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Sample records for afp surveillance system

  1. Surveillance of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) in Lombardy, Northern Italy, from 1997 to 2011 in the context of the national AFP surveillance system.

    PubMed

    Pellegrinelli, Laura; Primache, Valeria; Fiore, Lucia; Amato, Concetta; Fiore, Stefano; Bubba, Laura; Pariani, Elena; Amendola, Antonella; Barbi, Maria; Binda, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    An Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP) surveillance system was set up in Lombardy (Northern Italy) in 1997 in the framework of the national AFP surveillance system, as part of the polio eradication initiative by the World Health Organization (WHO). This surveillance system can now be used to detect Poliovirus (PV) reintroductions from endemic countries. This study aimed at describing the results of the AFP surveillance in Lombardy, from 1997 to 2011.   Overall, 131 AFP cases in Lombardy were reported with a mean annual incidence rate of 0.7/100 000 children <15 years of age (range: 0.3/100 000-1.1/100 000). The sensitivity of the surveillance system was optimal from 2001-2003. The monthly distribution of AFP cases was typical with peaks in November, in January, and in March. The major clinical diagnoses associated with AFP were Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS, 40%) and encephalomyelitis/myelitis (13%). According to the virological results, no poliomyelitis cases were caused by wild PV infections, but two Vaccine-Associated Paralytic Paralysis (VAPP) cases were reported in 1997 when the Sabin oral polio vaccine (OPV) was still being administered in Italy. Since a surveillance system is deemed sensitive if at least one case of AFP per 100,000 children <15 years of age is detected each year, our surveillance system needs some improvement and must be maintained until global poliovirus eradication will be declared. PMID:25483546

  2. Surveillance of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) in Lombardy, Northern Italy, from 1997 to 2011 in the context of the national AFP surveillance system.

    PubMed

    Pellegrinelli, Laura; Primache, Valeria; Fiore, Lucia; Amato, Concetta; Fiore, Stefano; Bubba, Laura; Pariani, Elena; Amendola, Antonella; Barbi, Maria; Binda, Sandro

    2014-08-28

    An Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP) surveillance system was set up in Lombardy (Northern Italy) in 1997 in the framework of the national AFP surveillance system, as part of the polio eradication initiative by the World Health Organization (WHO). This surveillance system can now be used to detect Poliovirus (PV) reintroductions from endemic countries. This study aimed at describing the results of the AFP surveillance in Lombardy, from 1997 to 2011.   Overall, 131 AFP cases in Lombardy were reported with a mean annual incidence rate of 0.7/100 000 children<15 years of age (range: 0.3/100 000-1.1/100 000). The sensitivity of the surveillance system was optimal from 2001-2003. The monthly distribution of AFP cases was typical with peaks in November, in January, and in March. The major clinical diagnoses associated with AFP were Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS, 40%) and encephalomyelitis/myelitis (13%). According to the virological results, no poliomyelitis cases were caused by wild PV infections, but two Vaccine-Associated Paralytic Paralysis (VAPP) cases were reported in 1997 when the Sabin oral polio vaccine (OPV) was still being administered in Italy. Since a surveillance system is deemed sensitive if at least one case of AFP per 100,000 children<15 years of age is detected each year, our surveillance system needs some improvement and must be maintained until global poliovirus eradication will be declared. PMID:25221838

  3. Surveillance of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) in Lombardy, Northern Italy, from 1997 to 2011 in the context of the national AFP surveillance system

    PubMed Central

    Pellegrinelli, Laura; Primache, Valeria; Fiore, Lucia; Amato, Concetta; Fiore, Stefano; Bubba, Laura; Pariani, Elena; Amendola, Antonella; Barbi, Maria; Binda, Sandro

    2014-01-01

    An Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP) surveillance system was set up in Lombardy (Northern Italy) in 1997 in the framework of the national AFP surveillance system, as part of the polio eradication initiative by the World Health Organization (WHO). This surveillance system can now be used to detect Poliovirus (PV) reintroductions from endemic countries. This study aimed at describing the results of the AFP surveillance in Lombardy, from 1997 to 2011. Overall, 131 AFP cases in Lombardy were reported with a mean annual incidence rate of 0.7/100 000 children <15 years of age (range: 0.3/100 000–1.1/100 000). The sensitivity of the surveillance system was optimal from 2001–2003. The monthly distribution of AFP cases was typical with peaks in November, in January, and in March. The major clinical diagnoses associated with AFP were Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS, 40%) and encephalomyelitis/myelitis (13%). According to the virological results, no poliomyelitis cases were caused by wild PV infections, but two Vaccine-Associated Paralytic Paralysis (VAPP) cases were reported in 1997 when the Sabin oral polio vaccine (OPV) was still being administered in Italy. Since a surveillance system is deemed sensitive if at least one case of AFP per 100,000 children <15 years of age is detected each year, our surveillance system needs some improvement and must be maintained until global poliovirus eradication will be declared. PMID:25483546

  4. Evaluation of the Acute Flacid Paralysis (AFP) Surveillance System in Bikita District Masvingo Province 2010

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background AFP is a rare syndrome and serves as a proxy for poliomyelitis. The main objective of AFP surveillance is to detect circulating wild polio virus and provide data for developing effective prevention and control strategies as well planning and decision making. Bikita district failed to detect a case for the past two years. Findings A total of 31 health workers from 14 health centres were interviewed. Health worker knowledge on AFP was low in Bikita. The system was acceptable, flexible, and representative but not stable and not sensitive since it missed1 AFP case. The system was not useful to the district since data collected was not locally used in anyway. The cost of running the system was high. The district had no adequate resources to run the system. Reasons for not reporting cases was that the mothers were not bringing children with AFP and ignorance of health workers on syndromes captured under AFP. Conclusion Health worker’s knowledge on AFP was low and all interviewed workers needed training surveillance. The system was found to be flexible but unacceptable. Reasons for failure to detect AFP cases could be, no cases reporting to the centres, lack of knowledge on health workers hence failure to recognise symptoms, high staff turnover. PMID:24742014

  5. 21 CFR 866.6030 - AFP-L3% immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false AFP-L3% immunological test system. 866.6030 Section 866.6030 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Tumor Associated Antigen immunological...

  6. 21 CFR 866.6030 - AFP-L3% immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false AFP-L3% immunological test system. 866.6030 Section 866.6030 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Tumor Associated Antigen immunological...

  7. 21 CFR 866.6030 - AFP-L3% immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false AFP-L3% immunological test system. 866.6030 Section 866.6030 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Tumor Associated Antigen immunological...

  8. Poliomyelitis surveillance.

    PubMed

    1998-04-01

    Attention to the 4 poliomyelitis surveillance indicators approved by the International Commission for the Certification of Poliomyelitis Eradication (ICCPE) in 1994, has deteriorated since the Americas were declared free from wild poliovirus. The indicators are designed to measure the performance of health services and the sensitivity of the surveillance system to detect wild poliovirus circulating in the community. Sensitivity is the most important characteristic of the poliomyelitis surveillance system and it is measured by the rate of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) per 100,000 under age 15 years. As of March 21, 1998, the AFP rate reached its lowest level yet in the Americas, with only Bolivia, Chile, and Honduras presenting an acceptable rate (the analysis does not include the US and Canada). The other countries in the Caribbean region and Latin America had rates under 1 AFP case per 100,000 children under age 15. It follows that only 6% of children under age 15 in the region are currently protected by a sensitive AFP surveillance system. Poliovirus may therefore be circulating silently in the region. Renewed attention must be given to the AFP surveillance indicators. PMID:12321498

  9. Mortar launched surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Carl E.; Carlton, Lindley A.

    2001-02-01

    Accurate Automation Corporation has completed the conceptual design of a mortar launched air vehicle system to perform close range or over-the-horizon surveillance missions. Law enforcement and military units require an organic capability to obtain real time intelligence information of time critical targets. Our design will permit law enforcement to detect, classify, locate and track these time critical targets. The surveillance system is a simple, unmanned fixed-winged aircraft deployed via a conventional mortar tube. The aircraft's flight surfaces are deployed following mortar launch to permit maximum range and time over target. The aircraft and sensor system are field retrievable. The aircraft can be configured with an engine to permit extended time over target or range. The aircraft has an integrated surveillance sensor system; a programmable CMOS sensor array. The integrated RF transmitted to capable of down- linking real-time video over line-of-sight distances exceeding 10 kilometers. The major benefit of the modular design is the ability to provide surveillance or tracking quickly at a low cost. Vehicle operational radius and sensor field coverage as well as design trade results of vehicle range and endurance performance and payload capacity at operational range are presented for various mortar configurations.

  10. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System

    MedlinePlus

    ... What's this? Submit Button Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir New ... Minority Data Released! The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors six types of health-risk behaviors ...

  11. Wallops Ship Surveillance System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Donna C.

    2011-01-01

    Approved as a Wallops control center backup system, the Wallops Ship Surveillance Software is a day-of-launch risk analysis tool for spaceport activities. The system calculates impact probabilities and displays ship locations relative to boundary lines. It enables rapid analysis of possible flight paths to preclude the need to cancel launches and allow execution of launches in a timely manner. Its design is based on low-cost, large-customer- base elements including personal computers, the Windows operating system, C/C++ object-oriented software, and network interfaces. In conformance with the NASA software safety standard, the system is designed to ensure that it does not falsely report a safe-for-launch condition. To improve the current ship surveillance method, the system is designed to prevent delay of launch under a safe-for-launch condition. A single workstation is designated the controller of the official ship information and the official risk analysis. Copies of this information are shared with other networked workstations. The program design is divided into five subsystems areas: 1. Communication Link -- threads that control the networking of workstations; 2. Contact List -- a thread that controls a list of protected item (ocean vessel) information; 3. Hazard List -- threads that control a list of hazardous item (debris) information and associated risk calculation information; 4. Display -- threads that control operator inputs and screen display outputs; and 5. Archive -- a thread that controls archive file read and write access. Currently, most of the hazard list thread and parts of other threads are being reused as part of a new ship surveillance system, under the SureTrak project.

  12. Systems for persistent surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Keith

    2011-09-01

    The requirements for a persistent wide-area surveillance system are discussed in the context of evolving military operations. Significant emphasis has been placed on the development of new sensing technologies to meet the challenges posed by asymmetric threats. Within the UK, the Electro-Magnetic Remote Sensing Defence Technology Centre (EMRS DTC) has supported the research and development of new capabilities including radio-frequency (RF) and electro-optic (EO) systems, as well as work on sensor exploitation, with a goal of developing solutions for enhancing situational awareness. This activity has been supported by field trials to determine the efficacy of competing technologies in relation to realistic threat scenarios.

  13. Sonoma Persistent Surveillance System

    SciTech Connect

    Pennington, D M

    2006-03-24

    Sonoma offers the first cost-effective, broad-area, high-resolution, real-time motion imagery system for surveillance applications. Sonoma is unique in its ability to provide continuous, real-time video imagery of an area the size of a small city with resolutions sufficient to track 8,000 moving objects in the field of view. At higher resolutions and over smaller areas, Sonoma can even track the movement of individual people. The visual impact of the data available from Sonoma is already causing a paradigm shift in the architecture and operation of other surveillance systems. Sonoma is expected to cost just one-tenth the price of comparably sized sensor systems. Cameras mounted on an airborne platform constantly monitor an area, feeding data to the ground for real-time analysis. Sonoma was designed to provide real-time data for actionable intelligence in situations such as monitoring traffic, special events, border security, and harbors. If a Sonoma system had been available in the aftermath of the Katrina and Rita hurricanes, emergency responders would have had real-time information on roads, water levels, and traffic conditions, perhaps saving many lives.

  14. Smart sensing surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Charles; Chu, Kai-Dee; O'Looney, James; Blake, Michael; Rutar, Colleen

    2010-04-01

    An effective public safety sensor system for heavily-populated applications requires sophisticated and geographically-distributed infrastructures, centralized supervision, and deployment of large-scale security and surveillance networks. Artificial intelligence in sensor systems is a critical design to raise awareness levels, improve the performance of the system and adapt to a changing scenario and environment. In this paper, a highly-distributed, fault-tolerant, and energy-efficient Smart Sensing Surveillance System (S4) is presented to efficiently provide a 24/7 and all weather security operation in crowded environments or restricted areas. Technically, the S4 consists of a number of distributed sensor nodes integrated with specific passive sensors to rapidly collect, process, and disseminate heterogeneous sensor data from near omni-directions. These distributed sensor nodes can cooperatively work to send immediate security information when new objects appear. When the new objects are detected, the S4 will smartly select the available node with a Pan- Tilt- Zoom- (PTZ) Electro-Optics EO/IR camera to track the objects and capture associated imagery. The S4 provides applicable advanced on-board digital image processing capabilities to detect and track the specific objects. The imaging detection operations include unattended object detection, human feature and behavior detection, and configurable alert triggers, etc. Other imaging processes can be updated to meet specific requirements and operations. In the S4, all the sensor nodes are connected with a robust, reconfigurable, LPI/LPD (Low Probability of Intercept/ Low Probability of Detect) wireless mesh network using Ultra-wide band (UWB) RF technology. This UWB RF technology can provide an ad-hoc, secure mesh network and capability to relay network information, communicate and pass situational awareness and messages. The Service Oriented Architecture of S4 enables remote applications to interact with the S4

  15. PEDIATRIC NUTRITION SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM (PEDNSS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pediatric Nutrition Surveillance System (PedNSS) is a program-based surveillance system designed to monitor the growth, anemia, and breast-feeding status of low-income U.S. children who participate in federally funded maternal and child health nutritional programs. The system...

  16. Smart sensing surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Charles; Chu, Kai-Dee; O'Looney, James; Blake, Michael; Rutar, Colleen

    2010-04-01

    Unattended ground sensor (UGS) networks have been widely used in remote battlefield and other tactical applications over the last few decades due to the advances of the digital signal processing. The UGS network can be applied in a variety of areas including border surveillance, special force operations, perimeter and building protection, target acquisition, situational awareness, and force protection. In this paper, a highly-distributed, fault-tolerant, and energyefficient Smart Sensing Surveillance System (S4) is presented to efficiently provide 24/7 and all weather security operation in a situation management environment. The S4 is composed of a number of distributed nodes to collect, process, and disseminate heterogeneous sensor data. Nearly all S4 nodes have passive sensors to provide rapid omnidirectional detection. In addition, Pan- Tilt- Zoom- (PTZ) Electro-Optics EO/IR cameras are integrated to selected nodes to track the objects and capture associated imagery. These S4 camera-connected nodes will provide applicable advanced on-board digital image processing capabilities to detect and track the specific objects. The imaging detection operations include unattended object detection, human feature and behavior detection, and configurable alert triggers, etc. In the S4, all the nodes are connected with a robust, reconfigurable, LPI/LPD (Low Probability of Intercept/ Low Probability of Detect) wireless mesh network using Ultra-wide band (UWB) RF technology, which can provide an ad-hoc, secure mesh network and capability to relay network information, communicate and pass situational awareness and messages. The S4 utilizes a Service Oriented Architecture such that remote applications can interact with the S4 network and use the specific presentation methods. The S4 capabilities and technologies have great potential for both military and civilian applications, enabling highly effective security support tools for improving surveillance activities in densely crowded

  17. PREGNANCY NUTRITION SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM (PNSS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pregnancy Nutrition Surveillance System (PNSS) is a program based surveillance system developed in order to assist health professionals in achieving of the goals of identifying and reducing pregnancy-related health risks that contribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes. Its purp...

  18. Excluding polio in areas of inadequate surveillance in the final stages of eradication in China.

    PubMed Central

    Hoekstra, E. J.; Chai, F.; Wang, X. J.; Zhang, X. L.; Yu, J. J.; Bilous, J.

    2000-01-01

    In 1996, China adopted a virological classification of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) cases for its surveillance system. Only AFP cases with wild poliovirus in stool specimens are confirmed as polio. Cases with adequate stool specimens that are negative for wild poliovirus are not counted. This paper describes a methodology to rule out poliomyelitis in AFP cases with inadequate stool specimens. National surveillance data were analysed using dot maps to detect clusters of AFP cases with high-risk factors for poliomyelitis. The surveillance system and vaccine coverage were assessed during field investigations. Four clusters of AFP cases were identified, but no poliomyelitis cases. Programmatic failures in the identified high-risk areas included low vaccination rates, poor stool specimen collection and inadequate AFP surveillance. Programme strategies were implemented to correct the identified failures. Use of this methodology provides strong evidence consistent with the absence of wild poliovirus in China. PMID:10812727

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION, TEST REPORT OF CONTROL OF BIOAEROSOLS IN HVAC SYSTEMS, AIRFLOW PRODUCTS AFP30

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of the AFP30 air filter for dust and bioaerosol filtration manufactured by Airflow Products. The pressure drop across the filter was 62 Pa clean and 247 Pa dust loaded. The filtration effici...

  20. DEFENSE MEDICAL SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM (DMSS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    AMSA operates the Defense Medical Surveillance System (DMSS), an executive information system whose database contains up-to-date and historical data on diseases and medical events (e.g., hospitalizations, ambulatory visits, reportable diseases, HIV tests, acute respiratory diseas...

  1. NATIONAL ELECTRONIC DISEASE SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM (NEDSS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Electronic Disease Surveillance System (NEDSS) project is a public health initiative to provide a standard-based, integrated approach to disease surveillance and to connect public health surveillance to the burgeoning clinical information systems infrastructure. NEDS...

  2. The Development of Surveillance Systems.

    PubMed

    Henderson, D A

    2016-03-01

    Surveillance systems in public health practice have increased in number and sophistication with advances in data collection, analysis, and communication. When the Communicable Disease Center (now the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) was founded some 70 years ago, surveillance referred to the close observation of individuals with suspected smallpox, plague, or cholera. Alexander Langmuir, head of the Epidemiology Branch, redefined surveillance as the epidemiology-based critical factor in infectious disease control. I joined Langmuir as assistant chief in 1955 and was appointed chief of the Surveillance Section in 1961. In this paper, I describe Langmuir's redefinition of surveillance. Langmuir asserted that its proper use in public health meant the systematic reporting of infectious diseases, the analysis and epidemiologic interpretation of data, and both prompt and widespread dissemination of results. I outline the Communicable Disease Center's first surveillance systems for malaria, poliomyelitis, and influenza. I also discuss the role of surveillance in the global smallpox eradication program, emphasizing that the establishment of systematic reporting systems and prompt action based on results were critical factors of the program. PMID:26928219

  3. SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance System presents statistics and trends for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Data demonstrate details which provide information about STD morbidity in the United States, STD prevalence with subgroups and populations which are the f...

  4. The Surveyor Mobile Surveillance System

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-07-01

    This paper reports that KLM Technologies, Inc. delivered the Surveyor Mobile Surveillance System to Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation (NMPC) in May 1986 for a long-term test and evaluation program at the Nine Mile Point Nuclear Plant. NMPC is leasing the Surveyor, and KLM personnel will be providing training and support during the test and evaluation program, which will cover various surveillance, inspection, and possible light maintenance tasks in high radiation and contamination areas of the plant. Prior to delivery to NMPC, the surveyor was demonstrated at Detroit Edison Company's Fermi II Nuclear Plant where it was judged to be rugged, compact, and easy to use for surveillance and inspection tasks.

  5. Reasons and circumstances for the late notification of Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP) cases in health facilities in Luanda

    PubMed Central

    Macama, Arciolanda; Okeibunor, Joseph; Grando, Silvia; Djibaoui, Karim; Yameogo, Robert Koudounoaga; Morais, Alda; Gasasira, Alex Ntale; Mbaye, Salla; Mihigo, Richard; Nshimirimana, Deo

    2014-01-01

    Introduction As the polio eradication effort enters the end game stage, surveillance for Acute Flaccid Paralysis in children becomes a pivotal tool. Thus given the gaps in AFP surveillance as identified in the cases of late notification, this study was designed to explore the reasons and circumstances responsible for late notification of AFP and collection of inadequate stools (more than 14 days of onset of paralysis until collection of the 2nd stool specimen) of AFP cases in health facilities equipped to manage AFP cases. Methods Eleven AFP cases with inadequate stools were reported from January 2 to July 8, 2012 - Epidemiological Weeks 1-27. The families of these cases were interviewed with an in-depth interview guide. The staff of the seven health units, where they later reported, was also enlisted for the study which used in-depth interview guide in eliciting information from them. Results Ignorance and wrong perception of the etiology of the cases as well as dissatisfaction with the health units as the major reasons for late reporting of AFP cases. The first port of call is usually alternative health care system such as traditional healers and spiritualists because the people hold the belief that the problem is spiritually induced. The few, who make it to health units, are faced with ill equipped rural health workers who wait for the arrival of more qualified staff, who may take days to do so. Conclusion An understanding of the health seeking behavior of the population is germane to effective AFP surveillance. There is thus a need to tailor AFP surveillance to the health seeking behavior of the populations and expand it to community structures. PMID:25426197

  6. SETI radio spectrum surveillance system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crow, B.; Lokshin, A.; Marina, M.; Ching, L.

    1985-01-01

    The SETI Radio Spectrum Surveillance System (SRSSS) will provide a data base for assessing the radio frequency interference (RFI) environment for SETI and minimizing RFI disruptions during the search. The system's hardware and software are described and the sensitivity of the system is discussed.

  7. Mortar-launched surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Carl E.; Cooper, Steve; Carlton, Lindley A.

    2001-09-01

    Accurate Automation Corporation has completed the conceptual design of a mortar launched air vehicle system to perform close range or over-the-horizon surveillance missions. Law enforcement and military units require an organic capability to obtain real time intelligence information of time critical targets. Our design will permit law enforcement to detect, classify, locate and track these time critical targets. The surveillance system is a simple, unmanned fixed-winged aircraft deployed via a conventional mortar tube. The aircraft's flight surfaces are deployed following mortar launch to permit maximum range and time over target. The aircraft and sensor system are field retrievable. The aircraft can be configured with an engine to permit extended time over target or range. The aircraft has an integrated surveillance sensor system; a programmable CMOS sensor array. The integrated RF transmitter is capable of down- linking real-time video over line-of-sight distances exceeding 10 kilometers. The major benefit of the modular design is the ability to provide surveillance or tracking quickly at a low cost. Vehicle operational radius and sensor field coverage as well as design trade results of vehicle range and endurance performance and payload capacity at operational range are presented for various mortar configurations.

  8. HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZA DISEASES SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Haemophilus Influenzae System at NIP compiles information on all U.S. Haemophilus influenzae invasive disease cases reported to CDC via NETSS since 1991 (managed by EPO and NIP), or via active surveillance in several locales since 1989 (managed by NCIP). Information collected...

  9. Industrial process surveillance system

    DOEpatents

    Gross, K.C.; Wegerich, S.W.; Singer, R.M.; Mott, J.E.

    1998-06-09

    A system and method are disclosed for monitoring an industrial process and/or industrial data source. The system includes generating time varying data from industrial data sources, processing the data to obtain time correlation of the data, determining the range of data, determining learned states of normal operation and using these states to generate expected values, comparing the expected values to current actual values to identify a current state of the process closest to a learned, normal state; generating a set of modeled data, and processing the modeled data to identify a data pattern and generating an alarm upon detecting a deviation from normalcy. 96 figs.

  10. Industrial Process Surveillance System

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Kenneth C.; Wegerich, Stephan W; Singer, Ralph M.; Mott, Jack E.

    2001-01-30

    A system and method for monitoring an industrial process and/or industrial data source. The system includes generating time varying data from industrial data sources, processing the data to obtain time correlation of the data, determining the range of data, determining learned states of normal operation and using these states to generate expected values, comparing the expected values to current actual values to identify a current state of the process closest to a learned, normal state; generating a set of modeled data, and processing the modeled data to identify a data pattern and generating an alarm upon detecting a deviation from normalcy.

  11. Industrial process surveillance system

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Kenneth C.; Wegerich, Stephan W.; Singer, Ralph M.; Mott, Jack E.

    1998-01-01

    A system and method for monitoring an industrial process and/or industrial data source. The system includes generating time varying data from industrial data sources, processing the data to obtain time correlation of the data, determining the range of data, determining learned states of normal operation and using these states to generate expected values, comparing the expected values to current actual values to identify a current state of the process closest to a learned, normal state; generating a set of modeled data, and processing the modeled data to identify a data pattern and generating an alarm upon detecting a deviation from normalcy.

  12. NATIONAL WEST NILE VIRUS SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to understand the implications of WN viruses introduction into the United States the Centers of Disease Control and the U.S. Department of Agriculture created a system of active bird surveillance, active mosquito surveillance, enhanced passive veterinary surveillance, an...

  13. National nosocomial infections surveillance system (NNIS): description of surveillance methods.

    PubMed

    Emori, T G; Culver, D H; Horan, T C; Jarvis, W R; White, J W; Olson, D R; Banerjee, S; Edwards, J R; Martone, W J; Gaynes, R P

    1991-02-01

    The National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System (NNIS) is an ongoing collaborative surveillance system sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) to obtain national data on nosocomial infections. The CDC uses the data that are reported voluntarily by participating hospitals to estimate the magnitude of the nosocomial infection problem in the United States and to monitor trends in infections and risk factors. Hospitals collect data by prospectively monitoring specific groups of patients for infections with the use of protocols called surveillance components. The surveillance components used by the NNIS are hospitalwide, intensive care unit, high-risk nursery, and surgical patient. Detailed information including demographic characteristics, infections and related risk factors, pathogens and their antimicrobial susceptibilities, and outcome, is collected on each infected patient. Data on risk factors in the population of patients being monitored are also collected; these permit the calculation of risk-specific rates. An infection risk index, which includes the traditional wound class, is being evaluated as a predictor of the likelihood that an infection will develop after an operation. A major goal of the NNIS is to use surveillance data to develop and evaluate strategies to prevent and control nosocomial infections. The data collected with the use of the surveillance components permit the calculation of risk-specific infection rates, which can be used by individual hospitals as well as national health-care planners to set priorities for their infection control programs and to evaluate the effectiveness of their efforts. The NNIS will continue to evolve in finding more effective and efficient ways to assess the influence of patient risk and changes in the financing of health care on the infection rate. PMID:1850582

  14. Geographical Information Systems for Dengue Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Duncombe, Jennifer; Clements, Archie; Hu, Wenbiao; Weinstein, Philip; Ritchie, Scott; Espino, Fe Esperanza

    2012-01-01

    This review provides details on the role of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) in current dengue surveillance systems and focuses on the application of open access GIS technology to emphasize its importance in developing countries, where the dengue burden is greatest. It also advocates for increased international collaboration in transboundary disease surveillance to confront the emerging global challenge of dengue. PMID:22556070

  15. Wireless sensor network for mobile surveillance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dijk, Gert J. A.; Maris, Marinus G.

    2004-11-01

    Guarding safety and security within industrial, commercial and military areas is an important issue nowadays. A specific challenge lies in the design of portable surveillance systems that can be rapidly deployed, installed and easily operated. Conventional surveillance systems typically employ stand alone sensors that transmit their data to a central control station for data-processing. One of the disadvantages of these kinds of systems is that they generate a lot of data that may induce processing or storage problems. Moreover, data from the sensors must be constantly observed and assessed by human operators. In this paper, a surveillance concept based on distributed intelligence in wireless sensor networks is proposed. In this concept, surveillance is automatically performed by means of many small sensing devices including cameras. The requirements for such surveillance systems are investigated. Experiments with a demonstration system were conducted to verify some of the claims made throughout this paper.

  16. 21 CFR 866.6030 - AFP-L3% immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... system is an in vitro device that consists of reagents and an automated instrument used to quantitatively... for in vitro diagnostic use as an aid in the risk assessment of patients with chronic liver...

  17. GLOBAL EMERGING INFECTIONS SURVEILLANCE AND RESPONSE SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Department of Defense (DoD) Gonococcal Isolate Surveillance Project (GISP). The DoD Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System (DoD-GEIS) partners with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the World Health Organization (WHO) in the global surv...

  18. NATIONAL RESPIRATORY AND ENTERIC VIRUS SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Respiratory and Enteric Virus Surveillance System is a lab based system which monitors temporal and geographic patterns associated with the detection of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human parainfluenza viruses (HPIV), respiratory and enteric adenoviruses, and r...

  19. NATIONAL NOSOCOMIAL INFECTIONS SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM (NNIS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (NNIS) System is a cooperative effort that began in 1970 between the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and participating hospitals to create a national nosocomial infections database. The database is used to describe ...

  20. TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM (TBISS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) had developed and maintains a surveillance system to understand the magnitude and characteristics of hospitalized and fatal traumatic brain injuries in the United State...

  1. System For Surveillance Of Spectral Signals

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Kenneth C.; Wegerich, Stephan W.; Criss-Puszkiewicz, Cynthia; Wilks, Alan D.

    2004-10-12

    A method and system for monitoring at least one of a system, a process and a data source. A method and system have been developed for carrying out surveillance, testing and modification of an ongoing process or other source of data, such as a spectroscopic examination. A signal from the system under surveillance is collected and compared with a reference signal, a frequency domain transformation carried out for the system signal and reference signal, a frequency domain difference function established. The process is then repeated until a full range of data is accumulated over the time domain and a Sequential Probability Ratio Test ("SPRT") methodology applied to determine a three-dimensional surface plot characteristic of the operating state of the system under surveillance.

  2. System for surveillance of spectral signals

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Kenneth C.; Wegerich, Stephan W.; Criss-Puszkiewicz, Cynthia; Wilks, Alan D.

    2006-02-14

    A method and system for monitoring at least one of a system, a process and a data source. A method and system have been developed for carrying out surveillance, testing and modification of an ongoing process or other source of data, such as a spectroscopic examination. A signal from the system under surveillance is collected and compared with a reference signal, a frequency domain transformation carried out for the system signal and reference signal, a frequency domain difference function established. The process is then repeated until a full range of data is accumulated over the time domain and a Sequential Probability Ratio Test ("SPRT") methodology applied to determine a three-dimensional surface plot characteristic of the operating state of the system under surveillance.

  3. System For Surveillance Of Spectral Signals

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Kenneth C.; Wegerich, Stephan; Criss-Puszkiewicz, Cynthia; Wilks, Alan D.

    2003-04-22

    A method and system for monitoring at least one of a system, a process and a data source. A method and system have been developed for carrying out surveillance, testing and modification of an ongoing process or other source of data, such as a spectroscopic examination. A signal from the system under surveillance is collected and compared with a reference signal, a frequency domain transformation carried out for the system signal and reference signal, a frequency domain difference function established. The process is then repeated until a full range of data is accumulated over the time domain and a Sequential Probability Ratio Test methodology applied to determine a three-dimensional surface plot characteristic of the operating state of the system under surveillance.

  4. System for surveillance of spectral signals

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Kenneth C.; Wegerich, Stephan W.; Criss-Puszkiewicz, Cynthia; Wilks, Alan D.

    2001-01-01

    A method and system for monitoring at least one of a system, a process and a data source. A method and system have been developed for carrying out surveillance, testing and modification of an ongoing process or other source of data, such as a spectroscopic examination. A signal from the system under surveillance is collected and compared with a reference signal, a frequency domain transformation carried out for the system signal and reference signal, a frequency domain difference function established. The process is then repeated until a full range of data is accumulated over the time domain and a SPRT sequential probability ratio test methodology applied to determine a three-dimensional surface plot characteristic of the operating state of the system under surveillance.

  5. Laser Surveillance System for Spent Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Fiarman, S.; Zucker, M.S.; Bieber, A.M. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A laser surveillance system installed at spent fuel storage pools (SFSP's) will provide the safeguard inspector with specific knowledge of spent fuel movement that cannot be obtained with current surveillance systems. The laser system will allow for the division of the pool's spent fuel inventory into two populations - those assemblies which have been moved and those which haven't - which is essential for maximizing the efficiency and effectiveness of the inspection effort. We have designed, constructed, and tested a full size laser system operating in air and have used an array of 6 zircaloy BWR tubes to simulate an assembly. The reflective signal from the zircaloy rods is a strong function of position of the assembly, but in all cases is easily discernable from the reference scan of the background with no assembly. A design for a SFSP laser surveillance system incorporating laser ranging is discussed. 10 figures.

  6. Light armored vehicle reconnaissance and surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbeau, Nicolas R.

    1994-10-01

    The Canadian Department of National Defence (DND) has established a requirement for a fleet of reconnaissance vehicles equipped with a modern surveillance system to be used in a wide variety of scenarios. This includes conventional operations within NATO, contingency operations in troubled areas as well as UN peacekeeping missions. As such, the Light Armored Vehicles Reconnaissance and Surveillance System will be the first 24 hour all- weather reconnaissance system integrated into a combat vehicle. This paper intends to describe how the operational requirements defined by DND were translated into sensor and system requirements. After a summary of the current configuration, it focuses on product pre-planned improvements and future needs.

  7. Self tuning system for industrial surveillance

    DOEpatents

    Stephan, Wegerich W; Jarman, Kristin K.; Gross, Kenneth C.

    2000-01-01

    A method and system for automatically establishing operational parameters of a statistical surveillance system. The method and system performs a frequency domain transition on time dependent data, a first Fourier composite is formed, serial correlation is removed, a series of Gaussian whiteness tests are performed along with an autocorrelation test, Fourier coefficients are stored and a second Fourier composite is formed. Pseudorandom noise is added, a Monte Carlo simulation is performed to establish SPRT missed alarm probabilities and tested with a synthesized signal. A false alarm test is then emperically evaluated and if less than a desired target value, then SPRT probabilities are used for performing surveillance.

  8. Smart video surveillance system preserving privacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dufaux, Frederic; Ebrahimi, Touradj

    2005-03-01

    In this paper, we present a smart video surveillance system based on standard technologies and wired or wireless IP networking. The key novelty of the system is that it protects the privacy of people under surveillance. More specifically, a video analysis module detects regions of interest in the scene by change detection or face detection techniques. It is assumed that these regions contain private and sensitive information. Scrambling is then applied only to the corresponding regions. Furthermore, the amount of distortion can be controlled by restricting scrambling to some resolution levels. As a result, the scene remains visible, but privacy-sensitive information is unidentifiable. The scrambling is controlled by a private encryption key which is kept under control of legal authorities. The latter are therefore the only ones who can grant authorization to unlock the protection and view the whole scene. Therefore, this system successfully addresses the loss of privacy issue associated with video surveillance.

  9. Surveillance Systems to Track Progress Toward Polio Eradication--Worldwide, 2014-2015.

    PubMed

    Snider, Cynthia J; Diop, Ousmane M; Burns, Cara C; Tangermann, Rudolph H; Wassilak, Steven G F

    2016-04-01

    Global efforts to eradicate polio began in 1988, and polio-free certification has been achieved in four of the six World Health Organization (WHO) regions. Nigeria was removed from WHO's list of countries with endemic polio in September 2015, achieving an important milestone toward interruption of wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission in the African Region (1). Afghanistan and Pakistan, both in the Eastern Mediterranean Region, were the only countries to report WPV cases in 2015. Previously reported outbreaks caused by WPV importation during 2013-2014 have ended (2,3). The primary means for detecting poliovirus transmission is surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) among children aged <15 years (4,5). Stool specimens collected from children with AFP are tested for both WPV and vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) in WHO-accredited laboratories within the Global Polio Laboratory Network (GPLN). In selected locations, AFP surveillance is supplemented with environmental surveillance (testing sewage for poliovirus) (6). Testing of stool and sewage samples includes genomic sequencing to characterize poliovirus isolates; results are used to map poliovirus transmission and identify gaps in AFP surveillance. This report presents poliovirus surveillance data from 2014 and 2015, focusing on the 20 countries in the African Region and six in the Eastern Mediterranean Region that reported a WPV or circulating VDPV (cVDPV) case during 2011-2015, including Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone, which were most affected by the 2014-2015 Ebola virus disease (Ebola) outbreak. PMID:27054558

  10. An emergency response UAV Surveillance System.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Pedro A; Geckle, William J; Barton, Jeffrey D; Samsundar, John; Gao, Tia; Brown, Myron Z; Martin, Sean R

    2006-01-01

    A system using Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs), equipped for real time telemetry of video imagery, sensor support data, and GPS/INS navigation, is being developed to provide situational awareness (SA) to the central command of mass casualty incident response. UAVs provide an inexpensive and safe means of acquiring video surveillance in chaotic disaster scenes, while being durable and non-intrusive. The system provides autonomous surveillance of defined perimeters, video tracking and active following of targets of interest, and real time cueing to other imaging UAVs. PMID:17238697

  11. Role of antifeeding prophage (Afp) protein Afp16 in terminating the length of the Afp tailocin and stabilizing its sheath.

    PubMed

    Rybakova, Daria; Radjainia, Mazdak; Turner, Adrian; Sen, Anindito; Mitra, Alok K; Hurst, Mark R H

    2013-08-01

    The Serratia entomophila antifeeding prophage Afp, forms a phage-tail-like particle that acts on the New Zealand grass grub, Costelytra zealandica with a 3-day LD50 of approximately 500 Afp particles per larva. Genes (afp1-18) encoding components of Afp were expressed and their products purified allowing morphological assessment of the products by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Expression of afp1-15 resulted in the formation of a non-sheathed structure termed the tube-baseplate complex or TBC, composed of an irregular-length tube attached to a baseplate with associated tail fibres. Expression of afp1-16 produced mature, normal-length Afp particles, whereas coexpression of afp16 with afp1-15 in trans resulted in the formation of aberrant Afp particles of variable lengths. A C-terminally truncated Afp16 mutant resulted in a phenotype intermediate between mature Afp and TBC. The addition of purified Afp16 to Afp unravelled by acidic treatment resulted in the formation of shorter tubes when specimen pH was adjusted to 7 than those formed in the absence of Afp16. Analysis of TEM images of purified Afp16 revealed a hexameric ring-like structure similar to that formed by gp3 of phage T4 and gpU of phage λ. Our results suggest that Afp16 terminates tube elongation and is involved in sheath formation. PMID:23796263

  12. YOUTH RISK BEHAVIOR SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM (YRBSS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) was developed to monitor priority health-risk behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of mortality, morbidity, and social problems among youth and adults in the United States. The YRBSS monitors six categories of behavio...

  13. NATIONAL ORAL HEALTH SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM (NOHSS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    National Oral Health Surveillance System (NOHSS) is a collaborative effort between CDC's Division of Oral Health and The Association of State and Territorial Dental Directors (ASTDD). NOHSS is designed to help public health programs monitor the burden of oral disease, use of the ...

  14. Surveillance systems test and evaluation facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matty, Jere J.; Dawbarn, Ronald

    1986-01-01

    In January of 1983, a team was formed to explore test methodologies and test facility concepts required to meet the needs of space-based surveillance systems. The output of this study was a road map of test methodologies and test facilities that will aid the development of this country's critical space-based sensor assets. A condensation of those results is given.

  15. System specification for the integrated monitoring and surveillance system

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    This System Specification establishes the requirements for the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA) Integrated Monitoring and Surveillance System (IMSS). In this document, ``Integrated Monitoring and Surveillance System`` is used to describe the concept of integrated sensors, computers, personnel, and systems that perform the functions of sensing conditions, acquiring data, monitoring environmental safety and health, controlling and accounting for materials, monitoring material stability, monitoring container integrity, transferring data, and analyzing, reporting, and storing data. This concept encompasses systems (e.g. sensors, personnel, databases, etc.) that are already in place at the sites but may require modifications or additions to meet all identified surveillance requirements. The purpose of this System Specification is to provide Department of Energy (DOE) sites that store plutonium materials with a consolidation of all known requirements for the storage and surveillance of 3013 packages of stabilized plutonium metals and oxides. This compilation may be used (1) as a baseline for surveillance system design specifications where 3013 packages of stabilized plutonium metals and oxides will be stored and monitored; (2) as a checklist for evaluating existing surveillance systems to ensure that all requirements are met for the storage and surveillance of 3013 packages of stabilized plutonium metals and oxides; and (3) as a baseline for preparing procurement specifications tailored for site specific storage and surveillance of 3013 packages of stabilized plutonium metals and oxides.

  16. Advanced Querying Features for Disease Surveillance Systems

    PubMed Central

    Hashemian, Mohammad R.

    2010-01-01

    Most automated disease surveillance systems notify users of increases in the prevalence of reports in syndrome categories and allow users to view patient level data related to those increases. Occasionally, a more dynamic level of control is required to properly detect an emerging disease in a community. Dynamic querying features are invaluable when using existing surveillance systems to investigate outbreaks of newly emergent diseases or to identify cases of reportable diseases within data being captured for surveillance. The objective of the Advance Querying Tool (AQT) is to build a more flexible query interface for most web-based disease surveillance systems. This interface allows users to define and build their query as if they were writing a logical expression for a mathematical computation. The AQT allows users to develop, investigate, save, and share complex case definitions. It provides a flexible interface that accommodates both advanced and novice users, checks the validity of the expression as it is built, and marks errors for users. PMID:23569575

  17. Domestic violence surveillance system:a model

    PubMed Central

    Espinosa, Rafael; Gutiérrez, María Isabel; Mena-Muñoz, Jorge Humberto; Córdoba, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    Objective To develop a domestic violence surveillance system. Material and Methods The strategies included implementation of a standard digitalized reporting and analysis system along with advocacy with community decision makers, strengthening inter-institutional attention networks, consultation for constructing internal flow charts, sensitizing and training network teams in charge of providing health care in cases of domestic violence and supporting improved public policy prevention initiatives. Results A total of 6 893 cases were observed using 2004 and 2005 surveillance system data. The system reports that 80% of the affected were women, followed by 36% children under 14 years. The identified aggressors were mainly females' partners. The system was useful for improving victim services. Conclusions Findings indicate that significant gains were made in facilitating the attention and treatment of victims of domestic violence, improving the procedural response process and enhancing the quality of information provided to policy-making bodies. PMID:18373003

  18. Systems pharmacology augments drug safety surveillance.

    PubMed

    Lorberbaum, T; Nasir, M; Keiser, M J; Vilar, S; Hripcsak, G; Tatonetti, N P

    2015-02-01

    Small molecule drugs are the foundation of modern medical practice, yet their use is limited by the onset of unexpected and severe adverse events (AEs). Regulatory agencies rely on postmarketing surveillance to monitor safety once drugs are approved for clinical use. Despite advances in pharmacovigilance methods that address issues of confounding bias, clinical data of AEs are inherently noisy. Systems pharmacology-the integration of systems biology and chemical genomics-can illuminate drug mechanisms of action. We hypothesize that these data can improve drug safety surveillance by highlighting drugs with a mechanistic connection to the target phenotype (enriching true positives) and filtering those that do not (depleting false positives). We present an algorithm, the modular assembly of drug safety subnetworks (MADSS), to combine systems pharmacology and pharmacovigilance data and significantly improve drug safety monitoring for four clinically relevant adverse drug reactions. PMID:25670520

  19. Alpha-Fetoprotein Detection of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Leads to a Standardized Analysis of Dynamic AFP to Improve Screening Based Detection.

    PubMed

    Bird, Thomas G; Dimitropoulou, Polyxeni; Turner, Rebecca M; Jenks, Sara J; Cusack, Pearce; Hey, Shiying; Blunsum, Andrew; Kelly, Sarah; Sturgeon, Catharine; Hayes, Peter C; Bird, Sheila M

    2016-01-01

    Detection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) through screening can improve outcomes. However, HCC surveillance remains costly, cumbersome and suboptimal. We tested whether and how serum Alpha-Fetoprotein (AFP) should be used in HCC surveillance. Record linkage, dedicated pathways for management and AFP data-storage identified i) consecutive highly characterised cases of HCC diagnosed in 2009-14 and ii) a cohort of ongoing HCC-free patients undergoing regular HCC surveillance from 2009. These two well-defined Scottish patient cohorts enabled us to test the utility of AFP surveillance. Of 304 cases of HCC diagnosed over 6 years, 42% (129) were identified by a dedicated HCC surveillance programme. Of these 129, 47% (61) had a detectable lesion first identified by screening ultrasound (US) but 38% (49) were prompted by elevated AFP. Despite pre-HCC diagnosis AFP >20kU/L being associated with poor outcome, 'AFP-detected' tumours were offered potentially curative management as frequently as 'US-detected' HCCs; and had comparable survival. Linearity of serial log10-transformed AFPs in HCC cases and in the screening 'HCC-free' cohort (n = 1509) provided indicators of high-risk AFP behaviour in HCC cases. An algorithm was devised in static mode, then tested dynamically. A case/control series in hepatitis C related disease demonstrated highly significant detection (p<1.72*10-5) of patients at high risk of developing HCC. These data support the use of AFP in HCC surveillance. We show proof-of-principle that an automated and further refine-able algorithmic interpretation of AFP can identify patients at higher risk of HCC. This approach could provide a cost-effective, user-friendly and much needed addition to US surveillance. PMID:27308823

  20. Alpha-Fetoprotein Detection of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Leads to a Standardized Analysis of Dynamic AFP to Improve Screening Based Detection

    PubMed Central

    Dimitropoulou, Polyxeni; Turner, Rebecca M.; Jenks, Sara J.; Hey, Shiying; Blunsum, Andrew; Kelly, Sarah; Sturgeon, Catharine; Hayes, Peter C.; Bird, Sheila M.

    2016-01-01

    Detection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) through screening can improve outcomes. However, HCC surveillance remains costly, cumbersome and suboptimal. We tested whether and how serum Alpha-Fetoprotein (AFP) should be used in HCC surveillance. Record linkage, dedicated pathways for management and AFP data-storage identified i) consecutive highly characterised cases of HCC diagnosed in 2009–14 and ii) a cohort of ongoing HCC-free patients undergoing regular HCC surveillance from 2009. These two well-defined Scottish patient cohorts enabled us to test the utility of AFP surveillance. Of 304 cases of HCC diagnosed over 6 years, 42% (129) were identified by a dedicated HCC surveillance programme. Of these 129, 47% (61) had a detectable lesion first identified by screening ultrasound (US) but 38% (49) were prompted by elevated AFP. Despite pre-HCC diagnosis AFP >20kU/L being associated with poor outcome, ‘AFP-detected’ tumours were offered potentially curative management as frequently as ‘US-detected’ HCCs; and had comparable survival. Linearity of serial log10-transformed AFPs in HCC cases and in the screening ‘HCC-free’ cohort (n = 1509) provided indicators of high-risk AFP behaviour in HCC cases. An algorithm was devised in static mode, then tested dynamically. A case/control series in hepatitis C related disease demonstrated highly significant detection (p<1.72*10−5) of patients at high risk of developing HCC. These data support the use of AFP in HCC surveillance. We show proof-of-principle that an automated and further refine-able algorithmic interpretation of AFP can identify patients at higher risk of HCC. This approach could provide a cost-effective, user-friendly and much needed addition to US surveillance. PMID:27308823

  1. Which surveillance systems were operational after Typhoon Haiyan?

    PubMed Central

    Villa, Eireen; Pacho, Agnes; Galvan, Maria Adona; Corpuz, Aura

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Effective disease surveillance is vital for a successful disaster response. This study assessed the functionality of the three disease surveillance systems used post-Haiyan: Philippine Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (PIDSR), Event-based Surveillance and Response (ESR) and Surveillance in Post Extreme Emergencies and Disasters (SPEED). Methods A survey of 45 government health officers from affected areas was conducted in March 2014. The survey documented when each of the systems was operational and included questions that ranked the functionality of the three surveillance systems and whether they complemented each other. Results Two of 11 (18%) surveillance units had an operational SPEED system pre-event. PIDSR and ESR remained operational in five of 11 (45%) surveillance units without interruption of reporting. Ten surveillance units (91%) rated PIDSR as functional post-Typhoon; eight (72.7%) considered ESR functional. SPEED was rated as functional by three (27%) surveillance units. Seven of 11 (63.6%) surveillance units rated the three systems as being complementary to each other. Discussion In most of the areas affected by Typhoon Haiyan, the routine surveillance systems (PIDSR and ESR) were not disrupted; although, in Leyte it took seven weeks for these to be operational. Although SPEED is recommended for activation within 48 hours after a disaster, this did not occur in most of the surveyed areas. Most of the surveillance units rated PIDSR, ESR and SPEED to be complementary to each other. PMID:26767139

  2. In situ hybridization of neuropeptide-encoding transcripts afp-1, afp-3, and afp-4 in neurons of the nematode Ascaris suum.

    PubMed

    Nanda, Jennifer Cho; Stretton, Antony O W

    2010-03-15

    The gene transcripts encoding both the AF8 and AF2 neuropeptides of the nematode Ascaris suum have been identified, cloned, and sequenced. The AF8 transcript (afp-3) encodes five identical copies of AF8; each peptide-encoding region is flanked by the appropriate dibasic or monobasic cleavage processing sites. The AF2 transcript (afp-4) encodes three identical copies of AF2 along with the appropriate cleavage sites. In contrast, the afp-1 transcript (Edison et al. [1997] Peptides 18:929-935) encodes six different AF peptides (AF3, 4, 10, 13, 14, 20) which all share a -PGVLRFamide C-terminus but have different N-terminal sequences. By using in situ hybridization, gene transcript expression patterns of afp-1, afp-3, and afp-4 (As-flp-18, As-flp-6, and As-flp-14, respectively, in the naming convention proposed by Blaxter et al. [1997] Parasitol Today 13:416-417) were determined in the adult A. suum anterior nervous system. Each gene transcript can be localized to a different subset of neurons. These subsets of neurons are different from the subsets of Caenorhabditis elegans neurons that were shown to express identical or similar peptides by the use of promoter GFP constructs (Kim and Li [2004] J Comp Neurol 475:540-550). PMID:20058230

  3. Surveillance systems for intermodal transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakovlev, Sergej; Voznak, Miroslav; Andziulis, Arunas

    2015-05-01

    Intermodal container monitoring is considered a major security issue in many major logistic companies and countries worldwide. Current representation of the problem, we face today, originated in 2002, right after the 9/11 attacks. Then, a new worldwide Container Security Initiative (CSI, 2002) was considered that shaped the perception of the transportation operations. Now more than 80 larger ports all over the world contribute to its further development and integration into everyday transportation operations and improve the regulations for the developing regions. Although, these new improvements allow us to feel safer and secure, constant management of transportation operations has become a very difficult problem for conventional data analysis methods and information systems. The paper deals with a proposal of a whole new concept for the improvement of the Containers Security Initiative (CSI) by virtually connecting safety, security processes and systems. A conceptual middleware approach with deployable intelligent agent modules is proposed to be used with possible scenarios and a testbed is used to test the solution. Middleware examples are visually programmed using National Instruments LabView software packages and Wireless sensor network hardware modules. An experimental software is used to evaluate he solution. This research is a contribution to the intermodal transportation and is intended to be used as a means or the development of intelligent transport systems.

  4. 17 CFR 38.156 - Automated trade surveillance system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Automated trade surveillance... DESIGNATED CONTRACT MARKETS Compliance With Rules § 38.156 Automated trade surveillance system. A designated contract market must maintain an automated trade surveillance system capable of detecting and...

  5. 17 CFR 38.156 - Automated trade surveillance system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Automated trade surveillance... DESIGNATED CONTRACT MARKETS Compliance With Rules § 38.156 Automated trade surveillance system. A designated contract market must maintain an automated trade surveillance system capable of detecting and...

  6. Future trends in compact TV surveillance systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gaertner, K.; Heaysman, B.; Vodrazka, P.

    1985-01-01

    Up to now the IAEA's Safeguards Surveillance Program has been based upon 8 mm film camera systems. As this type of equipment availability is controlled by the needs of the amateur market, the Agency is forced to follow the changing world trend in replacing film with video. The eventual substitution of film with video systems should be influenced by two design approaches, namely integrated systems, resembling physically the present film cameras, and/or remote camera-control unit systems. This paper describes experiments being carried out on both types by some Member States as well as the Agency's activities in this field.

  7. An integrated national mortality surveillance system for death registration and mortality surveillance, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shiwei; Wu, Xiaoling; Lopez, Alan D; Wang, Lijun; Cai, Yue; Page, Andrew; Yin, Peng; Liu, Yunning; Li, Yichong; Liu, Jiangmei; You, Jinling; Zhou, Maigeng

    2016-01-01

    In China, sample-based mortality surveillance systems, such as the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention's disease surveillance points system and the Ministry of Health's vital registration system, have been used for decades to provide nationally representative data on health status for health-care decision-making and performance evaluation. However, neither system provided representative mortality and cause-of-death data at the provincial level to inform regional health service needs and policy priorities. Moreover, the systems overlapped to a considerable extent, thereby entailing a duplication of effort. In 2013, the Chinese Government combined these two systems into an integrated national mortality surveillance system to provide a provincially representative picture of total and cause-specific mortality and to accelerate the development of a comprehensive vital registration and mortality surveillance system for the whole country. This new system increased the surveillance population from 6 to 24% of the Chinese population. The number of surveillance points, each of which covered a district or county, increased from 161 to 605. To ensure representativeness at the provincial level, the 605 surveillance points were selected to cover China's 31 provinces using an iterative method involving multistage stratification that took into account the sociodemographic characteristics of the population. This paper describes the development and operation of the new national mortality surveillance system, which is expected to yield representative provincial estimates of mortality in China for the first time. PMID:26769996

  8. Neural network based system for equipment surveillance

    DOEpatents

    Vilim, R.B.; Gross, K.C.; Wegerich, S.W.

    1998-04-28

    A method and system are disclosed for performing surveillance of transient signals of an industrial device to ascertain the operating state. The method and system involves the steps of reading into a memory training data, determining neural network weighting values until achieving target outputs close to the neural network output. If the target outputs are inadequate, wavelet parameters are determined to yield neural network outputs close to the desired set of target outputs and then providing signals characteristic of an industrial process and comparing the neural network output to the industrial process signals to evaluate the operating state of the industrial process. 33 figs.

  9. Neural network based system for equipment surveillance

    DOEpatents

    Vilim, Richard B.; Gross, Kenneth C.; Wegerich, Stephan W.

    1998-01-01

    A method and system for performing surveillance of transient signals of an industrial device to ascertain the operating state. The method and system involves the steps of reading into a memory training data, determining neural network weighting values until achieving target outputs close to the neural network output. If the target outputs are inadequate, wavelet parameters are determined to yield neural network outputs close to the desired set of target outputs and then providing signals characteristic of an industrial process and comparing the neural network output to the industrial process signals to evaluate the operating state of the industrial process.

  10. Surveillance and reconnaissance ground system architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devambez, Francois

    2001-12-01

    Modern conflicts induces various modes of deployment, due to the type of conflict, the type of mission, and phase of conflict. It is then impossible to define fixed architecture systems for surveillance ground segments. Thales has developed a structure for a ground segment based on the operational functions required, and on the definition of modules and networks. Theses modules are software and hardware modules, including communications and networks. This ground segment is called MGS (Modular Ground Segment), and is intended for use in airborne reconnaissance systems, surveillance systems, and U.A.V. systems. Main parameters for the definition of a modular ground image exploitation system are : Compliance with various operational configurations, Easy adaptation to the evolution of theses configurations, Interoperability with NATO and multinational forces, Security, Multi-sensors, multi-platforms capabilities, Technical modularity, Evolutivity Reduction of life cycle cost The general performances of the MGS are presented : type of sensors, acquisition process, exploitation of images, report generation, data base management, dissemination, interface with C4I. The MGS is then described as a set of hardware and software modules, and their organization to build numerous operational configurations. Architectures are from minimal configuration intended for a mono-sensor image exploitation system, to a full image intelligence center, for a multilevel exploitation of multi-sensor.

  11. Acute Flaccid Paralysis and Its Differential Diagnosis in in Kurdistan Province, Western Iran; an 11-Year Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Soltani, Jafar; Esmailnasab, Nader; Roshani, Daem; Karimi, Mohamad; Amjadi, Mohamad-Jamil

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective The surveillance of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) is a key strategy for monitoring the progress of poliomyelitis eradication and is a sensitive measure for detecting potential cases of poliomyelitis and poliovirus infection. This study was conducted to describe the characteristics of patients reported with AFP, and to evaluate the performance of the surveillance system in Kurdistan province, western Iran, using indicators recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). Methods This observational study was conducted from January 2000 to December 2010 at the Kurdistan Center for Disease Control and the Department of Pediatrics. All children who fulfilled the WHO definition for AFP were included in our study. The stool samples of all the children were sent for poliovirus isolation. All the patients were evaluated for 60 days after the onset of symptoms to identify the signs of residual weakness. Findings One-hundred thirty nine children aged <15 years were reported to the Center for Diseases Control with AFP. In 138 (99%) stool samples no poliovirus was isolated. None of the patients was diagnosed as having acute poliomyelitis or polio-compatible paralysis. Guillain-Barré syndrome was the most frequent final diagnosis (79 cases) followed by Transverse Myelitis (7 cases) and Encephalitis (6 cases). By detecting 1.3 to 3.6 (mean 3.2) AFP cases per 100 000 population in Kurdistan during the study period, we achieved the WHO target for AFP surveillance. All performance indicators but one consistently met the WHO requirements and therefore demonstrated the effectiveness of the AFP surveillance program in Kurdistan. Conclusion The effective surveillance system in Kurdistan and its evaluation may serve as a model for the surveillance of other infectious diseases. PMID:25535530

  12. HIV surveillance systems in the Asia Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Loo, Virginia; Saidel, Tobi; Reddy, Amala; Htin, Khin Cho Win; Shwe, Ye Yu; Verbruggen, Bob

    2012-07-01

    In 2011, the United Nations Joint Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) Regional Support Team for Asia-Pacific conducted a stock-taking process of available strategic information in the Asia Pacific region. This paper summarizes the progress of HIV surveillance for 20 countries in the region, covering population size estimates of key populations at higher risk, HIV case reporting, HIV sentinel surveillance and probability surveys of behavioural and biological markers. Information on surveillance activities was obtained from publically available surveillance reports and protocols, supplemented by personal communication with the UNAIDS monitoring and evaluation advisers and surveillance experts in country. Key findings include substantial efforts in broadening the number and types of HIV surveillance components included in national HIV surveillance systems and adopting approaches to make surveillance more cost-efficient, such as integrating routine programme monitoring data and passive surveillance case reporting systems. More investment in regularly analysing and applying surveillance data to programme strengthening at the subnational level is needed but will require additional capacity-building and resources. The ability to triangulate multiple sources of surveillance data into a more comprehensive view of the HIV epidemic will be enhanced if more investment is made in better documentation and dissemination of surveillance activities and findings. PMID:23908915

  13. HIV surveillance systems in the Asia Pacific region

    PubMed Central

    Loo, Virginia; Reddy, Amala; Htin, Khin Cho Win; Shwe, Ye Yu; Verbruggen, Bob

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, the United Nations Joint Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) Regional Support Team for Asia-Pacific conducted a stock-taking process of available strategic information in the Asia Pacific region. This paper summarizes the progress of HIV surveillance for 20 countries in the region, covering population size estimates of key populations at higher risk, HIV case reporting, HIV sentinel surveillance and probability surveys of behavioural and biological markers. Information on surveillance activities was obtained from publically available surveillance reports and protocols, supplemented by personal communication with the UNAIDS monitoring and evaluation advisers and surveillance experts in country. Key findings include substantial efforts in broadening the number and types of HIV surveillance components included in national HIV surveillance systems and adopting approaches to make surveillance more cost-efficient, such as integrating routine programme monitoring data and passive surveillance case reporting systems. More investment in regularly analysing and applying surveillance data to programme strengthening at the subnational level is needed but will require additional capacity-building and resources. The ability to triangulate multiple sources of surveillance data into a more comprehensive view of the HIV epidemic will be enhanced if more investment is made in better documentation and dissemination of surveillance activities and findings. PMID:23908915

  14. Integrated monitoring and surveillance system demonstration project

    SciTech Connect

    Aumeier, S.E.; Walters, G.; Kotter, D.; Walrath, W.M.; Zamecnik, R.J.

    1997-07-01

    We present a summary of efforts associated with the installation of an integrated system for the surveillance and monitoring of stabilized plutonium metals and oxides in long-term storage. The product of this effort will include a Pu storage requirements document, baseline integrated monitoring and surveillance system (IMSS) prototype and test bed that will be installed in the Fuel Manufacturing Facility (FMF) nuclear material vault at Argonne National Laboratory - West (ANL-W), and a Pu tracking database including data analysis capabilities. The prototype will be based on a minimal set of vault and package monitoring requirements as derived from applicable DOE documentation and guidelines, detailed in the requirements document, including DOE-STD-3013-96. The use of standardized requirements will aid individual sites in the selection of sensors that best suit their needs while the prototype IMSS, located at ANL-W, will be used as a test bed to compare and contrast sensor performance against a baseline integrated system (the IMSS), demonstrate system capabilities, evaluate potential technology gaps, and test new hardware and software designs using various storage configurations. With efforts currently underway to repackage and store a substantial quantity of plutonium and plutonium-bearing material within the DOE complex, this is an opportune time to undertake such a project. 4 refs.

  15. Risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma may impair the performance of biomarkers: a comparison of AFP, DCP, and AFP-L3.

    PubMed

    Volk, Michael L; Hernandez, Jose C; Su, Grace L; Lok, Anna S; Marrero, Jorge A

    2007-01-01

    Current surveillance strategies for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are applied uniformly in patients with cirrhosis, regardless of their cancer risk. The aim of this study was to compare the performance characteristics of the biomarkers alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), des-gamma carboxyprothrombin (DCP), and lectin-bound AFP (AFP-L3) in the diagnosis of HCC, and to determine the effect of risk factors for HCC on test performance. Eighty-four patients with HCC and 169 patients with cirrhosis were enrolled and their serum analyzed for total AFP, AFP-L3 and DCP. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed to determine the performance characteristics. DCP was significantly better than total AFP or AFP-L3 in differentiating HCC from cirrhosis, with a sensitivity of 86% and specificity of 93%. When subjects were divided into two groups by their risk for HCC, all 3 markers had a lower sensitivity and area under the ROC curve in the high-risk group compared to the low-risk group. In conclusion, DCP has the best performance characteristics of all 3 serum markers for the diagnosis of HCC. Serum biomarkers may be less sensitive and specific in the highest risk patients. PMID:17522429

  16. Real-time holographic surveillance system

    DOEpatents

    Collins, H.D.; McMakin, D.L.; Hall, T.E.; Gribble, R.P.

    1995-10-03

    A holographic surveillance system is disclosed including means for generating electromagnetic waves; means for transmitting the electromagnetic waves toward a target at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; means for receiving and converting electromagnetic waves reflected from the target to electrical signals at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; means for processing the electrical signals to obtain signals corresponding to a holographic reconstruction of the target; and means for displaying the processed information to determine nature of the target. The means for processing the electrical signals includes means for converting analog signals to digital signals followed by a computer means to apply a backward wave algorithm. 21 figs.

  17. Real-time holographic surveillance system

    DOEpatents

    Collins, H. Dale; McMakin, Douglas L.; Hall, Thomas E.; Gribble, R. Parks

    1995-01-01

    A holographic surveillance system including means for generating electromagnetic waves; means for transmitting the electromagnetic waves toward a target at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; means for receiving and converting electromagnetic waves reflected from the target to electrical signals at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; means for processing the electrical signals to obtain signals corresponding to a holographic reconstruction of the target; and means for displaying the processed information to determine nature of the target. The means for processing the electrical signals includes means for converting analog signals to digital signals followed by a computer means to apply a backward wave algorithm.

  18. Real-time wideband holographic surveillance system

    DOEpatents

    Sheen, D.M.; Collins, H.D.; Hall, T.E.; McMakin, D.L.; Gribble, R.P.; Severtsen, R.H.; Prince, J.M.; Reid, L.D.

    1996-09-17

    A wideband holographic surveillance system including a transceiver for generating a plurality of electromagnetic waves; antenna for transmitting the electromagnetic waves toward a target at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; the transceiver also receiving and converting electromagnetic waves reflected from the target to electrical signals at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; a computer for processing the electrical signals to obtain signals corresponding to a holographic reconstruction of the target; and a display for displaying the processed information to determine nature of the target. The computer has instructions to apply a three dimensional backward wave algorithm. 28 figs.

  19. Real-time wideband holographic surveillance system

    DOEpatents

    Sheen, David M.; Collins, H. Dale; Hall, Thomas E.; McMakin, Douglas L.; Gribble, R. Parks; Severtsen, Ronald H.; Prince, James M.; Reid, Larry D.

    1996-01-01

    A wideband holographic surveillance system including a transceiver for generating a plurality of electromagnetic waves; antenna for transmitting the electromagnetic waves toward a target at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; the transceiver also receiving and converting electromagnetic waves reflected from the target to electrical signals at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; a computer for processing the electrical signals to obtain signals corresponding to a holographic reconstruction of the target; and a display for displaying the processed information to determine nature of the target. The computer has instructions to apply a three dimensional backward wave algorithm.

  20. Automated intelligent video surveillance system for ships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Hai; Nguyen, Hieu; Ramu, Prakash; Raju, Chaitanya; Liu, Xiaoqing; Yadegar, Jacob

    2009-05-01

    To protect naval and commercial ships from attack by terrorists and pirates, it is important to have automatic surveillance systems able to detect, identify, track and alert the crew on small watercrafts that might pursue malicious intentions, while ruling out non-threat entities. Radar systems have limitations on the minimum detectable range and lack high-level classification power. In this paper, we present an innovative Automated Intelligent Video Surveillance System for Ships (AIVS3) as a vision-based solution for ship security. Capitalizing on advanced computer vision algorithms and practical machine learning methodologies, the developed AIVS3 is not only capable of efficiently and robustly detecting, classifying, and tracking various maritime targets, but also able to fuse heterogeneous target information to interpret scene activities, associate targets with levels of threat, and issue the corresponding alerts/recommendations to the man-in- the-loop (MITL). AIVS3 has been tested in various maritime scenarios and shown accurate and effective threat detection performance. By reducing the reliance on human eyes to monitor cluttered scenes, AIVS3 will save the manpower while increasing the accuracy in detection and identification of asymmetric attacks for ship protection.

  1. SCORPION II persistent surveillance system update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coster, Michael; Hunt, Cassandra

    2011-06-01

    This paper highlights the most recently added features and benefits available in the latest generation of Northrop Grumman SCORPION II persistent surveillance and target recognition systems. By leveraging smaller, lighter, and more power efficient SCORPION II sensor and universal gateway components, with foliage penetrating ad-hoc network communications, persistent field programmable systems that are easier to conceal can be optimized for both image capture and data exfiltration. In addition to the SCORPION II suite of sensor components, a growing list of over sixty different sensor and camera types from a variety of manufacturers have been integrated with the SCORPION Gateway family. In addition to updating several different COP systems, SCORPION and SCORPION II data can be directly processed using a common sensor status graphical user interface (GUI) that allows for viewing and analysis of images and sensor data from hundreds of SCORPION system gateways on single or multiple displays.

  2. Mental health surveillance and information systems.

    PubMed

    Gater, R; Chisholm, D; Dowrick, C

    2015-07-01

    Routine information systems for mental health in many Eastern Mediterranean Region countries are rudimentary or absent, making it difficult to understand the needs of local populations and to plan accordingly. Key components for mental health surveillance and information systems are: national commitment and leadership to ensure that relevant high quality information is collected and reported; a minimum data set of key mental health indicators; intersectoral collaboration with appropriate data sharing; routine data collection supplemented with periodic surveys; quality control and confidentiality; and technology and skills to support data collection, sharing and dissemination. Priority strategic interventions include: (1) periodically assessing and reporting the mental health resources and capacities available using standardized methodologies; (2) routine collection of information and reporting on service availability, coverage and continuity, for priority mental disorders disaggregated by age, sex and diagnosis; and (3) mandatory recording and reporting of suicides at the national level (using relevant ICD codes). PMID:26442892

  3. Traffic Flow Wide-Area Surveillance system

    SciTech Connect

    Allgood, G.O.; Ferrell, R.K.; Kercel, S.W.; Abston, R.A.

    1994-09-01

    Traffic management can be thought of as a stochastic queuing process where the serving time at one of its control points is dynamically linked to the global traffic pattern, which is, in turn, dynamically linked to the control point. For this closed-loop system to be effective, the traffic management system must sense and interpret a large spatial projection of data originating from multiple sensor suites. This concept is the basis for the development of a Traffic Flow Wide-Area Surveillance (TFWAS) system. This paper presents the results of a study by Oak Ridge National Laboratory to define the operational specifications and characteristics, to determine the constraints, and to examine the state of technology of a TFWAS system in terms of traffic management and control. In doing so, the functions and attributes of a TFWAS system are mapped into an operational structure consistent with the Intelligent Vehicle Highway System (IVHS) concept and the existing highway infrastructure. This mapping includes identifying candidate sensor suites and establishing criteria, requirements, and performance measures by which these systems can be graded in their ability and practicality to meet the operational requirements of a TFWAS system. In light of this, issues such as system integration, applicable technologies, impact on traffic management and control, and public acceptance are addressed.

  4. Asset surveillance system: apparatus and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bickford, Randall L. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    System and method for providing surveillance of an asset comprised of numerically fitting at least one mathematical model to obtained residual data correlative to asset operation; storing at least one mathematical model in a memory; obtaining a current set of signal data from the asset; retrieving at least one mathematical model from the memory, using the retrieved mathematical model in a sequential hypothesis test for determining if the current set of signal data is indicative of a fault condition; determining an asset fault cause correlative to a determined indication of a fault condition; providing an indication correlative to a determined fault cause, and an action when warranted. The residual data can be mode partitioned, a current mode of operation can be determined from the asset, and at least one mathematical model can be retrieved from the memory as a function of the determined mode of operation.

  5. Web surveillance system using platform-based design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Shin-Yo; Tsai, Tsung-Han

    2004-04-01

    A revolutionary methodology of SOPC platform-based design environment for multimedia communications will be developed. We embed a softcore processor to perform the image compression in FPGA. Then, we plug-in an Ethernet daughter board in the SOPC development platform system. Afterward, a web surveillance platform system is presented. The web surveillance system consists of three parts: image capture, web server and JPEG compression. In this architecture, user can control the surveillance system by remote. By the IP address configures to Ethernet daughter board, the user can access the surveillance system via browser. When user access the surveillance system, the CMOS sensor presently capture the remote image. After that, it will feed the captured image with the embedded processor. The embedded processor immediately performs the JPEG compression. Afterward, the user receives the compressed data via Ethernet. To sum up of the above mentioned, the all system will be implemented on APEX20K200E484-2X device.

  6. In Search of Consensus: Role Versus Belief Systems in Bureaucratic Bargaining. An American Foreign Policy Simulation (AFPS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Heidi H.; Moreno, Dario V.

    Reported are results from two runs of the simulation "Bureaucratic Bargaining," developed to help students understand the inherent tension between roles and belief systems in American foreign policy decision making. To determine their belief systems, 165 students enrolled in an introductory international relations course were tested with a…

  7. SCORPION persistent surveillance system with universal gateway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coster, Michael; Chambers, Jon; Winters, Michael; Belesi, Joe

    2008-04-01

    This paper addresses benefits derived from the universal gateway utilized in Northrop Grumman Systems Corporation's (NGSC) SCORPION, a persistent surveillance and target recognition system produced by the Xetron campus in Cincinnati, Ohio. SCORPION is currently deployed in Operations Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and Enduring Freedom (OEF). The SCORPION universal gateway is a flexible, field programmable system that provides integration of over forty Unattended Ground Sensor (UGS) types from a variety of manufacturers, multiple visible and thermal electro-optical (EO) imagers, and numerous long haul satellite and terrestrial communications links, including the Army Research Lab (ARL) Blue Radio. Xetron has been integrating best in class sensors with this universal gateway to provide encrypted data exfiltration and remote sensor command and control since 1998. SCORPION data can be distributed point to point, or to multiple Common Operational Picture (COP) systems, including Command and Control Personal Computer (C2PC), Common Data Interchange Format for the Situational Awareness Display (CDIF/SAD), Force XXI Battle Command Brigade and Below (FBCB2), Defense Common Ground Systems (DCGS), and Remote Automated Position Identification System (RAPIDS).

  8. Survey of Clostridium difficile infection surveillance systems in Europe, 2011.

    PubMed

    Kola, Axel; Wiuff, Camilla; Akerlund, Thomas; van Benthem, Birgit H; Coignard, Bruno; Lyytikäinen, Outi; Weitzel-Kage, Doris; Suetens, Carl; Wilcox, Mark H; Kuijper, Ed J; Gastmeier, Petra

    2016-07-21

    To develop a European surveillance protocol for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), existing national CDI surveillance systems were assessed in 2011. A web-based electronic form was provided for all national coordinators of the European CDI Surveillance Network (ECDIS-Net). Of 35 national coordinators approached, 33 from 31 European countries replied. Surveillance of CDI was in place in 14 of the 31 countries, comprising 18 different nationwide systems. Three of 14 countries with CDI surveillance used public health notification of cases as the route of reporting, and in another three, reporting was limited to public health notification of cases of severe CDI. The CDI definitions published by the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID) and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) were widely used, but there were differing definitions to distinguish between community- and healthcare-associated cases. All CDI surveillance systems except one reported annual national CDI rates (calculated as number of cases per patient-days). Only four surveillance systems regularly integrated microbiological data (typing and susceptibility testing results). Surveillance methods varied considerably between countries, which emphasises the need for a harmonised European protocol to allow consistent monitoring of the CDI epidemiology at European level. The results of this survey were used to develop a harmonised EU-wide hospital-based CDI surveillance protocol. PMID:27469420

  9. SCORPION II persistent surveillance system update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coster, Michael; Chambers, Jon

    2010-04-01

    This paper updates the improvements and benefits demonstrated in the next generation Northrop Grumman SCORPION II family of persistent surveillance and target recognition systems produced by the Xetron Campus in Cincinnati, Ohio. SCORPION II reduces the size, weight, and cost of all SCORPION components in a flexible, field programmable system that is easier to conceal and enables integration of over fifty different Unattended Ground Sensor (UGS) and camera types from a variety of manufacturers, with a modular approach to supporting multiple Line of Sight (LOS) and Beyond Line of Sight (BLOS) communications interfaces. Since 1998 Northrop Grumman has been integrating best in class sensors with its proven universal modular Gateway to provide encrypted data exfiltration to Common Operational Picture (COP) systems and remote sensor command and control. In addition to feeding COP systems, SCORPION and SCORPION II data can be directly processed using a common sensor status graphical user interface (GUI) that allows for viewing and analysis of images and sensor data from up to seven hundred SCORPION system gateways on single or multiple displays. This GUI enables a large amount of sensor data and imagery to be used for actionable intelligence as well as remote sensor command and control by a minimum number of analysts.

  10. Electronic integrated disease surveillance system and pathogen asset control system.

    PubMed

    Wahl, Tom G; Burdakov, Aleksey V; Oukharov, Andrey O; Zhilokov, Azamat K

    2012-01-01

    Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System (EIDSS) has been used to strengthen and support monitoring and prevention of dangerous diseases within One Health concept by integrating veterinary and human surveillance, passive and active approaches, case-based records including disease-specific clinical data based on standardised case definitions and aggregated data, laboratory data including sample tracking linked to each case and event with test results and epidemiological investigations. Information was collected and shared in secure way by different means: through the distributed nodes which are continuously synchronised amongst each other, through the web service, through the handheld devices. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System provided near real time information flow that has been then disseminated to the appropriate organisations in a timely manner. It has been used for comprehensive analysis and visualisation capabilities including real time mapping of case events as these unfold enhancing decision making. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System facilitated countries to comply with the IHR 2005 requirements through a data transfer module reporting diseases electronically to the World Health Organisation (WHO) data center as well as establish authorised data exchange with other electronic system using Open Architecture approach. Pathogen Asset Control System (PACS) has been used for accounting, management and control of biological agent stocks. Information on samples and strains of any kind throughout their entire lifecycle has been tracked in a comprehensive and flexible solution PACS.Both systems have been used in a combination and individually. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System and PACS are currently deployed in the Republics of Kazakhstan, Georgia and Azerbaijan as a part of the Cooperative Biological Engagement Program (CBEP) sponsored by the US Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA). PMID:23327375

  11. Secure Video Surveillance System (SVSS) for unannounced safeguards inspections.

    SciTech Connect

    Galdoz, Erwin G. , Rio de Janeiro, Brazil); Pinkalla, Mark

    2010-09-01

    The Secure Video Surveillance System (SVSS) is a collaborative effort between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC). The joint project addresses specific requirements of redundant surveillance systems installed in two South American nuclear facilities as a tool to support unannounced inspections conducted by ABACC and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The surveillance covers the critical time (as much as a few hours) between the notification of an inspection and the access of inspectors to the location in facility where surveillance equipment is installed. ABACC and the IAEA currently use the EURATOM Multiple Optical Surveillance System (EMOSS). This outdated system is no longer available or supported by the manufacturer. The current EMOSS system has met the project objective; however, the lack of available replacement parts and system support has made this system unsustainable and has increased the risk of an inoperable system. A new system that utilizes current technology and is maintainable is required to replace the aging EMOSS system. ABACC intends to replace one of the existing ABACC EMOSS systems by the Secure Video Surveillance System. SVSS utilizes commercial off-the shelf (COTS) technologies for all individual components. Sandia National Laboratories supported the system design for SVSS to meet Safeguards requirements, i.e. tamper indication, data authentication, etc. The SVSS consists of two video surveillance cameras linked securely to a data collection unit. The collection unit is capable of retaining historical surveillance data for at least three hours with picture intervals as short as 1sec. Images in .jpg format are available to inspectors using various software review tools. SNL has delivered two SVSS systems for test and evaluation at the ABACC Safeguards Laboratory. An additional 'proto-type' system remains

  12. Artificial antigen-presenting cells expressing AFP158-166 peptide and interleukin-15 activate AFP-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Longhao; Guo, Hao; Jiang, Ruoyu; Lu, Li; Liu, Tong; Zhang, Zhixiang; He, Xianghui

    2016-01-01

    Professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) are potent generators of tumor antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) for adoptive immunotherapy; however, generation of APCs is cumbersome, expensive, and subject to the tumor microenvironment. Artificial APCs (aAPCs) have been developed as a cost-effective alternative to APCs. We developed a cellular aAPC that efficiently generated alpha-fetoprotein (AFP)-specific CTLs. We genetically modified the human B cell lymphoma cell line BJAB with a lentiviral vector to establish an aAPC called BA15. The expression of AFP158-166-HLA-A*02:01 complex, CD80, CD86, and interleukin (IL)-15 in BA15 cells was assessed. The efficiency of BA15 at generating AFP-specific CTLs and the specific cytotoxicity of CTLs against AFP+ cells were also determined. BA15 cells expressed high levels of AFP158-166 peptide, HLA-A2, CD80, CD86, and IL-15. BA15 cells also exhibited higher efficiency in generating AFP-specific CTLs than did dendritic cells. These CTLs had greater cytotoxicity against AFP+ hepatocellular carcinoma cells than did CTLs obtained from dendritic cells in vitro and in vivo. Our novel aAPC system could provide a robust platform for the generation of functional AFP-specific CTLs for adoptive immunotherapy of hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:27007051

  13. Artificial antigen-presenting cells expressing AFP158-166 peptide and interleukin-15 activate AFP-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Sun, Longhao; Guo, Hao; Jiang, Ruoyu; Lu, Li; Liu, Tong; Zhang, Zhixiang; He, Xianghui

    2016-04-01

    Professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) are potent generators of tumor antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) for adoptive immunotherapy; however, generation of APCs is cumbersome, expensive, and subject to the tumor microenvironment. Artificial APCs (aAPCs) have been developed as a cost-effective alternative to APCs. We developed a cellular aAPC that efficiently generated alpha-fetoprotein (AFP)-specific CTLs. We genetically modified the human B cell lymphoma cell line BJAB with a lentiviral vector to establish an aAPC called BA15. The expression of AFP158-166-HLA-A*02:01 complex, CD80, CD86, and interleukin (IL)-15 in BA15 cells was assessed. The efficiency of BA15 at generating AFP-specific CTLs and the specific cytotoxicity of CTLs against AFP+ cells were also determined. BA15 cells expressed high levels of AFP158-166 peptide, HLA-A2, CD80, CD86, and IL-15. BA15 cells also exhibited higher efficiency in generating AFP-specific CTLs than did dendritic cells. These CTLs had greater cytotoxicity against AFP+ hepatocellular carcinoma cells than did CTLs obtained from dendritic cells in vitro and in vivo. Our novel aAPC system could provide a robust platform for the generation of functional AFP-specific CTLs for adoptive immunotherapy of hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:27007051

  14. Status of the AFP project in the ATLAS experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Taševský, Marek

    2015-04-10

    Status of the AFP project in the ATLAS experiment is summarized. The AFP system is composed of a tracker to detect intact, diffractively scattered protons, and of a time-of-flight detector serving to suppress background from pile-up interactions. The whole system, located around 210 m from the main ATLAS detector, is placed in Roman Pots which move detectors from and to the incident proton beams. A typical distance of the closest approach of the tracker to these beams is 2–3 mm. The main physics motivation lies in measuring diffractive processes in runs with not a very high amount of pile-up.

  15. Status of the AFP project in the ATLAS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taševský, Marek

    2015-04-01

    Status of the AFP project in the ATLAS experiment is summarized. The AFP system is composed of a tracker to detect intact, diffractively scattered protons, and of a time-of-flight detector serving to suppress background from pile-up interactions. The whole system, located around 210 m from the main ATLAS detector, is placed in Roman Pots which move detectors from and to the incident proton beams. A typical distance of the closest approach of the tracker to these beams is 2-3 mm. The main physics motivation lies in measuring diffractive processes in runs with not a very high amount of pile-up.

  16. Profile: Nanoro Health and Demographic Surveillance System.

    PubMed

    Derra, Karim; Rouamba, Eli; Kazienga, Adama; Ouedraogo, Sayouba; Tahita, Marc C; Sorgho, Hermann; Valea, Innocent; Tinto, Halidou

    2012-10-01

    The Nanoro Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS), located in the rural centre of Burkina Faso, was established in 2009 by the Clinical Research Unit of Nanoro with the aim of providing a core framework for clinical trials and also to support the Burkina Faso health authorities in generating epidemiological data that can contribute to the setup and assessment of health interventions. In the baseline of initial census, 54 781 individuals were recorded of whom 56.1% are female. After the initial census, vital events such as pregnancies, births, migrations and deaths have been monitored, and data on individuals and household characteristics are updated during regular 4-monthly household visits. The available data are categorized into demographic, cultural, socio-economic and health information, and are used for monitoring and evaluation of population development issues. As a young site, our objective has been to strengthen our skills and knowledge and share new scientific experiences with INDEPTH and HDSS sites in Burkina Faso. In addition, all data produced by the Nanoro HDSS will be made publicly available through the INDEPTH data sharing system. PMID:23045201

  17. AFP — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    AFP is a major plasma protein produced by the yolk sac and the liver during fetal life. Alpha-fetoprotein expression in adults is often associated with hepatoma or teratoma. However, hereditary persistance of alpha-fetoprotein may also be found in individuals with no obvious pathology. The protein is thought to be the fetal counterpart of serum albumin, and the alpha-fetoprotein and albumin genes are present in tandem in the same transcriptional orientation on chromosome 4. Alpha-fetoprotein is found in monomeric as well as dimeric and trimeric forms, and binds copper, nickel, fatty acids and bilirubin.

  18. Early Warning Expert System for Equipment Operability Surveillance

    1996-12-18

    EWES is an Al-based expert system for signal validation and sensor operability surveillance in industrial applications that require high-reliability, high-sensitivity annunciation of degraded sensors, discrepant signals, or the onset or incipience of system disturbances.

  19. Surveillance Analysis Computer System (SACS) software requirements specification (SRS)

    SciTech Connect

    Glasscock, J.A.; Flanagan, M.J.

    1995-09-01

    This document is the primary document establishing requirements for the Surveillance Analysis Computer System (SACS) Database, an Impact Level 3Q system. The purpose is to provide the customer and the performing organization with the requirements for the SACS Project.

  20. Real Time Wide Area Radiation Surveillance System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biafore, M.

    2012-04-01

    We present the REWARD project, financed within the FP7 programme, theme SEC-2011.1.5-1 (Development of detection capabilities of difficult to detect radioactive sources and nuclear materials - Capability Project). Within this project, we propose a novel mobile system for real time, wide area radiation surveillance. The system is based on the integration of new miniaturized solid-state radiation sensors: a CdZnTe detector for gamma radiation and a high efficiency neutron detector based on novel silicon technologies. The sensing unit will include a wireless communication interface to send the data remotely to a monitoring base station which also uses a GPS system to calculate the position of the tag. The system will also incorporate middleware and high level software to provide web-service interfaces for the exchange of information, and that will offer top level functionalities as management of users, mobile tags and environment data and alarms, database storage and management and a web-based graphical user interface. Effort will be spent to ensure that the software is modular and re-usable across as many architectural levels as possible. Finally, an expert system will continuously analyze the information from the radiation sensor and correlate it with historical data from the tag location in order to generate an alarm when an abnormal situation is detected. The system will be useful for many different scenarios, including such lost radioactive sources and radioactive contamination. It will be possible to deploy in emergency units and in general in any type of mobile or static equipment. The sensing units will be highly portable thanks to their low size and low energy consumption. The complete system will be scalable in terms of complexity and cost and will offer very high precision on both the measurement and the location of the radiation. The modularity and flexibility of the system will allow for a realistic introduction to the market. Authorities may start with a

  1. Surveillance system for hepatitis C infection: A practical approach

    PubMed Central

    Jafari, Najmeh; Farajzadegan, Ziba; Ataei, Behrooz

    2012-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a serious public health concern throughout the world. Despite its public health prominence, however, how surveillance systems for hepatitis C should be designed is still a challenging issue especially in developing countries such as Iran. Establishing a surveillance system needs an ongoing process of case investigation, data collection, analysis of data and also dissemination of data to public health professionals and health care providers. This review article tries to provide the best recommendations for planning and implantation a surveillance system for HCV infection. PMID:22826770

  2. A new video surveillance system based on AVS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Tingwan; Chen, Chaofeng

    2010-08-01

    In this paper, we analyzed the key technology of current video surveillance systems, compared the performances, prices, and the prospects between the H.264 and AVS codec technologies, studied the advantages and disadvantages of different designs, particularly the data transmission, terminal reception facilities, decoding and demonstration of the video surveillance systems. We have optimized the core algorithms such as intra prediction, inter prediction and fast motion estimation, and performed some relevant simulations for these algorithms. Experimental results show that these new algorithms simplified the design and speeded up the compression rate. From the simulation results, we proposed a new video surveillance system based on AVS. The program reached low price, high efficiency, fast, high image quality, convenient application and operation, greatly improved the current video surveillance systems.

  3. Health & Demographic Surveillance System Profile: The Rufiji Health and Demographic Surveillance System (Rufiji HDSS).

    PubMed

    Mrema, Sigilbert; Kante, Almamy M; Levira, Francis; Mono, Amaniel; Irema, Kahema; de Savigny, Don; Masanja, Honorati

    2015-04-01

    The Rufiji Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) was established in October 1998 to evaluate the impact on burden of disease of health system reforms based on locally generated data, prioritization, resource allocation and planning for essential health interventions. The Rufiji HDSS collects detailed information on health and survival and provides a framework for population-based health research of relevance to local and national health priorities.In December 2012 the population under surveillance was about 105,503 people, residing in 19,315 households. Monitoring of households and members within households is undertaken in regular 6-month cycles known as 'rounds'. Self reported information is collected on demographic, household, socioeconomic and geographical characteristics. Verbal autopsy is conducted using standardized questionnaires, to determine probable causes of death. In conjunction with core HDSS activities, the ongoing studies in Rufiji HDSS focus on maternal and new-born health, evaluation of safety of artemether-lumefantrine (AL) exposure in early pregnancy and the clinical safety of a fixed dose of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHA-PQP) in the community. Findings of studies conducted in Rufiji HDSS can be accessed at www.ihi.or.tz/IHI-Digital-Library. PMID:25747869

  4. [Proposal to establish an environmental contaminants surveillance system in Colombia].

    PubMed

    Huertas, Jancy Andrea

    2015-08-01

    Environmental pollution is a growing problem that negatively impacts health with social and economic high costs. In this sense, coordinated surveillance of conditions, risks, exposures and health effects related to pollution is a useful tool to guide decision-making processes. The objective of this essay was to describe a surveillance system for environmental contaminants in Colombia and its design background. Using the technical guidelines proposed by the Pan American Health Organization, a literature review was conducted to identify the key elements to be included in such surveillance system and to establish which of these elements were already present in the Colombian context. Moreover, these findings were compared with successful experiences in Latin America. The surveillance system includes five components: Epidemiological, environmental and biological surveillance, clinical monitoring and recommendations to guide policies or interventions. The key factors for a successful surveillance system are: interdisciplinary and inter-sector work, clear definition of functions, activities, data sources and information flow. The implementation of the system will be efficient if the structures and tools existing in each country are taken into account. The most important stakeholders are inter-sector public health and environmental commissions and government institutions working in research and surveillance issues related to health, sanitation, environment, drugs and food regulation and control. In conclusion, Colombia has the technical resources and a normative framework to design and implement the surveillance system. However, stakeholders´ coordination is essential to ensure the efficacy of the system so it may guide the implementation of cost-effective actions in environmental health. PMID:26535737

  5. Laboratory for testing electro-optical surveillance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrzanowski, K.

    2011-05-01

    A modern laboratory capable to carry out expanded tests of all types of electro-optical surveillance systems (thermal imagers, TV/LLLTV cameras, night vision devices, laser range finders/designators/illuminators, multi-sensor surveillance systems) and basic modules of such surveillance systems (IR FPA/CCD/CMOS/EBAPS sensors, image intensifier tubes, optical objectives) was developed and is presented in this paper. The laboratory can be treated as a both scientific and technical achievement due to its several features. First, all important parameters of modern electro-optical surveillance systems or parameters of basic modules of such systems can be measured. Second, the laboratory is built using a set of semi-independent modular test stations. This modular concept enables easy creations of many versions optimized for different applications. Third, interpretation of the measurement data is supported by a set of specialized computer simulation programs. Fourth, all tests stations in the laboratory were developed by the same design team and are based on similar test concepts.. Because of these features the laboratory of electro-optical surveillance technology presented in this paper can be an optimal solutions for scientific centers or industrial companies who plan to enter and make quick progress in all main areas of surveillance technology.

  6. Conceptual Design of a European Space Surveillance System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donath, T.; Michal, T.; Vanwijck, X.; Dugrosprez, B.; Flohrer, T.; Schildknecht, T.

    Space Surveillance denotes the task of systematically surveying and tracking all objects above a certain size and maintaining a catalogue with updated orbital and physical characteristics for these objects Space Surveillance is gaining increased importance as the operational safety of spacecraft is depending on it Presently Europe has no operational capability for Space Surveillance and is strongly dependant on external information from the USA and Russia Two design studies for a European Space Surveillance System ESSS were conducted for ESA since 2002 These studies have proposed a system covering the LEO MEO and GEO orbit regions This system associates dedicated sensors with the required survey strategies allowing for the autonomous maintenance of an orbital parameters catalogue including cold start capability Concerning the LEO surveillance system the main findings are the following begin itemize item For the surveillance of objects larger than 10 cm a survey strategy using a UHF bistatic radar with a large field of view 20 r in elevation and 180 r in azimuth and a long range 1500 km for a 10 cm sphere is proposed This proposition is based on the French experience with the GRAVES system development An interesting European location for this radar would be Spain item The optimal frequency for the detection of such objects is around 600 MHz UHF This option is very risky from the point of view of frequency allocation since it is reserved for TV broadcasting The 435 MHz frequency UHF also appears to be a good alternative in

  7. Internet-based surveillance systems for monitoring emerging infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Milinovich, Gabriel J; Williams, Gail M; Clements, Archie C A; Hu, Wenbiao

    2014-02-01

    Emerging infectious diseases present a complex challenge to public health officials and governments; these challenges have been compounded by rapidly shifting patterns of human behaviour and globalisation. The increase in emerging infectious diseases has led to calls for new technologies and approaches for detection, tracking, reporting, and response. Internet-based surveillance systems offer a novel and developing means of monitoring conditions of public health concern, including emerging infectious diseases. We review studies that have exploited internet use and search trends to monitor two such diseases: influenza and dengue. Internet-based surveillance systems have good congruence with traditional surveillance approaches. Additionally, internet-based approaches are logistically and economically appealing. However, they do not have the capacity to replace traditional surveillance systems; they should not be viewed as an alternative, but rather an extension. Future research should focus on using data generated through internet-based surveillance and response systems to bolster the capacity of traditional surveillance systems for emerging infectious diseases. PMID:24290841

  8. Midkine Increases Diagnostic Yield in AFP Negative and NASH-Related Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Vongsuvanh, Roslyn; van der Poorten, David; Iseli, Tristan; Strasser, Simone I.; McCaughan, Geoffrey W.; George, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Robust biomarkers for population-level hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) surveillance are lacking. We compared serum midkine (MDK), dickkopf-1 (DKK1), osteopontin (OPN) and AFP for HCC diagnosis in 86 HCC patients matched to 86 cirrhotics, 86 with chronic liver disease (CLD) and 86 healthy controls (HC). Based on the performance of each biomarker, we assessed a separate longitudinal cohort of 28 HCC patients, at and before cancer diagnosis. Serum levels of MDK and OPN were higher in HCC patients compared to cirrhosis, CLD and HC groups. DKK1 was not different between cases and controls. More than half of HCC patients had normal AFP. In this AFP-negative HCC cohort, 59.18% (n = 29/49) had elevated MDK, applying the optimal cut-off of 0.44 ng/ml. Using AFP ≥ 20 IU/ml or MDK ≥ 0.44 ng/ml, a significantly greater number (76.7%; n = 66/86) of HCC cases were detected. The area under the receiver operating curve for MDK was superior to AFP and OPN in NASH-HCC diagnosis. In the longitudinal cohort, MDK was elevated in 15/28 (54%) of HCC patients at diagnosis, of whom 67% had elevated MDK 6 months prior. Conclusion: AFP and MDK have a complementary role in HCC detection. MDK increases the diagnostic yield in AFP-negative HCC and has greater diagnostic performance than AFP, OPN and DKK-1 in the diagnosis of NASH-HCC. Additionally, MDK has a promising role in the pre-clinical diagnosis of HCC. PMID:27219517

  9. Surveillance for quality assessment: IV. Surveillance using a hospital information system.

    PubMed

    Classen, D C; Burke, J P; Pestotnik, S L; Evans, R S; Stevens, L E

    1991-04-01

    Hospital surveillance for infection control purposes is a well-accepted method of following nosocomial infections in U.S. hospitals. However, hospital surveillance is being increasingly performed for nosocomial events in noninfectious areas, such as quality assurance and other areas of outcomes research. For the continued development of hospital surveillance in all these areas, dramatic growth in the amount of information collected will occur. To accommodate this growth and to validate new approaches in these areas, large amounts of data collection will be necessary. Collection of these data will be quite difficult without the creation of clinical hospital data bases in which large amounts of information are collected as a routine part of patient care, not as an elaborate addition to patient care. Automated hospital information systems, such as the HELP system, can facilitate the conduct of ongoing hospital surveillance not only in infection control but also in a broad range of areas, such as quality improvement outcomes research and cost-containment areas. PMID:2061582

  10. Descriptive review of tuberculosis surveillance systems across the circumpolar regions

    PubMed Central

    Bourgeois, Annie-Claude; Zulz, Tammy; Soborg, Bolette; Koch, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis is highly prevalent in many Arctic areas. Members of the International Circumpolar Surveillance Tuberculosis (ICS-TB) Working Group collaborate to increase knowledge about tuberculosis in Arctic regions. Objective To establish baseline knowledge of tuberculosis surveillance systems used by ICS-TB member jurisdictions. Design Three questionnaires were developed to reflect the different surveillance levels (local, regional and national); all 3 were forwarded to the official representative of each of the 15 ICS-TB member jurisdictions in 2013. Respondents self-identified the level of surveillance conducted in their region and completed the applicable questionnaire. Information collected included surveillance system objectives, case definitions, data collection methodology, storage and dissemination. Results Thirteen ICS-TB jurisdictions [Canada (Labrador, Northwest Territories, Nunavik, Nunavut, Yukon), Finland, Greenland, Norway, Sweden, Russian Federation (Arkhangelsk, Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug, Yakutia (Sakha Republic), United States (Alaska)] voluntarily completed the survey – representing 2 local, 7 regional and 4 national levels. Tuberculosis reporting is mandatory in all jurisdictions, and case definitions are comparable across regions. The common objectives across systems are to detect outbreaks, and inform the evaluation/planning of public health programmes and policies. All jurisdictions collect data on confirmed active tuberculosis cases and treatment outcomes; 11 collect contact tracing results. Faxing of standardized case reporting forms is the most common reporting method. Similar core data elements are collected; 8 regions report genotyping results. Data are stored using customized programmes (n=7) and commercial software (n=6). Nine jurisdictions provide monthly, bi-annual or annual reports to principally government and/or scientific/medical audiences. Conclusion This review successfully establishes baseline knowledge

  11. Next Generation Space Surveillance System-of-Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McShane, B.

    2014-09-01

    International economic and military dependence on space assets is pervasive and ever-growing in an environment that is now congested, contested, and competitive. There are a number of natural and man-made risks that need to be monitored and characterized to protect and preserve the space environment and the assets within it. Unfortunately, today's space surveillance network (SSN) has gaps in coverage, is not resilient, and has a growing number of objects that get lost. Risks can be efficiently and effectively mitigated, gaps closed, resiliency improved, and performance increased within a next generation space surveillance network implemented as a system-of-systems with modern information architectures and analytic techniques. This also includes consideration for the newest SSN sensors (e.g. Space Fence) which are born Net-Centric out-of-the-box and able to seamlessly interface with the JSpOC Mission System, global information grid, and future unanticipated users. Significant opportunity exists to integrate legacy, traditional, and non-traditional sensors into a larger space system-of-systems (including command and control centers) for multiple clients through low cost sustainment, modification, and modernization efforts. Clients include operations centers (e.g. JSpOC, USSTRATCOM, CANSPOC), Intelligence centers (e.g. NASIC), space surveillance sensor sites (e.g. AMOS, GEODSS), international governments (e.g. Germany, UK), space agencies (e.g. NASA), and academic institutions. Each has differing priorities, networks, data needs, timeliness, security, accuracy requirements and formats. Enabling processes and technologies include: Standardized and type accredited methods for secure connections to multiple networks, machine-to-machine interfaces for near real-time data sharing and tip-and-queue activities, common data models for analytical processing across multiple radar and optical sensor types, an efficient way to automatically translate between differing client and

  12. Report on Surveillance Systems in Community College Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holleman, Peggy

    1983-01-01

    Details the results of a survey on surveillance systems in community college libraries. Lists the security systems utilized by 88 responding libraries and discusses the effectiveness of the individual systems. Finds 3M Tattletape and Check Point the most used systems. (CBC)

  13. Challenges in building health surveillance systems in saudi arabia.

    PubMed

    Al Saleem, Nouf; Househ, Mowafa; El Metwally, Ashraf

    2014-01-01

    This paper is aiming to briefly discuss the role of health surveillance system in strengthening public health at both the local and global level and the use of health informatics in effectively creating a database of health status for the population of Saudi Arabia. This review will specifically focus on the challenges that face the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in order to effectively implement surveillance programs making use of advances in health information technology. Data collection was performed through a web-based retrieval of reports and articles and via an interview with an epidemiologist in the Saudi Ministry of Health Surveillance unit. Based on the results of this research, it was found that the use of technology has led to an improvement in communication between various stakeholders (e.g. clinicians, epidemiologists, and decision makers) by providing timely and accurate information needed for informed decision making. However, implementing an ideal model of surveillance systems in Saudi Arabia faces many challenges particularly in training healthcare providers to be qualified and competent enough to ensure the successful implementation of a disease surveillance system. PMID:25000066

  14. Sentinel surveillance system for early outbreak detection in Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Following the outbreak of chikungunya in the Indian Ocean, the Ministry of Health directed the necessary development of an early outbreak detection system. A disease surveillance team including the Institut Pasteur in Madagascar (IPM) was organized to establish a sentinel syndromic-based surveillance system. The system, which was set up in March 2007, transmits patient data on a daily basis from the various voluntary general practitioners throughout the six provinces of the country to the IPM. We describe the challenges and steps involved in developing a sentinel surveillance system and the well-timed information it provides for improving public health decision-making. Methods Surveillance was based on data collected from sentinel general practitioners (SGP). The SGPs report the sex, age, visit date and time, and symptoms of each new patient weekly, using forms addressed to the management team. However, the system is original in that SGPs also report data at least once a day, from Monday to Friday (number of fever cases, rapid test confirmed malaria, influenza, arboviral syndromes or diarrhoeal disease), by cellular telephone (encrypted message SMS). Information can also be validated by the management team, by mobile phone. This data transmission costs 120 ariary per day, less than US$1 per month. Results In 2008, the sentinel surveillance system included 13 health centers, and identified 5 outbreaks. Of the 218,849 visits to SGPs, 12.2% were related to fever syndromes. Of these 26,669 fever cases, 12.3% were related to Dengue-like fever, 11.1% to Influenza-like illness and 9.7% to malaria cases confirmed by a specific rapid diagnostic test. Conclusion The sentinel surveillance system represents the first nationwide real-time-like surveillance system ever established in Madagascar. Our findings should encourage other African countries to develop their own syndromic surveillance systems. Prompt detection of an outbreak of infectious disease may lead to

  15. Information Systems to Support Surveillance for Malaria Elimination

    PubMed Central

    Ohrt, Colin; Roberts, Kathryn W.; Sturrock, Hugh J. W.; Wegbreit, Jennifer; Lee, Bruce Y.; Gosling, Roly D.

    2015-01-01

    Robust and responsive surveillance systems are critical for malaria elimination. The ideal information system that supports malaria elimination includes: rapid and complete case reporting, incorporation of related data, such as census or health survey information, central data storage and management, automated and expert data analysis, and customized outputs and feedback that lead to timely and targeted responses. Spatial information enhances such a system, ensuring cases are tracked and mapped over time. Data sharing and coordination across borders are vital and new technologies can improve data speed, accuracy, and quality. Parts of this ideal information system exist and are in use, but have yet to be linked together coherently. Malaria elimination programs should support the implementation and refinement of information systems to support surveillance and response and ensure political and financial commitment to maintain the systems and the human resources needed to run them. National malaria programs should strive to improve the access and utility of these information systems and establish cross-border data sharing mechanisms through the use of standard indicators for malaria surveillance. Ultimately, investment in the information technologies that support a timely and targeted surveillance and response system is essential for malaria elimination. PMID:26013378

  16. Influenza Virus Surveillance in Coordinated Swine Production Systems, United States.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Bryan S; DeBeauchamp, Jennifer; Stigger-Rosser, Evelyn; Franks, John; Crumpton, Jeri Carol; Turner, Jasmine; Darnell, Daniel; Jeevan, Trushar; Kayali, Ghazi; Harding, Abbey; Webby, Richard J; Lowe, James F

    2015-10-01

    To clarify the epidemiology of influenza A viruses in coordinated swine production systems to which no animals from outside the system are introduced, we conducted virologic surveillance during September 2012-September 2013. Animal age, geographic location, and farm type were found to affect the prevalence of these viruses. PMID:26402228

  17. IASM: A System for the Intelligent Active Surveillance of Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Bo; Chen, Hechang; Gu, Xiao; Bai, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Malaria, a life-threatening infectious disease, spreads rapidly via parasites. Malaria prevention is more effective and efficient than treatment. However, the existing surveillance systems used to prevent malaria are inadequate, especially in areas with limited or no access to medical resources. In this paper, in order to monitor the spreading of malaria, we develop an intelligent surveillance system based on our existing algorithms. First, a visualization function and active surveillance were implemented in order to predict and categorize areas at high risk of infection. Next, socioeconomic and climatological characteristics were applied to the proposed prediction model. Then, the redundancy of the socioeconomic attribute values was reduced using the stepwise regression method to improve the accuracy of the proposed prediction model. The experimental results indicated that the proposed IASM predicted malaria outbreaks more close to the real data and with fewer variables than other models. Furthermore, the proposed model effectively identified areas at high risk of infection. PMID:27563343

  18. IASM: A System for the Intelligent Active Surveillance of Malaria.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinlei; Yang, Bo; Huang, Jing; Chen, Hechang; Gu, Xiao; Bai, Yuan; Du, Zhanwei

    2016-01-01

    Malaria, a life-threatening infectious disease, spreads rapidly via parasites. Malaria prevention is more effective and efficient than treatment. However, the existing surveillance systems used to prevent malaria are inadequate, especially in areas with limited or no access to medical resources. In this paper, in order to monitor the spreading of malaria, we develop an intelligent surveillance system based on our existing algorithms. First, a visualization function and active surveillance were implemented in order to predict and categorize areas at high risk of infection. Next, socioeconomic and climatological characteristics were applied to the proposed prediction model. Then, the redundancy of the socioeconomic attribute values was reduced using the stepwise regression method to improve the accuracy of the proposed prediction model. The experimental results indicated that the proposed IASM predicted malaria outbreaks more close to the real data and with fewer variables than other models. Furthermore, the proposed model effectively identified areas at high risk of infection. PMID:27563343

  19. A national surveillance system for newly acquired HIV infection in Australia. National HIV Surveillance Committee.

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, A M; Gertig, D M; Crofts, N; Kaldor, J M

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The purpose of this study was to describe the establishment of a national surveillance system for newly acquired human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and present the first 3 years' results. METHODS. All new cases of diagnosed HIV infection were reported to the national HIV surveillance center through state and territory health authorities. Information sought on each case included evidence of whether the infection had been newly acquired, defined by the diagnosis of HIV seroconversion illness or by the report of a negative or indeterminate HIV antibody test result occurring within the 12 months prior to diagnosis of infection. RESULTS. Of 3602 reported cases of HIV infection in adults and adolescents newly diagnosed in Australia between 1991 and 1993, 11.4% were identified as newly acquired. The majority (85%) of cases of newly diagnosed HIV infection occurred among men who reported homosexual contact, and 15% of these cases were identified as newly acquired. Average age at diagnosis was 31 years for cases of newly acquired infection and 34 years for other cases. CONCLUSIONS. Surveillance for newly acquired HIV infection has been established at a national level in Australia and provides valuable information for planning primary HIV prevention programs. PMID:7998631

  20. Distributed visual-target-surveillance system in wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xue; Wang, Sheng; Bi, Daowei

    2009-10-01

    A wireless sensor network (WSN) is a powerful unattended distributed measurement system, which is widely used in target surveillance because of its outstanding performance in distributed sensing and signal processing. This paper introduces a multiview visual-target-surveillance system in WSN, which can autonomously implement target classification and tracking with collaborative online learning and localization. The proposed system is a hybrid system of single-node and multinode fusion. It is constructed on a peer-to-peer (P2P)-based computing paradigm and consists of some simple but feasible methods for target detection and feature extraction. Importantly, a support-vector-machine-based semisupervised learning method is used to achieve online classifier learning with only unlabeled samples. To reduce the energy consumption and increase the accuracy, a novel progressive data-fusion paradigm is proposed for online learning and localization, where a feasible routing method is adopted to implement information transmission with the tradeoff between performance and cost. Experiment results verify that the proposed surveillance system is an effective, energy-efficient, and robust system for real-world application. Furthermore, the P2P-based progressive data-fusion paradigm can improve the energy efficiency and robustness of target surveillance. PMID:19336319

  1. Health & Demographic Surveillance System profile: the Muzaffarpur-TMRC Health and Demographic Surveillance System.

    PubMed

    Malaviya, Paritosh; Picado, Albert; Hasker, Epco; Ostyn, Bart; Kansal, Sangeeta; Singh, Rudra Pratap; Shankar, Ravi; Boelaert, Marleen; Sundar, Shyam

    2014-10-01

    The Muzaffarpur-TMRC Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS), established in 2007, was developed as an enlargement of the scope of a research collaboration on the project Visceral Leishmaniasis in Bihar, which had been ongoing since 2005. The HDSS is located in a visceral leishmaniasis (VL)-endemic area in the Muzaffarpur district of Bihar state in India. It is the only HDSS conducting research on VL, which is a vector-borne infectious disease transmitted by female phlebotomine sandflies and is fatal if left untreated. Currently the HDSS serves a population of over 105,000 in 66 villages. The HDSS collects data on vital events including pregnancies, births, deaths, migration and marriages, as well as other socio-economic indicators, at regular intervals. Incident VL cases are identified. The HDSS team is experienced in conducting both qualitative and quantitative studies, sample collection and rapid diagnostic tests in the field. In each village, volunteers connect the HDSS team with the community members. The Muzaffarpur-TMRC HDSS provides opportunities for studies on VL and other neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) and their interaction with demographic events such as migration. Queries related to research collaborations and data sharing can be sent to Dr Shyam Sundar at [drshyamsundar@hotmail.com]. PMID:25186307

  2. Health & Demographic Surveillance System Profile: The Magu Health and Demographic Surveillance System (Magu HDSS).

    PubMed

    Kishamawe, Coleman; Isingo, Raphael; Mtenga, Baltazar; Zaba, Basia; Todd, Jim; Clark, Benjamin; Changalucha, John; Urassa, Mark

    2015-12-01

    The Magu Health and Demographic Surveillance System (Magu HDSS) is part of Kisesa OpenCohort HIV Study located in a rural area of North-Western Tanzania. Since its establishment in 1994, information on pregnancies, births, marriages, migrations and deaths have been monitored and updated between one and three times a year by trained fieldworkers. Other research activities implemented in the cohort include: sero surveys which have been conducted every 2-3 years to collect socioeconomic data, HIV sero status and health knowledge attitude and behaviour in adults aged 15 years or more living in the area; verbal autopsy (VA) interviews conducted to establish cause of death in all deaths encountered in the area; Llnking data collected at health facilities to community-based data; monitoring voluntary counselling and testing (VCT); and assessing uptake of antiretroviral treatment (ART). In addition, within the community, qualitative studies have been conducted to address issues linked to HIV stigma, the perception of ART access and adherence.In 2014, the population was over 35 000 individuals. Magu HDSS has contributed to Tanzanian estimates of fertility and mortality, and is a member of the INDEPTH network. Demographic data for Magu HDSS are available via the INDEPTH Network's Sharing and Accessing Repository (iSHARE) and applications to access HDSS data for collaborative analysis are encouraged. PMID:26403815

  3. Health & demographic surveillance system profile: the Nahuche Health and Demographic Surveillance System, Northern Nigeria (Nahuche HDSS).

    PubMed

    Alabi, Olatunji; Doctor, Henry V; Jumare, Abdulazeez; Sahabi, Nasiru; Abdulwahab, Ahmad; Findley, Sally E; Abubakar, Sani D

    2014-12-01

    The Nahuche Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) study site, established in 2009 with 137 823 individuals is located in Zamfara State, north western Nigeria. North-West Nigeria is a region with one of the worst maternal and child health indicators in Nigeria. For example, the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey estimated an under-five mortality rate of 185 deaths per 1000 live births for the north-west geo-political zone compared with a national average of 128 deaths per 1000 live births. The site comprises over 100 villages under the leadership of six district heads. Virtually all the residents of the catchment population are Hausa by ethnicity. After a baseline census in 2010, regular update rounds of data collection are conducted every 6 months. Data collection on births, deaths, migration events, pregnancies, marriages and marriage termination events are routinely conducted. Verbal autopsy (VA) data are collected on all deaths reported during routine data collection. Annual update data on antenatal care and household characteristics are also collected. Opportunities for collaborations are available at Nahuche HDSS. The Director of Nahuche HDSS, M.O. Oche at [ochedr@hotmail.com] is the contact person for all forms of collaboration. PMID:25399021

  4. Nutrition Counts. Massachusetts Nutrition Surveillance System. FY90 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiecha, Jean L.; And Others

    "Nutrition Counts," the pediatric portion of the Massachusetts Department of Public Health's (MDPH) Nutrition Surveillance System, monitors and describes aspects of nutritional status among groups of young children in the state. This report presents cross-sectional data describing 5,176 infants and young children in Massachusetts. Of these, 3,181…

  5. Neural Network Based System for Equipment Startup Surveillance

    1996-12-18

    NEBSESS is a system for equipment surveillance and fault detection which relies on a neural-network based means for diagnosing disturbances during startup and for automatically actuating the Sequential Probability Ratio Test (SPRT) as a signal validation means during steady-state operation.

  6. 32 CFR 637.20 - Security surveillance systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Security surveillance systems. 637.20 Section 637.20 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.20...

  7. 32 CFR 637.20 - Security surveillance systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Security surveillance systems. 637.20 Section 637.20 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.20...

  8. 32 CFR 637.20 - Security surveillance systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Security surveillance systems. 637.20 Section 637.20 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.20...

  9. 32 CFR 637.20 - Security surveillance systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Security surveillance systems. 637.20 Section 637.20 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.20...

  10. 32 CFR 637.20 - Security surveillance systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Security surveillance systems. 637.20 Section 637.20 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.20...

  11. Enhanced surveillance system based on panomorph panoramic lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thibault, Simon

    2007-04-01

    Modern surveillance and security systems demand a technological approach because only technology can provide highly efficient vigilance, a certainty of detection and a fast response 100% of the time. Recent developments, including new wide-angle lenses, advanced cameras, IP networks and video analysis technology, provide significant improvements in system performance and flexibility. This paper presents a new advanced surveillance system featuring a panoramic Panomorph lens for event detection, recognition and identification over a 360-degree area with 100% coverage. This innovative approach provides enhanced performance with better pixel/cost ratio. Intelligent video technology enables the video camera to be "more" than just a video camera; it allows the panoramic image to follow events (such as moving objects or unauthorized behavior) in real time, which in turn allows the operator to focus his/her activity on a narrow field pan/tilt camera without losing any information in the field. Adding incremental capabilities such as a Panomorph lens-based imager to an existing surveillance video system can provide improvements in operational efficiency and effectiveness. Foreseen applications are in the fields of border surveillance, high-security environments, aerospace and defense, mass transit, public security and wherever the need for total awareness is a prerequisite.

  12. Design of natural user interface of indoor surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Lili; Liu, Dan; Jiang, Mu-Jin; Cao, Ning

    2015-03-01

    Conventional optical video surveillance systems usually just record what they view, but they can't make sense of what they are viewing. With lots of useless video information stored and transmitted, waste of memory space and increasing the bandwidth are produced every day. In order to reduce the overall cost of the system, and improve the application value of the monitoring system, we use the Kinect sensor with CMOS infrared sensor, as a supplement to the traditional video surveillance system, to establish the natural user interface system for indoor surveillance. In this paper, the architecture of the natural user interface system, complex background monitoring object separation, user behavior analysis algorithms are discussed. By the analysis of the monitoring object, instead of the command language grammar, when the monitored object need instant help, the system with the natural user interface sends help information. We introduce the method of combining the new system and traditional monitoring system. In conclusion, theoretical analysis and experimental results in this paper show that the proposed system is reasonable and efficient. It can satisfy the system requirements of non-contact, online, real time, higher precision and rapid speed to control the state of affairs at the scene.

  13. Design and implementation of distributed multimedia surveillance system based on object-oriented middleware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Xuesong; Jiang, Ling; Hu, Ruimin

    2006-10-01

    Currently, the applications of surveillance system have been increasingly widespread. But there are few surveillance platforms that can meet the requirement of large-scale, cross-regional, and flexible surveillance business. In the paper, we present a distributed surveillance system platform to improve safety and security of the society. The system is constructed by an object-oriented middleware called as Internet Communications Engine (ICE). This middleware helps our platform to integrate a lot of surveillance resource of the society and accommodate diverse range of surveillance industry requirements. In the follow sections, we will describe in detail the design concepts of system and introduce traits of ICE.

  14. Development of real time alarm/surveillance system

    SciTech Connect

    Kajiyoshi, M.; Uchida, S.; Suenaga, S.; Iwabuchi, M.; Fujimoto, T.; Yoshimura, A.

    1987-07-01

    PNC has carried out real time alarm/surveillance system as a part of its r and d programs on the physical protection systems for its nuclear facilities from 1984 to 1986. The guard operates a closed circuit television (CCTV) camera to see whether the alarms are caused from intruders or from accident in the existing physical protection systems. But it is very difficult to assess rapidly moving objects using such a TV system. Monitor images are used to be continuously recorded by VTR, but it does not seem to be very suitable or it takes quite a long time to play back. Aiming at more effective and reliable physical protection systems, a new alarm/surveillance system was developed, the system detects persons entering into the surveillance zone and provides effective means to confirm. The system detects moving persons in a double fenced zone using image processing technique. Detection information such as time, position, detected images are displayed, printed and recorded, so that cause of false alarms, if occurred can be found easily.

  15. Launching a National Surveillance System after an earthquake --- Haiti, 2010.

    PubMed

    2010-08-01

    On January 12, 2010, Haiti experienced a magnitude-7.0 earthquake; Haitian government officials estimated that 230,000 persons died and 300,000 were injured. At the time, Haiti had no system capable of providing timely surveillance on a wide range of health conditions. Within 2 weeks, Haiti's Ministry of Public Health and Population (MSPP), the Pan-American Health Organization (PAHO), CDC, and other national and international agencies launched the National Sentinel Site Surveillance (NSSS) System. The objectives were to monitor disease trends, detect outbreaks, and characterize the affected population to target relief efforts. Fifty-one hospital and clinic surveillance sites affiliated with the U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) were selected to report daily counts by e-mail or telephone for 25 specified reportable conditions. During January 25-April 24, 2010, a total of 42,361 persons had a reportable condition; of these, 54.5% were female, and 32.6% were aged <5 years. Nationally, the three most frequently reported specified conditions were acute respiratory infection (ARI) (16.3%), suspected malaria (10.3%), and fever of unknown cause (10.0%). Injuries accounted for 12.0% of reported conditions. No epidemics or disease clusters were detected. The number of reports decreased over time. NSSS is ongoing and currently transitioning into becoming a long-term national surveillance system for Haiti. NSSS data could assist decision makers in allocation of resources and identifying effective public health interventions. However, data reporting and quality could be improved by additional surveillance education for health-care providers, laboratory confirmation of cases of disease, and Internet-based weekly reporting. PMID:20689497

  16. Millimeter-wave high-resolution holographic surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMakin, Douglas L.; Sheen, David M.; Collins, H. D.; Hall, Thomas E.; Smith, Russell R.

    1994-03-01

    A prototype millimeter wave holographic surveillance system has been developed and demonstrated at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The prototype millimeter wave holographic surveillance system developed at PNL consists of a sequentially switched 2 X 64 element array coupled to a 35 GHz bi-static transceiver. The sequentially switched array of antennas can be used to obtain the holographic data at high speed by electronically sequencing the antennas along one dimension and performing a mechanical scan along the other dimension. A 1D mechanical scan can be performed in about one second. The prototype system scans an aperture of 0.75 by 2.05 m. This system has been demonstrated and images have been obtained on volunteers at Sea-Tac International airport in Seattle, Washington.

  17. NASA's Systems Engineering Approaches for Addressing Public Health Surveillance Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vann, Timi

    2003-01-01

    NASA's systems engineering has its heritage in space mission analysis and design, including the end-to-end approach to managing every facet of the extreme engineering required for successful space missions. NASA sensor technology, understanding of remote sensing, and knowledge of Earth system science, can be powerful new tools for improved disease surveillance and environmental public health tracking. NASA's systems engineering framework facilitates the match between facilitates the match between partner needs and decision support requirements in the areas of 1) Science/Data; 2) Technology; 3) Integration. Partnerships between NASA and other Federal agencies are diagrammed in this viewgraph presentation. NASA's role in these partnerships is to provide systemic and sustainable solutions that contribute to the measurable enhancement of a partner agency's disease surveillance efforts.

  18. Expert system for online surveillance of nuclear reactor coolant pumps

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Kenny C.; Singer, Ralph M.; Humenik, Keith E.

    1993-01-01

    An expert system for online surveillance of nuclear reactor coolant pumps. This system provides a means for early detection of pump or sensor degradation. Degradation is determined through the use of a statistical analysis technique, sequential probability ratio test, applied to information from several sensors which are responsive to differing physical parameters. The results of sequential testing of the data provide the operator with an early warning of possible sensor or pump failure.

  19. Integrated monitoring and surveillance system for SNM.

    SciTech Connect

    Aumeier, S.; Brush, B.; Ewing, T.; Gross, K.; Kotter, D.; Laurin-Kovitz, K.; Walters, G.; Wegerich, S.

    1999-08-04

    Complex special nuclear material (SNM) storage systems can benefit from automated monitoring and data integration systems that maximize safety and security and optimize system maintainability. Current methods of verification, which rely on physical access, are costly and labor intensive. A prototype data analysis. system for nuclear material monitoring is being developed through a joint effort by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company (LMITCO). The system synthesizes information from various sources and applies advanced data analysis to predict sensor faults and detect material instabilities and security/safeguards problems. The system makes use of Argonne's Multivariate State Estimation Technique, or MSET, to provide an early warning system for the performance of sensors and processes, The system is being implemented and tested at the Safeguard Technology Evaluation Laboratory (STEL) at ANL-W. The STEL was installed at a Fuel Manufacturing Facility (FMF) special nuclear materials vault at ANL-W in 1997 as part of a DOE Plutonium Focus Area Project. The STEL provides the infrastructure for the demonstration and integration of technologies for monitoring plutonium-bearing materials in various storage configurations. Real sensors located within the STEL are being used to ''calibrate'' and validate. software while simulated sensors are used to mockup larger-scale problems. Preliminary system design and testing results are discussed.

  20. Effects of a type I antifreeze protein (AFP) on the melting of frozen AFP and AFP+solute aqueous solutions studied by NMR microimaging experiment.

    PubMed

    Ba, Yong; Mao, Yougang; Galdino, Luiz; Günsen, Zorigoo

    2013-01-01

    The effects of a type I AFP on the bulk melting of frozen AFP solutions and frozen AFP+solute solutions were studied through an NMR microimaging experiment. The solutes studied include sodium chloride and glucose and the amino acids alanine, threonine, arginine, and aspartic acid. We found that the AFP is able to induce the bulk melting of the frozen AFP solutions at temperatures lower than 0 °C and can also keep the ice melted at higher temperatures in the AFP+solute solutions than those in the corresponding solute solutions. The latter shows that the ice phases were in super-heated states in the frozen AFP+solute solutions. We have tried to understand the first experimental phenomenon via the recent theoretical prediction that type I AFP can induce the local melting of ice upon adsorption to ice surfaces. The latter experimental phenomenon was explained with the hypothesis that the adsorption of AFP to ice surfaces introduces a less hydrophilic water-AFP-ice interfacial region, which repels the ionic/hydrophilic solutes. Thus, this interfacial region formed an intermediate chemical potential layer between the water phase and the ice phase, which prevented the transfer of water from the ice phase to the water phase. We have also attempted to understand the significance of the observed melting phenomena to the survival of organisms that express AFPs over cold winters. PMID:23860838

  1. An intelligent crowdsourcing system for forensic analysis of surveillance video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahboub, Khalid; Gadgil, Neeraj; Ribera, Javier; Delgado, Blanca; Delp, Edward J.

    2015-03-01

    Video surveillance systems are of a great value for public safety. With an exponential increase in the number of cameras, videos obtained from surveillance systems are often archived for forensic purposes. Many automatic methods have been proposed to do video analytics such as anomaly detection and human activity recognition. However, such methods face significant challenges due to object occlusions, shadows and scene illumination changes. In recent years, crowdsourcing has become an effective tool that utilizes human intelligence to perform tasks that are challenging for machines. In this paper, we present an intelligent crowdsourcing system for forensic analysis of surveillance video that includes the video recorded as a part of search and rescue missions and large-scale investigation tasks. We describe a method to enhance crowdsourcing by incorporating human detection, re-identification and tracking. At the core of our system, we use a hierarchal pyramid model to distinguish the crowd members based on their ability, experience and performance record. Our proposed system operates in an autonomous fashion and produces a final output of the crowdsourcing analysis consisting of a set of video segments detailing the events of interest as one storyline.

  2. System integration and development for biological warfare agent surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mark, Jacob A.; Green, Lance D.; Deshpande, Alina; White, P. Scott

    2007-04-01

    A wide variety of technical needs exist for surveillance, monitoring, identifying, or detecting pathogens with potential use as biological terrorism or warfare agents. Because the needs vary greatly among diverse applications, tailored systems are needed that meet performance, information, and cost requirements. A systems perspective allows developers to identify chokepoints for each application, and focus R&D investments on the limiting factors. Surveillance and detection systems are comprised of three primary components: information (markers), chemistries (assays), and instrumentation for "readout". Careful consideration of these components within the context of each application will allow for increases in efficiency and performance not generally realized when researchers focus on a single component in isolation. In fact, many application requirements can be met with simple novel combinations of existing technologies, without the need for huge investments in basic research. Here we discuss some of the key parameters for surveillance, detection, and identification of biothreat agents, and provide examples of focused development that addresses key bottlenecks, and greatly improve system performance.

  3. Towards photometry pipeline of the Indonesian space surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priyatikanto, Rhorom; Religia, Bahar; Rachman, Abdul; Dani, Tiar

    2015-09-01

    Optical observation through sub-meter telescope equipped with CCD camera becomes alternative method for increasing orbital debris detection and surveillance. This observational mode is expected to eye medium-sized objects in higher orbits (e.g. MEO, GTO, GSO & GEO), beyond the reach of usual radar system. However, such observation of fast moving objects demands special treatment and analysis technique. In this study, we performed photometric analysis of the satellite track images photographed using rehabilitated Schmidt Bima Sakti telescope in Bosscha Observatory. The Hough transformation was implemented to automatically detect linear streak from the images. From this analysis and comparison to USSPACECOM catalog, two satellites were identified and associated with inactive Thuraya-3 satellite and Satcom-3 debris which are located at geostationary orbit. Further aperture photometry analysis revealed the periodicity of tumbling Satcom-3 debris. In the near future, it is not impossible to apply similar scheme to establish an analysis pipeline for optical space surveillance system hosted in Indonesia.

  4. Reconciling surveillance systems with limited resources: an evaluation of passive surveillance for rabies in an endemic setting.

    PubMed

    Craighead, Laura; Gilbert, William; Subasinghe, Dynatra; Häsler, Barbara

    2015-10-01

    Surveillance systems for rabies in endemic regions are often subject to severe constraints in terms of resources. The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) and the World Health Organisation (WHO) propose the use of an active surveillance system to substantiate claims of disease freedom, including rabies. However, many countries do not have the resources to establish active surveillance systems for rabies and the testing of dead dogs poses logistical challenges. This paper explores the potential of using a scenario tree model parameterised with data collected via questionnaires and interviews to estimate the sensitivity of passive surveillance, assessing its potential as a viable low-cost alternative to active surveillance systems. The results of this explorative study illustrated that given a large enough sample size, in this case the entire population of Colombo City, the sensitivity of passive surveillance can be 100% even at a low disease prevalence (0.1%), despite the low sensitivity of individual surveillance components (mean values in the range 4.077×10(-5)-1.834×10(-3) at 1% prevalence). In addition, logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with increased recognition of rabies in dogs and reporting of rabies suspect dogs. Increased recognition was observed amongst dog owners (OR 3.8 (CI, 1.3-10.8)), people previously bitten by dogs (OR 5.9 (CI, 2.2-15.9)) and people who believed they had seen suspect dogs in the past (OR 4.7 (CI, 1.8-12.9)). Increased likelihood of reporting suspect dogs was observed amongst dog owners (OR 5.3 (CI, 1.1-25)). Further work is required to validate the data collection tool and the assumptions made in the model with respect to sample size in order to develop a robust methodology for evaluating passive rabies surveillance. PMID:26219675

  5. Secure Video Surveillance System Acquisition Software

    SciTech Connect

    2009-12-04

    The SVSS Acquisition Software collects and displays video images from two cameras through a VPN, and store the images onto a collection controller. The software is configured to allow a user to enter a time window to display up to 2 1/2, hours of video review. The software collects images from the cameras at a rate of 1 image per second and automatically deletes images older than 3 hours. The software code operates in a linux environment and can be run in a virtual machine on Windows XP. The Sandia software integrates the different COTS software together to build the video review system.

  6. Secure Video Surveillance System Acquisition Software

    2009-12-04

    The SVSS Acquisition Software collects and displays video images from two cameras through a VPN, and store the images onto a collection controller. The software is configured to allow a user to enter a time window to display up to 2 1/2, hours of video review. The software collects images from the cameras at a rate of 1 image per second and automatically deletes images older than 3 hours. The software code operates in amore » linux environment and can be run in a virtual machine on Windows XP. The Sandia software integrates the different COTS software together to build the video review system.« less

  7. Demonstration of a noise-surveillance system at a PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, C.M.

    1982-01-01

    The automated surveillance system has monitored the Sequoyah Nuclear Plant during its first fuel cycle. The system was able to acceptably adapt to different plant operating conditions. While evaluations are still ongoing, results indicate that the system was able to adapt to signals with different statistical character and that the discriminants are useful in detecting spectral changes. The system monitored long-term noise behavior, detected spectra that differ from what is considered normal, and provided concise storage of spectra together with the plant operating condition associated with the stored spectra.

  8. A Behavior Based Control System for Surveillance UAVs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyekan, John; Lu, Bowen; Li, Bo; Gu, Dongbing; Hu, Huosheng

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) is required to carry out duties such as surveillance, reconnaissance, search and rescue and security patrol missions. Autonomous operation of UAVs is a key to the success of these missions. In this chapter, we propose to use a behavior based control architecture to implement autonomous operation for UAV surveillance missions. This control architecture consists of two layers: a low level control layer and a behavior layer. The low level control layer decomposes 3D motion of UAVs into several atomic actions, such as yaw, roll, pitch, altitude, and 2D position control. These atomic actions together serve as a basis for the behavior layer. The behavior layer consists of a number of necessary behaviors used for surveillance missions, including take-off, object tracking, hovering, landing, trajectory following, obstacle avoidance amongst other behaviors. These behaviors can be instantiated individually or collectively to fulfill the required missions issued by human operators. To evaluate the proposed control architecture, the commercially available DraganFlyer QuadRotor was used as the UAV platform. With the aid of an indoor positioning system, several atomic actions and a group of behaviors were developed for the DraganFlyer. Real testing experiments were conducted to demonstrate the feasibility and performance of the proposed system.

  9. Expert system for surveillance and diagnosis of breach fuel elements

    DOEpatents

    Gross, K.C.

    1988-01-21

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for surveillance and diagnosis of breached fuel elements in a nuclear reactor. A delayed neutron monitoring system provides output signals indicating the delayed neutron activity and age and the equivalent recoil area of a breached fuel element. Sensors are used to provide outputs indicating the status of each component of the delayed neutron monitoring system. Detectors also generate output signals indicating the reactor power level and the primary coolant flow rate of the reactor. The outputs from the detectors and sensors are interfaced with an artificial intelligence-based knowledge system which implements predetermined logic and generates output signals indicating the operability of the reactor. 2 figs.

  10. Expert system for surveillance and diagnosis of breach fuel elements

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Kenny C.

    1989-01-01

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for surveillance and diagnosis of breached fuel elements in a nuclear reactor. A delayed neutron monitoring system provides output signals indicating the delayed neutron activity and age and the equivalent recoil areas of a breached fuel element. Sensors are used to provide outputs indicating the status of each component of the delayed neutron monitoring system. Detectors also generate output signals indicating the reactor power level and the primary coolant flow rate of the reactor. The outputs from the detectors and sensors are interfaced with an artificial intelligence-based knowledge system which implements predetermined logic and generates output signals indicating the operability of the reactor.

  11. Was the French clinical surveillance system of bovine brucellosis influenced by the occurrence and surveillance of other abortive diseases?

    PubMed

    Bronner, Anne; Morignat, Eric; Touratier, Anne; Gache, Kristel; Sala, Carole; Calavas, Didier

    2015-03-01

    The bovine brucellosis clinical surveillance system implemented in France aims to detect early any case of bovine brucellosis, a disease of which the country has been declared free since 2005. It relies on the mandatory notification of every bovine abortion. Following the spread of the Schmallenberg virus (SBV) in France in 2012 and 2013, and the implementation in 2012 of a clinical surveillance programme of Q fever based on abortion notifications in ten pilot départements, our objective was to study whether these two events influenced the brucellosis clinical surveillance system. The proportion of notifying farmers was analyzed over each semester from June 1, 2009 to June 30, 2013 according to the size and production type of herds, SBV status of départements and the implementation of the Q fever surveillance. Our analysis showed a slight increase in the proportion of notifying farmers as départements became infected by SBV, and after the implementation of Q fever surveillance (during the first semester of 2013). These variations might be explained by an increase in abortion occurrence (congenital deformities in newborns, due to SBV) and/or by an increase in farmers' and veterinarians' awareness (due to the spread of SBV and the implementation of the Q fever surveillance). These results highlight the difficulties in interpreting variations in the proportion of notifying farmers as a consequence of an increase in abortion occurrence. As bovine abortion surveillance can play an important role in the early warning for several diseases, there is a need to explore other ways to monitor abortions in cattle, such as syndromic surveillance using the dates of artificial insemination or calving data. PMID:25617916

  12. Millimeter wave, high-resolution, holographic surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMakin, D. L.; Sheen, D. M.; Collins, H. D.; Hall, T. E.; Smith, R. R.; Droppo, J. G., Jr.

    Millimeter wave holographic imaging systems capable of imaging through clothing to detect contraband, metal, plastic, or ceramic weapons may provided a practical solution to personnel inspection needs in mass transportation centers. Traditional inspection systems, such as metal detectors and x-ray imaging systems, have limitations for the detection of concealed weapons. Metal detectors are limited because they cannot detect plastic weapons and x-ray imaging systems are limited in use due to radiological health considerations. A prototype millimeter wave holographic surveillance system has been developed and demonstrated at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The prototype millimeter wave holographic surveillance system developed at PNL consists of a sequentially switched 2 (times) 64 element array coupled to a 35 GHz bi-static transceiver. The sequentially switched array of antennas can be used to obtain the holographic data at high speed by electronically sequencing the antennas along one dimension and performing a mechanical scan along the other dimension. A one-dimensional mechanical scan be be performed in about one second. The prototype system scans an aperture of 0.75 by 2.05. This system has been demonstrated and images have been obtained on volunteers at Sea-Tac International airport in Seattle, Washington.

  13. Millimeter wave, high-resolution, holographic surveillance system

    SciTech Connect

    McMakin, D.L.; Sheen, D.M.; Collins, H.D.; Hall, T.E.; Smith, R.R.; Droppo, J.G. Jr.

    1993-12-01

    Millimeter wave holographic imaging systems capable of imaging through clothing to detect contraband, metal, plastic, or ceramic weapons may provided a practical solution to personnel inspection needs in mass transportation centers. Traditional inspection systems, such as metal detectors and x-ray imaging systems, have limitations for the detection of concealed weapons. metal detectors are limited because they cannot detect plastic weapons and x-ray imaging systems are limited in use due to radiological health considerations. A prototype millimeter wave holographic surveillance system has been developed and demonstrated at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The prototype millimeter wave holographic surveillance system developed at PNL consists of a sequentially switched 2 {times} 64 element array coupled to a 35 GHz bi-static transceiver. The sequentially switched array of antennas can be used to obtain the holographic data at high speed by electonically sequencing the antennas along one dimension and performing a mechanical scan along the other dimension. A one-dimensional mechanical scan be be performed in about one second. The prototype system scans an aperture of 0.75 by 2.05. This system has been demonstrated and images have been obtained on volunteers at Sea-Tac International airport in Seattle, Washington.

  14. Syndromic surveillance for health information system failures: a feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Mei-Sing; Magrabi, Farah; Coiera, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the applicability of a syndromic surveillance method to the early detection of health information technology (HIT) system failures. Methods A syndromic surveillance system was developed to monitor a laboratory information system at a tertiary hospital. Four indices were monitored: (1) total laboratory records being created; (2) total records with missing results; (3) average serum potassium results; and (4) total duplicated tests on a patient. The goal was to detect HIT system failures causing: data loss at the record level; data loss at the field level; erroneous data; and unintended duplication of data. Time-series models of the indices were constructed, and statistical process control charts were used to detect unexpected behaviors. The ability of the models to detect HIT system failures was evaluated using simulated failures, each lasting for 24 h, with error rates ranging from 1% to 35%. Results In detecting data loss at the record level, the model achieved a sensitivity of 0.26 when the simulated error rate was 1%, while maintaining a specificity of 0.98. Detection performance improved with increasing error rates, achieving a perfect sensitivity when the error rate was 35%. In the detection of missing results, erroneous serum potassium results and unintended repetition of tests, perfect sensitivity was attained when the error rate was as small as 5%. Decreasing the error rate to 1% resulted in a drop in sensitivity to 0.65–0.85. Conclusions Syndromic surveillance methods can potentially be applied to monitor HIT systems, to facilitate the early detection of failures. PMID:23184193

  15. Surveillance system and method having an adaptive sequential probability fault detection test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herzog, James P. (Inventor); Bickford, Randall L. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    System and method providing surveillance of an asset such as a process and/or apparatus by providing training and surveillance procedures that numerically fit a probability density function to an observed residual error signal distribution that is correlative to normal asset operation and then utilizes the fitted probability density function in a dynamic statistical hypothesis test for providing improved asset surveillance.

  16. Surveillance System and Method having an Adaptive Sequential Probability Fault Detection Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bickford, Randall L. (Inventor); Herzog, James P. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    System and method providing surveillance of an asset such as a process and/or apparatus by providing training and surveillance procedures that numerically fit a probability density function to an observed residual error signal distribution that is correlative to normal asset operation and then utilizes the fitted probability density function in a dynamic statistical hypothesis test for providing improved asset surveillance.

  17. Surveillance system and method having an adaptive sequential probability fault detection test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bickford, Randall L. (Inventor); Herzog, James P. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    System and method providing surveillance of an asset such as a process and/or apparatus by providing training and surveillance procedures that numerically fit a probability density function to an observed residual error signal distribution that is correlative to normal asset operation and then utilizes the fitted probability density function in a dynamic statistical hypothesis test for providing improved asset surveillance.

  18. Rotavirus Surveillance at a WHO-Coordinated Invasive Bacterial Disease Surveillance Site in Bangladesh: A Feasibility Study to Integrate Two Surveillance Systems

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, ASM Nawshad Uddin; Arumugam, Rajesh; Marzan, Mahfuza; Saha, Shampa; Arifeen, Shams El; Baqui, Abdullah H.; Black, Robert E.; Kang, Gagandeep; Saha, Samir Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) currently coordinates rotavirus diarrhea and invasive bacterial disease (IBD) surveillance at 178 sentinel sites in 60 countries. However, only 78 sites participate in both surveillance systems using a common sentinel site. Here, we explored the feasibility of extending a WHO-IBD surveillance platform to generate data on the burden of rotaviral diarrhea and its epidemiological characteristics to prepare the countries to measure the impact of rotaviral vaccine. A six-month (July to December, 2012) surveillance, managed by IBD team, collected stool samples and clinical data from under-five children with acute watery diarrhea at an IBD sentinel site. Samples were tested for rotavirus antigen by ELISA and genotyped by PCR at the regional reference laboratory (RRL). Specimens were collected from 79% (n = 297) of eligible cases (n = 375); 100% of which were tested for rotavirus by ELISA and 54% (159/297) of them were positive. At RRL, all the cases were confirmed by PCR and genotyped (99%; 158/159). The typing results revealed the predominance of G12 (40%; 64/159) genotype, followed by G1 (31%; 50/159) and G9 (19%; 31/159). All in all, this exploratory surveillance collected the desired demographic and epidemiological data and achieved almost all the benchmark indicators of WHO, starting from enrollment number to quality assurance through a number of case detection, collection, and testing of specimens and genotyping of strains at RRL. The success of this WHO-IBD site in achieving these benchmark indicators of WHO can be used by WHO as a proof-of-concept for considering integration of rotavirus surveillance with WHO-IBD platforms, specifically in countries with well performing IBD site and no ongoing rotavirus surveillance. PMID:27096958

  19. Progress in development of containment and surveillance systems at JAERI

    SciTech Connect

    Mukaiyama, T.; Yokota, Y.; Ogawa, H.; Kuroi, H.

    1987-07-01

    Several of Containment and Surveillance (C/S) systems have been developed for the international safeguards at JAERI. This paper describes the recent progress in the development of the following C/S systems: (1) Compact CCTV surveillance system ''COSMOS' is designed as a potential replacement for IAEA twin minolta film camera system. COSMOS has the capacity to record more than 30,000 still pictures for three months by battery operation without battery change. An unique one-shot Video Tape Recorder (VTR) was developed for COSMOS based on commercial 8mm VTS. Prototype of COSMOS was completed in October 1986, and demonstrated the expected performance. (2) FCA portal and penetration monitor is the comprehensive C/S system developed for the fast critical facility of JAERI. The system was completed in 1985. The field trial test of the entire system was started in September 1986 under real field conditions using regularly scheduled inspectors performing actual inspections to obtain performance data and to gain international credibility.

  20. Video coding for next-generation surveillance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klasen, Lena M.; Fahlander, Olov

    1997-02-01

    Video is used as recording media in surveillance system and also more frequently by the Swedish Police Force. Methods for analyzing video using an image processing system have recently been introduced at the Swedish National Laboratory of Forensic Science, and new methods are in focus in a research project at Linkoping University, Image Coding Group. The accuracy of the result of those forensic investigations often depends on the quality of the video recordings, and one of the major problems when analyzing videos from crime scenes is the poor quality of the recordings. Enhancing poor image quality might add manipulative or subjective effects and does not seem to be the right way of getting reliable analysis results. The surveillance system in use today is mainly based on video techniques, VHS or S-VHS, and the weakest link is the video cassette recorder, (VCR). Multiplexers for selecting one of many camera outputs for recording is another problem as it often filters the video signal, and recording is limited to only one of the available cameras connected to the VCR. A way to get around the problem of poor recording is to simultaneously record all camera outputs digitally. It is also very important to build such a system bearing in mind that image processing analysis methods becomes more important as a complement to the human eye. Using one or more cameras gives a large amount of data, and the need for data compression is more than obvious. Crime scenes often involve persons or moving objects, and the available coding techniques are more or less useful. Our goal is to propose a possible system, being the best compromise with respect to what needs to be recorded, movements in the recorded scene, loss of information and resolution etc., to secure the efficient recording of the crime and enable forensic analysis. The preventative effective of having a well functioning surveillance system and well established image analysis methods is not to be neglected. Aspects of

  1. Evaluation of the NASA Quality Surveillance System Pilot in Meeting Requirements for Contractor Surveillance Under Performance Based Contracting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmahl, Karen E.

    2002-01-01

    The use of performance-based contracting at Kennedy Space Center has necessitated a shift from intrusive oversight of contractor activities to an insight surveillance role. This paper describes the results of a pilot implementation of the NASA Quality Surveillance System (NQSS) in the Space Shuttle Main Engines Processing Facility. The NQSS is a system to sample contractor activities using documented procedures, specifications, drawings and observations of work in progress to answer the question "Is the contractor doing what they said they would do?" The concepts of the NQSS are shown to be effective in providing assurance of contractor quality. Many of the concepts proven in the pilot are being considered for incorporation into an overall KSC Quality Surveillance System.

  2. Evaluation Of The NASA Quality Surveillance System Pilot In Meeting Requirements For Contractor Surveillance Under Performance Based Contracting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmahl, Karen E.

    2001-01-01

    The use of performance-based contracting at Kennedy Space Center has necessitated a shift from intrusive oversight of contractor activities to an insight surveillance role. This paper describes the results of a pilot implementation of the NASA Quality Surveillance System (NQSS) in the Space Shuttle Main Engines Processing Facility. The NQSS is a system to sample contractor activities using documented procedures, specifications, drawings and observations of work in progress to answer the question "Is the contractor doing what they said they would do?" The concepts of the NQSS are shown to be effective in providing assurance of contractor quality. Many of the concepts proven in the pilot are being considered for incorporation into an overall KSC Quality Surveillance System.

  3. A multisensor system for airborne surveillance of oil pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edgerton, A. T.; Ketchal, R.; Catoe, C.

    1973-01-01

    The U.S. Coast Guard is developing a prototype airborne oil surveillance system for use in its Marine Environmental Protection Program. The prototype system utilizes an X-band side-looking radar, a 37-GHz imaging microwave radiometer, a multichannel line scanner, and a multispectral low light level system. The system is geared to detecting and mapping oil spills and potential pollution violators anywhere within a 25 nmi range of the aircraft flight track under all but extreme weather conditions. The system provides for false target discrimination and maximum identification of spilled materials. The system also provides an automated detection alarm, as well as a color display to achieve maximum coupling between the sensor data and the equipment operator.

  4. Real-time wideband cylindrical holographic surveillance system

    DOEpatents

    Sheen, D.M.; McMakin, D.L.; Hall, T.E.; Severtsen, R.H.

    1999-01-12

    A wideband holographic cylindrical surveillance system is disclosed including a transceiver for generating a plurality of electromagnetic waves; antenna for transmitting the electromagnetic waves toward a target at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; the transceiver also receiving and converting electromagnetic waves reflected from the target to electrical signals at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; a computer for processing the electrical signals to obtain signals corresponding to a holographic reconstruction of the target; and a display for displaying the processed information to determine nature of the target. The computer has instructions to apply Fast Fourier Transforms and obtain a three dimensional cylindrical image. 13 figs.

  5. Real-time wideband cylindrical holographic surveillance system

    DOEpatents

    Sheen, David M.; McMakin, Douglas L.; Hall, Thomas E.; Severtsen, Ronald H.

    1999-01-01

    A wideband holographic cylindrical surveillance system including a transceiver for generating a plurality of electromagnetic waves; antenna for transmitting the electromagnetic waves toward a target at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; the transceiver also receiving and converting electromagnetic waves reflected from the target to electrical signals at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; a computer for processing the electrical signals to obtain signals corresponding to a holographic reconstruction of the target; and a display for displaying the processed information to determine nature of the target. The computer has instructions to apply Fast Fourier Transforms and obtain a three dimensional cylindrical image.

  6. Developing a new syndromic surveillance system for the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games.

    PubMed

    Harcourt, S E; Fletcher, J; Loveridge, P; Bains, A; Morbey, R; Yeates, A; McCloskey, B; Smyth, B; Ibbotson, S; Smith, G E; Elliot, A J

    2012-12-01

    Syndromic surveillance is vital for monitoring public health during mass gatherings. The London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games represents a major challenge to health protection services and community surveillance. In response to this challenge the Health Protection Agency has developed a new syndromic surveillance system that monitors daily general practitioner out-of-hours and unscheduled care attendances. This new national system will fill a gap identified in the existing general practice-based syndromic surveillance systems by providing surveillance capability of general practice activity during evenings/nights, over weekends and public holidays. The system will complement and supplement the existing tele-health phone line, general practitioner and emergency department syndromic surveillance systems. This new national system will contribute to improving public health reassurance, especially to meet the challenges of the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. PMID:22892324

  7. Weather-enabled future onboard surveillance and navigation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutuel, L.; Baillon, B.; Barnetche, B.; Delpy, P.

    2009-09-01

    With the increasing traffic and the development of business trajectories, there is a widespread need to anticipate any adverse weather conditions that could impact the performance of the flight or to use of atmospheric parameters to optimize trajectories. Current sensors onboard air transport are challenged to provide the required service, while new products for business jets and general aviation open the door to innovative assimilation of weather information in onboard surveillance and navigation. The paper aims at surveying current technology available to air transport aircraft and pointing out their shortcomings in view of the modernization proposed in SESAR and NextGen implementation plans. Foreseen innovations are then illustrated via results of ongoing research like FLYSAFE or standardization efforts, in particular meteorological datalink services and impact on Human-Machine Interface. The paper covers the operational need to avoid adverse weather like thunderstorm, icing, turbulence, windshear and volcanic ash, but also the requirement to control in 4D the trajectory through the integration of wind and temperature grids in the flight management. The former will lead to enhanced surveillance systems onboard the aircraft with new displays and new alerting schemes, ranging from targeted information supporting better re-planning to auto-escape strategies. The latter will be standard in next generation flight management systems. Finally both will rely on ATM products that will also assimilate weather information so that situational awareness is shared and decision is collaborative.

  8. Profile: The Niakhar Health and Demographic Surveillance System

    PubMed Central

    Delaunay, Valerie; Douillot, Laetitia; Diallo, Aldiouma; Dione, Djibril; Trape, Jean-François; Medianikov, Oleg; Raoult, Didier; Sokhna, Cheikh

    2013-01-01

    The Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) in Niakhar, a rural area of Senegal, is located 135 km east of Dakar. The HDSS was established in 1962 by the Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD) of Senegal to face the shortcomings of the civil registration system and provide demographic indicators. Some 65 villages in the Niakhar area were followed annually by the HDSS from 1962–1969. The study zone was reduced to 8 villages from 1969–1983, and from then on the HDSS was extended to include 22 other villages, covering a total of 30 villages for a population estimated at 43 000 in January 2012. Thus, 8 villages in the Niakhar area have been under demographic surveillance for almost 50 years and 30 villages for 30 years. Vital events, migrations, marital changes, pregnancies, and immunizations are routinely recorded every 4 months. The HDSS data base also includes epidemiological, economic, and environmental information obtained from specific surveys. Data were collected through annual rounds from 1962 to 1987. The rounds became weekly from 1987–1997, followed by routine visits conducted every 3 months between 1997 and 2007 and every 4 months since then. The data collected in the HDSS are not open to access, but can be fairly shared under conditions of collaboration and endowment. PMID:24062286

  9. Prototyping of a Situation Awareness System in the Maritime Surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handayani, D. O. D.; Sediono, W.; Shah, A.

    2013-12-01

    This paper discusses about the design of a Situation Awareness (SA) system to support vessel crews and control room operators in improving the decision making process. The architecture of the system is ontology based. The vessel crews and control room operators may face a loss of SA. They may have limited cognitive abilities which make it difficult to make a decision in a high stress level, short time availability and continuously evolving situation with incomplete information. In this work, we describe the application of Semantic Web Rule Language to represent corresponding knowledge in the maritime surveillance domain. The result of this research will demonstrate that an ontology based system can be used to remodel the information into a meaningful and valuable form to predict the future states of SA and improve the decision making process.

  10. Establishment, test and evaluation of a prototype volcano surveillance system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, P. L.; Eaton, J. P.; Endo, E.; Harlow, D.; Marquez, D.; Allen, R.

    1973-01-01

    A volcano-surveillance system utilizing 23 multilevel earthquake counters and 6 biaxial borehole tiltmeters is being installed and tested on 15 volcanoes in 4 States and 4 foreign countries. The purpose of this system is to give early warning when apparently dormant volcanoes are becoming active. The data are relayed through the ERTS-Data Collection System to Menlo Park for analysis. Installation was completed in 1972 on the volcanoes St. Augustine and Iliamna in Alaska, Kilauea in Hawaii, Baker, Rainier and St. Helens in Washington, Lassen in California, and at a site near Reykjavik, Iceland. Installation continues and should be completed in April 1973 on the volcanoes Santiaguito, Fuego, Agua and Pacaya in Guatemala, Izalco in El Salvador and San Cristobal, Telica and Cerro Negro in Nicaragua.

  11. The SURVEYOR mobile surveillance system at Nine Mile Point

    SciTech Connect

    Kniazewycz, B.G.; Darvish, A.R. ); Irving, T.L. )

    1987-07-01

    In 1984, Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation and KLM Technologies, Inc. began to investigate the use of mobile robotics systems as a means of reducing personnel radiation exposures. This paper reports that after reviewing the existing technology and developing reviewing the existing technology and developing performance criteria, ARD Corporation's SURVEYOR Mobile Surveillance System was chosen for pilot testing in a radwaste building retrofit project at Nine Mile Point Unit 1. The SURVEYOR is a small, two-tracked, radio-controlled robot with a unique stereo-optic operator viewing system. It is capable of measuring radiation, temperature, and relative humidity and performing visual inspections. The SURVEYOR underwent extensive testing at Nine Mile Point during 1986 and was used successfully to inspect a hazardous radwaste sump area.

  12. Integrated monitoring and surveillance system demonstration project: Phase I accomplishments

    SciTech Connect

    Aumeier, S.E.; Walters, B.G.; Crawford, D.C.

    1997-01-15

    The authors present the results of the Integrated Monitoring and Surveillance System (IMSS) demonstration project Phase I efforts. The rationale behind IMSS development is reviewed and progress in each of the 5 basic tasks is detailed. Significant results include decisions to use Echelon LonWorks networking protocol and Microsoft Access for the data system needs, a preliminary design for the plutonium canning system glovebox, identification of facilities and materials available for the demonstration, determination of possibly affected facility documentation, and a preliminary list of available sensor technologies. Recently imposed changes in the overall project schedule and scope are also discussed and budgetary requirements for competition of Phase II presented. The results show that the IMSS demonstration project team has met and in many cases exceeded the commitments made for Phase I deliverables.

  13. A Computer-Aided Large Scale Pacemaker Surveillance System*

    PubMed Central

    Covvey, H.D.; MacGregor, D.C.; Noble, E.J.; Goldman, B.S.; Wigle, E.D.

    1980-01-01

    Beginning in 1972 with a small PDP-8 based system, our Pacemaker Center has continued a commitment to the implementation of computer-based systems to reduce the cost and increase the safety of patient follow-up. Recently we brought into operation a new version of our patient surveillance system on our shared database management computer, the Sperry-Univac V-76. A complete set of optical mark readable forms has been developed to capture pacemaker data. A variety of operational support reports are produced. Pre-clinic and pre-telephone follow-up reports summarize patient status and serve as a basis for comparing the patient's current state to his history of encounters. Post-clinic and post-transtelephone reports document the encounter and are used as reports to the referring physician and for inclusion in the patient's chart. The surgical form set is used to generate a detailed operative note.

  14. Application of infrared uncooled cameras in surveillance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dulski, R.; Bareła, J.; Trzaskawka, P.; PiÄ tkowski, T.

    2013-10-01

    The recent necessity to protect military bases, convoys and patrols gave serious impact to the development of multisensor security systems for perimeter protection. One of the most important devices used in such systems are IR cameras. The paper discusses technical possibilities and limitations to use uncooled IR camera in a multi-sensor surveillance system for perimeter protection. Effective ranges of detection depend on the class of the sensor used and the observed scene itself. Application of IR camera increases the probability of intruder detection regardless of the time of day or weather conditions. It also simultaneously decreased the false alarm rate produced by the surveillance system. The role of IR cameras in the system was discussed as well as technical possibilities to detect human being. Comparison of commercially available IR cameras, capable to achieve desired ranges was done. The required spatial resolution for detection, recognition and identification was calculated. The simulation of detection ranges was done using a new model for predicting target acquisition performance which uses the Targeting Task Performance (TTP) metric. Like its predecessor, the Johnson criteria, the new model bounds the range performance with image quality. The scope of presented analysis is limited to the estimation of detection, recognition and identification ranges for typical thermal cameras with uncooled microbolometer focal plane arrays. This type of cameras is most widely used in security systems because of competitive price to performance ratio. Detection, recognition and identification range calculations were made, and the appropriate results for the devices with selected technical specifications were compared and discussed.

  15. Cloning and characterization of a novel Gladiolus hybridus AFP family gene (GhAFP-like) related to corm dormancy.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian; Seng, Shanshan; Carianopol, Carina; Sui, Juanjuan; Yang, Qiuyan; Zhang, Fengqin; Jiang, Huiru; He, Junna; Yi, Mingfang

    2016-02-26

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is an important phytohormone controlling seed dormancy. AFPs (ABA INSENSITIVE FIVE BINDING PROTEINS) are reported to be negative regulators of the ABA signaling pathway. The involvement of AFPs in dormant vegetative organs remains poorly understood. Here, we isolated and characterized a novel AFP family member from Gladiolus dormant cormels, GhAFP-like, containing three conserved domains of the AFP family. Quantitative PCR analysis revealed that GhAFP-like was expressed in dormant organs and its expression was down-regulated along with corm storage. GhAFP-like was verified to be a nuclear-localized protein. Overexpressing GhAFP-like in Arabidopsis thaliana not only showed weaker seed dormancy with insensitivity to ABA, but also changed the expression of some ABA related genes. In addition, a primary root elongation assay showed GhAFP-like may involve in auxin signaling response. The results in this study indicate that GhAFP-like acts as a negative regulator in ABA signaling and is related to dormancy. PMID:26826388

  16. Evaluation of Active Mortality Surveillance System Data for Monitoring Hurricane-Related Deaths—Texas, 2008

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, Ekta; Zane, David F.; Beasley, Crystal; Jones, Russell; Rey, Araceli; Noe, Rebecca S.; Martin, Colleen; Wolkin, Amy F.; Bayleyegn, Tesfaye M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The Texas Department of State Health Services (DSHS) implemented an active mortality surveillance system to enumerate and characterize hurricane-related deaths during Hurricane Ike in 2008. This surveillance system used established guidelines and case definitions to categorize deaths as directly, indirectly, and possibly related to Hurricane Ike. Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate Texas DSHS’ active mortality surveillance system using US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) surveillance system evaluation guidelines. Methods Using CDC’s Updated Guidelines for Surveillance System Evaluation, the active mortality surveillance system of the Texas DSHS was evaluated. Data from the active mortality surveillance system were compared with Texas vital statistics data for the same time period to estimate the completeness of reported disaster-related deaths. Results From September 8 through October 13, 2008, medical examiners (MEs) and Justices of the Peace (JPs) in 44 affected counties reported deaths daily by using a one-page, standardized mortality form. The active mortality surveillance system identified 74 hurricane-related deaths, whereas a review of vital statistics data revealed only four deaths that were hurricane-related. The average time of reporting a death by active mortality surveillance and vital statistics was 14 days and 16 days, respectively. Conclusions Texas’s active mortality surveillance system successfully identified hurricane-related deaths. Evaluation of the active mortality surveillance system suggested that it is necessary to collect detailed and representative mortality data during a hurricane because vital statistics do not capture sufficient information to identify whether deaths are hurricane-related. The results from this evaluation will help improve active mortality surveillance during hurricanes which, in turn, will enhance preparedness and response plans and identify public health

  17. The integrated proactive surveillance system for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haibin; Yatawara, Mahendra; Huang, Shao-Chi; Dudley, Kevin; Szekely, Christine; Holden, Stuart; Piantadosi, Steven

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present the design and implementation of the integrated proactive surveillance system for prostate cancer (PASS-PC). The integrated PASS-PC is a multi-institutional web-based system aimed at collecting a variety of data on prostate cancer patients in a standardized and efficient way. The integrated PASS-PC was commissioned by the Prostate Cancer Foundation (PCF) and built through the joint of efforts by a group of experts in medical oncology, genetics, pathology, nutrition, and cancer research informatics. Their main goal is facilitating the efficient and uniform collection of critical demographic, lifestyle, nutritional, dietary and clinical information to be used in developing new strategies in diagnosing, preventing and treating prostate cancer.The integrated PASS-PC is designed based on common industry standards - a three tiered architecture and a Service- Oriented Architecture (SOA). It utilizes open source software and programming languages such as HTML, PHP, CSS, JQuery, Drupal and MySQL. We also use a commercial database management system - Oracle 11g. The integrated PASS-PC project uses a "confederation model" that encourages participation of any interested center, irrespective of its size or location. The integrated PASS-PC utilizes a standardized approach to data collection and reporting, and uses extensive validation procedures to prevent entering erroneous data. The integrated PASS-PC controlled vocabulary is harmonized with the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Thesaurus. Currently, two cancer centers in the USA are participating in the integrated PASS-PC project.THE FINAL SYSTEM HAS THREE MAIN COMPONENTS: 1. National Prostate Surveillance Network (NPSN) website; 2. NPSN myConnect portal; 3. Proactive Surveillance System for Prostate Cancer (PASS-PC). PASS-PC is a cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG) compatible product. The integrated PASS-PC provides a foundation for collaborative prostate cancer research. It has been built to

  18. Systems Approaches to Animal Disease Surveillance and Resource Allocation: Methodological Frameworks for Behavioral Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rich, Karl M.; Denwood, Matthew J.; Stott, Alistair W.; Mellor, Dominic J.; Reid, Stuart W. J.; Gunn, George J.

    2013-01-01

    While demands for animal disease surveillance systems are growing, there has been little applied research that has examined the interactions between resource allocation, cost-effectiveness, and behavioral considerations of actors throughout the livestock supply chain in a surveillance system context. These interactions are important as feedbacks between surveillance decisions and disease evolution may be modulated by their contextual drivers, influencing the cost-effectiveness of a given surveillance system. This paper identifies a number of key behavioral aspects involved in animal health surveillance systems and reviews some novel methodologies for their analysis. A generic framework for analysis is discussed, with exemplar results provided to demonstrate the utility of such an approach in guiding better disease control and surveillance decisions. PMID:24348922

  19. Development of a Prototype System for Statewide Asthma Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Deprez, Ronald D.; Asdigian, Nancy L.; Oliver, L. Christine; Anderson, Norman; Caldwell, Edgar; Baggott, Lee Ann

    2002-01-01

    Objectives. We developed and evaluated a statewide and community-level asthma surveillance system. Methods. Databases and measures included a community prevalence survey, hospital admissions data, emergency department/outpatient clinic visit records, and a physician survey of diagnosis and treatment practices. We evaluated the system in 5 Maine communities varying in population and income. Results. Asthma hospitalizations were high in the rural/low-socioeconomic-status communities studied, although diagnosed asthma was low. Males were more likely than females to experience asthma symptoms, although they were less likely to have been diagnosed with asthma or to have used hospital-based asthma care. Conclusions. Databases were useful for estimating asthma burden and identifying service needs as well as high-risk groups. They were less useful in estimating severity or in identifying environmental risks. PMID:12453814

  20. A community based surveillance system for perinatal and neonatal care.

    PubMed

    Dyal Chand, A; Khale, M

    1989-11-01

    The impact of maternal health services on perinatal and neonatal mortality depends on both the quantitative and qualitative coverage of pregnant women with obstetric services. In rural areas this becomes all the more difficult because of the requirement of a large decentralized infrastructure extending from village based health workers and subcentres to the Primary Health Centre and tertiary levels of referral. An effective introduction of socio-cultural, biomedical and managerial interventions is required to reduce perinatal and neonatal mortality. A community based surveillance and monitoring system is central to and facilitates the introduction of all other interventions. Finally, the system operated by grass-root level workers is a motivational tool for achieving expected levels of performance. PMID:2630471

  1. Complement - a key system for immune surveillance and homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Ricklin, Daniel; Hajishengallis, George; Yang, Kun; Lambris, John D.

    2010-01-01

    Nearly a century after the significance of the human complement system was recognized we have come to realize that its versatile functions extend far beyond the elimination of microbes. Indeed, complement acts as a rapid and efficient immune surveillance system that has distinct effects on healthy and altered host cells and foreign intruders. By eliminating cellular debris and infectious microbes, orchestrating immune responses, and sending `danger' signals, complement contributes substantially to homeostasis, but it may also take action against healthy cells if not properly controlled. This review describes our updated view of the function, structure, and dynamics of the complement network, highlights its interconnection with immunity at large and with other endogenous pathways, and illustrates its dual role in homeostasis and disease. PMID:20720586

  2. AFP-L3 — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    AFP-L3, also known as lectin-bound AFP, is an isoform of AFP, a major plasma protein produced by the yolk sac and the liver during fetal life. Alpha-fetoprotein expression in adults is often associated with hepatoma or teratoma. The L3 isoform is specific to malignant tumors and its detected presence may serve to identify patients who could benefit from monitoring for the development of HCC in high risk populations (i.e. chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis).

  3. Geographic information system-based avian influenza surveillance systems for village poultry in Romania.

    PubMed

    Ward, Michael P

    2007-01-01

    The analysis of surveillance data facilitates the planning, implementation and evaluation of disease control programmes. Geographic information systems (GIS) have several functions, including input (database functions), analysis (interpolation, cluster detection, identification of spatial risk factors) and output (sampling design, disease risk maps). This paper focuses on visualisation techniques that enable improved design and evaluation of surveillance data. Data generated within a pilot GIS-based surveillance programme for avian influenza in village poultry in the Romanian county of Tulcea is used as an example. The use of kriging helped highlight areas in the country where sampling potentially was sub-optimal, and error maps demonstrated the level of confidence that can be placed in serological surveillance results in different localities. Disease surveillance systems traditionally have not focused on the issues of disease risk and sample size visualisation. Standards need to be developed on how sampling and disease data generated within animal health surveillance systems are analysed and presented. This is particularly important for transboundary diseases such as avian influenza. PMID:20422525

  4. Methodology of the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System--2013.

    PubMed

    Brener, Nancy D; Kann, Laura; Shanklin, Shari; Kinchen, Steve; Eaton, Danice K; Hawkins, Joseph; Flint, Katherine H

    2013-03-01

    Priority health-risk behaviors (i.e., interrelated and preventable behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among youths and adults) often are established during childhood and adolescence and extend into adulthood. The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS), established in 1991, monitors six categories of priority health-risk behaviors among youths and young adults: 1) behaviors that contribute to unintentional injuries and violence; 2) sexual behaviors that contribute to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, other sexually transmitted diseases, and unintended pregnancy; 3) tobacco use; 4) alcohol and other drug use; 5) unhealthy dietary behaviors; and 6) physical inactivity. In addition, YRBSS monitors the prevalence of obesity and asthma among this population. YRBSS data are obtained from multiple sources including a national school-based survey conducted by CDC as well as schoolbased state, territorial, tribal, and large urban school district surveys conducted by education and health agencies. These surveys have been conducted biennially since 1991 and include representative samples of students in grades 9-12. In 2004, a description of the YRBSS methodology was published (CDC. Methodology of the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System. MMWR 2004;53 [No RR-12]). Since 2004, improvements have been made to YRBSS, including increases in coverage and expanded technical assistance.This report describes these changes and updates earlier descriptions of the system, including questionnaire content; operational procedures; sampling, weighting, and response rates; data-collection protocols; data-processing procedures; reports and publications; and data quality. This report also includes results of methods studies that systematically examined how different survey procedures affect prevalence estimates. YRBSS continues to evolve to meet the needs of CDC and other data users through the ongoing revision of the questionnaire

  5. The Missile Defense Agency's space tracking and surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, John; Zondervan, Keith

    2008-10-01

    The Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS) is a layered system incorporating elements in space. In addition to missile warning systems at geosynchronous altitudes, an operational BMDS will include a low Earth orbit (LEO) system-the Space Tracking and Surveillance System (STSS). It will use infrared sensing technologies synergistically with the Space Based Infrared Systems (SBIRS) and will provide a seamless adjunct to radars and sensors on the ground and in airborne platforms. STSS is being designed for a future operational capability to defend against evolving threats. STSS development is divided into phases, commencing with a two-satellite demonstration constellation scheduled for launch in 2008. The demonstration satellites will conduct a menu of tests and experiments to prove the system concept, including the ground segment. They will have limited operational capability within the integrated BMDS. Data from the demonstration satellites will be received and processed by the Missile Defense Space Experiment Center (MDSEC), a part of the Missile Defense Integration and Operations Center (MDIOC). MDA launched in 2007 into LEO a satellite (NFIRE) designed to make near-field multispectral measurements of boosting targets and to demonstrate laser communication, the latter in conjunction with the German satellite TerraSAR-X. The gimbaled, lightweight laser terminal has demonstrated on orbit a 5.5 gbps rate in both directions. The filter passbands of NFIRE are similar to the STSS demonstrator track sensor. While providing useful phenomenology during its time on orbit, NFIRE will also serve as a pathfinder in the development of STSS operations procedures.

  6. Applying participatory approaches in the evaluation of surveillance systems: A pilot study on African swine fever surveillance in Corsica.

    PubMed

    Calba, Clémentine; Antoine-Moussiaux, Nicolas; Charrier, François; Hendrikx, Pascal; Saegerman, Claude; Peyre, Marisa; Goutard, Flavie L

    2015-12-01

    The implementation of regular and relevant evaluations of surveillance systems is critical in improving their effectiveness and their relevance whilst limiting their cost. The complex nature of these systems and the variable contexts in which they are implemented call for the development of flexible evaluation tools. Within this scope, participatory tools have been developed and implemented for the African swine fever (ASF) surveillance system in Corsica (France). The objectives of this pilot study were, firstly, to assess the applicability of participatory approaches within a developed environment involving various stakeholders and, secondly, to define and test methods developed to assess evaluation attributes. Two evaluation attributes were targeted: the acceptability of the surveillance system and its the non-monetary benefits. Individual semi-structured interviews and focus groups were implemented with representatives from every level of the system. Diagramming and scoring tools were used to assess the different elements that compose the definition of acceptability. A contingent valuation method, associated with proportional piling, was used to assess the non-monetary benefits, i.e., the value of sanitary information. Sixteen stakeholders were involved in the process, through 3 focus groups and 8 individual semi-structured interviews. Stakeholders were selected according to their role in the system and to their availability. Results highlighted a moderate acceptability of the system for farmers and hunters and a high acceptability for other representatives (e.g., private veterinarians, local laboratories). Out of the 5 farmers involved in assessing the non-monetary benefits, 3 were interested in sanitary information on ASF. The data collected via participatory approaches enable relevant recommendations to be made, based on the Corsican context, to improve the current surveillance system. PMID:26489602

  7. Surveillance of systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases using administrative data.

    PubMed

    Bernatsky, S; Lix, L; Hanly, J G; Hudson, M; Badley, E; Peschken, C; Pineau, C A; Clarke, A E; Fortin, P R; Smith, M; Bélisle, P; Lagace, C; Bergeron, L; Joseph, L

    2011-04-01

    There is growing interest in developing tools and methods for the surveillance of chronic rheumatic diseases, using existing resources such as administrative health databases. To illustrate how this might work, we used population-based administrative data to estimate and compare the prevalence of systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases (SARDs) across three Canadian provinces, assessing for regional differences and the effects of demographic factors. Cases of SARDs (systemic lupus erythematosus, scleroderma, primary Sjogren's, polymyositis/dermatomyositis) were ascertained from provincial physician billing and hospitalization data. We combined information from three case definitions, using hierarchical Bayesian latent class regression models that account for the imperfect nature of each case definition. Using methods that account for the imperfect nature of both billing and hospitalization databases, we estimated the over-all prevalence of SARDs to be approximately 2-3 cases per 1,000 residents. Stratified prevalence estimates suggested similar demographic trends across provinces (i.e. greater prevalence in females-versus-males, and in persons of older age). The prevalence in older females approached or exceeded 1 in 100, which may reflect the high burden of primary Sjogren's syndrome in this group. Adjusting for demographics, there was a greater prevalence in urban-versus-rural settings. In our work, prevalence estimates had good face validity and provided useful information about potential regional and demographic variations. Our results suggest that surveillance of some rheumatic diseases using administrative data may indeed be feasible. Our work highlights the usefulness of using multiple data sources, adjusting for the error in each. PMID:20665025

  8. Terrain Commander: a next-generation remote surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finneral, Henry J.

    2003-09-01

    Terrain Commander is a fully automated forward observation post that provides the most advanced capability in surveillance and remote situational awareness. The Terrain Commander system was selected by the Australian Government for its NINOX Phase IIB Unattended Ground Sensor Program with the first systems delivered in August of 2002. Terrain Commander offers next generation target detection using multi-spectral peripheral sensors coupled with autonomous day/night image capture and processing. Subsequent intelligence is sent back through satellite communications with unlimited range to a highly sophisticated central monitoring station. The system can "stakeout" remote locations clandestinely for 24 hours a day for months at a time. With its fully integrated SATCOM system, almost any site in the world can be monitored from virtually any other location in the world. Terrain Commander automatically detects and discriminates intruders by precisely cueing its advanced EO subsystem. The system provides target detection capabilities with minimal nuisance alarms combined with the positive visual identification that authorities demand before committing a response. Terrain Commander uses an advanced beamforming acoustic sensor and a distributed array of seismic, magnetic and passive infrared sensors to detect, capture images and accurately track vehicles and personnel. Terrain Commander has a number of emerging military and non-military applications including border control, physical security, homeland defense, force protection and intelligence gathering. This paper reviews the development, capabilities and mission applications of the Terrain Commander system.

  9. Success Factors of European Syndromic Surveillance Systems: A Worked Example of Applying Qualitative Comparative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ziemann, Alexandra; Fouillet, Anne; Brand, Helmut; Krafft, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Syndromic surveillance aims at augmenting traditional public health surveillance with timely information. To gain a head start, it mainly analyses existing data such as from web searches or patient records. Despite the setup of many syndromic surveillance systems, there is still much doubt about the benefit of the approach. There are diverse interactions between performance indicators such as timeliness and various system characteristics. This makes the performance assessment of syndromic surveillance systems a complex endeavour. We assessed if the comparison of several syndromic surveillance systems through Qualitative Comparative Analysis helps to evaluate performance and identify key success factors. Materials and Methods We compiled case-based, mixed data on performance and characteristics of 19 syndromic surveillance systems in Europe from scientific and grey literature and from site visits. We identified success factors by applying crisp-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis. We focused on two main areas of syndromic surveillance application: seasonal influenza surveillance and situational awareness during different types of potentially health threatening events. Results We found that syndromic surveillance systems might detect the onset or peak of seasonal influenza earlier if they analyse non-clinical data sources. Timely situational awareness during different types of events is supported by an automated syndromic surveillance system capable of analysing multiple syndromes. To our surprise, the analysis of multiple data sources was no key success factor for situational awareness. Conclusions We suggest to consider these key success factors when designing or further developing syndromic surveillance systems. Qualitative Comparative Analysis helped interpreting complex, mixed data on small-N cases and resulted in concrete and practically relevant findings. PMID:27182731

  10. Low-Cost National Media-Based Surveillance System for Public Health Events, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Ao, Trong T.; Rahman, Mahmudur; Haque, Farhana; Chakraborty, Apurba; Hossain, M. Jahangir; Haider, Sabbir; Alamgir, A.S.M.; Sobel, Jeremy; Luby, Stephen P.

    2016-01-01

    We assessed a media-based public health surveillance system in Bangladesh during 2010–2011. The system is a highly effective, low-cost, locally appropriate, and sustainable outbreak detection tool that could be used in other low-income, resource-poor settings to meet the capacity for surveillance outlined in the International Health Regulations 2005. PMID:26981877

  11. An autonomous surveillance system for blind sources localization and separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Sean; Kulkarni, Raghavendra; Duraiswamy, Srikanth

    2013-05-01

    This paper aims at developing a new technology that will enable one to conduct an autonomous and silent surveillance to monitor sound sources stationary or moving in 3D space and a blind separation of target acoustic signals. The underlying principle of this technology is a hybrid approach that uses: 1) passive sonic detection and ranging method that consists of iterative triangulation and redundant checking to locate the Cartesian coordinates of arbitrary sound sources in 3D space, 2) advanced signal processing to sanitizing the measured data and enhance signal to noise ratio, and 3) short-time source localization and separation to extract the target acoustic signals from the directly measured mixed ones. A prototype based on this technology has been developed and its hardware includes six B and K 1/4-in condenser microphones, Type 4935, two 4-channel data acquisition units, Type NI-9234, with a maximum sampling rate of 51.2kS/s per channel, one NI-cDAQ 9174 chassis, a thermometer to measure the air temperature, a camera to view the relative positions of located sources, and a laptop to control data acquisition and post processing. Test results for locating arbitrary sound sources emitting continuous, random, impulsive, and transient signals, and blind separation of signals in various non-ideal environments is presented. This system is invisible to any anti-surveillance device since it uses the acoustic signal emitted by a target source. It can be mounted on a robot or an unmanned vehicle to perform various covert operations, including intelligence gathering in an open or a confined field, or to carry out the rescue mission to search people trapped inside ruins or buried under wreckages.

  12. Overview of Infectious Disease Surveillance System in Japan, 1999-2005

    PubMed Central

    Taniguchi, Kiyosu; Hashimoto, Shuji; Kawado, Miyuki; Murakami, Yoshitaka; Izumida, Michiko; Ohta, Akiko; Tada, Yuki; Shigematsu, Mika; Yasui, Yoshinori; Nagai, Masaki

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND In 1999 the Communicable Disease Prevention Law of Japan was completely revised into the "New" Infectious Disease Control Law, which reiterated the importance of surveillance and information dissemination and re-organized the surveillance system. This paper is an attempt to illustrate the potential impact of the new surveillance system through a description of the existing surveillance system and data before and after the revision. METHODS After a historical review of surveillance system in Japan, the current surveillance system is described. Data sets of actual case numbers reported and incidence rate per 1,000,000 population are compared before and after the revision. RESULTS Comparison of the data between the 2 periods revealed that most of the diseases have had declining trends after the new law was enacted with several exceptions. However, although no major break in continuity is observed in seriously perceived disease, in milder diseases there are striking gaps between the numbers reported in the mandatory and sentinel reporting framework. Sentinel reporting framework maintained the continuity of data without major gaps. CONCLUSIONS From this perspective, the new surveillance system with two different frameworks of mandatory reporting for severe diseases and sentinel reporting for milder diseases seems to be working well. But continuous efforts should be made for evaluation and improvement of surveillance system and risk communication through the research on data analysis and effective communication method. PMID:18239339

  13. Development and Implementation of a Surveillance Network System for Emerging Infectious Diseases in the Caribbean (ARICABA).

    PubMed

    Kim, Wongyu Lewis; Anneducharme, Chelsea; Bucher, Bernard Jean-Marie Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Dengue fever, including dengue hemorrhagic fever, has become a re-emerging public health threat in the Caribbean in the absence of a comprehensive regional surveillance system. In this deficiency, a project entitled ARICABA, strives to implement a pilot surveillance system across three islands: Martinique, St. Lucia, and Dominica. The aim of this project is to establish a network for epidemiological surveillance of infectious diseases, utilizing information and communication technology. This paper describes the system design and development strategies of a "network of networks" surveillance system for infectious diseases in the Caribbean. Also described are benefits, challenges, and limitations of this approach across the three island nations identified through direct observation, open-ended interviews, and email communications with an on-site IT consultant, key informants, and the project director. Identified core systems design of the ARICABA data warehouse include a disease monitoring system and a syndromic surveillance system. Three components comprise the development strategy: the data warehouse server, the geographical information system, and forecasting algorithms; these are recognized technical priorities of the surveillance system. A main benefit of the ARICABA surveillance system is improving responsiveness and representativeness of existing health systems through automated data collection, process, and transmission of information from various sources. Challenges include overcoming technology gaps between countries; real-time data collection points; multiple language support; and "component-oriented" development approaches. PMID:23569607

  14. Traffic flow wide-area surveillance system definition

    SciTech Connect

    Allgood, G.O.; Ferrell, R.K.; Kercel, S.W.; Abston, R.A.; Carnal, C.L.; Moynihan, P.I.

    1994-11-01

    Traffic Flow Wide-Area Surveillance (TFWAS) is a system for assessing the state of traffic flow over a wide area for enhanced traffic control and improved traffic management and planning. The primary purpose of a TFWAS system is to provide a detailed traffic flow description and context description to sophisticated traffic management and control systems being developed or envisioned for the future. A successful TFWAS system must possess the attributes of safety, reconfigurability, reliability, and expandability. The primary safety premise of TFWAS is to ensure that no action or failure of the TFWAS system or its components can result in risk of injury to humans. A wide variety of communication techniques is available for use with TFWAS systems. These communication techniques can be broken down into two categories, landlines and wireless. Currently used and possible future traffic sensing technologies have been examined. Important criteria for selecting TFWAS sensors include sensor capabilities, costs, operational constraints, sensor compatibility with the infrastructure, and extent. TFWAS is a concept that can take advantage of the strengths of different traffic sensing technologies, can readily adapt to newly developed technologies, and can grow with the development of new traffic control strategies. By developing innovative algorithms that will take information from a variety of sensor types and develop descriptions of traffic flows over a wide area, a more comprehensive understanding of the traffic state can be provided to the control system to perform the most reasonable control actions over the entire wide area. The capability of characterizing the state of traffic over an entire region should revolutionize developments in traffic control strategies.

  15. The conundrum of harmonizing resistance surveillance systems on a global level

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surveillance systems, particularly those involving complex data over time, provide unique challenges. They are as varied in design, intent, funding and function as the countries in which they exist. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention define surveillance as ‘the ongoing systematic colle...

  16. Surveillance system using the CCTV at the fuel transfer pond in the Tokai reprocessing plant

    SciTech Connect

    Hayakawa, T.; Fukuhara, J.; Ochiai, K.; Ohnishi, T.; Ogata, Y.; Okamoto, H. )

    1991-01-01

    The Fuel Transfer Pond (FTP) in the Tokai Reprocessing Plant (TRP) is a strategic point for safeguards. Spent fuels, therefore, in the FTP have been surveyed by the surveillance system using the underwater CCTV. This system was developed through the improvement of devices composed of cameras and VCRs and the provision of tamper resistance function as one of the JASPAS (Japan Support Program for Agency Safeguards) program. The purpose of this program is to realize the continuous surveillance of the slanted tunnel through which the spent fuel on the conveyor is moved from the FTP to the Mechanical Processing Cell (MPC). This paper reports that, when this surveillance system is applied to an inspection device, the following requirements are needed: To have the ability of continuous and unattended surveillance of the spent fuel on the conveyor path from the FTP to the MPC; To have the tamper resistance function for continuous and unattended surveillance of the spent fuel.

  17. Work-Related Injury Surveillance in Vietnam: A National Reporting System Model

    PubMed Central

    Marucci-Wellman, Helen; Wegman, David H.; Leamon, Tom B.; Tuyet Binh, Ta Thi; Diep, Nguyen Bich; Kriebel, David

    2013-01-01

    Developing nations bear a substantial portion of the global burden of injury. Public health surveillance models in developing countries should recognize injury risks for all levels of society and all causes and should incorporate various groups of workers and industries, including subsistence agriculture. However, many developing nations do not have an injury registration system; current data collection methods result in gross national undercounts of injuries, failing to distinguish injuries that occur during work. In 2006, we established an active surveillance system in Vietnam’s Xuan Tien commune and investigated potential methods for surveillance of work-related injuries. On the basis of our findings, we recommend a national model for work-related injury surveillance in Vietnam that builds on the existing health surveillance system. PMID:24028255

  18. Work-related injury surveillance in Vietnam: a national reporting system model.

    PubMed

    Marucci-Wellman, Helen; Wegman, David H; Leamon, Tom B; Binh, Ta Thi Tuyet; Diep, Nguyen Bich; Kriebel, David

    2013-11-01

    Developing nations bear a substantial portion of the global burden of injury. Public health surveillance models in developing countries should recognize injury risks for all levels of society and all causes and should incorporate various groups of workers and industries, including subsistence agriculture. However, many developing nations do not have an injury registration system; current data collection methods result in gross national undercounts of injuries, failing to distinguish injuries that occur during work. In 2006, we established an active surveillance system in Vietnam's Xuan Tien commune and investigated potential methods for surveillance of work-related injuries. On the basis of our findings, we recommend a national model for work-related injury surveillance in Vietnam that builds on the existing health surveillance system. PMID:24028255

  19. Profile: Agincourt Health and Socio-demographic Surveillance System

    PubMed Central

    Kahn, Kathleen; Collinson, Mark A; Gómez-Olivé, F Xavier; Mokoena, Obed; Twine, Rhian; Mee, Paul; Afolabi, Sulaimon A; Clark, Benjamin D; Kabudula, Chodziwadziwa W; Khosa, Audrey; Khoza, Simon; Shabangu, Mildred G; Silaule, Bernard; Tibane, Jeffrey B; Wagner, Ryan G; Garenne, Michel L; Clark, Samuel J; Tollman, Stephen M

    2012-01-01

    The Agincourt health and socio-demographic surveillance system (HDSS), located in rural northeast South Africa close to the Mozambique border, was established in 1992 to support district health systems development led by the post-apartheid ministry of health. The HDSS (90 000 people), based on an annual update of resident status and vital events, now supports multiple investigations into the causes and consequences of complex health, population and social transitions. Observational work includes cohorts focusing on different stages along the life course, evaluation of national policy at population, household and individual levels and examination of household responses to shocks and stresses and the resulting pathways influencing health and well-being. Trials target children and adolescents, including promoting psycho-social well-being, preventing HIV transmission and reducing metabolic disease risk. Efforts to enhance the research platform include using automated measurement techniques to estimate cause of death by verbal autopsy, full ‘reconciliation’ of in- and out-migrations, follow-up of migrants departing the study area, recording of extra-household social connections and linkage of individual HDSS records with those from sub-district clinics. Fostering effective collaborations (including INDEPTH multi-centre work in adult health and ageing and migration and urbanization), ensuring cross-site compatibility of common variables and optimizing public access to HDSS data are priorities. PMID:22933647

  20. Functions and Requirements and Specifications for Replacement of the Computer Automated Surveillance System (CASS)

    SciTech Connect

    SCAIEF, C.C.

    1999-12-16

    This functions, requirements and specifications document defines the baseline requirements and criteria for the design, purchase, fabrication, construction, installation, and operation of the system to replace the Computer Automated Surveillance System (CASS) alarm monitoring.

  1. AFP (alpha fetoprotein): who are you in gastrology?

    PubMed

    Sun, Wenhui; Liu, Yong; Shou, Dawei; Sun, Qiming; Shi, Jianguang; Chen, Li; Liang, Tingbo; Gong, Weihua

    2015-02-01

    AFP-producing (hepatoid differentiation) gastric cancer (GC) initially reported in 1970 plays an important role in the field of gastrology, which should be distinguished from other solid-type GCs owing to their different biological behavior. This review article aims to summarize the literature related to the role of AFP in gastric cancer and to unveil the underlying mechanism by which AFP-production impacts prognosis of GC patients. The prima facie evidence demonstrated that AFP-producing GC is more aggressive and characterized by a high incidence of venous invasion, lymphatic invasion, and metachronous and synchronous liver metastasis compared with AFP-non producing GC. Furthermore, distant metastasis was frequently observed, leading to a poorer overall prognosis. The underlying molecular mechanism is still obscure and optimal regimen remains undefined well. Nevertheless, our present study advances the knowledge of AFP-producing GC in the field of gastrology. AFP-positivity should be highlighted and an a priori enhancive intervention is needed to improve prognosis in future clinical practice. Personalized medication is strongly suggested. PMID:25462859

  2. Design and implementation of a national public health surveillance system in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Sheikhali, Sami Adel; Abdallat, Mohammed; Mabdalla, Sultan; Qaseer, Bashir Al; Khorma, Rania; Malik, Mamunur; Profili, Maria Cristina; Rø, Gunnar; Haskew, John

    2016-01-01

    Understanding and improving the health status of communities depend on effective public health surveillance. Adoption of new technologies, standardised case definitions and clinical guidelines for accurate diagnosis, and access to timely and reliable data, remains a challenge for public health surveillance systems however and existing public health surveillance systems are often fragmented, disease specific, inconsistent and of poor quality. We describe the application of an enterprise architecture approach to the design, planning and implementation of a national public health surveillance system in Jordan. This enabled a well planned and collaboratively supported system to be built and implemented using consistent standards for data collection, management, reporting and use. The system is case-based and integrated and employs mobile information technology to aid collection of real-time, standardised data to inform and improve decision-making at different levels of the health system. PMID:26878763

  3. Design and implementation of a national public health surveillance system in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Sheikhali, Sami Adel; Abdallat, Mohammed; Mabdalla, Sultan; Al Qaseer, Bashir; Khorma, Rania; Malik, Mamunur; Profili, Maria Cristina; Rø, Gunnar; Haskew, John

    2016-04-01

    Understanding and improving the health status of communities depend on effective public health surveillance. Adoption of new technologies, standardised case definitions and clinical guidelines for accurate diagnosis, and access to timely and reliable data, remains a challenge for public health surveillance systems however and existing public health surveillance systems are often fragmented, disease specific, inconsistent and of poor quality. We describe the application of an enterprise architecture approach to the design, planning and implementation of a national public health surveillance system in Jordan. This enabled a well planned and collaboratively supported system to be built and implemented using consistent standards for data collection, management, reporting and use. The system is case-based and integrated and employs mobile information technology to aid collection of real-time, standardised data to inform and improve decision-making at different levels of the health system. PMID:26878763

  4. Status of the ATLAS Forward Physics (AFP) project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chytka, Ladislav; Atlas Collaboration

    2013-04-01

    The ATLAS Forward Physics (AFP) project plans to add a set of detectors - silicon 3D pixel tracking detectors and QUARTIC time of flight detectors - in the forward region of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. The AFP detectors will be placed around 210 m from the interaction point and are meant to detect protons produced at small angles. The detectors are to be housed in the so called Hamburg beam pipe - a movable beam pipe allowing horizontal movement of the detectors. The AFP is currently under approval with possible installation in 2014/15.

  5. Human posture classification for intelligent visual surveillance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rababaah, Haroun; Shirkhodaie, Amir

    2008-04-01

    Intelligent surveillance systems (ISS) have gained a significant attention in recent years due to the nationwide security concerns. Some of the important applications of ISS include: homeland security, border monitoring, battlefield intelligence, and sensitive facility monitoring. The essential requirements of an ISS include: (1) multi-modality multi-sensor data and information fusion, (2) communication networking, (3) distributed data/information processing,(4) Automatic target recognition and tracking, (5) Scenario profiling from discrete correlated/uncorrelated events, (6) Context-based situation reasoning, and (7) Collaborative resource sharing and decision support systems. In this paper we have addressed the problem of humanposture classification in crowded urban terrain environments. Certain range of human postures can be attributed to different suspicious acts of intruders in a constrained environment. By proper time analysis of human trespassers' postures in an environment, it would be possible to identify and differentiate malicious intention of the trespassers from other normal human behaviors. Specifically in this paper, we have proposed an image processing-based approach for characterization of five different human postures including: standing, bending, crawling, carrying a heavy object, and holding a long object. Two approaches were introduced to address the problem: template-matching and Hamming Adaptive Neural Network (HANN) classifiers. The former approach performs human posture characterization via binary-profile projection and applies a correlation-based method for classification of human postures. The latter approach is based a HANN technique. For training of the neural, the posture-patterns are initially compressed, thresholded, and serialized. The binary posture-pattern arrays were then used for training of the HANN. The comparative performance evaluation of both approaches the same set of training and testing examples were used to measure

  6. A global survey of adverse event following immunization surveillance systems for pregnant women and their infants

    PubMed Central

    Cassidy, Christine; MacDonald, Noni E.; Steenbeek, Audrey; Ortiz, Justin R.; Zuber, Patrick L. F.; Top, Karina A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Strengthening antenatal care as a platform for maternal immunization is a priority of the World Health Organization (WHO). Systematic surveillance for adverse events following immunization (AEFI) in pregnancy is needed to identify vaccine safety events. We sought to identify active and passive AEFI surveillance systems for pregnant women and infants. Representatives from all National Pharmacovigilance Centers and a convenience sample of vaccine safety experts were invited to complete a 14-item online survey in English, French or Spanish. The survey captured maternal immunization policies, and active and passive AEFI surveillance systems for pregnant women and infants in respondents' countries. The analysis was descriptive. We received responses from 51/185 (28%) invited persons from 47/148 (32%) countries representing all WHO regions, and low, middle and high-income countries. Thirty countries had national immunization policies targeting pregnant women. Eleven countries had active surveillance systems to detect serious AEFI in pregnant women and/or their infants, including six low and middle-income countries (LMIC). Thirty-nine countries had passive surveillance systems, including 23 LMIC. These active and passive surveillance programs cover approximately 8% and 56% of the worldwide annual birth cohort, respectively. Data from one active and four passive systems have been published. We identified 50 active and passive AEFI surveillance systems for pregnant women and infants, but few have published their findings. AEFI surveillance appears to be feasible in low and high resource settings. Further expansion of AEFI surveillance for pregnant women and sharing of vaccine safety information will provide additional evidence in support of maternal immunization policies. PMID:27159639

  7. Development of an Electronic Notification System for Influenza-Like Illness Sentinel Surveillance.

    PubMed

    Adnan, Mehnaz; Peterkin, Donald; Mackereth, Graham

    2016-01-01

    An electronic Influenza like Illness surveillance system developed to support general practices to electronically notify the cases of influenza like illness (ILI) for national sentinel surveillance in New Zealand. Content analysis was performed to capture the information necessary for ILI surveillance. An online form was implemented within the patient management system to record the details of ILI cases. A middleware framework was developed to manage the information flow between GPs and national influenza surveillance coordinators. The framework used an HL7 version 2.4 messaging standard to receive the notification data and Rhapsody integration engines to parse the message and store the information in national ILI data base. This paper presents the system design and implementation details of electronic ILI notification system. It presents data model designed to capture information for ILI case along with the HL7 messages structure implemented in the system. PMID:27440281

  8. Chronic disease surveillance systems within the US Associated Pacific Island jurisdictions.

    PubMed

    Hosey, Gwen; Ichiho, Henry; Satterfield, Dawn; Dankwa-Mullan, Irene; Kuartei, Stevenson; Rhee, Kyu; Belyeu-Camacho, Tayna; deBrum, Ione; Demei, Yorah; Lippwe, Kipier; Luces, Patrick Solidum; Roby, Faiese

    2011-07-01

    In recent years, illness and death due to chronic disease in the US Associated Pacific Islands (USAPI) jurisdictions have dramatically increased. Effective chronic disease surveillance can help monitor disease trends, evaluate public policy, prioritize resource allocation, and guide program planning, evaluation, and research. Although chronic disease surveillance is being conducted in the USAPI, no recently published capacity assessments for chronic disease surveillance are available. The objective of this study was to assess the quality of existing USAPI chronic disease data sources and identify jurisdictional capacity for chronic disease surveillance. The assessment included a chronic disease data source inventory, literature review, and review of surveillance documentation available from the web or through individual jurisdictions. We used the World Health Organization's Health Metric Network Framework to assess data source quality and to identify jurisdictional capacity. Results showed that USAPI data sources are generally aligned with widely accepted chronic disease surveillance indicators and use standardized data collection methodology to measure chronic disease behavioral risks, preventive practices, illness, and death. However, all jurisdictions need to strengthen chronic disease surveillance through continued assessment and expanded support for valid and reliable data collection, analysis and reporting, dissemination, and integration among population-based and institution-based data sources. For sustained improvement, we recommend investment and technical assistance in support of a chronic disease surveillance system that integrates population-based and institution-based data sources. An integrated strategy that bridges and links USAPI data sources can support evidence-based policy and population health interventions. PMID:21672410

  9. Surveillance and Datalink Communication Performance Analysis for Distributed Separation Assurance System Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, William W.; Linse, Dennis J.; Alaverdi, Omeed; Ifarraguerri, Carlos; Seifert, Scott C.; Salvano, Dan; Calender, Dale

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of two technical enablers: Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast (ADS-B) and digital datalink communication, of the Federal Aviation Administration s Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) under two separation assurance (SA) system architectures: ground-based SA and airborne SA, on overall separation assurance performance. Datalink performance such as successful reception probability in both surveillance and communication messages, and surveillance accuracy are examined in various operational conditions. Required SA performance is evaluated as a function of subsystem performance, using availability, continuity, and integrity metrics to establish overall required separation assurance performance, under normal and off-nominal conditions.

  10. Applied learning-based color tone mapping for face recognition in video surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yew, Chuu Tian; Suandi, Shahrel Azmin

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, we present an applied learning-based color tone mapping technique for video surveillance system. This technique can be applied onto both color and grayscale surveillance images. The basic idea is to learn the color or intensity statistics from a training dataset of photorealistic images of the candidates appeared in the surveillance images, and remap the color or intensity of the input image so that the color or intensity statistics match those in the training dataset. It is well known that the difference in commercial surveillance cameras models, and signal processing chipsets used by different manufacturers will cause the color and intensity of the images to differ from one another, thus creating additional challenges for face recognition in video surveillance system. Using Multi-Class Support Vector Machines as the classifier on a publicly available video surveillance camera database, namely SCface database, this approach is validated and compared to the results of using holistic approach on grayscale images. The results show that this technique is suitable to improve the color or intensity quality of video surveillance system for face recognition.

  11. Cost and schedule control systems criteria for contract performance measurement. Systems review/surveillance guide

    SciTech Connect

    1986-06-01

    When the Department of Energy (DOE) Cost and Schedule Control Systems Criteria (CSCSC) are applied to a contract in accordance with DOE 2250.1B, the contractor's management control systems are reviewed by DOE to determine their initial and continuing compliance with the CSCSC. This document provides guidance to DOE personnel responsible for applying the CSCSC requirements on contracts, reviewing contractor implementation of the requirements, and surveillance to assure continuing compliance with the CSCSC.

  12. The Establishment and Function of Schistosomiasis Surveillance System Towards Elimination in The People's Republic of China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L-J; Li, S-Z; Wen, L-Y; Lin, D-D; Abe, E M; Zhu, R; Du, Y; Lv, S; Xu, J; Webster, B L; Rollinson, D; Zhou, X-N

    2016-01-01

    Schistosoma japonicum is the main schistosome species in The People's Republic of China, causing intestinal schistosomiasis, a debilitating disease of public health importance. The People's Republic of China used to be heavily endemic with schistosomiasis, but great progress has been made through the vigorous efforts of the national control programmes in the last six decades. Presently, efforts are geared towards eliminating schistosomiasis from The People's Republic of China by the end of 2025 through effective schistosomiasis surveillance, an important component in the drive towards schistosomiasis elimination. Therefore, this article explicitly outlines the development and progress made in schistosomiasis surveillance since 1990 with a special focus on the new surveillance system in use. Although the surveillance system has steadily improved over the years, it is faced with many challenges. Hence, more efforts are needed to establish an effective and sensitive evaluation system for the national schistosomiasis elimination programme in The People's Republic of China. PMID:27137445

  13. A review of the surveillance systems of influenza in selected countries in the tropical region

    PubMed Central

    Sanicas, Melvin; Forleo, Eduardo; Pozzi, Gianni; Diop, Doudou

    2014-01-01

    Influenza viruses cause annual epidemics of respiratory tract disease that affect all age groups. Many developing countries do not have an influenza surveillance system or adequate laboratory capacity for virus detection. The objective of this study was to describe the influenza surveillance systems in the different countries in the tropics and to identify outstanding research needs. A questionnaire was designed and sent to 52 NICs and MoHs in the different countries in tropical Asia and Africa to gather information on the surveillance systems, sentinel sites, specimen and data collection, and laboratory testing. Replies were received from 32 NICs and MoHs (61.5% response) – 17 were located in tropical Asia and 15 in Africa. There are 20 WHO recognized NICs in tropical Asia and 14 in tropical Africa, all with virus isolation and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing capacity. Of the Asian countries, only Hong Kong and Singapore reported that the patient population from the sites represents the broader community. In tropical Africa, only Senegal has sentinel sites distributed all over the country contributing to the geographic representativeness of the surveillance system. The rest of the countries in Africa have just established their influenza surveillance system in the past decade and are working toward geographic expansion of the ILI and SARI sites. Limited laboratory capacity or infrastructure to perform influenza surveillance makes difficult to justify the importance of influenza vaccine or other influenza control measures as a strategy for improving population health in the tropical region. PMID:25745529

  14. STS-39 AFP-675 CIRRIS-1A in OV-103's payload bay (PLB)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    STS-39's Air Force Program 675 (AFP-675) Uniformly Redundant Array (URA) and Cryogenic Infrared Radiance Instrumentation for Shuttle 1A (CIRRIS-1A) mounted on the experiment support system (ESS) pallet are documented in Discovery's, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103's, payload bay (PLB). Part of the ESS pallet power distribution system thermal covering is visible at the bottom of the frame. AFP-675 is a Department of Defense (DOD)-sponsored collection of experiments whose objective is to gather data on the Earth's atmosphere (aurora, Earth limb, and airglow), celestial objects, and the environment in and around the PLB. In the background are the aft PLB bulkhead, the vertical tail, and the orbital maneuvering system (OMS) pods.

  15. Development concerns for satellite-based air traffic control surveillance systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, K. D.

    1985-01-01

    Preliminary results of an investigation directed toward the configuration of a practical system design which can form the baseline for assessing the applications and value of a satellite based air traffic surveillance system for future use in the National Airspace System (NAS) are described. This work initially studied the characteristics and capabilities of a satellite configuration which would operate compatibly with the signal structure and avionics of the next generation air traffic control secondary surveillance radar system, the Mode S system. A compatible satellite surveillance system concept is described and an analysis is presented of the link budgets for the various transmission paths. From this, the satellite characteristics are established involving a large multiple feed L band antenna of approximately 50 meter aperture dimension. Trade offs involved in several of the alternative large aperture antennas considered are presented as well as the influence of various antenna configurations on the performance capabilities of the surveillance system. The features and limitations of the use of large aperture antenna systems for air traffic surveillance are discussed. Tentative results of this continuing effort are summarized with a brief description of follow on investigations involving other space based antenna systems concepts.

  16. [Automated fertility and health surveillance systems in dairy cows. A review].

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Lisa; Martin, Rainer; Zerbe, Holm

    2016-08-17

    Automated surveillance systems have become increasingly important in dairy farming. This can be attributed to an increasing farm size with unaltered employee numbers, higher susceptibility of high-yielding animals to diseases and a general constraint to work more cost effectively. A variety of surveillance systems for different areas of application in dairy cow management are currently available. However, their applicability has not always been supported by scientific validation. With regards to the considerable costs in installing and running surveillance systems and to evaluate their practical aspects, further analyses are desirable. Considering the progress in computer-based systems in recent years, we are anticipating rapid developments in automated animal surveillance in the near future. Consequently, the need arises for veterinarians to understand the principles underlying such systems, to be able to assess their efficacy and to be capable of evaluating data derived from these systems in order to advise farmers appropriately. The aim of this study was to assess the benefits and limitations of current surveillance systems for oestrus-detection, partus-alarm and monitoring health status mainly with regards to metabolic disorders in dairy cows, but also for other selected areas of health monitoring. PMID:27465067

  17. The role of surveillance systems in confronting the global crisis of antibiotic-resistant bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Federico; Villegas, Maria Virginia

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of Review It is widely accepted that infection control, advanced diagnostics, and novel therapeutics are crucial to mitigate the impact of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The role of global, national and regional surveillance systems as part of the response to the challenge posed by antibiotic resistance is not sufficiently highlighted. We provide an overview of contemporary surveillance programs, with emphasis on Gram-negative bacteria. Recent Findings The World Health Organization and public health agencies in Europe and the United States recently published comprehensive surveillance reports. These highlight the emergence and dissemination of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) and other multidrug resistant Gram-negative bacteria. In Israel, public health action to control CRE, especially Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) producing-Klebsiella pneumoniae, has advanced together with a better understanding of its epidemiology. Surveillance models adapted to the requirements and capacities of each country are in development. Summary Robust surveillance systems are essential to combat antibiotic resistance, and need to emphasize a “One Health” approach. Refinements in surveillance will come from advances in bioinformatics and genomics that permit the integration of global and local information about antibiotic consumption in humans and animals, molecular mechanisms of resistance, and bacterial genotyping. PMID:26098505

  18. Effectiveness of Implementation of Electronic Malaria Information System as the National Malaria Surveillance System in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background In moving toward malaria elimination, one strategy is to implement an active surveillance system for effective case management. Thailand has developed and implemented the electronic Malaria Information System (eMIS) capturing individualized electronic records of suspected or confirmed malaria cases. Objective The main purpose of this study was to determine how well the eMIS improves the quality of Thailand’s malaria surveillance system. In particular, the focus of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the eMIS in terms of the system users’ perception and the system outcomes (ie, quality of data) regarding the management of malaria patients. Methods A mixed-methods technique was used with the framework based on system effectiveness attributes: data quality, timeliness, simplicity, acceptability, flexibility, stability, and usefulness. Three methods were utilized: data records review, survey of system users, and in-depth interviews with key stakeholders. From the two highest endemic provinces, paper forms matching electronic records of 4455 noninfected and 784 malaria-infected cases were reviewed. Web-based anonymous questionnaires were distributed to all 129 eMIS data entry staff throughout Thailand, and semistructured interviews were conducted with 12 management-level officers. Results The eMIS is well accepted by system users at both management and operational levels. The data quality has enabled malaria personnel to perform more effective prevention and control activities. There is evidence of practices resulting in inconsistencies and logical errors in data reporting. Critical data elements were mostly completed, except for a few related to certain dates and area classifications. Timeliness in reporting a case to the system was acceptable with a delay of 3-4 days. The evaluation of quantitative and qualitative data confirmed that the eMIS has high levels of simplicity, acceptability, stability, and flexibility. Conclusions Overall, the

  19. Design, Implementation, and Evaluation of the Adolescents and Surveillance System for the Obesity Prevention Project.

    PubMed

    Tabacchi, Garden; Bianco, Antonino; Alessi, Nicola; Filippi, Anna Rita; Napoli, Giuseppe; Jemni, Monèm; Censi, Laura; Breda, João; Schumann, Nathali Lehmann; Firenze, Alberto; Vitale, Francesco; Mammina, Caterina

    2016-03-01

    The Adolescents Surveillance System for Obesity prevention (ASSO) Project aimed at developing standardized and web-based tools for collecting data on adolescents' obesity and its potential determinants. This has been implemented and piloted in the local area of Palermo city, Italy. The aim of the present study is to provide an overview of the Project's design, implementation, and evaluation, highlighting all the aspects for a potential scale-up of the surveillance system on the whole national territory and abroad, as a sustainable and effective source of data.The overall structure and management, the ASSO-toolkit, the ASSO-NutFit software, and all developed and used procedures for recruiting, training, and data collecting/analyzing are addressed. An interim evaluation has been performed through a feasibility study; a final Project evaluation has been performed reporting the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) and the attributes that a surveillance system should have.This article provides a detailed overview of the Project and highlights that ASSO can be considered a valid, logical, coherent, efficient, and sustainable surveillance system that is consistent with countries' needs and priorities.The system developed by the ASSO Project provides high-quality data and complies with several characteristics typical of a suitable surveillance system. It has a potential of being adopted within the National Health Service and other countries' Health Services for monitoring adolescents' obesity and its determinants, such as food intakes, behaviors, physical activity, and fitness profiles. PMID:27015195

  20. NASA Low Visibility Landing and Surface Operations (LVLASO) Atlanta Demonstration: Surveillance Systems Performance Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassell, Rick; Evers, Carl; Hicok, Dan; Lee, Derrick

    1999-01-01

    NASA conducted a series of flight experiments at Hartsfield Atlanta International Airport as part of the Low Visibility Landing and Surface Operations (LVLASO) Program. LVLASO is one of the subelements of the NASA Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) Program, which is focused on providing technology and operating procedures for achieving clear-weather airport capacity in instrument-weather conditions, while also improving safety. LVLASO is investigating various technologies to be applied to airport surface operations, including advanced flight deck displays and surveillance systems. The purpose of this report is to document the performance of the surveillance systems tested as part of the LVLASO flight experiment. There were three surveillance sensors tested: primary radar using Airport Surface Detection Equipment (ASDE-3) and the Airport Movement Area Safety System (AMASS), Multilateration using the Airport Surface Target Identification System (ATIDS), and Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast (ADS-B) operating at 1090 MHz. The performance was compared to the draft requirements of the ICAO Advanced Surface Movement Guidance and Control System (A-SMGCS). Performance parameters evaluated included coverage, position accuracy, and update rate. Each of the sensors was evaluated as a stand alone surveillance system.

  1. Describing the Chinese HIV Surveillance System and the Influences of Political Structures and Social Stigma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; Fung Chow, Eric Pui; Zhang, Jun; Jing, Jun; Wilson, David P

    2012-01-01

    China’s public health surveillance system for HIV was established in late 1980s and has evolved significantly during the past three decades. With the gradually changing mode of HIV transmission from sharing of intravenous injecting equipment to sexual exposure and the rapid spread of HIV infection among Chinese homosexual men in recent years, an efficient and comprehensive population-level surveillance system for describing epidemics trends and risk behaviours associated with HIV acquisition are essential for effective public health interventions for HIV. The current review describes the overall strength of the Chinese HIV surveillance system and its structural weaknesses from a political and social perspective. The HIV surveillance system in China has undergone substantial revamping leading to a comprehensive, timely and efficient reporting system. However, large data gaps and lack of quality control and sharing of information obstruct the full performance of the system. This is largely due to fragmented authoritarianism brought about by the underlying political structure. Social stigma and discrimination in health institutes are also key barriers for further improvements of HIV diagnosis and surveillance in China. PMID:23049665

  2. Proposal for a European Space Surveillance System - Results of an ESA Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schildknecht, T.; Flohrer, T.; Michal, T.

    Space Surveillance denotes the task of systematically surveying and tracking all objects above a certain size and maintaining a catalogue with updated orbital and physical characteristics for these objects. Space Surveillance is gaining increased importance as the operational safety of spacecraft is depending on it. Currently, Europe has no capability for routine Space Surveillance covering all space regions of interest and is strongly depending on external information from the United States and Russia. A first design study for a European Space Surveillance System was initiated by ESA in 2002 and led by ONERA as prime contractor. This study proposed a preliminary system covering the LEO and GEO orbit regions including the required survey strategies allowing for the autonomous maintenance of a catalogue of orbital parameters (including cold start capability). For the surveillance of LEO objects with sizes larger than 10 cm, a bistatic UHF radar with a large field of view (20° in elevation and 180° in azimuth) and a long range (1500 km for a 10 cm sphere) was proposed, based on experience gained by the French GRAVES system. For the surveillance of GEO objects larger than 1 m, four sites equipped with survey and tasking telescopes were proposed. It was estimated that such a system would be capable to maintain the orbits of 98 % of the LEO objects and 95 % of the GEO objects contained in the USSTRATCOM catalogue. A subsequent study analyzed the feasibility of a UHF radar and proposed solutions for the surveillance of the MEO region by optical sensors. In fact, this region in space will soon gain major importance for Europe due to the deployment of the GALILEO navigation satellite system.

  3. Life and times: The development of a digital video surveillance system

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, C.A.

    1994-09-01

    Over the past few years Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Safeguards Systems Group has been working to develop an image-based digital surveillance system designed to provide continuous monitoring of nuclear materials in storage or process. The goal of such a system is to provide automated technologies that will ensure the security of the nuclear materials and ultimately reduce the frequency of required physical inventories. This paper discusses the highlights and low-lights we have encountered while designing, developing, and field-testing a digital video surveillance system.

  4. Low-cost inflatable lighter-than-air surveillance system for civilian applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiddy, Jason S.; Chen, Peter C.; Niemczuk, John B.

    2002-08-01

    Today's society places an extremely high price on the value of human life and injury. Whenever possible, police and paramilitary actions are always directed towards saving as many lives as possible, whether it is the officer, perpetrator, or innocent civilians. Recently, the advent of robotic systems has enable law enforcement agencies to perform many of the most dangerous aspects of their jobs from relative safety. This is especially true to bomb disposal units but it is also gaining acceptance in other areas. An area where small, remotely operated machines may prove effective is in local aerial surveillance. Currently, the only aerial surveillance assets generally available to law enforcement agencies are costly helicopters. Unfortunately, most of the recently developed unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) are directed towards military applications and have limited civilian use. Systems Planning and Analysis, Inc. (SPA) has conceived and performed a preliminary analysis of a low-cost, inflatable, lighter- than-air surveillance system that may be used in a number of military and law enforcement surveillance situations. The preliminary analysis includes the concept definition, a detailed trade study to determine the optimal configuration of the surveillance system, high-pressure inflation tests, and a control analysis. This paper will provide the details in these areas of the design and provide an insight into the feasibility of such a system.

  5. Real-Time Microbiology Laboratory Surveillance System to Detect Abnormal Events and Emerging Infections, Marseille, France

    PubMed Central

    Abat, Cédric; Chaudet, Hervé; Colson, Philippe; Rolain, Jean-Marc

    2015-01-01

    Infectious diseases are a major threat to humanity, and accurate surveillance is essential. We describe how to implement a laboratory data–based surveillance system in a clinical microbiology laboratory. Two historical Microsoft Excel databases were implemented. The data were then sorted and used to execute the following 2 surveillance systems in Excel: the Bacterial real-time Laboratory-based Surveillance System (BALYSES) for monitoring the number of patients infected with bacterial species isolated at least once in our laboratory during the study periodl and the Marseille Antibiotic Resistance Surveillance System (MARSS), which surveys the primary β-lactam resistance phenotypes for 15 selected bacterial species. The first historical database contained 174,853 identifications of bacteria, and the second contained 12,062 results of antibiotic susceptibility testing. From May 21, 2013, through June 4, 2014, BALYSES and MARSS enabled the detection of 52 abnormal events for 24 bacterial species, leading to 19 official reports. This system is currently being refined and improved. PMID:26196165

  6. STS-39 AFP-675 and STP-1 MPESS in OV-103's payload bay (PLB)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    An overview of Discovery's, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103's, aft payload bay (PLB) documents a variety of STS-39's payloads. In the foreground is the Space Test Payload 1 (STP-1) multipurpose experiment support structure (MPESS) with the Spacecraft Kinetic Infrared Test (SKIRT) (left), ascent particle monitor (APM) (center), and advanced liquid feed experiment (ALFE) (two canisters) visible. Behind the STP-1 is the Air Force Program 675 (AFP-675) experiment support structure (ESS) with ESS tape recorders (left), Uniformly Redundant Array (URA) (front),and Cryogenic Infrared Radiance Instrumentation for Shuttle 1A (CIRRIS-1A) (center back) visible. The ESS pallet power distribution system thermal covering (gold-colored) is visible at the bottom. AFP-675 is a Department of Defense (DOD)-sponsored collection of experiments whose objective is to gather data on the Earth's atmosphere (aurora, Earth limb, and airglow), celestial objects, and the environment in and around the PLB. In the backgroun

  7. 77 FR 52317 - Record of Decision for Surveillance Towed Array Sensor System Low Frequency Active Sonar

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Navy Record of Decision for Surveillance Towed Array Sensor System Low Frequency Active... Array Sensor System Low Frequency Active (SURTASS LFA) sonar systems with certain...

  8. Incorporating prior knowledge of urban scene spatial structure in aperture code designs for surveillance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valenzuela, John R.; Thelen, Brian J.; Subotic, Nikola

    2010-08-01

    Two major missions of Surveillance systems are imaging and ground moving target indication (GMTI). Recent advances in coded aperture electro optical systems have enabled persistent surveillance systems with extremely large fields of regard. The areas of interest for these surveillance systems are typically urban, with spatial topologies having a very definite structure. We incorporate aspects of a priori information on this structure in our aperture code designs to enable optimized dealiasing operations for undersampled focal plane arrays. Our framework enables us to design aperture codes to minimize mean square error for image reconstruction or to maximize signal to clutter ratio for GMTI detection. In this paper we present a technical overview of our code design methodology and show the results of our designed codes on simulated DIRSIG mega-scene data.

  9. Geographic information system in malaria surveillance: mosquito breeding and imported cases in Israel, 1992.

    PubMed

    Kitron, U; Pener, H; Costin, C; Orshan, L; Greenberg, Z; Shalom, U

    1994-05-01

    Although a significant resurgence of malaria in Israel is unlikely at present, the risk for a localized outbreak of malaria cases due to infection of local anopheline mosquitoes by imported cases does exist. A national computerized surveillance system of breeding sites of Anopheles mosquitoes and imported malaria cases was established in 1992 using a geographic information system (GIS). Distances between population centers and breeding sites were calculated, and maps associating epidemiologic and entomologic data were generated. Risk of malaria transmission was assessed with consideration of vectorial capacity and flight range of each Anopheles species. The GIS-based surveillance system ensures that if a localized outbreak does occur, it will be associated rapidly with a likely breeding site, a specific Anopheles vector, and a probable human source, so that prompt control measures can be most efficiently targeted. This cost-effective GIS-based surveillance system can be expanded and adapted for countries with indigenous malaria transmission. PMID:8203702

  10. A standardised mortuary-based injury surveillance system: lessons learned from the Ibadan Nigerian trial.

    PubMed

    Kipsaina, Chebiwot; Eze, Uwom O; Ozanne-Smith, Joan

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the challenges in establishing a mortuary-based injury surveillance system in a resource-constrained setting of Ibadan, Nigeria. To quantify and detail fatal injuries, in September 2010 to February 2011, a prospective data collection utilised the World Health Organization-Monash draft surveillance system. Findings were compared with other low- and middle-income settings, and surveillance system attributes were assessed. The leading injury mechanism among all age groups was transport related, with 45.6% being vulnerable road users, consistent with comparable settings. Fire-related injury was the second unintentional cause in the Ibadan pilot, unlike Global Burden of Disease estimates for Nigeria, Mauritius and Mexico, where drowning was the second cause. Positive system attributes included timeliness, data field completeness, specificity, flexibility and sensitivity. Despite apparent under-reporting of eligible deaths and questionable representativeness, this study illustrates potential for mortuary data to inform injury prevention policies and programmes in resource-constrained settings. PMID:24533636

  11. Community-Based Surveillance and Case Management for Suicide Prevention: An American Indian Tribally Initiated System

    PubMed Central

    Barlow, Allison; Goklish, Novalene; Larzelere-Hinton, Francene; Tingey, Lauren; Craig, Mariddie; Lupe, Ronnie; Walkup, John

    2014-01-01

    The National Strategy for Suicide Prevention highlights the importance of improving the timeliness, usefulness, and quality of national suicide surveillance systems, and expanding local capacity to collect relevant data. This article describes the background, methods, process data, and implications from the first-of-its-kind community-based surveillance system for suicidal and self-injurious behavior developed by the White Mountain Apache Tribe with assistance from Johns Hopkins University. The system enables local, detailed, and real-time data collection beyond clinical settings, with in-person follow-up to facilitate connections to care. Total reporting and the proportion of individuals seeking treatment have increased over time, suggesting that this innovative surveillance system is feasible, useful, and serves as a model for other communities and the field of suicide prevention. PMID:24754618

  12. A life-course approach to measuring socioeconomic position in population health surveillance systems.

    PubMed

    Chittleborough, C R; Baum, F E; Taylor, A W; Hiller, J E

    2006-11-01

    Measuring socioeconomic position (SEP) in population chronic disease and risk factor surveillance systems is essential for monitoring socioeconomic inequalities in health over time. Life-course measures are an innovative way to supplement other SEP indicators in surveillance systems. A literature review examined the indicators of early-life SEP that could potentially be used in population health surveillance systems. The criteria of validity, relevance, reliability and deconstruction were used to determine the value of potential indicators. Early-life SEP indicators used in cross-sectional and longitudinal studies included education level, income, occupation, living conditions, family structure and residential mobility. Indicators of early-life SEP should be used in routine population health surveillance to monitor trends in the health and SEP of populations over time, and to analyse long-term effects of policies on the changing health of populations. However, these indicators need to be feasible to measure retrospectively, and relevant to the historical, geographical and sociocultural context in which the surveillance system is operating. PMID:17053288

  13. Surveillance, response systems, and evidence updates on emerging zoonoses: the role of one health.

    PubMed

    Asokan, G V; Kasimanickam, Ramanathan K; Asokan, Vanitha

    2013-01-01

    Globally, emerging zoonotic diseases are increasing. Existing surveillance systems for zoonoses have substantial gaps, especially in developing countries, and the systems in place in the developed world require improvements. Resources and updates on evidence-based practice (EBP) for zoonoses are sparser in the veterinary literature as compared to the medical literature. Evidence updates for emerging zoonoses are either absent or rudimentary in both human and veterinary medicine. A 'one-health' concept, including a global signaling surveillance system for emerging zoonoses, will be essential for correct diagnoses, interventions, and public health strategies. An open access EBP platform supported by builders of EBP resources is urgently needed to counter emerging zoonoses. PMID:24363836

  14. Twitter web-service for soft agent reporting in persistent surveillance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rababaah, Haroun; Shirkhodaie, Amir

    2010-04-01

    Persistent surveillance is an intricate process requiring monitoring, gathering, processing, tracking, and characterization of many spatiotemporal events occurring concurrently. Data associated with events can be readily attained by networking of hard (physical) sensors. Sensors may have homogeneous or heterogeneous (hybrid) sensing modalities with different communication bandwidth requirements. Complimentary to hard sensors are human observers or "soft sensors" that can report occurrences of evolving events via different communication devices (e.g., texting, cell phones, emails, instant messaging, etc.) to the command control center. However, networking of human observers in ad-hoc way is rather a difficult task. In this paper, we present a Twitter web-service for soft agent reporting in persistent surveillance systems (called Web-STARS). The objective of this web-service is to aggregate multi-source human observations in hybrid sensor networks rapidly. With availability of Twitter social network, such a human networking concept can not only be realized for large scale persistent surveillance systems (PSS), but also, it can be employed with proper interfaces to expedite rapid events reporting by human observers. The proposed technique is particularly suitable for large-scale persistent surveillance systems with distributed soft and hard sensor networks. The efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed technique is measured experimentally by conducting several simulated persistent surveillance scenarios. It is demonstrated that by fusion of information from hard and soft agents improves understanding of common operating picture and enhances situational awareness.

  15. Monitoring Influenza Activity in the United States: A Comparison of Traditional Surveillance Systems with Google Flu Trends

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, Justin R.; Zhou, Hong; Shay, David K.; Neuzil, Kathleen M.; Fowlkes, Ashley L.; Goss, Christopher H.

    2011-01-01

    Background Google Flu Trends was developed to estimate US influenza-like illness (ILI) rates from internet searches; however ILI does not necessarily correlate with actual influenza virus infections. Methods and Findings Influenza activity data from 2003–04 through 2007–08 were obtained from three US surveillance systems: Google Flu Trends, CDC Outpatient ILI Surveillance Network (CDC ILI Surveillance), and US Influenza Virologic Surveillance System (CDC Virus Surveillance). Pearson's correlation coefficients with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated to compare surveillance data. An analysis was performed to investigate outlier observations and determine the extent to which they affected the correlations between surveillance data. Pearson's correlation coefficient describing Google Flu Trends and CDC Virus Surveillance over the study period was 0.72 (95% CI: 0.64, 0.79). The correlation between CDC ILI Surveillance and CDC Virus Surveillance over the same period was 0.85 (95% CI: 0.81, 0.89). Most of the outlier observations in both comparisons were from the 2003–04 influenza season. Exclusion of the outlier observations did not substantially improve the correlation between Google Flu Trends and CDC Virus Surveillance (0.82; 95% CI: 0.76, 0.87) or CDC ILI Surveillance and CDC Virus Surveillance (0.86; 95%CI: 0.82, 0.90). Conclusions This analysis demonstrates that while Google Flu Trends is highly correlated with rates of ILI, it has a lower correlation with surveillance for laboratory-confirmed influenza. Most of the outlier observations occurred during the 2003–04 influenza season that was characterized by early and intense influenza activity, which potentially altered health care seeking behavior, physician testing practices, and internet search behavior. PMID:21556151

  16. Remote-Reading Safety and Safeguards Surveillance System for 3013 Containers

    SciTech Connect

    Lechelt, W. M.; Skorpik, J. R.; Silvers, K. L.; Szempruch, R. W.; Douglas, D. G.; Fein, K. O.

    2002-02-26

    At Hanford's Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP), plutonium oxide is being loaded into stainless steel containers for long-term storage on the Hanford Site. These containers consist of two weld-sealed stainless steel cylinders nested one within the other. A third container holds the plutonium within the inner cylinder. This design meets the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) storage standard, DOE-STD- 3013-2000, which anticipates a 50-year storage lifetime. The 3013 standard also requires a container surveillance program to continuously monitor pressure and to assure safeguards are adequate. However, the configuration of the container system makes using conventional measurement and monitoring methods difficult. To better meet the 3013 monitoring requirements, a team from Fluor Hanford (who manages the PFP), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and Vista Engineering Technologies, LLC, developed a safer, cost-efficient, remote PFP 3013 container surveillance system. This new surveillance system is a combination of two successfully deployed technologies: (1) a magnetically coupled pressure gauge developed by Vista Engineering and (2) a radio frequency (RF) tagging device developed by PNNL. This system provides continuous, 100% monitoring of critical parameters with the containers in place, as well as inventory controls. The 3013 container surveillance system consists of three main elements: (1) an internal magnetic pressure sensor package, (2) an instrument pod (external electronics package), and (3) a data acquisition storage and display computer. The surveillance system described in this paper has many benefits for PFP and DOE in terms of cost savings and reduced personnel exposure. In addition, continuous safety monitoring (i.e., internal container pressure and temperature) of every container is responsible nuclear material stewardship and fully meets and exceeds DOE's Integrated Surveillance Program requirements.

  17. New method for height estimation of subjects represented in photograms taken from video surveillance systems.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, Danilo; Sala, Remo; Cantatore, Angela; Poppa, Pasquale; Dufour, Michele; Grandi, Marco; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2007-11-01

    The article describes a method developed and applied by the authors for the purpose of determining the height of subjects taped on video surveillance systems. The determination of height is obtained by developing a virtual telecamera having the same characteristics of the video surveillance system with which the images have been shot. The results demonstrate that height is a parameter that can be accurately estimated with the method proposed, in the experimental conditions described, and consequently, can be utilized in probatory inquiry. PMID:17541786

  18. The surveillant assemblage.

    PubMed

    Haggerty, K D; Ericson, R V

    2000-12-01

    George Orwell's 'Big Brother' and Michel Foucault's 'panopticon' have dominated discussion of contemporary developments in surveillance. While such metaphors draw our attention to important attributes of surveillance, they also miss some recent dynamics in its operation. The work of Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari is used to analyse the convergence of once discrete surveillance systems. The resultant 'surveillant assemblage' operates by abstracting human bodies from their territorial settings, and separating them into a series of discrete flows. These flows are then reassembled in different locations as discrete and virtual 'data doubles'. The surveillant assemblage transforms the purposes of surveillance and the hierarchies of surveillance, as well as the institution of privacy. PMID:11140886

  19. Comparative evaluation of three surveillance systems for infectious equine diseases in France and implications for future synergies.

    PubMed

    Amat, J P; Hendrikx, P; Tapprest, J; Leblond, A; Dufour, B

    2015-10-01

    It is necessary to assess surveillance systems for infectious animal diseases to ensure they meet their objectives and provide high-quality health information. Each system is generally dedicated to one disease and often comprises various components. In many animal industries, several surveillance systems are implemented separately even if they are based on similar components. This lack of synergy may prevent optimal surveillance. The purpose of this study was to assess several surveillance systems within the same industry using the semi-quantitative OASIS method and to compare the results of the assessments in order to propose improvements, including future synergies. We have focused on the surveillance of three major equine diseases in France. We have identified the mutual and specific strengths and weaknesses of each surveillance system. Furthermore, the comparative assessment has highlighted many possible synergies that could improve the effectiveness and efficiency of surveillance as a whole, including the implementation of new joint tools or the pooling of existing teams, tools or skills. Our approach is an original application of the OASIS method, which requires minimal financial resources and is not very time-consuming. Such a comparative evaluation could conceivably be applied to other surveillance systems, other industries and other countries. This approach would be especially relevant to enhance the efficiency of surveillance activities when resources are limited. PMID:25712325

  20. Expanding poliomyelitis and measles surveillance networks to establish surveillance for acute meningitis and encephalitis syndromes--Bangladesh, China, and India, 2006-2008.

    PubMed

    2012-12-14

    Quality surveillance is critical to the control and elimination of vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs). A key strategy for enhancing VPD surveillance, outlined in the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Framework for Immunization Monitoring and Surveillance (GFIMS), is to expand and link existing VPD surveillance systems (particularly those developed for polio eradication and measles elimination) to include other priority VPDs. Since the launch of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative in 1988, the incidence of polio has decrease by 99% worldwide. A cornerstone of this success is a sensitive surveillance system based on the rapid and timely reporting of all acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) cases in children aged <15 years, with confirmatory diagnostic testing performed by laboratories that are part of a global network. As countries achieve polio-free status, many have expanded syndromic surveillance to include persons with rash and fever, and have built measles diagnostic capacity in existing polio reference laboratories. Acute meningitis/encephalitis syndrome (AMES) and acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) are candidates for expanded surveillance because they are most often caused by VPDs of public health importance for which confirmatory laboratory tests exist. Vaccine-preventable cases of encephalitis include approximately 68,000 Japanese encephalitis (JE) cases, resulting in 13,000-20,000 deaths each year in Asia. Moreover, although bacterial meningitis incidence in Asia is not as well-documented, pneumococcal and meningococcal meningitis outbreaks have been reported in Bangladesh and China, and the incidence of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) meningitis in children aged <5 years in India has been estimated to be 7.1 per 100,000 population, similar to that in European countries before the introduction of vaccine. This report describes a prototype for expanding existing polio and measles surveillance networks in Bangladesh, China, and India to include

  1. Integrated human surveillance systems of West Nile virus infections in Italy: the 2012 experience.

    PubMed

    Napoli, Christian; Bella, Antonino; Declich, Silvia; Grazzini, Giuliano; Lombardini, Letizia; Nanni Costa, Alessandro; Nicoletti, Loredana; Pompa, Maria Grazia; Pupella, Simonetta; Russo, Francesca; Rizzo, Caterina

    2013-12-01

    In Italy, a West Nile virus (WNV) surveillance plan was firstly implemented in 2008 and 2009 in two affected regions and, since 2010, according to a national plan, a WNV neuroinvasive disease (WNND) surveillance has to be carried out each year during the period 15 June-30 November, in those regions where WNV circulation has been demonstrated among humans, animals or vectors. Moreover, since WNV can be transmitted to humans even by blood transfusions and organ transplants obtained from infected donors, the national surveillance integrates the blood transfusions and organs transplant surveillances too. The paper describes the results of this integrated human surveillance in Italy in 2012. Overall, in 2012, 28 autochthonous confirmed cases of WNND were reported, 14 blood donations were found WNV positive by Nucleic Acid Amplification Test and no solid organ donors tested positive for WNV. Moreover, 17 cases of WNV fever were confirmed in Veneto region. When comparing the number of WNND cases reported to the surveillance system in previous 4 years (43 cases during the period 2008-2011), with those reported in 2012 an important increase was observed in 2012. The geographic distribution of human cases was consistent with the WNV circulation among animals and vectors. Moreover, the implementation of preventive measures for WNV transmission through blood components allowed the detection of blood donors positive for WNV, avoiding the further spread of the disease. Since surveillance strategies and preventive measures are based on the integration among human, animal and vector control activities, the Italian experience could be considered a good example of collaboration among different sectors of public health in a "one health" perspective. PMID:24351740

  2. Behavioral surveillance among people at risk for HIV infection in the U.S.: the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Kathleen M; Sullivan, Patrick S; Lansky, Amy; Onorato, Ida M

    2007-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, in collaboration with 25 state and local health departments, began the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System (NHBS) in 2003. The system focuses on people at risk for HIV infection and surveys the three populations at highest risk for HIV in the United States: men who have sex with men, injecting drug users, and high-risk heterosexuals. The project collects information from these three populations during rotating 12-month cycles. Methods for recruiting participants vary for each at-risk population, but NHBS uses a standardized protocol and core questionnaire for each cycle. Participating health departments tailor their questionnaire to collect information about specific prevention programs offered in their geographic area and to address local data needs. Data collected from NHBS will be used to describe trends in key behavioral risk indicators and evaluate current HIV prevention programs. This information in turn can be used to identify gaps in prevention services and target new prevention activities with the goal of reducing new HIV infections in the United States. PMID:17354525

  3. DXBC: a long distance wireless broadband communication system for coastal maritime surveillance applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vastianos, George E.; Argyreas, Nick D.; Xilouris, Chris K.; Thomopoulos, Stelios C. A.

    2015-05-01

    The field of Homeland Security focuses on the air, land, and sea borders surveillance in order to prevent illegal activities while facilitating lawful travel and trade. The achievement of this goal requires collaboration of complex decentralized systems and services, and transfer of huge amount of information between the remote surveillance areas and the command & control centers. It becomes obvious that the effectiveness of the provided security depends highly on the available communication capabilities between the interconnected areas. Although nowadays the broadband communication between remote places is presumed easy because of the extensive infrastructure inside residential areas, it becomes a real challenge when the required information should be acquired from locations where no infrastructure is available such as mountain or sea areas. The Integrated Systems Lab of NCSR Demokritos within the PERSEUS FP7- SEC-2011-261748 project has developed a wireless broadband telecommunication system that combines different communication channels from subGHz to microwave frequencies and provides secure IP connectivity between sea surveillance vessels and the Command and Control Centers (C3). The system was deployed in Fast Patrol Boats of the Hellenic Coast Guard that are used for maritime surveillance in sea boarders and tested successfully in two demonstration exercises for irregular migration and smuggling scenarios in the Aegean Archipelagos. This paper describes in detail the system architecture in terms of hardware and software and the evaluation measurements of the system communication capabilities.

  4. Privacy-aware access control for video data in intelligent surveillance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vagts, Hauke; Jakoby, Andreas

    2012-06-01

    Surveillance systems became powerful. Objects can be identified and intelligent surveillance services can generate events when a specific situation occurs. Such surveillance services can be organized in a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) to fulfill surveillance tasks for specific purposes. Therefore the services process information on a high level, e.g., just the position of an object. Video data is still required to visualize a situation to an operator and is required as evidence in court. Processing of personal related and sensitive information threatens privacy. To protect the user and to be compliant with legal requirements it must be ensured that sensitive information can only be processed for a defined propose by specific users or services. This work proposes an architecture for Access Control that enforces the separation of data between different surveillance tasks. Access controls are enforced at different levels: for the users starting the tasks, for the services within the tasks processing data stored in central store or calculated by other services and for sensor related services that extract information out of the raw data and provide them.

  5. Autonomous real-time ground ubiquitous surveillance-imaging system (ARGUS-IS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leininger, Brian; Edwards, Jonathan; Antoniades, John; Chester, David; Haas, Dan; Liu, Eric; Stevens, Mark; Gershfield, Charlie; Braun, Mike; Targove, James D.; Wein, Steve; Brewer, Paul; Madden, Donald G.; Shafique, Khurram Hassan

    2008-04-01

    Finding, tracking and monitoring events and activities of interest on a continuous basis remains one of our highest Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) requirements. Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) serve as one of the warfighter's primary and most responsive means for surveillance and gathering intelligence information and are becoming vital assets in military operations. This is demonstrated by their significant use in Afghanistan during Operation Enduring Freedom and in Iraq as part of Operation Iraqi Freedom. Lessons learned from these operations indicate that UAVs provide critical capabilities for enhancing situational awareness, intelligence gathering and force protection for our military forces. Current UAS high resolution electro-optics offers a small high resolution field of view (FOV). This narrow FOV is a limiting factor on the utility of the EO system. The UAS that are available offer persistence; however, the effectiveness of the EO system is limited by the sensors and available processing. DARPA is addressing this developing the next generation of persistent, very wide area surveillance with the Autonomous Real-time Ground Ubiquitous Surveillance - Imaging System (ARGUS-IS). The system will be capable of imaging an area of greater than 40 square kilometers with a Ground Space Distance (GSD) of 15 cm at video rates of greater than 12 Hz. This paper will discuss the elements of the ARGUS-IS program.

  6. Sensitivity of the Dengue Surveillance System in Brazil for Detecting Hospitalized Cases

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the sensitivity of the dengue surveillance system in detecting hospitalized cases in ten capital cities in Brazil from 2008 to 2013 using a probabilistic record linkage of two independent information systems hospitalization (SIH-SUS) adopted as the gold standard and surveillance (SINAN). Sensitivity was defined as the proportion of cases reported to the surveillance system amid the suspected hospitalized cases registered in SIH-SUS. Of the 48,174 hospitalizations registered in SIH-SUS, 24,469 (50.7%) were reported and registered in SINAN, indicating an overall sensitivity of 50.8% (95%CI 50.3–51.2). The observed sensitivity for each of the municipalities included in the study ranged from 22.0% to 99.1%. The combination of the two data sources identified 71,161 hospitalizations, an increase of 97.0% over SINAN itself. Our results allowed establishing the proportion of underreported dengue hospitalizations in the public health system in Brazil, highlighting the use of probabilistic record linkage as a valuable tool for evaluating surveillance systems. PMID:27192405

  7. The SCORPIO core surveillance system - operational experience and new methods development

    SciTech Connect

    Andersson, T.; Berg, O.; Hval, S.

    1995-12-31

    The main motivation behind the development of SCORPIO is to make a practical tool for reactor operators that can increase the quality and quantity of information presented on core status and dynamic behavior. This can first of all improve plant safety because undesired core conditions are detected and prevented. Second, a more flexible and efficient operation of the plant is made possible. The improvement in surveillance is obtained partly by better surveillance of core instrumentation and by running detailed core simulators on-line. The complete system has two parallel modes of operation: the Core Follow Mode and the Predictive Mode.

  8. [Chronic diseases as a priority for the public health surveillance system in Spain].

    PubMed

    Mayoral Cortes, José María; Aragonés Sanz, Nuria; Godoy, Pere; Sierra Moros, María José; Cano Portero, Rosa; González Moran, Francisco; Pousa Ortega, Ánxela

    2016-01-01

    At present, epidemiological surveillance in Spain remains focused on the communicable diseases included in the list of notifiable diseases. However, there has been a change in epidemiological pattern that predominated until the last few decades of the twentieth century. Infectious diseases, which used to be the leading causes of morbidity and mortality, have given way to a predominance of chronic diseases. In this regard, progress has been made in the drafting and adoption of specific legal regulations on public health monitoring. However, Spain has yet to develop this legislation which, among other elements, includes the mandate to organize the surveillance of non-communicable diseases in Spain. This article aims to describe some points that should be considered in the development of a national surveillance system linked to existing strategies for the prevention and control of chronic diseases. PMID:26832857

  9. Quantitative and qualitative assessment of the bovine abortion surveillance system in France.

    PubMed

    Bronner, Anne; Gay, Emilie; Fortané, Nicolas; Palussière, Mathilde; Hendrikx, Pascal; Hénaux, Viviane; Calavas, Didier

    2015-06-01

    Bovine abortion is the main clinical sign of bovine brucellosis, a disease of which France has been declared officially free since 2005. To ensure the early detection of any brucellosis outbreak, event-driven surveillance relies on the mandatory notification of bovine abortions and the brucellosis testing of aborting cows. However, the under-reporting of abortions appears frequent. Our objectives were to assess the aptitude of the bovine abortion surveillance system to detect each and every bovine abortion and to identify factors influencing the system's effectiveness. We evaluated five attributes defined by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control with a method suited to each attribute: (1) data quality was studied quantitatively and qualitatively, as this factor considerably influences data analysis and results; (2) sensitivity and representativeness were estimated using a unilist capture-recapture approach to quantify the surveillance system's effectiveness; (3) acceptability and simplicity were studied through qualitative interviews of actors in the field, given that the surveillance system relies heavily on abortion notifications by farmers and veterinarians. Our analysis showed that (1) data quality was generally satisfactory even though some errors might be due to actors' lack of awareness of the need to collect accurate data; (2) from 2006 to 2011, the mean annual sensitivity - i.e. the proportion of farmers who reported at least one abortion out of all those who detected such events - was around 34%, but was significantly higher in dairy than beef cattle herds (highlighting a lack of representativeness); (3) overall, the system's low sensitivity was related to its low acceptability and lack of simplicity. This study showed that, in contrast to policy-makers, most farmers and veterinarians perceived the risk of a brucellosis outbreak as negligible. They did not consider sporadic abortions as a suspected case of brucellosis and usually reported abortions only to

  10. Developing a database management system to support birth defects surveillance in Florida.

    PubMed

    Salemi, Jason L; Hauser, Kimberlea W; Tanner, Jean Paul; Sampat, Diana; Correia, Jane A; Watkins, Sharon M; Kirby, Russell S

    2010-01-01

    The value of any public health surveillance program is derived from the ways in which data are managed and used to improve the public's health. Although birth defects surveillance programs vary in their case volume, budgets, staff, and objectives, the capacity to operate efficiently and maximize resources remains critical to long-term survival. The development of a fully-integrated relational database management system (DBMS) can enrich a surveillance program's data and improve efficiency. To build upon the Florida Birth Defects Registry--a statewide registry relying solely on linkage of administrative datasets and unconfirmed diagnosis codes-the Florida Department of Health provided funding to the University of South Florida to develop and pilot an enhanced surveillance system in targeted areas with a more comprehensive approach to case identification and diagnosis confirmation. To manage operational and administrative complexities, a DBMS was developed, capable of managing transmission of project data from multiple sources, tracking abstractor time during record reviews, offering tools for defect coding and case classification, and providing reports to DBMS users. Since its inception, the DBMS has been used as part of our surveillance projects to guide the receipt of over 200 case lists and review of 12,924 fetuses and infants (with associated maternal records) suspected of having selected birth defects in over 90 birthing and transfer facilities in Florida. The DBMS has provided both anticipated and unexpected benefits. Automation of the processes for managing incoming case lists has reduced clerical workload considerably, while improving accuracy of working lists for field abstraction. Data quality has improved through more effective use of internal edits and comparisons with values for other data elements, while simultaneously increasing abstractor efficiency in completion of case abstraction. We anticipate continual enhancement to the DBMS in the future

  11. Reassessing the WIC Effect: Evidence from the Pregnancy Nutrition Surveillance System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joyce, Ted; Racine, Andrew; Yunzal-Butler, Cristina

    2008-01-01

    Recent analyses differ on how effective the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) is at improving infant health. We use data from nine states that participate in the Pregnancy Nutrition Surveillance System to address limitations in previous work. With information on the mother's timing of WIC enrollment, we…

  12. Surveillance system and method having an operating mode partitioned fault classification model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bickford, Randall L. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A system and method which partitions a parameter estimation model, a fault detection model, and a fault classification model for a process surveillance scheme into two or more coordinated submodels together providing improved diagnostic decision making for at least one determined operating mode of an asset.

  13. An Expert System And Simulation Approach For Sensor Management & Control In A Distributed Surveillance Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leon, Barbara D.; Heller, Paul R.

    1987-05-01

    A surveillance network is a group of multiplatform sensors cooperating to improve network performance. Network control is distributed as a measure to decrease vulnerability to enemy threat. The network may contain diverse sensor types such as radar, ESM (Electronic Support Measures), IRST (Infrared search and track) and E-0 (Electro-Optical). Each platform may contain a single sensor or suite of sensors. In a surveillance network it is desirable to control sensors to make the overall system more effective. This problem has come to be known as sensor management and control (SM&C). Two major facets of network performance are surveillance and survivability. In a netted environment, surveillance can be enhanced if information from all sensors is combined and sensor operating conditions are controlled to provide a synergistic effect. In contrast, when survivability is the main concern for the network, the best operating status for all sensors would be passive or off. Of course, improving survivability tends to degrade surveillance. Hence, the objective of SM&C is to optimize surveillance and survivability of the network. Too voluminous data of various formats and the quick response time are two characteristics of this problem which make it an ideal application for Artificial Intelligence. A solution to the SM&C problem, presented as a computer simulation, will be presented in this paper. The simulation is a hybrid production written in LISP and FORTRAN. It combines the latest conventional computer programming methods with Artificial Intelligence techniques to produce a flexible state-of-the-art tool to evaluate network performance. The event-driven simulation contains environment models coupled with an expert system. These environment models include sensor (track-while-scan and agile beam) and target models, local tracking, and system tracking. These models are used to generate the environment for the sensor management and control expert system. The expert system

  14. Social Media and Internet-Based Data in Global Systems for Public Health Surveillance: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    VELASCO, EDWARD; AGHENEZA, TUMACHA; DENECKE, KERSTIN; KIRCHNER, GÖRAN; ECKMANNS, TIM

    2014-01-01

    Context: The exchange of health information on the Internet has been heralded as an opportunity to improve public health surveillance. In a field that has traditionally relied on an established system of mandatory and voluntary reporting of known infectious diseases by doctors and laboratories to governmental agencies, innovations in social media and so-called user-generated information could lead to faster recognition of cases of infectious disease. More direct access to such data could enable surveillance epidemiologists to detect potential public health threats such as rare, new diseases or early-level warnings for epidemics. But how useful are data from social media and the Internet, and what is the potential to enhance surveillance? The challenges of using these emerging surveillance systems for infectious disease epidemiology, including the specific resources needed, technical requirements, and acceptability to public health practitioners and policymakers, have wide-reaching implications for public health surveillance in the 21st century. Methods: This article divides public health surveillance into indicator-based surveillance and event-based surveillance and provides an overview of each. We did an exhaustive review of published articles indexed in the databases PubMed, Scopus, and Scirus between 1990 and 2011 covering contemporary event-based systems for infectious disease surveillance. Findings: Our literature review uncovered no event-based surveillance systems currently used in national surveillance programs. While much has been done to develop event-based surveillance, the existing systems have limitations. Accordingly, there is a need for further development of automated technologies that monitor health-related information on the Internet, especially to handle large amounts of data and to prevent information overload. The dissemination to health authorities of new information about health events is not always efficient and could be improved. No

  15. Utility of the ESSENCE Surveillance System in Monitoring the H1N1 Outbreak.

    PubMed

    Holtry, Rekha S; Hung, Lang M; Lewis, Sheri H

    2010-01-01

    The Electronic Surveillance System for the Early Notification of Community-Based Epidemics (ESSENCE) enables health care practitioners to detect and monitor health indicators of public health importance. ESSENCE is used by public health departments in the National Capital Region (NCR); a cross-jurisdictional data sharing agreement has allowed cooperative health information sharing in the region since 2004. Emergency department visits for influenza-like illness (ILI) in the NCR from 2008 are compared to those of 2009. Important differences in the rates, timing, and demographic composition of ILI visits were found. By monitoring a regional surveillance system, public health practitioners had an increased ability to understand the magnitude and character of different ILI outbreaks. This increased ability provided crucial community-level information on which to base response and control measures for the novel 2009 H1N1 influenza outbreak. This report underscores the utility of automated surveillance systems in monitoring community-based outbreaks. There are several limitations in this study that are inherent with syndrome-based surveillance, including utilizing chief complaints versus confirmed laboratory data, discerning real disease versus those healthcare-seeking behaviors driven by panic, and reliance on visit counts versus visit rates. PMID:23569593

  16. Surveillance of patients with acute flaccid paralysis in Finland: report of a pilot study.

    PubMed Central

    Hovi, T.; Stenvik, M.

    2000-01-01

    WHO recommends that surveillance of patients with acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) be used to demonstrate the eradication of wild poliovirus. In this article we report the results of a study to assess the frequency of AFP patients referred to Finnish hospitals and whether virological diagnostic coverage could be improved by repeated reminders and active feedback. For this purpose, we sent monthly questionnaires to all neurological and paediatric neurological units in Finland, requesting retrospective reporting on investigated paralytic patients with defined clinically relevant diagnoses, rather than AFP. Reminder letters included a pre-paid return envelope. Virological investigations were offered cost free. Of the 492 reporting forms sent, 415 (84%) were returned, evenly covering both the population and the study period (July 1997 to June 1998). Of the 90 patients reported, 83 were evaluable. The apparent incidences of the diagnoses covered were 1.6 per 100,000 at any age, and 1.0 per 100,000 for under--15-year-olds. Guillain-Barré syndrome was the most common diagnosis (0.80 per 100,000). The two faecal specimens required were virologically investigated in nine out of the 10 patients under 15 years of age, but in only 46% of all patients. Four adenovirus strains, but no polioviruses or other enteroviruses, were isolated. We conclude that a satisfactory monthly reporting system was readily established and that a sufficient number of patients with diagnoses resembling AFP are being referred to Finnish hospitals. Active feedback did not increase the proportion of virologically investigated patients to an acceptable level in all age groups. It is clear that other approaches must be used to quantify the circulation of poliovirus in Finland. PMID:10812725

  17. Technical Description of the Distribute Project: A Community-based Syndromic Surveillance System Implementation

    PubMed Central

    Lober, William B.; Reeder, Blaine; Painter, Ian; Revere, Debra; Goldov, Kim; Bugni, Paul F.; McReynolds, Justin; Olson, Donald R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the design of a syndromic surveillance system implemented for community-based monitoring of influenza-like illness. The system began as collaboration between colleagues from state and large metropolitan area health jurisdictions, academic institutions, and the non-profit, International Society for Disease Surveillance. Over the six influenza seasons from 2006 to 2012, the system was automated and enhanced, with new features and infrastructure, and the resulting, reliable, enterprise grade system supported peer comparisons between 44 state and local public health jurisdictions who voluntarily contributed summarized data on influenza-like illness and gastrointestinal syndromes. The system was unusual in that it addressed the needs of a widely distributed, voluntary, community engaged in real-time data integration to support operational public health. PMID:24678377

  18. Improving surveillance system and surgical site infection rates through a network: A pilot study from Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Kasatpibal, Nongyao; Nørgaard, Mette; Jamulitrat, Silom

    2009-01-01

    Background: Surveillance of surgical site infections (SSI) provides data upon which interventions to improve patient safety can be based. In Thailand, however, SSI surveillance has not yet been standardized. Objectives: To develop a standardized SSI surveillance system and to monitor SSI rates after introduction of such a system. Methods: We conducted a prospective study among 17,752 patients who underwent surgery in ten hospitals in Thailand from April 2004 to May 2005. The SSI rates were computed and benchmarked with the US rates, reported in terms of standardized infection ratio (SIR). We estimated the incidence rate ratio of surgical site infections by comparing the incidence in the last study period with the incidence in the first study period. Results: The study included 17,869 operations and identified 248 SSIs, yielding an SSI rate of 1.4 infections/100 operations and a corresponding SIR of 0.6 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.5–0.7). During the study period the overall SSI rate decreased from 1.8 infections/100 operations to 1.2 infections/100 operations, yielding an incidence rate ratio of 0.65 (95% CI = 0.47–0.89). Conclusion: Our study highlighted that a standardized SSI surveillance in a developing country can be initiated through a network and may be followed by a decrease in SSI rates. PMID:20865088

  19. Surveillance of transfusion-transmissible infections comparison of systems in five developed countries.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Sheila F; Zou, Shimian; Laperche, Syria; Brant, Lisa J; Seed, Clive R; Kleinman, Steven H

    2012-01-01

    Most industrialized countries maintain surveillance programs for monitoring transmissible infection in blood donations, revising approaches to methodology and risk assessment as new threats emerge. A comparison of programs in the United States, Canada, France, the UK, and Australia indicates that they have similar function, although the structure of blood programs vary as does the extent and nature of formal ties with public health. The emergence of HIV in the late 1970s and early 1980s was key in recognizing that surveillance systems specific to blood transfusion were essential. Hence, most industrialized countries monitor transfusion-transmissible infections in donors and evaluate the impact of new testing and of predonation screening strategies. Emerging infections since HIV have had different transmission pathways and challenged blood programs to draw upon resources for a rapid and effective response, with recognition that the original focus on sexual/drug-related risk of HIV and hepatitis was inadequate. The focus of surveillance programs on new and emerging pathogens fulfills a key role in risk assessment and policy formulation. The precise nature of such activities varies by country because of the structure of the blood programs and surveillance systems, the strategic focus of the blood programs, and the epidemiology of disease in each country. PMID:21944935

  20. Comparison of different configurations of a future European Space Surveillance System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelhaus, Johannes; Flegel, Sven Kevin; Moeckel, Marek; Wiedemann, Carsten; Krag, Holger; Klinkrad, Heiner; Voersmann, Peter

    In the year 1957 the first artificial object made by mankind was placed into an Earth orbit. This was the beginning of space flight and also of space surveillance. During the 53 years up to now the leading nations of space flight -the United States of America and Russia (former Soviet Union) -established their own surveillance networks to be aware of the objects in space. However, the access to the resulting data was or still is restricted so that Europe intends to build up its own surveillance network in the next couple of years. Different sensor systems shall be part of the European Space Surveillance System (ESSS). Radar systems will be used for the detection of objects in low earth orbits (LEO) while traditional optical systems will be used to cover the population in the upper medium earth orbit (MEO) and the geostationary earth orbit (GEO). Modern optical satellite surveillance systems shall also be able to detect objects in the upper LEO region up to GEO. To evaluate the best setup for a future ESSS possible sensor systems have to be combined in different configurations and their performance has to be analysed. For this purpose the PROOF-2009 software will be utilized. As a base population the MASTER-2009 population for the epoch May 1st , 2040 will be used. This population includes nearly one million objects larger than one centimeter in all orbital regions from LEO to GEO and is used in upcoming studies as reference population. The comparison will be split into three parts. In the first part different radar setups will be compared while the second part deals with the comparison of different setups for optical systems to cover the population of high altitudes. The configurations for optical systems will consist of ground based or space based telescopes. Results of an analysis of the modern optical satellite surveillance systems will be shown in the third part and compared with the results of part one and two. Finally an example for an ESSS configuration

  1. 47 CFR 15.511 - Technical requirements for surveillance systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the procedures described in § 15.521. (f) Imaging systems operating under the provisions of this... bandwidth of an imaging system operating under the provisions of this section must be contained between...

  2. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System State-Added Questions: Leveraging an Existing Surveillance System to Improve Knowledge of Women's Reproductive Health.

    PubMed

    Boulet, Sheree L; Warner, Lee; Adamski, Alys; Smith, Ruben A; Burley, Kim; Grigorescu, Violanda

    2016-06-01

    As the prevalence of chronic conditions among women of reproductive age continues to rise, studies assessing the intersection of chronic disease and women's reproductive health status are increasingly needed. However, many data systems collect only limited information on women's reproductive health, thereby hampering the appraisal of risk and protective factors across the life span. One way to expand the study of women's health with minimal investment in time and resources is to integrate questions on reproductive health into existing surveillance systems. In 2013, previously validated questions on women's self-reported reproductive history, use of contraception, and infertility were added to the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) by seven states (Connecticut, Kentucky, Massachusetts, Mississippi, Ohio, Texas, and Utah); all female respondents aged 18-50 years were included in the pool of respondents for these state-added questions. Of 8691 women who completed the questions, 13.2% reported ever experiencing infertility and 59.8% of those at risk for unintended pregnancy reported using contraception at last intercourse. The information garnered from the state-added reproductive health questions can be augmented with the BRFSS core questions on health-related risk behaviors, chronic conditions, and use of preventive services. Expanding existing data collection systems with supplemental questions on women's reproductive health can provide important information on risk factors and outcomes that may not be available from other sources. PMID:27227657

  3. A Master-Slave Surveillance System to Acquire Panoramic and Multiscale Videos

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Hao

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a master-slave visual surveillance system that uses stationary-dynamic camera assemblies to achieve wide field of view and selective focus of interest. In this system, the fish-eye panoramic camera is capable of monitoring a large area, and the PTZ dome camera has high mobility and zoom ability. In order to achieve the precise interaction, preprocessing spatial calibration between these two cameras is required. This paper introduces a novel calibration approach to automatically calculate a transformation matrix model between two coordinate systems by matching feature points. In addition, a distortion correction method based on Midpoint Circle Algorithm is proposed to handle obvious horizontal distortion in the captured panoramic image. Experimental results using realistic scenes have demonstrated the efficiency and applicability of the system with real-time surveillance. PMID:24729750

  4. A 24-hour remote surveillance system for terrestrial wildlife studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sykes, P.W., Jr.; Ryman, W.E.; Kepler, C.B.; Hardy, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    The configuration, components, specifications and costs of a state-of-the-art closed-circuit television system with wide application for wildlife research and management are described. The principal system components consist of color CCTV camera with zoom lens, pan/tilt system, infrared illuminator, heavy duty tripod, coaxial cable, coaxitron system, half-duplex equalizing video/control amplifier, timelapse video cassette recorder, color video monitor, VHS video cassettes, portable generator, fuel tank and power cable. This system was developed and used in a study of Mississippi sandhiIl Crane (Grus canadensis pratensis) behaviors during incubation, hatching and fledging. The main advantages of the system are minimal downtime where a complete record of every event, its time of occurrence and duration, are permanently recorded and can be replayed as many times as necessary thereafter to retrieve the data. The system is particularly applicable for studies of behavior and predation, for counting individuals, or recording difficult to observe activities. The system can be run continuously for several weeks by two people, reducing personnel costs. This paper is intended to provide biologists who have litte knowledge of electronics with a system that might be useful to their specific needs. The disadvantages of this system are the initial costs (about $9800 basic, 1990-1991 U.S. dollars) and the time required to playback video cassette tapes for data retrieval, but the playback can be sped up when litte or no activity of interest is taking place. In our study, the positive aspects of the system far outweighed the negative.

  5. [Infection surveillance in North Rhine-Westphalia--standard reports, barometer and early warning system].

    PubMed

    Rissland, J; van Treeck, U; Taeger, D; Baumeister, H-G

    2003-12-01

    The increasing significance of communicable diseases requires new surveillance tools. Modern electronic instruments in analysis and communication replace the former "handbased" statistics and allow the development of early warning systems. In North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW) the Institute of Public Health started an approach to develop a modular surveillance system prior to the the implementation of the new German infectious disease protection act. The first module called "Automated infectious disease notifications and information system (AIM+)" generates various standard hypertext reports which are published as "Infectious disease reports NRW" on the internet (www.loegd.nrw.de). In addition the infectious disease information is linked with a geographical information system (GIS) giving spatial and temporal patterns. The second module called "Infectious disease barometer NRW" offers a quick actual overview highlighting several selected diseases. It can be electronically sent out to any interested person. The third module "Early warning system" realizes an effective early detection system by combining six statistical procedures with a total of 11 separate methods. In case of detecting clusters and outbreaks it automatically generates warning reports to the responsible parties. All three modules together improve the epidemiological surveillance of the population in NRW, support the translation of information to prevention and control measures, and therefore strengthen epidemiological policy-making. PMID:14685925

  6. Surveillance systems integrating multiple sensors for enhanced situational awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Anda, J. B.; Van Anda, J. D.

    2005-05-01

    In the modern world of high value security systems a successful installation requires the sensors to produce more than just good IR images, preprocessed data from these images, imagery in multiple bands fused in intelligent ways with each other and with non imaging information such as Laser ranging is required. This paper describes a system where LW uncooled, color TV, low light level TV, and laser ranging information are fused in a integral Pan and Tilt system to provide a sensor suite with exceptional capabilities for seamlessly integration into an advanced security system. Advances integrated in this system includes the advances sensor suite, sensible symbology for situational awareness in case of operator intervention, parallax and focus tracking through zoom and sensor changes to enhance auto tracking and motion detection algorithms.

  7. Assessment of the core and support functions of the Integrated Disease Surveillance system in Maharashtra, India

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Monitoring the progress of the Integrated Disease Surveillance (IDS) strategy is an important component to ensure its sustainability in the state of Maharashtra in India. The purpose of the study was to document the baseline performance of the system on its core and support functions and to understand the challenges for its transition from an externally funded “project” to a state owned surveillance “program”. Methods Multi-centre, retrospective cross-sectional evaluation study to assess the structure, core and support surveillance functions using modified WHO generic questionnaires. All 34 districts in the state and randomly identified 46 facilities and 25 labs were included in the study. Results Case definitions were rarely used at the periphery. Limited laboratory capacity at all levels compromised case and outbreak confirmation. Only 53% districts could confirm all priority diseases. Stool sample processing was the weakest at the periphery. Availability of transport media, trained staff, and rapid diagnostic tests were main challenges at the periphery. Data analysis was weak at both district and facility levels. Outbreak thresholds were better understood at facility level (59%) than at the district (18%). None of the outbreak indicator targets were met and submission of final outbreak report was the weakest. Feedback and training was significantly better (p < 0.0001) at district level (65%; 76%) than at facility level (15%; 37%). Supervision was better at the facility level (37%) than at district (18%) and so were coordination, communication and logistic resources. Contractual part time positions, administrative delays in recruitment, and vacancies (30%) were main human resource issues that hampered system performance. Conclusions Significant progress has been made in the core and support surveillance functions in Maharashtra, however some challenges exist. Support functions (laboratory, transport and communication equipment, training

  8. Design and implementation of a wireless video surveillance system based on ARM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yucheng; Han, Dantao; Yan, Juanli

    2011-06-01

    A wireless video surveillance system based on ARM was designed and implemented in this article. The newest ARM11 S3C6410 was used as the main monitoring terminal chip with the embedded Linux operating system. The video input was obtained by the analog CCD and transferred from analog to digital by the video chip TVP5150. The video was packed by RTP and transmitted by the wireless USB TL-WN322G+ after being compressed by H.264 encoders in S3C6410. Further more, the video images were preprocessed. It can detect the abnormities of the specified scene and the abnormal alarms. The video transmission definition is the standard definition 480P. The video stream can be real-time monitored. The system has been used in the real-time intelligent video surveillance of the specified scene.

  9. Surveillance, response systems, and evidence updates on emerging zoonoses: the role of one health

    PubMed Central

    Asokan, G. V.; Kasimanickam, Ramanathan K.; Asokan, Vanitha

    2013-01-01

    Globally, emerging zoonotic diseases are increasing. Existing surveillance systems for zoonoses have substantial gaps, especially in developing countries, and the systems in place in the developed world require improvements. Resources and updates on evidence-based practice (EBP) for zoonoses are sparser in the veterinary literature as compared to the medical literature. Evidence updates for emerging zoonoses are either absent or rudimentary in both human and veterinary medicine. A ‘one-health’ concept, including a global signaling surveillance system for emerging zoonoses, will be essential for correct diagnoses, interventions, and public health strategies. An open access EBP platform supported by builders of EBP resources is urgently needed to counter emerging zoonoses. PMID:24363836

  10. A web-based video annotation system for crowdsourcing surveillance videos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadgil, Neeraj J.; Tahboub, Khalid; Kirsh, David; Delp, Edward J.

    2014-03-01

    Video surveillance systems are of a great value to prevent threats and identify/investigate criminal activities. Manual analysis of a huge amount of video data from several cameras over a long period of time often becomes impracticable. The use of automatic detection methods can be challenging when the video contains many objects with complex motion and occlusions. Crowdsourcing has been proposed as an effective method for utilizing human intelligence to perform several tasks. Our system provides a platform for the annotation of surveillance video in an organized and controlled way. One can monitor a surveillance system using a set of tools such as training modules, roles and labels, task management. This system can be used in a real-time streaming mode to detect any potential threats or as an investigative tool to analyze past events. Annotators can annotate video contents assigned to them for suspicious activity or criminal acts. First responders are then able to view the collective annotations and receive email alerts about a newly reported incident. They can also keep track of the annotators' training performance, manage their activities and reward their success. By providing this system, the process of video analysis is made more efficient.

  11. Surveillance-response systems: the key to elimination of tropical diseases

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Tropical diseases remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Although combined health efforts brought about significant improvements over the past 20 years, communities in resource-constrained settings lack the means of strengthening their environment in directions that would provide less favourable conditions for pathogens. Still, the impact of infectious diseases is declining worldwide along with progress made regarding responses to basic health problems and improving health services delivery to the most vulnerable populations. The London Declaration on Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs), initiated by the World Health Organization’s NTD roadmap, set out the path towards control and eventual elimination of several tropical diseases by 2020, providing an impetus for local and regional disease elimination programmes. Tropical diseases are often patchy and erratic, and there are differing priorities in resources-limited and endemic countries at various levels of their public health systems. In order to identify and prioritize strategic research on elimination of tropical diseases, the ‘First Forum on Surveillance-Response System Leading to Tropical Diseases Elimination’ was convened in Shanghai in June 2012. Current strategies and the NTD roadmap were reviewed, followed by discussions on how to identify and critically examine prevailing challenges and opportunities, including inter-sectoral collaboration and approaches for elimination of several infectious, tropical diseases. A priority research agenda within a ‘One Health-One World’ frame of global health was developed, including (i) the establishment of a platform for resource-sharing and effective surveillance-response systems for Asia Pacific and Africa with an initial focus on elimination of lymphatic filariasis, malaria and schistosomiasis; (ii) development of new strategies, tools and approaches, such as improved diagnostics and antimalarial therapies; (iii) rigorous

  12. A semantic based video indexing and retrieval system for maritime surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Hieu T.; Ramu, Prakash; Liu, Xiaoqing; Wei, Hai; Yadegar, Jacob

    2009-05-01

    Content-based video retrieval from archived image/video is a very attractive capability of modern intelligent video surveillance systems. This paper presents an innovative Semantic-Based Video Indexing and Retrieval (SBVIR) software toolkit to help users of intelligent video surveillance to easily and rapidly search the content of large video archives to conduct video-based forensic and image intelligence. Tailored for maritime environment, SBVIR is suited for surveillance applications in harbor, sea shores, or around ships. The system comprises two major modules: a video analytic module that performs automatic target detection, tracking, classification, activities recognition, and a retrieval module that performs data indexing, and information retrieval. SBVIR is capable of detecting and tracking objects from multiple cameras robustly in condition of dynamic water background and illumination changes. The system provides hierarchical target classification among a large ontology of watercraft classes, and is capable of recognizing a variety of boat activities. Video retrieval is achieved with both query-by-keyword and query-by-example. Users can query video content using semantic concepts selected from a large dictionary of objects and activities, display the history linked to a given target/activity, and search for anomalies. The user can interact with the system and provide feedbacks to tune the system for improved accuracy and relevance of retrieved data. SBVIR has been tested for real maritime surveillance scenarios and shown to be able to generate highly-semantic metadata tags that can be used during the retrieval to provide user with relevant and accurate data in real-time.

  13. Surveillance-response systems: the key to elimination of tropical diseases.

    PubMed

    Tambo, Ernest; Ai, Lin; Zhou, Xia; Chen, Jun-Hu; Hu, Wei; Bergquist, Robert; Guo, Jia-Gang; Utzinger, Jürg; Tanner, Marcel; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2014-01-01

    Tropical diseases remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Although combined health efforts brought about significant improvements over the past 20 years, communities in resource-constrained settings lack the means of strengthening their environment in directions that would provide less favourable conditions for pathogens. Still, the impact of infectious diseases is declining worldwide along with progress made regarding responses to basic health problems and improving health services delivery to the most vulnerable populations. The London Declaration on Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs), initiated by the World Health Organization's NTD roadmap, set out the path towards control and eventual elimination of several tropical diseases by 2020, providing an impetus for local and regional disease elimination programmes. Tropical diseases are often patchy and erratic, and there are differing priorities in resources-limited and endemic countries at various levels of their public health systems. In order to identify and prioritize strategic research on elimination of tropical diseases, the 'First Forum on Surveillance-Response System Leading to Tropical Diseases Elimination' was convened in Shanghai in June 2012. Current strategies and the NTD roadmap were reviewed, followed by discussions on how to identify and critically examine prevailing challenges and opportunities, including inter-sectoral collaboration and approaches for elimination of several infectious, tropical diseases. A priority research agenda within a 'One Health-One World' frame of global health was developed, including (i) the establishment of a platform for resource-sharing and effective surveillance-response systems for Asia Pacific and Africa with an initial focus on elimination of lymphatic filariasis, malaria and schistosomiasis; (ii) development of new strategies, tools and approaches, such as improved diagnostics and antimalarial therapies; (iii) rigorous validation of

  14. 47 CFR 15.511 - Technical requirements for surveillance systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... bandwidth of an imaging system operating under the provisions of this section must be contained between 1990 MHz and 10,600 MHz. (b) Operation under the provisions of this section is limited to fixed... operating under the provisions of this section must be eligible for licensing under the......

  15. 47 CFR 15.511 - Technical requirements for surveillance systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... bandwidth of an imaging system operating under the provisions of this section must be contained between 1990 MHz and 10,600 MHz. (b) Operation under the provisions of this section is limited to fixed... operating under the provisions of this section must be eligible for licensing under the......

  16. 47 CFR 15.511 - Technical requirements for surveillance systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... bandwidth of an imaging system operating under the provisions of this section must be contained between 1990 MHz and 10,600 MHz. (b) Operation under the provisions of this section is limited to fixed... operating under the provisions of this section must be eligible for licensing under the......

  17. 47 CFR 15.511 - Technical requirements for surveillance systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... bandwidth of an imaging system operating under the provisions of this section must be contained between 1990 MHz and 10,600 MHz. (b) Operation under the provisions of this section is limited to fixed... operating under the provisions of this section must be eligible for licensing under the......

  18. Study of the intelligent video surveillance system based on the staring ommateum model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jianhui; Zhang, Nanyang; Zhang, Guoyun; Guo, Longyuan

    2011-11-01

    This paper proposed a method which based on "the ommateum" staring system with multi-lens that had intelligence function and nothing blind-zone surveillance. The system used six normal lens which the field of view has 65° to encircle evenly, and made the neighboring two lens' view field have 5° overlap angles. A high speed DSP chip of TMS320DM6446 was used to central processing the six route video which for scanning method from one to six video by turns to realize the intelligence and real time processing. The system could track and recognition the moving object, calculate and record the parameter of object like speed, size and moving azimuth angle. In this paper, the improved algorithms of Auto-adapted Renewal Background Subtraction (ARBS) and the Fuzzy Auto-adapted Median Filter (FAMF) had been studied which could be detected the movement object and filter the image noise. The experiment result indicated that the staring ommateum system could be surveillance 360° scope with nothing blind-zone. The FAMF algorithm could filter the noise effectively, and the ARBS algorithm could be detection the moving object well and truly for anyone video and the parameter of object in the field of view could be calculated accurately. It had been achieved the requirement of seamless intelligence video surveillance at ultra wide range.

  19. Study of the intelligent video surveillance system based on the staring ommateum model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jianhui; Zhang, Nanyang; Zhang, Guoyun; Guo, Longyuan

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposed a method which based on "the ommateum" staring system with multi-lens that had intelligence function and nothing blind-zone surveillance. The system used six normal lens which the field of view has 65° to encircle evenly, and made the neighboring two lens' view field have 5° overlap angles. A high speed DSP chip of TMS320DM6446 was used to central processing the six route video which for scanning method from one to six video by turns to realize the intelligence and real time processing. The system could track and recognition the moving object, calculate and record the parameter of object like speed, size and moving azimuth angle. In this paper, the improved algorithms of Auto-adapted Renewal Background Subtraction (ARBS) and the Fuzzy Auto-adapted Median Filter (FAMF) had been studied which could be detected the movement object and filter the image noise. The experiment result indicated that the staring ommateum system could be surveillance 360° scope with nothing blind-zone. The FAMF algorithm could filter the noise effectively, and the ARBS algorithm could be detection the moving object well and truly for anyone video and the parameter of object in the field of view could be calculated accurately. It had been achieved the requirement of seamless intelligence video surveillance at ultra wide range.

  20. Falling-incident detection and throughput enhancement in a multi-camera video-surveillance system.

    PubMed

    Shieh, Wann-Yun; Huang, Ju-Chin

    2012-09-01

    For most elderly, unpredictable falling incidents may occur at the corner of stairs or a long corridor due to body frailty. If we delay to rescue a falling elder who is likely fainting, more serious consequent injury may occur. Traditional secure or video surveillance systems need caregivers to monitor a centralized screen continuously, or need an elder to wear sensors to detect falling incidents, which explicitly waste much human power or cause inconvenience for elders. In this paper, we propose an automatic falling-detection algorithm and implement this algorithm in a multi-camera video surveillance system. The algorithm uses each camera to fetch the images from the regions required to be monitored. It then uses a falling-pattern recognition algorithm to determine if a falling incident has occurred. If yes, system will send short messages to someone needs to be noticed. The algorithm has been implemented in a DSP-based hardware acceleration board for functionality proof. Simulation results show that the accuracy of falling detection can achieve at least 90% and the throughput of a four-camera surveillance system can be improved by about 2.1 times. PMID:22154761

  1. Visual Sensor Technology for Advanced Surveillance Systems: Historical View, Technological Aspects and Research Activities in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Foresti, Gian Luca; Micheloni, Christian; Piciarelli, Claudio; Snidaro, Lauro

    2009-01-01

    The paper is a survey of the main technological aspects of advanced visual-based surveillance systems. A brief historical view of such systems from the origins to nowadays is given together with a short description of the main research projects in Italy on surveillance applications in the last twenty years. The paper then describes the main characteristics of an advanced visual sensor network that (a) directly processes locally acquired digital data, (b) automatically modifies intrinsic (focus, iris) and extrinsic (pan, tilt, zoom) parameters to increase the quality of acquired data and (c) automatically selects the best subset of sensors in order to monitor a given moving object in the observed environment. PMID:22574011

  2. Reemerging Rabies and Lack of Systemic Surveillance in People’s Republic of China

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Rongliang; Zhang, Yongzhen; Dong, Guanmu; Rupprecht, Charles E.

    2009-01-01

    Rabies is a reemerging disease in China. The high incidence of rabies leads to numerous concerns: a potential carrier-dog phenomenon, undocumented transmission of rabies virus from wildlife to dogs, counterfeit vaccines, vaccine mismatching, and seroconversion testing in patients after their completion of postexposure prophylaxis (PEP). These concerns are all scientifically arguable given a modern understanding of rabies. Rabies reemerges periodically in China because of high dog population density and low vaccination coverage in dogs. Mass vaccination campaigns rather than depopulation of dogs should be a long-term goal for rabies control. Seroconversion testing after vaccination is not necessary in either humans or animals. Human PEP should be initiated on the basis of diagnosis of biting animals. Reliable national systemic surveillance of rabies-related human deaths and of animal rabies prevalence is urgently needed. A laboratory diagnosis–based epidemiologic surveillance system can provide substantial information about disease transmission and effective prevention strategies. PMID:19751575

  3. Comparison of five influenza surveillance systems during the 2009 pandemic and their association with media attention

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background During the 2009 influenza pandemic period, routine surveillance of influenza-like-illness (ILI) was conducted in The Netherlands by a network of sentinel general practitioners (GPs). In addition during the pandemic period, four other ILI/influenza surveillance systems existed. For pandemic preparedness, we evaluated the performance of the sentinel system and the others to assess which of the four could be useful additions in the future. We also assessed whether performance of the five systems was influenced by media reports during the pandemic period. Methods The trends in ILI consultation rates reported by sentinel GPs from 20 April 2009 through 3 January 2010 were compared with trends in data from the other systems: ILI cases self-reported through the web-based Great Influenza Survey (GIS); influenza-related web searches through Google Flu Trends (GFT); patients admitted to hospital with laboratory-confirmed pandemic influenza, and detections of influenza virus by laboratories. In addition, correlations were determined between ILI consultation rates of the sentinel GPs and data from the four other systems. We also compared the trends of the five surveillance systems with trends in pandemic-related newspaper and television coverage and determined correlation coefficients with and without time lags. Results The four other systems showed similar trends and had strong correlations with the ILI consultation rates reported by sentinel GPs. The number of influenza virus detections was the only system to register a summer peak. Increases in the number of newspaper articles and television broadcasts did not precede increases in activity among the five surveillance systems. Conclusions The sentinel general practice network should remain the basis of influenza surveillance, as it integrates epidemiological and virological information and was able to maintain stability and continuity under pandemic pressure. Hospital and virological data are important during a

  4. Light Water Reactor-Pressure Vessel Surveillance project computer system

    SciTech Connect

    Merriman, S.H.

    1980-10-01

    A dedicated process control computer has been implemented for regulating the metallurgical Pressure Vessel Wall Benchmark Facility (PSF) at the Oak Ridge Research Reactor. The purpose of the PSF is to provide reliable standards and methods by which to judge the radiation damage to reactor pressure vessel specimens. Benchmark data gathered from the PSF will be used to improve and standardize procedures for assessing the remaining safe operating lifetime of aging reactors. The computer system controls the pressure vessel specimen environment in the presence of gamma heating so that in-vessel conditions are simulated. Instrumented irradiation capsules, in which the specimens are housed, contain temperature sensors and electrical heaters. The computer system regulates the amount of power delivered to the electrical heaters based on the temperature distribution within the capsules. Time-temperature profiles are recorded along with reactor conditions for later correlation with specimen metallurgical changes.

  5. Cell Phone-Based System (Chaak) for Surveillance of Immatures of Dengue Virus Mosquito Vectors

    PubMed Central

    LOZANO–FUENTES, SAUL; WEDYAN, FADI; HERNANDEZ–GARCIA, EDGAR; SADHU, DEVADATTA; GHOSH, SUDIPTO; BIEMAN, JAMES M.; TEP-CHEL, DIANA; GARCÍA–REJÓN, JULIÁN E.; EISEN, LARS

    2014-01-01

    Capture of surveillance data on mobile devices and rapid transfer of such data from these devices into an electronic database or data management and decision support systems promote timely data analyses and public health response during disease outbreaks. Mobile data capture is used increasingly for malaria surveillance and holds great promise for surveillance of other neglected tropical diseases. We focused on mosquito-borne dengue, with the primary aims of: 1) developing and field-testing a cell phone-based system (called Chaak) for capture of data relating to the surveillance of the mosquito immature stages, and 2) assessing, in the dengue endemic setting of Mérida, México, the cost-effectiveness of this new technology versus paper-based data collection. Chaak includes a desktop component, where a manager selects premises to be surveyed for mosquito immatures, and a cell phone component, where the surveyor receives the assigned tasks and captures the data. Data collected on the cell phone can be transferred to a central database through different modes of transmission, including near-real time where data are transferred immediately (e.g., over the Internet) or by first storing data on the cell phone for future transmission. Spatial data are handled in a novel, semantically driven, geographic information system. Compared with a pen-and-paper-based method, use of Chaak improved the accuracy and increased the speed of data transcription into an electronic database. The cost-effectiveness of using the Chaak system will depend largely on the up-front cost of purchasing cell phones and the recurring cost of data transfer over a cellular network. PMID:23926788

  6. Active surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis in poliomyelitis high-risk areas in southern China.

    PubMed Central

    Chiba, Y.; Hikita, K.; Matuba, T.; Chosa, T.; Kyogoku, S.; Yu, J.; Wang, Z.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: On 29 October 2000 poliomyelitis was officially declared to have been eradicated from the Western Pacific Region. This article describes the results of surveillance for cases of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) in China during the final phase of the eradication effort. METHODS: We conducted hospital-based active surveillance in high-risk areas for poliomyelitis in 5 provinces of southern-China (Sichuan, Yunnan, Guizhou, Guangxi and Jiangxi) between 1995 and 1997 to determine the adequacy of reporting and laboratory diagnosis of cases of AFP. FINDINGS: A total of 1069 AFP cases occurring since 1993 were identified in 311 hospital visits. Less than 50% of AFP cases occurring in 1993 and 1994 had been reported by AFP surveillance, and laboratory diagnosis had been carried out on only a small proportion of these. However, improved cooperation between hospital sectors increased the rate of case reporting and laboratory diagnosis to 85% and 78%, respectively, in 1997. Despite this overall improvement, these two indicators were approximately 10-20% lower in Yunnan Province. Epidemiological analysis revealed that cases of clinical poliomyelitis accounted for as much as one-third of all AFP in 1993 and that some of these cases were clustered. Clusters were rarely observed after 1994. Active surveillance in the China-Myanmar border areas of Yunnan over 1995-96 detected 9 cross-border cases of clinical poliomyelitis, including 2 of wild poliomyelitis. Import of poliomyelitis was thus considered to have occurred frequently until 1996 in this border area of Yunnan. These data were important for the outbreak response immunization carried out in 1996 in the border prefectures of Yunnan. CONCLUSION: Our investigation confirmed a high level of AFP surveillance in poliomyelitis high-risk areas of the five provinces and provided valuable information on the interruption of wild poliovirus circulation in southern China that will be of use to countries in other regions that have

  7. Poliomyelitis surveillance: the model used in India for polio eradication.

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, K.; Hlady, W. G.; Andrus, J. K.; Sarkar, S.; Fitzsimmons, J.; Abeykoon, P.

    2000-01-01

    Poliomyelitis surveillance in India previously involved the passive reporting of clinically suspected cases. The capacity for detecting the disease was limited because there was no surveillance of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP). In October 1997, 59 specially trained Surveillance Medical Officers were deployed throughout the country to establish active AFP surveillance; 11,533 units were created to report weekly on the occurrence of AFP cases at the district, state and national levels; timely case investigation and the collection of stool specimens from AFP cases was undertaken; linkages were made to support the polio laboratory network; and extensive training of government counterparts of the Surveillance Medical Officers was conducted. Data reported at the national level are analysed and distributed weekly. Annualized rates of non-polio AFP increased from 0.22 per 100,000 children aged under 15 years in 1997 to 1.39 per 100,000 in 1999. The proportion of cases with two adequate stools collected within two weeks of the onset of paralysis increased from 34% in 1997 to 68% in 1999. The number of polio cases associated with the isolation of wild poliovirus decreased from 211 in the first quarter of 1998 to 77 in the first quarter of 1999. Widespread transmission of wild poliovirus types 1 and 3 persists throughout the country; type 2 occurs only in Bihar and Uttar Pradesh. In order to achieve polio eradication in India during 2000, extra national immunization days and house-to-house mopping-up rounds should be organized. PMID:10812728

  8. Global Ocean Surveillance With Electronic Intelligence Based Satellite System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatramanan, Haritha

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this proposal is to design our own ELINT based satellite system to detect and locate the target by using satellite Trilateration Principle. The target position can be found by measuring the radio signals arrived at three satellites using Time Difference of Arrival(TDOA) technique. To locate a target it is necessary to determine the satellite position. The satellite motion and its position is obtained by using Simplified General Perturbation Model(SGP4) in MATLAB. This SGP4 accepts satellite Two Line Element(TLE) data and returns the position in the form of state vectors. These state vectors are then converted into observable parameters and then propagated in space. This calculations can be done for satellite constellation and non - visibility periods can be calculated. Satellite Trilateration consists of three satellites flying in formation with each other. The satellite constellation design consists of three satellites with an inclination of 61.3° maintained at equal distances between each other. The design is performed using MATLAB and simulated to obtain the necessary results. The target's position can be obtained using the three satellites ECEF Coordinate system and its position and velocity can be calculated in terms of Latitude and Longitude. The target's motion is simulated to obtain the Speed and Direction of Travel.

  9. The US National Violent Death Reporting System: domestic and international lessons for violence injury surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, H; Gutierrez, M I; Harrison, J; Matzopoulos, R

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: This article reviews and comments on the development, strengths and limitations of the US National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS) from a variety of domestic and international perspectives. Methods: The authors were provided preliminary copies of the manuscripts in this special edition and examined them to understand and put in context the elements and uses of the NVDRS so far. Their comments are based on their reading and interpretation of these papers plus their own combined experience in injury and public health surveillance from four different countries: the US, Colombia, Australia, and South Africa. Results: The NVDRS is bigger than the sum of its parts because it links existing data from multiple sources. Its adoption of modern relational database technologies offers advantages over traditional injury surveillance databases and creates new opportunities for understanding, collaboration, and partnerships. Challenges include overcoming resource limitations so that it can become a truly national system, measuring and improving its sensitivity and comparability, and the need to examine mortality in context with serious non‐fatal violent events. Conclusions: The NVDRS is an important work in progress for the US. Each country should examine its own needs, traditions, resources, and existing infrastructure when deciding what kind of violence surveillance system to develop. However, collaboration in developing common definitions and classifications provides an important foundation for international comparisons. PMID:17170174

  10. Pervasive surveillance-agent system based on wireless sensor networks: design and deployment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, José F.; Bravo, Sury; García, Ana B.; Corredor, Iván; Familiar, Miguel S.; López, Lourdes; Hernández, Vicente; Da Silva, Antonio

    2010-12-01

    Nowadays, proliferation of embedded systems is enhancing the possibilities of gathering information by using wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Flexibility and ease of installation make these kinds of pervasive networks suitable for security and surveillance environments. Moreover, the risk for humans to be exposed to these functions is minimized when using these networks. In this paper, a virtual perimeter surveillance agent, which has been designed to detect any person crossing an invisible barrier around a marked perimeter and send an alarm notification to the security staff, is presented. This agent works in a state of 'low power consumption' until there is a crossing on the perimeter. In our approach, the 'intelligence' of the agent has been distributed by using mobile nodes in order to discern the cause of the event of presence. This feature contributes to saving both processing resources and power consumption since the required code that detects presence is the only system installed. The research work described in this paper illustrates our experience in the development of a surveillance system using WNSs for a practical application as well as its evaluation in real-world deployments. This mechanism plays an important role in providing confidence in ensuring safety to our environment.

  11. A national syndromic surveillance system for England and Wales using calls to a telephone helpline.

    PubMed

    Smith, G E; Cooper, D L; Loveridge, P; Chinemana, F; Gerard, E; Verlander, N

    2006-01-01

    Routine primary care data provide the means to monitor a variety of syndromes which could give early warning of health protection issues. In the United Kingdom, a national syndromic surveillance system, operated jointly by the UK Health Protection Agency (HPA) and NHS Direct (a national telephone health helpline), examines symptoms reported to NHS Direct. The aim of the system is to identify an increase in syndromes indicative of common infections and diseases, or the early stages of illness caused by the deliberate release of a biological or chemical agent. Data relating to 11 key symptoms/syndromes are received electronically from all 22 NHS Direct call centres covering England and Wales and analysed by the HPA on a daily basis. Statistically significant excesses in calls are automatically highlighted and assessed by a multi-disciplinary team. Although the surveillance system has characterised many sudden rises in syndromes reported to NHS Direct, no evidence of a biological or chemical attack has been detected. Benefits of this work, however, are early warning and tracking of rises in community morbidity (e.g. influenza-like illness, heatstroke); providing reassurance during times of perceived high risk (e.g. after the 7 July 2005 London bombs and December 2005 Buncefield oil depot fire); and timely surveillance data for influenza pandemic planning and epidemic modeling. PMID:17370968

  12. The role of formative research in the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System.

    PubMed

    Allen, Denise Roth; Finlayson, Teresa; Abdul-Quader, Abu; Lansky, Amy

    2009-01-01

    The National Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Behavioral Surveillance System (NHBS) is the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC's) newest system for measuring HIV risk behaviors among three adult populations at highest risk for HIV infection in the U.S.: men who have sex with men, injecting drug users, and heterosexuals at risk of HIV infection. The system is implemented by state and local health departments in designated metropolitan statistical areas with the highest HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) prevalence in the U.S. Prior to implementing the behavioral surveillance survey, project sites conduct a series of formative research activities. The data collected during this preparatory phase provide contextual information about HIV risk behaviors within the study population of interest and help project sites make decisions about field operations and other logistical issues. This article describes the activities undertaken in preparation for the first round of NHBS (2003-2007) and how those activities enhanced data collection for each behavioral surveillance cycle. PMID:19413025

  13. Development of an oil spill information system combining remote sensing data and surveillance metadata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tufte, Lars; Trieschmann, Olaf; Carreau, Philippe; Hunsaenger, Thomas; Clayton, Peter J. S.; Barjenbruch, Ulrich

    2004-02-01

    The detection of accidentally or illegal marine oil discharges in the German territorial waters of the North Sea and Baltic Sea is of great importance for combating of oil spills and protection of the marine ecosystem. Therefore the German Federal Ministry of Transport set up an airborne surveillance system consisting of two Dornier DO 228-212 aircrafts equipped with a Side-Looking Airborne Radar (SLAR), a IR/UV sensor, a Microwave Radiometer (MWR) for quantification and a Laser-Flurosensor (LFS) for classification purposes of the oil spills. The flight parameters and the remote sensing data are stored in a database during the flight. A Pollution Observation Log is completed by the operator consisting of information about the detected oil spill (e.g. position, length, width) and several other information about the flight (e.g. name of navigator, name of observer). The objective was to develop an oil spill information system which integrates the described data, metadata and includes visualization and spatial analysis capabilities. The metadata are essential for further statistical analysis in spatial and temporal domains of oil spill occurrences and of the surveillance itself. It should facilitate the communication and distribution of metadata between the administrative bodies and partners of the German oil spill surveillance system. A connection between a GIS and the database allows to use the powerful visualization and spatial analysis functionality of the GIS in conjunction with the oil spill database.

  14. Initial test and evaluation of the millimeter-wave holographic surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMakin, Douglas L.; Sheen, David M.; Schur, Anne; Harris, Wyllona M.; Piepel, Gregory F.

    1997-01-01

    A test and evaluation pilot study was conducted in January 1996 at Sea-Tac International Airport in Seattle, Washington to determine the initial effectiveness of the Millimeter- wave Holographic Weapons Surveillance System. This is a new personnel surveillance systems for the detection of concealed metal, plastic, and ceramic weapons and other threatening materials. Two different frequency bands were used in the study: Ku band and Ka band. Over 7000 Millimeter-wave (MM-wave) holographic images were obtained on 21 different models. The 7000 images were used to produce simulated real-time surveillance system videos. The videos were constructed by obtaining 36 images of the models at 10 degree increments for 360 degree coverage. A library of two hundred videos were produced for this pilot study: 100 at Ku band and 100 at Ka band. The videos contained either a threat or no threat. The threats were concealed at different locations on the models. Various innocuous items and different clothing combinations were also used n the construction of these videos. Twenty-nine certified Sea-Tac screeners were used in the initial test and evaluation of this new surveillance technology. Each screener viewed 160 MM-wave videos: 80 Ku band and 80 Ka band. The ratio of non- threat to threat videos per band was three to one. Test and evaluation software was developed to collect data from the screeners on-line for the type and location of threat detected. The primary measures of screener performance used to evaluate this new technology included, the probability of detection, the probability of a false alarm, measures of screener sensitivity and bias, and threat detection time.

  15. Using a Clinical Surveillance System to Detect Drug-Associated Hypoglycemia in Nursing Home Residents

    PubMed Central

    Culley, Colleen M.; Perera, Subashan; Marcum, Zachary A.; Kane-Gill, Sandra L.; Handler, Steven M.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives Hypoglycemia is a common adverse drug event (ADE) frequently associated with temporary harm in the nursing home (NH) setting. Reports from the Office of the Inspector General and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services recommend the need for increased surveillance of drug-associated hypoglycemia events. The objective of this study was to test if a clinical surveillance system could be used to detect drug-associated hypoglycemia events and determine their incidence in NH residents Design Retrospective cohort Setting Four NHs in Western Pennsylvania Participants Computer-generated alerts detecting potential drug-associated hypoglycemia in residents with glucose ≤ 70 mg/dL and ordered a medication(s) associated with hypoglycemia over a 6-month period were included. Measurements Descriptive statistics were used to summarize all variables, including the frequency and distribution of alert type by glucose threshold. Analyses were conducted per numbers of alerts and per distinct residents. The frequency of medications associated with the alerts was determined. Additional calculations included the time to drug-associated hypoglycemic event alert from date of admission and frequency of events associated with post-acute/short-stay (≤ 35 days) admissions. Results Total of 772 alerts involving 141 unique residents were detected. Ninety (63.8%) residents had a glucose ≤ 55 mg/dL, and 42 (29.8%) had a glucose ≤ 40 mg/dL alert. Insulin orders were associated with 762 (98.7%) alerts. Overall incidence of drug-associated hypoglycemia events was 9.5 per 1000 resident-days. Conclusion Hypoglycemia can be detected using a clinical surveillance system. Our evaluation found a high incidence of drug-associated hypoglycemia in a general NH population. Future studies are needed to determine the potential benefits of use of a surveillance system in real-time detection and management of hypoglycemia in the NH. PMID:26456318

  16. Context switching system and architecture for intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hershey, Paul C.; Graham, Christopher J.; Ledda, Leslie; Wang, Mu-Cheng

    2012-06-01

    Given the increasing utilization and dependence on ISR information, operators and imagery analysts monitoring intelligence feeds seek a capability to reduce processing overload in transformation of ISR data to actionable information. The objective they seek is improvement in time critical targeting (TCT) and response time for mission events. Existing techniques addressing this problem are inflexible and lack a dynamic environment for adaptation to changing mission events. This paper presents a novel approach to ISR information collection, processing, and response, called the ISR Context Switching System (ISR-CSS). ISR-CSS enables ground, sea, and airborne sensors to perform preliminary analysis and processing of data automatically at the platform before transferring actionable information back to ground-base operators and intelligence analysts. The on-platform processing includes a catalogue of filtering algorithms concatenated with associated compression algorithms that are automatically selected based on dynamic mission events. The filtering algorithms employ tunable parameters and sensitivities based on the original mission plan along with associated Essential Elements of Information (EEI), data type, and analyst/user preferences. As a mission progresses, ISR-CSS incorporates adaptive parameter updates (model-based, statistics-based, learning-based, and event-driven), providing increased tactical relevant data. If a mission transforms dramatically, where unexpected manual guidance is required, then ISR-CSS allows tactical end-user direct-to-sensor tasking. To address information overload, ISR-CSS provides the provision to filters and prioritize data according to end-user preferences. ISR-CSS dispenses mission-critical and timely actionable information for end-user utilization, enabling faster response to a greater range of threats across the mission spectrum.

  17. Estimation of the incidence of MRSA patients: evaluation of a surveillance system using health insurance claim data.

    PubMed

    Tanihara, S; Suzuki, S

    2016-08-01

    Because sentinel surveillance systems cannot obtain information about patients who visit non-sentinel medical facilities, the characteristics of patients identified by these systems may be biased. In this study, we evaluated the representativeness of a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) surveillance system using health insurance claim (HIC) data, which does not depend on physician notification. We calculated the age-specific incidence of MRSA patients using data from the Japan Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (JANIS) programme, which is based on sentinel surveillance systems, and inpatient HICs submitted to employee health insurance organizations in 2011, and then computed age-specific incidence ratios between the HIC and JANIS data. Age-specific MRSA incidence in both datasets followed J-shaped curves with similar shapes. For all age groups, the ratios between HIC and JANIS data were around 10. These findings indicate that JANIS notification of MRSA cases was not affected by patients' age. PMID:27350233

  18. An opportunity analysis system for space surveillance experiments with the MSX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridharan, Ramaswamy; Duff, Gary; Hayes, Tony; Wiseman, Andy

    1994-01-01

    The Mid-Course Space Experiment consists of a set of payloads on a satellite being designed and built under the sponsorship of Ballistic Missile Defense Office. The MSX satellite will conduct a series of measurements of phenomenology of backgrounds, missile targets, plumes and resident space objects (RSO's); and will engage in functional demonstrations in support of detection, acquisition and tracking for ballistic missile defense and space-based space surveillance missions. A complex satellite like the MSX has several constraints imposed on its operation by the sensors, the supporting instrumentation, power resources, data recording capability, communications and the environment in which all these operate. This paper describes the implementation of an opportunity and feasibility analysis system, developed at Lincoln Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, specifically to support the experiments of the Principal Investigator for space-based surveillance.

  19. Sex and Gender in the US Health Surveillance System: A Call to Action

    PubMed Central

    Landers, Stewart J.; Reisner, Sari L.; Sell, Randall L.

    2014-01-01

    Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) data have exposed significant sexual orientation disparities in health. Interest in examining the health of transgender youths, whose gender identities or expressions are not fully congruent with their assigned sex at birth, highlights limitations of the YRBS and the broader US health surveillance system. In 2009, we conducted the mixed-methods Massachusetts Gender Measures Project to develop and cognitively test measures for adolescent health surveillance surveys. A promising measure of transgender status emerged through this work. Further research is needed to produce accurate measures of assigned sex at birth and several dimensions of gender to further our understanding of determinants of gender disparities in health and enable strategic responses to address them. PMID:24825193

  20. Sex and gender in the US health surveillance system: a call to action.

    PubMed

    Conron, Kerith J; Landers, Stewart J; Reisner, Sari L; Sell, Randall L

    2014-06-01

    Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) data have exposed significant sexual orientation disparities in health. Interest in examining the health of transgender youths, whose gender identities or expressions are not fully congruent with their assigned sex at birth, highlights limitations of the YRBS and the broader US health surveillance system. In 2009, we conducted the mixed-methods Massachusetts Gender Measures Project to develop and cognitively test measures for adolescent health surveillance surveys. A promising measure of transgender status emerged through this work. Further research is needed to produce accurate measures of assigned sex at birth and several dimensions of gender to further our understanding of determinants of gender disparities in health and enable strategic responses to address them. PMID:24825193

  1. Technical Description of RODS: A Real-time Public Health Surveillance System

    PubMed Central

    Tsui, Fu-Chiang; Espino, Jeremy U.; Dato, Virginia M.; Gesteland, Per H.; Hutman, Judith; Wagner, Michael M.

    2003-01-01

    This report describes the design and implementation of the Real-time Outbreak and Disease Surveillance (RODS) system, a computer-based public health surveillance system for early detection of disease outbreaks. Hospitals send RODS data from clinical encounters over virtual private networks and leased lines using the Health Level 7 (HL7) message protocol. The data are sent in real time. RODS automatically classifies the registration chief complaint from the visit into one of seven syndrome categories using Bayesian classifiers. It stores the data in a relational database, aggregates the data for analysis using data warehousing techniques, applies univariate and multivariate statistical detection algorithms to the data, and alerts users of when the algorithms identify anomalous patterns in the syndrome counts. RODS also has a Web-based user interface that supports temporal and spatial analyses. RODS processes sales of over-the-counter health care products in a similar manner but receives such data in batch mode on a daily basis. RODS was used during the 2002 Winter Olympics and currently operates in two states—Pennsylvania and Utah. It has been and continues to be a resource for implementing, evaluating, and applying new methods of public health surveillance. PMID:12807803

  2. Design study for a 16x zoom lens system for visible surveillance camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vella, Anthony; Li, Heng; Zhao, Yang; Trumper, Isaac; Gandara-Montano, Gustavo A.; Xu, Di; Nikolov, Daniel K.; Chen, Changchen; Brown, Nicolas S.; Guevara-Torres, Andres; Jung, Hae Won; Reimers, Jacob; Bentley, Julie

    2015-09-01

    *avella@ur.rochester.edu Design study for a 16x zoom lens system for visible surveillance camera Anthony Vella*, Heng Li, Yang Zhao, Isaac Trumper, Gustavo A. Gandara-Montano, Di Xu, Daniel K. Nikolov, Changchen Chen, Nicolas S. Brown, Andres Guevara-Torres, Hae Won Jung, Jacob Reimers, Julie Bentley The Institute of Optics, University of Rochester, Wilmot Building, 275 Hutchison Rd, Rochester, NY, USA 14627-0186 ABSTRACT High zoom ratio zoom lenses have extensive applications in broadcasting, cinema, and surveillance. Here, we present a design study on a 16x zoom lens with 4 groups (including two internal moving groups), designed for, but not limited to, a visible spectrum surveillance camera. Fifteen different solutions were discovered with nearly diffraction limited performance, using PNPX or PNNP design forms with the stop located in either the third or fourth group. Some interesting patterns and trends in the summarized results include the following: (a) in designs with such a large zoom ratio, the potential of locating the aperture stop in the front half of the system is limited, with ray height variations through zoom necessitating a very large lens diameter; (b) in many cases, the lens zoom motion has significant freedom to vary due to near zero total power in the middle two groups; and (c) we discuss the trade-offs between zoom configuration, stop location, packaging factors, and zoom group aberration sensitivity.

  3. System and technology considerations for space-based air traffic surveillance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaisnys, A.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the system trade-offs examined in a recent study of space-based air traffic surveillance. Three system options, each satisfying a set of different constraints, were considered. The main difference in the technology needed to implement the three systems was determined to be the size of the spacecraft antenna aperture. It was found that essentially equivalent position location accuracy could be achieved with apertures from 50 meters down to less than a meter in diameter, depending on the choice of signal structure and on the desired user update rate.

  4. Surveillance Analysis Computer System (SACS): Software requirements specification (SRS). Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Glasscock, J.A.

    1995-03-08

    This document is the primary document establishing requirements for the Surveillance Analysis Computer System (SACS) database, an Impact Level 3Q system. SACS stores information on tank temperatures, surface levels, and interstitial liquid levels. This information is retrieved by the customer through a PC-based interface and is then available to a number of other software tools. The software requirements specification (SRS) describes the system requirements for the SACS Project, and follows the Standard Engineering Practices (WHC-CM-6-1), Software Practices (WHC-CM-3-10) and Quality Assurance (WHC-CM-4-2, QR 19.0) policies.

  5. Towards a global antibiotic resistance surveillance system: a primer for a roadmap

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The need for global data about the scale of antibiotic resistance (ABR) in a geographical explicit and timely manner has been identified by many stakeholders, including the World Health Organization. This primer should help defining the objectives, scale, scope, and structure of possible future efforts. Stakeholders and their expected information demands were identified to generate an inventory of surveillance objectives. For simplification, an original approach was chosen to bundle sets of objectives that represent common demands and can be addressed by common subject areas, which fall into three areas. Subject area I addresses clinical demands and focuses on patients; subject area II addresses public health demands by focusing on meta-populations; subject area III addresses infection control demands and focuses on pathogens. A division into these areas leads to a separation of surveillance activities suggesting a modular approach which can provide complementary information. Moreover, the modules address the conundrum of ABR at the complementary levels of 1) patient, 2) population, and 3) pathogen, which—rather conventionally—follow the operational and professional fault-lines of the main disciplines involved, namely clinical medicine, public health, and biology. Essential features that define different surveillance systems have been listed and taken into consideration when suggesting templates for future efforts. Putting ABR on the global health map is a daunting task as it requires acceptance, agreements, and engagement but also concessions at many different levels. Given the existing gaps in the global diagnostic service landscape only a step-wise approach which defines achievable aims, objectives, and milestones will succeed to produce a sustainable system of international co-operative surveillance of ABR. PMID:24694024

  6. Evaluation of a statewide non-name-based HIV surveillance system.

    PubMed

    Solomon, L; Flynn, C; Eldred, L; Caldeira, E; Wasserman, M P; Benjamin, G

    1999-11-01

    Recent advances in AIDS-related therapies have delayed the onset of AIDS-defining illnesses and reduced the usefulness of AIDS surveillance in assessing the incidence of early HIV disease and estimating future needs of the HIV-infected population. These changes have prompted renewed interest in expanding surveillance to include HIV and have engendered national debate on whether an HIV surveillance system should be based on reports of the names of infected individuals or employ non-name-based data codes. In 1994, the state of Maryland implemented a program to require HIV surveillance by unique identifier (UI) patient code. This evaluation of Maryland's program found that when complete, the 12-digit UI number provided a virtually unduplicated count 99.8% unique, was 99.9% unique with only the last four digits of the U.S. government Social Security Number (SSN), date of birth (DOB), and race, and 77.7% unique if the last four digits of the SSN were missing. Health care providers were willing to create the UI, with DOB and gender present 98.3% and 98.8% of the time, race was complete 84.1% and last four digits of SSN were complete 72.4%. The overall completeness of reporting for HIV tests was 87.8%.and 84.8%, respectively, using different methodologies. Evidence from the Maryland UI evaluation demonstrates that a non-name-based system can provide accurate, timely and valid data concerning the scope of the HIV epidemic, without the creation of state-wide name-based registry. PMID:10770348

  7. Health & Demographic Surveillance System Profile: The Ifakara Rural and Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance System (Ifakara HDSS).

    PubMed

    Geubbels, Eveline; Amri, Shamte; Levira, Francis; Schellenberg, Joanna; Masanja, Honorati; Nathan, Rose

    2015-06-01

    The Ifakara Rural HDSS (125,000 people) was set up in 1996 for a trial of the effectiveness of social marketing of bed nets on morbidity and mortality of children aged under 5 years, whereas the Ifakara Urban HDSS (45,000 people) since 2007 has provided demographic indicators for a typical small urban centre setting. Jointly they form the Ifakara HDSS (IHDSS), located in the Kilombero valley in south-east Tanzania. Socio-demographic data are collected twice a year. Current malaria work focuses on phase IV studies for antimalarials and on determinants of fine-scale variation of pathogen transmission risk, to inform malaria elimination strategies. The IHDSS is also used to describe the epidemiology and health system aspects of maternal, neonatal and child health and for intervention trials at individual and health systems levels. More recently, IHDSS researchers have studied epidemiology, health-seeking and national programme effectiveness for chronic health problems of adults and older people, including for HIV, tuberculosis and non-communicable diseases. A focus on understanding vulnerability and designing methods to enhance equity in access to services are cross-cutting themes in our work. Unrestricted access to core IHDSS data is in preparation, through INDEPTH iSHARE [www.indepth-ishare.org] and the IHI data portal [http://data.ihi.or.tz/index.php/catalog/central]. PMID:25979725

  8. Vector Borne Infections in Italy: Results of the Integrated Surveillance System for West Nile Disease in 2013

    PubMed Central

    Napoli, Christian; Di Sabatino, Daria; Martini, Vanessa; Santucci, Vincenzo Ugo; Declich, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    The epidemiology of West Nile disease (WND) is influenced by multiple ecological factors and, therefore, integrated surveillance systems are needed for early detecting the infection and activating consequent control actions. As different animal species have different importance in the maintenance and in the spread of the infection, a multispecies surveillance approach is required. An integrated and comprehensive surveillance system is in place in Italy aiming at early detecting the virus introduction, monitoring the possible infection spread, and implementing preventive measures for human health. This paper describes the integrated surveillance system for WND in Italy, which incorporates data from veterinary and human side in order to evaluate the burden of infection in animals and humans and provide the public health authorities at regional and national levels with the information needed for a fine tune response. PMID:25874224

  9. Affordable Options for Ground-Based, Large-Aperture Optical Space Surveillance Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackermann, M.; Beason, J. D.; Kiziah, R.; Spillar, E.; Vestrand, W. T.; Cox, D.; McGraw, J.; Zimmer, P.; Holland, C.

    2013-09-01

    The Space Surveillance Telescope (SST) developed by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) - has demonstrated significant capability improvements over legacy ground-based optical space surveillance systems. To fulfill better the current and future space situational awareness (SSA) requirements, the Air Force would benefit from a global network of such telescopes, but the high cost to replicate the SST makes such an acquisition decision difficult, particularly in an era of fiscal austerity. Ideally, the Air Force needs the capabilities provided by the SST, but at a more affordable price. To address this issue, an informal study considered a total of 67 alternative optical designs, with each being evaluated for cost, complexity and SSA performance. One promising approach identified in the study uses a single mirror at prime focus with a small number of corrective lenses. This approach results in telescopes that are less complex and estimated to be less expensive than replicated SSTs. They should also be acquirable on shorter time scales. Another approach would use a modest network of smaller telescopes for space surveillance. This approach provides significant cost advantages but faces some challenges with very dim objects. In this paper, we examine the cost and SSA utility for each of the 67 designs considered.

  10. Improving National Data Systems for Surveillance of Suicide-related Events

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Robin; Hedegaard, Holly; Bossarte, Robert; Crosby, Alexander E.; Hanzlick, Randy; Roesler, Jon; Seider, Regina; Smith, Patricia; Warner, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    Background Describing the characteristics and patterns of suicidal behavior is an essential component in developing successful prevention efforts. The Data and Surveillance Task Force (DSTF) of the National Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention was charged with making recommendations for improving national data systems for public health surveillance of suicide-related problems, including suicidal thoughts, suicide attempts and deaths due to suicide. Data from the national systems can be used to draw attention to the magnitude of the problem and are useful for establishing national health priorities. National data can also be used to examine differences in rates across groups (e.g., sex, racial/ethnic, and age groups) and geographic regions, and are useful in identifying patterns in the mechanism of suicide, including those that rarely occur. Methods Using evaluation criteria from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the World Health Organization, and the U.S.-based Safe States Alliance, the DSTF reviewed 28 national data systems for feasibility of use in the surveillance of suicidal behavior, including deaths, non-fatal attempts and suicidal thoughts. The review criteria included such attributes as the aspects of the suicide-related spectrum (e.g., thoughts, attempts, deaths) covered by the system, how the data are collected (e.g., census, sample, survey, administrative data files, self-report, reporting by care providers), and the strengths and limitations of the survey or data system. Results The DSTF identified common strengths and challenges among the data systems based on the underlying data source (e.g., death records, health care provider records, population-based surveys, health insurance claims). From these findings, the DSTF proposed several recommendations for improving existing data systems, such as using standard language and definitions, adding new variables to existing surveys, expanding the geographic scope of surveys to include areas

  11. A compact SEOP 3He neutron spin filter with AFP NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ino, Takashi; Arimoto, Yasushi; Shimizu, Hirohiko M.; Sakaguchi, Yoshifumi; Sakai, Kenji; Kira, Hiroshi; Shinohara, Takenao; Oku, Takayuki; Suzuki, Jun-ichi; Kakurai, Kazuhisa; Chang, Lieh-Jeng

    2012-02-01

    We developed AFP NMR in an aluminum container for polarized noble gas nuclei. The radio frequency magnetic field inside the aluminum container was designed from computer simulations. The polarization loss by the AFP spin flip of 3He was measured to be as low as 3.8×10-4. With this technique, a compact in-situ polarizing 3He neutron spin filter with AFP NMR is demonstrated.

  12. Application of feature descriptors to low-pixel-count persistent surveillance tracking systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edelberg, Jason; Miller, Christopher; Wilson, Michael

    2013-05-01

    The largest challenge with all persistent surveillance systems is they require a trade between area coverage and ground object resolution. This trade typically results in provision of imagery where objects desired to be tracked have a small total number of pixels (often less than a few hundred total). With such low pixel counts, traditional target recognition methods become difficult. For this reason, most persistent surveillance tracking systems are based on detection and tracking of image changes. These change-detection tracking systems, however, struggle to maintain tracks through quick maneuvers, stops, obscurations, and dense traffic. Feature descriptors, including template matching, histogram of oriented gradients (HOG), and local binary patterns (LBP) are evaluated for use in the special case of very low pixel count target detection and track maintenance. These dynamic feature-based detection models are incorporated into a change-detection based tracking system. The resulting composite tracking system will be described as applied to EO and MWIR wide area data collected under a variety of conditions. Resulting tracking system improvements and tradeoffs between feature descriptors are presented.

  13. A Distributed, Collaborative Intelligent Agent System Approach for Proactive Postmarketing Drug Safety Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Yanqing; Ying, Hao; Farber, Margo S.; Yen, John; Dews, Peter; Miller, Richard E.; Massanari, R. Michael

    2014-01-01

    Discovering unknown adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in postmarketing surveillance as early as possible is of great importance. The current approach to postmarketing surveillance primarily relies on spontaneous reporting. It is a passive surveillance system and limited by gross underreporting (<10% reporting rate), latency, and inconsistent reporting. We propose a novel team-based intelligent agent software system approach for proactively monitoring and detecting potential ADRs of interest using electronic patient records. We designed such a system and named it ADRMonitor. The intelligent agents, operating on computers located in different places, are capable of continuously and autonomously collaborating with each other and assisting the human users (e.g., the food and drug administration (FDA), drug safety professionals, and physicians). The agents should enhance current systems and accelerate early ADR identification. To evaluate the performance of the ADRMonitor with respect to the current spontaneous reporting approach, we conducted simulation experiments on identification of ADR signal pairs (i.e., potential links between drugs and apparent adverse reactions) under various conditions. The experiments involved over 275 000 simulated patients created on the basis of more than 1000 real patients treated by the drug cisapride that was on the market for seven years until its withdrawal by the FDA in 2000 due to serious ADRs. Healthcare professionals utilizing the spontaneous reporting approach and the ADRMonitor were separately simulated by decision-making models derived from a general cognitive decision model called fuzzy recognition-primed decision (RPD) model that we recently developed. The quantitative simulation results show that 1) the number of true ADR signal pairs detected by the ADRMonitor is 6.6 times higher than that by the spontaneous reporting strategy; 2) the ADR detection rate of the ADRMonitor agents with even moderate decision-making skills is five

  14. A distributed, collaborative intelligent agent system approach for proactive postmarketing drug safety surveillance.

    PubMed

    Ji, Yanqing; Ying, Hao; Farber, Margo S; Yen, John; Dews, Peter; Miller, Richard E; Massanari, R Michael

    2010-05-01

    Discovering unknown adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in postmarketing surveillance as early as possible is of great importance. The current approach to postmarketing surveillance primarily relies on spontaneous reporting. It is a passive surveillance system and limited by gross underreporting (<10% reporting rate), latency, and inconsistent reporting. We propose a novel team-based intelligent agent software system approach for proactively monitoring and detecting potential ADRs of interest using electronic patient records. We designed such a system and named it ADRMonitor. The intelligent agents, operating on computers located in different places, are capable of continuously and autonomously collaborating with each other and assisting the human users (e.g., the food and drug administration (FDA), drug safety professionals, and physicians). The agents should enhance current systems and accelerate early ADR identification. To evaluate the performance of the ADRMonitor with respect to the current spontaneous reporting approach, we conducted simulation experiments on identification of ADR signal pairs (i.e., potential links between drugs and apparent adverse reactions) under various conditions. The experiments involved over 275,000 simulated patients created on the basis of more than 1000 real patients treated by the drug cisapride that was on the market for seven years until its withdrawal by the FDA in 2000 due to serious ADRs. Healthcare professionals utilizing the spontaneous reporting approach and the ADRMonitor were separately simulated by decision-making models derived from a general cognitive decision model called fuzzy recognition-primed decision (RPD) model that we recently developed. The quantitative simulation results show that 1) the number of true ADR signal pairs detected by the ADRMonitor is 6.6 times higher than that by the spontaneous reporting strategy; 2) the ADR detection rate of the ADRMonitor agents with even moderate decision-making skills is five

  15. The temporal relationship between drug supply indicators: an audit of international government surveillance systems

    PubMed Central

    Werb, Dan; Kerr, Thomas; Nosyk, Bohdan; Strathdee, Steffanie; Montaner, Julio; Wood, Evan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Illegal drug use continues to be a major threat to community health and safety. We used international drug surveillance databases to assess the relationship between multiple long-term estimates of illegal drug price and purity. Design We systematically searched for longitudinal measures of illegal drug supply indicators to assess the long-term impact of enforcement-based supply reduction interventions. Setting Data from identified illegal drug surveillance systems were analysed using an a priori defined protocol in which we sought to present annual estimates beginning in 1990. Data were then subjected to trend analyses. Main outcome measures Data were obtained from government surveillance systems assessing price, purity and/or seizure quantities of illegal drugs; systems with at least 10 years of longitudinal data assessing price, purity/potency or seizures were included. Results We identified seven regional/international metasurveillance systems with longitudinal measures of price or purity/potency that met eligibility criteria. In the USA, the average inflation-adjusted and purity-adjusted prices of heroin, cocaine and cannabis decreased by 81%, 80% and 86%, respectively, between 1990 and 2007, whereas average purity increased by 60%, 11% and 161%, respectively. Similar trends were observed in Europe, where during the same period the average inflation-adjusted price of opiates and cocaine decreased by 74% and 51%, respectively. In Australia, the average inflation-adjusted price of cocaine decreased 14%, while the inflation-adjusted price of heroin and cannabis both decreased 49% between 2000 and 2010. During this time, seizures of these drugs in major production regions and major domestic markets generally increased. Conclusions With few exceptions and despite increasing investments in enforcement-based supply reduction efforts aimed at disrupting global drug supply, illegal drug prices have generally decreased while drug purity has generally

  16. Dynamic region-of-interest acquisition and face tracking for intelligent surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Young-Ouk; Kim, Sangjin; Park, Chang-Woo; Sung, Ha-Gyeong; Paik, Joonki

    2004-05-01

    Recently, surveillance systems gain more attraction than simple CCTV systems, especially for complicated security environment. The major purpose of the proposed system is to monitor and track intruders. More specifically, accurate identification of each intruder is more important than simply recording what they are doing. Most existing surveillance systems simply keep recording the fixed viewing area, and some others adopt the tracking technique for wider coverage. Although panning and tilting the camera can extend the viewing area, only a few automatic zoom control techniques for acquiring the optimum ROI has been proposed. This paper describes a system for tracking multiple faces from input video sequences using facial convex hull-based facial segmentation and robust hausdorff distance. The proposed algorithm adapts skin color reference map in the YCbCr color space and hair color reference map in the RGB color space for classifying face region. Then, we obtain an initial face model with preprocessing and convex hull. For tracking, this algorithm computes displacement of the point set between frames using a robust hausdorff distance and the best possible displacement is selected. Finally, the initial face model is updated using the displacement. We provide experimental result to demonstrate the performance of the proposed tracking algorithm, which efficiently tracks rotating, and zooming faces as well as multiple faces in video sequences obtained from at CCD camera.

  17. The development of a reliable multi-camera multiplexed CCTV system for safeguards surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, R.S.; Chiang, K.S.

    1986-01-01

    The background, requirements and system details for a simple reliable Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) system are described. The design of the system presented allows up to 8 CCTV cameras of different makes to be multiplexed and their out-put recorded by three Time Lapse Recorders (TLRs) operating in parallel. This multiplex or MUX-CCTV system is intended to be used by the IAEA for surveillance at several nuclear facilities. The system is unique in that it allows all of the cameras to be operated asynchronously and it provides high quality video during replay. It also incorporates video event counting logic which enables IAEA inspectors to take a very quick inventory of the events which are recorded during unattended operation. This paper discusses other phases of the development for the system and it presents some speculation about future changes which may enhance performance.

  18. Flu Near You: An Online Self-reported Influenza Surveillance System in the USA

    PubMed Central

    Chunara, Rumi; Aman, Susan; Smolinski, Mark; Brownstein, John S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To develop a participatory system for monitoring the activity of influenza-like-illness among the United States general population. Introduction The emergence of new influenza strains including H1N1, H5N1, H3N2v as well as other respiratory pathogens such as SARS, along with generally weak information about household and community transmission of influenza, enforce the need for augmented influenza surveillance. At the same time, Internet penetration and access has grown, with 82% of American adults using the Internet [1], enabling transfer and communication of information that can be collected and aggregated in near real-time. Surveillance targeted towards influenza in other countries, and towards malaria in India, has previously been executed with good user engagement [2,3]. In this study, we created an online participatory influenza surveillance tool in the United States, called Flu Near You. Methods Volunteer users were primarily solicited via collaboration with the American Public Health Association and their members’ networks starting Oct. 24, 2011. Upon registration, each user is sent a weekly email, taking them to the Flu Near You website. On the website they fill in a short survey asking if they had any of 10 symptoms: fever, cough, sore throat, shortness of breath, chills/night sweats, fatigue, nausea or vomiting, diarrhea, body aches and headache, in the last week. Users can also enroll their household members and enter information in for them weekly. A map of influenza activity is made available to users, and anyone accessing the website [Figure 1]. On the map, the number of individuals reporting with no symptoms, some symptoms, or Influenza-like illness are visualized, aggregated to the zip code level. Users can also compare the contributed data with other surveillance systems: the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and Google Flu Trends for the same time period [Figure 1]. We also obtained user feedback through a survey in early

  19. Evaluating the Feasibility and Participants’ Representativeness of an Online Nationwide Surveillance System for Influenza in France

    PubMed Central

    Debin, Marion; Turbelin, Clément; Blanchon, Thierry; Bonmarin, Isabelle; Falchi, Alessandra; Hanslik, Thomas; Levy-Bruhl, Daniel; Poletto, Chiara; Colizza, Vittoria

    2013-01-01

    The increasing Internet coverage and the widespread use of digital devices offer the possibility to develop new digital surveillance systems potentially capable to provide important aid to epidemiological and public health monitoring and research. In France, a new nationwide surveillance system for influenza-like illness, GrippeNet.fr, was introduced since the 2011/2012 season based on an online participatory mechanism and open to the general population. We evaluate the recruitment and participation of users to the first pilot season with respect to similar efforts in Europe to assess the feasibility of establishing a participative network of surveillance in France. We further investigate the representativeness of the GrippeNet.fr population along a set of indicators on geographical, demographic, socio-economic and health aspects. Participation was widespread in the country and with rates comparable to other European countries with partnered projects running since a longer time. It was not representative of the general population in terms of age and gender, however all age classes were represented, including the older classes (65+ years old), generally less familiar with the digital world, but considered at high risk for influenza complications. Once adjusted on demographic indicators, the GrippeNet.fr population is found to be more frequently employed, with a higher education level and vaccination rate with respect to the general population. A similar propensity to commute for work to different regions was observed, and no significant difference was found for asthma and diabetes. Results show the feasibility of the system, provide indications to inform adjusted epidemic analyses, and highlight the presence of specific population groups that need to be addressed by targeted communication strategies to achieve a higher representativeness in the following seasons. PMID:24040020

  20. Evaluating the feasibility and participants' representativeness of an online nationwide surveillance system for influenza in France.

    PubMed

    Debin, Marion; Turbelin, Clément; Blanchon, Thierry; Bonmarin, Isabelle; Falchi, Alessandra; Hanslik, Thomas; Levy-Bruhl, Daniel; Poletto, Chiara; Colizza, Vittoria

    2013-01-01

    The increasing Internet coverage and the widespread use of digital devices offer the possibility to develop new digital surveillance systems potentially capable to provide important aid to epidemiological and public health monitoring and research. In France, a new nationwide surveillance system for influenza-like illness, GrippeNet.fr, was introduced since the 2011/2012 season based on an online participatory mechanism and open to the general population. We evaluate the recruitment and participation of users to the first pilot season with respect to similar efforts in Europe to assess the feasibility of establishing a participative network of surveillance in France. We further investigate the representativeness of the GrippeNet.fr population along a set of indicators on geographical, demographic, socio-economic and health aspects. Participation was widespread in the country and with rates comparable to other European countries with partnered projects running since a longer time. It was not representative of the general population in terms of age and gender, however all age classes were represented, including the older classes (65+ years old), generally less familiar with the digital world, but considered at high risk for influenza complications. Once adjusted on demographic indicators, the GrippeNet.fr population is found to be more frequently employed, with a higher education level and vaccination rate with respect to the general population. A similar propensity to commute for work to different regions was observed, and no significant difference was found for asthma and diabetes. Results show the feasibility of the system, provide indications to inform adjusted epidemic analyses, and highlight the presence of specific population groups that need to be addressed by targeted communication strategies to achieve a higher representativeness in the following seasons. PMID:24040020

  1. A Surveillance System to Monitor Excess Mortality of People With Mental Illness in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Lesage, Alain; Rochette, Louis; Émond, Valérie; Pelletier, Éric; St-Laurent, Danielle; Diallo, Fatoumata Binta; Kisely, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Outcome measures are rarely available for surveillance and system performance monitoring for mental disorders and addictions. Our study aims to demonstrate the feasibility and face validity of routinely measuring the mortality gap in the Canadian context at the provincial and regional levels using the methods and data available to the Canadian Chronic Disease Surveillance System (CCDSS) of the Public Health Agency of Canada. Methods: We used longitudinal data from the Quebec Integrated Chronic Disease Surveillance System, which also provides aggregated data to the CCDSS. This includes data from the health insurance registry physician claims and the hospital discharge abstract for all mental disorder diagnoses (International Classification of Diseases [ICD]-9 290–319 or ICD-10 F00–F99). Patients were defined as having had received a mental disorder diagnosis at least once during the year. Life expectancy was measured using Chiang’s method for abridged life tables, complemented by the Hsieh method for adjustment of the last age interval. Results: We found a lower life expectancy among psychiatric patients of 8 years for men and 5 years for women. For patients with schizophrenia, life expectancy was lowered by 12 years for men and 8 years for women. Cardiovascular disease and cancer were the most common causes of premature death. Findings were consistent across time and regions of the province. Lower estimates of the mortality gap, compared with literature, could be explained by the inclusion of primary care patients and methods. Conclusions: Our study demonstrates the feasibility of using administrative data to measure the impact of current and future mental health plans in Canada provided the techniques can be replicated in other Canadian provinces. PMID:26720826

  2. How Much Does a Verbal Autopsy Based Mortality Surveillance System Cost in Rural India?

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Rohina; Praveen, Deversetty; Jan, Stephen; Raju, Krishnam; Maulik, Pallab; Jha, Vivekanand; Lopez, Alan D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This paper aims to determine the cost of establishing and sustaining a verbal-autopsy based mortality surveillance system in rural India. Materials and Methods Deaths occurring in 45 villages (population 185,629) were documented over a 4-year period from 2003–2007 by 45 non-physician healthcare workers (NPHWs) trained in data collection using a verbal autopsy tool. Causes of death were assigned by 2 physicians for the first year and by one physician for the subsequent years. Costs were calculated for training of interviewers and physicians, data collection, verbal autopsy analysis, project management and infrastructure. Costs were divided by the number of deaths and the population covered in the year. Results Verbal-autopsies were completed for 96.7% (5786) of all deaths (5895) recorded. The annual cost in year 1 was INR 1,133,491 (USD 24,943) and the total cost per death was INR 757 (USD 16.66). These costs included training of NPHWs and physician reviewers Rs 67,025 (USD 1474), data collection INR 248,400 (USD 5466), dual physician review for cause of death assignment INR 375,000 (USD 8252), and project management INR 341,724 (USD 7520). The average annual cost to run the system each year was INR 822,717 (USD18104) and the cost per death was INR 549 (USD 12) for the next 3 years. Costs were reduced by using single physician review and shortened re-training sessions. The annual cost of running a surveillance system was INR 900,410 (USD 19814). Discussion This study provides detailed empirical evidence of the costs involved in running a mortality surveillance site using verbal-autopsy. PMID:25955389

  3. A practical indoor context-aware surveillance system with multi-Kinect sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Lili; You, Ying; Li, Tiezhu; Zhang, Shun

    2014-11-01

    In this paper we develop a novel practical application, which give scalable services to the end users when abnormal actives are happening. Architecture of the application has been presented consisting of network infrared cameras and a communication module. In this intelligent surveillance system we use Kinect sensors as the input cameras. Kinect is an infrared laser camera which its user can access the raw infrared sensor stream. We install several Kinect sensors in one room to track the human skeletons. Each sensor returns the body positions with 15 coordinates in its own coordinate system. We use calibration algorithms to calibrate all the body positions points into one unified coordinate system. With the body positions points, we can infer the surveillance context. Furthermore, the messages from the metadata index matrix will be sent to mobile phone through communication module. User will instantly be aware of an abnormal case happened in the room without having to check the website. In conclusion, theoretical analysis and experimental results in this paper show that the proposed system is reasonable and efficient. And the application method introduced in this paper is not only to discourage the criminals and assist police in the apprehension of suspects, but also can enabled the end-users monitor the indoor environments anywhere and anytime by their phones.

  4. Evaluation of the enterovirus laboratory surveillance system in Denmark, 2010 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Condell, Orla; Midgley, Sofie; Christiansen, Claus Bohn; Chen, Ming; Chen Nielsen, Xiaohui; Ellermann-Eriksen, Svend; Mølvadgaard, Mette; Schønning, Kristian; Vermedal Hoegh, Silje; Andersen, Peter Henrik; Voldstedlund, Marianne; Kølsen Fischer, Thea

    2016-05-01

    The primary aim of the Danish enterovirus (EV) surveillance system is to document absence of poliovirus infection. The conflict in Syria has left many children unvaccinated and movement from areas with polio cases to Europe calls for increased awareness to detect and respond to virus-transmission in a timely manner. We evaluate the national EV laboratory surveillance, to generate recommendations for system strengthening. The system was analysed for completeness of viral typing analysis and clinical information and timeliness of specimen collection, laboratory results and reporting of clinical information. Of 23,720 specimens screened, 2,202 (9.3%) were EV-positive. Submission of cerebrospinal fluid and faecal specimens from primary diagnostic laboratories was 79.5% complete (845/1,063), and varied by laboratory and patient age. EV genotypes were determined in 68.5% (979/1,430) of laboratory-confirmed cases, clinical information was available for 63.1% (903/1,430). Primary diagnostic results were available after a median of 1.4 days, typing results after 17 days, detailed clinical information after 33 days. The large number of samples typed demonstrated continued monitoring of EV-circulation in Denmark. The system could be strengthened by increasing the collection of supplementary faecal specimens, improving communication with primary diagnostic laboratories, adapting the laboratory typing methodology and collecting clinical information with electronic forms. PMID:27173593

  5. Personal authentication in video surveillance systems using an on-line signature verification approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lien, Cheng-Chang; Han, Chin-Chuan; Lin, Su-Ming

    2005-03-01

    In this paper, a novel on-line signature verification approach is proposed for personal authentication in video surveillance systems. As we know, digit password-based authentication is the most popular manner in many network-based applications. However, if the passwords were leaked, the monitoring data are easily falsified. Biometric-based authentication using signature features is a natural and friendly approach to remedy this problem. In this study, a signature-based authentication is proposed to identify the individuals by using the template matching strategy. Some experimental results were conducted to show the effectiveness of our proposed methods.

  6. Target detection using microwave irradiances from natural sources: A passive, local and global surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stacey, J. M.

    1984-11-01

    Detection of metal objects on or near the Earth's surface was investigated using existing, passive, microwave sensors operating from Earth orbit. The range equations are derived from basic microwave principles and theories and the expressions are given explicitly to estimate the signal to noise ratio for detecting metal targets operating as bistatic scatterers. Actual measurements are made on a range of metal objects observed from orbit using existing passive microwave receiving systems. The details of the measurements and the results are tabulated and discussed. The advantages of a passive microwave sensor as it is applied to surveillance of metal objects as viewed from aerial platforms or from orbit, are examined.

  7. Integrated Disease Investigations and Surveillance planning: a systems approach to strengthening national surveillance and detection of events of public health importance in support of the International Health Regulations.

    PubMed

    Taboy, Celine H; Chapman, Will; Albetkova, Adilya; Kennedy, Sarah; Rayfield, Mark A

    2010-01-01

    The international community continues to define common strategic themes of actions to improve global partnership and international collaborations in order to protect our populations. The International Health Regulations (IHR[2005]) offer one of these strategic themes whereby World Health Organization (WHO) Member States and global partners engaged in biosecurity, biosurveillance and public health can define commonalities and leverage their respective missions and resources to optimize interventions. The U.S. Defense Threat Reduction Agency's Cooperative Biological Engagement Program (CBEP) works with partner countries across clinical, veterinary, epidemiological, and laboratory communities to enhance national disease surveillance, detection, diagnostic, and reporting capabilities. CBEP, like many other capacity building programs, has wrestled with ways to improve partner country buy-in and ownership and to develop sustainable solutions that impact integrated disease surveillance outcomes. Designing successful implementation strategies represents a complex and challenging exercise and requires robust and transparent collaboration at the country level. To address this challenge, the Laboratory Systems Development Branch of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and CBEP have partnered to create a set of tools that brings together key leadership of the surveillance system into a deliberate system design process. This process takes into account strengths and limitations of the existing system, how the components inter-connect and relate to one another, and how they can be systematically refined within the local context. The planning tools encourage cross-disciplinary thinking, critical evaluation and analysis of existing capabilities, and discussions across organizational and departmental lines toward a shared course of action and purpose. The underlying concepts and methodology of these tools are presented here. PMID:21143828

  8. Will integrated surveillance systems for vectors and vector-borne diseases be the future of controlling vector-borne diseases? A practical example from China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Y; Ling, F; Hou, J; Guo, S; Wang, J; Gong, Z

    2016-07-01

    Vector-borne diseases are one of the world's major public health threats and annually responsible for 30-50% of deaths reported to the national notifiable disease system in China. To control vector-borne diseases, a unified, effective and economic surveillance system is urgently needed; all of the current surveillance systems in China waste resources and/or information. Here, we review some current surveillance systems and present a concept for an integrated surveillance system combining existing vector and vector-borne disease monitoring systems. The integrated surveillance system has been tested in pilot programmes in China and led to a 21·6% cost saving in rodent-borne disease surveillance. We share some experiences gained from these programmes. PMID:26899818

  9. The pediatric disease spectrum in emergency departments across Pakistan: data from a pilot surveillance system

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background There is an increasing number of urgently ill and injured children being seen in emergency departments (ED) of developing countries. The pediatric disease burden in EDs across Pakistan is generally unknown. Our main objective was to determine the spectrum of disease and injury among children seen in EDs in Pakistan through a nationwide ED-based surveillance system. Methods Through the Pakistan National Emergency Department Surveillance (Pak-NEDS), data were collected from November 2010 to March 2011 in seven major tertiary care centers representing all provinces of Pakistan. These included five public and two private hospitals, with a collective annual census of over one million ED encounters. Results Of 25,052 children registered in Pak-NEDS (10% of all patients seen): 61% were male, 13% under 5 years, while almost 65% were between 10 to < 16 years. The majority (90%) were seen in public hospital EDs. About half the patients were discharged from the EDs, 9% admitted to hospitals and only 1.3% died in the EDs. Injury (39%) was the most common presenting complaint, followed by fever/malaise (19%) and gastrointestinal symptoms (18%). Injury was more likely in males vs. females (43% vs. 33%; p < 0.001), with a peak presentation in the 5-12 year age group (45%). Conclusions Pediatric patients constitute a smaller proportion among general ED users in Pakistan. Injury is the most common presenting complaint for children seen in the ED. These data will help in resource allocation for cost effective pediatric ED service delivery systems. Prospective longer duration surveillance is needed in more representative pediatric EDs across Pakistan. PMID:26691052

  10. A novel data association scheme for LEO space debris surveillance based on a double fence radar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jian; Hu, Weidong; Xin, Qin; Guo, Weiwei

    2012-12-01

    The increasing amount of space debris threatens to seriously deteriorate and damage space-based instruments in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) environments. Therefore, LEO space debris surveillance systems must be developed to provide situational awareness in space and issue warnings of collisions with LEO space debris. In this paper, a double fence radar system is proposed as an emerging paradigm for LEO space debris surveillance. This system exhibits several unique and promising characteristics compared with existing surveillance systems. In this paper, we also investigate the data association scheme for LEO space debris surveillance based on a double fence radar system. We also perform a theoretical analysis of the performance of our proposed scheme. The superiority and the effectiveness of our novel data association scheme is demonstrated by experimental results. The data used in our experiments is the LEO space debris catalog produced by the North American Air Defense Command (NORAD) up to 2009, especially for scenarios with high densities of LEO space debris, which were primarily produced by the collisions between Iridium 33 and Cosmos 2251. We hope that our work will stimulate and benefit future work on LEO space debris surveillance approaches and enable construction of the double fence radar system.

  11. A Semantic Autonomous Video Surveillance System for Dense Camera Networks in Smart Cities

    PubMed Central

    Calavia, Lorena; Baladrón, Carlos; Aguiar, Javier M.; Carro, Belén; Sánchez-Esguevillas, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a proposal of an intelligent video surveillance system able to detect and identify abnormal and alarming situations by analyzing object movement. The system is designed to minimize video processing and transmission, thus allowing a large number of cameras to be deployed on the system, and therefore making it suitable for its usage as an integrated safety and security solution in Smart Cities. Alarm detection is performed on the basis of parameters of the moving objects and their trajectories, and is performed using semantic reasoning and ontologies. This means that the system employs a high-level conceptual language easy to understand for human operators, capable of raising enriched alarms with descriptions of what is happening on the image, and to automate reactions to them such as alerting the appropriate emergency services using the Smart City safety network. PMID:23112607

  12. The National Violent Death Reporting System: an exciting new tool for public health surveillance.

    PubMed

    Steenkamp, M; Frazier, L; Lipskiy, N; Deberry, M; Thomas, S; Barker, L; Karch, D

    2006-12-01

    The US does not have a unified system for surveillance of violent deaths. This report describes the National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS), a system for collecting data on all violent deaths (homicides, suicides, accidental firearms deaths, deaths of undetermined intent, and deaths from legal intervention, excluding legal executions) in participating states. The NVDRS centralizes data from many sources, providing a more comprehensive picture of violent deaths than would otherwise be available. The NVDRS collects data on victims, suspects, and circumstances related to the violent deaths. Currently, 17 US states participate in the NVDRS; the intention is for the NVDRS to become a truly national system, representing all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and the US territories. This report describes the history of the NVDRS, provides an overview of how the NVDRS functions, and describes future directions. PMID:17170168

  13. A semantic autonomous video surveillance system for dense camera networks in Smart Cities.

    PubMed

    Calavia, Lorena; Baladrón, Carlos; Aguiar, Javier M; Carro, Belén; Sánchez-Esguevillas, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a proposal of an intelligent video surveillance system able to detect and identify abnormal and alarming situations by analyzing object movement. The system is designed to minimize video processing and transmission, thus allowing a large number of cameras to be deployed on the system, and therefore making it suitable for its usage as an integrated safety and security solution in Smart Cities. Alarm detection is performed on the basis of parameters of the moving objects and their trajectories, and is performed using semantic reasoning and ontologies. This means that the system employs a high-level conceptual language easy to understand for human operators, capable of raising enriched alarms with descriptions of what is happening on the image, and to automate reactions to them such as alerting the appropriate emergency services using the Smart City safety network. PMID:23112607

  14. Development and test of video systems for airborne surveillance of oil spills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millard, J. P.; Arvesen, J. C.; Lewis, P. L.

    1975-01-01

    Five video systems - potentially useful for airborne surveillance of oil spills - were developed, flight tested, and evaluated. The systems are: (1) conventional black and white TV, (2) conventional TV with false color, (3) differential TV, (4) prototype Lunar Surface TV, and (5) field sequential TV. Wavelength and polarization filtering were utilized in all systems. Greatly enhanced detection of oil spills, relative to that possible with the unaided eye, was achieved. The most practical video system is a conventional TV camera with silicon-diode-array image tube, filtered with a Corning 7-54 filter and a polarizer oriented with its principal axis in the horizontal direction. Best contrast between oil and water was achieved when winds and sea states were low. The minimum detectable oil film thickness was about 0.1 micrometer.

  15. Biomarkers: evaluation of clinical utility in surveillance and early diagnosis for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Song, Peipei; Tang, Qi; Feng, Xiaobin; Tang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common cancer and the second most common cause of death from cancer worldwide. Strategies to surveil and diagnose HCC in an earlier stage are urgently needed since this is when curable interventions can be offered to achieve long-term disease-free survival. Over the past few decades, research has suggested measuring alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) concentration and performing abdominal ultrasound (US) as part of routine surveillance of HCC every 6 months for high-risk patients, and many HCC guidelines worldwide have also recommended these examinations. Over the past 5 years, however, the role of serum biomarkers in HCC surveillance and diagnosis has diminished due to advances in imaging modalities. AFP was excluded from the surveillance and/or diagnostic criteria in the HCC guidelines published by some Western countries. In Asian countries, serum biomarkers such as AFP, the Lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive fraction of AFP (AFP-L3), and des-γ-carboxyprothrombin (DCP) are still recommended for HCC surveillance and are being used as an adjunctive diagnostic tool in accordance with HCC guidelines. Moreover, novel biomarkers including Dickkopf-1 (DKK1), midkine (MDK), and microRNA (miRNA) are being studied in this regard. China accounts for 50% of HCC cases worldwide, so identifying biomarkers of HCC is paramount. Recent studies have indicated the clinical utility of simultaneous measurement of AFP and DCP for the early detection of HCC in China. They are predominantly used for cases caused by HBV infection. Additional large-scale prospective studies should be conducted to establish the utility of these biomarkers. PMID:27438343

  16. Methods for establishing a surveillance system for cardiovascular diseases in Indian industrial populations.

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, K. S.; Prabhakaran, D.; Chaturvedi, V.; Jeemon, P.; Thankappan, K. R.; Ramakrishnan, L.; Mohan, B. V. M.; Pandav, C. S.; Ahmed, F. U.; Joshi, P. P.; Meera, R.; Amin, R. B.; Ahuja, R. C.; Das, M. S.; Jaison, T. M.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To establish a surveillance network for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) risk factors in industrial settings and estimate the risk factor burden using standardized tools. METHODS: We conducted a baseline cross-sectional survey (as part of a CVD surveillance programme) of industrial populations from 10 companies across India, situated in close proximity to medical colleges that served as study centres. The study subjects were employees (selected by age and sex stratified random sampling) and their family members. Information on behavioural, clinical and biochemical determinants was obtained through standardized methods (questionnaires, clinical measurements and biochemical analysis). Data collation and analyses were done at the national coordinating centre. FINDINGS: We report the prevalence of CVD risk factors among individuals aged 20-69 years (n = 19 973 for the questionnaire survey, n = 10 442 for biochemical investigations); mean age was 40 years. The overall prevalence of most risk factors was high, with 50.9% of men and 51.9% of women being overweight, central obesity was observed among 30.9% of men and 32.8% of women, and 40.2% of men and 14.9% of women reported current tobacco use. Self-reported prevalence of diabetes (5.3%) and hypertension (10.9%) was lower than when measured clinically and biochemically (10.1% and 27.7%, respectively). There was marked heterogeneity in the prevalence of risk factors among the study centres. CONCLUSION: There is a high burden of CVD risk factors among industrial populations across India. The surveillance system can be used as a model for replication in India as well as other developing countries. PMID:16799730

  17. An update of the Near-Earth Asteroid Tracking/Maui Space Surveillance System (NEAT/MSSS) collaboration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bambery, R. J.; Helin, E. F.; Pravdo, S. H.; Lawrence, K. J.; Hicks, M. D.

    2002-01-01

    Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL) Near-Earth Asteroid Tracking (NEAT) program has two simultaneously-operating, autonomous search systems on two geographically-separated 1.2-m telescopes; one at the Maui Space Surveillance System (NEAT/MSSS) and the other on the Palomar Observatory's Oschin telescope (NEAT/Palomar). This paper will focus exclusively on the NEAT/MSSS system.

  18. Self-monitoring surveillance system for prestressing tendons. Phase I small business innovation research

    SciTech Connect

    Tabatabai, H.

    1995-12-01

    Assured safety and operational reliability of post-tensioned concrete components of nuclear power plants are of great significance to the public, electric utilities, and regulatory agencies. Prestressing tendons provide principal reinforcement for containment and other structures. In this phase of the research effort, the feasibility of developing a passive surveillance system for identification of ruptures in tendon wires was evaluated and verified. The concept offers high potential for greatly increasing effectiveness of presently-utilized periodic tendon condition surveillance programs. A one-tenth scale ring model of the Palo Verde nuclear containment structure was built inside the Structural Laboratory. Dynamic scaling (similitude) relationships were used to relate measured sensor responses recorded during controlled wire breakages to the expected prototype containment tendon response. Strong and recognizable signatures were detected by the accelerometers used. It was concluded that the unbonded prestressing tendons provide an excellent path for transmission of stress waves resulting from wire breaks. Accelerometers placed directly on the bearing plates at the ends of tendons recorded high-intensity waveforms. Accelerometers placed elsewhere on concrete surfaces of the containment model revealed substantial attenuation and reduced intensities of captured waveforms. Locations of wire breaks could be determined accurately through measurement of differences in arrival times of the signal at the sensors. Pattern recognition systems to be utilized in conjunction with the proposed concept will provide a basis for an integrated and automated tool for identification of wire breaks.

  19. Real-time multimedia tagging and content-based retrieval for CCTV surveillance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrott, Alan; Lindsay, Adam T.; Parkes, Alan P.

    2002-07-01

    As the number of installed surveillance cameras increases, and the cost of storing the compressed digital multimedia decreases, the CCTV industry is facing the prospect of large multimedia archives where it may be very difficult to locate specific content. To be able to get the full benefit of this wealth of multimedia data, we need to be able to automatically highlight events of interest to the operator in real-time. We also need to make it possible to quickly identify and retrieve content which meets particular criteria. We show how advances in the Internet and multimedia systems can be used to effectively analyze, tag, store, search and retrieve multimedia content in surveillance systems. IP cameras are utilized for multimedia compression and delivery over the Internet or intranet. The recorded multimedia is analyzed in real-time, and metadata descriptors are automatically generated to describe the multimedia content. The emerging ISO MPEG-7 standard is used to define application-specific multimedia descriptors and description schemes, and to enforce a standard Description Definition Language (DDL) for multimedia management. Finally, a graphical multimedia retrieval application is used to provide content-based searching, browsing, retrieval and playback over the Internet or intranet.

  20. Use of Surveillance Systems in Detection of a Ciguatera Fish Poisoning Outbreak - Orange County, Florida, 2014.

    PubMed

    Klekamp, Benjamin G; Bodager, Dean; Matthews, Sarah D

    2015-10-16

    What is already known on this topic? Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP), caused by the ingestion of predatory reef-dwelling fish harboring ciguatoxins is one of the most commonly reported fish-associated marine intoxications. Ciguatoxin retains toxicity regardless of freezing or cooking. Prompt treatment can reduce debilitating neurologic symptoms that are associated with CFP.What is added by this report? Syndromic surveillance systems in Florida identified six adults with CFP following consumption of black grouper. Five patients sought medical attention; health care providers did not make a diagnosis of CFP or report the cases to public health authorities, and none of the patients received treatment. Close collaboration among several investigating agencies allowed traceback efforts to link black grouper consumed by all patients to a common international distributor.What are the implications for public health practice? Syndromic surveillance systems capable of detecting CFP are essential public health tools to identify outbreaks and enhance investigations. Medical and public health practitioners should be educated to inquire about recent fish consumption when evaluating patients with clinically compatible signs and symptoms to allow for prompt treatment, and report suspected CFP cases to public health authorities to facilitate source-food traceback efforts. Public education on avoidance of consumption of relatively large predatory reef fish species known to be from ciguatoxic-endemic areas might reduce the risk for CFP. PMID:26468736

  1. Experiences with a voluntary surveillance system for early detection of equine diseases in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Struchen, R; Hadorn, D; Wohlfender, F; Balmer, S; Süptitz, S; Zinsstag, J; Vial, F

    2016-07-01

    Clinical observations made by practitioners and reported using web- and mobile-based technologies may benefit disease surveillance by improving the timeliness of outbreak detection. Equinella is a voluntary electronic reporting and information system established for the early detection of infectious equine diseases in Switzerland. Sentinel veterinary practitioners have been able to report cases of non-notifiable diseases and clinical symptoms to an internet-based platform since November 2013. Telephone interviews were carried out during the first year to understand the motivating and constraining factors affecting voluntary reporting and the use of mobile devices in a sentinel network. We found that non-monetary incentives attract sentinel practitioners; however, insufficient understanding of the reporting system and of its relevance, as well as concerns over the electronic dissemination of health data were identified as potential challenges to sustainable reporting. Many practitioners are not yet aware of the advantages of mobile-based surveillance and may require some time to become accustomed to novel reporting methods. Finally, our study highlights the need for continued information feedback loops within voluntary sentinel networks. PMID:26846449

  2. Advanced surveillance systems: combining video and thermal imagery for pedestrian detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torresan, Helene; Turgeon, Benoit; Ibarra-Castanedo, Clemente; Hebert, Patrick; Maldague, Xavier P.

    2004-04-01

    In the current context of increased surveillance and security, more sophisticated surveillance systems are needed. One idea relies on the use of pairs of video (visible spectrum) and thermal infrared (IR) cameras located around premises of interest. To automate the system, a dedicated image processing approach is required, which is described in the paper. The first step in the proposed study is to collect a database of known scenarios both indoor and outdoor with a few pedestrians. These image sequences (video and TIR) are synchronized, geometrically corrected and temperature calibrated. The next step is to develop a segmentation strategy to extract the regions of interest (ROI) corresponding to pedestrians in the images. The retained strategy exploits the motion in the sequences. Next, the ROIs are grouped from image to image separately for both video and TIR sequences before a fusion algorithm proceeds to track and detect humans. This insures a more robust performance. Finally, specific criteria of size and temperature relevant to humans are introduced as well. Results are presented for a few typical situations.

  3. The Validation of a Novel Surveillance System for Monitoring Bloodstream Infections in the Calgary Zone

    PubMed Central

    Leal, Jenine R.; Gregson, Daniel B.; Church, Deirdre L.; Henderson, Elizabeth A.; Ross, Terry; Laupland, Kevin B.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Electronic surveillance systems (ESSs) that utilize existing information in databases are more efficient than conventional infection surveillance methods. The objective was to assess an ESS for bloodstream infections (BSIs) in the Calgary Zone for its agreement with traditional medical record review. Methods. The ESS was developed by linking related data from regional laboratory and hospital administrative databases and using set definitions for excluding contaminants and duplicate isolates. Infections were classified as hospital-acquired (HA), healthcare-associated community-onset (HCA), or community-acquired (CA). A random sample of patients from the ESS was then compared with independent medical record review. Results. Among the 308 patients selected for comparative review, the ESS identified 318 episodes of BSI of which 130 (40.9%) were CA, 98 (30.8%) were HCA, and 90 (28.3%) were HA. Medical record review identified 313 episodes of which 136 (43.4%) were CA, 97 (30.9%) were HCA, and 80 (25.6%) were HA. Episodes of BSI were concordant in 304 (97%) cases. Overall, there was 85.5% agreement between ESS and medical record review for the classification of where BSIs were acquired (kappa = 0.78, 95% Confidence Interval: 0.75–0.80). Conclusion. This novel ESS identified and classified BSIs with a high degree of accuracy. This system requires additional linkages with other related databases. PMID:27375749

  4. Telecentric system with large-field for surveillance and measuring camera in space station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Tian-jin; Tong, Jing-bo

    2014-11-01

    Spacing movable mechanic components are needed not only to move in wide range but also to complete series of actions with high degree of accuracy and stability when processing on orbit. So, visual monitor system including the surveillance and measuring cameras must be equipped to achieve precise spacing location and posture information, and monitor and administer of movable mechanic components can be realized combined with the algorithm. Based on the requirements of the camera and the after algorithm for the center of mass and the distribution of spot on image plane at different object distance, the design peculiarity and difficulties are analyzed, optical design examples are also given at last. The optical system adopted telecentric structure, the relative aperture is 1/3.5, field of view reaches seventy-six degrees, wavelength ranges from 500nm to 800nm, the center of mass of the spot on image plane varies non-obviously, high modulation transfer function, low distortion and high relative illumination are achieved, all of these can wholly satisfied the using demands of the surveillance and measuring camera.

  5. Large-aperture broadband sapphire windows for common aperture, target acquisition, tracking, and surveillance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Askinazi, Joel

    1997-06-01

    State of the art optical sensing systems performing target acquisition/tracking and surveillance functions are being designed to incorporate a number of sensors into one package. These include visual and MWIR cameras, FLIRs, and laser range finders. These combined systems are being configured to view through a common aperture window. Typical window diameters are to eleven inches, but some surveillance applications have windows approaching twenty inches in diameter. These sensor windows typically operate in hostile environments including very high pressure differentials, large thermal gradients, and severe rain and sand abrasion. EMI/EMC protection and de-icing capabilities are also commonly required. For airborne applications and to minimize thermal gradients, thinner, lightweight, high strength windows are also necessary. Sapphire is an ideal window material to satisfy these requirements due to its high strength, UV-MWIR bandpass, minimal optical scatter, excellent index of refraction homogeneity and very high scratch/impact resistance. Associated optical fabrication, grid lithography and optical coating processes have been developed at Hughes Danbury for sapphire windows. This paper addresses the development of a family of large aperture, broadband sapphire windows which also provide EMI/EMC protection and de-icing capabilities. The resulting design configuration and performance characteristics are also addressed. Future technology development requirements are also discussed.

  6. Comparison of Statistical Algorithms for the Detection of Infectious Disease Outbreaks in Large Multiple Surveillance Systems.

    PubMed

    Enki, Doyo G; Garthwaite, Paul H; Farrington, C Paddy; Noufaily, Angela; Andrews, Nick J; Charlett, Andre

    2016-01-01

    A large-scale multiple surveillance system for infectious disease outbreaks has been in operation in England and Wales since the early 1990s. Changes to the statistical algorithm at the heart of the system were proposed and the purpose of this paper is to compare two new algorithms with the original algorithm. Test data to evaluate performance are created from weekly counts of the number of cases of each of more than 2000 diseases over a twenty-year period. The time series of each disease is separated into one series giving the baseline (background) disease incidence and a second series giving disease outbreaks. One series is shifted forward by twelve months and the two are then recombined, giving a realistic series in which it is known where outbreaks have been added. The metrics used to evaluate performance include a scoring rule that appropriately balances sensitivity against specificity and is sensitive to variation in probabilities near 1. In the context of disease surveillance, a scoring rule can be adapted to reflect the size of outbreaks and this was done. Results indicate that the two new algorithms are comparable to each other and better than the algorithm they were designed to replace. PMID:27513749

  7. Comparison of Statistical Algorithms for the Detection of Infectious Disease Outbreaks in Large Multiple Surveillance Systems

    PubMed Central

    Farrington, C. Paddy; Noufaily, Angela; Andrews, Nick J.; Charlett, Andre

    2016-01-01

    A large-scale multiple surveillance system for infectious disease outbreaks has been in operation in England and Wales since the early 1990s. Changes to the statistical algorithm at the heart of the system were proposed and the purpose of this paper is to compare two new algorithms with the original algorithm. Test data to evaluate performance are created from weekly counts of the number of cases of each of more than 2000 diseases over a twenty-year period. The time series of each disease is separated into one series giving the baseline (background) disease incidence and a second series giving disease outbreaks. One series is shifted forward by twelve months and the two are then recombined, giving a realistic series in which it is known where outbreaks have been added. The metrics used to evaluate performance include a scoring rule that appropriately balances sensitivity against specificity and is sensitive to variation in probabilities near 1. In the context of disease surveillance, a scoring rule can be adapted to reflect the size of outbreaks and this was done. Results indicate that the two new algorithms are comparable to each other and better than the algorithm they were designed to replace. PMID:27513749

  8. Health system reform and the role of field sites based upon demographic and health surveillance.

    PubMed Central

    Tollman, S. M.; Zwi, A. B.

    2000-01-01

    Field sites for demographic and health surveillance have made well-recognized contributions to the evaluation of new or untested interventions, largely through efficacy trials involving new technologies or the delivery of selected services, e.g. vaccines, oral rehydration therapy and alternative contraceptive methods. Their role in health system reform, whether national or international, has, however, proved considerably more limited. The present article explores the characteristics and defining features of such field sites in low-income and middle-income countries and argues that many currently active sites have a largely untapped potential for contributing substantially to national and subnational health development. Since the populations covered by these sites often correspond with the boundaries of districts or subdistricts, the strategic use of information generated by demographic surveillance can inform the decentralization efforts of national and provincial health authorities. Among the areas of particular importance are the following: making population-based information available and providing an information resource; evaluating programmes and interventions; and developing applications to policy and practice. The question is posed as to whether their potential contribution to health system reform justifies arguing for adaptations to these field sites and expanded investment in them. PMID:10686747

  9. Immune surveillance of the central nervous system in multiple sclerosis– Relevance for therapy and experimental models

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Rehana Z.; Hayardeny, Liat; Cravens, Petra C.; Yarovinsky, Felix; Eagar, Todd N.; Arellano, Benjamine; Deason, Krystin; Castro-Rojas, Cyd; Stüve, Olaf

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of central nervous system (CNS) autoimmune disorders frequently involves the reduction, or depletion of immune-competent cells. Alternatively, immune cells are being sequestered away from the target organ by interfering with their movement from secondary lymphoid organs, or their migration into tissues. These therapeutic strategies have been successful in multiple sclerosis (MS), the most prevalent autoimmune inflammatory disorder of the CNS. However, many of the agents that are currently approved or in clinical development also have severe potential adverse effects that stem from the very mechanisms that mediate their beneficial effects by interfering with CNS immune surveillance. This review will outline the main cellular components of the innate and adaptive immune system that participate in host defense and maintain immune surveillance of the CNS. Their pathogenic role in MS and its animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is also discussed. Furthermore, an experimental model is introduced that may assist in evaluating the effect of therapeutic interventions on leukocyte homeostasis and function within the CNS. This model or similar models may become a useful tool in the repertoire of pre-clinical tests of pharmacological agents to better explore their potential for adverse events. PMID:25282087

  10. The Antifungal Plant Defensin HsAFP1 from Heuchera sanguinea Induces Apoptosis in Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Aerts, An M.; Bammens, Leen; Govaert, Gilmer; Carmona-Gutierrez, Didac; Madeo, Frank; Cammue, Bruno P. A.; Thevissen, Karin

    2011-01-01

    Plant defensins are active against plant and human pathogenic fungi (such as Candida albicans) and baker's yeast. However, they are non-toxic to human cells, providing a possible source for treatment of fungal infections. In this study, we characterized the mode of action of the antifungal plant defensin HsAFP1 from coral bells by screening the Saccharomyces cerevisiae deletion mutant library for mutants with altered HsAFP1 sensitivity and verified the obtained genetic data by biochemical assays in S. cerevisiae and C. albicans. We identified 84 genes, which when deleted conferred at least fourfold hypersensitivity or resistance to HsAFP1. A considerable part of these genes were found to be implicated in mitochondrial functionality. In line, sodium azide, which blocks the respiratory electron transport chain, antagonized HsAFP1 antifungal activity, suggesting that a functional respiratory chain is indispensable for HsAFP1 antifungal action. Since mitochondria are the main source of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), we investigated the ROS-inducing nature of HsAFP1. We showed that HsAFP1 treatment of C. albicans resulted in ROS accumulation. As ROS accumulation is one of the phenotypic markers of apoptosis in yeast, we could further demonstrate that HsAFP1 induced apoptosis in C. albicans. These data provide novel mechanistic insights in the mode of action of a plant defensin. PMID:21993350

  11. Historical Trends in Ground-Based Optical Space Surveillance System Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoemaker, M.; Shroyer, L.

    In the spirit of the 50th anniversary of the launch of the first man-made satellite, an historical overview of ground-based optical space surveillance systems is provided. Specific emphasis is given on gathering metrics to analyze design trends. The subject of space surveillance spans the history of spaceflight: from the early tracking cameras at missile ranges, the first observations of Sputnik, to the evolution towards highly capable commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) systems, and much in between. Whereas previous reviews in the literature have been limited in scope to specific time periods, operational programs, countries, etc., a broad overview of a wide range of sources is presented. This review is focused on systems whose primary design purpose can be classified as Space Object Identification (SOI) or Orbit Determination (OD). SOI systems are those that capture images or data to determine information about the satellite itself, such as attitude, features, and material composition. OD systems are those that produce estimates of the satellite position, usually in the form of orbital elements or a time history of tracking angles. Systems are also categorized based on the orbital regime in which their targets reside, which has been simplified in this study to either Low Earth Orbit (LEO) or Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO). The systems are further classified depending on the industry segment (government/commercial or academic), and whether the program is foreign or domestic. In addition to gathering metrics on systems designed solely for man-made satellite observations, it is interesting to find examples of other systems being similarly used. Examples include large astronomical telescopes being used for GEO debris surveys and anomaly resolution for deep-space probes. Another interesting development is the increase in number and capability of COTS systems, some of which are specifically marketed to consumers as satellite trackers. After describing the results of the

  12. Vehicular ad hoc network for a surveillance system using multifrequency band enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunruangses, Montree; Sunat, Khamron; Mitatha, Somsak; Yupapin, Preecha P.

    2010-09-01

    We present a new design of a surveillance system via a vehicular ad hoc network (VANET) integrated by a 3-G or 4-G cellular wireless network. We propose dense wavelength division multiplexing wavelength enhancement for increasing the channel capacity and signal security. Increase in the number of channels can be obtained by increasing the wavelength density. Signal security is introduced by a specific wavelength filter controlled by the central operator. Optical communication wavelength enhancement is reviewed. The advantage of this proposed system is that it can easily be implemented and incorporated into the existing communication link in either a cellular or ad hoc wireless system, where signal security and hence privacy can be provided.

  13. Using the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System to monitor year 2000 objectives among American Indians.

    PubMed Central

    Sugarman, J R; Warren, C W; Oge, L; Helgerson, S D

    1992-01-01

    The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, a data set based on telephone surveys that have been conducted by States in collaboration with the Centers for Disease Control, has been used to estimate the prevalence of behavioral risk factors for adults in the United States so health objectives can be set and progress towards accomplishing them measured. Data for adult American Indians in this regard have not been available generally. The use of these data to estimate behavioral risk prevalence for American Indians by geographic region was examined and the results compared with those for white Americans. In addition, data from the system were compared with other data sets, including the results of selected surveys in American Indian communities, to explore the validity of the system as a tool for evaluating the behavioral risks of Indians. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data for the period 1985 to 1988 were used. During this period, the 1,055 American Indian respondents constituted 0.63 percent of those responding under the system and 0.70 percent of the population of the participating States. Separate (sex-specific) behavioral risk prevalence estimates were derived for Indians and whites for four geographic regions--Southwest, Plains, West Coast, and Other States. The system's behavioral risk estimates for the Plains region were compared with available data from behavioral risk surveys done in three American Indian communities in Montana (Blackfeet, Fort Peck, and Great Falls) from 1987 to 1989. The behavioral risk factors compared include use of automobile seatbelts, current smoking, current use of smokeless tobacco, heavy drinking, drinking and driving, overweight, hypertension, and sedentary lifestyle. Although large regional differences in the prevalence of these risk factors were found, the magnitude and direction of the differences are frequently similar among American Indians and whites living in the same geographic regions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED

  14. A new omni-directional multi-camera system for high resolution surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cogal, Omer; Akin, Abdulkadir; Seyid, Kerem; Popovic, Vladan; Schmid, Alexandre; Ott, Beat; Wellig, Peter; Leblebici, Yusuf

    2014-05-01

    Omni-directional high resolution surveillance has a wide application range in defense and security fields. Early systems used for this purpose are based on parabolic mirror or fisheye lens where distortion due to the nature of the optical elements cannot be avoided. Moreover, in such systems, the image resolution is limited to a single image sensor's image resolution. Recently, the Panoptic camera approach that mimics the eyes of flying insects using multiple imagers has been presented. This approach features a novel solution for constructing a spherically arranged wide FOV plenoptic imaging system where the omni-directional image quality is limited by low-end sensors. In this paper, an overview of current Panoptic camera designs is provided. New results for a very-high resolution visible spectrum imaging and recording system inspired from the Panoptic approach are presented. The GigaEye-1 system, with 44 single cameras and 22 FPGAs, is capable of recording omni-directional video in a 360°×100° FOV at 9.5 fps with a resolution over (17,700×4,650) pixels (82.3MP). Real-time video capturing capability is also verified at 30 fps for a resolution over (9,000×2,400) pixels (21.6MP). The next generation system with significantly higher resolution and real-time processing capacity, called GigaEye-2, is currently under development. The important capacity of GigaEye-1 opens the door to various post-processing techniques in surveillance domain such as large perimeter object tracking, very-high resolution depth map estimation and high dynamicrange imaging which are beyond standard stitching and panorama generation methods.

  15. A Web-Based, Hospital-Wide Health Care-Associated Bloodstream Infection Surveillance and Classification System: Development and Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Yi-Ju; Wu, Jung-Hsuan; Lin, Hui-Chi; Chen, Ming-Yuan; Ping, Xiao-Ou; Sun, Chun-Chuan; Shang, Rung-Ji; Sheng, Wang-Huei; Lai, Feipei; Chang, Shan-Chwen

    2015-01-01

    Background Surveillance of health care-associated infections is an essential component of infection prevention programs, but conventional systems are labor intensive and performance dependent. Objective To develop an automatic surveillance and classification system for health care-associated bloodstream infection (HABSI), and to evaluate its performance by comparing it with a conventional infection control personnel (ICP)-based surveillance system. Methods We developed a Web-based system that was integrated into the medical information system of a 2200-bed teaching hospital in Taiwan. The system automatically detects and classifies HABSIs. Results In this study, the number of computer-detected HABSIs correlated closely with the number of HABSIs detected by ICP by department (n=20; r=.999 P<.001) and by time (n=14; r=.941; P<.001). Compared with reference standards, this system performed excellently with regard to sensitivity (98.16%), specificity (99.96%), positive predictive value (95.81%), and negative predictive value (99.98%). The system enabled decreasing the delay in confirmation of HABSI cases, on average, by 29 days. Conclusions This system provides reliable and objective HABSI data for quality indicators, improving the delay caused by a conventional surveillance system. PMID:26392229

  16. The state of systemic threat surveillance in some Australian health organisations.

    PubMed

    Canyon, Deon V

    Crises are preceded by the emission of a series of early warning signals. If detected, these act like triggers for organisational action in anticipation of a known or unknown threat. It is vitally important to detect these signals to enable proactive, preventative actions that limit the impact of ensuing damage. The extent of threat surveillance (signal detection) in health organisations is an unknown, so a cross-sectional survey was conducted to assess the degree to which signal detection mechanisms are used. The focus of signal detection mechanisms and their degree of organisational integration was also assessed, as were organisational attitudes to whistle-blowers. Participants were executives in hospitals, medical centres, aged care homes, pharmacies, dental clinics and physiotherapy, chiropractic and podiatry practices. The results show that health organisations have inadequate signal detection mechanisms focusing on a limited selection of threats. Organisations often fail to integrate and disperse their mechanisms and focus almost entirely on internal signals. A majority of the surveyed organisations failed to reward bearers of bad news. In conclusion, the health organisations surveyed lacked systematic and systemic threat surveillance processes and mechanisms that are essential if they are to become better prepared for crises. PMID:23315245

  17. Detection and Tracking of Dynamic Objects by Using a Multirobot System: Application to Critical Infrastructures Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Canosa, Gonzalo; Giner, Jaime del Cerro; Barrientos, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The detection and tracking of mobile objects (DATMO) is progressively gaining importance for security and surveillance applications. This article proposes a set of new algorithms and procedures for detecting and tracking mobile objects by robots that work collaboratively as part of a multirobot system. These surveillance algorithms are conceived of to work with data provided by long distance range sensors and are intended for highly reliable object detection in wide outdoor environments. Contrary to most common approaches, in which detection and tracking are done by an integrated procedure, the approach proposed here relies on a modular structure, in which detection and tracking are carried out independently, and the latter might accept input data from different detection algorithms. Two movement detection algorithms have been developed for the detection of dynamic objects by using both static and/or mobile robots. The solution to the overall problem is based on the use of a Kalman filter to predict the next state of each tracked object. Additionally, new tracking algorithms capable of combining dynamic objects lists coming from either one or various sources complete the solution. The complementary performance of the separated modular structure for detection and identification is evaluated and, finally, a selection of test examples discussed. PMID:24526305

  18. Detection and tracking of dynamic objects by using a multirobot system: application to critical infrastructures surveillance.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Canosa, Gonzalo; del Cerro Giner, Jaime; Cruz, Antonio Barrientos

    2014-01-01

    The detection and tracking of mobile objects (DATMO) is progressively gaining importance for security and surveillance applications. This article proposes a set of new algorithms and procedures for detecting and tracking mobile objects by robots that work collaboratively as part of a multirobot system. These surveillance algorithms are conceived of to work with data provided by long distance range sensors and are intended for highly reliable object detection in wide outdoor environments. Contrary to most common approaches, in which detection and tracking are done by an integrated procedure, the approach proposed here relies on a modular structure, in which detection and tracking are carried out independently, and the latter might accept input data from different detection algorithms. Two movement detection algorithms have been developed for the detection of dynamic objects by using both static and/or mobile robots. The solution to the overall problem is based on the use of a Kalman filter to predict the next state of each tracked object. Additionally, new tracking algorithms capable of combining dynamic objects lists coming from either one or various sources complete the solution. The complementary performance of the separated modular structure for detection and identification is evaluated and, finally, a selection of test examples discussed. PMID:24526305

  19. Social determinants and risk factors for tuberculosis in national surveillance systems in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Hovhannesyan, A.

    2015-01-01

    Setting: National tuberculosis programmes (NTPs) of the 53 Member States of the World Health Organization (WHO) European Region. Objectives: To identify the social determinants and underlying risk factors for tuberculosis (TB) as routinely monitored by NTPs and to identify those feasible and appropriate to be included in the annual reporting to the joint European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) WHO reporting platform. Design: A semi-structured questionnaire sent to 53 national TB surveillance correspondents. Results: A total of 47 countries submitted questionnaires; most of the countries collect a number of social determinants and risk factors that are not requested for reporting to the Joint ECDC-WHO Reporting Platform. Occupation/employment, homelessness, diabetes mellitus and use of alcohol are collected by the majority of countries, but without standardised definitions. Conclusions: Four social determinants/risk factors are already included in the national TB surveillance systems of the majority of countries and could be incorporated in the annual reporting to the Joint ECDC/WHO Reporting Platform. Standardised epidemiological case definitions need to be adopted. PMID:26399291

  20. Surveillance for Radiation-Related Exposures Reported to the National Poison Data System

    PubMed Central

    Law, Royal K.; Martin, Colleen; Bronstein, Alvin; Chang, Arthur; Schier, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe radiation-related exposures of potential public health significance reported to the National Poison Data System (NPDS). Introduction For radiological incidents, collecting surveillance data can identify radiation-related public health significant incidents quickly and enable public health officials to describe the characteristics of the affected population and the magnitude of the health impact which in turn can inform public health decision-making. A survey administered by the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE) to state health departments in 2010 assessed the extent of state-level planning for surveillance of radiation-related exposures and incidents: 70%–84% of states reported minimal or no planning completed. One data source for surveillance of radiological exposures and illnesses is regional poison centers (PCs), who receive information requests and reported exposures from healthcare providers and the public. Since 2010, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC) have conducted ongoing surveillance for exposures to radiation and radioactive materials reported from all 57 United States (US) PCs to NPDS, a web-based, national PC reporting database and surveillance system. Methods We collaborated with the American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC), Poisindex® and Thomson Reuters Healthcare to develop an improved coding system for tracking radiation-related exposures reported to US PCs during 2011 and trained PC staff on its usage. We reviewed NPDS data from 1 September 2010 – 30 June 2012 for reported exposures to pharmaceutical or nonpharmaceutical radionuclides; ionizing radiation; radiological or nuclear weapons; or X-ray, alpha, beta, gamma, or neutron radiation. CDC medical toxicology and epidemiology staff reviewed each reported exposure to determine whether it was of potential public health concern (e.g. exposures associated

  1. Thermal surveillance of volcanoes of the Cascade Range and Iceland utilizing ERTS DCP systems and imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, J. D. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Significant results of the thermal surveillance of volcanoes experiment during 1972 included the design, construction, emplacement, and successful operation at volcanic sites in the Cascade Range, North America and on Surtsey, Iceland, of automated thermistor arrays which transmit ground and fumarole temperatures via the ERTS-1 data communication system to Goddard Space Flight Center. Temperature, radiance, and anomalous heat flow variations are being plotted by a U.S. Geological Survey IBM 360/65 computer program to show daily fluctuations at each of the sites. Results are being compiled in conjunction with NASA and USGS aircraft infrared survey data to provide thermal energy yield estimates during the current repose period of several Cascade Range volcanic systems. ERTS-1 MSS images have provided new information on the extent of structural elements controlling thermal emission at Lassen Volcanic National Park.

  2. Lipid signalling couples translational surveillance to systemic detoxification in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Govindan, J. Amaranath; Jayamani, Elamparithi; Zhang, Xinrui; Breen, Peter; Larkins-Ford, Jonah; Mylonakis, Eleftherios

    2015-01-01

    Translation in eukaryotes is surveilled to detect toxins and virulence factors and coupled to the induction of defense pathways. C. elegans germline-specific mutations in translation components are detected by this system to induce detoxification and immune responses in distinct somatic cells. An RNAi screen revealed gene inactivations that act at multiple steps in lipid biosynthetic and kinase pathways that act upstream of MAP kinase to mediate the systemic communication of translation-defects to induce detoxification genes. Mammalian bile acids can rescue the defect in detoxification gene induction caused by C. elegans lipid biosynthetic gene inactivations. Extracts prepared from C. elegans with translation deficits but not from wild type can also rescue detoxification gene induction in lipid biosynthetic defective strains. These eukaryotic antibacterial countermeasures are not ignored by bacteria: particular bacterial species suppress normal C. elegans detoxification responses to mutations in translation factors. PMID:26322678

  3. Road traffic related mortality in Vietnam: Evidence for policy from a national sample mortality surveillance system

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are among the leading causes of mortality in Vietnam. However, mortality data collection systems in Vietnam in general and for RTIs in particular, remain inconsistent and incomplete. Underlying distributions of external causes and body injuries are not available from routine data collection systems or from studies till date. This paper presents characteristics, user type pattern, seasonal distribution, and causes of 1,061 deaths attributable to road crashes ascertained from a national sample mortality surveillance system in Vietnam over a two-year period (2008 and 2009). Methods A sample mortality surveillance system was designed for Vietnam, comprising 192 communes in 16 provinces, accounting for approximately 3% of the Vietnamese population. Deaths were identified from commune level data sources, and followed up by verbal autopsy (VA) based ascertainment of cause of death. Age-standardised mortality rates from RTIs were computed. VA questionnaires were analysed in depth to derive descriptive characteristics of RTI deaths in the sample. Results The age-standardized mortality rates from RTIs were 33.5 and 8.5 per 100,000 for males and females respectively. Majority of deaths were males (79%). Seventy three percent of all deaths were aged from 15 to 49 years and 58% were motorcycle users. As high as 80% of deaths occurred on the day of injury, 42% occurred prior to arrival at hospital, and a further 29% occurred on-site. Direct causes of death were identified for 446 deaths (42%) with head injuries being the most common cause attributable to road traffic injuries overall (79%) and to motorcycle crashes in particular (78%). Conclusion The VA method can provide a useful data source to analyse RTI mortality. The observed considerable mortality from head injuries among motorcycle users highlights the need to evaluate current practice and effectiveness of motorcycle helmet use in Vietnam. The high number of deaths occurring on

  4. Sexually Transmitted Diseases Surveillance, 2012: Gonorrhea

    MedlinePlus

    ... and 44.1% among women. Gonococcal Isolate Surveillance Project Antimicrobial resistance remains an important consideration in the ... 4–9 In 1986, the Gonococcal Isolate Surveillance Project (GISP), a national sentinel surveillance system, was established ...

  5. Border security and surveillance system with smart cameras and motes in a Sensor Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guler, Sadiye; Cole, Timothy; Silverstein, Jay; Pushee, Ian; Fairgrieve, Scott

    2010-04-01

    In this paper we describe a prototype surveillance system that leverages smart sensor motes, intelligent video, and Sensor Web technologies to aid in large area monitoring operations and to enhance the security of borders and critical infrastructures. Intelligent video has emerged as a promising tool amid growing concern about border security and vulnerable entry points. However, numerous barriers exist that limit the effectiveness of surveillance video in large area protection; such as the number of cameras needed to provide coverage, large volumes of data to be processed and disseminated, lack of smart sensors to detect potential threats and limited bandwidth to capture and distribute video data. We present a concept prototype that addresses these obstacles by employing a Smart Video Node in a Sensor Web framework. Smart Video Node (SVN) is an IP video camera with automated event detection capability. SVNs are cued by inexpensive sensor motes to detect the existence of humans or vehicles. Based on sensor motes' observations cameras are slewed in to observe the activity and automated video analysis detects potential threats to be disseminated as "alerts". Sensor Web framework enables quick and efficient identification of available sensors, collects data from disparate sensors, automatically tasks various sensors based on observations or events received from other sensors, and receives and disseminates alerts from multiple sensors. The prototype system is implemented by leveraging intuVision's intelligent video, Northrop Grumman's sensor motes and SensorWeb technologies. Implementation of a deployable system with Smart Video Nodes and sensor motes within the SensorWeb platform is currently underway. The final product will have many applications in commercial, government and military systems.

  6. Two New Real-Time PCR-based Surveillance Systems for “Candidatus Liberibacter” Species Detection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We developed two novel surveillance systems for “Candidatus Liberibacter” (CL) species detection and identification. The first system is called “single tube dual primer Taq-Man PCR” (STDP). The procedure involves two sequential rounds of PCR using the CL asiaticus species-specific outer and inner pr...

  7. The Validity of Injury Surveillance System Measures of Assault: A Lesson from the Study of Violence in Alaska

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Darryl S.

    2010-01-01

    This article considers the validity of estimates of intentional violence using a statewide injury recording system: the Alaska Trauma Registry (ATR). One benefit of using data from an injury surveillance system is that its records are generated without police involvement, thereby reducing the likelihood of undercounting. However, there is reason…

  8. How outbreaks of infectious disease are detected: a review of surveillance systems and outbreaks.

    PubMed Central

    Dato, Virginia; Wagner, Michael M.; Fapohunda, Abi

    2004-01-01

    To learn how outbreaks of infectious disease are detected and to describe the entities and information systems that together function to identify outbreaks in the U.S., the authors drew on multiple sources of information to create a description of existing surveillance systems and how they interact to detect outbreaks. The results of this analysis were summarized in a system diagram. The authors reviewed a sample of recent outbreaks to determine how they were detected, with reference to the system diagram. The de facto U.S. system for detection of outbreaks consists of five components: the clinical health care system, local/state health agencies, federal agencies, academic/professional organizations, and collaborating governmental organizations. Primary data collection occurs at the level of clinical health care systems and local health agencies. The review of a convenience sample of outbreaks showed that all five components of the system participated in aggregating, analyzing, and sharing data. The authors conclude that the current U.S. approach to detection of disease outbreaks is complex and involves many organizations interacting in a loosely coupled manner. State and local health departments and the health care system are major components in the detection of outbreaks. PMID:15313109

  9. Autonomous surveillance for biosecurity.

    PubMed

    Jurdak, Raja; Elfes, Alberto; Kusy, Branislav; Tews, Ashley; Hu, Wen; Hernandez, Emili; Kottege, Navinda; Sikka, Pavan

    2015-04-01

    The global movement of people and goods has increased the risk of biosecurity threats and their potential to incur large economic, social, and environmental costs. Conventional manual biosecurity surveillance methods are limited by their scalability in space and time. This article focuses on autonomous surveillance systems, comprising sensor networks, robots, and intelligent algorithms, and their applicability to biosecurity threats. We discuss the spatial and temporal attributes of autonomous surveillance technologies and map them to three broad categories of biosecurity threat: (i) vector-borne diseases; (ii) plant pests; and (iii) aquatic pests. Our discussion reveals a broad range of opportunities to serve biosecurity needs through autonomous surveillance. PMID:25744760

  10. Insurance claims data: a possible solution for a national sports injury surveillance system? An evaluation of data information against ASIDD and consensus statements on sports injury surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Åman, Malin; Forssblad, Magnus; Henriksson-Larsén, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Background Before preventive actions can be suggested for sports injuries at the national level, a solid surveillance system is required in order to study their epidemiology, risk factors and mechanisms. There are guidelines for sports injury data collection and classifications in the literature for that purpose. In Sweden, 90% of all athletes (57/70 sports federations) are insured with the same insurance company and data from their database could be a foundation for studies on acute sports injuries at the national level. Objective To evaluate the usefulness of sports injury insurance claims data in sports injury surveillance at the national level. Method A database with 27 947 injuries was exported to an Excel file. Access to the corresponding text files was also obtained. Data were reviewed on available information, missing information and dropouts. Comparison with ASIDD (Australian Sports Injury Data Dictionary) and existing consensus statements in the literature (football (soccer), rugby union, tennis, cricket and thoroughbred horse racing) was performed in a structured manner. Result Comparison with ASIDD showed that 93% of the suggested data items were present in the database to at least some extent. Compliance with the consensus statements was generally high (13/18). Almost all claims (83%) contained text information concerning the injury. Conclusions Relatively high-quality sports injury data can be obtained from a specific insurance company at the national level in Sweden. The database has the potential to be a solid base for research on acute sports injuries in different sports at the national level. PMID:24928588

  11. SURVEILLANCE REPORTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surveillance reports are designed to provide useful data to researchers, planners, policymakers, and other professionals interested in alcohol abuse and its associated illnesses and mortality. Other surveillance report topics include apparent per capita consumption of alcoholic b...

  12. GONOCOCCAL SURVEILLANCE ISOLATE PROJECT (GSIP)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Gonococcal Isolate Surveillance Project (GISP) is a collaborative project to monitor antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the United States. The database is a sentinel surveillance system of 26 clinics for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and 5 regional la...

  13. Development and piloting of an exposure database and surveillance system for DOE cleanup operations. Department of Energy.

    PubMed

    LaMontagne, Anthony D; Van Dyke, Michael V; Martyny, John W; Simpson, Mark W; Holwager, Lee Ann; Clausen, Bret M; Ruttenber, A James

    2002-01-01

    An industrial hygiene exposure database and surveillance system was developed in partnership between National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)-funded independent investigators and practicing industrial hygienists at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) in Golden, Colo. RFETS is a former U.S. Department of Energy nuclear weapons plant that is now in cleanup phase. This project is presented as a case study in the development of an exposure database and surveillance system in terms that are generalizable to most other industries and work contexts. Steps include gaining organizational support; defining system purpose and scope; defining database elements and coding; planning practical and efficient analysis strategies; incorporating reporting capabilities; and anticipating communication strategies that maximize the probability that surveillance findings will feed back to preventive applications. For each of these topics, the authors describe both general considerations as well as the specific choices made for this system. An important feature of the system is a two-tier task-coding scheme comprising 33 categories of task groups. Examples of grouped analyses of exposure data captured during the system pilot period demonstrate applications to exposure control, medical surveillance, and other preventive measures. PMID:11975659

  14. Arbitrary object localization and tracking via multiple-camera surveillance system embedded in a parking garage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibisch, André; Houben, Sebastian; Michael, Matthias; Kesten, Robert; Schuller, Florian

    2015-03-01

    We illustrate a multiple-camera surveillance system installed in a parking garage to detect arbitrary moving objects. Our system is real-time capable and computes precise and reliable object positions. These objects are tracked to warn of collisions, e.g. between vehicles, pedestrians or other vehicles. The proposed system is based on multiple grayscale cameras connected by a local area network. Each camera shares its field of view with other cameras to handle occlusions and to enable multi-view vision. We aim at using already installed hardware found in many modern public parking garages. The system's pipeline starts with the synchronized image capturing process separately for each camera. In the next step, moving objects are selected by a foreground segmentation approach. Subsequently, the foreground objects from a single camera are transformed into view rays in a common world coordinate system and are joined to receive plausible object hypotheses. This transformation requires a one-time initial intrinsic and extrinsic calibration beforehand. Afterwards, these view rays are filtered temporally to arrive at continuous object tracks. In our experiments we used a precise LIDAR-based reference system to evaluate and quantify the proposed system's precision with a mean localization accuracy of 0.24m for different scenarios.

  15. Groundwater, Radon Continuous Monitoring System (α-scintillation Counting) for Natural Hazard Surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galli, G.; Mancini, C.; Quattrocchi, F.

    A ``quasi continuous mode'' monitoring system to measure the radon concentration within a natural environment (mainly groundwater), was designed, assembled and tested, under collaboration between DINCE and ING, partly within the framework of two EC funded programs.The radon monitor consists of a customised discrete automatic sampler which produces a gas flux circuit, and an economical α-scintillation cell, coupled with a reliable electronics-photomultiplier assemblage. A convenient calibration system together with a temporised control system have been set up. The overall ``mean efficiency'' of the system was calculated to be 7.79+/-0.13 counts per minute (cpm) for each Bq/L.Taking into consideration the present and future requirements of a geochemical surveillance network to assess natural hazards, the prototype design evolved from the study of existing systems devoted to monitor radon concentration levels, which are critically reviewed within this paper.In response to the main prerequisite of a remote station: maximum remote sensor versatility preserving shared software and hardware for the network as a whole, this radon monitoring system was conceived as part of a multi-parametric Geochemical Monitoring System (GMS II) prototype, designed and realised as a test-stand for sensors (chemical, hydrological, geophysical, organic chemistry devoted, etc.) in continuous evolution throughout the international market.

  16. A Methodological Approach to Small Area Estimation for the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Fang; Wallace, Robyn C.; Garvin, William; Greenlund, Kurt J.; Bartoli, William; Ford, Derek; Eke, Paul; Town, G. Machell

    2016-01-01

    Public health researchers have used a class of statistical methods to calculate prevalence estimates for small geographic areas with few direct observations. Many researchers have used Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data as a basis for their models. The aims of this study were to 1) describe a new BRFSS small area estimation (SAE) method and 2) investigate the internal and external validity of the BRFSS SAEs it produced. The BRFSS SAE method uses 4 data sets (the BRFSS, the American Community Survey Public Use Microdata Sample, Nielsen Claritas population totals, and the Missouri Census Geographic Equivalency File) to build a single weighted data set. Our findings indicate that internal and external validity tests were successful across many estimates. The BRFSS SAE method is one of several methods that can be used to produce reliable prevalence estimates in small geographic areas. PMID:27418213

  17. Australia's notifiable disease status, 2013: Annual report of the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System.

    PubMed

    2015-09-01

    In 2013, 65 diseases and conditions were nationally notifiable in Australia. States and territories reported a total of 224,434 notifications of communicable diseases to the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System, a decrease of 8% on the number of notifications in 2012. In 2013, the most frequently notified diseases were sexually transmissible infections (100,949 notifications, 45% of total notifications), vaccine preventable diseases (59,630 notifications, 26.6% of total notifications), and gastrointestinal diseases (32,536 notifications, 14.5% of total notifications). There were 17,919 notifications of bloodborne diseases; 10,831 notifications of vectorborne diseases; 1,932 notifications of other bacterial infections; 634 notifications of zoonoses and 3 notifications of quarantinable diseases. PMID:26620352

  18. Australia's notifiable disease status, 2014: Annual report of the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, 69 diseases and conditions were nationally notifiable in Australia. States and territories reported a total of 275,581 notifications of communicable diseases to the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System, an increase of 22% on the number of notifications in 2013. In 2014, the most frequently notified diseases were sexually transmissible infections (105,719 notifications, 38% of total notifications), vaccine preventable diseases (101,400 notifications, 37% of total notifications), and gastrointestinal diseases (40,367 notifications, 15% of total notifications). There were 17,411 notifications of bloodborne diseases; 8,125 notifications of vectorborne diseases; 1,942 notifications of other bacterial infections; 615 notifications of zoonoses and 2 notifications of quarantinable diseases. Commun Dis Intell 2016;40(1):E48-E145. PMID:27080029

  19. Australia's notifiable disease status, 2012: Annual report of the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System.

    PubMed

    2015-03-01

    In 2012, 65 diseases and conditions were nationally notifiable in Australia. States and territories reported a total of 243,822 notifications of communicable diseases to the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System, an increase of 2% on the number of notifications in 2011. In 2012, the most frequently notified diseases were sexually transmissible infections (99,250 notifications, 40.7% of total notifications), vaccine preventable diseases (85,810 notifications, 35.2% of total notifications), and gastrointestinal diseases (31,155 notifications, 12.8% of total notifications). There were 16,846 notifications of bloodborne diseases; 8,305 notifications of vector-borne diseases; 1,924 notifications of other bacterial infections; 578 notifications of zoonoses; and 5 notifications of quarantinable diseases. PMID:26063098

  20. Surveillance system and method having parameter estimation and operating mode partitioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bickford, Randall L. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A system and method for monitoring an apparatus or process asset including creating a process model comprised of a plurality of process submodels each correlative to at least one training data subset partitioned from an unpartitioned training data set and each having an operating mode associated thereto; acquiring a set of observed signal data values from the asset; determining an operating mode of the asset for the set of observed signal data values; selecting a process submodel from the process model as a function of the determined operating mode of the asset; calculating a set of estimated signal data values from the selected process submodel for the determined operating mode; and determining asset status as a function of the calculated set of estimated signal data values for providing asset surveillance and/or control.

  1. Surveillance system and method having parameter estimation and operating mode partitioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bickford, Randall L. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A system and method for monitoring an apparatus or process asset including partitioning an unpartitioned training data set into a plurality of training data subsets each having an operating mode associated thereto; creating a process model comprised of a plurality of process submodels each trained as a function of at least one of the training data subsets; acquiring a current set of observed signal data values from the asset; determining an operating mode of the asset for the current set of observed signal data values; selecting a process submodel from the process model as a function of the determined operating mode of the asset; calculating a current set of estimated signal data values from the selected process submodel for the determined operating mode; and outputting the calculated current set of estimated signal data values for providing asset surveillance and/or control.

  2. A Methodological Approach to Small Area Estimation for the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System.

    PubMed

    Pierannunzi, Carol; Xu, Fang; Wallace, Robyn C; Garvin, William; Greenlund, Kurt J; Bartoli, William; Ford, Derek; Eke, Paul; Town, G Machell

    2016-01-01

    Public health researchers have used a class of statistical methods to calculate prevalence estimates for small geographic areas with few direct observations. Many researchers have used Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data as a basis for their models. The aims of this study were to 1) describe a new BRFSS small area estimation (SAE) method and 2) investigate the internal and external validity of the BRFSS SAEs it produced. The BRFSS SAE method uses 4 data sets (the BRFSS, the American Community Survey Public Use Microdata Sample, Nielsen Claritas population totals, and the Missouri Census Geographic Equivalency File) to build a single weighted data set. Our findings indicate that internal and external validity tests were successful across many estimates. The BRFSS SAE method is one of several methods that can be used to produce reliable prevalence estimates in small geographic areas. PMID:27418213

  3. Object Occlusion Detection Using Automatic Camera Calibration for a Wide-Area Video Surveillance System

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jaehoon; Yoon, Inhye; Paik, Joonki

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an object occlusion detection algorithm using object depth information that is estimated by automatic camera calibration. The object occlusion problem is a major factor to degrade the performance of object tracking and recognition. To detect an object occlusion, the proposed algorithm consists of three steps: (i) automatic camera calibration using both moving objects and a background structure; (ii) object depth estimation; and (iii) detection of occluded regions. The proposed algorithm estimates the depth of the object without extra sensors but with a generic red, green and blue (RGB) camera. As a result, the proposed algorithm can be applied to improve the performance of object tracking and object recognition algorithms for video surveillance systems. PMID:27347978

  4. Surveillance of a Ventilated Rack System for Corynebacterium bovis by Sampling Exhaust-Air Manifolds.

    PubMed

    Manuel, Christopher A; Pugazhenthi, Umarani; Leszczynski, Jori K

    2016-01-01

    Corynebacterium bovis causes an opportunistic infection of nude (Foxn1, nu/nu) mice, leading to nude mouse hyperkeratotic dermatitis (scaly skin disease). Enzootic in many nude mouse colonies, C. bovis spreads rapidly to naive nude mice, despite modern husbandry practices, and is very difficult to eradicate. To facilitate rapid detection in support of eradication efforts, we investigated a surveillance method based on quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) evaluation of swabs collected from the horizontal exhaust manifold (HEM) of an IVC rack system. We first evaluated the efficacy of rack sanitation methods for removing C. bovis DNA from the HEM of racks housing endemic colonies of infected nude mice. Pressurized water used to flush the racks' air exhaust system followed by a standard rack-washer cycle was ineffective in eliminating C. bovis DNA. Only after autoclaving did all sanitized racks test negative for C. bovis DNA. We then measured the effects of stage of infection (early or established), cage density, and cage location on the rack on time-to-detection at the HEM. Stage of infection significantly affected time-to-detection, independent of cage location. Early infections required 7.3 ± 1.2 d whereas established infections required 1 ± 0 d for detection of C. bovis at the HEM. Cage density influenced the quantity of C. bovis DNA detected but not time-to-detection. The location of the cage on the rack affected the time-to-detection only during early C. bovis infections. We suggest that qPCR swabs of HEM are useful during the routine surveillance of nude mouse colonies for C. bovis infection. PMID:26817981

  5. Surveillance of a Ventilated Rack System for Corynebacterium bovis by Sampling Exhaust-Air Manifolds

    PubMed Central

    Manuel, Christopher A; Pugazhenthi, Umarani; Leszczynski, Jori K

    2016-01-01

    Corynebacterium bovis causes an opportunistic infection of nude (Foxn1, nu/nu) mice, leading to nude mouse hyperkeratotic dermatitis (scaly skin disease). Enzootic in many nude mouse colonies, C. bovis spreads rapidly to naive nude mice, despite modern husbandry practices, and is very difficult to eradicate. To facilitate rapid detection in support of eradication efforts, we investigated a surveillance method based on quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) evaluation of swabs collected from the horizontal exhaust manifold (HEM) of an IVC rack system. We first evaluated the efficacy of rack sanitation methods for removing C. bovis DNA from the HEM of racks housing endemic colonies of infected nude mice. Pressurized water used to flush the racks’ air exhaust system followed by a standard rack-washer cycle was ineffective in eliminating C. bovis DNA. Only after autoclaving did all sanitized racks test negative for C. bovis DNA. We then measured the effects of stage of infection (early or established), cage density, and cage location on the rack on time-to-detection at the HEM. Stage of infection significantly affected time-to-detection, independent of cage location. Early infections required 7.3 ± 1.2 d whereas established infections required 1 ± 0 d for detection of C. bovis at the HEM. Cage density influenced the quantity of C. bovis DNA detected but not time-to-detection. The location of the cage on the rack affected the time-to-detection only during early C. bovis infections. We suggest that qPCR swabs of HEM are useful during the routine surveillance of nude mouse colonies for C. bovis infection. PMID:26817981

  6. Syndromic Surveillance System for Korea-US Joint Biosurveillance Portal: Design and Lessons Learned.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Chulwoo; Burkom, Howard; Yoon, Chang-Gyo; Stewart, Miles; Elbert, Yevgeniy; Katz, Aaron; Tak, Sangwoo

    2016-01-01

    Driven by the growing importance of situational awareness of bioterrorism threats, the Republic of Korea (ROK) and the United States have constructed a joint military capability, called the Biosurveillance Portal (BSP), to enhance biosecurity. As one component of the BSP, we developed the Military Active Real-time Syndromic Surveillance (MARSS) system to detect and track natural and deliberate disease outbreaks. This article describes the ROK military health data infrastructure and explains how syndromic data are derived and made available to epidemiologists. Queries corresponding to 8 syndromes, based on published clinical effects of weaponized pathogens, were used to classify military hospital patient records to form aggregated daily syndromic counts. A set of ICD-10 codes for each syndrome was defined through literature review and expert panel discussion. A study set of time series of national daily counts for each syndrome was extracted from the Defense Medical Statistical Information System between January 1, 2011, and May 31, 2014. A stratified, adjusted cumulative summation algorithm was implemented for each syndrome group to signal alerts prompting investigation. The algorithm was developed by calculating sensitivity to sets of 1,000 artificial outbreak signals randomly injected in the dataset, with each signal injected in a separate trial. Queries and visualizations were adapted from the Suite for Automated Global bioSurveillance. Findings indicated that early warning of outbreaks affecting fewer than 50 patients will require analysis at subnational levels, especially for common syndrome groups. Developing MARSS to improve sensitivity will require modification of underlying syndromic diagnosis codes, engineering to coordinate alerts among subdivisions, and enhanced algorithms. The bioterrorist threat in the Korean peninsula mandates these efforts. PMID:27314655

  7. The evolution of the federal funding policies for the public health surveillance component of Brazil's Unified Health System (SUS).

    PubMed

    Pinto, Vitor Laerte; Cerbino Neto, José; Penna, Gerson Oliveira

    2014-12-01

    Health surveillance (HS) is one of the key components of the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS). This article describes recent changes in health surveillance funding models and the role these changes have had in the reorganization and decentralization of health actions. Federal law no. 8.080 of 1990 defined health surveillance as a fundamental pillar of the SUS, and an exclusive fund with equitable distribution criteria was created in the Basic Operational Norm of 1996 to pay for health surveillance actions. This step facilitated the decentralization of health care at the municipal level, giving local authorities autonomy to plan and provide services. The Health Pact of 2006 and its regulation under federal decree No. 3252 in 2009 bolstered the processes of decentralization, regionalization and integration of health care. Further changes in the basic concepts of health surveillance around the world and in the funding policies negotiated by different spheres of government in Brazil have been catalysts for the process of HS institutionalization in recent years. PMID:25388192

  8. Fluxpro As a Realtime Monitoring and Surveillance System for Eddy Covariance Flux Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, W.

    2014-12-01

    To understand how terrestrial ecosystems respond to global climate change, colleagues have globally measured the energy, water and carbon dioxide flux densities (F) over various vegetations by the eddy covariance (EC) method. However, the process of F calculation and the method of quality control and quality assurance (QCQA) are complex and site specific. Moreover, instantly maintaining remote EC flux measurement sites against instrumentation problems and administrative difficulties is laborious. To overcome these issues, particularly those of realtime F monitoring and prompt site management, FluxPro was created. FluxPro is consisted of three functional systems: 1) gathering system that transports EC measurements from various sites to the FluxPro management server; 2) cooking system that computes F and its frictional uncertainty (ɛ) together with micrometeorological variables (V); and 3) serving system that presents the above two results as charts to be distributed over the internet in realtime. Consequently, FluxPro could become an appropriate system in realtime-multi-site management, since it not only to automatically monitors F with ɛ and V but also continuously surveils EC sites, providing copious information and an email alert system.

  9. GeoMedStat: an integrated spatial surveillance system to track air pollution and associated healthcare events.

    PubMed

    Faruque, Fazlay S; Li, Hui; Williams, Worth B; Waller, Lance A; Brackin, Bruce T; Zhang, Lei; Grimes, Kim A; Finley, Richard W

    2014-01-01

    Air pollutants, such as particulate matter with a diameter ≤2.5 microns (PM2.5) and ozone (O3), are known to exacerbate asthma and other respiratory diseases. An integrated surveillance system that tracks such air pollutants and associated disease incidence can assist in risk assessment, healthcare preparedness and public awareness. However, the implementation of such an integrated environmental health surveillance system is a challenge due to the disparate sources of many types of data and the implementation becomes even more complicated for a spatial and real-time system due to lack of standardised technological components and data incompatibility. In addition, accessing and utilising health data that are considered as Protected Health Information (PHI) require maintaining stringent protocols, which have to be supported by the system. This paper aims to illustrate the development of a spatial surveillance system (GeoMedStat) that is capable of tracking daily environmental pollutants along with both daily and historical patient encounter data. It utilises satellite data and the groundmonitor data from the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the US Environemental Protection Agenecy (EPA), rspectively as inputs estimating air pollutants and is linked to hospital information systems for accessing chief complaints and disease classification codes. The components, developmental methods, functionality of GeoMedStat and its use as a real-time environmental health surveillance system for asthma and other respiratory syndromes in connection with with PM2.5 and ozone are described. It is expected that the framework presented will serve as an example to others developing real-time spatial surveillance systems for pollutants and hospital visits. PMID:25599635

  10. Unattended optical surveillance equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangan, D. L.; Johnson, C. S.; Schneider, S. L.

    In many security situations, it is necessary to utilize unattended optical surveillance systems. Sandia National Laboratories has developed three optical surveillance systems which operate in the unattended surveillance mode. The first of these systems is known as the Modular Integrated Video System (MIVS). The MIVS is a microprocessor controlled video system which records scenes at selectable intervals. Each scene consists of six to ten frames recorded on a 8 mm videotape. A MIVS video recorder has the capacity to record approximately 26,000 scenes. Scenes can be recorded at intervals ranging from 1 to 99 minutes between recordings. The unit has been designed for permanent installation with facility power. The camera can be located up to 30 m from the recording module with the authentication technology protecting the cable connecting the camera to the recording unit. The Portable Surveillance unit (PSU) is a second system which has been designed for unattended operation. The PSU is designed for situations where quick set up of an optical surveillance device is required. The PSU operates in a manner similar to the MIVS and can be operated off of facility power for long time periods, or from an internal battery pack for short term surveillance applications. The Video Surveillance Unit (VSU) provides similar capabilities for permanent rack mounted installations. This paper describes the MIVS, the PSU, and the VSU, and discusses potential applications for the system. Equipment for reviewing the videotapes produced by the systems is also described.

  11. Introduction to an airborne remote sensing system equipped onboard the Chinese marine surveillance plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Fang; Wang, Difeng; Pan, Delu; Hao, Zengzhou

    2008-10-01

    The airborne remote sensing system onboard the Chinese Marine Surveillance Plane have three scanners including marine airborne multi-spectrum scanner(MAMS), airborne hyper spectral system(AISA+) and optical-electric platform(MOP) currently. MAMS is developed by Shanghai Institute of Technology and Physics CAS with 11 bands from ultraviolet to infrared and mainly used for inversion of oceanic main factors and pollution information, like chlorophyll, sea surface temperature, red tide, etc. The AISA+ made by Finnish Specim company is a push broom system, consist of a high spectrum scanner head, a miniature GPS/INS sensor and data collecting PC. It is a kind of aviation imaging spectrometer and has the ability of ground target imaging and measuring target spectrum characteristic. The MOP mainly supports for object watching, recording and track. It mainly includes 3 equipments: digital CCD with Sony-DXC390, CANON EOS film camera and digital camera Sony F717. This paper mainly introduces these three remote sensing instruments as well as the ground processing information system, involving the system's hardware and software design, related algorithm research, etc.

  12. The Relationship between Rural Status, Individual Characteristics, and Self-Rated Health in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bethea, Traci N.; Lopez, Russell P.; Cozier, Yvette C.; White, Laura F.; McClean, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To examine rural status and social factors as predictors of self-rated health in community-dwelling adults in the United States. Methods: This study uses multinomial logistic and cumulative logistic models to evaluate the associations of interest in the 2006 US Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, a cross-sectional survey of…

  13. Technology evaluation of a USA-Mexico health information system for epidemiological surveillance of Mexican migrant workers.

    PubMed

    Velasco-Mondragón, H E; Martin, J; Chacón-Sosa, F

    2000-03-01

    From 1994 through 1996, federal, state, and nongovernmental organizations in Mexico and in the United States of America developed and piloted a Binational Health Information System for Epidemiological Surveillance of Mexican migrant workers. The system allowed data exchange for epidemiological surveillance between the state of Guanajuato in Mexico and the Commonwealth (state) of Pennsylvania in the United States, for case detection, prevention, and treatment, through shared contact investigation and case management of communicable diseases. The target population consisted of migrant workers traveling between Guanajuato and Pennsylvania to work mainly in the mushroom industry, and their sexual partners in their Mexican communities of origin. Computerized migrant health information modules were set up in Guanajuato and in Pennsylvania. Patient information and epidemiological surveillance data were encrypted and communicated electronically between the modules, using the WONDER communications system of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Evaluation of the Guanajuato-Pennsylvania Binational Health Information System showed that major barriers to binational epidemiological surveillance and control are: a) lack of communication binationally; b) interrupted medical care due to migration; c) inconsistent diagnosis and treatment criteria between the two countries; d) lack of referral clinical records from one country to the other; and e) deficient legal regulations concerning binational clinical data transfer. To our knowledge, this is the first project that has successfully demonstrated the technological feasibility of a binational disease control system linking a state in the interior of one country with a state in the interior of another country, rather than just states in the border region. The project also advanced the understanding of health service organizational issues that facilitate or hinder communication, outreach, disease prevention, and

  14. Ethernet-based integrated surveillance system for homeland security and homeland defense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schooley, Michael G.; Thompson, Dean

    2004-09-01

    This report documents the results of an internal DRS effort to develop an Ethernet based integrated defense system to improve defense of cities, harbors, airports, power production, energy supplies, bridges, monuments, dams and so forth. Results of the integration of multiple SCOUT LPI radars and multiple Electro-optical targeting systems will be provided, illustrating the benefits of interfacing surveillance radars with imaging sensors to confirm detection and provide visual recognition and identification. An analysis of the handover errors will be provided including errors due to; sensor platforms location and orientation uncertainty, target location measurement errors, data latency and motion prediction errors, which contribute to target handoff and the re-acquisition timeline. These predictions will be compared to measured results. The system architecture will be defined including; security, support for both stationary and moving sensor platforms, remote control of sensor systems and distribution of imagery through the network and remote diagnostics, maintenance and software upgrades. Growth capabilities include secure wireless communication to/from moving platforms, integration with sonar and seismic sensors, cooperative location of friendly forces and acoustic detection and triangulation of gunshots with automated cueing of sensors and security forces to the shooters most probable location. The use of ad hoc multi-hopping wireless networking supplements hardwire networks, augments disaster response capabilities, provides high-speed communications for moving platforms and supplements GPS outage areas.

  15. Near-Earth Asteroid Tracking with the Maui Space Surveillance System (NEAT/MSSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helin, Eleanor F.; Pravdo, Steven H.; Lawrence, Kenneth J.; Hicks, Michael D.

    2001-01-01

    Over the last year the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL) Near-Earth Asteroid Tracking (NEAT) program has made significant progress and now consists of two simultaneously-operating, autonomous search systems on the 1.2-m (48") telescopes: on the Maui Space Surveillance System (NEAT/MSSS) and NEAT/Palomar on the Palomar Observatory's Oschin telescope. This paper will focus exclusively on the NEAT/MSSS system. NEAT/MSSS is operated as a partnership between NASA/JPL and the United States Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), utilizing the AFRL 1.2-m telescope on the 3000-m summit of Haleakala, Maui, The USAF Space Command (SPCMD) contributed financial support to build and install the 'NEAT focal reducer' on the MSSS 1.2-m telescope giving it a large field of view (2.5 square degrees), suitable for the near-earth object (NEO),both asteroids and comets, survey. This work was completed in February 2000. AFRL has made a commitment to NEAT/MSSS that allows NEAT to operate full time with the understanding that AFRL participate as partners in NEAT/MSSS and have use of the NEAT camera system for high priority satellite observations during bright time (parts of 12 nights each month). Currently, NEAT has discovered 42 NEAs including 12 larger than 1-km, 5 Potentially Hazardous Asteroids (PHAs), 6 comets, and nearly 25,000 asteroid detections since March 2000.

  16. Development of a US Child-Focused Motor Vehicle Crash Surveillance System: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Durbin, Dennis R.; Curry, Allison; Myers, Rachel K.

    2011-01-01

    Current motor vehicle crash (MVC) surveillance systems, in particular the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS), either do not contain sufficient numbers of children, or do not contain child-specific data needed to support policy and prevention efforts. The objective of this pilot study was to develop and evaluate methods that could be utilized for supplemental child-specific data collection on a sample of cases identified through the NASS-GES program. Procedures were developed to identify a sample of police accident reports (PARs) involving child occupants for supplemental collection of child-specific data via three survey modes: phone, web-based and hard-copy self administered. Contact was initiated with 650 eligible parent drivers and surveys were completed by 156 (24.0%). Response rates were highest for telephone-based surveys (41.0% of those initially contacted by phone). Surveys were completed via the web by only 6.1% of those invited to do so. Overall agreement between survey and PAR data was good to excellent. Results of this pilot study indicate that creating procedures to identify cases for supplemental child-specific data collection based on the NASS-GES system is feasible. In order to sustain a supplemental child-focused data collection system that relies on identification of cases from NASS-GES, efforts must be made to enhance contact procedures in order to optimize response rates. PMID:22105381

  17. Postmarketing Safety Study Tool: A Web Based, Dynamic, and Interoperable System for Postmarketing Drug Surveillance Studies

    PubMed Central

    Sinaci, A. Anil; Laleci Erturkmen, Gokce B.; Gonul, Suat; Yuksel, Mustafa; Invernizzi, Paolo; Thakrar, Bharat; Pacaci, Anil; Cinar, H. Alper; Cicekli, Nihan Kesim

    2015-01-01

    Postmarketing drug surveillance is a crucial aspect of the clinical research activities in pharmacovigilance and pharmacoepidemiology. Successful utilization of available Electronic Health Record (EHR) data can complement and strengthen postmarketing safety studies. In terms of the secondary use of EHRs, access and analysis of patient data across different domains are a critical factor; we address this data interoperability problem between EHR systems and clinical research systems in this paper. We demonstrate that this problem can be solved in an upper level with the use of common data elements in a standardized fashion so that clinical researchers can work with different EHR systems independently of the underlying information model. Postmarketing Safety Study Tool lets the clinical researchers extract data from different EHR systems by designing data collection set schemas through common data elements. The tool interacts with a semantic metadata registry through IHE data element exchange profile. Postmarketing Safety Study Tool and its supporting components have been implemented and deployed on the central data warehouse of the Lombardy region, Italy, which contains anonymized records of about 16 million patients with over 10-year longitudinal data on average. Clinical researchers in Roche validate the tool with real life use cases. PMID:26543873

  18. Postmarketing Safety Study Tool: A Web Based, Dynamic, and Interoperable System for Postmarketing Drug Surveillance Studies.

    PubMed

    Sinaci, A Anil; Laleci Erturkmen, Gokce B; Gonul, Suat; Yuksel, Mustafa; Invernizzi, Paolo; Thakrar, Bharat; Pacaci, Anil; Cinar, H Alper; Cicekli, Nihan Kesim

    2015-01-01

    Postmarketing drug surveillance is a crucial aspect of the clinical research activities in pharmacovigilance and pharmacoepidemiology. Successful utilization of available Electronic Health Record (EHR) data can complement and strengthen postmarketing safety studies. In terms of the secondary use of EHRs, access and analysis of patient data across different domains are a critical factor; we address this data interoperability problem between EHR systems and clinical research systems in this paper. We demonstrate that this problem can be solved in an upper level with the use of common data elements in a standardized fashion so that clinical researchers can work with different EHR systems independently of the underlying information model. Postmarketing Safety Study Tool lets the clinical researchers extract data from different EHR systems by designing data collection set schemas through common data elements. The tool interacts with a semantic metadata registry through IHE data element exchange profile. Postmarketing Safety Study Tool and its supporting components have been implemented and deployed on the central data warehouse of the Lombardy region, Italy, which contains anonymized records of about 16 million patients with over 10-year longitudinal data on average. Clinical researchers in Roche validate the tool with real life use cases. PMID:26543873

  19. The Global Emerging Infection Surveillance and Response System (GEIS), a U.S. government tool for improved global biosurveillance: a review of 2009

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center, Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System (AFHSC-GEIS) has the mission of performing surveillance for emerging infectious diseases that could affect the United States (U.S.) military. This mission is accomplished by orchestrating a global portfolio of surveillance projects, capacity-building efforts, outbreak investigations and training exercises. In 2009, this portfolio involved 39 funded partners, impacting 92 countries. This article discusses the current biosurveillance landscape, programmatic details of organization and implementation, and key contributions to force health protection and global public health in 2009. PMID:21388562

  20. Electronic article surveillance systems and interactions with implantable cardiac devices: risk of adverse interactions in public and commercial spaces.

    PubMed

    Gimbel, J Rod; Cox, James W

    2007-03-01

    Electronic article surveillance (EAS) systems are widely implemented in public spaces and can adversely affect the performance of pacemakers and implantable cardioverter defibrillators. The interaction between implantable devices and EAS systems is a serious problem that can be minimized through appropriate facility design. Careful facility design and employee education along with patient vigilance remain imperative in avoiding potentially life-threatening EAS system-implantable device interactions. PMID:17352368

  1. Design of IR omni-directional optical system for night vision and surveillance of defense and safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jong-goo; Ryu, Jae Myung; Jo, Jae Heung

    2015-05-01

    In the omni-directional optical system used for real-time surveillance, we established the theory of basic optical design for a two-reflector catadioptric omni-directional optical system which has a convex primary mirror and a plane secondary mirror as its reflection imaging part. We also established an algorithm and programmed to analyze the variables of the theory. By using this method, the key optical elements related to the primary and secondary mirrors in the system can be simply and easily designed based on the optical system variables such as radius of curvature for the primary mirror and position of the secondary mirror, and location and radius of entrance pupil of the refractive imaging optics. And we achieved readily and successfully an infrared omni-directional optical system for night vision and surveillance of defense and safety by using the basic design theory.

  2. A multi-data source surveillance system to detect a bioterrorism attack during the G8 Summit in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Meyer, N; McMenamin, J; Robertson, C; Donaghy, M; Allardice, G; Cooper, D

    2008-07-01

    In 18 weeks, Health Protection Scotland (HPS) deployed a syndromic surveillance system to early-detect natural or intentional disease outbreaks during the G8 Summit 2005 at Gleneagles, Scotland. The system integrated clinical and non-clinical datasets. Clinical datasets included Accident & Emergency (A&E) syndromes, and General Practice (GPs) codes grouped into syndromes. Non-clinical data included telephone calls to a nurse helpline, laboratory test orders, and hotel staff absenteeism. A cumulative sum-based detection algorithm and a log-linear regression model identified signals in the data. The system had a fax-based track for real-time identification of unusual presentations. Ninety-five signals were triggered by the detection algorithms and four forms were faxed to HPS. Thirteen signals were investigated. The system successfully complemented a traditional surveillance system in identifying a small cluster of gastroenteritis among the police force and triggered interventions to prevent further cases. PMID:17678556

  3. Dosimetry for infant exposures to electronic article surveillance system: posture, physical dimension and anatomy.

    PubMed

    Li, Congsheng; Wu, Tongning

    2015-04-01

    The use of electronic article surveillance (EAS) systems has become popular in many public sites. As a consequence, concern has risen about infant exposure to magnetic fields (MFs) from this kind of device. To evaluate infant exposure to MFs of an EAS system (operating at 125 kHz and 13.56 MHz), we numerically compared dosimetric results among adult, child and infant models. Results revealed that postures insignificantly influenced dosimetric results if there was a similar cross-sectional area under exposure. Although safety limits are unlikely to be exceeded, the infant has higher SAR values for brain and central nervous system tissues compared with adult (1.5x at 125 kHz and 112x at 13.56 MHz), which deserve further investigation. Infant's specific anatomy (e.g., non-proportionally large head and high fat content) did not induce higher SAR values. The numerical models developed in the study (stroller and postured infant models) could be freely used for nonprofit academic research. PMID:25756750

  4. Considerations for opto-mechanical vs. digital stabilization in surveillance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowal, David

    2015-05-01

    Electro-optical surveillance and reconnaissance systems are frequently mounted on unstable or vibrating platforms such as ships, vehicles, aircraft and masts. Mechanical coupling between the platform and the cameras leads to angular vibration of the line of sight. Image motion during detector and eye integration times leads to image smear and a resulting loss of resolution. Additional effects are wavy images for detectors based on a rolling shutter mechanism and annoying movement of the image at low frequencies. A good stabilization system should yield sub-pixel stabilization errors and meet cost and size requirements. There are two main families of LOS stabilization methods: opto-mechanical stabilization and electronic stabilization. Each family, or a combination of both, can be implemented by a number of different techniques of varying complexity, size and cost leading to different levels of stabilization. Opto-mechanical stabilization is typically based on gyro readings, whereas electronic stabilization is typically based on gyro readings or image registration calculations. A few common stabilization techniques, as well as options for different gimbal arrangements will be described and analyzed. The relative merits and drawbacks of the different techniques and their applicability to specific systems and environments will be discussed. Over the years Controp has developed a large number of stabilized electro-optical payloads. A few examples of payloads with unique stabilization mechanisms will be described.

  5. [Surveillance of drinking water supply systems on markets and in vehicles].

    PubMed

    Rädel, U; Puchert, W; Suchenwirth, R

    2007-03-01

    The new German Drinking Water Ordinance (TrinkwV 2001) demands that the requirements of water intended for human consumption be met up to the intrinsic tap, at which the water is used. This also applies to water supply systems for food trade aboard non-stationary facilities and in vehicles for commercial purposes. In contrast to stationary units for drinking water supply, the nonstationary units relocate and the responsibility changes with each public health authority agent. Therefore, a coordinated action between the federal states is desirable and necessary. The experience of the public health departments presents many non-compliant parameters of microbiology in water supply systems on markets and in vehicles. The development of practical and consistent recommendations for the surveillance of non-stationary units is required to give consistent standards to the users. The article gives a review about legal foundations and technical rules in order to define the drinking water supply systems on markets and in vehicles in compliance with the German Drinking Water Ordinance. Examples of laboratory results from different monitoring episodes from three federal states are shown. PMID:17334887

  6. A Population Health Surveillance Theory

    PubMed Central

    Bigras-Poulin, Michel; Michel, Pascal; Ravel, André

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Despite its extensive use, the term "Surveillance" often takes on various meanings in the scientific literature pertinent to public health and animal health. A critical appraisal of this literature also reveals ambiguities relating to the scope and necessary structural components underpinning the surveillance process. The authors hypothesized that these inconsistencies translate to real or perceived deficiencies in the conceptual framework of population health surveillance. This paper presents a population health surveillance theory framed upon an explicit conceptual system relative to health surveillance performed in human and animal populations. METHODS The population health surveillance theory reflects the authors' system of thinking and was based on a creative process. RESULTS Population health surveillance includes two broad components: one relating to the human organization (which includes expertise and the administrative program), and one relating to the system per se (which includes elements of design and method) and which can be viewed as a process. The population health surveillance process is made of five sequential interrelated steps: 1) a trigger or need, 2) problem formulation, 3) surveillance planning, 4) surveillance implementation, and 5) information communication and audit. CONCLUSIONS The population health surveillance theory provides a systematic way of understanding, organizing and evaluating the population health surveillance process. PMID:23251837

  7. All Wales Injury Surveillance System revised: development of a population-based system to evaluate single-level and multilevel interventions

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Ronan A; Turner, Samantha; Lyons, Jane; Walters, Angharad; Snooks, Helen A; Greenacre, Judith; Humphreys, Ciaran; Jones, Sarah J

    2016-01-01

    Background Injury surveillance has been established since the 1990s, but is still largely based upon single-source data from sentinel sites. The growth of electronic health records and developments in privacy protecting linkage technologies provide an opportunity for more sophisticated surveillance systems. Objective To describe the evolution of an injury surveillance system to support the evaluation of interventions, both simple and complex in terms of organisation. Methods The paper describes the evolution of the system from one that relied upon data only from emergency departments to one that include multisource data and are now embedded in a total population privacy protecting data linkage system. Injury incidence estimates are compared by source and data linkage used to aid understanding of data quality issues. Examples of applications, challenges and solutions are described. Results The age profile and estimated incidence of injuries recorded in general practice, emergency departments and hospital admissions differ considerably. Data linkage has enabled the evaluation of complex interventions and measurement of longer-term impact of a wide range of exposures. Conclusions Embedding injury surveillance within privacy protecting data linkage environment can transform the utility of a traditional single-source surveillance system to a multisource system. It also facilitates greater involvement in the evaluation of simple and complex healthcare and non-healthcare interventions and contributes to the growing evidence basis underlying the science of injury prevention and control. PMID:26658339

  8. Design and prospective evaluation of a risk-based surveillance system for shrimp grow-out farms in northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marques, Ana Rita; Pereira, Marcelo; Ferreira Neto, Jose Soares; Ferreira, Fernando

    2015-12-01

    The farming of Pacific white shrimp Litopennaeus vannamei in northeast Brazil, has proven to be a promising sector. However, the farming of Pacific white shrimp in Brazil has been affected negatively by the occurrence of viral diseases, threatening this sector's expansion and sustainability. For this reason, the drafting of a surveillance system for early detection and definition of freedom from viral diseases, whose occurrence could result in high economic loses, is of the utmost importance. The stochastic model AquaVigil was implemented to prospectively evaluate different surveillance strategies to determine freedom from disease and identify the strategy with the lowest sampling efforts, making the best use of available resources through risk-based surveillance. The worked example presented was designed for regional application for the state of Ceará and can easily be applied to other Brazilian states. The AquaVigil model can analyse any risk-based surveillance system that considers a similar outline to the strategy here presented. PMID:26596650

  9. Reducing surgical site infection incidence through a network: results from the French ISO-RAISIN surveillance system.

    PubMed

    Astagneau, P; L'Hériteau, F; Daniel, F; Parneix, P; Venier, A-G; Malavaud, S; Jarno, P; Lejeune, B; Savey, A; Metzger, M-H; Bernet, C; Fabry, J; Rabaud, C; Tronel, H; Thiolet, J-M; Coignard, B

    2009-06-01

    Surgical-site infections (SSIs) are a key target for nosocomial infection control programmes. We evaluated the impact of an eight-year national SSI surveillance system named ISO-RAISIN (infection du site opératoire - Réseau Alerte Investigation Surveillance des Infections). Consecutive patients undergoing surgery were enrolled during a three-month period each year and surveyed for 30 days following surgery. A standardised form was completed for each patient including SSI diagnosis according to standard criteria, and several risk factors such as wound class, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score, operation duration, elective/emergency surgery, and type of surgery. From 1999 to 2006, 14,845 SSIs were identified in 964,128 patients (overall crude incidence: 1.54%) operated on in 838 participating hospitals. The crude overall SSI incidence decreased from 2.04% to 1.26% (P<0.001; relative reduction: -38%) and the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance system (NNIS)-0 adjusted SSI incidence from 1.10% to 0.74% (P<0.001; relative reduction: -33%). The most significant SSI incidence reduction was observed for hernia repair and caesarean section, and to a lesser extent, cholecystectomy, hip prosthesis arthroplasty, and mastectomy. Active surveillance striving for a benchmark throughout a network is an effective strategy to reduce SSI incidence. PMID:19380181

  10. A true real-time, on-line security system for waterborne pathogen surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, John A.; McCarty, David L.

    2008-04-01

    Over the past several years many advances have been made to monitor potable water systems for toxic threats. However, the need for real-time, on-line systems to detect the malicious introduction of deadly pathogens still exists. Municipal water distribution systems, government facilities and buildings, and high profile public events remain vulnerable to terrorist-related biological contamination. After years of research and development, an instrument using multi-angle light scattering (MALS) technology has been introduced to achieve on-line, real-time detection and classification of a waterborne pathogen event. The MALS system utilizes a continuous slip stream of water passing through a flow cell in the instrument. A laser beam, focused perpendicular to the water flow, strikes particles as they pass through the beam generating unique light scattering patterns that are captured by photodetectors. Microorganisms produce patterns termed 'bio-optical signatures' which are comparable to fingerprints. By comparing these bio-optical signatures to an on-board database of microorganism patterns, detection and classification occurs within minutes. If a pattern is not recognized, it is classified as an 'unknown' and the unidentified contaminant is registered as a potential threat. In either case, if the contaminant exceeds a customer's threshold, the system will immediately alert personnel to the contamination event while extracting a sample for confirmation. The system, BioSentry TM, developed by JMAR Technologies is now field-tested and commercially available. BioSentry is cost effective, uses no reagents, operates remotely, and can be used for continuous microbial surveillance in many water treatment environments. Examples of HLS installations will be presented along with data from the US EPA NHSRC Testing and Evaluation Facility.

  11. A Rule-based Computer System to Facilitate Public Health Surveillance during the 2002 Olympic Winter Games

    PubMed Central

    Gundlapalli, Adi V.; Olson, Jonathan; Smith, Sean P.; Baza, Michael; Hausam, Robert R.; Eutropius, Louise J.; Pestotnik, Stanley L.; Duncan, Karen; Staggers, Nancy; Pincetl, Pierre; Samore, Matthew H.

    2002-01-01

    We describe our preliminary experience in using a computer rule-based system to assist real-time public health surveillance. The rules operated on HL7 messages transmitted by hospital information systems and included laboratory test ordering, results, radiology reports, emergency room & outpatient clinic visits and hospital admissions. Data elements were mapped to standard vocabularies and then run through the inference engine, in a data-driven process. The aim of the system was to detect events of possible public health significance, as well as reportable infectious diseases. The program has been actively used by the University-based infection control team, beginning with the 2002 Olympic Winter Games. It represents a novel surveillance system that uses objective, quantifiable events to support monitoring of community populations.

  12. Status report - The Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program: a dynamic and innovative injury surveillance system.

    PubMed

    Crain, J; McFaull, S; Thompson, W; Skinner, R; Do, M T; Fréchette, M; Mukhi, S

    2016-06-01

    This status report on the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP), an emergency department-based injury and poisoning surveillance system, describes the result of migrating from a centralized data entry and coding process to a decentralized process, the web-based eCHIRPP system, in 2011. This secure system is improving the CHIRPP's overall flexibility and timeliness, which are key attributes of an effective surveillance system. The integrated eCHIRPP platform enables near real-time data entry and access, has user-friendly data management and analysis tools, and allows for easier communication and connectivity across the CHIRPP network through an online collaboration centre. Current pilot testing of automated data monitoring and trend analysis tools-designed to monitor and flag incoming data according to predefined criteria (for example, a new consumer product)-is revealing eCHIRPP's potential for providing early warnings of new hazards, issues and trends. PMID:27284703

  13. Preliminary Evaluation of a Regional Atmospheric Chemical Data Assimilation System for Environmental Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Pius; Liu, Yang

    2014-01-01

    We report the progress of an ongoing effort by the Air Resources Laboratory, NOAA to build a prototype regional Chemical Analysis System (ARLCAS). The ARLCAS focuses on providing long-term analysis of the three dimensional (3D) air-pollutant concentration fields over the continental U.S. It leverages expertise from the NASA Earth Science Division-sponsored Air Quality Applied Science Team (AQAST) for the state-of-science knowledge in atmospheric and data assimilation sciences. The ARLCAS complies with national operational center requirement protocols and aims to have the modeling system to be maintained by a national center. Meteorology and chemistry observations consist of land-, air- and space-based observed and quality-assured data. We develop modularized testing to investigate the efficacies of the various components of the ARLCAS. The sensitivity testing of data assimilation schemes showed that with the increment of additional observational data sets, the accuracy of the analysis chemical fields also increased incrementally in varying margins. The benefit is especially noted for additional data sets based on a different platform and/or a different retrieval algorithm. We also described a plan to apply the analysis chemical fields in environmental surveillance at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. PMID:25514141

  14. Preliminary evaluation of a regional atmospheric chemical data assimilation system for environmental surveillance.

    PubMed

    Lee, Pius; Liu, Yang

    2014-12-01

    We report the progress of an ongoing effort by the Air Resources Laboratory,NOAA to build a prototype regional Chemical Analysis System (ARLCAS). The ARLCAS focuses on providing long-term analysis of the three dimensional (3D) air-pollutant concentration fields over the continental U.S. It leverages expertise from the NASA Earth Science Division-sponsored Air Quality Applied Science Team (AQAST) for the state-of-science knowledge in atmospheric and data assimilation sciences. The ARLCAS complies with national operational center requirement protocols and aims to have the modeling system to be maintained by a national center. Meteorology and chemistry observations consist of land-, air- and space-based observed and quality-assured data.We develop modularized testing to investigate the efficacies of the various components of the ARLCAS. The sensitivity testing of data assimilation schemes showed that with the increment of additional observational data sets, the accuracy of the analysis chemical fields also increased incrementally in varying margins. The benefit is especially noted for additional data sets based on a different platform and/or a different retrieval algorithm.We also described a plan to apply the analysis chemical fields in environmental surveillance at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. PMID:25587606

  15. Cost-effectiveness of Novel System of Mosquito Surveillance and Control, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pepin, Kim M.; Marques-Toledo, Cecilia; Scherer, Luciano; Morais, Maira M.; Ellis, Brett

    2013-01-01

    Of all countries in the Western Hemisphere, Brazil has the highest economic losses caused by dengue fever. We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of a novel system of vector surveillance and control, Monitoramento Inteligente da Dengue (Intelligent Dengue Monitoring System [MID]), which was implemented in 21 cities in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Traps for adult female mosquitoes were spaced at 300-m intervals throughout each city. In cities that used MID, vector control was conducted specifically at high-risk sites (indicated through daily updates by MID). In control cities, vector control proceeded according to guidelines of the Brazilian government. We estimated that MID prevented 27,191 cases of dengue fever and saved an average of $227 (median $58) per case prevented, which saved approximately $364,517 in direct costs (health care and vector control) and $7,138,940 in lost wages (societal effect) annually. MID was more effective in cities with stronger economies and more cost-effective in cities with higher levels of mosquito infestation. PMID:23628282

  16. Orbits and Pointing Strategies for Space-Based Telescopes into a European Space Surveillance System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olmedo, Estrella; Sanchez-Ortiz, Noelia; Ramos-Lerate, Mercedes

    2009-03-01

    This paper describes the inclusion of optical images acquired from orbiting telescopes into an autonomous European space surveillance system via the Advance Space Surveillance System Simulator (AS4). Special interest on space-based observation of GEO objects exists since it avoids the weather dependence and longitudinal restrictions of ground-based observations of those objects. Furthermore, space-based observations allow the detection of small objects that are not detected from ground-based sensors.In order to analyze the impact of space-based telescopes images, several aspects have to be studied. The first consideration is the selection of the appropriate orbits to locate the telescopes. A description of the most suitable orbits and strategies for the observation of space debris population will be provided.Once an appropriated orbit has been selected, the next important consideration is the analysis of an optimized pointing strategy and its associated requirements for feasibility. Several pointing strategies will be exposed by analyzing, among other factors, the impact of luminosity conditions in the most populated regions to be observed. Numerical results are presented in the form of statistics, which reflect the compromise between the density of detected objects, and other important parameters for orbit determination and cataloguing purposes as re-acquisition times or measurement track duration.Finally, overall analyses of possible space-based constellations are presented. Such constellations are aimed to solve the main drawbacks in considering only one satellite at the selected orbit. This is for example the case of revisit times when considering a sub GEO orbiting telescope which can be solve by re-distributing several sensors in the orbit. It will also allow carrying on more complex pointing strategies by the definition of several sensors located at same orbit pointed at two different regions.The AS4 was developed by DEIMOS Space ([1], [2] and also [5]). The

  17. DIALYSIS SURVEILLANCE NETWORK

    EPA Science Inventory

    A voluntary national surveillance system monitoring bloodstream and vascular infections. This is a yearly survey, done in collaboration with the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) that collects data on infection control practices, and the frequency of certain dialys...

  18. French registry of workers handling engineered nanomaterials as an instrument of integrated system for surveillance and research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guseva Canu, I.; Boutou-Kempf, O.; Delabre, L.; Ducamp, S.; Iwatsubo, Y.; Marchand, J. L.; Imbernon, E.

    2013-04-01

    Despite the lack of data on the human health potential risks related to the engineered nanomaterials (ENM) exposure, ENM handling spreads in industry. The French government officially charged the InVS to develop an epidemiological surveillance of workers occupationally exposed to ENM. An initial surveillance plan was proposed on the basis of literature review and discussions with national and international ENM and occupational safety and health (OSH) experts. In site investigations and technical visits were then carried out to build an adequate surveillance system and to assess its feasibility. The current plan consists of a multi-step methodology where exposure registry construction is paramount. Workers potentially exposed to carbon nanotubes (CNT) or nanometric titanium dioxide (TiO2) will be identified using a 3-level approach: 1-identification and selection of companies concerned with ENM exposure (based on compulsory declaration and questionnaires), 2-in site exposure assessment and identification of the jobs/tasks with ENM exposure (based on job-expose matrix, further supplemented with measurements), and 3-identification of workers concerned. Data of interest will be collected by questionnaire. Companies and workers inclusion questionnaires are designed and currently under validation. This registration is at the moment planned for three years but could be extended and include other ENM. A prospective cohort study will be established from this registry, to pursue surveillance objectives and serve as an infrastructure for performing epidemiological and panel studies with specific research objectives.

  19. Development of an Image Compression and Authentication Module for video surveillance systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, W.R.; Johnson, C.S.; DeKeyser, P.

    1995-07-01

    An Image Compression and Authentication Module (ICAM) has been designed to perform the digitization, compression, and authentication of video images in a camera enclosure. The ICAM makes it possible to build video surveillance systems that protect the transmission and storage of video images. The ICAM functions with both NTSC 525 line and PAL 625 line cameras and contains a neuron chip (integrated circuit) permitting it to be interfaced with a local operating network which is part of the Modular Integrated Monitor System (MIMS). The MIMS can be used to send commands to the ICAM from a central controller or any sensor on the network. The ICAM is capable of working as a stand alone unit or it can be integrated into a network of other cameras. As a stand alone unit it sends its video images directly over a high speed serial digital link to a central controller for storage. A number of ICAMs can be multiplexed on a single coaxial cable. In this case, images are captured by each ICAM and held until the MIMS delivers commands for an individual image to be transmitted for review or storage. The ICAM can capture images on a time interval basis or upon receipt of a trigger signal from another sensor on the network. An ICAM which collects images based on other sensor signals, forms the basis of an intelligent {open_quotes}front end{close_quotes} image collection system. The burden of image review associated with present video systems is reduced by only recording the images with significant action. The cards used in the ICAM can also be used to decompress and display the compressed images on a NTSC/PAL monitor.

  20. Development of an exposure database and surveillance system for use by practicing OSH professionals.

    PubMed

    Van Dyke, M V; LaMontagne, A D; Martyny, J W; Ruttenber, A J

    2001-02-01

    This report summarizes the development of an occupational exposure database and surveillance system for use by health and safety professionals at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), a former nuclear weapons production facility. The site itself is currently in the cleanup stage with work expected to continue into 2006. The system was developed with the intent of helping health and safety personnel not only to manage and analyze exposure monitoring data, but also to identify exposure determinants during the highly variable cleanup work. Utilizing a series of focused meetings with health and safety personnel from two of the major contractors at RFETS, core data elements were established. These data elements were selected based on their utility for analysis and identification of exposure determinants. A task-based coding scheme was employed to better define the highly variable work. The coding scheme consisted of a two-tiered hierarchical list with a total of 34 possible combinations of work type and task. The data elements were incorporated into a Microsoft Access database with built-in data entry features to both promote consistency and limit entry choices to enable stratified analyses. In designing the system, emphasis was placed on the ability of end users to perform complex analyses and multiparameter queries to identify trends in their exposure data. A very flexible and user-friendly report generator was built into the system. This report generator allowed users to perform multiparameter queries using an intuitive system with very little training. In addition, a number of automated graphical analyses were built into the system, including exposure levels by any combination of building, date, employee, job classification, type of contaminant, work type or task, exposure levels over time, exposure levels relative to the permissible exposure limit (PELS), and distributions of exposure levels. Both of these interfaces, allow the user to "drill down" or

  1. Design and implementation of a Space-Time Intelligence System for disease surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacquez, Geoffrey M.; Greiling, Dunrie A.; Kaufmann, Andrew M.

    2005-05-01

    Modeling chronic and infectious diseases entails tracking and describing individuals and their attributes (such as disease status, date of diagnosis, risk factors and so on) as they move and change through space and time. Using Geographic Information Systems, researchers can model, visualize and query spatial data, but their ability to address time has been limited by the lack of temporal referencing in the underlying data structures. In this paper, we discuss issues in designing data structures, indexing, and queries for spatio-temporal data within the context of health surveillance. We describe a space-time object model that treats modeled individuals as a chain of linked observations comprised of an ID, space-time coordinate, and time-referenced attributes. Movement models for these modeled individuals are functions that may be simple (e.g. linear, using vector representation) or more complex. We present several spatial, temporal, spatio-temporal and epidemiological queries emergent from the data model. We demonstrate this approach in a representative application, a simulation of the spread of influenza in a hospital ward.

  2. A MicroRNA precursor surveillance system in quality control of MicroRNA synthesis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuhang; Zheng, Qi; Vrettos, Nicholas; Maragkakis, Manolis; Alexiou, Panagiotis; Gregory, Brian D; Mourelatos, Zissimos

    2014-09-18

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are essential for regulation of gene expression. Though numerous miRNAs have been identified by high-throughput sequencing, few precursor miRNAs (pre-miRNAs) are experimentally validated. Here we report a strategy for constructing high-throughput sequencing libraries enriched for full-length pre-miRNAs. We find widespread and extensive uridylation of Argonaute (Ago)-bound pre-miRNAs, which is primarily catalyzed by two terminal uridylyltransferases: TUT7 and TUT4. Uridylation by TUT7/4 not only polishes pre-miRNA 3' ends, but also facilitates their degradation by the exosome, preventing clogging of Ago with defective species. We show that the exosome exploits distinct substrate preferences of DIS3 and RRP6, its two catalytic subunits, to distinguish productive from defective pre-miRNAs. Furthermore, we identify a positive feedback loop formed by the exosome and TUT7/4 in triggering uridylation and degradation of Ago-bound pre-miRNAs. Our study reveals a pre-miRNA surveillance system that comprises TUT7, TUT4, and the exosome in quality control of miRNA synthesis. PMID:25175028

  3. Evaluation of the notifiable diseases surveillance system in sanyati district, Zimbabwe, 2010-2011

    PubMed Central

    Maponga, Brian Abel; Chirundu, Daniel; Shambira, Gerald; Gombe, Notion Tafara; Tshimanga, Mufuta; Bangure, Donewell

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The Notifiable disease surveillance system (NDSS) was established in Zimbabwe through the Public Health Act. Between January and August 2011, 14 dog bites were treated at Kadoma Hospital. Eighty-six doses of anti-rabies vaccine were dispensed. One suspected rabies case was reported, without epidemiological investigations. The discrepancy may imply under reporting of Notifiable Diseases. The study was conducted to evaluate the NDSS in Sanyati district. Methods A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted. Healthcare workers in selected health facilities in urban, rural, and private and public sector were interviewed using questionnaires. Checklists were used to assess resource availability and guide records review of notification forms. Epi InfoTM was used to generate frequencies, proportions and Chi Square tests at 5% level. Results We recruited 69 participants, from 16 facilities. Twenty six percent recalled at least 9 Notifiable diseases, 72% correctly mentioned the T1 form for notification, 39% correctly mentioned the forms completed in triplicate and 20% knew it was a legal requirement to notify. Ninety six percent of respondents indicated willingness to participate, whilst 41% had ever received feedback. Three out of 16 health facilities had T1 forms. Conclusion NDSS is useful, acceptable, simple, and sensitive. NDSS is threatened by lack of T1 forms, poor feedback and knowledge of health workers on NDSS. T1 forms and guidelines for completing the forms were distributed to all health facilities, public and private sector. On the job training of health workers through tutorials, supervision and feedback was conducted. PMID:25870733

  4. Complex morphology small targets detection based on spatial-temporal sparse recovery in infrared surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Miao; Wang, Qi; Li, Jun; Long, Yunli; Zheng, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Complex morphology target, which is size-varying and shape-varying, is a great challenge for infrared surveillance system. In this paper, temporal low-rank and sparse decomposition model and spatial low-rank and sparse decomposition model are designed respectively. Subsequently, a joint spatial-temporal detection method of complex morphology target is presented. Firstly, initial background subspace is obtained based on training sequence which does not contain infrared target. Secondly, temporal target image is recovered by l1 minimization after projecting orthogonal to background subspace. Thirdly, original image is decomposed into background image and spatial target image using inexact augmented Lagrange multipliers approach. Fourthly, by fusing the two target images, the possible small targets can be extracted well. Finally, background subspace is updated based on incremental singular value decomposition algorithm. The experimental results show that our method is effective and robust to detect complex morphology infrared targets. In particular, the proposed method can extract targets accurately, which is important for target recognition.

  5. Using mortuary statistics in the development of an injury surveillance system in Ghana.

    PubMed Central

    London, Jason; Mock, Charles; Abantanga, Francis A.; Quansah, Robert E.; Boateng, K. A.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop, in a mortuary setting, a pilot programme for improving the accuracy of records of deaths caused by injury. METHODS: The recording of injury-related deaths was upgraded at the mortuary of the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Kumasi, Ghana, in 1996 through the creation of a prospectively gathered database. FINDINGS: There was an increase in the number of deaths reported annually as attributable to injury from 72 before 1995 to 633 in 1996-99. Injuries accounted for 8.6% of all deaths recorded in the mortuary and for 12% of deaths in the age range 15-59 years; 80% of deaths caused by injury occurred outside the hospital and thus would not have been indicated in hospital statistics; 88% of injury-related deaths were associated with transport, and 50% of these involved injuries to pedestrians. CONCLUSIONS: Injury was a significant cause of mortality in this urban African setting, especially among adults of working age. The reporting of injury-related deaths in a mortuary was made more complete and accurate by means of simple inexpensive methods. This source of data could make a significant contribution to an injury surveillance system, along with hospital records and police accident reports. PMID:12077610

  6. Surveillance and Processing of Foreign DNA by the Escherichia coli CRISPR-Cas System.

    PubMed

    Redding, Sy; Sternberg, Samuel H; Marshall, Myles; Gibb, Bryan; Bhat, Prashant; Guegler, Chantal K; Wiedenheft, Blake; Doudna, Jennifer A; Greene, Eric C

    2015-11-01

    CRISPR-Cas adaptive immune systems protect bacteria and archaea against foreign genetic elements. In Escherichia coli, Cascade (CRISPR-associated complex for antiviral defense) is an RNA-guided surveillance complex that binds foreign DNA and recruits Cas3, a trans-acting nuclease helicase for target degradation. Here, we use single-molecule imaging to visualize Cascade and Cas3 binding to foreign DNA targets. Our analysis reveals two distinct pathways dictated by the presence or absence of a protospacer-adjacent motif (PAM). Binding to a protospacer flanked by a PAM recruits a nuclease-active Cas3 for degradation of short single-stranded regions of target DNA, whereas PAM mutations elicit an alternative pathway that recruits a nuclease-inactive Cas3 through a mechanism that is dependent on the Cas1 and Cas2 proteins. These findings explain how target recognition by Cascade can elicit distinct outcomes and support a model for acquisition of new spacer sequences through a mechanism involving processive, ATP-dependent Cas3 translocation along foreign DNA. PMID:26522594

  7. Public health consequences of mercury spills: Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance system, 1993-1998.

    PubMed Central

    Zeitz, Perri; Orr, Maureen F; Kaye, Wendy E

    2002-01-01

    We analyzed data from states that participated in the Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (HSEES) system maintained by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry to describe the public health consequences of mercury releases. From 1993 through 1998, HSEES captured 406 events in which mercury was the only substance released. Schools and universities, private residences, and health care facilities were the most frequent locations involved in mercury events, and human error was the contributing factor for most of the releases. Fourteen persons experienced adverse health effects as a result of the releases. An additional 31 persons had documented elevated levels of mercury in the blood. No fatalities resulted. Evacuations were ordered in 90 (22%) of the events, and the length of evacuation ranged from 1 hr to 46 days. Mercury spills have a significant public health impact and economic burden. Some actions that could potentially lessen the consequences of mercury spills are to switch to mercury-free alternatives, train people in the safe handling and disposal of mercury, and keep mercury securely stored when it is necessary to have it on hand. PMID:11836139

  8. Comparison of provisional with final notifiable disease case counts - National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System, 2009.

    PubMed

    2013-09-13

    States report notifiable disease cases to CDC through the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS). This allows CDC to assist with public health action and monitor infectious diseases across jurisdictional boundaries nationwide. The Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) is used to disseminate these data on infectious disease incidence. The extent to which the weekly notifiable conditions are overreported or underreported can affect public health understanding of changes in the burden, distribution, and trends in disease, which is essential for control of communicable diseases. NNDSS encourages state health departments to notify CDC of a case when initially reported. These cases are included in the weekly provisional counts. The status of reported cases can change after further investigation by the states, resulting in differences between provisional and final counts. Increased knowledge of these differences can help in guiding the use of information from NNDSS. To quantify the extent to which final counts differ from provisional counts of notifiable infectious disease in the United States, CDC analyzed 2009 NNDSS data for 67 conditions. The results of this analysis demonstrate that for five conditions, final case counts were lower than provisional counts, but for 59 conditions, final counts were higher than provisional counts. The median difference between final and provisional counts was 16.7%; differences were ≤20% for 39 diseases but >50% for 12. These differences occur for various diseases and in all states. Provisional case counts should be interpreted with caution and an understanding of the reporting process. PMID:24025757

  9. Computer-simulated biopsy marking system for endoscopic surveillance of gastric lesions: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Hu, Weiling; Wang, Bin; Sun, Leimin; Chen, Shujie; Wang, Liangjing; Wang, Kan; Wu, Jiaguo; Kim, John J; Liu, Jiquan; Dai, Ning; Duan, Huilong; Si, Jianmin

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopic tattoo with India ink injection for surveillance of premalignant gastric lesions is technically cumbersome and may not be durable. The aim of the study is to evaluate the accuracy of a novel, computer-simulated biopsy marking system (CSBMS) developed for the endoscopic marking of gastric lesions. Twenty-five patients with history of gastric intestinal metaplasia received both CSBMS-guided marking and India ink injection in five points in the stomach at index endoscopy. A second endoscopy was performed at three months. Primary outcome was accuracy of CSBMS (distance between CSBMS probe-guided site and tattoo site measured by CSBMS). The mean accuracy of CSBMS at angularis was 5.3 ± 2.2 mm, antral lesser curvature 5.7 ± 1.4 mm, antral greater curvature 6.1 ± 1.1 mm, antral anterior wall 6.9 ± 1.6 mm, and antral posterior wall 6.9 ± 1.6 mm. CSBMS (2.3 ± 0.9 versus 12.5 ± 4.6 seconds; P = 0.02) required less procedure time compared to endoscopic tattooing. No adverse events were encountered. CSBMS accurately identified previously marked gastric sites by endoscopic tattooing within 1 cm on follow-up endoscopy. PMID:25954747

  10. Comparison of 2 Disability Measures, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Courtney-Long, Elizabeth A.; Okoro, Catherine A.; Carroll, Dianna D.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Beginning in 2013, in addition to the 2-item disability question set asked since 2001, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) began using 5 of the 6 items from the US Department of Health and Human Services–recommended disability question set. We assess and compare disability prevalence using the 2-question and 5-question sets and describe characteristics of respondents who identified as having a disability using each question set. Methods We used data from the 2013 BRFSS to estimate the prevalence of disability for each question set and the 5 specific types of disability. Among respondents identified by each disability question set, we calculated the prevalence of selected demographic characteristics, health conditions, health behaviors, and health status. Results With the 2-question set, 21.6% of adults had a disability and with the 5-question set, 22.7% of adults had disability. A total of 51.2% of adults who identified as having a disability with either the 2-question or 5-question set reported having disabilities with both sets. Adults with different disability types differed by demographic and health characteristics. Conclusion The inclusion of the 5 new disability questions in BRFSS provides a level of detail that can help develop targeted interventions and programs and can guide the adaptation of existing health promotion programs to be more inclusive of adults who experience specific types of disabilities. PMID:27513997

  11. Acoustic signature recognition technique for Human-Object Interactions (HOI) in persistent surveillance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkilani, Amjad; Shirkhodaie, Amir

    2013-05-01

    Handling, manipulation, and placement of objects, hereon called Human-Object Interaction (HOI), in the environment generate sounds. Such sounds are readily identifiable by the human hearing. However, in the presence of background environment noises, recognition of minute HOI sounds is challenging, though vital for improvement of multi-modality sensor data fusion in Persistent Surveillance Systems (PSS). Identification of HOI sound signatures can be used as precursors to detection of pertinent threats that otherwise other sensor modalities may miss to detect. In this paper, we present a robust method for detection and classification of HOI events via clustering of extracted features from training of HOI acoustic sound waves. In this approach, salient sound events are preliminary identified and segmented from background via a sound energy tracking method. Upon this segmentation, frequency spectral pattern of each sound event is modeled and its features are extracted to form a feature vector for training. To reduce dimensionality of training feature space, a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) technique is employed to expedite fast classification of test feature vectors, a kd-tree and Random Forest classifiers are trained for rapid classification of training sound waves. Each classifiers employs different similarity distance matching technique for classification. Performance evaluations of classifiers are compared for classification of a batch of training HOI acoustic signatures. Furthermore, to facilitate semantic annotation of acoustic sound events, a scheme based on Transducer Mockup Language (TML) is proposed. The results demonstrate the proposed approach is both reliable and effective, and can be extended to future PSS applications.

  12. Pediatric Genital Injury: An Analysis of the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System

    PubMed Central

    Casey, Jessica T.; Bjurlin, Marc A.; Cheng, Earl Y.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe the characteristics of pediatric genital injuries presenting to United States emergency departments (EDs). Methods A retrospective cohort study utilizing the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) from 1991-2010 to evaluate pediatric genital injuries was performed. Results Pediatric genital injuries represented 0.6% of all pediatric injuries with the incidence of injuries rising through the period studied, 1991-2010. The mean age at injury was 7.1 years old and was distributed 56.6% girls and 43.4% boys. A total of 43.3% had lacerations and 42.2% had contusions/abrasions. The majority of injuries occurred at home (65.9%), and the majority of patients (94.7%) were treated and released from the hospital. The most common consumer products associated with pediatric genital trauma were: bicycles (14.7% of all pediatric genital injuries), bathtubs (5.8%), daywear (5.6%), monkey bars (5.4%), and toilets (4.0%). Conclusion Although pediatric genital injuries represent a small proportion of overall injuries presenting to the ED, genital injuries continue to rise despite public health measures targeted to decrease childhood injury. Our results can be used to guide further prevention strategies for pediatric genital injury. PMID:23953603

  13. Mapping the environmental and socioeconomic coverage of the INDEPTH international health and demographic surveillance system network.

    PubMed

    Jia, Peng; Sankoh, Osman; Tatem, Andrew J

    2015-11-01

    The International Network for the Demographic Evaluation of Populations and their Health (INDEPTH) has produced reliable longitudinal data about the lives of people in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) through a global network of health and demographic surveillance system (HDSS) sites. Since reliable demographic data are scarce across many LMICs, we examine the environmental and socioeconomic (ES) similarities between existing HDSS sites and the rest of the LMICs. The HDSS sites were hierarchically grouped by the similarity of their ES conditions to quantify the ES variability between sites. The entire Africa and Asia region was classified to identify which regions were most similar to existing sites, based on available ES data. Results show that the current INDEPTH network architecture does a good job in representing ES conditions, but that great heterogeneities exist, even within individual countries. The results provide valuable information in determining the confidence with which relationships derived from present HDSS sites can be broadly extended to other areas, and to highlight areas where the new HDSS sites would improve significantly the ES coverage of the network. PMID:26454610

  14. Chronic Disease Disparities by County Economic Status and Metropolitan Classification, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Theis, Kristina A.; Self-Brown, Shannon; Roblin, Douglas W.; Barker, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Racial/ethnic disparities have been studied extensively. However, the combined influence of geographic location and economic status on specific health outcomes is less well studied. This study’s objective was to examine 1) the disparity in chronic disease prevalence in the United States by county economic status and metropolitan classification and 2) the social gradient by economic status. The association of hypertension, arthritis, and poor health with county economic status was also explored. Methods We used 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data. County economic status was categorized by using data on unemployment, poverty, and per capita market income. While controlling for sociodemographics and other covariates, we used multivariable logistic regression to evaluate the relationship between economic status and hypertension, arthritis, and self-rated health. Results Prevalence of hypertension, arthritis, and poor health in the poorest counties was 9%, 13%, and 15% higher, respectively, than in the most affluent counties. After we controlled for covariates, poor counties still had a higher prevalence of the studied conditions. Conclusion We found that residents of poor counties had a higher prevalence of poor health outcomes than affluent counties, even after we controlled for known risk factors. Further, the prevalence of poor health outcomes decreased as county economics improved. Findings suggest that poor counties would benefit from targeted public health interventions, better access to health care services, and improved food and built environments. PMID:27584875

  15. Survey of proposed functional requirements for a disturbance analysis and surveillance system

    SciTech Connect

    Sides, W.H. Jr.; Oh, C.B.; Knight, P.F.

    1980-10-01

    A program to enhance the capabilities of operators of nuclear power plants is being pursued by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The program includes improvements in plant monitoring, diagnostic and corrective action aids, operator-process communication, and operator training. Concerning diagnostic aids, a disturbance analysis and surveillance system (DASS) was considered which would monitor the plant for the approach or occurrence of disturbance conditions and would assist the operator in returning the plant to normal operation or to help mitigate the consequences of a failure condition or misoperation. The NRC had requested Oak Ridge National Laboratory to survey the functional requirements being proposed for a DASS. In fulfilling this task, the proposed requirements were categorized according to whether they could be realized in the short term and backfitted to existing plants or whether they could be realized only in the long term by incorporation into new plant designs. In addition, several recommendations concerning DASS development were made for consideration by the NRC. Finally, the effects of human factors on a DASS were evaluated, and the results are discussed in this report. 12 refs., 6 figs.

  16. A survey on acoustic signature recognition and classification techniques for persistent surveillance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirkhodaie, Amir; Alkilani, Amjad

    2012-06-01

    Application of acoustic sensors in Persistent Surveillance Systems (PSS) has received considerable attention over the last two decades because they can be rapidly deployed and have low cost. Conventional utilization of acoustic sensors in PSS spans a wide range of applications including: vehicle classification, target tracking, activity understanding, speech recognition, shooter detection, etc. This paper presents a current survey of physics-based acoustic signature classification techniques for outdoor sounds recognition and understanding. Particularly, this paper focuses on taxonomy and ontology of acoustic signatures resulted from group activities. The taxonomy and supportive ontology considered include: humanvehicle, human-objects, and human-human interactions. This paper, in particular, exploits applicability of several spectral analysis techniques as a means to maximize likelihood of correct acoustic source detection, recognition, and discrimination. Spectral analysis techniques based on Fast Fourier Transform, Discrete Wavelet Transform, and Short Time Fourier Transform are considered for extraction of features from acoustic sources. In addition, comprehensive overviews of most current research activities related to scope of this work are presented with their applications. Furthermore, future potential direction of research in this area is discussed for improvement of acoustic signature recognition and classification technology suitable for PSS applications.

  17. An on-line regional overpower surveillance system for Candu reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, D. J.; Caxaj, V.; Seidu, A. S.; Hartmann, W.; Sur, B.; McDonald, A.

    2006-07-01

    The current methodology for establishing Regional Overpower Protection (ROP) trip set-points for Canada Deuterium Uranium (Candu{sup R} reactors requires an extensive and detailed assessment of the plant based on a distribution of channel and bundle powers (flux shapes) calculated from a range of device configurations (e.g., zone controller levels, adjuster bank movements, mechanical control absorber movements, shut-off rod insertions) and a set of thermalhydraulic plant data (channel flows, reactor inlet-header temperatures, channel differential pressure). An on-line approach would provide an interface to assist operators in routine monitoring, diagnostic and maintenance activities by providing Critical Channel Powers (CCP) and ROP set points from instantaneous flux shapes derived from real-time detector readings and associated thermalhydraulic conditions. This paper describes an Advanced On-Line Regional Overpower Surveillance (AOL-ROS) system currently under development at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) for Candu reactors. Development has been based on an assessment using instantaneous operating data for the period February to April 2004 from a Candu 6 reactor located at Point Lepreau, New Brunswick (Canada). (authors)

  18. Malaria elimination in Isabel Province, Solomon Islands: establishing a surveillance-response system to prevent introduction and reintroduction of malaria

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The Solomon Islands National Malaria Programme is currently focused on intensified control and progressive elimination. Recent control efforts in Isabel Province have reduced their malaria incidence to 2.6/1,000 population in 2009 [1] whereas most neighbouring provinces have much higher incidences. A malaria surveillance-response system that involves testing all travellers entering Isabel Province using rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) to prevent cases being imported had been proposed by local health authorities. This study provides information on the feasibility and acceptability of implementing a new approach of surveillance and response in the context of low levels of indigenous malaria transmission in Isabel Province. Methods A total of 13 focus group discussions (FGD) and 22 key informant interviews (KII) were conducted in Isabel Province, Solomon Islands. Key topics included: the travel patterns of people to, from and within Isabel Province; the acceptability, community perceptions, attitudes and suggestions towards the proposed surveillance programme; and management of suspected malaria cases. This information was triangulated with data obtained from port authorities, airlines and passenger ships travelling to and from Isabel Province in the preceding two years. Results Travel within Isabel Province and to and from other provinces is common with marked seasonality. The majority of inter-provincial travel is done on scheduled public transport; namely passenger ships and aircrafts. In Isabel Province there is a healthy community spirit as well as high concern regarding malaria and its importation and there is currently effective malaria passive case detection and management. Conducting malaria screening at ports and airports would be acceptable to the community. Conclusion A robust surveillance-response system is essential when moving towards malaria elimination. Many factors contribute positively towards the feasibility of an RDT based malaria

  19. Semi-automated CCTV surveillance: the effects of system confidence, system accuracy and task complexity on operator vigilance, reliance and workload.

    PubMed

    Dadashi, N; Stedmon, A W; Pridmore, T P

    2013-09-01

    Recent advances in computer vision technology have lead to the development of various automatic surveillance systems, however their effectiveness is adversely affected by many factors and they are not completely reliable. This study investigated the potential of a semi-automated surveillance system to reduce CCTV operator workload in both detection and tracking activities. A further focus of interest was the degree of user reliance on the automated system. A simulated prototype was developed which mimicked an automated system that provided different levels of system confidence information. Dependent variable measures were taken for secondary task performance, reliance and subjective workload. When the automatic component of a semi-automatic CCTV surveillance system provided reliable system confidence information to operators, workload significantly decreased and spare mental capacity significantly increased. Providing feedback about system confidence and accuracy appears to be one important way of making the status of the automated component of the surveillance system more 'visible' to users and hence more effective to use. PMID:22704458

  20. An Intelligent Active Video Surveillance System Based on the Integration of Virtual Neural Sensors and BDI Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregorio, Massimo De

    In this paper we present an intelligent active video surveillance system currently adopted in two different application domains: railway tunnels and outdoor storage areas. The system takes advantages of the integration of Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) and symbolic Artificial Intelligence (AI). This hybrid system is formed by virtual neural sensors (implemented as WiSARD-like systems) and BDI agents. The coupling of virtual neural sensors with symbolic reasoning for interpreting their outputs, makes this approach both very light from a computational and hardware point of view, and rather robust in performances. The system works on different scenarios and in difficult light conditions.

  1. Design and development of a compact lidar/DIAL system for aerial surveillance of urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudio, P.; Gelfusa, M.; Malizia, A.; Richetta, M.; Antonucci, A.; Ventura, P.; Murari, A.; Vega, J.

    2013-10-01

    Recently surveying large areas in an automatic way, for early detection of harmful chemical agents, has become a strategic objective of defence and public health organisations. The Lidar-Dial techniques are widely recognized as a cost-effective alternative to monitor large portions of the atmosphere but, up to now, they have been mainly deployed as ground based stations. The design reported in this paper concerns the development of a Lidar-Dial system compact enough to be carried by a small airplane and capable of detecting sudden releases in air of harmful and/or polluting substances. The proposed approach consists of continuous monitoring of the area under surveillance with a Lidar type measurement. Once a significant increase in the density of backscattering substances is revealed, it is intended to switch to the Dial technique to identify the released chemicals and to determine its concentration. In this paper, the design of the proposed system is described and the simulations carried out to determine its performances are reported. For the Lidar measurements, commercially available Nd- YAG laser sources have already been tested and their performances, in combination with avalanche photodiodes, have been experimentally verified to meet the required specifications. With regard to the DIAL measurements, new compact CO2 laser sources are being investigated. The most promising candidate presents an energy per pulse of about 50 mJ typical, sufficient for a range of at least 500m. The laser also provides the so called "agile tuning" option that allows to quickly tune the wavelength. To guarantee continuous, automatic surveying of large areas, innovative solutions are required for the data acquisition, self monitoring of the system and data analysis. The results of the design, the simulations and some preliminary tests illustrate the potential of the chosen, integrated approach.

  2. CDI Systems Are Stably Maintained by a Cell-Contact Mediated Surveillance Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Annette J.; Leung, Nicole Y.; Hayes, Christopher S.; Low, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Contact-dependent growth inhibition (CDI) systems are widespread amongst Gram-negative bacteria where they play important roles in inter-cellular competition and biofilm formation. CDI+ bacteria use cell-surface CdiA proteins to bind neighboring bacteria and deliver C-terminal toxin domains. CDI+ cells also express CdiI immunity proteins that specifically neutralize toxins delivered from adjacent siblings. Genomic analyses indicate that cdi loci are commonly found on plasmids and genomic islands, suggesting that these Type 5 secretion systems are spread through horizontal gene transfer. Here, we examine whether CDI toxin and immunity activities serve to stabilize mobile genetic elements using a minimal F plasmid that fails to partition properly during cell division. This F plasmid is lost from Escherichia coli populations within 50 cell generations, but is maintained in ~60% of the cells after 100 generations when the plasmid carries the cdi gene cluster from E. coli strain EC93. By contrast, the ccdAB "plasmid addiction" module normally found on F exerts only a modest stabilizing effect. cdi-dependent plasmid stabilization requires the BamA receptor for CdiA, suggesting that plasmid-free daughter cells are inhibited by siblings that retain the CDI+ plasmid. In support of this model, the CDI+ F plasmid is lost rapidly from cells that carry an additional cdiI immunity gene on a separate plasmid. These results indicate that plasmid stabilization occurs through elimination of non-immune cells arising in the population via plasmid loss. Thus, genetic stabilization reflects a strong selection for immunity to CDI. After long-term passage for more than 300 generations, CDI+ plasmids acquire mutations that increase copy number and result in 100% carriage in the population. Together, these results show that CDI stabilizes genetic elements through a toxin-mediated surveillance mechanism in which cells that lose the CDI system are detected and eliminated by their siblings

  3. CDI Systems Are Stably Maintained by a Cell-Contact Mediated Surveillance Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Ruhe, Zachary C; Nguyen, Josephine Y; Chen, Annette J; Leung, Nicole Y; Hayes, Christopher S; Low, David A

    2016-06-01

    Contact-dependent growth inhibition (CDI) systems are widespread amongst Gram-negative bacteria where they play important roles in inter-cellular competition and biofilm formation. CDI+ bacteria use cell-surface CdiA proteins to bind neighboring bacteria and deliver C-terminal toxin domains. CDI+ cells also express CdiI immunity proteins that specifically neutralize toxins delivered from adjacent siblings. Genomic analyses indicate that cdi loci are commonly found on plasmids and genomic islands, suggesting that these Type 5 secretion systems are spread through horizontal gene transfer. Here, we examine whether CDI toxin and immunity activities serve to stabilize mobile genetic elements using a minimal F plasmid that fails to partition properly during cell division. This F plasmid is lost from Escherichia coli populations within 50 cell generations, but is maintained in ~60% of the cells after 100 generations when the plasmid carries the cdi gene cluster from E. coli strain EC93. By contrast, the ccdAB "plasmid addiction" module normally found on F exerts only a modest stabilizing effect. cdi-dependent plasmid stabilization requires the BamA receptor for CdiA, suggesting that plasmid-free daughter cells are inhibited by siblings that retain the CDI+ plasmid. In support of this model, the CDI+ F plasmid is lost rapidly from cells that carry an additional cdiI immunity gene on a separate plasmid. These results indicate that plasmid stabilization occurs through elimination of non-immune cells arising in the population via plasmid loss. Thus, genetic stabilization reflects a strong selection for immunity to CDI. After long-term passage for more than 300 generations, CDI+ plasmids acquire mutations that increase copy number and result in 100% carriage in the population. Together, these results show that CDI stabilizes genetic elements through a toxin-mediated surveillance mechanism in which cells that lose the CDI system are detected and eliminated by their siblings

  4. Evaluating the Use of an Electronic Death Registration System for Mortality Surveillance During and After Hurricane Sandy: New York City, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wenhui; Madsen, Ann M.; Wong, Howard; Das, Tara; Betancourt, Flor M.; Nicaj, Leze; Stayton, Catherine; Matte, Thomas; Begier, Elizabeth M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the use of New York City’s (NYC’s) electronic death registration system (EDRS) to conduct mortality surveillance during and after Hurricane Sandy. Methods. We used Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines for surveillance system evaluation to gather evidence on usefulness, flexibility, stability, timeliness, and quality. We assessed system components, interviewed NYC Health Department staff, and analyzed 2010 to 2012 death records. Results. Despite widespread disruptions, NYC’s EDRS was stable and collected timely mortality data that were adapted to provide storm surveillance with minimal additional resources. Direct-injury fatalities and trends in excess all-cause mortality were rapidly identified, providing useful information for response; however, the time and burden of establishing reports, adapting the system, and identifying indirect deaths limited surveillance. Conclusions. The NYC Health Department successfully adapted its EDRS for near real-time disaster-related mortality surveillance. Retrospective assessment of deaths, advanced methods for case identification and analysis, standardized reports, and system enhancements will further improve surveillance. Local, state, and federal partners would benefit from partnering with vital records to develop EDRSs for surveillance and to promote ongoing evaluation. PMID:26378834

  5. Q Fever in the United States: Summary of Case Reports from Two National Surveillance Systems, 2000–2012

    PubMed Central

    Dahlgren, F. Scott; McQuiston, Jennifer H.; Massung, Robert F.; Anderson, Alicia D.

    2015-01-01

    Q fever is a worldwide zoonosis historically associated with exposure to infected livestock. This study summarizes cases of Q fever, a notifiable disease in the United States, reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention through two national surveillance systems with onset during 2000–2012. The overall incidence rate during this time was 0.38 cases per million persons per year. The reported case fatality rate was 2.0%, and the reported hospitalization rate was 62%. Most cases (61%) did not report exposure to cattle, goats, or sheep, suggesting that clinicians should consider Q fever even in the absence of livestock exposure. The prevalence of drinking raw milk among reported cases of Q fever (8.4%) was more than twice the national prevalence for the practice. Passive surveillance systems for Q fever are likely impacted by underreporting and underdiagnosis because of the nonspecific presentation of Q fever. PMID:25404080

  6. Q fever in the United States: summary of case reports from two national surveillance systems, 2000-2012.

    PubMed

    Dahlgren, F Scott; McQuiston, Jennifer H; Massung, Robert F; Anderson, Alicia D

    2015-02-01

    Q fever is a worldwide zoonosis historically associated with exposure to infected livestock. This study summarizes cases of Q fever, a notifiable disease in the United States, reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention through two national surveillance systems with onset during 2000-2012. The overall incidence rate during this time was 0.38 cases per million persons per year. The reported case fatality rate was 2.0%, and the reported hospitalization rate was 62%. Most cases (61%) did not report exposure to cattle, goats, or sheep, suggesting that clinicians should consider Q fever even in the absence of livestock exposure. The prevalence of drinking raw milk among reported cases of Q fever (8.4%) was more than twice the national prevalence for the practice. Passive surveillance systems for Q fever are likely impacted by underreporting and underdiagnosis because of the nonspecific presentation of Q fever. PMID:25404080

  7. Utilization and viability of biologically-inspired algorithms in a dynamic multiagent camera surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mundhenk, Terrell N.; Dhavale, Nitin; Marmol, Salvador; Calleja, Elizabeth; Navalpakkam, Vidhya; Bellman, Kirstie; Landauer, Chris; Arbib, Michael A.; Itti, Laurent

    2003-10-01

    In view of the growing complexity of computational tasks and their design, we propose that certain interactive systems may be better designed by utilizing computational strategies based on the study of the human brain. Compared with current engineering paradigms, brain theory offers the promise of improved self-organization and adaptation to the current environment, freeing the programmer from having to address those issues in a procedural manner when designing and implementing large-scale complex systems. To advance this hypothesis, we discus a multi-agent surveillance system where 12 agent CPUs each with its own camera, compete and cooperate to monitor a large room. To cope with the overload of image data streaming from 12 cameras, we take inspiration from the primate"s visual system, which allows the animal to operate a real-time selection of the few most conspicuous locations in visual input. This is accomplished by having each camera agent utilize the bottom-up, saliency-based visual attention algorithm of Itti and Koch (Vision Research 2000;40(10-12):1489-1506) to scan the scene for objects of interest. Real time operation is achieved using a distributed version that runs on a 16-CPU Beowulf cluster composed of the agent computers. The algorithm guides cameras to track and monitor salient objects based on maps of color, orientation, intensity, and motion. To spread camera view points or create cooperation in monitoring highly salient targets, camera agents bias each other by increasing or decreasing the weight of different feature vectors in other cameras, using mechanisms similar to excitation and suppression that have been documented in electrophysiology, psychophysics and imaging studies of low-level visual processing. In addition, if cameras need to compete for computing resources, allocation of computational time is weighed based upon the history of each camera. A camera agent that has a history of seeing more salient targets is more likely to obtain

  8. Innovations in health and demographic surveillance systems to establish the causal impacts of HIV policies

    PubMed Central

    Herbst, Kobus; Law, Matthew; Geldsetzer, Pascal; Tanser, Frank; Harling, Guy; Bärnighausen, Till

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of Review Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems (HDSS), in conjunction with HIV treatment cohorts, have made important contributions to our understanding of the impact of HIV treatment and treatment-related interventions in sub-Saharan Africa. The purpose of this review is to describe and discuss innovations in data collection and data linkage that will create new opportunities to establish the impacts of HIV treatment, as well as policies affecting the treatment cascade, on population health, economic and social outcomes. Recent Findings Novel approaches to routine collection of (i) biomarkers, (ii) behavioural data, (iii) spatial data, (iv) social network information, (v) migration events and (vi) mobile phone records can significantly strengthen the potential of HDSS to generate exposure and outcome data for causal analysis of HIV treatment impact and policies affecting the HIV treatment cascade. Additionally, by linking HDSS data to health service administration, education, and welfare service records, researchers can substantial broaden opportunities to establish how HIV treatment affects health and economic outcomes, when delivered through public-sector health systems and at scale. Summary As the HIV treatment scale-up in sub-Saharan Africa enters its second decade, it is becoming increasingly important to understand the long-term causal impacts of large-scale HIV treatment and related policies on broader population health outcomes, such as non-communicable diseases, as well as on economic and social outcomes, such as family welfare and children’s educational attainment. By collecting novel data and linking existing data to public-sector records, HDSS can create near-unique opportunities to contribute to this research agenda. PMID:26371462

  9. Introducing infant and young child feeding indicators into national nutrition surveillance systems: lessons from Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Hajeebhoy, Nemat; Nguyen, Phuong Hong; Tran, Do Thanh; de Onis, Mercedes

    2013-09-01

    A comprehensive set of infant and young child feeding (IYCF) indicators for international use was published in 2008. We describe the process followed to incorporate these indicators into Vietnam's National Nutrition Surveillance System (NNSS). Following its establishment in 1980, the National Institute of Nutrition introduced the Vietnam NNSS to provide an evidence base for nutrition interventions. While anthropometric indicators based on international standards were regularly used for programme purposes, data on IYCF could not be collected with similar rigor until 2010. In 2009, with support from Alive & Thrive and UNICEF, the NNSS questionnaire was reviewed and additional content incorporated to measure IYCF practices. The tool was pilot-tested in 10 provinces and revised before nationwide roll-out in 2010.The tool comprises four pages, the first three of which focus on collecting data relating to maternal nutrition and IYCF. The last page is flexibly designed to incorporate planners' data requests for other relevant activities (e.g. mass media interventions, food security). Once analysed, the data are presented in a report comprising provincial profiles and maps illustrating IYCF practices. Importantly, the IYCF data have been used for policy advocacy (e.g. maternity leave legislation, advertisement law), programme planning, trend monitoring and capacity building. Adoption of the IYCF indicators was successful due to strategic timing, a phased approach, buy-in from stakeholders and capacity building at all levels to ensure the quality and use of data. Further revisions to the NNSS (e.g. sampling methodology, quality assurance systems) will be important to ensure the reliability of indicators. PMID:24074323

  10. Performance of public health surveillance systems during the influenza A(H1N1) pandemic in the Americas: testing a new method based on Benford's Law.

    PubMed

    Idrovo, A J; Fernández-Niño, J A; Bojórquez-Chapela, I; Moreno-Montoya, J

    2011-12-01

    The A(H1N1) influenza pandemic has been a challenge for public health surveillance systems in all countries. An objective evaluation has not been conducted, as yet, of the performance of those systems during the pandemic. This paper presents an algorithm based on Benford's Law and the mortality ratio in order to evaluate the quality of the data and the sensitivity of surveillance systems. It analyses records of confirmed cases reported to the Pan American Health Organization by its 35 member countries between epidemiological weeks 13 and 47 in 2009. Seventeen countries did not fulfil Benford's Law, and mortality exceeded the regional average in 40% of the countries. The results suggest uneven performance by surveillance systems in the different countries, with the most frequent problem being low diagnostic coverage. Benford's Law proved to be a useful tool for the evaluation of a public health surveillance system's performance. PMID:21342609

  11. Remote sensing observing systems of the Meteorological Service of Catalonia (SMC): application to thunderstorm surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argemí, O.; Bech, J.; Pineda, N.; Rigo, T.

    2009-09-01

    Remote sensing observing systems of the Meteorological Service of Catalonia (SMC) have been upgraded during the last years with newer technologies and enhancements. Recent changes on the weather radar network have been motivated to improve precipitation estimates by radar as well as meteorological surveillance in the area of Catalonia. This region has approximately 32,000 square kilometres and is located in the NE of Spain, limited by the Pyrenees to the North (with mountains exceeding 3000 m) and by the Mediterranean Sea to the East and South. In the case of the total lightning (intra-cloud and cloud-to-ground lightning) detection system, the current upgrades will assure a better lightning detection efficiency and location accuracy. Both upgraded systems help to enhance the tracking and the study of thunderstorm events. Initially, the weather radar network was designed to cover the complex topography of Catalonia and surrounding areas to support the regional administration, which includes civil protection and water authorities. The weather radar network was upgraded in 2008 with the addition of a new C-band Doppler radar system, which is located in the top of La Miranda Mountain (Tivissa) in the southern part of Catalonia enhancing the coverage, particularly to the South and South-West. Technically the new radar is very similar to the last one installed in 2003 (Creu del Vent radar), using a 4 m antenna (i.e., 1 degree beam width), a Vaisala-Sigmet RVP-8 digital receiver and processor and a low power transmitter using a Travelling Wave Tube (TWT) amplifier. This design allows using pulse-compression techniques to enhance radial resolution and sensitivity. Currently, the SMC is upgrading its total lightning detection system, operational since 2003. While a fourth sensor (Amposta) was added last year to enlarge the system coverage, all sensors and central processor will be upgraded this year to the new Vaisala’s total lightning location technology. The new LS8000

  12. A new surveillance system for undiagnosed serious infectious illness for the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games.

    PubMed

    Heinsbroek, E; Said, B; Kirkbride, H

    2012-01-01

    A new surveillance system was developed to detect possible new or emerging infections presenting as undiagnosed serious infectious illness (USII) for use during the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. Designated clinicians in sentinel adult and paediatric intensive care units (ICU/ PICUs) reported USII using an online reporting tool or provided a weekly nil notification. Reported cases were investigated for epidemiological links. A pilot study was undertaken for six months between January and July 2011 to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of the system. In this six-month period, 5 adults and 13 children were reported by six participating units (3 ICUs, 3 PICUs). Of these 18 patients, 12 were reported within four days after admission to an ICU/PICU. Nine patients were subsequently diagnosed and were thus excluded from the surveillance. Therefore, only nine cases of USII were reported. No clustering was identified.On the basis of the pilot study, we conclude that the system is able to detect cases of USII and is feasible and acceptable to users. USII surveillance has been extended to a total of 19 sentinel units in London and the south-east of England during the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. PMID:22874459

  13. Multi-modal low cost mobile indoor surveillance system on the Robust Artificial Intelligence-based Defense Electro Robot (RAIDER)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, Binu M.; Diskin, Yakov; Asari, Vijayan K.

    2012-10-01

    We present an autonomous system capable of performing security check routines. The surveillance machine, the Clearpath Husky robotic platform, is equipped with three IP cameras with different orientations for the surveillance tasks of face recognition, human activity recognition, autonomous navigation and 3D reconstruction of its environment. Combining the computer vision algorithms onto a robotic machine has given birth to the Robust Artificial Intelligencebased Defense Electro-Robot (RAIDER). The end purpose of the RAIDER is to conduct a patrolling routine on a single floor of a building several times a day. As the RAIDER travels down the corridors off-line algorithms use two of the RAIDER's side mounted cameras to perform a 3D reconstruction from monocular vision technique that updates a 3D model to the most current state of the indoor environment. Using frames from the front mounted camera, positioned at the human eye level, the system performs face recognition with real time training of unknown subjects. Human activity recognition algorithm will also be implemented in which each detected person is assigned to a set of action classes picked to classify ordinary and harmful student activities in a hallway setting.The system is designed to detect changes and irregularities within an environment as well as familiarize with regular faces and actions to distinguish potentially dangerous behavior. In this paper, we present the various algorithms and their modifications which when implemented on the RAIDER serves the purpose of indoor surveillance.

  14. Development of integrated surveillance systems for the management of tuberculosis in New Zealand wildlife

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, DP; Ramsey, DSL; de Lisle, GW; Bosson, M; Cross, ML; Nugent, G

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Disease surveillance for the management of bovine tuberculosis (TB) in New Zealand has focussed, to a large extent, on the development of tools specific for monitoring Mycobacterium bovis infection in wildlife. Diagnostic techniques have been modified progressively over 30 years of surveillance of TB in wildlife, from initial characterisation of gross TB lesions in a variety of wildlife, through development of sensitive culture techniques to identify viable mycobacteria, to molecular identification of individual M. bovis strains. Of key importance in disease surveillance has been the elucidation of the roles that different wildlife species play in the transmission of infection, specifically defining brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) as true maintenance hosts compared to those that are predominantly spillover hosts, but which may serve as useful sentinel species to indicate TB persistence. Epidemiological modelling has played a major role in TB surveillance, initially providing the theoretical support for large-scale possum population control and setting targets at which control effort should be deployed to ensure disease eradication. As TB prevalence in livestock and wildlife declined throughout the 2000s, more varied field tools were developed to gather surveillance data from the diminishing possum populations, and to provide information on changing TB prevalence. Accordingly, ever more precise (but disparate) surveillance information began to be integrated into multi-faceted decision-assist models to support TB management decisions, particularly to provide informed parameters at which control effort could be halted, culminating in the Proof of Freedom modelling framework that now allows an area to be declared TB-free within chosen confidence limits. As New Zealand moves from large-scale TB control to regional eradication of disease in the coming years, further integrative models will need to be developed to support management decisions, based on

  15. Vaccine Safety Surveillance Systems: Critical Elements and Lessons Learned in the Development of the US Vaccine Safety Datalink’s Rapid Cycle Analysis Capabilities

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    Since the late 1990s, there have been tremendous strides made in improving the capacity for carrying out routine active surveillance of new vaccines in the United States. These strides have led to new surveillance systems that are now in place. Some of the critical elements that are part of successful vaccine or drug safety surveillance systems include their use of (i) longitudinal data from a discrete enumerated population base, (ii) frequent, routine transfers of small amounts of data that are easy to collect and collate, (iii) avoidance of mission creep, (iv) statistical capabilities, (v) creation of an “industrialized process” approach and (vi) political safe harbor. PMID:24300403

  16. Antifreeze Protein (AFP) and Antifreeze Glycoprotein (AFGP) Kinetics at the Ice/Solution Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zepeda, Salvador; Nakaya, Hiroyuki; Uda, Yukihiro; Yokoyama, Etsuro; Furukawa, Yoshinori

    2007-03-01

    AFPs and AFGPs found in some fish, plants and insects are a necessary tool for surviving sub-freezing environments. They occur in a wide range of compositions and structure, but to some extent they all accomplish the same functions: they suppress the freezing temperature, inhibit recrystallization, and modify ice crystal growth. Here, we observe the exact location of AFGPs, Type I and Type III AFPs by 1-directional growth experiments using fluorescence and phase contrast microscopy as well as free growth experiments using 3-d confocal microscopy. In all cases, the proteins clearly adsorb at the interface. By comparing the fluorescent image with the corresponding phase contrast image we find that AFGPs incorporate only into the solid in veins and not into the ice lattice structure. Type I AFPs show similar behavior as AFGPs, but type III AFPs adsorb to specific planes within the ice lattice. We have also calculated the diffusion constants and the surface adsorption concentration from both types of experiments. Our results indicated that the different types of AFPs or AFGPs accomplish essentially the same function in slightly different ways and that it is not necessary for the protein adsorption to the ice interface to be as rigid as once thought.

  17. Lentivirally Engineered DC activate AFP-specific T cells which Inhibit Hepatocellular Carcinoma Growth in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Butterfield, Lisa H.; Fu, Xiaohui; Song, Zhenshun; Zhang, Xiaoping; Lu, Chongde; Ding, Guanghui; Wu, Mengchao

    2012-01-01

    Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), a tumor-associated antigen for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), is an established biomarker for HCC. In this study, we created a lentivirus expressing the AFP antigen and investigated the antitumor activity of AFP-specific CD8+ T cells, with and without CD4+ T cells, which were activated by either AFP peptide-pulsed or Lenti-AFP-engineered DC in vitro and in vivo. AFP-specific T cells could efficiently kill HepG2 HCC cells, and produced IL-2, IFN-γ, TNF-α, perforin and granzyme B, with minimal production of IL-10 (a negative regulator of T cell activation). Both strategies activated AFP-specific T cells, but the lentiviral strategy was superior by several measures. Data also support an impact of CD4+ T cells in supporting anti-tumor activity. In vivo studies in a xenograft HCC tumor model also showed that AFP-specific T cells could markedly suppress HCC tumor formation and morbidity in tumor-bearing nude mice, as well as regulate serum levels of related cytokines and antitumor molecules. In parallel with human in vitro T cell cultures, the in vivo model demonstrated superior anti-tumor effects and Th1-skewing with Lenti-AFP-DC. This study supports the superiority of a full-length antigen lentivirus-based DC vaccine strategy over peptides, and provides new insight into the design of DC-based vaccines. PMID:21491085

  18. Efficient super-resolution image reconstruction applied to surveillance video captured by small unmanned aircraft systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Qiang; Schultz, Richard R.; Chu, Chee-Hung Henry

    2008-04-01

    The concept surrounding super-resolution image reconstruction is to recover a highly-resolved image from a series of low-resolution images via between-frame subpixel image registration. In this paper, we propose a novel and efficient super-resolution algorithm, and then apply it to the reconstruction of real video data captured by a small Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS). Small UAS aircraft generally have a wingspan of less than four meters, so that these vehicles and their payloads can be buffeted by even light winds, resulting in potentially unstable video. This algorithm is based on a coarse-to-fine strategy, in which a coarsely super-resolved image sequence is first built from the original video data by image registration and bi-cubic interpolation between a fixed reference frame and every additional frame. It is well known that the median filter is robust to outliers. If we calculate pixel-wise medians in the coarsely super-resolved image sequence, we can restore a refined super-resolved image. The primary advantage is that this is a noniterative algorithm, unlike traditional approaches based on highly-computational iterative algorithms. Experimental results show that our coarse-to-fine super-resolution algorithm is not only robust, but also very efficient. In comparison with five well-known super-resolution algorithms, namely the robust super-resolution algorithm, bi-cubic interpolation, projection onto convex sets (POCS), the Papoulis-Gerchberg algorithm, and the iterated back projection algorithm, our proposed algorithm gives both strong efficiency and robustness, as well as good visual performance. This is particularly useful for the application of super-resolution to UAS surveillance video, where real-time processing is highly desired.

  19. Distribution of asthma by occupation: Washington State Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Data, 2006–2009

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Zihong Joyce; Reeb-Whitaker, Carolyn; Bonauto, David K.; Rauser, Edmund

    2014-01-01

    Objective Objective: To estimate the prevalence of asthma in workers by occupation in Washington State. Methods: Data from the 2006–2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and the BRFSS Asthma Call-Back Survey (ACBS) in Washington State (WA) were analyzed. Using state-added and coded Industry and Occupation questions, we calculated prevalence ratios (PRs) for 19 occupational groups. Results: Of the 41 935 respondents who were currently employed during 2006–2009, the prevalence of current asthma was 8.1% [95% confidence interval (CI) 7.8–8.5%] When compared with the reference group of executive, administration and managerial occupations, three occupational groups had significantly (p < 0.05) higher PRs of current asthma: “Teachers, all levels, and Counselors’ (PR 1.3, 95% CI 1.1–1. 6%); ‘Administrative Support, including Clerical” (PR 1. 5, 95% CI 1.2–1.9%); and “Other Health Services” (PR 1.5, 95% CI 1.2–1.9). Half of the 2511 ACBS respondent workers (55.1%) indicated that they believed exposure at work had caused or worsened their asthma, but only 10.7% had ever spoken with a health care professional about their asthma being work related. Conclusions: Some occupations have a higher prevalence of current asthma than other occupations. The systematic collection of industry and occupation data can help identify worker populations with a high burden of asthma and can be used to target disease prevention efforts as well as to aid clinician recognition and treatment. Workers indicated that work-related asthma exposures are not discussed with their health care provider and this communication gap has implications for asthma management. PMID:24995660

  20. Depressive Symptoms and Behavior-Related Risk Factors, Italian Population-Based Surveillance System, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Gigantesco, Antonella; Baldissera, Sandro; Masocco, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Depression may increase the likelihood of adopting behaviors risky to health. Population studies investigating the association between depressive symptoms and behavior-related risk factors are lacking in Italy. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of various self-reported behavior-related risk factors and to study their associations with current depressive symptoms in the Italian adult general population. Methods Data collected in 2013 from people aged 18 to 69 years participating in the Italian behavioral risk factor surveillance system were used for the analysis. Indicators of no leisure-time physical activity, obesity, cigarette smoking, and excessive alcohol consumption were investigated. Depressive symptoms were explored through the Patient Health Questionnaire-2. Results In the survey sample of 39,463 participants, 34.4% of adults engaged in no leisure-time physical activity, 26.2% were cigarette smokers, 11.5% were excessive alcohol consumers, and 10.3% were obese. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 6.2%. People with depressive symptoms were more likely to be physically inactive (adjusted prevalence ratio [APR], 1.13), cigarette smokers (APR, 1.34), obese (APR, 1.27) and excessive alcohol consumers (APR, 1.43) than those without depressive symptoms. Conclusion The contribution of this study to the existing evidence lies not just in confirming the association between depression and behavior-related risk factors in the Italian context but also in suggesting that programs for simultaneously improving people’s mental and physical health should be developed and implemented. PMID:26513439

  1. Tooth Loss and Stroke: Results from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Wiener, R. Constance

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Strokes are common events of significant morbidity and mortality. Poor oral conditions may share or exacerbate pathways that lead to stroke. Methods This study was a cross-sectional study of 410,939 participants from the 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Stroke was defined as the participant's response (yes/no) to the survey's question, “Has a doctor, nurse or other health professional ever told you that you had a stroke?” The definition for tooth loss was based upon participant's response to the survey's question, “How many of your permanent teeth have been removed because of tooth decay or gum disease?” Descriptive, Chi Square and logistic regression analyses were conducted. Other variables that are known etiologic factors were also included in the analysis. Results The participants with increasing numbers of teeth lost had increasing adjusted odds ratios for stroke independent of the other factors. In adjusted logistic regression analysis, the participants who had 1 to 5 missing teeth had an adjusted odds ratio (AOR) of 1.29 (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.17, 1.42), participants who had 6 or more, but not all missing teeth had an AOR of 1.68 (95% CI: 1.50, 1.88), and participants who were edentulous had an AOR of 1.86 (95% CI: 1.63, 2.11). Conclusion Evidence from this cross-sectional study indicates that tooth loss had a potential, although weak positive association as an independent factor in multivariable analysis with stroke. PMID:25325724

  2. The Added-Value of Using Participatory Approaches to Assess the Acceptability of Surveillance Systems: The Case of Bovine Tuberculosis in Belgium

    PubMed Central

    Calba, Clémentine; Goutard, Flavie Luce; Vanholme, Luc; Antoine-Moussiaux, Nicolas; Hendrikx, Pascal; Saegerman, Claude

    2016-01-01

    Context and Objective Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) surveillance in Belgium is essential to maintain the officially free status and to preserve animal and public health. An evaluation of the system is thus needed to ascertain the surveillance provides a precise description of the current situation in the country. The evaluation should assess stakeholders’ perceptions and expectations about the system due to the fact that the acceptability has an influence on the levels of sensitivity and timeliness of the surveillance system. The objective of the study was to assess the acceptability of the bTB surveillance in Belgium, using participatory tools and the OASIS flash tool (‘analysis tool for surveillance systems’). Methods For the participatory process, focus group discussions and individual interviews were implemented with representatives involved with the system, both from cattle and wildlife part of the surveillance. Three main tools were used: (i) relational diagrams associated with smileys, (ii) flow diagrams associated with proportional piling, and (iii) impact diagrams associated with proportional piling. A total of six criteria were assessed, among which five were scored on a scale from -1 to +1. For the OASIS flash tool, one full day meeting with representatives from stakeholders involved with the surveillance was organised. A total of 19 criteria linked to acceptability were scored on a scale from 0 to 3. Results and Conclusion Both methods highlighted a medium acceptability of the bTB surveillance. The main elements having a negative influence were the consequences of official notification of a bTB suspect case in a farm, the low remuneration paid to private veterinarians for execution of intradermal tuberculin tests and the practical difficulties about the containment of the animals. Based on the two evaluation processes, relevant recommendations to improve the surveillance were made. Based on the comparison between the two evaluation processes, the

  3. Expected performance and benefits of an advanced containment and surveillance system at the fast critical facility fca of jaeri

    SciTech Connect

    Mukaiyama, T.; Kuroi, H.

    1981-01-01

    This paper reports on the development and test of a personnel portal monitor for IAEA safeguards at the fast critical facility FCA. The main components of the portal are 1) the walk-through metal detector, 2) the visual surveillance system with CCTV, 3) the tamper indication system using multi sensors and 4) the remote monitoring capability through RECOVER system. The metal detector developed can detect a single coupon of metallic nuclear fuel plate (2 in. *2 in. *1/16 in.) regardless of the orientation of a fuel plate relative to the electromagnetic field generated in the metal detector. 3 refs.

  4. Early detection of pipeline integrity threats using a smart fiber optic surveillance system: the PIT-STOP project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, H. F.; Piote, D.; Tejedor, J.; Macias-Guarasa, J.; Pastor-Graells, J.; Martin-Lopez, S.; Corredera, P.; De Smet, F.; Postvoll, W.; Ahlen, C. H.; Gonzalez-Herraez, M.

    2015-09-01

    The preliminary results of a surveillance system set up for real time monitoring activities along a pipeline and analyzing for possible threats are presented. The system consists of a phi-OTDR based sensor used to monitor vibrations along an optical fiber combined with a pattern recognition system that classifies the recorded signals. The acoustic traces generated by the activities of different machines at various locations along a pipeline were recorded in the field. The signals, corresponding to machinery activities, were clearly distinguished from background noise. A threat classification rate of 68.11% with 55.55% false alarms was obtained.

  5. Surveillance and response systems for elimination of tropical diseases: summary of a thematic series in Infectious Diseases of Poverty.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xia; Yap, Peiling; Tanner, Marcel; Bergquist, Robert; Utzinger, Jürg; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2016-01-01

    The peer-reviewed journal Infectious Diseases of Poverty provides a new platform to engage with, and disseminate in an open-access format, science outside traditional disciplinary boundaries. The current piece reviews a thematic series on surveillance-response systems for elimination of tropical diseases. Overall, 22 contributions covering a broad array of diseases are featured - i.e. clonorchiasis, dengue, hepatitis, human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS), H7N9 avian influenza, lymphatic filariasis, malaria, Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), rabies, schistosomiasis and tuberculosis (TB). There are five scoping reviews, a commentary, a letter to the editor, an opinion piece and an editorial pertaining to the theme "Elimination of tropical disease through surveillance and response". The remaining 13 articles are original contributions mainly covering (i) drug resistance; (ii) innovation and validation in the field of mathematical modelling; (iii) elimination of infectious diseases; and (iv) social media reports on disease outbreak notifications released by national health authorities. Analysis of the authors' affiliations reveals that scientists from the People's Republic of China (P.R. China) are prominently represented. Possible explanations include the fact that the 2012 and 2014 international conferences pertaining to surveillance-response mechanisms were both hosted by the National Institute of Parasitic Diseases (NIPD) in Shanghai, coupled with P.R. China's growing importance with regard to the control of infectious diseases. Within 4 to 22 months of publication, three of the 22 contributions were viewed more than 10 000 times each. With sustained efforts focusing on relevant and strategic information towards control and elimination of infectious diseases, Infectious Diseases of Poverty has become a leading journal in the field of surveillance and response systems in infectious diseases and beyond. PMID:27179509

  6. Congenital anomalies in Canada 2013: a perinatal health surveillance report by the Public Health Agency of Canada's Canadian Perinatal Surveillance System.

    PubMed

    Irvine, B; Luo, W; León, J A

    2015-03-01

    Congenital Anomalies in Canada 2013: A Perinatal Health Surveillance Report is the second national surveillance report from the Public Health Agency of Canada dedicated to congenital anomalies. It provides comprehensive data on congenital anomalies in Canada, focussing on 6 categories of congenital anomalies: Down syndrome, neural tube defects, congenital heart defects, orofacial clefts, limb deficiency defects and gastroschisis. The report presents national-level birth prevalence data and temporal trends, provincial and territorial estimates, and international comparisons. Known risk factors, prevalence-related impacts of prenatal diagnosis and preventative measures are also discussed. PMID:25811402

  7. Cleanup worker exposures to hazardous chemicals at a former nuclear weapons plant: piloting of an exposure surveillance system.

    PubMed

    LaMontagne, A D; Van Dyke, M V; Martyny, J W; Ruttenber, A J

    2001-02-01

    Cleanup of former U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapons production facilities involves potential exposures to various hazardous chemicals. We have collaboratively developed and piloted an exposure database and surveillance system for cleanup worker hazardous chemical exposure data with a cleanup contractor at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS). A unique system feature is the incorporation of a 34-category work task-coding scheme. This report presents an overview of the data captured by this system during development and piloting from March 1995 through August 1998. All air samples collected were entered into the system. Of the 859 breathing zone samples collected, 103 unique employees and 39 unique compounds were represented. Breathing zone exposure levels were usually low (86% of breathing zone samples were below analytical limits of detection). The use of respirators and other exposure controls was high (87 and 88%, respectively). Occasional high-level excursions did occur. Detailed quantitative summaries are provided for the six most monitored compounds: asbestos, beryllium, carbon tetrachloride, chromium, lead, and methylene chloride. Task and job title data were successfully collected for most samples, and showed specific cleanup activities by pipe fitters to be the most commonly represented in the database. Importantly, these results demonstrate the feasibility of the implementation of integrated exposure database and surveillance systems by practicing industrial hygienists employed in industry as well as the preventive potential and research uses of such systems. This exposure database and surveillance system--the central features of which are applicable in any industrial work setting--has enabled one of the first systematic quantitative characterizations of DOE cleanup worker exposures to hazardous chemicals. PMID:11217724

  8. An integrated surveillance system of road traffic injuries in the Lazio region of Italy: results of a 5-year study (2001-2005).

    PubMed

    Chini, Francesco; Farchi, Sara; Giorgi Rossi, Paolo; Camilloni, Laura; Borgia, Piero

    2010-09-01

    Road traffic injuries represent a relevant public-health problem. In the Lazio region of Italy, a surveillance system was activated. The aim of this work is to describe the surveillance system and report the health information in terms of temporal trends for the 5-year period 2001-2005. We identified all emergency department (ED) visits in the emergency database and then linked them with hospital discharges and mortality registry. From the integrated database, we calculated the rates of emergency room visits, of hospital admissions, and of mortality, reporting the temporal trends. Between 2001 and 2005 the rate of ED visits was 3151 per 100,000 inhabitants. Hospitalisation rates showed a significant decreasing trend. The surveillance identified 22% more deaths in the study period than reported by the official statistics. The surveillance revealed a decreasing trend for hospital admissions and a decline in deaths in 2003 concurrent to the introduction of the driver's licence point system. PMID:20352552

  9. Ground Testing of Prototype Hardware and Processing Algorithms for a Wide Area Space Surveillance System (WASSS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, N.; Dressler, R. A.; Richtsmeier, S. S.; McLean, J.; Dao, P. D.; Murray-Krezan, J.; Fulcoly, D. O.

    2013-09-01

    Recent ground testing of a wide area camera system and automated star removal algorithms has demonstrated the potential to detect, quantify, and track deep space objects using small aperture cameras and on-board processors. The camera system, which was originally developed for a space-based Wide Area Space Surveillance System (WASSS), operates in a fixed-stare mode, continuously monitoring a wide swath of space and differentiating celestial objects from satellites based on differential motion across the field of view. It would have greatest utility in a LEO orbit to provide automated and continuous monitoring of deep space with high refresh rates, and with particular emphasis on the GEO belt and GEO transfer space. Continuous monitoring allows a concept of change detection and custody maintenance not possible with existing sensors. The detection approach is equally applicable to Earth-based sensor systems. A distributed system of such sensors, either Earth-based, or space-based, could provide automated, persistent night-time monitoring of all of deep space. The continuous monitoring provides a daily record of the light curves of all GEO objects above a certain brightness within the field of view. The daily updates of satellite light curves offers a means to identify specific satellites, to note changes in orientation and operational mode, and to queue other SSA assets for higher resolution queries. The data processing approach may also be applied to larger-aperture, higher resolution camera systems to extend the sensitivity towards dimmer objects. In order to demonstrate the utility of the WASSS system and data processing, a ground based field test was conducted in October 2012. We report here the results of the observations made at Magdalena Ridge Observatory using the prototype WASSS camera, which has a 4×60° field-of-view , <0.05° resolution, a 2.8 cm2 aperture, and the ability to view within 4° of the sun. A single camera pointed at the GEO belt provided a

  10. The surveillance of work-related pesticide illness: an application of the Sentinel Event Notification System for Occupational Risks (SENSOR)

    PubMed Central

    Maizlish, N; Rudolph, L; Dervin, K

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. In response to limitations in state-based occupational disease surveillance, the California Department of Health Services developed a model for surveillance of acute, work-related pesticide illness. The objectives were to enhance case reporting and link case reports to preventive interventions. METHODS. Elements from surveillance of communicable diseases and sentinel health events were used to integrate a model into the preexisting system in one agricultural country. RESULTS. Between 1988 and 1991, 45 Fresno County health care providers reported 230 suspected cases, of which 217 from 80 work sites met reporting guidelines. Risk factors were profiled from interviews of 81 prioritized case patients and 36 employers. Fifteen work sites were visited and 117 recommendations were made, of which 6% were identified in enforcement inspections. Pest management experts consulted with growers on reducing future pesticide use. CONCLUSIONS. Risk factors for pesticide illness were prevalent. Agricultural inspectors did not detect routine and serious hazards. Integrated pest management should be expanded and linked to occupational health. Agricultural enforcement personnel should be oriented and trained in occupational safety and health. PMID:7762714

  11. Synergistic Activity of the Plant Defensin HsAFP1 and Caspofungin against Candida albicans Biofilms and Planktonic Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Peta J.; Craik, David J.; Spincemaille, Pieter; Cassiman, David; Braem, Annabel; Vleugels, Jozef; Nibbering, Peter H.; Drijfhout, Jan Wouter; De Coninck, Barbara; Cammue, Bruno P. A.; Thevissen, Karin

    2015-01-01

    Plant defensins are small, cysteine-rich peptides with antifungal activity against a broad range of yeast and fungi. In this study we investigated the antibiofilm activity of a plant defensin from coral bells (Heuchera sanguinea), i.e. HsAFP1. To this end, HsAFP1 was heterologously produced using Pichia pastoris as a host. The recombinant peptide rHsAFP1 showed a similar antifungal activity against the plant pathogen Fusarium culmorum as native HsAFP1 purified from seeds. NMR analysis revealed that rHsAFP1 consists of an α-helix and a triple-stranded antiparallel β-sheet stabilised by four intramolecular disulfide bonds. We found that rHsAFP1 can inhibit growth of the human pathogen Candida albicans as well as prevent C. albicans biofilm formation with a BIC50 (i.e. the minimum rHsAFP1 concentration required to inhibit biofilm formation by 50% as compared to control treatment) of 11.00 ± 1.70 μM. As such, this is the first report of a plant defensin exhibiting inhibitory activity against fungal biofilms. We further analysed the potential of rHsAFP1 to increase the activity of the conventional antimycotics caspofungin and amphotericin B towards C. albicans. Synergistic effects were observed between rHsAFP1 and these compounds against both planktonic C. albicans cells and biofilms. Most notably, concentrations of rHsAFP1 as low as 0.53 μM resulted in a synergistic activity with caspofungin against pre-grown C. albicans biofilms. rHsAFP1 was found non-toxic towards human HepG2 cells up to 40 μM, thereby supporting the lack of a general cytotoxic activity as previously reported for HsAFP1. A structure-function study with 24-mer synthetic peptides spanning the entire HsAFP1 sequence revealed the importance of the γ-core and its adjacent regions for HsAFP1 antibiofilm activity. These findings point towards broad applications of rHsAFP1 and its derivatives in the field of antifungal and antibiofilm drug development. PMID:26248029

  12. Synergistic Activity of the Plant Defensin HsAFP1 and Caspofungin against Candida albicans Biofilms and Planktonic Cultures.

    PubMed

    Vriens, Kim; Cools, Tanne L; Harvey, Peta J; Craik, David J; Spincemaille, Pieter; Cassiman, David; Braem, Annabel; Vleugels, Jozef; Nibbering, Peter H; Drijfhout, Jan Wouter; De Coninck, Barbara; Cammue, Bruno P A; Thevissen, Karin

    2015-01-01

    Plant defensins are small, cysteine-rich peptides with antifungal activity against a broad range of yeast and fungi. In this study we investigated the antibiofilm activity of a plant defensin from coral bells (Heuchera sanguinea), i.e. HsAFP1. To this end, HsAFP1 was heterologously produced using Pichia pastoris as a host. The recombinant peptide rHsAFP1 showed a similar antifungal activity against the plant pathogen Fusarium culmorum as native HsAFP1 purified from seeds. NMR analysis revealed that rHsAFP1 consists of an α-helix and a triple-stranded antiparallel β-sheet stabilised by four intramolecular disulfide bonds. We found that rHsAFP1 can inhibit growth of the human pathogen Candida albicans as well as prevent C. albicans biofilm formation with a BIC50 (i.e. the minimum rHsAFP1 concentration required to inhibit biofilm formation by 50% as compared to control treatment) of 11.00 ± 1.70 μM. As such, this is the first report of a plant defensin exhibiting inhibitory activity against fungal biofilms. We further analysed the potential of rHsAFP1 to increase the activity of the conventional antimycotics caspofungin and amphotericin B towards C. albicans. Synergistic effects were observed between rHsAFP1 and these compounds against both planktonic C. albicans cells and biofilms. Most notably, concentrations of rHsAFP1 as low as 0.53 μM resulted in a synergistic activity with caspofungin against pre-grown C. albicans biofilms. rHsAFP1 was found non-toxic towards human HepG2 cells up to 40 μM, thereby supporting the lack of a general cytotoxic activity as previously reported for HsAFP1. A structure-function study with 24-mer synthetic peptides spanning the entire HsAFP1 sequence revealed the importance of the γ-core and its adjacent regions for HsAFP1 antibiofilm activity. These findings point towards broad applications of rHsAFP1 and its derivatives in the field of antifungal and antibiofilm drug development. PMID:26248029

  13. A vision-based driver nighttime assistance and surveillance system based on intelligent image sensing techniques and a heterogamous dual-core embedded system architecture.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yen-Lin; Chiang, Hsin-Han; Chiang, Chuan-Yen; Liu, Chuan-Ming; Yuan, Shyan-Ming; Wang, Jenq-Haur

    2012-01-01

    This study proposes a vision-based intelligent nighttime driver assistance and surveillance system (VIDASS system) implemented by a set of embedded software components and modules, and integrates these modules to accomplish a component-based system framework on an embedded heterogamous dual-core platform. Therefore, this study develops and implements computer vision and sensing techniques of nighttime vehicle detection, collision warning determination, and traffic event recording. The proposed system processes the road-scene frames in front of the host car captured from CCD sensors mounted on the host vehicle. These vision-based sensing and processing technologies are integrated and implemented on an ARM-DSP heterogamous dual-core embedded platform. Peripheral devices, including image grabbing devices, communication modules, and other in-vehicle control devices, are also integrated to form an in-vehicle-embedded vision-based nighttime driver assistance and surveillance system. PMID:22736956

  14. Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B) System for Ownership and Traffic Situational Awareness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arteaga, Ricardo A. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention proposes an automatic dependent surveillance broadcast (ADS-B) architecture and process, in which priority aircraft and ADS-B IN traffic information are included in the transmission of data through the telemetry communications to a remote ground control station. The present invention further proposes methods for displaying general aviation traffic information in three and/or four dimension trajectories using an industry standard Earth browser for increased situation awareness and enhanced visual acquisition of traffic for conflict detection. The present invention enable the applications of enhanced visual acquisition of traffic, traffic alerts, and en-route and terminal surveillance used to augment pilot situational awareness through ADS-B IN display and information in three or four dimensions for self-separation awareness.

  15. Evaluation of community-based systems for the surveillance of day three-positive Plasmodium falciparum cases in Western Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Delayed clearance of Plasmodium falciparum parasites is used as an operational indicator of potential artemisinin resistance. Effective community-based systems to detect P. falciparum cases remaining positive 72 hours after initiating treatment would be valuable for guiding case follow-up in areas of known resistance risk and for detecting areas of emerging resistance. Methods Systems incorporating existing networks of village malaria workers (VMWs) to monitor day three-positive P. falciparum cases were piloted in three provinces in western Cambodia. Quantitative and qualitative data were used to evaluate the wider feasibility and sustainability of community-based surveillance of day three-positive P. falciparum cases. Results Of 294 day-3 blood slides obtained across all sites (from 297 day-0 positives), 63 were positive for P. falciparum, an overall day-3 positivity rate of 21%. There were significant variations in the systems implemented by different partners. Full engagement of VMWs and health centre staff is critical. VMWs are responsible for a range of individual tasks including preparing blood slides on day-0, completing forms, administering directly observed therapy (DOT) on days 0–2, obtaining follow-up slides on day-3 and transporting slides and paperwork to their supervising health centre. When suitably motivated, unsalaried VMWs are willing and able to produce good quality blood smears and achieve very high rates of DOT and day-3 follow-up. Conclusions Community-based surveillance of day-3 P. falciparum cases is feasible, but highly intensive, and as such needs strong and continuous support, particularly supervision and training. The purpose and role of community-based day-3 surveillance should be assessed in the light of resource requirements; scaling-up would need to be systematic and targeted, based on clearly defined epidemiological criteria. To be truly comprehensive, the system would need to be extended beyond VMWs to other public

  16. The plant defensin RsAFP2 induces cell wall stress, septin mislocalization and accumulation of ceramides in Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Thevissen, Karin; de Mello Tavares, Patricia; Xu, Deming; Blankenship, Jill; Vandenbosch, Davy; Idkowiak-Baldys, Jolanta; Govaert, Gilmer; Bink, Anna; Rozental, Sonia; de Groot, Piet W.J.; Davis, Talya R.; Kumamoto, Carol A.; Vargas, Gabriele; Nimrichter, Leonardo; Coenye, Tom; Mitchell, Aaron; Roemer, Terry; Hannun, Yusuf A.; Cammue, Bruno P.A.

    2012-01-01

    Summary The antifungal plant defensin RsAFP2 isolated from radish interacts with fungal glucosylceramides and induces apoptosis in Candida albicans. To further unravel the mechanism of RsAFP2 antifungal action and tolerance mechanisms, we screened a library of 2,868 heterozygous C. albicans deletion mutants and identified 30 RsAFP2-hypersensitive mutants. The most prominent group of RsAFP2 tolerance genes was involved in cell wall integrity and hyphal growth/septin ring formation. Consistent with these genetic data, we demonstrated that RsAFP2 interacts with the cell wall of C. albicans, which also contains glucosylceramides, and activates the cell wall integrity pathway. Moreover, we found that RsAFP2 induces mislocalization of septins and blocks the yeast-to-hypha transition in C. albicans. Increased ceramide levels have previously been shown to result in apoptosis and septin mislocalization. Therefore, ceramide levels in C. albicans membranes were analyzed following RsAFP2 treatment and, as expected, increased accumulation of phytoC24-ceramides in membranes of RsAFP2-treated C. albicans cells was detected. This is the first report on the interaction of a plant defensin with glucosylceramides in the fungal cell wall, causing cell wall stress, and on the effects of a defensin on septin localization and ceramide accumulation. PMID:22384976

  17. Nation-Wide, Web-Based, Geographic Information System for the Integrated Surveillance and Control of Dengue Fever in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Ávila, Juan Eugenio; Rodríguez, Mario-Henry; Santos-Luna, René; Sánchez-Castañeda, Veronica; Román-Pérez, Susana; Ríos-Salgado, Víctor Hugo; Salas-Sarmiento, Jesús Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Dengue fever incidence and its geographical distribution are increasing throughout the world. Quality and timely information is essential for its prevention and control. A web based, geographically enabled, dengue integral surveillance system (Dengue-GIS) was developed for the nation-wide collection, integration, analysis and reporting of geo-referenced epidemiologic, entomologic, and control interventions data. Consensus in the design and practical operation of the system was a key factor for its acceptance. Working with information systems already implemented as a starting point facilitated its acceptance by officials and operative personnel. Dengue-GIS provides the geographical detail needed to plan, asses and evaluate the impact of control activities. The system is beginning to be adopted as a knowledge base by vector control programs. It is used to generate evidence on impact and cost-effectiveness of control activities, promoting the use of information for decision making at all levels of the vector control program. Dengue-GIS has also been used as a hypothesis generator for the academic community. This GIS-based model system for dengue surveillance and the experience gathered during its development and implementation could be useful in other dengue endemic countries and extended to other infectious or chronic diseases. PMID:23936394

  18. Need of surveillance response systems to combat Ebola outbreaks and other emerging infectious diseases in African countries

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    There is growing concern in Sub-Saharan Africa about the spread of the Ebola virus disease (EVD), formerly known as Ebola haemorrhagic fever, and the public health burden that it ensues. Since 1976, there have been 885,343 suspected and laboratory confirmed cases of EVD and the disease has claimed 2,512 cases and 932 fatality in West Africa. There are certain requirements that must be met when responding to EVD outbreaks and this process could incur certain challenges. For the purposes of this paper, five have been identified: (i) the deficiency in the development and implementation of surveillance response systems against Ebola and others infectious disease outbreaks in Africa; (ii) the lack of education and knowledge resulting in an EVD outbreak triggering panic, anxiety, psychosocial trauma, isolation and dignity impounding, stigmatisation, community ostracism and resistance to associated socio-ecological and public health consequences; (iii) limited financial resources, human technical capacity and weak community and national health system operational plans for prevention and control responses, practices and management; (iv) inadequate leadership and coordination; and (v) the lack of development of new strategies, tools and approaches, such as improved diagnostics and novel therapies including vaccines which can assist in preventing, controlling and containing Ebola outbreaks as well as the spread of the disease. Hence, there is an urgent need to develop and implement an active early warning alert and surveillance response system for outbreak response and control of emerging infectious diseases. Understanding the unending risks of transmission dynamics and resurgence is essential in implementing rapid effective response interventions tailored to specific local settings and contexts. Therefore, the following actions are recommended: (i) national and regional inter-sectorial and trans-disciplinary surveillance response systems that include early warnings, as well

  19. A high-resolution geospatial surveillance-response system for malaria elimination in Solomon Islands and Vanuatu

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A high-resolution surveillance-response system has been developed within a geographic information system (GIS) to support malaria elimination in the Pacific. This paper examines the application of a GIS-based spatial decision support system (SDSS) to automatically locate and map the distribution of confirmed malaria cases, rapidly classify active transmission foci, and guide targeted responses in elimination zones. Methods Customized SDSS-based surveillance-response systems were developed in the three elimination provinces of Isabel and Temotu, Solomon Islands and Tafea, Vanuatu. Confirmed malaria cases were reported to provincial malaria offices upon diagnosis and updated into the respective SDSS as part of routine operations throughout 2011. Cases were automatically mapped by household within the SDSS using existing geographical reconnaissance (GR) data. GIS queries were integrated into the SDSS-framework to automatically classify and map transmission foci based on the spatiotemporal distribution of cases, highlight current areas of interest (AOI) regions to conduct foci-specific targeted response, and extract supporting household and population data. GIS simulations were run to detect AOIs triggered throughout 2011 in each elimination province and conduct a sensitivity analysis to calculate the proportion of positive cases, households and population highlighted in AOI regions of a varying geographic radius. Results A total of 183 confirmed cases were reported and mapped using the SDSS throughout 2011 and used to describe transmission within a target population of 90,354. Automatic AOI regions were also generated within each provincial SDSS identifying geographic areas to conduct response. 82.5% of confirmed cases were automatically geo-referenced and mapped at the household level, with 100% of remaining cases geo-referenced at a village level. Data from the AOI analysis indicated different stages of progress in each province, highlighting operational

  20. The experience of West Nile virus integrated surveillance system in the Emilia-Romagna region: five years of implementation, Italy, 2009 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Bellini, R; Calzolari, M; Mattivi, A; Tamba, M; Angelini, P; Bonilauri, P; Albieri, A; Cagarelli, R; Carrieri, M; Dottori, M; Finarelli, A C; Gaibani, P; Landini, M P; Natalini, S; Pascarelli, N; Rossini, G; Velati, C; Vocale, C; Bedeschi, E

    2014-01-01

    Predicting West Nile virus (WNV) circulation and the risk of WNV epidemics is difficult due to complex interactions of multiple factors involved. Surveillance systems that timely detect virus activity in targeted areas, and allow evidence-based risk assessments may therefore be necessary. Since 2009, a system integrating environmental (mosquitoes and birds) and human surveillance has been implemented and progressively improved in the Emilia-Romagna region, Italy. The objective is to increase knowledge of WNV circulation and to reduce the probability of virus transmission via blood, tissue and organ donation. As of 2013, the system has shown highly satisfactory results in terms of early detection capacity (the environmental surveillance component allowed detection of WNV circulation 3–4 weeks before human cases of West Nile neuroinvasive disease (WNND) occurred), sensitivity (capacity to detect virus circulation even at the enzootic level) and area specificity (capacity to indicate the spatial distribution of the risk for WNND). Strong correlations were observed between the vector index values and the number of human WNND cases registered at the province level. Taking into consideration two scenarios of surveillance, the first with environmental surveillance and the second without, the total costs for the period from 2009 to 2013 were reduced when environmental surveillance was considered (EUR 2.093 million for the first scenario vs EUR 2.560 million for the second). Environmental surveillance helped to reduce costs by enabling a more targeted blood unit testing strategy. The inclusion of environmental surveillance also increased the efficiency of detecting infected blood units and further allowed evidence-based adoption of preventative public health measures. PMID:25394257

  1. Should mortality data for the elderly be collected routinely in emergencies? The practical challenges of age-disaggregated surveillance systems.

    PubMed

    du Cros, Philipp; Venis, Sarah; Karunakara, Unni

    2013-11-01

    Data on the elderly are rarely collected in humanitarian emergencies. During a refugee crisis in South Sudan, Médecins Sans Frontières developed a prospective mortality surveillance system collecting data for those aged ≥50 years and found that the elderly were dying at five times the rate of those aged 5-49 years. Practical and ethical issues arose. Were reported ages accurate? Since no baseline exists, what does the mortality rate mean? Should programmatic changes be made without evidence that these would reduce the elderly mortality rate? We outline issues to be addressed to enable informed decisions on response to elderly populations in emergency settings. PMID:24114674

  2. Should mortality data for the elderly be collected routinely in emergencies? The practical challenges of age-disaggregated surveillance systems

    PubMed Central

    du Cros, Philipp; Venis, Sarah; Karunakara, Unni

    2013-01-01

    Data on the elderly are rarely collected in humanitarian emergencies. During a refugee crisis in South Sudan, Médecins Sans Frontières developed a prospective mortality surveillance system collecting data for those aged ≥50 years and found that the elderly were dying at five times the rate of those aged 5–49 years. Practical and ethical issues arose. Were reported ages accurate? Since no baseline exists, what does the mortality rate mean? Should programmatic changes be made without evidence that these would reduce the elderly mortality rate? We outline issues to be addressed to enable informed decisions on response to elderly populations in emergency settings. PMID:24114674

  3. Amniotic fluid-AFP in Down syndrome and other chromosome abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Crandall, B F; Matsumoto, M; Perdue, S

    1988-05-01

    80.2 Per cent of 111 Down syndrome pregnancies had anmiotic fluid (AF) alpha fetoprotein (AFP) levels on or below the median and 10.8 per cent at or below 0.5 MoM compared with 41.9 and 1.4 per cent of controls. These differences were even more striking when the gestational age was less than 18 weeks compared with greater than or equal to 18 weeks. No such association was seen for other chromosome abnormalities including trisomy 18,45,X and mosaics, 47,XXY,47,XXX, and other structural abnormalities and triploidy, even when high levels due to defects such as omphalocele and cystic hygroma were excluded. All cases of trisomy 13 and 80 per cent with 47,XYY had AF-AFP levels above the median. Selection of cases for karyotyping by a low level of AF-AFP would clearly fail to detect aneuploidies other than Down syndrome and is not recommended. A possible weak association between low maternal serum (MS) and AF-AFPs in Down syndrome was most evident at less than 18 weeks, suggesting that MS screening between 16 and 18 weeks may be the most informative time. PMID:2456565

  4. Can epidemic detection systems at the hospital level complement regional surveillance networks: Case study with the influenza epidemic?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Early knowledge of influenza outbreaks in the community allows local hospital healthcare workers to recognise the clinical signs of influenza in hospitalised patients and to apply effective precautions. The objective was to assess intra-hospital surveillance systems to detect earlier than regional surveillance systems influenza outbreaks in the community. Methods Time series obtained from computerized medical data from patients who visited a French hospital emergency department (ED) between June 1st, 2007 and March 31st, 2011 for influenza, or were hospitalised for influenza or a respiratory syndrome after an ED visit, were compared to different regional series. Algorithms using CUSUM method were constructed to determine the epidemic detection threshold with the local data series. Sensitivity, specificity and mean timeliness were calculated to assess their performance to detect community outbreaks of influenza. A sensitivity analysis was conducted, excluding the year 2009, due to the particular epidemiological situation related to pandemic influenza this year. Results The local series closely followed the seasonal trends reported by regional surveillance. The algorithms achieved a sensitivity of detection equal to 100% with series of patients hospitalised with respiratory syndrome (specificity ranging from 31.9 and 92.9% and mean timeliness from −58.3 to 20.3 days) and series of patients who consulted the ED for flu (specificity ranging from 84.3 to 93.2% and mean timeliness from −32.3 to 9.8 days). The algorithm with the best balance between specificity (87.7%) and mean timeliness (0.5 day) was obtained with series built by analysis of the ICD-10 codes assigned by physicians after ED consultation. Excluding the year 2009, the same series keeps the best performance with specificity equal to 95.7% and mean timeliness equal to −1.7 day. Conclusions The implementation of an automatic surveillance system to detect patients with influenza or

  5. Implementation of a data fusion algorithm for RODS, a real-time outbreak and disease surveillance system.

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Douglas (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Gray, Genetha Anne (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA)

    2005-10-01

    Due to the nature of many infectious agents, such as anthrax, symptoms may either take several days to manifest or resemble those of less serious illnesses leading to misdiagnosis. Thus, bioterrorism attacks that include the release of such agents are particularly dangerous and potentially deadly. For this reason, a system is needed for the quick and correct identification of disease outbreaks. The Real-time Outbreak Disease Surveillance System (RODS), initially developed by Carnegie Mellon University and the University of Pittsburgh, was created to meet this need. The RODS software implements different classifiers for pertinent health surveillance data in order to determine whether or not an outbreak has occurred. In an effort to improve the capability of RODS at detecting outbreaks, we incorporate a data fusion method. Data fusion is used to improve the results of a single classification by combining the output of multiple classifiers. This paper documents the first stages of the development of a data fusion system that can combine the output of the classifiers included in RODS.

  6. Surveillance and Outbreak Response Management System (SORMAS) to support the control of the Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa.

    PubMed

    Fähnrich, C; Denecke, K; Adeoye, O O; Benzler, J; Claus, H; Kirchner, G; Mall, S; Richter, R; Schapranow, M P; Schwarz, N; Tom-Aba, D; Uflacker, M; Poggensee, G; Krause, G

    2015-01-01

    In the context of controlling the current outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD), the World Health Organization claimed that 'critical determinant of epidemic size appears to be the speed of implementation of rigorous control measures', i.e. immediate follow-up of contact persons during 21 days after exposure, isolation and treatment of cases, decontamination, and safe burials. We developed the Surveillance and Outbreak Response Management System (SORMAS) to improve efficiency and timeliness of these measures. We used the Design Thinking methodology to systematically analyse experiences from field workers and the Ebola Emergency Operations Centre (EOC) after successful control of the EVD outbreak in Nigeria. We developed a process model with seven personas representing the procedures of EVD outbreak control. The SORMAS system architecture combines latest In-Memory Database (IMDB) technology via SAP HANA (in-memory, relational database management system), enabling interactive data analyses, and established SAP cloud tools, such as SAP Afaria (a mobile device management software). The user interface consists of specific front-ends for smartphones and tablet devices, which are independent from physical configurations. SORMAS allows real-time, bidirectional information exchange between field workers and the EOC, ensures supervision of contact follow-up, automated status reports, and GPS tracking. SORMAS may become a platform for outbreak management and improved routine surveillance of any infectious disease. Furthermore, the SORMAS process model may serve as framework for EVD outbreak modeling. PMID:25846493

  7. 48 CFR 44.304 - Surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Surveillance. 44.304... SUBCONTRACTING POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Contractors' Purchasing Systems Reviews 44.304 Surveillance. (a) The ACO shall maintain a sufficient level of surveillance to ensure that the contractor is effectively...

  8. 48 CFR 44.304 - Surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Surveillance. 44.304... SUBCONTRACTING POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Contractors' Purchasing Systems Reviews 44.304 Surveillance. (a) The ACO shall maintain a sufficient level of surveillance to ensure that the contractor is effectively...

  9. 48 CFR 44.304 - Surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Surveillance. 44.304... SUBCONTRACTING POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Contractors' Purchasing Systems Reviews 44.304 Surveillance. (a) The ACO shall maintain a sufficient level of surveillance to ensure that the contractor is effectively...

  10. 48 CFR 44.304 - Surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Surveillance. 44.304... SUBCONTRACTING POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Contractors' Purchasing Systems Reviews 44.304 Surveillance. (a) The ACO shall maintain a sufficient level of surveillance to ensure that the contractor is effectively...

  11. 48 CFR 44.304 - Surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Surveillance. 44.304... SUBCONTRACTING POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Contractors' Purchasing Systems Reviews 44.304 Surveillance. (a) The ACO shall maintain a sufficient level of surveillance to ensure that the contractor is effectively...

  12. [Influenza surveillance].

    PubMed

    Bednarska, Karolina; Hallmann-Szelińska, Ewelina; Kondratiuk, Katarzyna; Brydak, Lidia B

    2016-01-01

    Influenza surveillance was established in 1947. From this moment WHO (World Health Organization) has been coordinating international cooperation, with a goal of monitoring influenza virus activity, effective diagnostic of the circulating viruses and informing society about epidemics or pandemics, as well as about emergence of new subtypes of influenza virus type A. Influenza surveillance is an important task, because it enables people to prepare themselves for battle with the virus that is constantly mutating, what leads to circulation of new and often more virulent strains of influenza in human population. As vaccination is the most effective method of fighting the virus, one of the major tasks of GISRS is developing an optimal antigenic composition of the vaccine for the current epidemic season. European Influenza Surveillance Network (EISN) has also developed over the years. EISN is running integrated epidemiological and virological influenza surveillance, to provide appropriate data to public health experts in member countries, to enable them undertaking relevant activities based on the current information about influenza activity. In close cooperation with GISRS and EISN are National Influenza Centres--national institutions designated by the Ministry of Health in each country. PMID:27117107

  13. Electronic Clinical Surveillance to Improve Outpatient Care: Diverse Applications within an Integrated Delivery System

    PubMed Central

    Danforth, Kim N.; Smith, Andrea E.; Loo, Ronald K.; Jacobsen, Steven J.; Mittman, Brian S.; Kanter, Michael H.

    2014-01-01

    Efforts to improve patient safety have largely focused on inpatient or emergency settings, but the importance of patient safety in ambulatory care is increasingly being recognized as a key component of overall health care quality. Care gaps in outpatient settings may include missed diagnoses, medication errors, or insufficient monitoring of patients with chronic conditions or on certain medications. Further, care gaps may occur across a wide range of clinical conditions. We report here an innovative approach to improve patient safety in ambulatory settings – the Kaiser Permanente Southern California (KPSC) Outpatient Safety Net Program – which leverages electronic health information to efficiently identify and address a variety of potential care gaps across different clinical conditions. Between 2006 and 2012, the KPSC Outpatient Safety Net Program implemented 24 distinct electronic clinical surveillance programs, which routinely scan the electronic health record to identify patients with a particular condition or event. For example, electronic clinical surveillance may be used to scan for harmful medication interactions or potentially missed diagnoses (e.g., abnormal test results without evidence of subsequent care). Keys to the success of the program include strong leadership support, a proactive clinical culture, the blame-free nature of the program, and the availability of electronic health information. The Outpatient Safety Net Program framework may be adopted by other organizations, including those who have electronic health information but not an electronic health record. In the future, the creation of a forum to share electronic clinical surveillance programs across organizations may facilitate more rapid improvements in outpatient safety. PMID:25848588

  14. Implementing a hospital based injury surveillance system: a case study in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    John, I A; Mohammed, A Z; Lawoko, S; Nkanta, C A; Frank-Briggs, A; Nwadiaro, H C; Tuko, M; Zavala, D E; Kolo, E S; Ramalan, M A; Bassey, D E; Didi, E

    2008-01-01

    A pilot study of violent injury surveillance was implemented in two hospitals in Kano, Nigeria, in two phases: a formative evaluation including training and arranging the collection of hospital information, followed by a 6 month prospective data collection. Road traffic injuries constituted about 80 per cent of the cases, gunshot injuries were the commonest in victims of interpersonal violence (IPV). The causes and context of IPV, the relationship of victims and perpetrators, and the place, related activities and anatomical site of injuries from IPV are summarized. PMID:19065867

  15. A system for testing distributed information fusion applications for maritime surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehn, Hans; Happe, Jens; Guitouni, Adel; Valin, Pierre; Bossé, Éloi

    2008-03-01

    A PRECARN partnership project, called CanCoastWatch (CCW), is bringing together a team of researchers from industry, government, and academia for creating an advanced simulation test bed for the purpose of evaluating the effectiveness of Network Enabled Operations in a Coastal Wide Area Surveillance situation. The test bed allows experimenting with higher-level distributed information fusion, dynamic resource management and configuration management given multiple constraints on the resources and their communications networks. The test bed provides general services that are useful for testing many fusion applications. This includes a multi-layer plug-and-play architecture, and a general multi-agent framework based on John Boyd's OODA loop.