM. Cage density influenced the quantity of C. bovis DNA detected but not time-to-detection. The location of the cage on the rack affected the time-to-detection only during early C. bovis infections. We suggest that qPCR swabs of HEM are useful during the routine surveillance of nude mouse colonies for C. bovis infection. PMID:26817981

  19. Australia's notifiable diseases status, 2001: annual report of the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System.

    PubMed

    Blumer, Charlie; Roche, Paul; Spencer, Jenean; Lin, Ming; Milton, Alison; Bunn, Chris; Gidding, Heather; Kaldor, John; Kirk, Martyn; Hall, Rob; Della-Porta, Tony; Leader, Robyn; Wright, Phil

    2003-01-01

    In 2001 there were 104,187 notifications of communicable diseases in Australia reported to the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS). The number of notifications in 2001 was an increase of 16 per cent of those reported in 2000 (89,740) and the largest annual total since the NNDSS commenced in 1991. In 2001, nine new diseases were added to the list of diseases reported to NNDSS and four diseases were removed. The new diseases were cryptosporidiosis, laboratory-confirmed influenza, invasive pneumococcal disease, Japanese encephalitis, Kunjin virus infection, Murray Valley encephalitis virus infection, anthrax, Australian bat lyssavirus, and other lyssaviruses (not elsewhere classified). Bloodborne virus infections remained the most frequently notified disease (29,057 reports, 27.9% of total), followed by sexually transmitted infections (27,647, 26.5%), gastrointestinal diseases (26,086, 25%), vaccine preventable diseases (13,030 (12.5%), vectorborne diseases (5,294, 5.1%), other bacterial infections (1,978, 1.9%), zoonotic infections (1,091, 1%) and four cases of quarantinable diseases. In 2001 there were increases in the number of notifications of incident hepatitis C, chlamydial infections, pertussis, Barmah Forest virus infection and ornithosis. There were decreases in the number of notifications of hepatitis A, Haemophilus influenzae type b infections, measles, rubella, Ross River virus infections and brucellosis. This report also summarises data on communicable diseases from other surveillance systems including the Laboratory Virology and Serology Reporting Scheme and sentinel general practitioner schemes. In addition, this report comments on other important developments in communicable disease control in Australia in 2001. PMID:12725505

  20. Syndromic Surveillance System for Korea-US Joint Biosurveillance Portal: Design and Lessons Learned.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Chulwoo; Burkom, Howard; Yoon, Chang-Gyo; Stewart, Miles; Elbert, Yevgeniy; Katz, Aaron; Tak, Sangwoo

    2016-01-01

    Driven by the growing importance of situational awareness of bioterrorism threats, the Republic of Korea (ROK) and the United States have constructed a joint military capability, called the Biosurveillance Portal (BSP), to enhance biosecurity. As one component of the BSP, we developed the Military Active Real-time Syndromic Surveillance (MARSS) system to detect and track natural and deliberate disease outbreaks. This article describes the ROK military health data infrastructure and explains how syndromic data are derived and made available to epidemiologists. Queries corresponding to 8 syndromes, based on published clinical effects of weaponized pathogens, were used to classify military hospital patient records to form aggregated daily syndromic counts. A set of ICD-10 codes for each syndrome was defined through literature review and expert panel discussion. A study set of time series of national daily counts for each syndrome was extracted from the Defense Medical Statistical Information System between January 1, 2011, and May 31, 2014. A stratified, adjusted cumulative summation algorithm was implemented for each syndrome group to signal alerts prompting investigation. The algorithm was developed by calculating sensitivity to sets of 1,000 artificial outbreak signals randomly injected in the dataset, with each signal injected in a separate trial. Queries and visualizations were adapted from the Suite for Automated Global bioSurveillance. Findings indicated that early warning of outbreaks affecting fewer than 50 patients will require analysis at subnational levels, especially for common syndrome groups. Developing MARSS to improve sensitivity will require modification of underlying syndromic diagnosis codes, engineering to coordinate alerts among subdivisions, and enhanced algorithms. The bioterrorist threat in the Korean peninsula mandates these efforts. PMID:27314655

  1. The evolution of the federal funding policies for the public health surveillance component of Brazil's Unified Health System (SUS).

    PubMed

    Pinto, Vitor Laerte; Cerbino Neto, José; Penna, Gerson Oliveira

    2014-12-01

    Health surveillance (HS) is one of the key components of the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS). This article describes recent changes in health surveillance funding models and the role these changes have had in the reorganization and decentralization of health actions. Federal law no. 8.080 of 1990 defined health surveillance as a fundamental pillar of the SUS, and an exclusive fund with equitable distribution criteria was created in the Basic Operational Norm of 1996 to pay for health surveillance actions. This step facilitated the decentralization of health care at the municipal level, giving local authorities autonomy to plan and provide services. The Health Pact of 2006 and its regulation under federal decree No. 3252 in 2009 bolstered the processes of decentralization, regionalization and integration of health care. Further changes in the basic concepts of health surveillance around the world and in the funding policies negotiated by different spheres of government in Brazil have been catalysts for the process of HS institutionalization in recent years. PMID:25388192

  2. GeoMedStat: an integrated spatial surveillance system to track air pollution and associated healthcare events.

    PubMed

    Faruque, Fazlay S; Li, Hui; Williams, Worth B; Waller, Lance A; Brackin, Bruce T; Zhang, Lei; Grimes, Kim A; Finley, Richard W

    2014-01-01

    Air pollutants, such as particulate matter with a diameter ≤2.5 microns (PM2.5) and ozone (O3), are known to exacerbate asthma and other respiratory diseases. An integrated surveillance system that tracks such air pollutants and associated disease incidence can assist in risk assessment, healthcare preparedness and public awareness. However, the implementation of such an integrated environmental health surveillance system is a challenge due to the disparate sources of many types of data and the implementation becomes even more complicated for a spatial and real-time system due to lack of standardised technological components and data incompatibility. In addition, accessing and utilising health data that are considered as Protected Health Information (PHI) require maintaining stringent protocols, which have to be supported by the system. This paper aims to illustrate the development of a spatial surveillance system (GeoMedStat) that is capable of tracking daily environmental pollutants along with both daily and historical patient encounter data. It utilises satellite data and the groundmonitor data from the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the US Environemental Protection Agenecy (EPA), rspectively as inputs estimating air pollutants and is linked to hospital information systems for accessing chief complaints and disease classification codes. The components, developmental methods, functionality of GeoMedStat and its use as a real-time environmental health surveillance system for asthma and other respiratory syndromes in connection with with PM2.5 and ozone are described. It is expected that the framework presented will serve as an example to others developing real-time spatial surveillance systems for pollutants and hospital visits. PMID:25599635

  3. An early warning surveillance programme for detecting upper limb deterioration after treatment for breast cancer: A novel technology supported system.

    PubMed

    Shamley, Delva; Robb, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Upper limb morbidity is a well-recognised consequence of treatment for breast cancer that can develop for up to 6 years after treatment. However, the capacity to fully integrate evidence-based rehabilitation pathways into routine care for all patients is questionable due to limited resources. A long term surveillance programme must therefore be accessible to all patients, should identify those at risk of developing morbidity and target the interventions at the high risk population of patients. The proposed model uses a surrogate marker for assessing risk of morbidity, incorporated into an Early Warning System (EWS), to produce a technology-lead, prospective surveillance programme. PMID:26370571

  4. Introduction to an airborne remote sensing system equipped onboard the Chinese marine surveillance plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Fang; Wang, Difeng; Pan, Delu; Hao, Zengzhou

    2008-10-01

    The airborne remote sensing system onboard the Chinese Marine Surveillance Plane have three scanners including marine airborne multi-spectrum scanner(MAMS), airborne hyper spectral system(AISA+) and optical-electric platform(MOP) currently. MAMS is developed by Shanghai Institute of Technology and Physics CAS with 11 bands from ultraviolet to infrared and mainly used for inversion of oceanic main factors and pollution information, like chlorophyll, sea surface temperature, red tide, etc. The AISA+ made by Finnish Specim company is a push broom system, consist of a high spectrum scanner head, a miniature GPS/INS sensor and data collecting PC. It is a kind of aviation imaging spectrometer and has the ability of ground target imaging and measuring target spectrum characteristic. The MOP mainly supports for object watching, recording and track. It mainly includes 3 equipments: digital CCD with Sony-DXC390, CANON EOS film camera and digital camera Sony F717. This paper mainly introduces these three remote sensing instruments as well as the ground processing information system, involving the system's hardware and software design, related algorithm research, etc.

  5. Postmarketing surveillance for drug abuse.

    PubMed

    Arfken, Cynthia L; Cicero, Theodore J

    2003-06-01

    Assessing actual abuse of prescribed medications requires postmarketing surveillance. In this article we discuss general systems of postmarketing surveillance that exist as of the end of 2002 in the United States and two medication-specific surveillance systems that were devised and tested. The two specific surveillance systems are compared with limitations highlighted. Postmarketing surveillance is in its infancy and requires more research on ways to improve its validity without inducing illicit experimentation. Information on comparator medications is highly recommended both to validate the system and to place the results in context.

  6. Acute flaccid paralysis surveillance indicators in the Democratic Republic of Congo during 2008-2014

    PubMed Central

    Membo, Hugo Kavunga; Mweene, Aaron; Sadeuh-Mba, Serge Alain; Masumu, Justin; Yogolelo, Riziki; Ngendabanyikwa, Norbert; Sokolua, Eddy; Sagamiko, Fred; Simulundu, Edgar; Ahuka, Steve; Muyembe, Jean Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The last wild poliovirus (WPV) case in Africa was reported in July 2014, thus underscoring the tremendous progress towards polio eradication worldwide. This study aimed to analyze the results of a seven-year surveillance of Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP) in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and to identify potential gaps that need to be addressed. Methods Epidemiological and virological data obtained from AFP surveillance among AFP cases less than 15 years from January 2008 to December 2014 in DRC were retrospectively considered and analyzed in this study. Results Of the 13,749 AFP cases investigated, 58.9% received at least three doses of oral polio vaccine (OPV), 7.3% never received OPV, while the status of 18.3% was unknown. Analysis of surveillance performances showed that all, but two, indicators were below the required WHO-specified targets. Non-polio enterovirus (NPEV) isolation rate was consistently below the minimum requirement at ≥10% and the proportions of stool specimens that reached the laboratory within 72 hours of being sent were always below 15% (WHO target is ≥80%). Virus isolation and differentiation showed that 1.5% of AFP cases were infected by WPVs, 5.5% by Sabin strains, 0.5% by vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs) and 7.2% by NPEVs. Conclusion Our findings indicate that additional efforts are needed to address the timeliness of adequate stool specimens’ arrival to the laboratory. It remains essential to maintain high polio vaccine coverage and high AFP surveillance standards to ensure rapid detection and containment of either WPV importation or VDPV re-emergence in DRC. PMID:27642491

  7. The Relationship between Rural Status, Individual Characteristics, and Self-Rated Health in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bethea, Traci N.; Lopez, Russell P.; Cozier, Yvette C.; White, Laura F.; McClean, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To examine rural status and social factors as predictors of self-rated health in community-dwelling adults in the United States. Methods: This study uses multinomial logistic and cumulative logistic models to evaluate the associations of interest in the 2006 US Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, a cross-sectional survey of…

  8. Malaria mortality in Africa and Asia: evidence from INDEPTH health and demographic surveillance system sites

    PubMed Central

    Streatfield, P. Kim; Khan, Wasif A.; Bhuiya, Abbas; Hanifi, Syed M.A.; Alam, Nurul; Diboulo, Eric; Sié, Ali; Yé, Maurice; Compaoré, Yacouba; Soura, Abdramane B.; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Jaeger, Fabienne; Ngoran, Eliezer K.; Utzinger, Juerg; Melaku, Yohannes A.; Mulugeta, Afework; Weldearegawi, Berhe; Gomez, Pierre; Jasseh, Momodou; Hodgson, Abraham; Oduro, Abraham; Welaga, Paul; Williams, John; Awini, Elizabeth; Binka, Fred N.; Gyapong, Margaret; Kant, Shashi; Misra, Puneet; Srivastava, Rahul; Chaudhary, Bharat; Juvekar, Sanjay; Wahab, Abdul; Wilopo, Siswanto; Bauni, Evasius; Mochamah, George; Ndila, Carolyne; Williams, Thomas N.; Hamel, Mary J.; Lindblade, Kim A.; Odhiambo, Frank O.; Slutsker, Laurence; Ezeh, Alex; Kyobutungi, Catherine; Wamukoya, Marylene; Delaunay, Valérie; Diallo, Aldiouma; Douillot, Laetitia; Sokhna, Cheikh; Gómez-Olivé, F. Xavier; Kabudula, Chodziwadziwa W.; Mee, Paul; Herbst, Kobus; Mossong, Joël; Chuc, Nguyen T.K.; Arthur, Samuelina S.; Sankoh, Osman A.; Tanner, Marcel; Byass, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Background Malaria continues to be a major cause of infectious disease mortality in tropical regions. However, deaths from malaria are most often not individually documented, and as a result overall understanding of malaria epidemiology is inadequate. INDEPTH Network members maintain population surveillance in Health and Demographic Surveillance System sites across Africa and Asia, in which individual deaths are followed up with verbal autopsies. Objective To present patterns of malaria mortality determined by verbal autopsy from INDEPTH sites across Africa and Asia, comparing these findings with other relevant information on malaria in the same regions. Design From a database covering 111,910 deaths over 12,204,043 person-years in 22 sites, in which verbal autopsy data were handled according to the WHO 2012 standard and processed using the InterVA-4 model, over 6,000 deaths were attributed to malaria. The overall period covered was 1992–2012, but two-thirds of the observations related to 2006–2012. These deaths were analysed by site, time period, age group and sex to investigate epidemiological differences in malaria mortality. Results Rates of malaria mortality varied by 1:10,000 across the sites, with generally low rates in Asia (one site recording no malaria deaths over 0.5 million person-years) and some of the highest rates in West Africa (Nouna, Burkina Faso: 2.47 per 1,000 person-years). Childhood malaria mortality rates were strongly correlated with Malaria Atlas Project estimates of Plasmodium falciparum parasite rates for the same locations. Adult malaria mortality rates, while lower than corresponding childhood rates, were strongly correlated with childhood rates at the site level. Conclusions The wide variations observed in malaria mortality, which were nevertheless consistent with various other estimates, suggest that population-based registration of deaths using verbal autopsy is a useful approach to understanding the details of malaria

  9. Rapid establishment of an internally displaced persons disease surveillance system after an earthquake --- Haiti, 2010.

    PubMed

    2010-08-01

    On January 12, 2010, a 7.0-magnitude earthquake in Haiti disrupted infrastructure and displaced approximately 2 million persons, causing increased risk for communicable diseases from overcrowding and poor living conditions. Hundreds of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) established health-care clinics in camps of internally displaced persons (IDPs). To monitor conditions of outbreak potential identified at NGO camp clinics, on February 18, the Haiti Ministry of Public Health and Population (MSPP), the Pan-American Health Organization (PAHO), and CDC implemented the IDP Surveillance System (IDPSS). The Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC) "cluster approach" was used to coordinate the Haiti humanitarian response. One of 11 clusters, the Global Health Cluster (GHC), builds global capacity, whereas the country-level cluster (in this case, the Haitian Health Cluster [HHC], led by PAHO) responds locally. During the Haiti response, HHC engaged NGOs serving large camps, established IDPSS, followed trends of reportable conditions, undertook epidemiologic and laboratory investigations, and fostered implementation of control measures. This report describes the design and implementation of IDPSS in the post-earthquake period. The primary challenges to implementing IDPSS were communication difficulties with an ever-changing group of NGO partners and limitations to the utility of IDPSS data because of lack of reliable camp population denominator estimates. The IDPSS experience reinforces the need to improve local communication and coordination strategies. Improving future humanitarian response requires advance development and distribution of easily adaptable standard surveillance tools, development of an interdisciplinary strategy for an early and reliable population census, and development of communication strategies using locally available Internet and cellular networks.

  10. Technology evaluation of a USA-Mexico health information system for epidemiological surveillance of Mexican migrant workers.

    PubMed

    Velasco-Mondragón, H E; Martin, J; Chacón-Sosa, F

    2000-03-01

    From 1994 through 1996, federal, state, and nongovernmental organizations in Mexico and in the United States of America developed and piloted a Binational Health Information System for Epidemiological Surveillance of Mexican migrant workers. The system allowed data exchange for epidemiological surveillance between the state of Guanajuato in Mexico and the Commonwealth (state) of Pennsylvania in the United States, for case detection, prevention, and treatment, through shared contact investigation and case management of communicable diseases. The target population consisted of migrant workers traveling between Guanajuato and Pennsylvania to work mainly in the mushroom industry, and their sexual partners in their Mexican communities of origin. Computerized migrant health information modules were set up in Guanajuato and in Pennsylvania. Patient information and epidemiological surveillance data were encrypted and communicated electronically between the modules, using the WONDER communications system of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Evaluation of the Guanajuato-Pennsylvania Binational Health Information System showed that major barriers to binational epidemiological surveillance and control are: a) lack of communication binationally; b) interrupted medical care due to migration; c) inconsistent diagnosis and treatment criteria between the two countries; d) lack of referral clinical records from one country to the other; and e) deficient legal regulations concerning binational clinical data transfer. To our knowledge, this is the first project that has successfully demonstrated the technological feasibility of a binational disease control system linking a state in the interior of one country with a state in the interior of another country, rather than just states in the border region. The project also advanced the understanding of health service organizational issues that facilitate or hinder communication, outreach, disease prevention, and

  11. How Can We Identify the Elimination of Infectious Diseases? Experience From an Active Measles Laboratory Surveillance System in the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tae Un; Kang, Hae Ji; Eom, Hye Eun; Park, Young-Joon; Park, Ok; Kim, Su Jin; Nam, Jeong-Gu; Kim, Sung Soon; Jeong, Eun Kyeong

    2015-11-01

    Global efforts have markedly decreased the disease burden of vaccine-preventable diseases. Many countries have made considerable progress toward the elimination of measles. As elimination is approached, the very low incidence achieved by high vaccination coverage has underscored the need for a sensitive and timely surveillance system. In the Republic of Korea, an active laboratory surveillance system (ALSS) was implemented to supplement the existing passive surveillance system in 2006. The ALSS connects 5 major commercial laboratories and the national measles reference laboratory, where referred samples with positive or equivocal results are retested. Annually, from 2009 to 2013, 3714 suspected cases were detected through the ALSS, an expansion of 8- to 57-fold, compared with only the passive surveillance system. The ALSS, with its sensitivity and timeliness, is a reasonable strategy to supplement the existing measles surveillance system and to help identify the elimination of measles.

  12. Near-Earth Asteroid Tracking with the Maui Space Surveillance System (NEAT/MSSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helin, Eleanor F.; Pravdo, Steven H.; Lawrence, Kenneth J.; Hicks, Michael D.

    2001-01-01

    Over the last year the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL) Near-Earth Asteroid Tracking (NEAT) program has made significant progress and now consists of two simultaneously-operating, autonomous search systems on the 1.2-m (48") telescopes: on the Maui Space Surveillance System (NEAT/MSSS) and NEAT/Palomar on the Palomar Observatory's Oschin telescope. This paper will focus exclusively on the NEAT/MSSS system. NEAT/MSSS is operated as a partnership between NASA/JPL and the United States Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), utilizing the AFRL 1.2-m telescope on the 3000-m summit of Haleakala, Maui, The USAF Space Command (SPCMD) contributed financial support to build and install the 'NEAT focal reducer' on the MSSS 1.2-m telescope giving it a large field of view (2.5 square degrees), suitable for the near-earth object (NEO),both asteroids and comets, survey. This work was completed in February 2000. AFRL has made a commitment to NEAT/MSSS that allows NEAT to operate full time with the understanding that AFRL participate as partners in NEAT/MSSS and have use of the NEAT camera system for high priority satellite observations during bright time (parts of 12 nights each month). Currently, NEAT has discovered 42 NEAs including 12 larger than 1-km, 5 Potentially Hazardous Asteroids (PHAs), 6 comets, and nearly 25,000 asteroid detections since March 2000.

  13. Ethernet-based integrated surveillance system for homeland security and homeland defense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schooley, Michael G.; Thompson, Dean

    2004-09-01

    This report documents the results of an internal DRS effort to develop an Ethernet based integrated defense system to improve defense of cities, harbors, airports, power production, energy supplies, bridges, monuments, dams and so forth. Results of the integration of multiple SCOUT LPI radars and multiple Electro-optical targeting systems will be provided, illustrating the benefits of interfacing surveillance radars with imaging sensors to confirm detection and provide visual recognition and identification. An analysis of the handover errors will be provided including errors due to; sensor platforms location and orientation uncertainty, target location measurement errors, data latency and motion prediction errors, which contribute to target handoff and the re-acquisition timeline. These predictions will be compared to measured results. The system architecture will be defined including; security, support for both stationary and moving sensor platforms, remote control of sensor systems and distribution of imagery through the network and remote diagnostics, maintenance and software upgrades. Growth capabilities include secure wireless communication to/from moving platforms, integration with sonar and seismic sensors, cooperative location of friendly forces and acoustic detection and triangulation of gunshots with automated cueing of sensors and security forces to the shooters most probable location. The use of ad hoc multi-hopping wireless networking supplements hardwire networks, augments disaster response capabilities, provides high-speed communications for moving platforms and supplements GPS outage areas.

  14. Postmarketing Safety Study Tool: A Web Based, Dynamic, and Interoperable System for Postmarketing Drug Surveillance Studies.

    PubMed

    Sinaci, A Anil; Laleci Erturkmen, Gokce B; Gonul, Suat; Yuksel, Mustafa; Invernizzi, Paolo; Thakrar, Bharat; Pacaci, Anil; Cinar, H Alper; Cicekli, Nihan Kesim

    2015-01-01

    Postmarketing drug surveillance is a crucial aspect of the clinical research activities in pharmacovigilance and pharmacoepidemiology. Successful utilization of available Electronic Health Record (EHR) data can complement and strengthen postmarketing safety studies. In terms of the secondary use of EHRs, access and analysis of patient data across different domains are a critical factor; we address this data interoperability problem between EHR systems and clinical research systems in this paper. We demonstrate that this problem can be solved in an upper level with the use of common data elements in a standardized fashion so that clinical researchers can work with different EHR systems independently of the underlying information model. Postmarketing Safety Study Tool lets the clinical researchers extract data from different EHR systems by designing data collection set schemas through common data elements. The tool interacts with a semantic metadata registry through IHE data element exchange profile. Postmarketing Safety Study Tool and its supporting components have been implemented and deployed on the central data warehouse of the Lombardy region, Italy, which contains anonymized records of about 16 million patients with over 10-year longitudinal data on average. Clinical researchers in Roche validate the tool with real life use cases. PMID:26543873

  15. The Canadian Transfusion Surveillance System: what is it and how can the data be used?

    PubMed

    Ditomasso, Julie; Liu, Yang; Heddle, Nancy M

    2012-06-01

    Hemovigilance systems are important programs for: monitoring trends of known risks; evaluating effectiveness of steps taken to reduce risks; providing data to support recommendations for change and guideline development; and contributing overall to the safety of transfusion. The Transfusion Transmitted Injury Surveillance System is the hemovigilance system implemented in Canada. It evolved in 1999 as a pilot program and expanded across Canada in 2005. Each province reports their adverse reactions to the transfusion of blood products and plasma proteins to the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC) at predetermined intervals. PHAC reconciles, summarizes the data and publishes a report approximately 2 years after the data are collected. This is considered a passive reporting system but in spite of the delays, the program provides useful information to address a variety of questions. Examples include: assessing the impact of a provincial patient transfusion history registry in Québec on reporting of hemolytic transfusion reactions; identifying trends of bacterial contamination of blood products and assessing the impact of interventions on these events; and the impact of male-only plasma on the incidence of Transfusion Related Acute Lung Injury. Although hemovigilance data has been successfully used to improve blood safety, we must continue to explore ways to utilize such data to improve and implement safe transfusion practices.

  16. Postmarketing Safety Study Tool: A Web Based, Dynamic, and Interoperable System for Postmarketing Drug Surveillance Studies

    PubMed Central

    Sinaci, A. Anil; Laleci Erturkmen, Gokce B.; Gonul, Suat; Yuksel, Mustafa; Invernizzi, Paolo; Thakrar, Bharat; Pacaci, Anil; Cinar, H. Alper; Cicekli, Nihan Kesim

    2015-01-01

    Postmarketing drug surveillance is a crucial aspect of the clinical research activities in pharmacovigilance and pharmacoepidemiology. Successful utilization of available Electronic Health Record (EHR) data can complement and strengthen postmarketing safety studies. In terms of the secondary use of EHRs, access and analysis of patient data across different domains are a critical factor; we address this data interoperability problem between EHR systems and clinical research systems in this paper. We demonstrate that this problem can be solved in an upper level with the use of common data elements in a standardized fashion so that clinical researchers can work with different EHR systems independently of the underlying information model. Postmarketing Safety Study Tool lets the clinical researchers extract data from different EHR systems by designing data collection set schemas through common data elements. The tool interacts with a semantic metadata registry through IHE data element exchange profile. Postmarketing Safety Study Tool and its supporting components have been implemented and deployed on the central data warehouse of the Lombardy region, Italy, which contains anonymized records of about 16 million patients with over 10-year longitudinal data on average. Clinical researchers in Roche validate the tool with real life use cases. PMID:26543873

  17. Estimation of the sensitivity of the surveillance system for avian influenza in the western region of Cuba.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, Edyniesky; Calistri, Paolo; Fonseca, Osvaldo; Ippoliti, Carla; Alfonso, Pastor; Iannetti, Simona; Abeledo, María A; Fernández, Octavio; Percedo, María I; Pérez, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Although avian influenza (AI) virus of H5 and H7 subtypes has the potential to mutate to a highly pathogenic form and cause very high mortalities in some poultry species, most AI infections in poultry are due to low pathogenic AI (LPAI). Hence serological surveys, coupled with passive surveillance activities, are essential to detect sub-clinical infections by LPAI viruses, H5 and H7 subtypes. However the proper planning of an active surveillance system should be based on a careful estimation of its performance. Therefore, the sensitivity of the active surveillance system for AI in the western region of Cuba was assessed by a stochastic model quantifying the probability of revealing at least one animal infected by H5 or H7 subtype. The diagnostic sensitivity of the haemagglutination inhibition assay and different levels of within-flock prevalence (5%, 12% and 30%) were considered. The sensitivity of the surveillance system was then assessed under five different samples size scenarios: testing 20, 30, 40, 50 or 60 animals in each flock. Poultry flock sites in the western region of Cuba with a size ranging from 10,000 to 335,000 birds were included in the study.

  18. The Global Emerging Infection Surveillance and Response System (GEIS), a U.S. government tool for improved global biosurveillance: a review of 2009

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center, Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System (AFHSC-GEIS) has the mission of performing surveillance for emerging infectious diseases that could affect the United States (U.S.) military. This mission is accomplished by orchestrating a global portfolio of surveillance projects, capacity-building efforts, outbreak investigations and training exercises. In 2009, this portfolio involved 39 funded partners, impacting 92 countries. This article discusses the current biosurveillance landscape, programmatic details of organization and implementation, and key contributions to force health protection and global public health in 2009. PMID:21388562

  19. Considerations for opto-mechanical vs. digital stabilization in surveillance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowal, David

    2015-05-01

    Electro-optical surveillance and reconnaissance systems are frequently mounted on unstable or vibrating platforms such as ships, vehicles, aircraft and masts. Mechanical coupling between the platform and the cameras leads to angular vibration of the line of sight. Image motion during detector and eye integration times leads to image smear and a resulting loss of resolution. Additional effects are wavy images for detectors based on a rolling shutter mechanism and annoying movement of the image at low frequencies. A good stabilization system should yield sub-pixel stabilization errors and meet cost and size requirements. There are two main families of LOS stabilization methods: opto-mechanical stabilization and electronic stabilization. Each family, or a combination of both, can be implemented by a number of different techniques of varying complexity, size and cost leading to different levels of stabilization. Opto-mechanical stabilization is typically based on gyro readings, whereas electronic stabilization is typically based on gyro readings or image registration calculations. A few common stabilization techniques, as well as options for different gimbal arrangements will be described and analyzed. The relative merits and drawbacks of the different techniques and their applicability to specific systems and environments will be discussed. Over the years Controp has developed a large number of stabilized electro-optical payloads. A few examples of payloads with unique stabilization mechanisms will be described.

  20. Dosimetry for infant exposures to electronic article surveillance system: posture, physical dimension and anatomy.

    PubMed

    Li, Congsheng; Wu, Tongning

    2015-04-01

    The use of electronic article surveillance (EAS) systems has become popular in many public sites. As a consequence, concern has risen about infant exposure to magnetic fields (MFs) from this kind of device. To evaluate infant exposure to MFs of an EAS system (operating at 125 kHz and 13.56 MHz), we numerically compared dosimetric results among adult, child and infant models. Results revealed that postures insignificantly influenced dosimetric results if there was a similar cross-sectional area under exposure. Although safety limits are unlikely to be exceeded, the infant has higher SAR values for brain and central nervous system tissues compared with adult (1.5x at 125 kHz and 112x at 13.56 MHz), which deserve further investigation. Infant's specific anatomy (e.g., non-proportionally large head and high fat content) did not induce higher SAR values. The numerical models developed in the study (stroller and postured infant models) could be freely used for nonprofit academic research. PMID:25756750

  1. [Surveillance of drinking water supply systems on markets and in vehicles].

    PubMed

    Rädel, U; Puchert, W; Suchenwirth, R

    2007-03-01

    The new German Drinking Water Ordinance (TrinkwV 2001) demands that the requirements of water intended for human consumption be met up to the intrinsic tap, at which the water is used. This also applies to water supply systems for food trade aboard non-stationary facilities and in vehicles for commercial purposes. In contrast to stationary units for drinking water supply, the nonstationary units relocate and the responsibility changes with each public health authority agent. Therefore, a coordinated action between the federal states is desirable and necessary. The experience of the public health departments presents many non-compliant parameters of microbiology in water supply systems on markets and in vehicles. The development of practical and consistent recommendations for the surveillance of non-stationary units is required to give consistent standards to the users. The article gives a review about legal foundations and technical rules in order to define the drinking water supply systems on markets and in vehicles in compliance with the German Drinking Water Ordinance. Examples of laboratory results from different monitoring episodes from three federal states are shown.

  2. [Epidemiologic surveillance of dengue fever: non specific alert system in the hospital milieu in Cayenne].

    PubMed

    Carme, B; Sobesky, M; Joubert, M; Egmann, G; Cotellon, P

    2000-02-01

    A retrospective study was carried out in the General Hospital of Cayenne, the main city in French Guiana, where malaria is endemic and dengue fever constitutes a permanent threat. The aim of this study was to test an alert system for epidemic outbreaks of dengue fever. Patients attending the emergency ward and for whom a search of Plasmodium was prescribed were included. In 90% of cases, patients were febrile, presenting clinical symptoms compatible with malaria or dengue fever-like syndrome. The period of survey covered 39 months (January 1996 to March 1999). Three indices were studied; two non specific: EMN (Emergency Malaria Negative--UPN in French): number of negative malaria blood tests for patients having consulted the emergency ward; EMNT (Emergency Malaria Negative Thrombopenia--UPNT in French): UPN with platelets < 150.000; and one more specific; number of hospitalised dengue fever cases according to data from a hospital programme on medical systems information. EMN weekly follow-ups led to three epidemic alerts, two of which turned out to be crucial for dengue. Accounting for thrombopenia (EMNT) reinforced the specificity. This simple and reactive alert system should incite increased serological and virological surveillance and contribute to precocious antivectorial control measures in districts where several dengue fever cases are suspected.

  3. A multi-data source surveillance system to detect a bioterrorism attack during the G8 Summit in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Meyer, N; McMenamin, J; Robertson, C; Donaghy, M; Allardice, G; Cooper, D

    2008-07-01

    In 18 weeks, Health Protection Scotland (HPS) deployed a syndromic surveillance system to early-detect natural or intentional disease outbreaks during the G8 Summit 2005 at Gleneagles, Scotland. The system integrated clinical and non-clinical datasets. Clinical datasets included Accident & Emergency (A&E) syndromes, and General Practice (GPs) codes grouped into syndromes. Non-clinical data included telephone calls to a nurse helpline, laboratory test orders, and hotel staff absenteeism. A cumulative sum-based detection algorithm and a log-linear regression model identified signals in the data. The system had a fax-based track for real-time identification of unusual presentations. Ninety-five signals were triggered by the detection algorithms and four forms were faxed to HPS. Thirteen signals were investigated. The system successfully complemented a traditional surveillance system in identifying a small cluster of gastroenteritis among the police force and triggered interventions to prevent further cases. PMID:17678556

  4. A multi-data source surveillance system to detect a bioterrorism attack during the G8 Summit in Scotland

    PubMed Central

    MEYER, N.; McMENAMIN, J.; ROBERTSON, C.; DONAGHY, M.; ALLARDICE, G.; COOPER, D.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY In 18 weeks, Health Protection Scotland (HPS) deployed a syndromic surveillance system to early-detect natural or intentional disease outbreaks during the G8 Summit 2005 at Gleneagles, Scotland. The system integrated clinical and non-clinical datasets. Clinical datasets included Accident & Emergency (A&E) syndromes, and General Practice (GPs) codes grouped into syndromes. Non-clinical data included telephone calls to a nurse helpline, laboratory test orders, and hotel staff absenteeism. A cumulative sum-based detection algorithm and a log-linear regression model identified signals in the data. The system had a fax-based track for real-time identification of unusual presentations. Ninety-five signals were triggered by the detection algorithms and four forms were faxed to HPS. Thirteen signals were investigated. The system successfully complemented a traditional surveillance system in identifying a small cluster of gastroenteritis among the police force and triggered interventions to prevent further cases. PMID:17678556

  5. All Wales Injury Surveillance System revised: development of a population-based system to evaluate single-level and multilevel interventions

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Ronan A; Turner, Samantha; Lyons, Jane; Walters, Angharad; Snooks, Helen A; Greenacre, Judith; Humphreys, Ciaran; Jones, Sarah J

    2016-01-01

    Background Injury surveillance has been established since the 1990s, but is still largely based upon single-source data from sentinel sites. The growth of electronic health records and developments in privacy protecting linkage technologies provide an opportunity for more sophisticated surveillance systems. Objective To describe the evolution of an injury surveillance system to support the evaluation of interventions, both simple and complex in terms of organisation. Methods The paper describes the evolution of the system from one that relied upon data only from emergency departments to one that include multisource data and are now embedded in a total population privacy protecting data linkage system. Injury incidence estimates are compared by source and data linkage used to aid understanding of data quality issues. Examples of applications, challenges and solutions are described. Results The age profile and estimated incidence of injuries recorded in general practice, emergency departments and hospital admissions differ considerably. Data linkage has enabled the evaluation of complex interventions and measurement of longer-term impact of a wide range of exposures. Conclusions Embedding injury surveillance within privacy protecting data linkage environment can transform the utility of a traditional single-source surveillance system to a multisource system. It also facilitates greater involvement in the evaluation of simple and complex healthcare and non-healthcare interventions and contributes to the growing evidence basis underlying the science of injury prevention and control. PMID:26658339

  6. Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP)-derived peptides as epitopes for hepatoma immunotherapy: a commentary.

    PubMed

    Mizejewski, Gerald J

    2009-02-01

    The various immunological roles of human alpha-fetoprotein (HAFP), and its correlation with hepatomas, that is, hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs), are not often addressed together in biomedical reports considering that HAFP is an established biomarker for hepatomas. Studies reporting measurement of HAFP serum levels in hepatoma patients in basic/clinical research settings has greatly increased over the years. Recent reports have now expanded our base knowledge in the mounting of an immune response against AFP, a self antigen, during hepatoma tumorigenesis. Advances in the detection and identification of AFP-derived peptide epitopes are opening new vistas of knowledge regarding the immunological role of AFP-peptides as T cell stimulating antigens in the course of hepatoma growth and progression. The present commentary addresses HAFP-derived peptides as immunologic responders in HCC and their use in the study and generation of AFP-peptide sensitized T cells directed against hepatoma cells. Attempts were further made to relate the AFP-derived peptide epitopes to T cell activities during the course of hepatoma immunotherapies and to profile the traits and properties of the peptides themselves. Hence, the present commentary was divided into two sections; (1) the characterization, properties, and traits of AFP peptide epitopes, and (2) the use of AFP-derived peptides in the therapeutic induction of T cells primed against hepatoma cells using both in vivo and in vitro models.

  7. Community exposures to chemical incidents: development and evaluation of the first environmental public health surveillance system in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, H; Palmer, S; Fielder, H; Coleman, G; Routledge, P; Fone, D

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To describe the frequency, nature and location of acute chemical incidents in Wales, and the morbidity in employees, emergency responders and the general public who were exposed.
DESIGN—Active multi-agency community-based surveillance system.
SETTING—Wales, 1993-5.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Frequency, nature and location of incidents, populations potentially exposed and with symptoms.
RESULTS—Most of the 402 incidents identified were not associated with sites governed by the Control of Industrial Major Accident Hazard Regulations but with smaller industrial sites and commercial premises. About two in every thousand of the estimated 236 000 members of the public considered to be at risk from exposure reported symptoms, which were mainly nausea, headaches, and irritation of the eye, skin and respiratory tract. The most commonly reported chemicals that members of the public were exposed to were smoke toxins, miscellaneous organics, toxic gases and flammable gases. A health authority was reported to be involved in only 34 (8%) of the incidents and in only 3 of the 29 incidents where more than 100 members of the public were exposed.
CONCLUSION—A geographically defined, multi-agency surveillance system can identify high risk locations and types of incidents, together with the chemicals most likely to be involved. Such ongoing surveillance information is essential for appropriate policy making, emergency planning, operational management and training.


Keywords: surveillance; pollution; chemical PMID:11027203

  8. Design and prospective evaluation of a risk-based surveillance system for shrimp grow-out farms in northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marques, Ana Rita; Pereira, Marcelo; Ferreira Neto, Jose Soares; Ferreira, Fernando

    2015-12-01

    The farming of Pacific white shrimp Litopennaeus vannamei in northeast Brazil, has proven to be a promising sector. However, the farming of Pacific white shrimp in Brazil has been affected negatively by the occurrence of viral diseases, threatening this sector's expansion and sustainability. For this reason, the drafting of a surveillance system for early detection and definition of freedom from viral diseases, whose occurrence could result in high economic loses, is of the utmost importance. The stochastic model AquaVigil was implemented to prospectively evaluate different surveillance strategies to determine freedom from disease and identify the strategy with the lowest sampling efforts, making the best use of available resources through risk-based surveillance. The worked example presented was designed for regional application for the state of Ceará and can easily be applied to other Brazilian states. The AquaVigil model can analyse any risk-based surveillance system that considers a similar outline to the strategy here presented. PMID:26596650

  9. Status report - The Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program: a dynamic and innovative injury surveillance system.

    PubMed

    Crain, J; McFaull, S; Thompson, W; Skinner, R; Do, M T; Fréchette, M; Mukhi, S

    2016-06-01

    This status report on the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP), an emergency department-based injury and poisoning surveillance system, describes the result of migrating from a centralized data entry and coding process to a decentralized process, the web-based eCHIRPP system, in 2011. This secure system is improving the CHIRPP's overall flexibility and timeliness, which are key attributes of an effective surveillance system. The integrated eCHIRPP platform enables near real-time data entry and access, has user-friendly data management and analysis tools, and allows for easier communication and connectivity across the CHIRPP network through an online collaboration centre. Current pilot testing of automated data monitoring and trend analysis tools-designed to monitor and flag incoming data according to predefined criteria (for example, a new consumer product)-is revealing eCHIRPP's potential for providing early warnings of new hazards, issues and trends. PMID:27284703

  10. [Protocol for sampling of Chinese food and nutrition surveillance system (CFNSS)].

    PubMed

    Fu, Z; He, W; Rao, K

    2000-09-01

    Based on the 145-site Disease Surveillance Point System (DSP) of the Ministry of Health in conjunction with 600-site Urban/Rural Household Socio-economic Survey System of State Statistic Bureau carried out by the Urban Household Socio-Economic Survey Team and Rural Household Socio-Economic Survey Team. Three strata including urban, general rural and less-developed rural were defined. Sample size of 16,000 children was designed according to the estimate of 5% underweight prevalence of children under 6 years of age. 40 sites were sampled by stratified random sampling, involving 14 urban sites, 17 general rural sites and 9 poor rural sites in 26 provinces. The total population of the 40 sites is 20.678 million, which is 1.7% of whole population of the country. 400 children under 6 years of age were sampled by Multi-stage Cluster Sampling at each site. The consistency of age distribution of children between the sample and the National Population Census data in 1990 by Goodness of Fit Test indicated the representativeness of the sample is reliable.

  11. Preliminary evaluation of a regional atmospheric chemical data assimilation system for environmental surveillance.

    PubMed

    Lee, Pius; Liu, Yang

    2014-12-01

    We report the progress of an ongoing effort by the Air Resources Laboratory,NOAA to build a prototype regional Chemical Analysis System (ARLCAS). The ARLCAS focuses on providing long-term analysis of the three dimensional (3D) air-pollutant concentration fields over the continental U.S. It leverages expertise from the NASA Earth Science Division-sponsored Air Quality Applied Science Team (AQAST) for the state-of-science knowledge in atmospheric and data assimilation sciences. The ARLCAS complies with national operational center requirement protocols and aims to have the modeling system to be maintained by a national center. Meteorology and chemistry observations consist of land-, air- and space-based observed and quality-assured data.We develop modularized testing to investigate the efficacies of the various components of the ARLCAS. The sensitivity testing of data assimilation schemes showed that with the increment of additional observational data sets, the accuracy of the analysis chemical fields also increased incrementally in varying margins. The benefit is especially noted for additional data sets based on a different platform and/or a different retrieval algorithm.We also described a plan to apply the analysis chemical fields in environmental surveillance at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

  12. Preliminary evaluation of a regional atmospheric chemical data assimilation system for environmental surveillance.

    PubMed

    Lee, Pius; Liu, Yang

    2014-12-11

    We report the progress of an ongoing effort by the Air Resources Laboratory, NOAA to build a prototype regional Chemical Analysis System (ARLCAS). The ARLCAS focuses on providing long-term analysis of the three dimensional (3D) air-pollutant concentration fields over the continental U.S. It leverages expertise from the NASA Earth Science Division-sponsored Air Quality Applied Science Team (AQAST) for the state-of-science knowledge in atmospheric and data assimilation sciences. The ARLCAS complies with national operational center requirement protocols and aims to have the modeling system to be maintained by a national center. Meteorology and chemistry observations consist of land-, air- and space-based observed and quality-assured data. We develop modularized testing to investigate the efficacies of the various components of the ARLCAS. The sensitivity testing of data assimilation schemes showed that with the increment of additional observational data sets, the accuracy of the analysis chemical fields also increased incrementally in varying margins. The benefit is especially noted for additional data sets based on a different platform and/or a different retrieval algorithm. We also described a plan to apply the analysis chemical fields in environmental surveillance at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

  13. Preliminary Evaluation of a Regional Atmospheric Chemical Data Assimilation System for Environmental Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Pius; Liu, Yang

    2014-01-01

    We report the progress of an ongoing effort by the Air Resources Laboratory, NOAA to build a prototype regional Chemical Analysis System (ARLCAS). The ARLCAS focuses on providing long-term analysis of the three dimensional (3D) air-pollutant concentration fields over the continental U.S. It leverages expertise from the NASA Earth Science Division-sponsored Air Quality Applied Science Team (AQAST) for the state-of-science knowledge in atmospheric and data assimilation sciences. The ARLCAS complies with national operational center requirement protocols and aims to have the modeling system to be maintained by a national center. Meteorology and chemistry observations consist of land-, air- and space-based observed and quality-assured data. We develop modularized testing to investigate the efficacies of the various components of the ARLCAS. The sensitivity testing of data assimilation schemes showed that with the increment of additional observational data sets, the accuracy of the analysis chemical fields also increased incrementally in varying margins. The benefit is especially noted for additional data sets based on a different platform and/or a different retrieval algorithm. We also described a plan to apply the analysis chemical fields in environmental surveillance at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. PMID:25514141

  14. Using the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) for Exposure Tracking: Experiences from Washington State

    PubMed Central

    Laflamme, Denise M.; VanDerslice, James A.

    2004-01-01

    One of the goals of the National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network is to link environmental data with chronic disease data as a means of improving our understanding of the environmental determinants of disease. Such efforts will rely on the ongoing collection of population exposure information, and there are few systems in place to track population exposures. In many cases, exposures can be estimated by combining environmental contaminant data with data about human behaviors. The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) provides a good opportunity to implement tracking of exposure-related behaviors. Washington State has used the BRFSS to collection information on environmentally related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. In this article we present case studies of modules covering drinking water, perceptions of environmental risk, and radon awareness and testing. Data on exposure-related behaviors have been useful for population exposure assessments and program evaluation. Questions about knowledge and attitudes and perceptions of environmental issues were not as useful because they lacked sufficient detail from which to modify existing education efforts. In some cases these data had not been used at all, indicating that the need for the data had not been well established. National development efforts should focus on compiling existing questions and developing questions on topics that are a priority at the state and national levels to be included as core questions and optional modules in future BRFSS surveys. PMID:15471738

  15. Cost-effectiveness of novel system of mosquito surveillance and control, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pepin, Kim M; Marques-Toledo, Cecilia; Scherer, Luciano; Morais, Maira M; Ellis, Brett; Eiras, Alvaro E

    2013-04-01

    Of all countries in the Western Hemisphere, Brazil has the highest economic losses caused by dengue fever. We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of a novel system of vector surveillance and control, Monitoramento Inteligente da Dengue (Intelligent Dengue Monitoring System [MID]), which was implemented in 21 cities in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Traps for adult female mosquitoes were spaced at 300-m intervals throughout each city. In cities that used MID, vector control was conducted specifically at high-risk sites (indicated through daily updates by MID). In control cities, vector control proceeded according to guidelines of the Brazilian government. We estimated that MID prevented 27,191 cases of dengue fever and saved an average of $227 (median $58) per case prevented, which saved approximately $364,517 in direct costs (health care and vector control) and $7,138,940 in lost wages (societal effect) annually. MID was more effective in cities with stronger economies and more cost-effective in cities with higher levels of mosquito infestation.

  16. Requirements analysis for an air traffic control tower surface surveillance enhanced vision system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruffner, John W.; Deaver, Dawne M.; Henry, Daniel J.

    2003-09-01

    Tower controllers are responsible for maintaining separation between aircraft and expediting the flow of traffic in the air. On the airport surface, they also are responsible for maintaining safe separation between aircraft, ground equipment, and personnel. They do this by sequencing departing and arriving aircraft, and controlling the location and movement of aircraft, vehicles, equipment, and personnel on the airport surface. The local controller and ground controller are responsible for determining aircraft location and intent, and for ensuring that aircraft, vehicles, and other surface objects maintain a safe separation distance. During nighttime or poor visibility conditions, controllers' situation awareness is significantly degraded, resulting in lower safety margins and increased errors. Safety and throughput can be increased by using an Enhanced Vision System, based upon state-of-the-art infrared sensor technology, to restore critical visual cues. We discuss the results of an analysis of tower controller critical visual tasks and information requirements. The analysis identified: representative classes of ground obstacles/targets (e.g., aircraft, vehicles, wildlife); sample airport layouts and tower-to-runway distances; and obstacle subtended visual angles. We performed NVTherm modeling of candidate sensors and field data collections. This resulted in the identification of design factors for an airport surface surveillance Enhanced Vision System.

  17. Preliminary evaluation of a regional atmospheric chemical data assimilation system for environmental surveillance.

    PubMed

    Lee, Pius; Liu, Yang

    2014-12-01

    We report the progress of an ongoing effort by the Air Resources Laboratory,NOAA to build a prototype regional Chemical Analysis System (ARLCAS). The ARLCAS focuses on providing long-term analysis of the three dimensional (3D) air-pollutant concentration fields over the continental U.S. It leverages expertise from the NASA Earth Science Division-sponsored Air Quality Applied Science Team (AQAST) for the state-of-science knowledge in atmospheric and data assimilation sciences. The ARLCAS complies with national operational center requirement protocols and aims to have the modeling system to be maintained by a national center. Meteorology and chemistry observations consist of land-, air- and space-based observed and quality-assured data.We develop modularized testing to investigate the efficacies of the various components of the ARLCAS. The sensitivity testing of data assimilation schemes showed that with the increment of additional observational data sets, the accuracy of the analysis chemical fields also increased incrementally in varying margins. The benefit is especially noted for additional data sets based on a different platform and/or a different retrieval algorithm.We also described a plan to apply the analysis chemical fields in environmental surveillance at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. PMID:25587606

  18. Orbits and Pointing Strategies for Space-Based Telescopes into a European Space Surveillance System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olmedo, Estrella; Sanchez-Ortiz, Noelia; Ramos-Lerate, Mercedes

    2009-03-01

    This paper describes the inclusion of optical images acquired from orbiting telescopes into an autonomous European space surveillance system via the Advance Space Surveillance System Simulator (AS4). Special interest on space-based observation of GEO objects exists since it avoids the weather dependence and longitudinal restrictions of ground-based observations of those objects. Furthermore, space-based observations allow the detection of small objects that are not detected from ground-based sensors.In order to analyze the impact of space-based telescopes images, several aspects have to be studied. The first consideration is the selection of the appropriate orbits to locate the telescopes. A description of the most suitable orbits and strategies for the observation of space debris population will be provided.Once an appropriated orbit has been selected, the next important consideration is the analysis of an optimized pointing strategy and its associated requirements for feasibility. Several pointing strategies will be exposed by analyzing, among other factors, the impact of luminosity conditions in the most populated regions to be observed. Numerical results are presented in the form of statistics, which reflect the compromise between the density of detected objects, and other important parameters for orbit determination and cataloguing purposes as re-acquisition times or measurement track duration.Finally, overall analyses of possible space-based constellations are presented. Such constellations are aimed to solve the main drawbacks in considering only one satellite at the selected orbit. This is for example the case of revisit times when considering a sub GEO orbiting telescope which can be solve by re-distributing several sensors in the orbit. It will also allow carrying on more complex pointing strategies by the definition of several sensors located at same orbit pointed at two different regions.The AS4 was developed by DEIMOS Space ([1], [2] and also [5]). The

  19. Perceived Insufficient Rest or Sleep among Veterans: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System 2009

    PubMed Central

    Faestel, Paul M.; Littell, Christopher T.; Vitiello, Michael V.; Forsberg, Christopher W.; Littman, Alyson J.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sleep problems are of particular concern among the active duty military population as factors such as inconsistent work hours and deployment may compromise adequate sleep and adversely impact performance. However, few prior studies have investigated whether the prevalence of sleep problems differ between Veterans and demographically similar non-Veterans. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether self-reported insufficient rest or sleep varies in relation to Veteran status and to identify high-risk groups of Veterans. Methods: This study used data from the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (analyzed in 2011), a state based national telephone survey of non-institutionalized US adults. Insufficient rest was assessed in 411,313 adults aged 21 and older, of whom 55,361 were Veterans. Sleep duration was assessed in 6 states (n = 4,936 Veterans and 30,983 non-Veterans). Model-based direct rate adjustment was used to estimate the prevalence of insufficient rest or sleep while controlling for confounding. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios of insufficient sleep or rest in subgroups of Veterans. Results: After multivariable adjustment, insufficient rest or sleep (22.7% vs. 21.1%, p < 0.001) and short sleep duration (< 7 h/night, 34.9% vs. 31.3%, p = 0.026) were more common among Veterans than non-Veterans. When the Veteran group was further divided among newly transitioned (≤ 12 months) and longer-term Veterans (> 12 months), the overall test for a difference was not statistically significant between groups, mainly because there was little difference in sleep between the two groups of Veterans. High-risk Veteran subgroups included those who were 21-44 years of age (vs. 65-74), women, non-whites, current smokers, obese, unable to work, and those in poor health. Conclusions: This study suggests that Veterans have a high burden of sleep problems and identifies subgroups that should be targeted to

  20. French registry of workers handling engineered nanomaterials as an instrument of integrated system for surveillance and research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guseva Canu, I.; Boutou-Kempf, O.; Delabre, L.; Ducamp, S.; Iwatsubo, Y.; Marchand, J. L.; Imbernon, E.

    2013-04-01

    Despite the lack of data on the human health potential risks related to the engineered nanomaterials (ENM) exposure, ENM handling spreads in industry. The French government officially charged the InVS to develop an epidemiological surveillance of workers occupationally exposed to ENM. An initial surveillance plan was proposed on the basis of literature review and discussions with national and international ENM and occupational safety and health (OSH) experts. In site investigations and technical visits were then carried out to build an adequate surveillance system and to assess its feasibility. The current plan consists of a multi-step methodology where exposure registry construction is paramount. Workers potentially exposed to carbon nanotubes (CNT) or nanometric titanium dioxide (TiO2) will be identified using a 3-level approach: 1-identification and selection of companies concerned with ENM exposure (based on compulsory declaration and questionnaires), 2-in site exposure assessment and identification of the jobs/tasks with ENM exposure (based on job-expose matrix, further supplemented with measurements), and 3-identification of workers concerned. Data of interest will be collected by questionnaire. Companies and workers inclusion questionnaires are designed and currently under validation. This registration is at the moment planned for three years but could be extended and include other ENM. A prospective cohort study will be established from this registry, to pursue surveillance objectives and serve as an infrastructure for performing epidemiological and panel studies with specific research objectives.

  1. Development of an exposure database and surveillance system for use by practicing OSH professionals.

    PubMed

    Van Dyke, M V; LaMontagne, A D; Martyny, J W; Ruttenber, A J

    2001-02-01

    This report summarizes the development of an occupational exposure database and surveillance system for use by health and safety professionals at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), a former nuclear weapons production facility. The site itself is currently in the cleanup stage with work expected to continue into 2006. The system was developed with the intent of helping health and safety personnel not only to manage and analyze exposure monitoring data, but also to identify exposure determinants during the highly variable cleanup work. Utilizing a series of focused meetings with health and safety personnel from two of the major contractors at RFETS, core data elements were established. These data elements were selected based on their utility for analysis and identification of exposure determinants. A task-based coding scheme was employed to better define the highly variable work. The coding scheme consisted of a two-tiered hierarchical list with a total of 34 possible combinations of work type and task. The data elements were incorporated into a Microsoft Access database with built-in data entry features to both promote consistency and limit entry choices to enable stratified analyses. In designing the system, emphasis was placed on the ability of end users to perform complex analyses and multiparameter queries to identify trends in their exposure data. A very flexible and user-friendly report generator was built into the system. This report generator allowed users to perform multiparameter queries using an intuitive system with very little training. In addition, a number of automated graphical analyses were built into the system, including exposure levels by any combination of building, date, employee, job classification, type of contaminant, work type or task, exposure levels over time, exposure levels relative to the permissible exposure limit (PELS), and distributions of exposure levels. Both of these interfaces, allow the user to "drill down" or

  2. Development of an exposure database and surveillance system for use by practicing OSH professionals.

    PubMed

    Van Dyke, M V; LaMontagne, A D; Martyny, J W; Ruttenber, A J

    2001-02-01

    This report summarizes the development of an occupational exposure database and surveillance system for use by health and safety professionals at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), a former nuclear weapons production facility. The site itself is currently in the cleanup stage with work expected to continue into 2006. The system was developed with the intent of helping health and safety personnel not only to manage and analyze exposure monitoring data, but also to identify exposure determinants during the highly variable cleanup work. Utilizing a series of focused meetings with health and safety personnel from two of the major contractors at RFETS, core data elements were established. These data elements were selected based on their utility for analysis and identification of exposure determinants. A task-based coding scheme was employed to better define the highly variable work. The coding scheme consisted of a two-tiered hierarchical list with a total of 34 possible combinations of work type and task. The data elements were incorporated into a Microsoft Access database with built-in data entry features to both promote consistency and limit entry choices to enable stratified analyses. In designing the system, emphasis was placed on the ability of end users to perform complex analyses and multiparameter queries to identify trends in their exposure data. A very flexible and user-friendly report generator was built into the system. This report generator allowed users to perform multiparameter queries using an intuitive system with very little training. In addition, a number of automated graphical analyses were built into the system, including exposure levels by any combination of building, date, employee, job classification, type of contaminant, work type or task, exposure levels over time, exposure levels relative to the permissible exposure limit (PELS), and distributions of exposure levels. Both of these interfaces, allow the user to "drill down" or

  3. Public health consequences of mercury spills: Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance system, 1993-1998.

    PubMed Central

    Zeitz, Perri; Orr, Maureen F; Kaye, Wendy E

    2002-01-01

    We analyzed data from states that participated in the Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (HSEES) system maintained by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry to describe the public health consequences of mercury releases. From 1993 through 1998, HSEES captured 406 events in which mercury was the only substance released. Schools and universities, private residences, and health care facilities were the most frequent locations involved in mercury events, and human error was the contributing factor for most of the releases. Fourteen persons experienced adverse health effects as a result of the releases. An additional 31 persons had documented elevated levels of mercury in the blood. No fatalities resulted. Evacuations were ordered in 90 (22%) of the events, and the length of evacuation ranged from 1 hr to 46 days. Mercury spills have a significant public health impact and economic burden. Some actions that could potentially lessen the consequences of mercury spills are to switch to mercury-free alternatives, train people in the safe handling and disposal of mercury, and keep mercury securely stored when it is necessary to have it on hand. PMID:11836139

  4. Tuberculosis genotyping information management system: enhancing tuberculosis surveillance in the United States.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Smita; Moonan, Patrick K; Cowan, Lauren; Grant, Juliana; Kammerer, Steve; Navin, Thomas R

    2012-06-01

    Molecular characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates (genotyping) can be used by public health programs to more readily identify tuberculosis (TB) transmission. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Tuberculosis Genotyping Service has offered M. tuberculosis genotyping for every culture-confirmed case in the United States since 2004. The TB Genotyping Information Management System (TB GIMS), launched in March 2010, is a secure online database containing genotype results linked with case characteristics from the national TB registry for state and local TB programs to access, manage and analyze these data. As of September 2011, TB GIMS contains genotype results for 89% of all culture-positive TB cases for 2010. Over 400 users can generate local and national reports and maps using TB GIMS. Automated alerts on geospatially concentrated cases with matching genotypes that may represent outbreaks are also generated by TB GIMS. TB genotyping results are available to enhance national TB surveillance and apply genotyping results to conduct TB control activities in the United States. PMID:22044522

  5. Is perceived racial privilege associated with health? Findings from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System.

    PubMed

    Fujishiro, Kaori

    2009-03-01

    While racial discrimination has gained increasing attention in public health research, little is known about perceived racial privilege and health. Using the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data, this study explored the relationship of both perceived racial discrimination and privilege with well-being in the USA. Data were extracted from the BRFSS 2004 data set, in which 22,412 respondents in seven states and one major city provided data on perceived racial discrimination and privilege at work. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the relationships of differential racial treatment to self-rated general health status and the number of physically and mentally unhealthy days. Racially stratified analyses found that perceived racial privilege was significantly associated with more days of poor physical and mental health. This relationship was consistent for Whites, but for racial minorities it appeared on only some outcome measures. Reports of being treated worse than other races in the workplace were associated with poor health for all racial groups, as had been reported in previous studies on racial discrimination. Because racial discrimination and racial privilege are both products of racism, this study's findings suggest that racism may harm all involved. Impacts of perceived racial privilege deserve more attention in the literature on racism and health.

  6. The use of geographic information systems for foot and mouth disease surveillance in Argentina.

    PubMed

    León, Emilio A; Puentes, Marìa Inés; Ledesma, Marìa Clara; Laureda, Daniel A

    2007-01-01

    A model developed as a complementary tool in the surveillance of foot and mouth disease (FMD) was based on two main components: data and basic cartography. The data was obtained from the veterinary services of Argentina. It included different animal species, movement records and data on vaccination campaigns. The basic cartography was produced from cadastral maps of four departments of Buenos Aires province that were scanned, incorporated to a geographic information system and then overlapped to satellite images to adjust the borders of farms to the correct coordinates. Digital maps of the four departments were obtained, with all premises represented as polygons. Then, each premise was identified with its unique code, provided by the veterinary services. The data was processed and then linked to the maps. The output of the model are maps of different types, in which it is possible to characterise animal population at farm level, to analyse the evolution of the systematic vaccination campaigns against FMD, to determine patterns of animal movements and others. PMID:20422523

  7. Tuberculosis genotyping information management system: enhancing tuberculosis surveillance in the United States.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Smita; Moonan, Patrick K; Cowan, Lauren; Grant, Juliana; Kammerer, Steve; Navin, Thomas R

    2012-06-01

    Molecular characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates (genotyping) can be used by public health programs to more readily identify tuberculosis (TB) transmission. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Tuberculosis Genotyping Service has offered M. tuberculosis genotyping for every culture-confirmed case in the United States since 2004. The TB Genotyping Information Management System (TB GIMS), launched in March 2010, is a secure online database containing genotype results linked with case characteristics from the national TB registry for state and local TB programs to access, manage and analyze these data. As of September 2011, TB GIMS contains genotype results for 89% of all culture-positive TB cases for 2010. Over 400 users can generate local and national reports and maps using TB GIMS. Automated alerts on geospatially concentrated cases with matching genotypes that may represent outbreaks are also generated by TB GIMS. TB genotyping results are available to enhance national TB surveillance and apply genotyping results to conduct TB control activities in the United States.

  8. Survey of proposed functional requirements for a disturbance analysis and surveillance system

    SciTech Connect

    Sides, W.H. Jr.; Oh, C.B.; Knight, P.F.

    1980-10-01

    A program to enhance the capabilities of operators of nuclear power plants is being pursued by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The program includes improvements in plant monitoring, diagnostic and corrective action aids, operator-process communication, and operator training. Concerning diagnostic aids, a disturbance analysis and surveillance system (DASS) was considered which would monitor the plant for the approach or occurrence of disturbance conditions and would assist the operator in returning the plant to normal operation or to help mitigate the consequences of a failure condition or misoperation. The NRC had requested Oak Ridge National Laboratory to survey the functional requirements being proposed for a DASS. In fulfilling this task, the proposed requirements were categorized according to whether they could be realized in the short term and backfitted to existing plants or whether they could be realized only in the long term by incorporation into new plant designs. In addition, several recommendations concerning DASS development were made for consideration by the NRC. Finally, the effects of human factors on a DASS were evaluated, and the results are discussed in this report. 12 refs., 6 figs.

  9. Comparison of provisional with final notifiable disease case counts - National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System, 2009.

    PubMed

    2013-09-13

    States report notifiable disease cases to CDC through the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS). This allows CDC to assist with public health action and monitor infectious diseases across jurisdictional boundaries nationwide. The Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) is used to disseminate these data on infectious disease incidence. The extent to which the weekly notifiable conditions are overreported or underreported can affect public health understanding of changes in the burden, distribution, and trends in disease, which is essential for control of communicable diseases. NNDSS encourages state health departments to notify CDC of a case when initially reported. These cases are included in the weekly provisional counts. The status of reported cases can change after further investigation by the states, resulting in differences between provisional and final counts. Increased knowledge of these differences can help in guiding the use of information from NNDSS. To quantify the extent to which final counts differ from provisional counts of notifiable infectious disease in the United States, CDC analyzed 2009 NNDSS data for 67 conditions. The results of this analysis demonstrate that for five conditions, final case counts were lower than provisional counts, but for 59 conditions, final counts were higher than provisional counts. The median difference between final and provisional counts was 16.7%; differences were ≤20% for 39 diseases but >50% for 12. These differences occur for various diseases and in all states. Provisional case counts should be interpreted with caution and an understanding of the reporting process.

  10. Acoustic signature recognition technique for Human-Object Interactions (HOI) in persistent surveillance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkilani, Amjad; Shirkhodaie, Amir

    2013-05-01

    Handling, manipulation, and placement of objects, hereon called Human-Object Interaction (HOI), in the environment generate sounds. Such sounds are readily identifiable by the human hearing. However, in the presence of background environment noises, recognition of minute HOI sounds is challenging, though vital for improvement of multi-modality sensor data fusion in Persistent Surveillance Systems (PSS). Identification of HOI sound signatures can be used as precursors to detection of pertinent threats that otherwise other sensor modalities may miss to detect. In this paper, we present a robust method for detection and classification of HOI events via clustering of extracted features from training of HOI acoustic sound waves. In this approach, salient sound events are preliminary identified and segmented from background via a sound energy tracking method. Upon this segmentation, frequency spectral pattern of each sound event is modeled and its features are extracted to form a feature vector for training. To reduce dimensionality of training feature space, a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) technique is employed to expedite fast classification of test feature vectors, a kd-tree and Random Forest classifiers are trained for rapid classification of training sound waves. Each classifiers employs different similarity distance matching technique for classification. Performance evaluations of classifiers are compared for classification of a batch of training HOI acoustic signatures. Furthermore, to facilitate semantic annotation of acoustic sound events, a scheme based on Transducer Mockup Language (TML) is proposed. The results demonstrate the proposed approach is both reliable and effective, and can be extended to future PSS applications.

  11. A survey on acoustic signature recognition and classification techniques for persistent surveillance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirkhodaie, Amir; Alkilani, Amjad

    2012-06-01

    Application of acoustic sensors in Persistent Surveillance Systems (PSS) has received considerable attention over the last two decades because they can be rapidly deployed and have low cost. Conventional utilization of acoustic sensors in PSS spans a wide range of applications including: vehicle classification, target tracking, activity understanding, speech recognition, shooter detection, etc. This paper presents a current survey of physics-based acoustic signature classification techniques for outdoor sounds recognition and understanding. Particularly, this paper focuses on taxonomy and ontology of acoustic signatures resulted from group activities. The taxonomy and supportive ontology considered include: humanvehicle, human-objects, and human-human interactions. This paper, in particular, exploits applicability of several spectral analysis techniques as a means to maximize likelihood of correct acoustic source detection, recognition, and discrimination. Spectral analysis techniques based on Fast Fourier Transform, Discrete Wavelet Transform, and Short Time Fourier Transform are considered for extraction of features from acoustic sources. In addition, comprehensive overviews of most current research activities related to scope of this work are presented with their applications. Furthermore, future potential direction of research in this area is discussed for improvement of acoustic signature recognition and classification technology suitable for PSS applications.

  12. Design and implementation of a Space-Time Intelligence System for disease surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacquez, Geoffrey M.; Greiling, Dunrie A.; Kaufmann, Andrew M.

    2005-05-01

    Modeling chronic and infectious diseases entails tracking and describing individuals and their attributes (such as disease status, date of diagnosis, risk factors and so on) as they move and change through space and time. Using Geographic Information Systems, researchers can model, visualize and query spatial data, but their ability to address time has been limited by the lack of temporal referencing in the underlying data structures. In this paper, we discuss issues in designing data structures, indexing, and queries for spatio-temporal data within the context of health surveillance. We describe a space-time object model that treats modeled individuals as a chain of linked observations comprised of an ID, space-time coordinate, and time-referenced attributes. Movement models for these modeled individuals are functions that may be simple (e.g. linear, using vector representation) or more complex. We present several spatial, temporal, spatio-temporal and epidemiological queries emergent from the data model. We demonstrate this approach in a representative application, a simulation of the spread of influenza in a hospital ward.

  13. Computer-Simulated Biopsy Marking System for Endoscopic Surveillance of Gastric Lesions: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Weiling; Wang, Bin; Sun, Leimin; Chen, Shujie; Wang, Liangjing; Wang, Kan; Wu, Jiaguo; Kim, John J.; Liu, Jiquan; Dai, Ning; Duan, Huilong; Si, Jianmin

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopic tattoo with India ink injection for surveillance of premalignant gastric lesions is technically cumbersome and may not be durable. The aim of the study is to evaluate the accuracy of a novel, computer-simulated biopsy marking system (CSBMS) developed for the endoscopic marking of gastric lesions. Twenty-five patients with history of gastric intestinal metaplasia received both CSBMS-guided marking and India ink injection in five points in the stomach at index endoscopy. A second endoscopy was performed at three months. Primary outcome was accuracy of CSBMS (distance between CSBMS probe-guided site and tattoo site measured by CSBMS). The mean accuracy of CSBMS at angularis was 5.3 ± 2.2 mm, antral lesser curvature 5.7 ± 1.4 mm, antral greater curvature 6.1 ± 1.1 mm, antral anterior wall 6.9 ± 1.6 mm, and antral posterior wall 6.9 ± 1.6 mm. CSBMS (2.3 ± 0.9 versus 12.5 ± 4.6 seconds; P = 0.02) required less procedure time compared to endoscopic tattooing. No adverse events were encountered. CSBMS accurately identified previously marked gastric sites by endoscopic tattooing within 1 cm on follow-up endoscopy. PMID:25954747

  14. Computer-simulated biopsy marking system for endoscopic surveillance of gastric lesions: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Hu, Weiling; Wang, Bin; Sun, Leimin; Chen, Shujie; Wang, Liangjing; Wang, Kan; Wu, Jiaguo; Kim, John J; Liu, Jiquan; Dai, Ning; Duan, Huilong; Si, Jianmin

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopic tattoo with India ink injection for surveillance of premalignant gastric lesions is technically cumbersome and may not be durable. The aim of the study is to evaluate the accuracy of a novel, computer-simulated biopsy marking system (CSBMS) developed for the endoscopic marking of gastric lesions. Twenty-five patients with history of gastric intestinal metaplasia received both CSBMS-guided marking and India ink injection in five points in the stomach at index endoscopy. A second endoscopy was performed at three months. Primary outcome was accuracy of CSBMS (distance between CSBMS probe-guided site and tattoo site measured by CSBMS). The mean accuracy of CSBMS at angularis was 5.3 ± 2.2 mm, antral lesser curvature 5.7 ± 1.4 mm, antral greater curvature 6.1 ± 1.1 mm, antral anterior wall 6.9 ± 1.6 mm, and antral posterior wall 6.9 ± 1.6 mm. CSBMS (2.3 ± 0.9 versus 12.5 ± 4.6 seconds; P = 0.02) required less procedure time compared to endoscopic tattooing. No adverse events were encountered. CSBMS accurately identified previously marked gastric sites by endoscopic tattooing within 1 cm on follow-up endoscopy. PMID:25954747

  15. Comparison of 2 Disability Measures, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Courtney-Long, Elizabeth A.; Okoro, Catherine A.; Carroll, Dianna D.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Beginning in 2013, in addition to the 2-item disability question set asked since 2001, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) began using 5 of the 6 items from the US Department of Health and Human Services–recommended disability question set. We assess and compare disability prevalence using the 2-question and 5-question sets and describe characteristics of respondents who identified as having a disability using each question set. Methods We used data from the 2013 BRFSS to estimate the prevalence of disability for each question set and the 5 specific types of disability. Among respondents identified by each disability question set, we calculated the prevalence of selected demographic characteristics, health conditions, health behaviors, and health status. Results With the 2-question set, 21.6% of adults had a disability and with the 5-question set, 22.7% of adults had disability. A total of 51.2% of adults who identified as having a disability with either the 2-question or 5-question set reported having disabilities with both sets. Adults with different disability types differed by demographic and health characteristics. Conclusion The inclusion of the 5 new disability questions in BRFSS provides a level of detail that can help develop targeted interventions and programs and can guide the adaptation of existing health promotion programs to be more inclusive of adults who experience specific types of disabilities. PMID:27513997

  16. Using mortuary statistics in the development of an injury surveillance system in Ghana.

    PubMed Central

    London, Jason; Mock, Charles; Abantanga, Francis A.; Quansah, Robert E.; Boateng, K. A.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop, in a mortuary setting, a pilot programme for improving the accuracy of records of deaths caused by injury. METHODS: The recording of injury-related deaths was upgraded at the mortuary of the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Kumasi, Ghana, in 1996 through the creation of a prospectively gathered database. FINDINGS: There was an increase in the number of deaths reported annually as attributable to injury from 72 before 1995 to 633 in 1996-99. Injuries accounted for 8.6% of all deaths recorded in the mortuary and for 12% of deaths in the age range 15-59 years; 80% of deaths caused by injury occurred outside the hospital and thus would not have been indicated in hospital statistics; 88% of injury-related deaths were associated with transport, and 50% of these involved injuries to pedestrians. CONCLUSIONS: Injury was a significant cause of mortality in this urban African setting, especially among adults of working age. The reporting of injury-related deaths in a mortuary was made more complete and accurate by means of simple inexpensive methods. This source of data could make a significant contribution to an injury surveillance system, along with hospital records and police accident reports. PMID:12077610

  17. Unemployment and Depression Among Emerging Adults in 12 States, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Nancy J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The high rate of unemployment among emerging adults (aged 18 to 25 years) is a public health concern. The risk of depression is higher among the unemployed than among the employed, but little is known about the relationship between unemployment and mental health among emerging adults. This secondary data analysis assessed the relationship between unemployment and depression among emerging adults. Methods Data from the 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) were analyzed. Responses to the Patient Health Questionnaire-8 provided data about the prevalence of depression. Bivariate relationships were assessed using χ2 tests, and multivariable adjusted odds ratios were calculated with logistic regressions. Sociodemographic variables were sex, race/ethnicity, marital status, and education. In addition, logistic regression models adjusted for health insurance status, disability, smoking, and body mass index. The analyses were completed using SAS 9.3 survey procedures to account for the complex sampling design. Results Almost 12% of emerging adults were depressed (PHQ-8 ≥10) and about 23% were unemployed. Significantly more unemployed than employed emerging adults were classified with depression. In the final model, the odds of depression were about 3 times higher for unemployed than employed emerging adults. Conclusion The relationship between unemployment and depression is significant among emerging adults. With high rates of unemployment for this age group, this population may benefit from employment- and mental-health–focused interventions. PMID:25789499

  18. Automatic Detection and Recognition of Pig Wasting Diseases Using Sound Data in Audio Surveillance Systems

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Yongwha; Oh, Seunggeun; Lee, Jonguk; Park, Daihee; Chang, Hong-Hee; Kim, Suk

    2013-01-01

    Automatic detection of pig wasting diseases is an important issue in the management of group-housed pigs. Further, respiratory diseases are one of the main causes of mortality among pigs and loss of productivity in intensive pig farming. In this study, we propose an efficient data mining solution for the detection and recognition of pig wasting diseases using sound data in audio surveillance systems. In this method, we extract the Mel Frequency Cepstrum Coefficients (MFCC) from sound data with an automatic pig sound acquisition process, and use a hierarchical two-level structure: the Support Vector Data Description (SVDD) and the Sparse Representation Classifier (SRC) as an early anomaly detector and a respiratory disease classifier, respectively. Our experimental results show that this new method can be used to detect pig wasting diseases both economically (even a cheap microphone can be used) and accurately (94% detection and 91% classification accuracy), either as a standalone solution or to complement known methods to obtain a more accurate solution. PMID:24072029

  19. The use of geographic information systems for foot and mouth disease surveillance in Argentina.

    PubMed

    León, Emilio A; Puentes, Marìa Inés; Ledesma, Marìa Clara; Laureda, Daniel A

    2007-01-01

    A model developed as a complementary tool in the surveillance of foot and mouth disease (FMD) was based on two main components: data and basic cartography. The data was obtained from the veterinary services of Argentina. It included different animal species, movement records and data on vaccination campaigns. The basic cartography was produced from cadastral maps of four departments of Buenos Aires province that were scanned, incorporated to a geographic information system and then overlapped to satellite images to adjust the borders of farms to the correct coordinates. Digital maps of the four departments were obtained, with all premises represented as polygons. Then, each premise was identified with its unique code, provided by the veterinary services. The data was processed and then linked to the maps. The output of the model are maps of different types, in which it is possible to characterise animal population at farm level, to analyse the evolution of the systematic vaccination campaigns against FMD, to determine patterns of animal movements and others.

  20. Chronic Disease Disparities by County Economic Status and Metropolitan Classification, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Theis, Kristina A.; Self-Brown, Shannon; Roblin, Douglas W.; Barker, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Racial/ethnic disparities have been studied extensively. However, the combined influence of geographic location and economic status on specific health outcomes is less well studied. This study’s objective was to examine 1) the disparity in chronic disease prevalence in the United States by county economic status and metropolitan classification and 2) the social gradient by economic status. The association of hypertension, arthritis, and poor health with county economic status was also explored. Methods We used 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data. County economic status was categorized by using data on unemployment, poverty, and per capita market income. While controlling for sociodemographics and other covariates, we used multivariable logistic regression to evaluate the relationship between economic status and hypertension, arthritis, and self-rated health. Results Prevalence of hypertension, arthritis, and poor health in the poorest counties was 9%, 13%, and 15% higher, respectively, than in the most affluent counties. After we controlled for covariates, poor counties still had a higher prevalence of the studied conditions. Conclusion We found that residents of poor counties had a higher prevalence of poor health outcomes than affluent counties, even after we controlled for known risk factors. Further, the prevalence of poor health outcomes decreased as county economics improved. Findings suggest that poor counties would benefit from targeted public health interventions, better access to health care services, and improved food and built environments. PMID:27584875

  1. Malaria elimination in Isabel Province, Solomon Islands: establishing a surveillance-response system to prevent introduction and reintroduction of malaria

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The Solomon Islands National Malaria Programme is currently focused on intensified control and progressive elimination. Recent control efforts in Isabel Province have reduced their malaria incidence to 2.6/1,000 population in 2009 [1] whereas most neighbouring provinces have much higher incidences. A malaria surveillance-response system that involves testing all travellers entering Isabel Province using rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) to prevent cases being imported had been proposed by local health authorities. This study provides information on the feasibility and acceptability of implementing a new approach of surveillance and response in the context of low levels of indigenous malaria transmission in Isabel Province. Methods A total of 13 focus group discussions (FGD) and 22 key informant interviews (KII) were conducted in Isabel Province, Solomon Islands. Key topics included: the travel patterns of people to, from and within Isabel Province; the acceptability, community perceptions, attitudes and suggestions towards the proposed surveillance programme; and management of suspected malaria cases. This information was triangulated with data obtained from port authorities, airlines and passenger ships travelling to and from Isabel Province in the preceding two years. Results Travel within Isabel Province and to and from other provinces is common with marked seasonality. The majority of inter-provincial travel is done on scheduled public transport; namely passenger ships and aircrafts. In Isabel Province there is a healthy community spirit as well as high concern regarding malaria and its importation and there is currently effective malaria passive case detection and management. Conducting malaria screening at ports and airports would be acceptable to the community. Conclusion A robust surveillance-response system is essential when moving towards malaria elimination. Many factors contribute positively towards the feasibility of an RDT based malaria

  2. A phase II, randomized, controlled trial of S-adenosylmethionine in reducing serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in patients with hepatitis C cirrhosis and elevated AFP

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Timothy R.; Osann, Kathryn; Bottiglieri, Teodoro; Pimstone, Neville; Hoefs, John C.; Hu, Ke-Qin; Hassanein, Tarek; Boyer, Thomas D.; Kong, Lorene; Chen, Wen-Pin; Richmond, Ellen; Gonzalez, Rachel; Rodriguez, Luz M.; Meyskens, Frank L.

    2015-01-01

    In animal models of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), deficiency of S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) increased the risk of HCC while administration of SAMe reduced HCC. The aim of this trial was to determine whether oral SAMe administration to patients with hepatitis C cirrhosis would decrease serum AFP level, a biomarker of HCC risk in hepatitis C. This was a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of SAMe, up to 2.4 grams/day, for 24 weeks as compared with placebo among subjects with hepatitis C cirrhosis and a mildly elevated serum AFP. Primary outcome was change in AFP between baseline and week 24. Secondary outcomes included changes in routine tests of liver function and injury, other biomarkers of HCC risk, SAMe metabolites, markers of oxidative stress, and quality of life. 110 subjects were randomized and 87 (44 SAMe and 43 placebo) completed treatment. There was no difference in the change in AFP during 24 weeks among subjects receiving SAMe as compared with placebo. Changes in markers of liver function, liver injury, and hepatitis C viral level were not significantly different between groups. Similarly, SAMe did not change markers of oxidative stress or serum glutathione level. SAMe blood level increased significantly among subjects receiving SAMe. Changes in quality of life did not differ between groups. Overall, this trial did not find that SAMe treatment improved serum AFP in subjects with advanced hepatitis C cirrhosis and a mildly elevated AFP. SAMe did not improve tests of liver function or injury, or markers of oxidative stress or antioxidant potential. PMID:26130251

  3. Design and development of a compact lidar/DIAL system for aerial surveillance of urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudio, P.; Gelfusa, M.; Malizia, A.; Richetta, M.; Antonucci, A.; Ventura, P.; Murari, A.; Vega, J.

    2013-10-01

    Recently surveying large areas in an automatic way, for early detection of harmful chemical agents, has become a strategic objective of defence and public health organisations. The Lidar-Dial techniques are widely recognized as a cost-effective alternative to monitor large portions of the atmosphere but, up to now, they have been mainly deployed as ground based stations. The design reported in this paper concerns the development of a Lidar-Dial system compact enough to be carried by a small airplane and capable of detecting sudden releases in air of harmful and/or polluting substances. The proposed approach consists of continuous monitoring of the area under surveillance with a Lidar type measurement. Once a significant increase in the density of backscattering substances is revealed, it is intended to switch to the Dial technique to identify the released chemicals and to determine its concentration. In this paper, the design of the proposed system is described and the simulations carried out to determine its performances are reported. For the Lidar measurements, commercially available Nd- YAG laser sources have already been tested and their performances, in combination with avalanche photodiodes, have been experimentally verified to meet the required specifications. With regard to the DIAL measurements, new compact CO2 laser sources are being investigated. The most promising candidate presents an energy per pulse of about 50 mJ typical, sufficient for a range of at least 500m. The laser also provides the so called "agile tuning" option that allows to quickly tune the wavelength. To guarantee continuous, automatic surveying of large areas, innovative solutions are required for the data acquisition, self monitoring of the system and data analysis. The results of the design, the simulations and some preliminary tests illustrate the potential of the chosen, integrated approach.

  4. CDI Systems Are Stably Maintained by a Cell-Contact Mediated Surveillance Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Annette J.; Leung, Nicole Y.; Hayes, Christopher S.; Low, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Contact-dependent growth inhibition (CDI) systems are widespread amongst Gram-negative bacteria where they play important roles in inter-cellular competition and biofilm formation. CDI+ bacteria use cell-surface CdiA proteins to bind neighboring bacteria and deliver C-terminal toxin domains. CDI+ cells also express CdiI immunity proteins that specifically neutralize toxins delivered from adjacent siblings. Genomic analyses indicate that cdi loci are commonly found on plasmids and genomic islands, suggesting that these Type 5 secretion systems are spread through horizontal gene transfer. Here, we examine whether CDI toxin and immunity activities serve to stabilize mobile genetic elements using a minimal F plasmid that fails to partition properly during cell division. This F plasmid is lost from Escherichia coli populations within 50 cell generations, but is maintained in ~60% of the cells after 100 generations when the plasmid carries the cdi gene cluster from E. coli strain EC93. By contrast, the ccdAB "plasmid addiction" module normally found on F exerts only a modest stabilizing effect. cdi-dependent plasmid stabilization requires the BamA receptor for CdiA, suggesting that plasmid-free daughter cells are inhibited by siblings that retain the CDI+ plasmid. In support of this model, the CDI+ F plasmid is lost rapidly from cells that carry an additional cdiI immunity gene on a separate plasmid. These results indicate that plasmid stabilization occurs through elimination of non-immune cells arising in the population via plasmid loss. Thus, genetic stabilization reflects a strong selection for immunity to CDI. After long-term passage for more than 300 generations, CDI+ plasmids acquire mutations that increase copy number and result in 100% carriage in the population. Together, these results show that CDI stabilizes genetic elements through a toxin-mediated surveillance mechanism in which cells that lose the CDI system are detected and eliminated by their siblings

  5. Evaluating the Use of an Electronic Death Registration System for Mortality Surveillance During and After Hurricane Sandy: New York City, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wenhui; Madsen, Ann M.; Wong, Howard; Das, Tara; Betancourt, Flor M.; Nicaj, Leze; Stayton, Catherine; Matte, Thomas; Begier, Elizabeth M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the use of New York City’s (NYC’s) electronic death registration system (EDRS) to conduct mortality surveillance during and after Hurricane Sandy. Methods. We used Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines for surveillance system evaluation to gather evidence on usefulness, flexibility, stability, timeliness, and quality. We assessed system components, interviewed NYC Health Department staff, and analyzed 2010 to 2012 death records. Results. Despite widespread disruptions, NYC’s EDRS was stable and collected timely mortality data that were adapted to provide storm surveillance with minimal additional resources. Direct-injury fatalities and trends in excess all-cause mortality were rapidly identified, providing useful information for response; however, the time and burden of establishing reports, adapting the system, and identifying indirect deaths limited surveillance. Conclusions. The NYC Health Department successfully adapted its EDRS for near real-time disaster-related mortality surveillance. Retrospective assessment of deaths, advanced methods for case identification and analysis, standardized reports, and system enhancements will further improve surveillance. Local, state, and federal partners would benefit from partnering with vital records to develop EDRSs for surveillance and to promote ongoing evaluation. PMID:26378834

  6. Utilization and viability of biologically-inspired algorithms in a dynamic multiagent camera surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mundhenk, Terrell N.; Dhavale, Nitin; Marmol, Salvador; Calleja, Elizabeth; Navalpakkam, Vidhya; Bellman, Kirstie; Landauer, Chris; Arbib, Michael A.; Itti, Laurent

    2003-10-01

    In view of the growing complexity of computational tasks and their design, we propose that certain interactive systems may be better designed by utilizing computational strategies based on the study of the human brain. Compared with current engineering paradigms, brain theory offers the promise of improved self-organization and adaptation to the current environment, freeing the programmer from having to address those issues in a procedural manner when designing and implementing large-scale complex systems. To advance this hypothesis, we discus a multi-agent surveillance system where 12 agent CPUs each with its own camera, compete and cooperate to monitor a large room. To cope with the overload of image data streaming from 12 cameras, we take inspiration from the primate"s visual system, which allows the animal to operate a real-time selection of the few most conspicuous locations in visual input. This is accomplished by having each camera agent utilize the bottom-up, saliency-based visual attention algorithm of Itti and Koch (Vision Research 2000;40(10-12):1489-1506) to scan the scene for objects of interest. Real time operation is achieved using a distributed version that runs on a 16-CPU Beowulf cluster composed of the agent computers. The algorithm guides cameras to track and monitor salient objects based on maps of color, orientation, intensity, and motion. To spread camera view points or create cooperation in monitoring highly salient targets, camera agents bias each other by increasing or decreasing the weight of different feature vectors in other cameras, using mechanisms similar to excitation and suppression that have been documented in electrophysiology, psychophysics and imaging studies of low-level visual processing. In addition, if cameras need to compete for computing resources, allocation of computational time is weighed based upon the history of each camera. A camera agent that has a history of seeing more salient targets is more likely to obtain

  7. Innovations in health and demographic surveillance systems to establish the causal impacts of HIV policies

    PubMed Central

    Herbst, Kobus; Law, Matthew; Geldsetzer, Pascal; Tanser, Frank; Harling, Guy; Bärnighausen, Till

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of Review Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems (HDSS), in conjunction with HIV treatment cohorts, have made important contributions to our understanding of the impact of HIV treatment and treatment-related interventions in sub-Saharan Africa. The purpose of this review is to describe and discuss innovations in data collection and data linkage that will create new opportunities to establish the impacts of HIV treatment, as well as policies affecting the treatment cascade, on population health, economic and social outcomes. Recent Findings Novel approaches to routine collection of (i) biomarkers, (ii) behavioural data, (iii) spatial data, (iv) social network information, (v) migration events and (vi) mobile phone records can significantly strengthen the potential of HDSS to generate exposure and outcome data for causal analysis of HIV treatment impact and policies affecting the HIV treatment cascade. Additionally, by linking HDSS data to health service administration, education, and welfare service records, researchers can substantial broaden opportunities to establish how HIV treatment affects health and economic outcomes, when delivered through public-sector health systems and at scale. Summary As the HIV treatment scale-up in sub-Saharan Africa enters its second decade, it is becoming increasingly important to understand the long-term causal impacts of large-scale HIV treatment and related policies on broader population health outcomes, such as non-communicable diseases, as well as on economic and social outcomes, such as family welfare and children’s educational attainment. By collecting novel data and linking existing data to public-sector records, HDSS can create near-unique opportunities to contribute to this research agenda. PMID:26371462

  8. Introducing infant and young child feeding indicators into national nutrition surveillance systems: lessons from Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Hajeebhoy, Nemat; Nguyen, Phuong Hong; Tran, Do Thanh; de Onis, Mercedes

    2013-09-01

    A comprehensive set of infant and young child feeding (IYCF) indicators for international use was published in 2008. We describe the process followed to incorporate these indicators into Vietnam's National Nutrition Surveillance System (NNSS). Following its establishment in 1980, the National Institute of Nutrition introduced the Vietnam NNSS to provide an evidence base for nutrition interventions. While anthropometric indicators based on international standards were regularly used for programme purposes, data on IYCF could not be collected with similar rigor until 2010. In 2009, with support from Alive & Thrive and UNICEF, the NNSS questionnaire was reviewed and additional content incorporated to measure IYCF practices. The tool was pilot-tested in 10 provinces and revised before nationwide roll-out in 2010.The tool comprises four pages, the first three of which focus on collecting data relating to maternal nutrition and IYCF. The last page is flexibly designed to incorporate planners' data requests for other relevant activities (e.g. mass media interventions, food security). Once analysed, the data are presented in a report comprising provincial profiles and maps illustrating IYCF practices. Importantly, the IYCF data have been used for policy advocacy (e.g. maternity leave legislation, advertisement law), programme planning, trend monitoring and capacity building. Adoption of the IYCF indicators was successful due to strategic timing, a phased approach, buy-in from stakeholders and capacity building at all levels to ensure the quality and use of data. Further revisions to the NNSS (e.g. sampling methodology, quality assurance systems) will be important to ensure the reliability of indicators. PMID:24074323

  9. Multi-modal low cost mobile indoor surveillance system on the Robust Artificial Intelligence-based Defense Electro Robot (RAIDER)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, Binu M.; Diskin, Yakov; Asari, Vijayan K.

    2012-10-01

    We present an autonomous system capable of performing security check routines. The surveillance machine, the Clearpath Husky robotic platform, is equipped with three IP cameras with different orientations for the surveillance tasks of face recognition, human activity recognition, autonomous navigation and 3D reconstruction of its environment. Combining the computer vision algorithms onto a robotic machine has given birth to the Robust Artificial Intelligencebased Defense Electro-Robot (RAIDER). The end purpose of the RAIDER is to conduct a patrolling routine on a single floor of a building several times a day. As the RAIDER travels down the corridors off-line algorithms use two of the RAIDER's side mounted cameras to perform a 3D reconstruction from monocular vision technique that updates a 3D model to the most current state of the indoor environment. Using frames from the front mounted camera, positioned at the human eye level, the system performs face recognition with real time training of unknown subjects. Human activity recognition algorithm will also be implemented in which each detected person is assigned to a set of action classes picked to classify ordinary and harmful student activities in a hallway setting.The system is designed to detect changes and irregularities within an environment as well as familiarize with regular faces and actions to distinguish potentially dangerous behavior. In this paper, we present the various algorithms and their modifications which when implemented on the RAIDER serves the purpose of indoor surveillance.

  10. A new surveillance system for undiagnosed serious infectious illness for the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games.

    PubMed

    Heinsbroek, E; Said, B; Kirkbride, H

    2012-08-02

    A new surveillance system was developed to detect possible new or emerging infections presenting as undiagnosed serious infectious illness (USII) for use during the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. Designated clinicians in sentinel adult and paediatric intensive care units (ICU/ PICUs) reported USII using an online reporting tool or provided a weekly nil notification. Reported cases were investigated for epidemiological links. A pilot study was undertaken for six months between January and July 2011 to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of the system. In this six-month period, 5 adults and 13 children were reported by six participating units (3 ICUs, 3 PICUs). Of these 18 patients, 12 were reported within four days after admission to an ICU/PICU. Nine patients were subsequently diagnosed and were thus excluded from the surveillance. Therefore, only nine cases of USII were reported. No clustering was identified.On the basis of the pilot study, we conclude that the system is able to detect cases of USII and is feasible and acceptable to users. USII surveillance has been extended to a total of 19 sentinel units in London and the south-east of England during the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games.

  11. MONI: an intelligent database and monitoring system for surveillance of nosocomial infections.

    PubMed

    Chizzali-Bonfadin, C; Adlassnig, K P; Koller, W

    1995-01-01

    Recording, recognition, and prevention of nosocomial infections are the primary responsibilities of the hospital infection control unit. To perform these tasks, this unit needs information from diverse sources--the patient's symptoms and signs, microbiological and virological test results, and information regarding antibiotics and treatment come from different levels of healthcare delivery. Because of the large amount of data (e.g., about 300 microbiological requests daily) a computer system is required to store this information and to provide a means for subsequent evaluation. MONI (Monitoring of nosocomial infections) is an intelligent database and monitoring system for surveillance and detection of nosocomial infections. Data can be entered into the system manually as well as transferred automatically from external information systems. The central feature of the system is the automatic detection of and calling attention to conditions that may be a detriment to patient recovery, such as possible hospital-acquired infections, risk factors, diseases to be reported, etc. By using this system, we seek to reduce the frequency of infection and the frequency of nosocomial deaths by improving the quality of patient treatment, shortening the length of stay in a hospital, and the use of fewer and/or cheaper antibiotics. MONI provides a means to access relevant medical data (names of infectious agents, antibiotics, department names, monitoring rules, etc.) from a library. This library can be updated or otherwise modified, even during use. An infection control team using this system can customize it to suit the demands of that particular unit. Automatic data transfer from external information systems is made possible by tables that translate between different code systems. The system also offers flexibility; the program can be configured to adapt it for use in other hospitals and institutions. The core element of MONI is the monitoring module, which is implemented as a layer

  12. Development of integrated surveillance systems for the management of tuberculosis in New Zealand wildlife.

    PubMed

    Anderson, D P; Ramsey, D S L; de Lisle, G W; Bosson, M; Cross, M L; Nugent, G

    2015-06-01

    Disease surveillance for the management of bovine tuberculosis (TB) in New Zealand has focussed, to a large extent, on the development of tools specific for monitoring Mycobacterium bovis infection in wildlife. Diagnostic techniques have been modified progressively over 30 years of surveillance of TB in wildlife, from initial characterisation of gross TB lesions in a variety of wildlife, through development of sensitive culture techniques to identify viable mycobacteria, to molecular identification of individual M. bovis strains. Of key importance in disease surveillance has been the elucidation of the roles that different wildlife species play in the transmission of infection, specifically defining brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) as true maintenance hosts compared to those that are predominantly spillover hosts, but which may serve as useful sentinel species to indicate TB persistence. Epidemiological modelling has played a major role in TB surveillance, initially providing the theoretical support for large-scale possum population control and setting targets at which control effort should be deployed to ensure disease eradication. As TB prevalence in livestock and wildlife declined throughout the 2000s, more varied field tools were developed to gather surveillance data from the diminishing possum populations, and to provide information on changing TB prevalence. Accordingly, ever more precise (but disparate) surveillance information began to be integrated into multi-faceted decision-assist models to support TB management decisions, particularly to provide informed parameters at which control effort could be halted, culminating in the Proof of Freedom modelling framework that now allows an area to be declared TB-free within chosen confidence limits. As New Zealand moves from large-scale TB control to regional eradication of disease in the coming years, further integrative models will need to be developed to support management decisions, based on combined

  13. Development of integrated surveillance systems for the management of tuberculosis in New Zealand wildlife

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, DP; Ramsey, DSL; de Lisle, GW; Bosson, M; Cross, ML; Nugent, G

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Disease surveillance for the management of bovine tuberculosis (TB) in New Zealand has focussed, to a large extent, on the development of tools specific for monitoring Mycobacterium bovis infection in wildlife. Diagnostic techniques have been modified progressively over 30 years of surveillance of TB in wildlife, from initial characterisation of gross TB lesions in a variety of wildlife, through development of sensitive culture techniques to identify viable mycobacteria, to molecular identification of individual M. bovis strains. Of key importance in disease surveillance has been the elucidation of the roles that different wildlife species play in the transmission of infection, specifically defining brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) as true maintenance hosts compared to those that are predominantly spillover hosts, but which may serve as useful sentinel species to indicate TB persistence. Epidemiological modelling has played a major role in TB surveillance, initially providing the theoretical support for large-scale possum population control and setting targets at which control effort should be deployed to ensure disease eradication. As TB prevalence in livestock and wildlife declined throughout the 2000s, more varied field tools were developed to gather surveillance data from the diminishing possum populations, and to provide information on changing TB prevalence. Accordingly, ever more precise (but disparate) surveillance information began to be integrated into multi-faceted decision-assist models to support TB management decisions, particularly to provide informed parameters at which control effort could be halted, culminating in the Proof of Freedom modelling framework that now allows an area to be declared TB-free within chosen confidence limits. As New Zealand moves from large-scale TB control to regional eradication of disease in the coming years, further integrative models will need to be developed to support management decisions, based on

  14. Vaccine Safety Surveillance Systems: Critical Elements and Lessons Learned in the Development of the US Vaccine Safety Datalink’s Rapid Cycle Analysis Capabilities

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    Since the late 1990s, there have been tremendous strides made in improving the capacity for carrying out routine active surveillance of new vaccines in the United States. These strides have led to new surveillance systems that are now in place. Some of the critical elements that are part of successful vaccine or drug safety surveillance systems include their use of (i) longitudinal data from a discrete enumerated population base, (ii) frequent, routine transfers of small amounts of data that are easy to collect and collate, (iii) avoidance of mission creep, (iv) statistical capabilities, (v) creation of an “industrialized process” approach and (vi) political safe harbor. PMID:24300403

  15. 76 FR 72897 - Privacy Act Systems of Records; APHIS Animal Health Surveillance and Monitoring System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... technical controls to prevent misuse of data by system users. These controls include the use of role-based.... Access to the system is monitored by USDA officials to ensure authorized and appropriate use of the data... last date of creation, edit, or access of the records. Incremental and full system tape backups...

  16. Any tobacco use in 13 States --- behavioral risk factor surveillance system, 2008.

    PubMed

    2010-08-01

    Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable death in the United States, and cigarette smoking, the predominant form of tobacco use in the United States, causes 443,000 deaths annually. In 2008, 20.6% of U.S. adults were current smokers; however, other tobacco products (e.g., smokeless tobacco, cigars, bidis, and kreteks) also were used by some adults and youths. Persons who use cigarettes in combination with other tobacco products (polytobacco use) might have an in increased risk for adverse health effects. To estimate the prevalence of any tobacco and polytobacco use, CDC analyzed data from the 2008 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) (the most recent data available) module on use of other tobacco products, which was implemented by 13 states. This analysis found that use of any tobacco product ranged from 18.4% (New Jersey) to 35.0% (West Virginia), cigarette use ranged from 14.6% (New Jersey) to 26.6% (West Virginia), and polytobacco use ranged from 1.0% (New Jersey) to 3.7% (West Virginia). Polytobacco use was more prevalent among men (4.4%), persons aged 18--24 years (5.7%), persons who were single (4.8%), persons with household incomes less than $35,000 (9.8%), and persons with less than a high school education (3.6%) or with a high school diploma or General Education Development (GED) certificate or diploma (3.6%). Because no form of tobacco is safe to use, prevention and cessation intervention programs need to address all forms of tobacco use to lower tobacco-related morbidity and mortality in the United States. Additionally, counter-marketing messages for tobacco products can be tailored for specific populations, such as young adults and males.

  17. Tooth Loss and Stroke: Results from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Wiener, R. Constance

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Strokes are common events of significant morbidity and mortality. Poor oral conditions may share or exacerbate pathways that lead to stroke. Methods This study was a cross-sectional study of 410,939 participants from the 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Stroke was defined as the participant's response (yes/no) to the survey's question, “Has a doctor, nurse or other health professional ever told you that you had a stroke?” The definition for tooth loss was based upon participant's response to the survey's question, “How many of your permanent teeth have been removed because of tooth decay or gum disease?” Descriptive, Chi Square and logistic regression analyses were conducted. Other variables that are known etiologic factors were also included in the analysis. Results The participants with increasing numbers of teeth lost had increasing adjusted odds ratios for stroke independent of the other factors. In adjusted logistic regression analysis, the participants who had 1 to 5 missing teeth had an adjusted odds ratio (AOR) of 1.29 (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.17, 1.42), participants who had 6 or more, but not all missing teeth had an AOR of 1.68 (95% CI: 1.50, 1.88), and participants who were edentulous had an AOR of 1.86 (95% CI: 1.63, 2.11). Conclusion Evidence from this cross-sectional study indicates that tooth loss had a potential, although weak positive association as an independent factor in multivariable analysis with stroke. PMID:25325724

  18. Efficient super-resolution image reconstruction applied to surveillance video captured by small unmanned aircraft systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Qiang; Schultz, Richard R.; Chu, Chee-Hung Henry

    2008-04-01

    The concept surrounding super-resolution image reconstruction is to recover a highly-resolved image from a series of low-resolution images via between-frame subpixel image registration. In this paper, we propose a novel and efficient super-resolution algorithm, and then apply it to the reconstruction of real video data captured by a small Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS). Small UAS aircraft generally have a wingspan of less than four meters, so that these vehicles and their payloads can be buffeted by even light winds, resulting in potentially unstable video. This algorithm is based on a coarse-to-fine strategy, in which a coarsely super-resolved image sequence is first built from the original video data by image registration and bi-cubic interpolation between a fixed reference frame and every additional frame. It is well known that the median filter is robust to outliers. If we calculate pixel-wise medians in the coarsely super-resolved image sequence, we can restore a refined super-resolved image. The primary advantage is that this is a noniterative algorithm, unlike traditional approaches based on highly-computational iterative algorithms. Experimental results show that our coarse-to-fine super-resolution algorithm is not only robust, but also very efficient. In comparison with five well-known super-resolution algorithms, namely the robust super-resolution algorithm, bi-cubic interpolation, projection onto convex sets (POCS), the Papoulis-Gerchberg algorithm, and the iterated back projection algorithm, our proposed algorithm gives both strong efficiency and robustness, as well as good visual performance. This is particularly useful for the application of super-resolution to UAS surveillance video, where real-time processing is highly desired.

  19. Distribution of asthma by occupation: Washington State Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Data, 2006–2009

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Zihong Joyce; Reeb-Whitaker, Carolyn; Bonauto, David K.; Rauser, Edmund

    2014-01-01

    Objective Objective: To estimate the prevalence of asthma in workers by occupation in Washington State. Methods: Data from the 2006–2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and the BRFSS Asthma Call-Back Survey (ACBS) in Washington State (WA) were analyzed. Using state-added and coded Industry and Occupation questions, we calculated prevalence ratios (PRs) for 19 occupational groups. Results: Of the 41 935 respondents who were currently employed during 2006–2009, the prevalence of current asthma was 8.1% [95% confidence interval (CI) 7.8–8.5%] When compared with the reference group of executive, administration and managerial occupations, three occupational groups had significantly (p < 0.05) higher PRs of current asthma: “Teachers, all levels, and Counselors’ (PR 1.3, 95% CI 1.1–1. 6%); ‘Administrative Support, including Clerical” (PR 1. 5, 95% CI 1.2–1.9%); and “Other Health Services” (PR 1.5, 95% CI 1.2–1.9). Half of the 2511 ACBS respondent workers (55.1%) indicated that they believed exposure at work had caused or worsened their asthma, but only 10.7% had ever spoken with a health care professional about their asthma being work related. Conclusions: Some occupations have a higher prevalence of current asthma than other occupations. The systematic collection of industry and occupation data can help identify worker populations with a high burden of asthma and can be used to target disease prevention efforts as well as to aid clinician recognition and treatment. Workers indicated that work-related asthma exposures are not discussed with their health care provider and this communication gap has implications for asthma management. PMID:24995660

  20. Analysis of the pediatric health information system database as a surveillance tool for travel-associated infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Olson, Daniel; Birkholz, Meghan; Gaensbauer, James T; Asturias, Edwin J; Todd, James K

    2015-05-01

    The Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS) database collects admission, diagnostic, and treatment data among 44 children's hospitals across the United States (U.S.) and presents an opportunity for travel-associated infectious disease (TAID) surveillance. We calculated cumulative incidence rates among children admitted to 16 PHIS hospitals for dengue, malaria, and typhoid, and pooled TAID using discharge codes from 1999 to 2012. We compared incidence rates before, during, and after the 2007-2009 economic recession. Among 16 PHIS hospitals during the study period (1999-2012), incidence of dengue and pooled TAID (malaria, dengue, typhoid fever) increased significantly, and rates of malaria and typhoid trended upward. Admissions for dengue and pooled TAIDs increased significantly among 16 children's hospitals across the United States from 1999 to 2012. The PHIS database may provide a useful surveillance tool for TAIDs among children in the United States.

  1. Early detection of pipeline integrity threats using a smart fiber optic surveillance system: the PIT-STOP project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, H. F.; Piote, D.; Tejedor, J.; Macias-Guarasa, J.; Pastor-Graells, J.; Martin-Lopez, S.; Corredera, P.; De Smet, F.; Postvoll, W.; Ahlen, C. H.; Gonzalez-Herraez, M.

    2015-09-01

    The preliminary results of a surveillance system set up for real time monitoring activities along a pipeline and analyzing for possible threats are presented. The system consists of a phi-OTDR based sensor used to monitor vibrations along an optical fiber combined with a pattern recognition system that classifies the recorded signals. The acoustic traces generated by the activities of different machines at various locations along a pipeline were recorded in the field. The signals, corresponding to machinery activities, were clearly distinguished from background noise. A threat classification rate of 68.11% with 55.55% false alarms was obtained.

  2. The Added-Value of Using Participatory Approaches to Assess the Acceptability of Surveillance Systems: The Case of Bovine Tuberculosis in Belgium

    PubMed Central

    Calba, Clémentine; Goutard, Flavie Luce; Vanholme, Luc; Antoine-Moussiaux, Nicolas; Hendrikx, Pascal; Saegerman, Claude

    2016-01-01

    Context and Objective Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) surveillance in Belgium is essential to maintain the officially free status and to preserve animal and public health. An evaluation of the system is thus needed to ascertain the surveillance provides a precise description of the current situation in the country. The evaluation should assess stakeholders’ perceptions and expectations about the system due to the fact that the acceptability has an influence on the levels of sensitivity and timeliness of the surveillance system. The objective of the study was to assess the acceptability of the bTB surveillance in Belgium, using participatory tools and the OASIS flash tool (‘analysis tool for surveillance systems’). Methods For the participatory process, focus group discussions and individual interviews were implemented with representatives involved with the system, both from cattle and wildlife part of the surveillance. Three main tools were used: (i) relational diagrams associated with smileys, (ii) flow diagrams associated with proportional piling, and (iii) impact diagrams associated with proportional piling. A total of six criteria were assessed, among which five were scored on a scale from -1 to +1. For the OASIS flash tool, one full day meeting with representatives from stakeholders involved with the surveillance was organised. A total of 19 criteria linked to acceptability were scored on a scale from 0 to 3. Results and Conclusion Both methods highlighted a medium acceptability of the bTB surveillance. The main elements having a negative influence were the consequences of official notification of a bTB suspect case in a farm, the low remuneration paid to private veterinarians for execution of intradermal tuberculin tests and the practical difficulties about the containment of the animals. Based on the two evaluation processes, relevant recommendations to improve the surveillance were made. Based on the comparison between the two evaluation processes, the

  3. Surveillance and response systems for elimination of tropical diseases: summary of a thematic series in Infectious Diseases of Poverty.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xia; Yap, Peiling; Tanner, Marcel; Bergquist, Robert; Utzinger, Jürg; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2016-01-01

    The peer-reviewed journal Infectious Diseases of Poverty provides a new platform to engage with, and disseminate in an open-access format, science outside traditional disciplinary boundaries. The current piece reviews a thematic series on surveillance-response systems for elimination of tropical diseases. Overall, 22 contributions covering a broad array of diseases are featured - i.e. clonorchiasis, dengue, hepatitis, human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS), H7N9 avian influenza, lymphatic filariasis, malaria, Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), rabies, schistosomiasis and tuberculosis (TB). There are five scoping reviews, a commentary, a letter to the editor, an opinion piece and an editorial pertaining to the theme "Elimination of tropical disease through surveillance and response". The remaining 13 articles are original contributions mainly covering (i) drug resistance; (ii) innovation and validation in the field of mathematical modelling; (iii) elimination of infectious diseases; and (iv) social media reports on disease outbreak notifications released by national health authorities. Analysis of the authors' affiliations reveals that scientists from the People's Republic of China (P.R. China) are prominently represented. Possible explanations include the fact that the 2012 and 2014 international conferences pertaining to surveillance-response mechanisms were both hosted by the National Institute of Parasitic Diseases (NIPD) in Shanghai, coupled with P.R. China's growing importance with regard to the control of infectious diseases. Within 4 to 22 months of publication, three of the 22 contributions were viewed more than 10 000 times each. With sustained efforts focusing on relevant and strategic information towards control and elimination of infectious diseases, Infectious Diseases of Poverty has become a leading journal in the field of surveillance and response systems in infectious diseases and beyond. PMID:27179509

  4. Under-reporting of sexually transmitted infection with chlamydia trachomatis - a revision of surveillance system is required

    PubMed Central

    Kustec, Tanja; Keše, Darja

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction To consider whether a revision of the national chlamydia surveillance system is needed, the objectives were to estimate the proportion of laboratory confirmed cases at the Institute of Microbiology and Immunology (IMI) not reported to the National Institute of Public Health (NIPH), and to assess the completeness of reporting for individual data items. Methods The dataset with information about the cases diagnosed at the IMI during 2007-2010, and the national chlamydia surveillance data at the NIPH, were linked using SOUNDEX code and the date of birth as unique identifier. The proportion of unreported cases was calculated. The proportions of records with missing data for individual variables were estimated for all reported cases during the same period. Chlamydia testing and reported rates for the period 2002-2010 were presented. Results Of 576 laboratory confirmed chlamydia cases at the IMI during 2007-2010, 201 were reported to the NIPH, corresponding to 65.1% of the overall underreporting (50.4% among dermatovenerologists, 90.1% among gynaecologist and 100% among other specialists). Item response was above 99% for demographic variables and from 69% to 81% for sexual behaviour variables. Higher testing rates corresponded to higher diagnosed rates. Conclusions Surveillance data underestimated diagnosed chlamydia infection rates. Mandatory reporting of cases by laboratories with less variables, including unique identifier, gender, date of diagnosis, and reporting physician specialty, together with numbers of tests performed (for estimating testing and positivity rates) would simplify the surveillance system and eliminate underreporting of laboratory confirmed cases, while still providing necessary information for public health policies. PMID:27703536

  5. Ethics and privacy issues of a practice-based surveillance system

    PubMed Central

    Kotecha, Jyoti A.; Manca, Donna; Lambert-Lanning, Anita; Keshavjee, Karim; Drummond, Neil; Godwin, Marshall; Greiver, Michelle; Putnam, Wayne; Lussier, Marie-Thérèse; Birtwhistle, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To describe the challenges the Canadian Primary Care Sentinel Surveillance Network (CPCSSN) experienced with institutional research ethics boards (IREBs) when seeking approvals across jurisdictions and to provide recommendations for overcoming challenges of ethical review for multisite and multijurisdictional surveillance and research. Background The CPCSSN project collects and validates longitudinal primary care health information (relating to hypertension, diabetes, depression, chronic obstructive lung disease, and osteoarthritis) from electronic medical records across Canada. Privacy and data storage security policies and processes have been developed to protect participants’ privacy and confidentiality, and IREB approval is obtained in each participating jurisdiction. Inconsistent interpretation and application of privacy and ethical issues by IREBs delays and impedes research programs that could better inform us about chronic disease. Results The CPCSSN project’s experience with gaining approval from IREBs highlights the difficulty of conducting pan-Canadian health surveillance and multicentre research. Inconsistent IREB approvals to waive explicit individual informed consent produced particular challenges for researchers. Conclusion The CPCSSN experience highlights the need to develop a better process for researchers to obtain timely and consistent IREB approvals for multicentre surveillance and research. We suggest developing a specialized, national, centralized IREB responsible for approving multisite studies related to population health research. PMID:21998237

  6. Cleanup worker exposures to hazardous chemicals at a former nuclear weapons plant: piloting of an exposure surveillance system.

    PubMed

    LaMontagne, A D; Van Dyke, M V; Martyny, J W; Ruttenber, A J

    2001-02-01

    Cleanup of former U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapons production facilities involves potential exposures to various hazardous chemicals. We have collaboratively developed and piloted an exposure database and surveillance system for cleanup worker hazardous chemical exposure data with a cleanup contractor at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS). A unique system feature is the incorporation of a 34-category work task-coding scheme. This report presents an overview of the data captured by this system during development and piloting from March 1995 through August 1998. All air samples collected were entered into the system. Of the 859 breathing zone samples collected, 103 unique employees and 39 unique compounds were represented. Breathing zone exposure levels were usually low (86% of breathing zone samples were below analytical limits of detection). The use of respirators and other exposure controls was high (87 and 88%, respectively). Occasional high-level excursions did occur. Detailed quantitative summaries are provided for the six most monitored compounds: asbestos, beryllium, carbon tetrachloride, chromium, lead, and methylene chloride. Task and job title data were successfully collected for most samples, and showed specific cleanup activities by pipe fitters to be the most commonly represented in the database. Importantly, these results demonstrate the feasibility of the implementation of integrated exposure database and surveillance systems by practicing industrial hygienists employed in industry as well as the preventive potential and research uses of such systems. This exposure database and surveillance system--the central features of which are applicable in any industrial work setting--has enabled one of the first systematic quantitative characterizations of DOE cleanup worker exposures to hazardous chemicals. PMID:11217724

  7. Cleanup worker exposures to hazardous chemicals at a former nuclear weapons plant: piloting of an exposure surveillance system.

    PubMed

    LaMontagne, A D; Van Dyke, M V; Martyny, J W; Ruttenber, A J

    2001-02-01

    Cleanup of former U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapons production facilities involves potential exposures to various hazardous chemicals. We have collaboratively developed and piloted an exposure database and surveillance system for cleanup worker hazardous chemical exposure data with a cleanup contractor at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS). A unique system feature is the incorporation of a 34-category work task-coding scheme. This report presents an overview of the data captured by this system during development and piloting from March 1995 through August 1998. All air samples collected were entered into the system. Of the 859 breathing zone samples collected, 103 unique employees and 39 unique compounds were represented. Breathing zone exposure levels were usually low (86% of breathing zone samples were below analytical limits of detection). The use of respirators and other exposure controls was high (87 and 88%, respectively). Occasional high-level excursions did occur. Detailed quantitative summaries are provided for the six most monitored compounds: asbestos, beryllium, carbon tetrachloride, chromium, lead, and methylene chloride. Task and job title data were successfully collected for most samples, and showed specific cleanup activities by pipe fitters to be the most commonly represented in the database. Importantly, these results demonstrate the feasibility of the implementation of integrated exposure database and surveillance systems by practicing industrial hygienists employed in industry as well as the preventive potential and research uses of such systems. This exposure database and surveillance system--the central features of which are applicable in any industrial work setting--has enabled one of the first systematic quantitative characterizations of DOE cleanup worker exposures to hazardous chemicals.

  8. Ground Testing of Prototype Hardware and Processing Algorithms for a Wide Area Space Surveillance System (WASSS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, N.; Dressler, R. A.; Richtsmeier, S. S.; McLean, J.; Dao, P. D.; Murray-Krezan, J.; Fulcoly, D. O.

    2013-09-01

    Recent ground testing of a wide area camera system and automated star removal algorithms has demonstrated the potential to detect, quantify, and track deep space objects using small aperture cameras and on-board processors. The camera system, which was originally developed for a space-based Wide Area Space Surveillance System (WASSS), operates in a fixed-stare mode, continuously monitoring a wide swath of space and differentiating celestial objects from satellites based on differential motion across the field of view. It would have greatest utility in a LEO orbit to provide automated and continuous monitoring of deep space with high refresh rates, and with particular emphasis on the GEO belt and GEO transfer space. Continuous monitoring allows a concept of change detection and custody maintenance not possible with existing sensors. The detection approach is equally applicable to Earth-based sensor systems. A distributed system of such sensors, either Earth-based, or space-based, could provide automated, persistent night-time monitoring of all of deep space. The continuous monitoring provides a daily record of the light curves of all GEO objects above a certain brightness within the field of view. The daily updates of satellite light curves offers a means to identify specific satellites, to note changes in orientation and operational mode, and to queue other SSA assets for higher resolution queries. The data processing approach may also be applied to larger-aperture, higher resolution camera systems to extend the sensitivity towards dimmer objects. In order to demonstrate the utility of the WASSS system and data processing, a ground based field test was conducted in October 2012. We report here the results of the observations made at Magdalena Ridge Observatory using the prototype WASSS camera, which has a 4×60° field-of-view , <0.05° resolution, a 2.8 cm2 aperture, and the ability to view within 4° of the sun. A single camera pointed at the GEO belt provided a

  9. Characterization of the novel antifungal protein PgAFP and the encoding gene of Penicillium chrysogenum.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Martín, Andrea; Acosta, Raquel; Liddell, Susan; Núñez, Félix; Benito, M José; Asensio, Miguel A

    2010-04-01

    The strain RP42C from Penicillium chrysogenum produces a small protein PgAFP that inhibits the growth of some toxigenic molds. The molecular mass of the protein determined by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) was 6 494Da. PgAFP showed a cationic character with an estimated pI value of 9.22. Upon chemical and enzymatic treatments of PgAFP, no evidence for N- or O-glycosylations was obtained. Five partial sequences of PgAFP were obtained by Edman degradation and by ESI-MS/MS after trypsin and chymotrypsin digestions. Using degenerate primers from these peptide sequences, a segment of 70bp was amplified by PCR from pgafp gene. 5'- and 3'-ends of pgafp were obtained by RACE-PCR with gene-specific primers designed from the 70bp segment. The complete pgafp sequence of 404bp was obtained using primers designed from 5'- and 3'-ends. Comparison of genomic and cDNA sequences revealed a 279bp coding region interrupted by two introns of 63 and 62bp. The precursor of the antifungal protein consists of 92 amino acids and appears to be processed to the mature 58 amino acids PgAFP. The deduced amino acid sequence of the mature protein shares 79% identity to the antifungal protein Anafp from Aspergillus niger. PgAFP is a new protein that belongs to the group of small, cysteine-rich, and basic proteins with antifungal activity produced by ascomycetes. Given that P. chrysogenum is regarded as safe mold commonly found in foods, PgAFP may be useful to prevent growth of toxigenic molds in food and agricultural products.

  10. The surveillance of work-related pesticide illness: an application of the Sentinel Event Notification System for Occupational Risks (SENSOR)

    PubMed Central

    Maizlish, N; Rudolph, L; Dervin, K

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. In response to limitations in state-based occupational disease surveillance, the California Department of Health Services developed a model for surveillance of acute, work-related pesticide illness. The objectives were to enhance case reporting and link case reports to preventive interventions. METHODS. Elements from surveillance of communicable diseases and sentinel health events were used to integrate a model into the preexisting system in one agricultural country. RESULTS. Between 1988 and 1991, 45 Fresno County health care providers reported 230 suspected cases, of which 217 from 80 work sites met reporting guidelines. Risk factors were profiled from interviews of 81 prioritized case patients and 36 employers. Fifteen work sites were visited and 117 recommendations were made, of which 6% were identified in enforcement inspections. Pest management experts consulted with growers on reducing future pesticide use. CONCLUSIONS. Risk factors for pesticide illness were prevalent. Agricultural inspectors did not detect routine and serious hazards. Integrated pest management should be expanded and linked to occupational health. Agricultural enforcement personnel should be oriented and trained in occupational safety and health. PMID:7762714

  11. A Vision-Based Driver Nighttime Assistance and Surveillance System Based on Intelligent Image Sensing Techniques and a Heterogamous Dual-Core Embedded System Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yen-Lin; Chiang, Hsin-Han; Chiang, Chuan-Yen; Liu, Chuan-Ming; Yuan, Shyan-Ming; Wang, Jenq-Haur

    2012-01-01

    This study proposes a vision-based intelligent nighttime driver assistance and surveillance system (VIDASS system) implemented by a set of embedded software components and modules, and integrates these modules to accomplish a component-based system framework on an embedded heterogamous dual-core platform. Therefore, this study develops and implements computer vision and sensing techniques of nighttime vehicle detection, collision warning determination, and traffic event recording. The proposed system processes the road-scene frames in front of the host car captured from CCD sensors mounted on the host vehicle. These vision-based sensing and processing technologies are integrated and implemented on an ARM-DSP heterogamous dual-core embedded platform. Peripheral devices, including image grabbing devices, communication modules, and other in-vehicle control devices, are also integrated to form an in-vehicle-embedded vision-based nighttime driver assistance and surveillance system. PMID:22736956

  12. Dead bird surveillance as an early warning system for West Nile virus.

    PubMed Central

    Eidson, M.; Kramer, L.; Stone, W.; Hagiwara, Y.; Schmit, K.

    2001-01-01

    As part of West Nile (WN) virus surveillance in New York State in 2000, 71,332 ill or dead birds were reported; 17,571 (24.6%) of these were American Crows. Of 3,976 dead birds tested, 1,263 (31.8%) were positive for WN virus. Viral activity was first confirmed in 60 of the state's 62 counties with WN virus-positive dead birds. Pathologic findings compatible with WN virus were seen in 1,576 birds (39.6% of those tested), of which 832 (52.8%) were positive for WN virus. Dead crow reports preceded confirmation of viral activity by several months, and WN virus-positive birds were found >3 months before the onset of human cases. Dead bird surveillance appears to be valuable for early detection of WN virus and for guiding public education and mosquito control efforts. PMID:11585524

  13. Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B) System for Ownership and Traffic Situational Awareness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arteaga, Ricardo A. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention proposes an automatic dependent surveillance broadcast (ADS-B) architecture and process, in which priority aircraft and ADS-B IN traffic information are included in the transmission of data through the telemetry communications to a remote ground control station. The present invention further proposes methods for displaying general aviation traffic information in three and/or four dimension trajectories using an industry standard Earth browser for increased situation awareness and enhanced visual acquisition of traffic for conflict detection. The present invention enable the applications of enhanced visual acquisition of traffic, traffic alerts, and en-route and terminal surveillance used to augment pilot situational awareness through ADS-B IN display and information in three or four dimensions for self-separation awareness.

  14. Antifreeze Protein (AFP) and Antifreeze Glycoprotein (AFGP) Kinetics at the Ice/Solution Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zepeda, Salvador; Nakaya, Hiroyuki; Uda, Yukihiro; Yokoyama, Etsuro; Furukawa, Yoshinori

    2007-03-01

    AFPs and AFGPs found in some fish, plants and insects are a necessary tool for surviving sub-freezing environments. They occur in a wide range of compositions and structure, but to some extent they all accomplish the same functions: they suppress the freezing temperature, inhibit recrystallization, and modify ice crystal growth. Here, we observe the exact location of AFGPs, Type I and Type III AFPs by 1-directional growth experiments using fluorescence and phase contrast microscopy as well as free growth experiments using 3-d confocal microscopy. In all cases, the proteins clearly adsorb at the interface. By comparing the fluorescent image with the corresponding phase contrast image we find that AFGPs incorporate only into the solid in veins and not into the ice lattice structure. Type I AFPs show similar behavior as AFGPs, but type III AFPs adsorb to specific planes within the ice lattice. We have also calculated the diffusion constants and the surface adsorption concentration from both types of experiments. Our results indicated that the different types of AFPs or AFGPs accomplish essentially the same function in slightly different ways and that it is not necessary for the protein adsorption to the ice interface to be as rigid as once thought.

  15. Canadian Paediatric Surveillance Program: Two years of a system for investigating unusual paediatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Sockett, P

    1998-07-01

    The Canadian Paediatric Surveillance Program (CPSP) is an active surveillance program for rare and unusual paediatric conditions of public health importance in Canada. The program was initiated in 1996 as a joint venture of the Canadian Paediatric Society (CPS) and the Laboratory Centre for Disease Control (LCDC), and is currently overseen by a steering committee representing the fields of paediatrics, epidemiology, genetics and public health. In the first two years of activity seven conditions were reported to the program via a monthly report card mailed to all clinically active paediatricians in Canada. Respondents were asked to indicate on the card the number of new cases seen for each condition and to ensure that all nil reports were also returned. Case reports were followed up with detailed report forms requesting case specific information which, when returned to the CPS, were forwarded to the principal investigator for assessment and analysis. Studies are for a minimum of one year, and new conditions may be included in the program following review by the steering committee and confirmation of ethical approval. Future development of the program includes linkage with a growing international network of paediatric surveillance units and the potential for collaboration in international studies of conditions of common interest.

  16. Nation-Wide, Web-Based, Geographic Information System for the Integrated Surveillance and Control of Dengue Fever in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Ávila, Juan Eugenio; Rodríguez, Mario-Henry; Santos-Luna, René; Sánchez-Castañeda, Veronica; Román-Pérez, Susana; Ríos-Salgado, Víctor Hugo; Salas-Sarmiento, Jesús Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Dengue fever incidence and its geographical distribution are increasing throughout the world. Quality and timely information is essential for its prevention and control. A web based, geographically enabled, dengue integral surveillance system (Dengue-GIS) was developed for the nation-wide collection, integration, analysis and reporting of geo-referenced epidemiologic, entomologic, and control interventions data. Consensus in the design and practical operation of the system was a key factor for its acceptance. Working with information systems already implemented as a starting point facilitated its acceptance by officials and operative personnel. Dengue-GIS provides the geographical detail needed to plan, asses and evaluate the impact of control activities. The system is beginning to be adopted as a knowledge base by vector control programs. It is used to generate evidence on impact and cost-effectiveness of control activities, promoting the use of information for decision making at all levels of the vector control program. Dengue-GIS has also been used as a hypothesis generator for the academic community. This GIS-based model system for dengue surveillance and the experience gathered during its development and implementation could be useful in other dengue endemic countries and extended to other infectious or chronic diseases. PMID:23936394

  17. Nation-wide, web-based, geographic information system for the integrated surveillance and control of dengue fever in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Ávila, Juan Eugenio; Rodríguez, Mario-Henry; Santos-Luna, René; Sánchez-Castañeda, Veronica; Román-Pérez, Susana; Ríos-Salgado, Víctor Hugo; Salas-Sarmiento, Jesús Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Dengue fever incidence and its geographical distribution are increasing throughout the world. Quality and timely information is essential for its prevention and control. A web based, geographically enabled, dengue integral surveillance system (Dengue-GIS) was developed for the nation-wide collection, integration, analysis and reporting of geo-referenced epidemiologic, entomologic, and control interventions data. Consensus in the design and practical operation of the system was a key factor for its acceptance. Working with information systems already implemented as a starting point facilitated its acceptance by officials and operative personnel. Dengue-GIS provides the geographical detail needed to plan, asses and evaluate the impact of control activities. The system is beginning to be adopted as a knowledge base by vector control programs. It is used to generate evidence on impact and cost-effectiveness of control activities, promoting the use of information for decision making at all levels of the vector control program. Dengue-GIS has also been used as a hypothesis generator for the academic community. This GIS-based model system for dengue surveillance and the experience gathered during its development and implementation could be useful in other dengue endemic countries and extended to other infectious or chronic diseases.

  18. Need of surveillance response systems to combat Ebola outbreaks and other emerging infectious diseases in African countries

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    There is growing concern in Sub-Saharan Africa about the spread of the Ebola virus disease (EVD), formerly known as Ebola haemorrhagic fever, and the public health burden that it ensues. Since 1976, there have been 885,343 suspected and laboratory confirmed cases of EVD and the disease has claimed 2,512 cases and 932 fatality in West Africa. There are certain requirements that must be met when responding to EVD outbreaks and this process could incur certain challenges. For the purposes of this paper, five have been identified: (i) the deficiency in the development and implementation of surveillance response systems against Ebola and others infectious disease outbreaks in Africa; (ii) the lack of education and knowledge resulting in an EVD outbreak triggering panic, anxiety, psychosocial trauma, isolation and dignity impounding, stigmatisation, community ostracism and resistance to associated socio-ecological and public health consequences; (iii) limited financial resources, human technical capacity and weak community and national health system operational plans for prevention and control responses, practices and management; (iv) inadequate leadership and coordination; and (v) the lack of development of new strategies, tools and approaches, such as improved diagnostics and novel therapies including vaccines which can assist in preventing, controlling and containing Ebola outbreaks as well as the spread of the disease. Hence, there is an urgent need to develop and implement an active early warning alert and surveillance response system for outbreak response and control of emerging infectious diseases. Understanding the unending risks of transmission dynamics and resurgence is essential in implementing rapid effective response interventions tailored to specific local settings and contexts. Therefore, the following actions are recommended: (i) national and regional inter-sectorial and trans-disciplinary surveillance response systems that include early warnings, as well

  19. A high-resolution geospatial surveillance-response system for malaria elimination in Solomon Islands and Vanuatu

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A high-resolution surveillance-response system has been developed within a geographic information system (GIS) to support malaria elimination in the Pacific. This paper examines the application of a GIS-based spatial decision support system (SDSS) to automatically locate and map the distribution of confirmed malaria cases, rapidly classify active transmission foci, and guide targeted responses in elimination zones. Methods Customized SDSS-based surveillance-response systems were developed in the three elimination provinces of Isabel and Temotu, Solomon Islands and Tafea, Vanuatu. Confirmed malaria cases were reported to provincial malaria offices upon diagnosis and updated into the respective SDSS as part of routine operations throughout 2011. Cases were automatically mapped by household within the SDSS using existing geographical reconnaissance (GR) data. GIS queries were integrated into the SDSS-framework to automatically classify and map transmission foci based on the spatiotemporal distribution of cases, highlight current areas of interest (AOI) regions to conduct foci-specific targeted response, and extract supporting household and population data. GIS simulations were run to detect AOIs triggered throughout 2011 in each elimination province and conduct a sensitivity analysis to calculate the proportion of positive cases, households and population highlighted in AOI regions of a varying geographic radius. Results A total of 183 confirmed cases were reported and mapped using the SDSS throughout 2011 and used to describe transmission within a target population of 90,354. Automatic AOI regions were also generated within each provincial SDSS identifying geographic areas to conduct response. 82.5% of confirmed cases were automatically geo-referenced and mapped at the household level, with 100% of remaining cases geo-referenced at a village level. Data from the AOI analysis indicated different stages of progress in each province, highlighting operational

  20. Development of web-based geocoding applications for the population-based Birth Defects Surveillance System in New York state.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Le, Linh H; Wang, Xiaohang; Tao, Zhen; Druschel, Charlotte D; Cross, Philip K; Hwang, Syni-An

    2010-01-01

    Geographic information systems (GIS) have been widely used in mapping health data and analyzing the geographic distribution of disease. Mapping and spatially analyzing data normally begins with geocoding, a process of assigning geographic coordinates to an address so that it can be displayed and analyzed on a map. The objectives of this project were to develop Web-based geocoding applications for the New York State birth defects surveillance system to geocode, both automatically and interactively, the birth defect cases of the Congenital Malformations Registry (CMR) and evaluate the geocoding results. Geocoding software, in conjunction with a Java-based development tool (J Server), was used to develop the Web-based applications on the New York State Department of Health's Health Commerce System. The Web-based geocoding applications have been developed and implemented for the New York State birth defects surveillance system. These menu-driven applications empower users to conduct geocoding activities using only a PC and a Web browser without the installation of any GIS software. These powerful tools provide automatic, real-time, street-level geocoding of the routinely collected birth defects records in the CMR. Up to 92% of the CMR records have been geocoded with addresses exactly matched to the reference addresses on house number, street name, and city or zip code. PMID:20795565

  1. A Google Earth-based surveillance system for schistosomiasis japonica implemented in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River, China

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Due to the success of the national schistosomiasis control programme in China, transmission has been sufficiently reduced in many areas to severely limit identification of areas at risk by conventional snail surveys only. In this study, we imported Google Earth technology and a Global Positioning System (GPS) into the monitoring system for schistosomiasis surveillance of the banks of the Yangtze River in Jiangsu Province, China. Methods A total of 45 sites were selected and the risk was assessed monthly by water exposure of sentinel mice at these sites from May to September in 2009 and 2010. The results were assembled and broadcast via the Google Earth platform. Results The intensity of schistosomiasis transmission showed peaks of risk in June and September of 2009, while there was only one small peak in June in 2010 as the number of detected positive transmission sites dropped dramatically that year thanks to improved mollusciciding. River ports were found to be areas of particular risk, but ferry terminals and other centres of river-related activities were also problematic. Conclusions The results confirm that the surveillance system can be rapidly updated and easily maintained, which proves the Google Earth approach to be a user-friendly, inexpensive warning system for schistosomiasis risk. PMID:22117601

  2. Molecular Insights for Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and Soil-Transmitted Helminths from a Facility-Based Surveillance System in Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    Velasquez, Daniel E.; Arvelo, Wences; Cama, Vitaliano A.; López, Beatriz; Reyes, Lissette; Roellig, Dawn M.; Kahn, Geoffrey D.; Lindblade, Kimberly A.

    2011-01-01

    We molecularly characterized samples with Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and soil-transmitted helminths from a facility-based surveillance system for diarrhea in Santa Rosa, Guatemala. The DNA sequence analysis determined the presence of Giardia assemblages A (N = 7) and B (N = 12) and, Cryptosporidium hominis (N = 2) and Cryptosporidium parvum (N = 2), suggestive of different transmission cycles. All 41 samples with soil-transmitted helminths did not have the β-tubulin mutation described for benzimidazole resistance, suggesting potential usefulness in mass drug administration campaigns. PMID:22144459

  3. Should mortality data for the elderly be collected routinely in emergencies? The practical challenges of age-disaggregated surveillance systems.

    PubMed

    du Cros, Philipp; Venis, Sarah; Karunakara, Unni

    2013-11-01

    Data on the elderly are rarely collected in humanitarian emergencies. During a refugee crisis in South Sudan, Médecins Sans Frontières developed a prospective mortality surveillance system collecting data for those aged ≥50 years and found that the elderly were dying at five times the rate of those aged 5-49 years. Practical and ethical issues arose. Were reported ages accurate? Since no baseline exists, what does the mortality rate mean? Should programmatic changes be made without evidence that these would reduce the elderly mortality rate? We outline issues to be addressed to enable informed decisions on response to elderly populations in emergency settings. PMID:24114674

  4. [A case of AFP and PIVKA-II producing gastric carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hiroki; Ishii, Suguru; Akutsu, Noriyuki; Ohashi, Hirokazu; Tokuno, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Takashi; Okuda, Hiroyuki; Shinomura, Yasuhisa; Imai, Kohzoh

    2006-04-01

    A 71-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with edema of the ambilateral crura and liver dysfunction. Serum levels of AFP and PIVKA-II were both abnormally high. An abdominal CT revealed many low density masses in both lobes of the liver. Endoscopic examination and gastric radiography showed a Type 1 tumor in the fornix of the stomach. Biopsy specimen showed poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. Immunohistochemical stains demonstrated the presence of AFP and PIVKA-II in tumor cells. A diagnosis of AFP and PIVKA-II producing gastric carcinoma with liver metastasis was made and the internal use of S-1 was started. The result of treatment was determined to be partial response. However, the condition of his entire body gradually worsened and he died of hepatic insufficiency.

  5. Synergistic Activity of the Plant Defensin HsAFP1 and Caspofungin against Candida albicans Biofilms and Planktonic Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Peta J.; Craik, David J.; Spincemaille, Pieter; Cassiman, David; Braem, Annabel; Vleugels, Jozef; Nibbering, Peter H.; Drijfhout, Jan Wouter; De Coninck, Barbara; Cammue, Bruno P. A.; Thevissen, Karin

    2015-01-01

    Plant defensins are small, cysteine-rich peptides with antifungal activity against a broad range of yeast and fungi. In this study we investigated the antibiofilm activity of a plant defensin from coral bells (Heuchera sanguinea), i.e. HsAFP1. To this end, HsAFP1 was heterologously produced using Pichia pastoris as a host. The recombinant peptide rHsAFP1 showed a similar antifungal activity against the plant pathogen Fusarium culmorum as native HsAFP1 purified from seeds. NMR analysis revealed that rHsAFP1 consists of an α-helix and a triple-stranded antiparallel β-sheet stabilised by four intramolecular disulfide bonds. We found that rHsAFP1 can inhibit growth of the human pathogen Candida albicans as well as prevent C. albicans biofilm formation with a BIC50 (i.e. the minimum rHsAFP1 concentration required to inhibit biofilm formation by 50% as compared to control treatment) of 11.00 ± 1.70 μM. As such, this is the first report of a plant defensin exhibiting inhibitory activity against fungal biofilms. We further analysed the potential of rHsAFP1 to increase the activity of the conventional antimycotics caspofungin and amphotericin B towards C. albicans. Synergistic effects were observed between rHsAFP1 and these compounds against both planktonic C. albicans cells and biofilms. Most notably, concentrations of rHsAFP1 as low as 0.53 μM resulted in a synergistic activity with caspofungin against pre-grown C. albicans biofilms. rHsAFP1 was found non-toxic towards human HepG2 cells up to 40 μM, thereby supporting the lack of a general cytotoxic activity as previously reported for HsAFP1. A structure-function study with 24-mer synthetic peptides spanning the entire HsAFP1 sequence revealed the importance of the γ-core and its adjacent regions for HsAFP1 antibiofilm activity. These findings point towards broad applications of rHsAFP1 and its derivatives in the field of antifungal and antibiofilm drug development. PMID:26248029

  6. Synergistic Activity of the Plant Defensin HsAFP1 and Caspofungin against Candida albicans Biofilms and Planktonic Cultures.

    PubMed

    Vriens, Kim; Cools, Tanne L; Harvey, Peta J; Craik, David J; Spincemaille, Pieter; Cassiman, David; Braem, Annabel; Vleugels, Jozef; Nibbering, Peter H; Drijfhout, Jan Wouter; De Coninck, Barbara; Cammue, Bruno P A; Thevissen, Karin

    2015-01-01

    Plant defensins are small, cysteine-rich peptides with antifungal activity against a broad range of yeast and fungi. In this study we investigated the antibiofilm activity of a plant defensin from coral bells (Heuchera sanguinea), i.e. HsAFP1. To this end, HsAFP1 was heterologously produced using Pichia pastoris as a host. The recombinant peptide rHsAFP1 showed a similar antifungal activity against the plant pathogen Fusarium culmorum as native HsAFP1 purified from seeds. NMR analysis revealed that rHsAFP1 consists of an α-helix and a triple-stranded antiparallel β-sheet stabilised by four intramolecular disulfide bonds. We found that rHsAFP1 can inhibit growth of the human pathogen Candida albicans as well as prevent C. albicans biofilm formation with a BIC50 (i.e. the minimum rHsAFP1 concentration required to inhibit biofilm formation by 50% as compared to control treatment) of 11.00 ± 1.70 μM. As such, this is the first report of a plant defensin exhibiting inhibitory activity against fungal biofilms. We further analysed the potential of rHsAFP1 to increase the activity of the conventional antimycotics caspofungin and amphotericin B towards C. albicans. Synergistic effects were observed between rHsAFP1 and these compounds against both planktonic C. albicans cells and biofilms. Most notably, concentrations of rHsAFP1 as low as 0.53 μM resulted in a synergistic activity with caspofungin against pre-grown C. albicans biofilms. rHsAFP1 was found non-toxic towards human HepG2 cells up to 40 μM, thereby supporting the lack of a general cytotoxic activity as previously reported for HsAFP1. A structure-function study with 24-mer synthetic peptides spanning the entire HsAFP1 sequence revealed the importance of the γ-core and its adjacent regions for HsAFP1 antibiofilm activity. These findings point towards broad applications of rHsAFP1 and its derivatives in the field of antifungal and antibiofilm drug development. PMID:26248029

  7. Surgical wound infection rates by wound class, operative procedure, and patient risk index. National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System.

    PubMed

    Culver, D H; Horan, T C; Gaynes, R P; Martone, W J; Jarvis, W R; Emori, T G; Banerjee, S N; Edwards, J R; Tolson, J S; Henderson, T S

    1991-09-16

    To perform a valid comparison of rates among surgeons, among hospitals, or across time, surgical wound infection (SWI) rates must account for the variation in patients' underlying severity of illness and other important risk factors. From January 1987 through December 1990, 44 National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System hospitals reported data collected under the detailed option of the surgical patient surveillance component protocol, which includes definitions of eligible patients, operations, and nosocomial infections. Pooled mean SWI rates (number of infections per 100 operations) within each of the categories of the traditional wound classification system were 2.1, 3.3, 6.4, and 7.1, respectively. A risk index was developed to predict a surgical patient's risk of acquiring an SWI. The risk index score, ranging from 0 to 3, is the number of risk factors present among the following: (1) a patient with an American Society of Anesthesiologists preoperative assessment score of 3, 4, or 5, (2) an operation classified as contaminated or dirty-infected, and (3) an operation lasting over T hours, where T depends upon the operative procedure being performed. The SWI rates for patients with scores of 0, 1, 2, and 3 were 1.5, 2.9, 6.8, and 13.0, respectively. The risk index is a significantly better predictor of SWI risk than the traditional wound classification system and performs well across a broad range of operative procedures.

  8. Implementation of a data fusion algorithm for RODS, a real-time outbreak and disease surveillance system.

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Douglas (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Gray, Genetha Anne (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA)

    2005-10-01

    Due to the nature of many infectious agents, such as anthrax, symptoms may either take several days to manifest or resemble those of less serious illnesses leading to misdiagnosis. Thus, bioterrorism attacks that include the release of such agents are particularly dangerous and potentially deadly. For this reason, a system is needed for the quick and correct identification of disease outbreaks. The Real-time Outbreak Disease Surveillance System (RODS), initially developed by Carnegie Mellon University and the University of Pittsburgh, was created to meet this need. The RODS software implements different classifiers for pertinent health surveillance data in order to determine whether or not an outbreak has occurred. In an effort to improve the capability of RODS at detecting outbreaks, we incorporate a data fusion method. Data fusion is used to improve the results of a single classification by combining the output of multiple classifiers. This paper documents the first stages of the development of a data fusion system that can combine the output of the classifiers included in RODS.

  9. Surveillance and Outbreak Response Management System (SORMAS) to support the control of the Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa.

    PubMed

    Fähnrich, C; Denecke, K; Adeoye, O O; Benzler, J; Claus, H; Kirchner, G; Mall, S; Richter, R; Schapranow, M P; Schwarz, N; Tom-Aba, D; Uflacker, M; Poggensee, G; Krause, G

    2015-03-26

    In the context of controlling the current outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD), the World Health Organization claimed that 'critical determinant of epidemic size appears to be the speed of implementation of rigorous control measures', i.e. immediate follow-up of contact persons during 21 days after exposure, isolation and treatment of cases, decontamination, and safe burials. We developed the Surveillance and Outbreak Response Management System (SORMAS) to improve efficiency and timeliness of these measures. We used the Design Thinking methodology to systematically analyse experiences from field workers and the Ebola Emergency Operations Centre (EOC) after successful control of the EVD outbreak in Nigeria. We developed a process model with seven personas representing the procedures of EVD outbreak control. The SORMAS system architecture combines latest In-Memory Database (IMDB) technology via SAP HANA (in-memory, relational database management system), enabling interactive data analyses, and established SAP cloud tools, such as SAP Afaria (a mobile device management software). The user interface consists of specific front-ends for smartphones and tablet devices, which are independent from physical configurations. SORMAS allows real-time, bidirectional information exchange between field workers and the EOC, ensures supervision of contact follow-up, automated status reports, and GPS tracking. SORMAS may become a platform for outbreak management and improved routine surveillance of any infectious disease. Furthermore, the SORMAS process model may serve as framework for EVD outbreak modeling.

  10. Trend of diseases among Iranian pilgrims during five consecutive years based on a Syndromic Surveillance System in Hajj

    PubMed Central

    Razavi, Seyed Mansour; Sabouri-Kashani, Ahmad; Ziaee-Ardakani, Hossein; Tabatabaei, Aminreza; Karbakhsh, Mojgan; Sadeghipour, Hamidreza; Mortazavi-Tabatabaei, Seyed Abdolreza; Salamati, Payman

    2013-01-01

    Background Every year more than 2 million people depart from Iran to Saudi Arabia for Hajj ritual whichcan be faced with some different diseases. There are not much information about frequencies and trend of diseasesin Hajj. The main objective of this study was to determine the trend of prevalent diseases during five consecutiveHajj rituals among Iranian pilgrims. Methods We established a specific surveillance system for all Iranian pilgrims who had participated in Hajjfrom 2004 to 2008. We monitored the pilgrims’ health status before departure, through their journey. The understudieddiseases were 19 selected types of diseases in the Hajj. The occurrences of diseases were recorded on aresearchers-made questionnaire. We used chi-square test for analysis with the alpha lower than 5% to reject thenull hypothesis. Results During 5 consecutive periods, a total of 254,823 of Iranian pilgrims were monitored for more commondiseases with this system. The most prevalent diseases were as follows: at least one type of respiratory involvement(71.26%), common cold like syndrome (47.15%), and musculoskeletal disorders (18.67%), The frequencyof respiratory involvement was lower in 2006 than other years (p <0.001).There were statistically significantdifferences between the numbers of hospitalization and patients who were referred back to Iran with theyear of Hajj (p <0.001). Conclusion Health managers should be informed about trend and frequency of more prevalent diseases inHajj. Easy access to health information via such surveillance system can be possible. PMID:24926178

  11. [Influenza surveillance].

    PubMed

    Bednarska, Karolina; Hallmann-Szelińska, Ewelina; Kondratiuk, Katarzyna; Brydak, Lidia B

    2016-01-01

    Influenza surveillance was established in 1947. From this moment WHO (World Health Organization) has been coordinating international cooperation, with a goal of monitoring influenza virus activity, effective diagnostic of the circulating viruses and informing society about epidemics or pandemics, as well as about emergence of new subtypes of influenza virus type A. Influenza surveillance is an important task, because it enables people to prepare themselves for battle with the virus that is constantly mutating, what leads to circulation of new and often more virulent strains of influenza in human population. As vaccination is the most effective method