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Sample records for afram plains area

  1. A simulation/optimization model for groundwater resources management in the Afram Plains area, Ghana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yidana, S.M.

    2008-01-01

    A groundwater flow simulation model was developed using available hydrogeo logical data to A groundwater flow simulation model was developed using available hydrogeological data to describe groundwater flow in the Afram Plains area. A nonlinear optimization model was then developed and solved for the management of groundwater resources to meet irrigation and household needs. The objective was to maximize groundwater extraction for irrigation activities from the shallow aquifers of the southern Voltaian Sedimentary Basin that underly the area This would improve food security, raise the standard of living and ultimately alleviate poverty in the Afram Plains. The calibrated flow model is in tandem with the general hydrochemical evolution of groundwater in the area and fits the observed data with about a 98% degree of confidence. Groundwater resources may not be the limiting factor in the development of irrigated agriculture. Groundwater has tremendous potential to meet current and future irrigation needs. It was determined from this study that profit from maize irrigation in the Afram Plains area could rise from US$301, 000 in 2007 to over US$3.5 million by the end of the last management period (2013) as irrigation practice is improved, and the economic strength to increase the acreage for irrigation improves. Even with these margins of profit, the drawdown constraint was not reached in any of the management periods. It is expected that rechargefrom the irrigation water would reclaim the lost hydraulic head. The single significant constraint was the amount of land area that could be developed for irrigation in the area. The profit obtained per unit cubic meter of water used also improved over the same management period.

  2. Gender and occupational perspectives on adaptation to climate extremes in the Afram Plains of Ghana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Codjoe, Samuel N.A.; Atidoh, Lucy K.; Burkett, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    Although sub-Saharan Africa does not contribute significantly to greenhouse gas emissions, significant adverse impacts of climate change are anticipated in this region. Countries in West Africa, which are heavily dependent on rain-fed agriculture, are projected to experience more frequent and intense droughts, altered rainfall patterns and increases in temperature through the end of this century. Changes in hydrology and temperature are likely to affect crop yields, thereby placing pressure on scarce resources in a region that is characterised by limited social, political, technical and financial resources. The success with which communities cope with the impacts of climate change is influenced by existing conditions, forces and characteristics which are peculiar to each of these communities. This paper assesses the preferred adaptation strategies during floods and droughts of males and females in three different occupations (farming, fishing, and charcoal production). Findings are based upon an analysis of focus group discussions and a ranking of preferred adaptation options in three communities in the Afram Plains of Ghana. Assessments of this nature should aid in the selection and implementation of adaptation options for communities and households, which is the level at which climate change adaptation is likely to occur in West Africa.

  3. Understanding handpump sustainability: Determinants of rural water source functionality in the Greater Afram Plains region of Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Michael B.; Shields, Katherine F.; Chan, Terence U.; Christenson, Elizabeth; Cronk, Ryan D.; Leker, Hannah; Samani, Destina; Apoya, Patrick; Lutz, Alexandra; Bartram, Jamie

    2015-10-01

    Safe drinking water is critical to human health and development. In rural sub-Saharan Africa, most improved water sources are boreholes with handpumps; studies suggest that up to one third of these handpumps are nonfunctional at any given time. This work presents findings from a secondary analysis of cross-sectional data from 1509 water sources in 570 communities in the rural Greater Afram Plains (GAP) region of Ghana; one of the largest studies of its kind. 79.4% of enumerated water sources were functional when visited; in multivariable regressions, functionality depended on source age, management, tariff collection, the number of other sources in the community, and the district. A Bayesian network (BN) model developed using the same data set found strong dependencies of functionality on implementer, pump type, management, and the availability of tools, with synergistic effects from management determinants on functionality, increasing the likelihood of a source being functional from a baseline of 72% to more than 97% with optimal management and available tools. We suggest that functionality may be a dynamic equilibrium between regular breakdowns and repairs, with management a key determinant of repair rate. Management variables may interact synergistically in ways better captured by BN analysis than by logistic regressions. These qualitative findings may prove generalizable beyond the study area, and may offer new approaches to understanding and increasing handpump functionality and safe water access. This article was corrected on 11 Nov 2015. See the end of the full text for details.

  4. A-frame model for metaphor

    SciTech Connect

    Kilpatrick, W.

    1982-01-01

    While literal language is successfully being subjected to automatic analysis, metaphors remain intractable. Using Minsky's frame theory the metaphoric process is viewed as a copying of stereotypic terminal clusters from the frames of the 1 degrees and 2 degrees terms of the metaphor. Stereotypic values from the two original frames share equal status in this new frame, while non-stereotypic values from the two will be kept separate for possible use in metaphoric extension. The a-frame analysis is illustrated by application to non-literary novel metaphors. Frames provide the quantity of information needed for interpretation. Certain frame values are marked as stereotypic. Creativity is realized by the construction of a new a-frame, and the tension is realized by the presence in a single a-frame of both shared stereotypic and discrete non-stereotypic values. 10 references.

  5. 2. DETAIL VIEW SHOWING BOLTED KNEE BRACES ON AFRAME OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. DETAIL VIEW SHOWING BOLTED KNEE BRACES ON A-FRAME OF WALKING BEAM ENGINE. Photocopy of photograph. Susan Kardas, photographer, November 1984 - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Vessel No. 53, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  6. 1. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH, SHOWING AFRAME OF WALKING BEAM ENGINE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH, SHOWING A-FRAME OF WALKING BEAM ENGINE, BOW END TO LEFT Edward Larrabee, photographer, November 1984 - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Vessel No. 53, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  7. Plains Culture Area. Native American Curriculum Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Cathy; Fernandes, Roger

    One in a series of Native American instructional materials, this booklet introduces elementary students to the tribes of the plains culture area, extending from the Rocky Mountains to the Mississippi River and from Texas to Canada. Written in simple language, the booklet begins with a brief description of the region--its extreme climate and the…

  8. 58. VIEW OF SOUTHWEST SIDE OF LAUNCHER FROM ABOVE. AFRAME ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    58. VIEW OF SOUTHWEST SIDE OF LAUNCHER FROM ABOVE. A-FRAME PIVOT POINT IN CENTER OF PHOTOGRAPH; NITROGEN CONTROL UNIT IN UPPER LEFT CORNER OF PHOTOGRAPH. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  9. Mineral resources of Cactus Plain and East Cactus Plain Wilderness Study Areas, La Paz County, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Tosdal, R.M.; Eppinger, R.G.; Erdman, J.A.; Hanna, W.F.; Pitkin, J.A.; Blank, H.R. Jr.; O'Leary, R.M.; Watterson, J.R. ); Kreidler, T.J. )

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on geologic, geochemical, and geophysical studies in the Cactus Plain and East Cactus Plain Wilderness Study Areas outlined in areas with moderate to high potential for gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, barite, fluorite, manganese, and sand suitable for foundry, fracturing, and abrasive uses and low resource potential for beryllium, uranium and bentonitic clays.

  10. Mid-Plains Community College Area Human Resources Development Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mid-Plains Community Coll. Area, North Platte, NE. Office of Institutional Research.

    This Human Resource Development Plan represents an effort to systematize human resources and personnel development at Mid-Plains Community College Area (MPCCA). The need for creating such a plan was specifically cited by North Central consultant evaluators, and a Human Resources Development (HRD) Steering Committee was established in spring 1994…

  11. Iridium {mu}-imido/amido A-frame complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Changqing; Sharp, P.R.

    1995-01-04

    The reaction of Ir{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}(CO){sub 2}({mu}-dppm){sub 2}(dppm=bis(diphenylphosphino)methane) with 2 equiv of LiNHR yields Ir{sub 2}({mu}-NR)(CO){sub 2}({mu}-dppm){sub 2}, (1) (R=p-tolyl,Ph,p-BrC{sub 6}H{sub 4}), or its tautomer Ir{sub 2}({mu}-NHR)(CO){sub 2}({mu}-dppm)-({mu}-dppm-H), (2) (dppm-H = bis(diphenylphosphino)methanide; R= Et, Bu{sup 5}). NMR data suggest that (1) (R=p-tolyl, Ph, p-BrC{sub 6}H{sub 4}) are in equilibrium with small amounts of (2) in polar solvents. An X-ray structural determination of (1) (R = p-tolyl) shows that the imido nitrogen atom links two iridium atoms at the apex of an A-frame complex. A very short N-C distance in the imido group suggests extensive N-lone pair donation to the tolyl ring. Crystals of (1) (R = p-tolyl) from benzene are tetragonal (P4{sub 3}) with a = 21.337(1) {Angstrom},c = 14.478-(2) {Angstrom}, and Z = 4. With the exception of R=p-NO{sub 2}C{sub 6}H{sub 4}, p-BrC{sub 6}H{sub 4}, and Et, the complexes react with 1 equiv of CO at ambient temperature to form Ir{sub 2}(CO){sub 3}({mu}-dppm){sub 2} as the major metal containing product. For R = Et, the reaction generates the unstable isocyanate complex Ir{sub 2}(CO){sub 4}({mu}-dppm){sub 2} and amine except for the p-NO{sub 2}C{sub 6}H{sub 4} complex, which gives a complex mixture of products.

  12. Mountain-Plains Master Course List. Curriculum Areas: Job Titles: Learning Activity Packages: Courses: Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mountain-Plains Education and Economic Development Program, Inc., Glasgow AFB, MT.

    The document contains a master listing of all Mountain-Plains curriculum, compiled by job title, course, unit and LAP (Learning Activity Package), and arranged in numerical order by curriculum area. Preceding each curriculum area is a page of explanatory notes describing the curriculum area and including relevant job descriptions. Where a job…

  13. Geologic Map of the Santa Barbara Coastal Plain Area, Santa Barbara County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Minor, Scott A.; Kellogg, Karl S.; Stanley, Richard G.; Gurrola, Larry D.; Keller, Edward A.; Brandt, Theodore R.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents a newly revised and expanded digital geologic map of the Santa Barbara coastal plain area at a compilation scale of 1:24,000 (one inch on the map to 2,000 feet on the ground)1 and with a horizontal positional accuracy of at least 20 m. The map depicts the distribution of bedrock units and surficial deposits and associated deformation underlying and adjacent to the coastal plain within the contiguous Dos Pueblos Canyon, Goleta, Santa Barbara, and Carpinteria 7.5' quadrangles. The new map supersedes an earlier preliminary geologic map of the central part of the coastal plain (Minor and others, 2002; revised 2006) that provided coastal coverage only within the Goleta and Santa Barbara quadrangles. In addition to new mapping to the west and east, geologic mapping in parts of the central map area has been significantly revised from the preliminary map compilation - especially north of downtown Santa Barbara in the Mission Ridge area - based on new structural interpretations supplemented by new biostratigraphic data. All surficial and bedrock map units, including several new units recognized in the areas of expanded mapping, are described in detail in the accompanying pamphlet. Abundant new biostratigraphic and biochronologic data based on microfossil identifications are presented in expanded unit descriptions of the marine Neogene Monterey and Sisquoc Formations. Site-specific fault kinematic observations embedded in the digital map database are more complete owing to the addition of slip-sense determinations. Finally, the pamphlet accompanying the present report includes an expanded and refined summary of stratigraphic and structural observations and interpretations that are based on the composite geologic data contained in the new map compilation. The Santa Barbara coastal plain is located in the western Transverse Ranges physiographic province along an east-west-trending segment of the southern California coastline about 100 km (62 mi) northwest

  14. 44 CFR 60.3 - Flood plain management criteria for flood-prone areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume... criteria for flood-prone areas. 60.3 Section 60.3 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY... Program CRITERIA FOR LAND MANAGEMENT AND USE Requirements for Flood Plain Management Regulations §...

  15. 44 CFR 60.3 - Flood plain management criteria for flood-prone areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume... criteria for flood-prone areas. 60.3 Section 60.3 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY... Program CRITERIA FOR LAND MANAGEMENT AND USE Requirements for Flood Plain Management Regulations §...

  16. Nitrate contamination of groundwater in two areas of the Cameroon Volcanic Line (Banana Plain and Mount Cameroon area)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ako, Andrew Ako; Eyong, Gloria Eneke Takem; Shimada, Jun; Koike, Katsuaki; Hosono, Takahiro; Ichiyanagi, Kimpei; Richard, Akoachere; Tandia, Beatrice Ketchemen; Nkeng, George Elambo; Roger, Ntankouo Njila

    2014-06-01

    Water containing high concentrations of nitrate is unfit for human consumption and, if discharging to freshwater or marine habitats, can contribute to algal blooms and eutrophication. The level of nitrate contamination in groundwater of two densely populated, agro-industrial areas of the Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL) (Banana Plain and Mount Cameroon area) was evaluated. A total of 100 samples from boreholes, open wells and springs (67 from the Banana Plain; 33 from springs only, in the Mount Cameroon area) were collected in April 2009 and January 2010 and analyzed for chemical constituents, including nitrates. The average groundwater nitrate concentrations for the studied areas are: 17.28 mg/l for the Banana Plain and 2.90 mg/l for the Mount Cameroon area. Overall, groundwaters are relatively free from excessive nitrate contamination, with nitrate concentrations in only 6 % of groundwater resources in the Banana Plain exceeding the maximum admissible concentration for drinking water (50 mg/l). Sources of NO3 - in groundwater of this region may be mainly anthropogenic (N-fertilizers, sewerage, animal waste, organic manure, pit latrines, etc.). Multivariate statistical analyses of the hydrochemical data revealed that three factors were responsible for the groundwater chemistry (especially, degree of nitrate contamination): (1) a geogenic factor; (2) nitrate contamination factor; (3) ionic enrichment factor. The impact of anthropogenic activities, especially groundwater nitrate contamination, is more accentuated in the Banana Plain than in the Mount Cameroon area. This study also demonstrates the usefulness of multivariate statistical analysis in groundwater study as a supplementary tool for interpretation of complex hydrochemical data sets.

  17. [Research on monitoring land subsidence in Beijing plain area using PS-InSAR technology].

    PubMed

    Gu, Zhao-Qin; Gong, Hui-Li; Zhang, You-Quan; Lu, Xue-Hui; Wang, Sa; Wang, Rong; Liu, Huan-Huan

    2014-07-01

    In the present paper, the authors use permanent scatterers synthetic aperture radar interferometry (PS-InSAR) technique and 29 acquisitions by Envisat during 2003 to 2009 to monitor and analyze the spatial-temporal distribution and mechanism characterize of land subsidence in Beijing plain area. The results show that subsidence bowls have been bounded together in Beijing plain area, which covers Chaoyang, Changping, Shunyi and Tongzhou area, and the range of subsidence has an eastward trend. The most serious regional subsidence is mainly distributed by the quaternary depression in Beijing plain area. PS-Insar results also show a new subsidence bowl in Pinggu. What's more, the spatial and temporal distribution of deformation is controlled mainly by faults, such as Liangxiang-Shunyi fault, Huangzhuang-Gaoliying fault, and Nankou-Sunhe fault. The subsidence and level of groundwater in study area shows a good correlation, and the subsidence shows seasonal ups trend during November to March and seasonal downs trend during March to June along with changes in groundwater levels. The contribution of land subsidence is also influenced by stress-strain behavior of aquitards. The compaction of aquitards shows an elastic, plastic, viscoelastic pattern. PMID:25269304

  18. Location of Irrigated Land Classified from Satellite Imagery - High Plains Area, Nominal Date 1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Qi, Sharon L.; Konduris, Alexandria; Litke, David W.; Dupree, Jean

    2002-01-01

    Satellite imagery from the Landsat Thematic Mapper (nominal date 1992) was used to classify and map the location of irrigated land overlying the High Plains aquifer. The High Plains aquifer underlies 174,000 square miles in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. The U.S. Geological Survey is conducting a water-quality study of the High Plains aquifer as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program. To help interpret data and select sites for the study, it is helpful to know the location of irrigated land within the study area. To date, the only information available for the entire area is 20 years old. To update the data on irrigated land, 40 summer and 40 spring images (nominal date 1992) were acquired from the National Land Cover Data set and processed using a band-ratio method (Landsat Thematic Mapper band 4 divided by band 3) to enhance the vegetation signatures. The study area was divided into nine subregions with similar environmental characteristics, and a band-ratio threshold was selected from imagery in each subregion that differentiated the cutoff between irrigated and nonirrigated land. The classified images for each subregion were mosaicked to produce an irrigated-land map for the study area. The total amount of irrigated land classified from the 1992 imagery was 13.1 million acres, or about 12 percent of the total land in the High Plains. This estimate is approximately 1.5 percent greater than the amount of irrigated land reported in the 1992 Census of Agriculture (12.8 millions acres).

  19. Areas Contributing Recharge to Wells in the Tafuna-Leone Plain, Tutuila, American Samoa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Izuka, Scot K.; Perreault, Jeff A.; Presley, Todd K.

    2007-01-01

    To address the concerns about the potential for contamination of drinking-water wells in the Tafuna-Leone Plain, Tutuila, American Samoa, a numerical ground-water flow model was developed and used to delineate areas contributing recharge to the wells (ACRWs). Surveys and analyses were conducted to obtain or compile certain essential hydrogeologic information needed for the model, such as groundwater production statistics, ground-water levels under current production, and an assessment of the distribution of groundwater recharge. The ground-water surveys indicate that total production from all wells in the Tafuna-Leone Plain between 1985 and 2005 averaged 6.1 Mgal/d and showed a gradual increase. A synoptic survey indicates that current water levels in the Tafuna-Leone Plain are highest near its inland boundary, decrease toward the coast, and are slightly depressed in high-production well fields. Ground-water levels showed little effect from the increased production because hydraulic conductivites are high and withdrawal is small relative to recharge. Analysis of ground-water recharge using a soil water-budget analysis indicates that the Tafuna-Leone Plain and adjacent areas receive about 280 Mgal/d of water from rainfall, of which 24 percent runs off to the ocean, 26 percent is removed by evapotranspiration, and 50 percent goes to ground-water recharge. Ground-water recharge per unit area is generally higher at the mountain crests than at the coast, but the highest recharge per unit area is in the mountain-front recharge zone at the juncture between the Tafuna-Leone Plain and the adjacent mountains. Surface water from the mountains also contributes to ground-water recharge in the eastern Tafuna-Leone Plain, in a process analogous to mountain-front recharge described in arid areas. Analysis of stream-gage data indicates that in the mountains of Tutuila, ground water discharges and contributes substantially to the total flow of the streams. In contrast, multiple

  20. Tracing groundwater recharge sources in a mountain-plain transitional area using stable isotopes and hydrochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yaping; Yamanaka, Tsutomu

    2012-09-01

    SummaryMountain-plain transitional landscapes are especially important as groundwater recharge zones. In this study, the oxygen and hydrogen stable isotopic composition (δ18O and δD) of water and hydrochemical information were employed to quantify contribution ratios of different sources of groundwater recharge in the Ashikaga area of central Japan. The study area is situated between the Ashio Mountains and the Kanto Plain, and the Watarase River flows into the region parallel to the mountain-plain boundary. There was an obvious isotopic altitude effect in and around the study area (-0.25‰ per 100 m for δ18O and -1.7‰ per 100 m for δD), and the isotopic signatures of water from the Watarase River and local precipitation could be clearly distinguished. In addition, it was possible to identify the occurrence of mountain block recharge using hydrochemistry, specifically the chloride ion. End-member mixing analysis using δ values and Cl- concentration revealed spatial variation in the contribution ratios of the river water, mountain block groundwater and local precipitation. Seepage from the Watarase River contributed a significant amount of water to aquifers along its channel. The river-recharged water reached 5 km from the channel in the south (i.e., plain) side and 1.6 km or less in the north (i.e., mountain) side. Remarkable mountain block recharge was observed in the foothills near the axis of the syncline, which has layers of chert and sandstone that likely hinder river channel seepage into the mountain-side aquifers. Major factors controlling the river-water contribution ratio include the distance from the river channel, topography, and hydrogeological settings. The results presented here should facilitate integrated management of groundwater and surface water resources.

  1. Inventory methods for trees in nonforest areas in the Great Plains States.

    PubMed

    Lister, Andrew J; Scott, Charles T; Rasmussen, Steven

    2012-04-01

    The US Forest Service's Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program collects information on trees in areas that meet its definition of forest. However, the inventory excludes trees in areas that do not meet this definition, such as those found in urban areas, in isolated patches, in areas with sparse or predominantly herbaceous vegetation, in narrow strips (e.g., shelterbelts), or in riparian areas. In the Great Plains States, little is known about the tree resource in these noninventoried, nonforest areas, and there is a great deal of concern about the potential impact of invasive pests, such as the emerald ash borer. To address this knowledge gap, FIA's National Inventory and Monitoring Applications Center has partnered with state cooperators and others in a project called the Great Plains Initiative to design and implement an inventory of trees in nonforest areas. The goal of the inventory is to characterize the nonforest tree resource using methods compatible with those of FIA so a holistic understanding of the resource can be obtained by integrating the two surveys. The goal of this paper is to describe the process of designing and implementing the survey, including plot and sample design, and to present some example results from a reporting tool we developed. PMID:21713500

  2. Land Area Change and Fractional Water Maps in the Chenier Plain, Louisiana, following Hurricane Rita (2005)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Palaseanu-Lovejoy, Monica; Kranenburg, Christine J.; Brock, John C.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we estimated the changes in land and water coverage of a 1,961-square-kilometer (km2) area in Louisiana's Chenier Plain. The study area is roughly centered on the Sabine National Wildlife Refuge, which was impacted by Hurricane Rita on September 24, 2005. The objective of this study is twofold: (1) to provide pre- and post-Hurricane Rita moderate-resolution (30-meter (m)) fractional water maps based upon multiple source images, and (2) to quantify land and water coverage changes due to Hurricane Rita.

  3. Estimating SGD flux in the Pingtung Plain coastal area by using Radon and Radium isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li Chang, Yao; Chieh Su, Chih

    2015-04-01

    In the past two decades, submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) has been recognized as an important pathway to transport material into coastal area. Our study area is located at Pingtung Plain which is the second largest plain in Taiwan with three major rivers, including Gaoping, Donggang and Linbian Rivers, flow through the plain. The Gaoping River, which has the largest drainage area, flows throughout the central part of the plain. The Pingtung Plain composed by four aquifers in different depths (0, 50, 100, and 200 m) and each layer extends to coastal area. Groundwater is an important water resource for local agriculture and aquaculture. However, the long-term over-pumping induced subsidence problem makes salinization at some coastal area. Some previous studies pointed out the SGD accounts for 80% or more of the mass of freshwater in Fangshan coast, depends on salinity and stable isotopes research. In this study, the radioactive tracers, Radon (222Rn, T1/2=3.8 d) and short-lived Ra isotopes (223Ra, T1/2=11.4 d & 224Ra, T1/2=3.6 d) are used in tracing SGD off the Pingtung Plain. During 2013 to 2014, the terrestrial water samples were collected from Gaoping, Donggang, Linbian Rivers and springs in different seasons. We also conducted two coastal waters cruises by using R/V Ocean Researcher 3 (OR3-1768 and 1799 cruises in May and September 2014). Continuous 222Rn was measured by RAD7 equipped with RAD-AQUA system and large volume (20 L) seawater samples were collected by CTD/Rosette water sampler with Niskin sterile bottles. Water samples were flow through Mn-fiber (flow rate < 1 LPM) to concentrate the Ra isotopes, and counted via RaDeCC system. In spatial variation, our result shows the excess 224Ra in the downstream of Gaoping River (2.39 dpm 100L-1) is higher than upstream (1.09 dpm 100L-1). It indicates the groundwater input may play an important role at the downstream of Gaoping River. For temporal variation, excess 224Ra in the Gaoping River are higher in wet

  4. Irrigated Area Mapping in The Northern High Plains of Texas Using Landsat Thematic Mapper Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biradar, C. M.; Gowda, P. H.; Hernandez, J. E.; Howell, T. A.; Marek, T. H.; Xiao, X.

    2009-12-01

    Irrigated agriculture in the Texas High Plains accounts for a major portion of the groundwater withdrawals from the Ogallala aquifer, and groundwater levels are declining. Accurate information on irrigated acreage and its spatial distribution enhances local groundwater districts’ ability to manage limited water resources. In addition, irrigated land area is one of the important inputs in most surface and groundwater models to evaluate economic feasibility for various crop rotations systems and irrigation management practices. In this study, we used a novel approach to derive an irrigated area map covering a 4-county area (Dallam, Sherman, Hartley, and Moore Counties) in the northwest region of the Texas High Plains from a Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper image acquired on August 13, 2008. The spectral band ratios and vegetation indices were used to define threshold value for the irrigated pixels. The hierarchical rule-based decision tree classification algorithm was employed to delineate final irrigated class. Ground truth data collected for accuracy assessment included land cover type, irrigation practices and their geographic locations using a global positioning system. Accuracy assessment of the irrigated area map indicated that we achieved an overall mapping accuracy of 96% with omission and commission errors at 9% and 8%, respectively, which are mainly due to clouds and shadows of clouds. Irrigated acreages of summer crops derived from the TM image closely matched with that from agricultural statistical reports for the 4-county area. At present, a spring image is being processed to identify irrigated area planted with winter wheat in the study area. The combined irrigated area map will be used in the comprehensive regional analysis of groundwater depletion in the Ogallala Aquifer Region with the purpose of understanding short- and long-term effects of existing and alternative land use scenarios on groundwater changes.

  5. [Structure and function of township agroecosystems and their correlation in northern plain areas of Zhejiang Province].

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianjun; Ke, Jinhu

    2002-06-01

    The structure and functions of 15 township agroecosystems in northern plain areas of Zhejiang Province were investigated and studied. Both cluster analysis and correlation analysis were used to study the correlation between the holistic structure and function of the agroecosystems. The results showed that cluster analysis could reveal the correlation between the holistic structure and function of the agroecosystems, which was conducive for mastering the direction of holistic structural adjustment. Correlation analysis could identify the extent and direction of correlation between specific structural and functional indicators, which could serve as the basis for specific structural adjustment for optimization of functions. PMID:12216398

  6. Oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida) of plain area of the Southern European Russia.

    PubMed

    Lebedeva, Natalia V; Poltavskaya, Marina P

    2013-01-01

    The paper is devoted to the fauna of oribatid mites (Acari: Oribatida) mostly of a plain area of the Southern European Russia. The most updated taxonomic list of oribatid mite taxa compiled from the original authors' data collected after sam- pling soil, nests and plumage of birds, as well as published sources is presented. It includes 256 species of oribatid mites belonging to 72 families. Twenty species and one family of oribatid mites are recorded for the first time at the research territory. The abundance of mites in the soil is also provided for selected species. PMID:26240900

  7. Ground-water resources of the Clatsop Plains sand-dune area, Clatsop County, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frank, F.J.

    1970-01-01

    Although the average annual precipitation of the Clatsop Plains is 78.5 inches, the area is not without problems of water supply. The Clatsop Plains area ix underlain by Tertiary bedrock of low permeability that stores and yields small quantities of ground water, which may be of poor chemical quality. This Tertiary bedrock furnishes only minor ground-water discharge to maintain the base flow of streams. The flow of rivers and creeks, normally abundant during the wet season, decreases greatly during the dry summer months. The lowlands are overlain by extensive deposits of dune and beach sand. The dune sand is permeable and can absorb and store, as fresh water, a large percentage of the annual precipitation. In the central part of the dune area, the saturated thickness of the sand ranges from 95 to more than 150 feet. Most of the ground water in the sand discharges to the ocean through beach-line seeps and underflow. Much of the water now being discharged to the ocean could be recovered by pumping from properly located, designed, and constructed wells. Three test wells drilled as part of this study are capable of yielding 100 gallons per minute although they are equipped with only short lengths of well screen. It is estimated that 2,500 acre-feet of ground water per year per square mile of area may be available for withdrawal in the 10 square mile area that is most favorable for development. The water from the dune sand is soft to moderately hard, has a low chloride concentration, and is of generally good chemical quality; however, at places it is weakly acidic and contains sufficient dissolved iron to make iron removal necessary for some uses. Ground water from shallow depths beneath a few swampy low-lying areas is brown and contains excessive concentrations of iron.

  8. 44 CFR 60.5 - Flood plain management criteria for flood-related erosion-prone areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... criteria for flood-related erosion-prone areas. 60.5 Section 60.5 Emergency Management and Assistance... Management Regulations § 60.5 Flood plain management criteria for flood-related erosion-prone areas. The... flood-related erosion-prone areas shall be based. If the Federal Insurance Administrator has...

  9. 44 CFR 60.5 - Flood plain management criteria for flood-related erosion-prone areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... criteria for flood-related erosion-prone areas. 60.5 Section 60.5 Emergency Management and Assistance... Management Regulations § 60.5 Flood plain management criteria for flood-related erosion-prone areas. The... flood-related erosion-prone areas shall be based. If the Federal Insurance Administrator has...

  10. 44 CFR 60.5 - Flood plain management criteria for flood-related erosion-prone areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... criteria for flood-related erosion-prone areas. 60.5 Section 60.5 Emergency Management and Assistance... Management Regulations § 60.5 Flood plain management criteria for flood-related erosion-prone areas. The... flood-related erosion-prone areas shall be based. If the Federal Insurance Administrator has...

  11. 44 CFR 60.5 - Flood plain management criteria for flood-related erosion-prone areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... criteria for flood-related erosion-prone areas. 60.5 Section 60.5 Emergency Management and Assistance... Management Regulations § 60.5 Flood plain management criteria for flood-related erosion-prone areas. The... flood-related erosion-prone areas shall be based. If the Federal Insurance Administrator has...

  12. 44 CFR 60.5 - Flood plain management criteria for flood-related erosion-prone areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... criteria for flood-related erosion-prone areas. 60.5 Section 60.5 Emergency Management and Assistance... Management Regulations § 60.5 Flood plain management criteria for flood-related erosion-prone areas. The... flood-related erosion-prone areas shall be based. If the Federal Insurance Administrator has...

  13. Partners in flight bird conservation plan for the Upper Great Lakes Plain (Physiographic Area 16)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knutson, M.G.; Butcher, G.; Fitzgerald, J.; Shieldcastle, J.

    2001-01-01

    1 November 2001. Conservation of bird habitats is a major focus of effort by Partners in Flight, an international coalition of agencies, citizens, and other groups dedicated to 'keeping common birds common'. USGS worked on a planning team to publish a bird conservation plan for the Upper Great Lakes Plain ecoregion (PIF 16), which includes large portions of southern Wisconsin, southern Michigan and parts of Minnesota, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio. The conservation plan outlines specific habitat restoration and bird population objectives for the ecoregion over the next decade. The plan provides a context for on-the-ground conservation implementation by the US Fish and Wildlife Service, the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service, the US Forest Service, states, and conservation groups. Citation: Knutson, M. G., G. Butcher, J. Fitzgerald, and J. Shieldcastle. 2001. Partners in Flight Bird Conservation Plan for The Upper Great Lakes Plain (Physiographic Area 16). USGS Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center in cooperation with Partners in Flight, La Crosse, Wisconsin. Download from website: http://www.blm.gov/wildlife/pifplans.htm. The Upper Great Lakes Plain covers the southern half of Michigan, northwest Ohio, northern Indiana, northern Illinois, southern Wisconsin, and small portions of southwest Minnesota and northwest Iowa. Glacial moraines and dissected plateaus are characteristic of the topography. Broadleaf forests, oak savannahs, and a variety of prairie communities are the natural vegetation types. A oDriftless Areao was not glaciated during the late Pleistocene and emerged as a unique area of great biological diversity. Priority bird species for the area include the Henslow's Sparrow, Sedge Wren, Bobolink, Golden-winged Warbler, Cerulean Warbler, Black-billed Cuckoo, and Red-headed Woodpecker. There are many large urban centers in this area whose growth and sprawl will continue to consume land. The vast majority of the presettlement forest and

  14. Hydrology of Area 61, Northern Great Plains and Rocky Mountain Coal Provinces, Colorado and New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abbott, P.O.; Geldon, Arthur L.; Cain, Doug; Hall, Alan P.; Edelmann, Patrick

    1983-01-01

    Area 61 is located on the Colorado-New Mexico boundary in Huerfano and Las Animas Counties, Colorado, and Colfax County, New Mexico, and includes the Raton Mesa coal region. The 5 ,900-square-mile area is an asymmetrical structural trough bounded by the Rocky Mountains on the west and the Great Plains on the east. The area is drained by the Huerfano, Apishapa, Purgatoire, and Canadian Rivers (and their tributaries), all tributary to the Arkansas River. The principal coal-bearing formations are the Vermejo Formation of Late Cretaceous age and the Raton Formation of Late Cretaceous and Paleocene age. Much of the coal in the area is of coking quality, important to the metallurgical industry. Topographic relief in the area is greater than 8,700 feet, and this influences the climate which in turn affects the runoff pattern of area streams. Summer thunderstorms often result in flash floods. Virtually all geologic units in the region yield water. Depth to ground water ranges from land surface to 400 feet. Surface and ground water in the area contain mostly bicarbonate and sulfate ions; locally in the ground water, chloride ions predominate. Potential hydrologic problems associated with surface coal mining in the area are water-quality degradation, water-table decline, and increased erosion and sedimentation.

  15. Aquifer recharge from infiltration basins in a highly urbanized area: the river Po Plain (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masetti, M.; Nghiem, S. V.; Sorichetta, A.; Stevenazzi, S.; Santi, E. S.; Pettinato, S.; Bonfanti, M.; Pedretti, D.

    2015-12-01

    Due to the extensive urbanization in the Po Plain in northern Italy, rivers need to be managed to alleviate flooding problems while maintaining an appropriate aquifer recharge under an increasing percentage of impermeable surfaces. During the PO PLain Experiment field campaign in July 2015 (POPLEX 2015), both active and under-construction infiltration basins have been surveyed and analyzed to identify appropriate satellite observations that can be integrated to ground based monitoring techniques. A key strategy is to have continuous data time series on water presence and level within the basin, for which ground based monitoring can be costly and difficult to be obtained consistently.One of the major and old infiltration basin in the central Po Plain has been considered as pilot area. The basin is active from 2003 with ground based monitoring available since 2009 and supporting the development of a calibrated unsaturated-saturated two-dimensional numerical model simulating the infiltration dynamics through the basin.A procedure to use satellite data to detect surface water change is under development based on satellite radar backscatter data with an appropriate incidence angle and polarization combination. An advantage of satellite radar is that it can observe surface water regardless of cloud cover, which can be persistent during rainy seasons. Then, the surface water change is correlated to the reservoir water stage to determine water storage in the basin together with integrated ground data and to give quantitative estimates of variations in the local water cycle.We evaluated the evolution of the infiltration rate, to obtain useful insights about the general recharge behavior of basins that can be used for informed design and maintenance. Results clearly show when the basin becomes progressively clogged by biofilms that can reduce the infiltration capacity of the basin by as much as 50 times compared to when it properly works under clean conditions.

  16. Reactivated basement structures in the central Savannah River area and their relationship to coastal plain deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Cumbest, R.J.; Price, V. ); Temples, T.J. ); Fallaw, W.C. . Dept. of Geology); Snipes, D.S. . Dept. of Earth Sciences)

    1993-03-01

    Structural surface mapping and geophysical studies have identified several faults in the crystalline basement and overlying Coastal Plain sedimentary sequences in the central Savannah River area. Major subsurface basement shear zones occur parallel to and near Upper Three Runs Creek and Tinker Creek and are associated with linear aeromagnetic anomalies. Reflection seismic imaging of the basement shows a band of southeast dipping events parallel to Upper Three Runs Creek. Drill core from basement contain phyllonites, mylonites, fault breccia and pseudotachylite. The magnetic anomalies also mark the boundary separating greenschist facies metavolcanic rocks from amphibolite facies felsic gneiss, schist, and amphibolite. These features are similar to those that characterize other Paleozoic faults of the Eastern Piedmont Fault system. Reflection seismic imaging shows the sub-Cretaceous unconformity as well defined and easily identified event as well as easily traced laterally extensive events in Coastal Plain sequences. The unconformity and sedimentary sequences are faulted or deformed in several locations which also coincide with changes in dip of the unconformity. In the vicinity of Upper Three Runs Creek the unconformity shows a broad warping across which the elevation drops to the southeast and sedimentary sequences show a marked rate of thickening southeast. This indicates deformation of the basement exerted a control on deposition of the Coastal Plain sediments with down to the southeast movement. The basement shear zones are closely associated with the Dunbarton basin and are probable reactivated Paleozoic structures associated with extensional basin development as commonly seen associated with extensional basins on the east coast of North America.

  17. The cost of anaplasmosis in the Red River Plains and south-east areas of Louisiana.

    PubMed

    Morley, R S; Hugh-Jones, M E

    1989-01-01

    Losses from morbidity and mortality due to anaplasmosis were assessed in beef and dairy cattle of the Red River Plains and south-east areas of Louisiana. The cost of treatment and prevention of anaplasmosis and losses in milk production and those due to deaths or culling were valued at $0.5 million for the year 1983 in these two areas. The cost of prevention included the use of tetracyclines in feed and salt-mineral supplements, injectable tetracycline, vaccination and an estimated 10% of the cost of insecticidal ear tags, sprays, pour-on applications and dust bags. The remainder of these costs and the total cost of vector control in dairy cattle was attributed to the control of fly annoyance. Treatment costs included veterinary fees and the owner's treatment costs, including labour costs. PMID:2588475

  18. Serious BTEX pollution in rural area of the North China Plain during winter season.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kankan; Zhang, Chenglong; Cheng, Ye; Liu, Chengtang; Zhang, Hongxing; Zhang, Gen; Sun, Xu; Mu, Yujing

    2015-04-01

    Atmospheric BTEX compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes) in a rural site of the North China Plain (NCP) were preliminarily investigated in winter, and the outdoor concentrations (25.8-236.0 μg/m3) were found to be much higher than those reported in urban regions. The pollution of BTEX inside a farmer's house was even more serious, with combined concentrations of 254.5-1552.9 μg/m3. Based on the ratio of benzene to toluene (1.17±0.34) measured, the serious BTEX pollution in the rural site was mainly ascribed to domestic coal combustion for heating during the winter season. With the enhancement of farmers' incomes in recent years, coal consumption by farmers in the NCP is rapidly increasing to keep their houses warm, and hence the serious air pollution in rural areas of the NCP during winter, including BTEX, should be paid great attention. PMID:25872726

  19. Selected drill-stem-test data from the Northern Great Plains area of Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Levings, Gary W.

    1981-01-01

    Selected drill-stem-test data were collected for use in the hydrologic analysis of aquifers in the northern Great Plains area of Montana. To supplement existing data defining the potentiometric surface of various aquifers, shut-in pressures recorded during drill-stem tests of oil and gas test wells were used to calculate the altitude of the potentiometric surface. The transmissivity of the aquifers also was calculated if sufficient data existed. Records for 627 drill-stem tests from 523 wells are tabulated in this report. Data include well location, well name, formation tested, well epth, tested interval, date tested, test number, flow period, transmissivity, shut-in pressure, and altitude of water surface. Locations of the wells are shown on a map at a scale of 1:1,000,000. (USGS)

  20. Method Study of Flood Hazard Analysis for Plain River Network Area, Taihu Basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    HAN, C.; Liu, S.; Zhong, G.; Zhang, X.

    2015-12-01

    Flood is one of the most common and serious natural calamities. Taihu Basin is located in delta region of the Yangtze River in East China (see Fig. 1). Because of the abundant rainfall and low-lying terrain, the area frequently suffers from flood hazard which have caused serious casualty and economic loss. In order to reduce the severe impacts of floods events, numerous polder areas and hydraulic constructions (including pumps, water gates etc.) were constructed. Flood Hazard Map is an effective non-structural flood mitigation tool measures. Numerical simulation of flood propagation is one of the key technologies of flood hazard mapping. Because of the complexity of its underlying surface characteristics, numerical simulation of flood propagation was faced with some special problems for the plain river network area in Taihu Basin. In this paper, a coupled one and two dimensional hydrodynamic model was established. Densely covered and interconnected river networks, numerous polder areas and complex scheduling hydraulic constructions were generalized in the model. The model was proved to be believable and stable. Based on the results of the simulation of flood propagation, flood hazard map was compiled.

  1. Eco-environment contribution of agroforestry to agriculture development in the plain area of China--Huai' an Prefecture, Jiangsu Province as the case study area.

    PubMed

    Ren, Hong-chang; Lu, Yong-long; Liu, Can; Meng, Qing-hua; Shi, Ya-juan

    2005-01-01

    For improving the environmental quality and ensuring supply of wood and non-timber forest products, many forests have been planted in plain areas of China. Scientists have studied their benefits, almost all of the approaches were based on fixed-point data, and few was considered on the non-efficient factors and temporal scale effects. This paper studies the positive and negative benefits at a large temporal scale, and the effects of plain afforestation on stockbreeding and rural economy. The benefits of plain afforestation, correlation coefficiency of agroforestry and production factors are analyzed via stochastic frontier modeling in Huanghuaihai Plain Area of China; elastic coefficient of agroforestry, husbandry, farming, and total output of agricultural sector are calculated through adopting partial differential equation. Some conclusions can be drawn that, plain forests have an important effect on the development of plain agriculture. But shelterbelts and small-scale forests have different effect on the development of agricultural economy. Shelterbelts have negative effect on the industries, but small-scale forest has positive effect. On the whole, contribution of forest resource to value of animal husbandry and gross production value of agriculture is positive, and to the value of farming is negative. PMID:16295915

  2. Wind and Wildlife in the Northern Great Plains: Identifying Low-Impact Areas for Wind Development

    PubMed Central

    Fargione, Joseph; Kiesecker, Joseph; Slaats, M. Jan; Olimb, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Wind energy offers the potential to reduce carbon emissions while increasing energy independence and bolstering economic development. However, wind energy has a larger land footprint per Gigawatt (GW) than most other forms of energy production and has known and predicted adverse effects on wildlife. The Northern Great Plains (NGP) is home both to some of the world’s best wind resources and to remaining temperate grasslands, the most converted and least protected ecological system on the planet. Thus, appropriate siting and mitigation of wind development is particularly important in this region. Steering energy development to disturbed lands with low wildlife value rather than placing new developments within large and intact habitats would reduce impacts to wildlife. Goals for wind energy development in the NGP are roughly 30 GW of nameplate capacity by 2030. Our analyses demonstrate that there are large areas where wind development would likely have few additional impacts on wildlife. We estimate there are ∼1,056 GW of potential wind energy available across the NGP on areas likely to have low-impact for biodiversity, over 35 times development goals. New policies and approaches will be required to guide wind energy development to low-impact areas. PMID:22848505

  3. Evaluation of MEDALUS model for desertification hazard zonation using GIS; study area: Iyzad Khast plain, Iran.

    PubMed

    Farajzadeh, Manuchehr; Egbal, Mahbobeh Nik

    2007-08-15

    In this study, the MEDALUS model along with GIS mapping techniques are used to determine desertification hazards for a province of Iran to determine the desertification hazard. After creating a desertification database including 20 parameters, the first steps consisted of developing maps of four indices for the MEDALUS model including climate, soil, vegetation and land use were prepared. Since these parameters have mostly been presented for the Mediterranean region in the past, the next step included the addition of other indicators such as ground water and wind erosion. Then all of the layers weighted by environmental conditions present in the area were used (following the same MEDALUS framework) before a desertification map was prepared. The comparison of two maps based on the original and modified MEDALUS models indicates that the addition of more regionally-specific parameters into the model allows for a more accurate representation of desertification processes across the Iyzad Khast plain. The major factors affecting desertification in the area are climate, wind erosion and low land quality management, vegetation degradation and the salinization of soil and water resources. PMID:19070073

  4. Spring land temperature anomalies in northwestern US and the summer drought over Southern Plains and adjacent areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Yongkang; Oaida, Catalina M.; Diallo, Ismaila; Neelin, J. David; Li, Suosuo; De Sales, Fernando; Gu, Yu; Robinson, David A.; Vasic, Ratko; Yi, Lan

    2016-04-01

    Recurrent drought and associated heatwave episodes are important features of the US climate. Many studies have examined the connection between ocean surface temperature changes and conterminous US droughts. However, remote effects of large-scale land surface temperature variability, over shorter but still considerable distances, on US regional droughts have been largely ignored. The present study combines two types of evidence to address these effects: climate observations and model simulations. Our analysis of observational data shows that springtime land temperature in northwest US is significantly correlated with summer rainfall and surface temperature changes in the US Southern Plains and its adjacent areas. Our model simulations of the 2011 Southern Plains drought using a general circulation model and a regional climate model confirm the observed relationship between land temperature anomaly and drought, and suggest that the long-distance effect of land temperature changes in the northwest US on Southern Plains droughts is probably as large as the more familiar effects of ocean surface temperatures and atmospheric internal variability. We conclude that the cool 2011 springtime climate conditions in the northwest US increased the probability of summer drought and abnormal heat in the Southern Plains. The present study suggests a strong potential for more skillful intra-seasonal predictions of US Southern Plains droughts when such facts as ones presented here are considered.

  5. A boundary of stress-field orientation in northwestern area of the Kanto plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, T. E.; Takeda, T.; Shiomi, K.

    2014-12-01

    There is a boundary where pressure and tension axes dramatically change by almost at the right angles around northwestern area of the Kanto plain (north of Tokyo), reported by Suzuki (1989). Since 2013, we have launched Japan Unified High-resolution Relocated Catalog for Earthquakes (JUICE) project. The relocation method using the Double-Difference method (Waldhauser and Ellsworth, 2000) provided the high-resolution earthquake catalog, which enabled to further evaluate active faults (e.g. seismogenic layer thickness, or slip tendency direction etc.) In this presentation, we revisit the previous mystery regarding to the stress-field orientation boundary in northwestern Kanto plain by looking at much more and high-resolution data available than before. The stress axis boundary runs at particularly close (about 5 km north and parallel direction) to the Fukaya fault, which caused the M6.9 Western Saitama earthquake in 1931 occurred at very shallow depth, involving severe damages and many casualties in Kanto region. The high-resolution catalog clearly showed the majority of pressure (P-axis) and tension stress axis (T-axis) lie about 150˚ and 60˚ in the north of the stress axis boundary, while both the axes change into about 45˚ and 150˚ in the south of this boundary, respectively. In fact, both P- and T- axis, by crossing the boundary, suddenly changes about 90˚. The focal mechanism around this area dominated by the strike and thrust and both mechanisms seem to be randomly co-existing. Yet, depth distribution pattern changes abruptly across the boundary. The depth distribution pattern of north part of the boundary seems more confined than the southern part. We discuss the sharp stress discontinuity by two main perspectives. The first focuses on the effect due to local structure, such as possibly the buried Median tectonic line and/or ancient failed rift formed while the Sea of Japan had opened. The second focuses on the tectonic force due to complicated subduction

  6. Hydrology of Area 62, Northern Great Plains and Rocky Mountain Coal Provinces, New Mexico and Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roybal, F.E.; Wells, J.G.; Gold, R.L.; Flager, J.V.

    1984-01-01

    This report summarizes available hydrologic data for Area 62 and will aid leasing decisions, and the preparation and appraisal of environmental impact studies and mine-permit applications. Area 62 is located at the southern end of the Rocky Mountain Coal Province in parts of New Mexico and Arizona and includes approximately 9,500 square miles. Surface mining alters, at least temporarily, the environment; if the areas are unreclaimed, there can be long-term environmental consequences. The land-ownership pattern in Area 62 is complicated. The checkerboard pattern created by several types of ownership makes effective management of these lands difficult. The climate generally is semiarid with average annual precipitation ranging from 10 to 20 inches. Pinons, junipers, and grasslands cover most of the area, and much of it is used for grazing by livestock. Soils vary with landscape, differing from flood plains and hillslopes to mountain slopes. The major structural features of this area were largely developed during middle Tertiary time. The main structural features are the southern San Juan Basin and the Mogollon slope. Coal-bearing rocks are present in four Cretaceous rock units of the Mesaverde Group: the Gallup Sandstone, the Dileo Coal Member, and the Gibson Coal Member of the Crevasse Canyon Formation, and the Cleary Coal Member of the Menefee Formation. Area 62 is drained by Black Creek, the Puerco River, the Zuni River, Carrizo Wash-Largo Creek, and the Rio San Jose. Only at the headwaters of the Zuni River is the flow perennial. The streamflow-gaging station network consists of 25 stations operated for a variety of needs. Streamflow changes throughout the year with variation related directly to rainfall and snowmelt. Base flow in Area 62 is zero indicating no significant ground-water discharge. Mountainous areas contribute the highest mean annual runoff of 1.0 inch. Very few water-quality data are available for the surface-water stations. Of the nine surface

  7. Hydrology of area 54, Northern Great Plains, and Rocky Mountain coal provinces, Colorado and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuhn, Gerhard; Daddow, P.D.; Craig, G.S.; and others

    1983-01-01

    A nationwide need for information characterizing hydrologic conditions in mined and potential mine areas has become paramount with the enactment of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977. This report, one in a series covering the coal provinces nationwide, presents information thematically by describing single hydrologic topics through the use of brief texts and accompanying maps, graphs, or other illustrations. The summation of the topical discussions provides a description of the hydrology of the area. Area 54, in north-central Colorado and south-central Wyoming, is 1 of 20 hydrologic reporting areas of the Northern Great Plains and Rocky Mountain coal provinces. Part of the Southern Rocky Mountains and Wyoming Basin physiographic provinces, the 8,380-square-mile area is one of contrasting geology, topography, and climate. This results in contrasting hydrologic characteristics. The major streams, the North Platte, Laramie, and Medicine Bow Rivers, and their principal tributaries, all head in granitic mountains and flow into and through sedimentary basins between the mountain ranges. Relief averages 2,000 to 3,000 feet. Precipitation in the mountains may exceed 40 inches annually, much of it during the winter, which produces deep snowpacks. Snowmelt in spring and summer provides most streamflow. Precipitation in the basins averages 10 to 16 inches annually, insufficient for sustained streamflow; thus, streams originating in the basins are ephemeral. Streamflow quality is best in the mountains where dissolved-solids concentrations generally are least. These concentrations increase as streams flow through sedimentary basins. The increases are mainly natural, but some may be due to irrigation in and adjacent to the flood plains. In the North Platte River, dissolved-solids concentrations are usually less than 300 milligrams per liter; in the Laramie and the Medicine Bow Rivers, the concentrations may average 500 to 850 milligrams per liter. However

  8. [Distribution Characteristics and Source of Fluoride in Groundwater in Lower Plain Area of North China Plain: A Case Study in Nanpi County].

    PubMed

    Kong, Xiao-le; Wang, Shi-qin; Zhao, Huan; Yuan, Rui-qiang

    2015-11-01

    There is an obvious regional contradiction between water resources and agricultural produce in lower plain area of North China, however, excessive fluorine in deep groundwater further limits the use of regional water resources. In order to understand the spatial distribution characteristics and source of F(-) in groundwater, study was carried out in Nanpi County by field survey and sampling, hydrogeochemical analysis and stable isotopes methods. The results showed that the center of low fluoride concentrations of shallow groundwater was located around reservoir of Dalang Lake, and centers of high fluoride concentrations were located in southeast and southwest of the study area. The region with high fluoride concentration was consistent with the over-exploitation region of deep groundwater. Point source pollution of subsurface drainage and non-point source of irrigation with deep groundwater in some regions were the main causes for the increasing F(-) concentrations of shallow groundwater in parts of the sampling sites. Rock deposition and hydrogeology conditions were the main causes for the high F(-) concentrations (1.00 mg x L(-1), threshold of drinking water quality standard in China) in deep groundwater. F(-) released from clay minerals into the water increased the F(-) concentrations in deep groundwater because of over-exploitation. With the increasing exploitation and utilization of brackish shallow groundwater and the compressing and restricting of deep groundwater exploitation, the water environment in the middle and east lower plain area of North China will undergo significant change, and it is important to identify the distribution and source of F(-) in surface water and groundwater for reasonable development and use of water resources in future. PMID:26910989

  9. Environmental Risks Within Natural Areas;The Ill River's Flood Plain, Alsace, France Water Quality And Flooding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clandillon, Stephen; de Fraipoint, Paul

    The project's case study area is that of the IllRiver flood plain between Colmar and Strasbourgon the central Alsace plain in northern France.This area has historically been a wetland forestand prairie grassland region and has been homeand resting site to much bird wildlife. Sudden snow meltsand intense precipitation in the adjacentVosges can still cause widespreadflooding. In recent times the ploughingin of much of the prairies and intensivemaize production has led to adestabilised biotope. Therefore, the closeto surface water table is under threatfrom the infiltration of agriculturalpesticides and fertilisers and the baresoils in winter are open to erosion.This wetland has been inscribed inEU circulars under the protection ofwetland areas (79/409) and an officialflood zone has been defined. Prairiegrassland conservation policies havebeen implemented.

  10. Application of Microtremor Array Analysis to Estimate the Bedrock Depth in the Beijing Plain area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, P.; Ling, S.; Liu, J.; Su, W.

    2013-12-01

    With the rapid expansion of large cities around the world, urban geological survey provides key information regarding resource development and urban construction. Among the major cities of the world, China's capital city Beijing is among the largest cities possessing complex geological structures. The urban geological survey and study in Beijing involves the following aspects: (1) estimating the thickness of the Cenozoic deposit; (2) mapping the three-dimensional structure of the underlying bedrock, as well as its relations to faults and tectonic settings; and (3) assessing the capacity of the city's geological resources in order to support its urban development and operation safety. The geological study of Beijing in general was also intended to provide basic data regarding the urban development and appraisal of engineering and environment geological conditions, as well as underground space resources. In this work, we utilized the microtremor exploration method to estimate the thickness of the bedrock depth, in order to delineate the geological interfaces and improve the accuracy of the bedrock depth map. The microtremor observation sites were located in the Beijing Plain area. Traditional geophysical or geological survey methods were not effective in these areas due to the heavy traffic and dense buildings in the highly-populated urban area. The microtremor exploration method is a Rayleigh-wave inversion technique which extracts its phase velocity dispersion curve from the vertical component of the microtremor array records using the spatial autocorrelation (SPAC) method, then inverts the shear-wave velocity structure. A triple-circular array was adopted for acquiring microtremor data, with the observation radius in ranging from 40 to 300 m, properly adjusted depending on the geological conditions (depth of the bedrock). The collected microtremor data are used to: (1) estimation of phase velocities of Rayleigh-wave from the vertical components of the microtremor

  11. Combining Landform Thematic Layer and Object-Oriented Image Analysis to Map the Surface Features of Mountainous Flood Plain Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, H.-K.; Lin, M.-L.; Huang, W.-C.

    2012-04-01

    The Typhoon Morakot on August 2009 brought more than 2,000 mm of cumulative rainfall in southern Taiwan, the extreme rainfall event caused serious damage to the Kaoping River basin. The losses were mostly blamed on the landslides along sides of the river, and shifting of the watercourse even led to the failure of roads and bridges, as well as flooding and levees damage happened around the villages on flood bank and terraces. Alluvial fans resulted from debris flow of stream feeders blocked the main watercourse and debris dam was even formed and collapsed. These disasters have highlighted the importance of identification and map the watercourse alteration, surface features of flood plain area and artificial structures soon after the catastrophic typhoon event for natural hazard mitigation. Interpretation of remote sensing images is an efficient approach to acquire spatial information for vast areas, therefore making it suitable for the differentiation of terrain and objects near the vast flood plain areas in a short term. The object-oriented image analysis program (Definiens Developer 7.0) and multi-band high resolution satellite images (QuickBird, DigitalGlobe) was utilized to interpret the flood plain features from Liouguei to Baolai of the the Kaoping River basin after Typhoon Morakot. Object-oriented image interpretation is the process of using homogenized image blocks as elements instead of pixels for different shapes, textures and the mutual relationships of adjacent elements, as well as categorized conditions and rules for semi-artificial interpretation of surface features. Digital terrain models (DTM) are also employed along with the above process to produce layers with specific "landform thematic layers". These layers are especially helpful in differentiating some confusing categories in the spectrum analysis with improved accuracy, such as landslides and riverbeds, as well as terraces, riverbanks, which are of significant engineering importance in disaster

  12. Multisensor characterization of subsurface structures in a desert plain area in Egypt with implications for groundwater exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Magaly; Gaber, Ahmed; Geriesh, Mohamed H.; Zaghloul, El-Sayed; Arafat, Sayed M.; AbuBakr, Mostafa

    2013-10-01

    A desert plain in Egypt is being investigated to develop new techniques of multisensor data integration for groundwater exploration. A combination of multispectral, thermal and microwave data (ASTER and PALSAR) and supported by ground measurements (GPR, field spectroradiometry and magnetometry) were used to investigate surface sediment characteristics of the El-Gallaba Plain area, NW of Aswan. This desert plain once hosted an ancestral river system long before the Nile even existed. Nowadays the fluvial deposits are largely covered by Aeolian and gravelly sands and thus only detectible with radar and thermal images. Results show two broad strips of thermal cooling anomalies arranged in a linear fashion and diagonally crossing the alluvial basin. Spectral signatures collected along the linear land surface temperature (LST) anomalies show generally higher reflectance values (higher albedo) than the surrounding sediments. Both, the cooler LST and higher albedo, suggest that the surface sediments within the anomaly strips have lower emissivity values (low heat storage capacity). Furthermore, the homogeneity of these sediments was measured with a ground penetrating radar (GPR) using 250 and 100 MHz shielded antenna. The 12 GPR profiles across the LST anomalies confirmed that the near-surface sediments (up to 10 m depth) consist of thin horizontal layers of sandstone with very low gravel content. They show very different textural and compositional characteristics with respect to the surrounding areas suggesting a different depositional environment. Thus 12 magnetic profiles with 1.5 km average length were acquired across the LST anomalies to investigate deep seated structures. The results confirmed the existence of graben-like structures with a maximum depth to the basement of 150 m and shallower depths toward the edges of the LST anomalies. Consequently, these structurally controlled basins could be promising areas for ground water accumulation and exploration in the El

  13. Impact of water overstock on groundwater quality of the Bassee plain area (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gourcy, L.; Pettenati, M.; Baran, N.; Durand, P. Y.

    2009-04-01

    The project, inspired by the structural flood plain management measures of the Rhine River, consists in the temporal removal of a maximum amount of water from the Seine River in order to leave priority to the water from the River Yonne. Yonne River and the Seine are presenting their maximum water flow usually at a same time. The space located between Bray-sur-Seine and Montereau-Fault-Yonne corresponding to the La Bassée plain (agricultural area of 23 km2) is well adapted to this project of temporary and artificial flood. The objective of the project financed by the Institution Interdépartementale des barrages Réservoirs du Bassin de la Seine (IIBRBS), the BRGM, the Seine-Normandie Water Agency, the European Communauty through the Interreg IIIB SAND project is the evaluation, at a local scale, of the impact on groundwater quality of the temporal Seine water storage. Indeed, the water over storage i) changes hydraulic conditions and therefore modify water and pollutants transfers through the unsaturated and saturated zones and ii) bring at soil surface a water (Seine River) potentially containing contaminants that may move to groundwater and consequently changed physico-chemicals conditions (redox) of groundwater. The estimation of the vulnerability of groundwater to changes and loads needs hydraulic and geochemical modelling of transfer through the unsaturated zone as well as the study of pollutants fate in static conditions. Retention properties of some metals (Pb, Ni, Cu, Cr, Zn) in soils and materials of the unsaturated zone by chemical processes were performed determining adsorption coefficient (Kd) by laboratory experiments. These experiments are showing that nickel mobility is lower in the argillous layers than in the sandy part of the unsaturated zone. Ni mobility is controlled by iron hydroxides and precipitation of other secondary minerals. Its complexation on organic ligands increases its mobility in soils. Copper concentration is influenced by CaCO3

  14. Age of fracturing and mesa development in the Elysium Area, northern Martian plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgill, George E.

    1987-01-01

    One of the fundamental questions of Martian crustal history is the origin of the crustal dichotomy between northern plains and southern highlands. Hypotheses for the origin of the dichotomy may be constrained by global scale, geophysical considerations, or by detailed geological studies of the genesis and relative ages of materials and landforms in the northern plains of Mars and along the boundary between the plains and the highlands. This abstract summarizes progress on one aspect of a long-range geological study intended to constrain hypotheses for the dichotomy by tracing the history of the northern plains from the most recent events backward -- essentially the same approach used to understand old events in Earth history. Both the giant impact and the mantle convection models for the crustal dichotomy imply a major coeval fracturing event. As has been known for some time, the present dichotomy boundary lies well south of its original position, at least in some places. Nevertheless, there is severe fracturing of this present dichotomy boundary in many places. The specific objectives of this study are to determine the ages of fracturing along the present dichotomy boundary.

  15. Liquefaction susceptibility assessment in fluvial plains using airborne lidar: the case of the 2012 Emilia earthquake sequence area (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Civico, R.; Brunori, C. A.; De Martini, P. M.; Pucci, S.; Cinti, F. R.; Pantosti, D.

    2015-11-01

    We report a case study from the Po River plain region (northern Italy), where significant liquefaction-related land and property damage occurred during the 2012 Emilia seismic sequence. We took advantage of a 1 m pixel lidar digital terrain model (DTM) and of the 2012 Emilia coseismic liquefaction data set to (a) perform a detailed geomorphological study of the Po River plain area and (b) quantitatively define the liquefaction susceptibility of the geomorphologic features that experienced different abundance of liquefaction. One main finding is that linear topographic highs of fluvial origin - together with crevasse splays, abandoned riverbeds and very young land reclamation areas - acted as a preferential location for the occurrence of liquefaction phenomena. Moreover, we quantitatively defined a hierarchy in terms of liquefaction susceptibility for an ideal fluvial environment. We observed that a very high liquefaction susceptibility is found in coincidence with fluvial landforms, a high-to-moderate liquefaction susceptibility within a buffer distance of 100 and 200 m from mapped fluvial landforms and a low liquefaction susceptibility outside fluvial landforms and relative buffer areas. Lidar data allowed a significant improvement in mapping with respect to conventionally available topographic data and/or aerial imagery. These results have significant implications for accurate hazard and risk assessment as well as for land-use planning. We propose a simple geomorphological approach for liquefaction susceptibility estimation. Our findings can be applied to areas beyond Emilia that are characterized by similar fluvial-dominated environments and prone to significant seismic hazard.

  16. Geohydrology and water resources of the Papago Farms-Great Plain area, Papago Indian Reservation, Arizona, and the upper Rio Sonoyta area, Sonora, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hollett, K.J.

    1983-01-01

    The Papago Farms-Great Plain and upper Rio Sonoyta study area includes about 490 square miles in south-central Arizona and north-central Sonora, Mexico. In the study area 23,700 acre-feet of ground water from the basin-fill deposits was used to irrigate more than 5,000 acres in 1981. Surface water is not a reliable source for irrigation or public supply. Ground water enters the area as underflow from the north and east and as recharge from the montains, moves through basin-margin sediments , around the basin-center clays, and exits the area to the west beneath the Rio Sonoyta. Ground-water withdrawals in the upper Rio Sonoyta area do not appear to have an effect on water levels in the Papago Farms-Great Plain area. Depth to water ranges from 500 feet near the southern boundary to 150 feet in the center of study area. About 10 million acre-feet of recoverable ground water is stored in the upper 400 feet of the aquifer. Storage is being depleted at a rate of 19,000 acre-feet per year. The ground water is a sodium and bicarbonate type and has an anomalously high content of arsenic and fluoride. (USGS)

  17. Predominant periods in the time series of drought area index for the Western High Plains AD 1700 to 1962

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, P. R.

    1981-01-01

    The detection of the combined presence of the Hale magnetic sunspot cycle (22.28 years) and the lunar nodal tidal cycle (18.61 years) in both the Eastern North American January air temperatures and the Western U.S. High Plains drought series led to an extended analysis of the Drought Area Index time series. This analysis indicated that the mean dominant period of the drought series should be 20.0 to 20.5 years and that the principal period should be resolvable into two components of about 22.28 and 18.61 years. This note details the successful accomplishment of this task.

  18. Geology, geochemistry, and tectonostratigraphic relations of the crystalline basement beneath the coastal plain of New Jersey and contiguous areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Volkert, Richard A.; Drake, Avery Ala, Jr.; Sugarman, Peter J.

    1996-01-01

    Coastal plain sediments are underlain by pre-Mesozoic crystalline rocks. The inner coastal plain is underlain by schist that is correlated with the Potomac Terrane, as well as by mafic rocks probably equivalent to the Wilmington or Bel Air-Rising Sun terranes. The northern and central outer coastal plain is underlain by metasedimentary rocks similar to the Brompton-Cameron Terrane. Rocks beneath the southern coastal plain probably correlate with those of the Chopawamsic and Roanoke Rapids terranes.

  19. 44 CFR 60.12 - Flood plain management criteria for State-owned properties in special hazard areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Flood plain management... MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program CRITERIA FOR LAND MANAGEMENT AND USE Requirements for State Flood Plain Management Regulations § 60.12 Flood plain management criteria for State-owned properties...

  20. Natural Areas, Regions, and Two Centuries of Environmental Change on the Great Plains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wishart, David J.

    2006-01-01

    A careful reading of recent issues of the "Natural Areas Journal," the publication of the Natural Areas Association, will leave you with the conclusion that humans are not a part of natural areas. When humans do appear, it is either as disturbing agents, disrupting the naturalness through, for example, the introduction of exotic plants and…

  1. Quick mapping of flood-prone areas in plain terrain using GIS analysis: applications for flood management plans over large areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pistocchi, A.; Mazzoli, P.; Bagli, S.

    2012-04-01

    Flood management plans, as required under the provisions of the "Flood Directive" 2007/60/EC, ground on the mapping of flood-prone areas. When dealing with plain terrains, inundation modeling using bi-dimensional models may entail considerable efforts both in terms of data collection and processing, and of hydraulic computation. The resolution of numerical models may be limited if working on large areas, or conversely a model can tackle only relatively limited areas with a high resolution. On the other hand, a dynamic simulation of overland floods may be necessary for certain applications, but may be beyond the practical requirements of a flood management plan, for which it may be sufficient to identify the general characteristics of flow that drive potential risks, such as the type of flooding (slow or with significant dynamic component) and an indication of depth and velocity of flow. In this contribution we present criteria for the classification of flooding type and for the mapping of first-approximation depth and velocity fields in case of floods, and we illustrate a few applications of simple GIS analyses entailing the use of hydrologic functions and mathematical morphology, that can be implemented in most GIS packages and can be used for quick mapping of flood hazards on plain terrain. In this way, no dynamic model implementation is required and computing time is irrelevant even at high resolution as allowed e.g. by LiDAR terrain models. These applications refer to contexts in Italy including the Emilia Romagna regional basins flood management plan, the Province of Ravenna civil protection plan, hydraulic hazards on Northern Adriatic coastal areas and the assessment of hazards for a windfarm to be located in a flood-prone area in Puglia, Southern Italy. We discuss how the approach can be generally applied in Europe with relatively limited and/or uncertain information, within the framework of the Floods Directive in support of flood hazards for subsequent

  2. Nitrous oxide fluxes from cultivated areas and rangeland: U.S. High Plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weeks, E.P.; McMahon, P.B.

    2007-01-01

    Concentration profiles of N2O, a greenhouse gas, and the conservative trace gases SF6 and the chlorofluorocarbons CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113, and were measured periodically through thick vadose zones at nine sites in the U.S. High Plains. The CFC and SF6 measurements were used to calibrate a one-dimensional gas diffusion model, using the parameter identification program UCODE. The calibrated model was used with N2O measurements to estimate average annual N2O flux from both the root zone and the deep vadose zone to the atmosphere. Estimates of root-zone N 2O fluxes from three rangeland sites ranged from near 0 to about 0.2 kg N2O-N ha-1 yr-1, values near the low end of the ranges determined for native grass from other studies. Estimates of root-zone N2O fluxes from two fields planted to corn (Zea mays L.) of about 2 to 6 kg N2O-N ha-1 yr-1 are similar to those determined for corn in other studies. Estimates of N2O flux from Conservation Reserve grassland converted from irrigated corn indicate that production of N2O is substantially reduced following conversion from cropland. Small N2O fluxes from the water table or from deep in the vadose zone occurred at three sites, ranging from 0.004 to 0.02 kg N 2O-N ha-1 yr-1. Our estimates of N2O flux represent space- and time-averaged values that should be useful to more fully evaluate the significance of instantaneous point flux measurements. ?? Soil Science Society of America.

  3. Investigation of evaporate deposits in the “Great Ear” area of Lop Nor salt plain, Xinjiang Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, L.; Li, B.; Jiang, P.; Lowenstein, T. K.; Zhong, J.; Sheng, J.; Wu, H.

    2009-12-01

    In arid regions of the world, salt pans are common features occupying the lowest areas of closed interior basin. The Lop Nor salt plain is located at the east end of the Tarim Basin, Xinjiang Province, China. Widespread Holocene salt deposits were known to cover thousands of square kilometers and up to hundreds of meters thick. However, the salt pans in the central-eastern sector of the Lop Nor salt plain is unusually represented by successive concentric black-and-white rings that closely resembled a big human ear in satellite images. The total area of the “Great Ear” is approximately 5,500 km2, and the internal morphology is considered essentially flat with an elevation of 800 m. A series of detailed field investigations on the “Great Ear” salt pans involved describing evaporates and surface morphologies, measuring chemical compositions, and groundwater depths. The deposits show clear lateral variations in salt content, water content, evaporate mineralogy, as well as the microrelief of salt crust in the “Great Ear” area. Spatially, spectral imaging variation corresponds to color variation in the “Great Ear”, which suggests surface moist conditions of a salt pan: dark-toned areas are wet and the bright-toned areas are dry. In the wet zone, capillary fringing of groundwater brines control the precipitation of evaporites and microrelief genesis. The salt pans are marked by pressure-ridge and well-developed hexagonal honeycomb polygons structures, where the microrelief of salt crust ranges from 30 to 80 cm. In the dry salt pans zone, groundwater discharge was not observed on the surface and the salt crust is characterized by low relief, low salinity, a lack of efflorescences crusts, and significant amounts of detrital sediments. This zone shows bright-tone in the satellite images due to higher reflectance of dry salt-encrusted pans surface. Though, the sediment beneath the surface typically is saturated with concentrated brines and displacive

  4. A Comprehensive Study of Vocational Interests, Occupational Opportunities and Cooperative Education for the Mid-Plains Nebraska Technical Community College Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boardman, Gerald R.; Mendenhall, Elton B.

    The main purpose of the study was to develop a cooperative education plan for the Mid-Plains Technical Community College area through assessment of: (1) vocational interests of students in grades 9-12, (2) occupational opportunities of employers, and (3) various existing cooperative education programs. Vocational interest assessment consisted of…

  5. [Assessment of groundwater quality of different aquifers in Tongzhou area in Beijing Plain and its chemical characteristics analysis].

    PubMed

    Guo, Gao-Xuan; Ju, Yi-Wen; Zhai, Hang; Xu, Liang; Shen, Yuan-Yuan; Ji, Yi-Qun

    2014-06-01

    In order to evaluate the groundwater quality of Tongzhou area in Beijing Plain and to discuss the characteristics of its distribution by the view of hydrochemistry, a total of 151 groundwater samples, collected within study area in the dry period of 2008 according to the geological and hydrogeololgical condition of Tongzhou area, were classified as shallow, middle and deep groundwater, respectively. Based on the data, the groundwater quality was evaluated by the method of F value. The mean and variance of main chemical constituents of groundwater samples were presented. Almost all the quaternary groundwater of Chaobai river pluvial fan belonged to the alkaline water type. The evaluation results based on the analysis results showed that from shallow to deep, the quality of groundwater in Beijing became better. The total areas of groundwater belonging to class IV and V area were 884 km2, 599 km2 and 94 km2 respectively for shallow, middle and deep groundwater. The evaluation results showed that the main exceeding chemical constituents were TDS, hardness, NH4(+), F(-) and total Fe. Most exceeding samples belonged to middle and deep aquifers. The main types of shallow groundwater were HCO2-Ca x Mg- and HCO3 x Cl-Ca x Na x Mg, while the chemical types of mid-deep groundwater were mostly HCO3-Na x Ca- and HCO3 x SO4(2-) -Na x Ca type due to the increased Na(+), SO4(2-) and Cl(-) concentration. Study results showed that the quality of shallow groundwater became worse mainly due to human activities. The deterioration of groundwater quality in mid-deep aquifers was due to both human activities and natural occurrence of poor-quality water. PMID:25158485

  6. Hydrology of area 58, northern Great Plains and Rocky Mountain coal provinces, Colorado and Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Chaney, T.H.; Kuhn, G.; Brooks, T.

    1987-01-01

    The topics encompass the complete physical and hydrologic setting of Area 58, located primarily in west-central Colorado in the Southern Rocky Mountain and Colorado Plateau physiographic provinces. The headwaters of the Colorado and most of its tributaries originate in the mountains forming the eastern boundary of the area. Precipitation in the mountains can exceed 40 in annually, most of it as snow. Most of the runoff then is a result of snow melting in the spring. Surface water is the principal source of water supplies in the area, and irrigation is the major water use. Groundwater supplies are mainly from wells completed in alluvium or fractured bedrock. All coal mines in the basin but one are underground. Surface water quality is best in the mountains. Dissolved solids concentrations in the Colorado River increase an average of 647 mg/L as it flows through the area. The causes of this increase are nearly equally divided between natural sources and irrigation activities in the sedimentary basins. The climate in these basins is semi-arid, and the soils are not adequately leached. Concentrations of several major elements and trace elements in the groundwater can be large enough to limit water uses. Among those elements exceeding recommended or required standards for use are calcium, chromium, iron, manganese, and lead. 166 refs., 39 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. 44 CFR 60.3 - Flood plain management criteria for flood-prone areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... breakaway walls, open wood lattice-work, or insect screening intended to collapse under wind and water loads..., displacement, or other structural damage due to the effects of wind and water loads acting simultaneously on... special flood hazard area designations and water surface elevations have been furnished by the...

  8. 44 CFR 60.3 - Flood plain management criteria for flood-prone areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... breakaway walls, open wood lattice-work, or insect screening intended to collapse under wind and water loads..., displacement, or other structural damage due to the effects of wind and water loads acting simultaneously on... special flood hazard area designations and water surface elevations have been furnished by the...

  9. Mechanisms of flash-flood generation in a gullied high-plains grassland: evidence for partial contributing area runoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asanuma, A.; Tucker, G. E.; Rengers, F. K.

    2014-12-01

    Flash floods commonly cause rapid gully erosion, creating headwalls that erode into previously stable surfaces, thereby reducing arable land and releasing sediment that can contaminate water supplies. In semi-arid landscapes, gully erosion tends to be driven by flash floods. Here, we study the mechanisms for flash-flood generation, seeking to answer two questions: (1) how spatially variable is runoff production, and (2) what combination of rainfall intensity and duration is required to produce runoff? To answer these questions, we combine field data from a study site on the Colorado High Plains, USA, with numerical modeling. The site is characterized by patchy, dryland shrub vegetation dispersed throughout the otherwise bare slopes and gullies. Analysis of six years of rainfall and runoff data indicate that flash flood generation requires a 15-minute intensity of approximately 38 mm/hr. Sprinkler experiments on isolated bare and vegetated plots revealed a large contrast between infiltration capacities: bare areas can produce runoff when the rainfall exceeds 10-15 mm/hr, whereas vegetated areas permit infiltration of at least 45 mm/hr during relatively brief, intense events. These findings imply that high-intensity rainstorms associated with summertime moist convective systems drive gully incision. They also suggest that a self-enhancing feedback may exist in which initial incision creates steep and relatively bare slopes that tend to generate more runoff, leading to more aggressive gully incision.

  10. The effects of urban areas on benthic macroinvertebrates in two Colorado Plains rivers.

    PubMed

    Voelz, Neal J; Zuellig, Robert E; Shieh, Sen-Her; Ward, J V

    2005-02-01

    Water demands in arid and semi-arid areas, coupled with increased human populations and concomitant changes in land use, can greatly alter aquatic ecosystems. A good example of this type of system occurs along the eastern slope of the Colorado Rocky Mountains, U.S.A. Long-term macroinvertebrate metric data from the Big Thompson and Cache la Poudre Rivers, Colorado, were collected at one site above, and three sites in and downstream from urban areas. These data were compared both with regional reference and single reference sites in the respective rivers. Using the surrogate variables of potential urban impact (population and housing units), and the environmental gradient represented primarily by chemical factors, it was determined that there was an effect of urban land use that was reflected in the macroinvertebrate assemblages in both rivers. The most robust results were usually seen when regional reference data were used. However, even using only the upstream reference site in either river indicated some negative impacts from the urban areas. The long-term data, particularly in the Cache la Poudre River, showed that water quality has not been getting worse and there is some evidence of a slight improvement in downstream reaches, even with increased urban development. PMID:15736883

  11. Hydrology of area 53, Northern Great Plains and Rocky Mountain coal provinces, Colorado, Wyoming, and Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Driver, N.E.; Norris, J.M.; Kuhn, Gerhard; and others

    1984-01-01

    Hydrologic information and analysis are needed to aid in decisions to lease Federally owned coal and for the preparation of the necessary Environmental Assessments and Impact Study Reports. This need has become even more critical with the enactment of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (Public Law 95-87). This report, one in a series of nationwide coal province reports, presents information thematically by describing single hydrologic topics through the use of brief texts and accompanying maps, graphs, or other illustrations. The report broadly characterizes the hydrology of Area 53 in northwestern Colorado, south-central Wyoming, and northeastern Utah. The report area, located primarily in the Wyoming Basin and Colorado Plateau physiographic provinces, consists of 14,650 square miles of diverse geology, topography, and climate. This diversity results in contrasting hydrologic characteristics. The two major rivers, the Yampa and the White Rivers, originate in humid granitic and basaltic mountains, then flow over sedimentary rocks underlying semiarid basins to their respective confluences with the Green River. Altitudes range from 4,800 to greater than 12,000 feet above sea level. Annual precipitation in the mountains, as much as 60 inches, is generally in the form of snow. Snowmelt produces most streamflow. Precipitation in the lower altitude sedimentary basins, ranging from 8 to 16 inches, is generally insufficient to sustain streamflow; therefore, most streams originating in the basins (where most of the streams in coal-mining areas originate) are ephemeral. Streamflow quality is best in the mountains where dissolved-solids concentrations generally are small. As streams flow across the sedimentary basins, mineral dissolution from the sedimentary rocks and irrigation water with high mineral content increase the dissolved-solids concentrations in a downstream direction. Due to the semiarid climate of the basins, soils are not adequately leached

  12. Nonpoint-source agricultural chemicals in ground water in Nebraska; preliminary results for six areas of the High Plains Aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, Hsiu-Hsiung; Druliner, A.D.

    1987-01-01

    The reconnaissance phase of a study to determine the occurrence of agricultural chemicals from nonpoint sources in groundwater in six areas, which represented the major provinces of the High Plains aquifer in Nebraska is described. In 1984, water from 82 wells in the 6 study areas was analyzed for nitrate, and water from 57 of the 82 wells was analyzed for triazine herbicides. Data for 9 of the 21 independent variables suspected of affecting concentrations of nitrate and triazine herbicides in groundwater were compiled from the 82 well sites. The variables and their ranges are: hydraulic gradient (XI), 0.006-0.0053; hydraulic conductivity (X2), 5-149 ft/day; specific discharge (X3), 0.0128-0.2998 ft/day; depth to water (X4), 3-239 ft; well depth (X5), 40-550 ft; annual precipitation (X6), 12.0-39.3 inches; soil permeability (X7), 0.76-9.0 inches; irrigation well density (X8), 0-8 irrigation wells/ sq mi; and annual nitrogen fertilizer use (X9), 0-260 lbs of nitrogen/acre. Nitrate concentrations ranged from < 0.1 to 45 mg/L as nitrogen. Triazine herbicide concentrations were detected in samples from five of the six study areas in concentrations ranging from < 0.1 to 2.3 mg/L. Statistical tests indicated that there were significant differences in nitrate concentrations among the six study areas, while no significant differences in triazine herbicide concentrations were found. Concentrations of nitrate and triazine herbicide were significantly larger in more intensively irrigated areas. Preliminary correlations with the independent variables and nitrate concentrations indicated significant relations at the 95% confidence level with variables X2, X5, and X8. Correlations with triazine herbicide concentrations indicated significant relations with variables X2 , X3, X5, X6, and X8, and with nitrate concentrations (X10). By using a simple multiple regression technique, variables X5, X8, and X9 explained about 51% of the variation in nitrate concentrations. Variables X3

  13. Ground-Water Resource Assessment in the Rio Grande de Manati Alluvial Plain, Rio Arriba Saliente Area, Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Torres-Gonzalez, Sigfredo; Gómez-Gómez, Fernando; Warne, Andrew G.

    2002-01-01

    The alluvial aquifer within a 160-acre area of the Rio Grande de Manati alluvial plain was investigated to evaluate its potential as a water-supply source for the Barrios Rio Arriba Saliente and Pugnado Afuera, municipio of Manati, Puerto Rico. Analysis of well boring samples and the results of electric resistivity surveys indicate that the average thickness of the unconsolidated alluvial deposits in the study area is about 100 to 110 feet. The alluvium is a mixture of sand and gravel, which generally has a porosity of 0.2 to 0.35. Short-duration pump tests in small-diameter piezometers indicate that the alluvial aquifer has a hydraulic conductivity of about 200 feet per day and a transmissivity of about 7,900 feet squared per day. Analyses of water levels in piezometers, combined with stage measurements at a series of surveyed reference points along the Rio Grande de Manati channel, indicate that the water-table gradient in the alluvial aquifer is about 0.001, and that ground-water flow is generally from south to north, in the general direction of river flow. The water-table data indicate that the Rio Grande de Manati is the principal source of ground-water recharge to the alluvial aquifer in the study area. Because base flow for the Rio Grande de Manati is usually greater than 44 cubic feet per second, a continuous withdrawal rate of 0.5 to 1.0 cubic foot per second (225 to 450 gallons per minute) from a production well is possible. Chemical analysis of a ground-water sample indicates that the alluvial aquifer water meets U.S. Environmental Protection Agency secondary standards for selected constituents. Bacteriological analysis of ground-water samples indicates that the ground water contains little or no fecal coliform or fecal streptococcus bacteria. Although long-term data from upstream of the study area indicate high levels of fecal coliform and fecal streptococcus prior to 1996, bacteriological analyses of Rio Grande de Manati water samples obtained during

  14. Aquifer geochemistry at potential aquifer storage and recovery sites in coastal plain aquifers in the New York city area, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, C.J.; Misut, P.E.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of injecting oxic water from the New York city (NYC) drinking-water supply and distribution system into a nearby anoxic coastal plain aquifer for later recovery during periods of water shortage (aquifer storage and recovery, or ASR) were simulated by a 3-dimensional, reactive-solute transport model. The Cretaceous aquifer system in the NYC area of New York and New Jersey, USA contains pyrite, goethite, locally occurring siderite, lignite, and locally varying amounts of dissolved Fe and salinity. Sediment from cores drilled on Staten Island and western Long Island had high extractable concentrations of Fe, Mn, and acid volatile sulfides (AVS) plus chromium-reducible sulfides (CRS) and low concentrations of As, Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu and U. Similarly, water samples from the Lloyd aquifer (Cretaceous) in western Long Island generally contained high concentrations of Fe and Mn and low concentrations of other trace elements such as As, Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu and U, all of which were below US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and NY maximum contaminant levels (MCLs). In such aquifer settings, ASR operations can be complicated by the oxidative dissolution of pyrite, low pH, and high concentrations of dissolved Fe in extracted water.The simulated injection of buffered, oxic city water into a hypothetical ASR well increased the hydraulic head at the well, displaced the ambient groundwater, and formed a spheroid of injected water with lower concentrations of Fe, Mn and major ions in water surrounding the ASR well, than in ambient water. Both the dissolved O2 concentrations and the pH of water near the well generally increased in magnitude during the simulated 5-a injection phase. The resultant oxidation of Fe2+ and attendant precipitation of goethite during injection provided a substrate for sorption of dissolved Fe during the 8-a extraction phase. The baseline scenario with a low (0.001M) concentration of pyrite in aquifer sediments, indicated that nearly 190% more water

  15. Source quantification of size and season resolved aerosols in a semi-urban area of Indo-Gangetic plain, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooda, R. K.; Hyvärinen, A.; Gilardoni, S.; Sharma, V.; Vestenius, M.; Kerminen, V.; Vignati, E.; Kulmala, M. T.; Lihavainen, H.

    2012-12-01

    This study describes a one year measurements of size-segregated aerosols at a semi-urban site in Indo-Gangetic plain (IGP), India, South Asia with focus on source quantification applied to organic and inorganic chemical species data using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF), trajectory analysis and conditional probability function (CPF) methods. The campaign was planned in the framework of the European Integrated project on Aerosol Cloud Climate and Air Quality interactions (EUCAARI) project. In light of the above, Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI) and Joint Research Centre (JRC) conducted aerosol mass measurements in Gual Pahari, India from April 2008 to March 2009. The average mass concentrations of fine (PM2.5) and coarse (PM2.5-10) aerosols are higher during the postmonsoon (October-November) and winter (December- February) compared to that during the summer season (March-May). Fine and coarse fraction concentrations observed are higher during the post-monsoon & winter months due to low and stable boundary layer. Concentrations decrease in March-June due to increasing temperatures and a higher boundary layer. The lowest concentrations are during the rainy months (June to August/Sept) due to wet removal. OC and EC fraction is higher in PM2.5. EC in in PM2.5 is 9%, and in PM2.5-10 size EC is 2%. OC contribution is about 36% of fine aerosol mass. High OC could be attributed to enhanced combustion sources and the meteorological conditions during winter period. High OC to EC ratio during postmonsoon and winter also supports higher secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation in these seasons. Secondary organic carbon (SOC) calculated is 42% of the annual average of total OC in coarse fraction. SOC to total OC is highest in postmonsoon (53%), winter (34%) and followed by 29% in summer and monsoon seasons. 24-hr speciated fine and coarse aerosols annual data was used for source identification and quantification studies with

  16. A progress report on results of test drilling and ground-water investigations of the Snake Plain aquifer, southeastern Idaho: Part 3: Lake Walcott-Bonanza Lake area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crosthwaite, E.G.

    1974-01-01

    Direct-current resistivity soundings and exploratory drilling suggest that the basalt of the Snake River Group is relatively thin in the area along the Snake River that is topographically suitable for pumping large quantities of ground water in exchange for surface water. The formations underlying the Snake River Group appear to have low permeability and probably would not yield large amounts of water. Previous studies have indicated that the southern edge of the Snake Plain aquifer extended to the Snake River. Data presented in this report implies that, in general, the southern boundary should, in fact, be several miles north of the river.

  17. Development of a regional groundwater flow model for the area of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, J.M.; Arnett, R.C.; Neupauer, R.M.

    1995-03-01

    This report documents a study conducted to develop a regional groundwater flow model for the Eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer in the area of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The model was developed to support Waste Area Group 10, Operable Unit 10-04 groundwater flow and transport studies. The products of this study are this report and a set of computational tools designed to numerically model the regional groundwater flow in the Eastern Snake River Plain aquifer. The objective of developing the current model was to create a tool for defining the regional groundwater flow at the INEL. The model was developed to (a) support future transport modeling for WAG 10-04 by providing the regional groundwater flow information needed for the WAG 10-04 risk assessment, (b) define the regional groundwater flow setting for modeling groundwater contaminant transport at the scale of the individual WAGs, (c) provide a tool for improving the understanding of the groundwater flow system below the INEL, and (d) consolidate the existing regional groundwater modeling information into one usable model. The current model is appropriate for defining the regional flow setting for flow submodels as well as hypothesis testing to better understand the regional groundwater flow in the area of the INEL. The scale of the submodels must be chosen based on accuracy required for the study.

  18. Liquefaction susceptibility assessment in fluvial plains using high-resolution airborne LiDAR data: the case of the 2012 Emilia earthquake sequence area (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Civico, R.; Brunori, C. A.; De Martini, P. M.; Pucci, S.; Cinti, F. R.; Pantosti, D.

    2015-07-01

    We report a case study from the Po River plain region (northern Italy), where a significant liquefaction-related land and property damage occurred during the 2012 Emilia seismic sequence. We took advantage of a 1 m pixel LiDAR Digital Terrain Model (DTM) and of the 2012 Emilia coseismic liquefaction dataset to: (a) perform a detailed geomorphological study of the Po River plain area, (b) quantitatively define the liquefaction susceptibility of the geomorphologic features that experienced different frequency of liquefaction. One main finding is that linear topographic highs of fluvial origin, together with crevasse splays and abandoned riverbeds, acted as preferential location for the occurrence of liquefaction phenomena. Moreover, we quantitatively defined a hierarchy in terms of liquefaction susceptibility for fluvial environments. We observed that a very high liquefaction susceptibility is found in coincidence with fluvial landforms, a high-to-moderate liquefaction susceptibility within a buffer distance of 100 and 200 m from mapped fluvial landforms and a low liquefaction susceptibility outside fluvial landforms and relative buffer areas. LiDAR data allowed a significant improvement in mapping with respect to conventional available topographic data and/or aerial imagery. These results have significant implications for accurate hazard and risk assessment as well as for land-use planning. We propose a potentially simpler approach for liquefaction susceptibility assessment with respect to in situ geotechnical investigations. Our findings can be applied to areas beyond Emilia, characterized by similar fluvial-dominated environments and prone to significant seismic hazard.

  19. Geohydrology and water resources of the Papago Farms--Great Plain area, Papago Indian Reservation, Arizona, and the upper Rio Sonoyta area, Sonora, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hollett, Kenneth J.

    1985-01-01

    The Papago Farms-Great Plain and upper Rio Sonoyta study area includes about 490 square miles in south-central Arizona and north-central Sonora, Mexico. The area is characterized by a broad, deep, sediment-filled basin bounded by low, jagged fault-block mountains. The climate is arid to semiarid. The climate and abundant ground water provide favorable conditions for irrigated agriculture. Annual precipitation averages 5 to 8 inches per year on the desert floor. Runoff, which occurs as intermittent streamflow and sheetflow, is too short lived and too laden with suspended sediment to be a reliable source for irrigation or public supply. Nearly all the water used to irrigate more than 5,000 cultivated acres in the study area is withdrawn from the unconsolidated to partly consolidated basin fill. The ground water occurs in the deposits under unconfined (water-table) conditions with a saturated thickness that ranges from zero along the mountain fronts to more than 8,000 feet in the center of the basin. The amount of recoverable ground water in storage to a depth of 400 feet below the 1978-80 water table is estimated to be about 10 million acre-feet. Depths to water range from about 500 feet near the southern boundary of the study area to about 150 feet in the center of the study area. Ground water enters the area principally as underflow beneath the San Simon and Chukut Kuk Washes and as recharge along the mountain fronts. On the basis of model results, annual inflow to the ground-water system is estimated to be about 4,390 acre-feet. Ground water moves through the study area along paths that encircle a virtually impermeable unit in the basin center, termed 'the lakebed-clay deposits,' and moves westward to an outflow point beneath the Rio Sonoyta south of Cerro La Nariz. Rates of water movement range from less than I foot per year in clays to about 160 feet per year in well-sorted, coarse stream-channel deposits. Transmissivities along the basin margins range from 10

  20. Windstreaked Plain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    13 June 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a wind-streaked plain in Tharsis near the Pavonis Mons volcano. The lighter-toned surfaces show how the plain used to look, before strong winds removed much of a thin coating of dust. The light-toned tails behind several craters show that the winds blew from the southwest (lower left).

    Location near: 36.6oN, 88.9oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Autumn

  1. Chemical Characteristics of Water-Soluble Ions in Particulate Matter in Three Metropolitan Areas in the North China Plain

    PubMed Central

    Dao, Xu; Wang, Zhen; Lv, Yibing; Teng, Enjiang; Zhang, Linlin; Wang, Chao

    2014-01-01

    PM2.5 and PM10 samples were collected simultaneously in each season in Beijing, Tianjin and Shijiazhuang to identify the characteristics of water-soluble ion compositions in the North China Plain. The water-soluble ions displayed significant seasonal variation. The dominant ions were NO3−, SO42−, NH4+ and Cl−, accounting for more than 90% and 86% to the mass of total water-soluble ions in PM2.5 and PM10, respectively. The anion/cation ratio indicated that the ion acidity of each city varied both between sites and seasonally. Over 50% of the ion species were enriched in small particles ≤1 µm in diameter. The [NO3−]/[SO42−] ratio indicated that vehicles accounted for the majority of the particulate pollution in Beijing. Shijiazhuang, a city highly reliant on coal combustion, had a higher SO42− concentration. PMID:25437210

  2. Plains Tectonics on Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banerdt, W. B.; McGill, G. E.; Zuber, M. T.

    1996-01-01

    Tectonic deformation in the plains of Venus is pervasive, with virtually every area of the planet showing evidence for faulting or fracturing. This deformation can be classified into three general categories, defined by the intensity and areal extent of the surface deformation: distributed deformation, concentrated deformation, and local fracture patterns.

  3. Mountain-Plains Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mountain-Plains Education and Economic Development Program, Inc., Glasgow AFB, MT.

    The document lists the Mountain-Plains curriculum by job title (where applicable), including support courses. The curriculum areas covered are mathematics skills, communication skills, office education, lodging services, food services, marketing and distribution, welding support, automotive, small engines, career guidance, World of Work, health…

  4. Groundwater-recharge connectivity between a hills-and-plains' area of western Taiwan using water isotopes and electrical conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Tsung-Ren; Lu, Wan-Chung; Chen, Kuan-Yu; Zhan, Wen-Jun; Liu, Tsung-Kwei

    2014-09-01

    Water isotopes (δD, δ18O) as well as electrical conductivity were employed to clarify hydrological relationships among precipitation, stream water, and groundwater in the Douliou Hills (DLH) of Taiwan. They are also used to evaluate the importance of groundwater recharge sources in the proximal fan of Choshuichi alluvial plain (CSAP), which is connected to the eastern extreme of the DLH. Results indicate that the most important source of groundwater in the DLH comes from summer precipitation. In most cases the summer precipitation recharges stream water via base flow. Based on δ18O and EC values, groundwater in the proximal fan of the CSAP can be divided into groundwater from 5 wells nearby the DLH (near-DHL group) and groundwater from 6 wells nearby the Choshui Stream (near-CS group). Semi-quantitative results calculated by ternary end-member mixing analysis (EMMA) for δ18O and electrical conductivity values indicate that for the near-DLH group, precipitation in the CSAP contributes 40-50% of water to the proximal-fan groundwater while DLH groundwater donates 20-55% and Choshui Stream water, 0-29%. Precipitation in the CSAP is the most important recharge source. DLH groundwater's contribution is more notable in deep groundwater and Choshui Stream water's contribution decreases with distance from the Choshui Stream. For the near-CS group, anthropogenic pollution adds ions to the groundwater restricting the effectiveness of the ternary EMMA approach. This study provides new insights into groundwater recharge in the CSAP. It should be applicable to future studies of hill-and-plains' water connectivity in other regions.

  5. An in-situ campaign of spectral measurements for monitoring the crop stress and planting area in Luancheng of North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shui-Sen; Chen, Liang-Fu; Liu, Qin-Huo; Xiao, Qing

    2004-10-01

    In an attempt to support the demonstration application of "Spectral Library Of Chinese representative surface substances", an in-situ campaign of spectral measurements was carried out during the summer of 2003 for monitoring the crop stress and planting area in North China Plain. The experiment sites, based on Luancheng Agricultural ecosystem experiment station, Chinese Academy of Sciences, was a 5×5 km area located just south-east of Shijiazhuang, Hebei Province, China. The spectral instrument used is ASD FieldSpecFR with wavelength of 0.35~2.5μm. The experimental achievement includes: soil moisture, corn physiological & biochemical parameters, corn leaf water & chlorophyll-a,b contents, corn structure parameters, field farmland microclimate, aerological exploration data of atmosphere, corn spectra of component, corn crown & background spectra cross the growth period of crop. The paper details the whole experimental scheme and design and partial representation of results of data analysis.

  6. Northern Plains 'Crater'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    10 December 2004 The lower left (southwest) corner of this Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the location of a somewhat filled and buried meteor impact crater on the northern plains of Mars. The dark dots are boulders. A portion of a similar feature is seen in the upper right (northeast) corner of the image. This picture, showing landforms (including the odd mound north/northeast of the crater) that are typical of the martian northern lowland plains, was obtained as part of the MGS MOC effort to support the search for a landing site for the Phoenix Mars Scout lander. Phoenix will launch in 2007 and land on the northern plains in 2008. This image is located near 68.0oN, 227.4oW, and covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. The scene is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

  7. Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment (LACIE). Detecting and monitoring agricultural vegetative water stress over large areas using LANDSAT digital data. [Great Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, D. R.; Wehmanen, O. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1978-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The Green Number Index technique which uses LANDSAT digital data from 5X6 nautical mile sampling frames was expanded to evaluate its usefulness in detecting and monitoring vegetative water stress over the Great Plains. At known growth stages for wheat, segments were classified as drought or non drought. Good agreement was found between the 18 day remotely sensed data and a weekly ground-based crop moisture index. Operational monitoring of the 1977 U.S.S.R. and Australian wheat crops indicated drought conditions. Drought isoline maps produced by the Green Number Index technique were in good agreement with conventional sources.

  8. Characteristics of carbonaceous aerosols: Impact of biomass burning and secondary formation in summertime in a rural area of the North China Plain.

    PubMed

    Yao, Lan; Yang, Lingxiao; Chen, Jianmin; Wang, Xinfeng; Xue, Likun; Li, Weijun; Sui, Xiao; Wen, Liang; Chi, Jianwei; Zhu, Yanhong; Zhang, Junmei; Xu, Caihong; Zhu, Tong; Wang, Wenxing

    2016-07-01

    To determine the characteristics of carbonaceous aerosols in rural areas of the North China Plain, field measurements were conducted at Yucheng (YC) in the summers of 2013 and 2014. The concentrations of carbonaceous aerosols at YC exhibited clear diurnal variation, with higher concentrations in the early morning and at night and lower concentrations during the afternoon hours. The mass-balance method designed for particulate matter smaller than 2.5μm (PM2.5) was used to calculate the organic matter (OM)/organic carbon (OC) ratio. The value obtained, 2.07±0.05, was suggested as a reference to estimate organics in PM2.5 in rural areas of the North China Plain. Biomass burning was identified to be a significant source of carbonaceous aerosols; approximately half of the samples obtained at YC were affected by biomass burning during summer 2013. Case studies revealed that biomass burning accounted for up to 52.6% of the OC and 51.1% of the elemental carbon in PM2.5 samples. The organic coatings observed on sulphur-rich and potassium-rich particles indicated the formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) from the oxidation of precursor volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during the aging of smoke released from biomass burning. Based on the evolution of the VOCs, the contribution of VOCs oxidation to SOA concentration was 3.21 and 1.07μgm(-3)ppm(-1) CO under conditions of low nitrogen oxide (NOx) and high NOx, respectively. Aromatics (e.g. benzene, toluene, xylene and ethylbenzene) made the greatest contribution to SOA concentration (88.4% in low-NOx conditions and 80.6% in high-NOx conditions). The results of the study offer novel insights into the effects of biomass burning on the carbonaceous aerosols and SOA formation in polluted rural areas. PMID:27031303

  9. Assessment of hyporheic zone, flood-plain, soil-gas, soil, and surface-water contamination at the Old Incinerator Area, Fort Gordon, Georgia, 2009-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guimaraes, Wladmir B.; Falls, W. Fred; Caldwell, Andral W.; Ratliff, W. Hagan; Wellborn, John B.; Landmeyer, James E.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of the Army Environmental and Natural Resources Management Office of the U.S. Army Signal Center and Fort Gordon, Georgia, assessed the hyporheic zone, flood plain, soil gas, soil, and surface-water for contaminants at the Old Incinerator Area at Fort Gordon, from October 2009 to September 2010. The assessment included the detection of organic contaminants in the hyporheic zone, flood plain, soil gas, and surface water. In addition, the organic contaminant assessment included the analysis of explosives and chemical agents in selected areas. Inorganic contaminants were assessed in soil and surface-water samples. The assessment was conducted to provide environmental contamination data to the U.S. Army at Fort Gordon pursuant to requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B Hazardous Waste Permit process. Total petroleum hydrocarbons were detected above the method detection level in all 13 samplers deployed in the hyporheic zone and flood plain of an unnamed tributary to Spirit Creek. The combined concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and total xylene were detected at 3 of the 13 samplers. Other organic compounds detected in one sampler included octane and trichloroethylene. In the passive soil-gas survey, 28 of the 60 samplers detected total petroleum hydrocarbons above the method detection level. Additionally, 11 of the 60 samplers detected the combined masses of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and total xylene above the method detection level. Other compounds detected above the method detection level in the passive soil-gas survey included octane, trimethylbenzene, perchlorethylene, and chloroform. Subsequent to the passive soil-gas survey, six areas determined to have relatively high contaminant mass were selected, and soil-gas samplers were deployed, collected, and analyzed for explosives and chemical agents. No explosives or chemical agents were detected above

  10. The role of dunes in contrasting saltwater intrusion in coastal areas; a case study in the southern Po Plain Adriatic coast (Ravenna, Northern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marconi, V.; Antonellini, M.; Balugani, E.; Minchio, A.; Gabbianelli, G.

    2009-04-01

    Due to climate changes and to anthropogenic interventions, saltwater intrusion is affecting the aquifers and the surface water of the Po plain along the Adriatic coast. During the last decade, we recognized in this area a pattern of climate change: precipitations are less frequent and the yearly amount of rain is concentrated in a few strong storm events. This pattern results in an increase of gales strength during the winter, which causes shoreline retreat and an erosion of the coastal dunes. The coastal part of the Po plain consists of a low-lying and mechanically-drained farmland further from the sea and of a narrow belt of dunes and pine forests in the backshore area. The wide sandy beaches are now retreating and the dune system (only a few meters in height) is almoust destroyed, because of tourism development and of disaggregated rivers and shorelines management. A still active dune system is preserved in our study area, a coastal plain included between the Fiumi Uniti and Bevano rivers near the city of Ravenna. As a result of an intensive exploitation of coastal aquifers for agricultural, industrial, and civil uses, both the phreatic aquifer and the surface waters have been contaminated by seawater. Despite its value for the natural ecosystem and the agricultural soil, the phreatic aquifer is not considered of interest by the regional authorities responsible for water management. A detailed hydrogeological survey was performed by our research group during the Summer 2008 within the framework of the CIRCLE-ERANET project WATERKNOW on the effects of climate change on the mediterranean catchments. In this survey 29 auger holes with an average spacing of 350 m where drilled with the objective of determining the top groundwater quality in the coastal aquifer. At the same time, we measured the chemical and physical parameters of the surface waters. The data collected in the field show that a fresh groundwater lens is still present in the aquifer of the backshore

  11. Observation of flashflood-related morphology changes in arid areas with the help of optical satellite data - Case study Al-Batinah plain in Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mett, Michael; Aufleger, Markus

    2010-05-01

    Intense precipitation events in the Hadjar Mountains of Oman cause severe flashfloods in the northern Al-Batinah plain. These flashfloods are characterised by a short duration and extreme magnitudes of discharges. As a result the geomorphology of the braided-river-type wadi is significantly altered, which can be observed by spaceborn satellite sensors. Optical satellite sensors allow observing large scale morphologic developments within the Al-Batinah watersheds over the last 40 years. If satellite scenes are compared which were taken before and after a flood event it is possible to visualize fluviomorphologic changes due to the water impact. The degree and kind of morphologic change display the stream power of the flood event. Changes affect for example network linkages, effective width and sinuosity of the braiding wadi channels. These specific changes can be correlated with ground based discharge measurements to develop a model for discharge estimation via satellite technology. Additional field work in Al-Batinah wadi delivers a detailed catalogue of fluvial structures and hydrologic data to support the hydraulic model building. In the presentation we intend to: (1) describe the hydrology of the Al-Batinah area especially regarding flash flood development. For flash flood origin, factors like geology of the Hadjar Mountains, soil properties of the Al-Batinah plain and occurrence of precipitation will be discussed. (2) present examples of satellite observed flash flood-induced morphology changes of the last four decades. In this context also the impact of the newly constructed groundwater recharge dams on the hydrology of the Al-Batinah plain will be shown. (3) compare satellite sensors of different spatial and spectral resolution regarding applicability in arid areas. The data pool for this study covers spy satellites from the 1960ies, Landsat scenes from the 1970ies until now and various scientific and commercial sensors of high resolution. (4) show the

  12. Monitoring recharge in areas of seasonally frozen ground in the Columbia Plateau and Snake River Plain, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mastin, Mark; Josberger, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Seasonally frozen ground occurs over approximately one‑third of the contiguous United States, causing increased winter runoff. Frozen ground generally rejects potential groundwater recharge. Nearly all recharge from precipitation in semi-arid regions such as the Columbia Plateau and the Snake River Plain in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington, occurs between October and March, when precipitation is most abundant and seasonally frozen ground is commonplace. The temporal and spatial distribution of frozen ground is expected to change as the climate warms. It is difficult to predict the distribution of frozen ground, however, because of the complex ways ground freezes and the way that snow cover thermally insulates soil, by keeping it frozen longer than it would be if it was not snow covered or, more commonly, keeping the soil thawed during freezing weather. A combination of satellite remote sensing and ground truth measurements was used with some success to investigate seasonally frozen ground at local to regional scales. The frozen-ground/snow-cover algorithm from the National Snow and Ice Data Center, combined with the 21-year record of passive microwave observations from the Special Sensor Microwave Imager onboard a Defense Meteorological Satellite Program satellite, provided a unique time series of frozen ground. Periodically repeating this methodology and analyzing for trends can be a means to monitor possible regional changes to frozen ground that could occur with a warming climate. The Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System watershed model constructed for the upper Crab Creek Basin in the Columbia Plateau and Reynolds Creek basin on the eastern side of the Snake River Plain simulated recharge and frozen ground for several future climate scenarios. Frozen ground was simulated with the Continuous Frozen Ground Index, which is influenced by air temperature and snow cover. Model simulation results showed a decreased occurrence of frozen ground that coincided with

  13. Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment (LACIE). Results of LACIE integrated drought analysis (Southern U.S. Great Plains drought 1975-76)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, D. R.

    1976-01-01

    The development and intensification of the drought in the United States southern Great Plains was monitored during the initial growing period of the 1975-76 winter wheat crop. Because of the severity of the drought conditions, a drought analysis plan was developed and implemented beginning on March 8, 1976. Sample segments and full-frame imagery were used at 9-day intervals to identify the drought area and quantify the effects on the wheat acreage. Yield model simulations were run to extrapolate the effects of the drought on yield estimates at harvest, assuming 10 and 90 percent of normal rainfall for subsequent months and 30-day forecast. A survey of LANDSAT data for improvement of distribution of rainfall patterns in the drought area was done for April and yield models run for drought affected crop reporting districts. Special aggregations were performed by the Crop Assessment Subsystem on the drought area to evaluate the utility of remote sensing to monitor the effect of the drought on wheat area, yield, and production.

  14. Plains Traveler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    10 April 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a dust devil traveling across a plain west-southwest of Schiaparelli Crater, in far eastern Sinus Meridiani. The dust devil is casting a shadow toward the northeast, just south (below) of an egg-shaped crater.

    Location near: 6.4oS, 349.3oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Southern Summer

  15. Anopheles albimanus (Diptera: Culicidae) host selection patterns in three ecological areas of the coastal plains of Chiapas, southern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Loyola, E G; González-Cerón, L; Rodríguez, M H; Arredondo-Jiménez, J I; Bennett, S; Bown, D N

    1993-05-01

    The host-feeding patterns of Anopheles albimanus Wiedemann were described and the effect of host availability on these patterns was assessed in three different ecological areas of coastal Chiapas, Mexico. Resting mosquitoes were collected indoors and outdoors during rainy seasons. A 20% sample of blood-fed mosquitoes was tested to determine the source of the blood meal using an ELISA. The unweighted human blood index (HBI) of An. albimanus in the three areas ranged from 0.11 to 0.21. This mosquito species fed more frequently on bovines than on any other host, but the forage ratio indicated that there was also a high preference for equines. Some females tended to rest or complete their gonotrophic cycle indoors after feeding on animals, but females also fed on man and rested outdoors. Host availability and ecological conditions appeared to be responsible for differences observed in the HBI among areas. PMID:8510111

  16. Land change in the Central Corn Belt Plains Ecoregion and hydrologic consequences in developed areas: 1939-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karstensen, Krista; Shaver, David; Alexander, Randal; Over, Thomas; Soong, David T.

    2013-01-01

    This report emphasizes the importance of a multi-disciplinary understanding of how land use and land cover can affect regional hydrology by collaboratively investigating how increases in developed land area may affect stream discharge by evaluating land-cover change from 1939 to 2000, urban housing density data from 1940 to 2010, and changes in annual peak streamflow from water years 1945 to 2009. The results and methods crosscut two mission areas of the U.S. Geological Survey (Climate and Land Use, Water) and can be used to better assess developed land change and hydrologic consequences, which can be used to better assess future management and mitigation strategies.

  17. Mercury in ground water, septage, leach-field effluent, and soils in residential areas, New Jersey coastal plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barringer, J.L.; Szabo, Z.; Schneider, D.; Atkinson, W.D.; Gallagher, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    Water samples were collected from domestic wells at an unsewered residential area in Gloucester County, New Jersey where mercury (Hg) concentrations in well water were known to exceed the USEPA maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 2000 ng/L. This residential area (the CSL site) is representative of more than 70 such areas in southern New Jersey where about 600 domestic wells, sampled previously by State and county agencies, yielded water containing Hg at concentrations that exceed the MCL. Recent studies indicate that background concentrations of Hg in water from this unconfined sand and gravel aquifer system are < 10 ng/L. Additional sampling was conducted at the CSL site in order to better understand sources of Hg and potential Hg transport mechanisms in the areas with Hg-contaminated ground water. At the CSL site, concentrations of Hg were substantially lower (although still exceeding the MCL in some cases) in filtered water samples than in the unfiltered water samples collected previously from the same wells. Surfactants and elevated concentrations of sodium, chloride, nitrate, ammonium, and phosphate in water from domestic and observation wells indicated septic-system effects on water quality; detections of sulfide indicated localized reducing conditions. Hg concentrations in septage and leach-field effluent sampled at several other households in the region were low relative to the contaminant-level Hg concentrations in water from domestic wells. Relations of Hg concentrations in leach-field effluent to iron concentrations indicate that reductive dissolution of iron hydroxides in soils may release Hg to the percolating effluent. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Revisiting Plain Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazur, Beth

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the plain language movement and its origins. Reviews past and current resources related to plain language writing. Examines criticism of the movement while examining past and current plain language literature, with particular attention to the information design field. (SR)

  19. Origin of lunar light plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, E. C. T.; Hodges, C. A.; Boyce, J. M.; Soderblom, L. A.

    1975-01-01

    In order to determine the origin of Cayley-type lunar light plains, their physical properties, distribution, and relative ages are examined from Apollo orbital and Lunar Orbiter photographs. The distribution and apparent age of the plains deposits and data on highly feldspathic breccias indicate that these superficial materials are neither locally derived nor part of the Imbrium ejecta. The existence of a planar facies of continuous ejecta at Orientale and in the ejecta blankets of small craters is demonstrated. The data and interpretation presented support the hypothesis that the surface and near-surface materials of some light plains, including those at the Apollo 16 site, are at least partly composed of ejecta from the Orientale basin and that the materials of many rugged areas, such as the Descartes highlands, are overlain by similar material. The possibility that some Cayley-type plains may have a different origin is not excluded.

  20. The impacts of a linear wastewater reservoir on groundwater recharge and geochemical evolution in a semi-arid area of the Lake Baiyangdian watershed, North China Plain.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shiqin; Tang, Changyuan; Song, Xianfang; Wang, Qinxue; Zhang, Yinghua; Yuan, Ruiqiang

    2014-06-01

    Sewage leakage has become an important source of groundwater recharge in urban areas. Large linear wastewater ponds that lack anti-seepage measures can act as river channels that cause the deterioration of groundwater quality. This study investigated the groundwater recharge by leakage of the Tanghe Wastewater Reservoir, which is the largest industrial wastewater channel on the North China Plain. Additionally, water quality evolution was investigated using a combination of multivariate statistical methods, multi-tracers and geochemical methods. Stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen indicated high levels of wastewater evaporation. Based on the assumption that the wastewater was under an open system and fully mixed, an evaporation model was established to estimate the evaporation of the wastewater based on isotope enrichments of the Rayleigh distillation theory using the average isotope values for dry and rainy seasons. Using an average evaporation loss of 26.5% for the input wastewater, the estimated recharge fraction of wastewater leakage and irrigation was 73.5% of the total input of wastewater. The lateral regional groundwater inflow was considered to be another recharge source. Combing the two end-members mix model and cluster analysis revealed that the mixture percentage of the wastewater decreased from the Highly Affected Zone (76%) to the Transition Zone (5%). Ion exchange and redox reaction were the dominant geochemical processes when wastewater entered the aquifer. Carbonate precipitation was also a major process affecting evolution of groundwater quality along groundwater flow paths. PMID:24657581

  1. Groundwater Pollution Characteristics and Hydrochemical Properties of Typical Plain River-net Area in Lower Yangtze River Delta, China: A Case Study in Suzhou City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, X.; Ruan, X.; Sun, H.; Pan, Z.

    2011-12-01

    Due to anthropogenic activities, tidal river water retention and other geological factors, groundwater quality in plain river-net area is vulnerable to pollution. Detailed chemical analysis results of 49 groundwater samples were carried out to identify groundwater pollution characteristics, hydrochemical properties and to assess groundwater quality and usability in Suzhou City, a typical plain area in Lower Yangtze River Delta, China. In order to protect, utilize and manage groundwater resources effectively, it is necessary to recognize the dominant processes responsible for hydrogeochemistry, groundwater pollution threats in study area. The results revealed ammonia concentration in confined and shallow groundwater ranges from 0.02 to 6.78 mg/L, 0.04 to 3.17 mg/L, respectively. Nitrite concentrations range from 0.004 to 1.01 mg/L, 0.004 to 3.66 mg/L, respectively. Iron concentrations range from 0.006 to 16.9 mg/L, 0.02 to 7.88 mg/L, respectively. Manganese concentrations range from 0.003 to 1.04 mg/L, 0.06 to 0.58 mg/L, respectively. On the basis of analytical results and water quality standards, majority of groundwater samples are not suitable for drinking, domestic as well as for industrial uses directly. Toxic metals and high levels ions should be removed if groundwater is supplied for different purposes. Salinity, sodium adsorption ratio, residual sodium carbonate and sodium percentage values revealed that most of groundwater samples are suitable for irrigation purposes except only a few. The salinity hazard of study area is regarded as low to medium, and special management for salinity control is required in scattered regions. Results of suitability for industrial purposes according to calculated Langeliar saturation index and Larson Ratio showed that majority of samples are calcium carbonate depositing, whereas a few are calcium carbonate dissolving in nature. Results show that sodium, calcium and bicarbonate are the dominant ions of groundwater. Na-HCO3

  2. Demise of the northern Tethyan Urgonian carbonate platform and subsequent transition towards pelagic conditions: The sedimentary record of the Col de la Plaine Morte area, central Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Föllmi, Karl B.; Gainon, François

    2008-04-01

    The sedimentary succession of the Col de la Plaine Morte area (Helvetic Alps, central Switzerland) documents the disappearance of the northern Tethyan Urgonian platform in unprecedented detail and suggests stepwise platform demise, with each drowning phase documented by erosion and phosphogenesis. The first identified drowning phase terminated Urgonian carbonate production in a predominantly photozoan mode. Using a correlation of the whole-rock δ13C record with the well-dated record from SE France, its age is inferred to as Middle Early Aptian (near the boundary between the weissi and deshayesi zones). A subsequent drowning phase is dated by ammonites and by a correlation of the whole-rock δ13C record as Late Early Aptian (late deshayesi to early furcata zone). A third drowning phase provides an ammonite-based age of Early Late Aptian ( subnodosocostatum and melchioris zones) and is part of a widely recognized phase of sediment condensation and phosphogenesis, which is dated as latest Early to Middle Late Aptian (late furcata zone to near the boundary of the melchioris and nolani zones). The fourth and final drowning phase started in the latest Aptian ( jacobi zone) as is also indicated by ammonite findings at the Col de la Plaine Morte. The phases of renewed platform-carbonate production intervening between the drowning phases were all in a heterozoan mode. During the ultimate drowning phase, phosphogenesis continued until the Early Middle Albian, whereas condensation processes lasted until the Middle Turonian. Coverage of the external margin of the drowned Urgonian platform by a drape of pelagic carbonates started only in the Late Turonian. During the Santonian, the external part of the drowned platform underwent normal faulting and saw the re-exposure of already lithified Urgonian carbonates at the seafloor. Based on the here-inferred ages, the first drowning phase just precedes oceanic anoxic episode 1a (OAE 1a or "selli event") in time, and the second

  3. Geology, geochronology, and potential volcanic hazards in the Lava Ridge-Hells Half Acre area, eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuntz, Mel A.; Dalrymple, G. Brent

    1979-01-01

    The evaluation of volcanic hazards for the proposed Safety Test Reactor Facility (STF) at the Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANLW) site, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Idaho, involves an analysis of the geology of the Lava Ridge-Hells Half Acre area and of K-At age determinations on lava flows in cored drill holes. The ANLW site at INEL lies in a shallow topographic depression bounded on the east and south by volcanic rift zones that are the locus of past shield-type basalt volcanism and by rhyolite domes erupted along the ring fracture of an inferred rhyolite caldera. The K-At age data indicate that the ANLW site has been flooded by basalt lava flows at irregular intervals from perhaps a few thousand years to as much as 300,000-400,000 years, with an average recurrence interval between flows of approximately 80,000-100,000 years. At least five major lava flows have covered the ANLW site within the past 500,000 years.

  4. Hydrogeology of the Quitobaquito Springs and La Abra Plain area, Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, Arizona, and Sonora, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carruth, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    Quitobaquito Springs, in Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument near the south end of the northwestward-trending Quitobaquito Hills, are less than 0.25 mile north of the international boundary between the United States and Mexico. The National Park Service is concerned that the natural flow from Quitobaquito Springs might be reduced by ground-water withdrawals in the adjacent State of Sonora, Mexico. Quitobaquito and other nearby springs flow from a highly fractured granite that forms the Quitobaquito Hills. Fractures in the granitic intrusive rocks provide conduits for ground water to flow from an alluvial flow system along Aguajita Wash to a line of springs on the southwest side of Quitobaquito Hills. The chemical composition of water from all the springs is similar. Carbon-14 analysis of water from Quitobaquito Springs indicates that the spring water probably is between 500 and several thousand years old. Discharge at Quitobaquito Springs averaged 28 gallons per minute and ranged from 15 to 40 gallons per minute for 1981-92. Rainfall at two gages in the area of recharge to the northeast of Quitobaquito Hills averaged 6.6 inches per year during the 11-year monitoring program ending in September 1992. The lack of correlation between spring discharge and local rainfall indicates that local annual recharge may be small relative to the total quantity of ground water in storage. Surface-geophysical data indicate that a thin alluvial aquifer overlies the shallow crystalline rocks northeast of Quitobaquito Hills along Aguajita Wash. Results of the study indicate that the ground-water flow system along Aguajita Wash provides a source of water to the springs and may be hydraulically connected to the ground-water system that is pumped for agricultural purposes in Mexico. The altitude and low permeability of the granite bedrock near the international boundary, however, may provide a barrier to and (or) delay the effect of a northwestward propagation of water- level declines

  5. Surface Sediments in the Marsh-Sandy Land Transitional Area: Sandification in the Western Songnen Plain, China

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiaofei; Grace, Michael; Zou, Yuanchun; Yu, Xuefeng; Lu, Xianguo; Wang, Guoping

    2014-01-01

    The development of sandification process was studied, by monitoring the changes of sediment characteristics, at marsh-sandy land intersections in China's Songnen region. A series of sediment collection plates were deployed in the region; after one year, sediments in these plates were analyzed for changes of mass and chemical characteristics. The sediment flux and the sand content of the sediments decreased with the increasing longitudinal distance between the sampling site and the centre line of a sand dune. The mean sediment flux was 29±14 kg m−2 yr−1 and 0.6±0.3 kg m−2 yr−1 in the sandy land and marsh, respectively. Strong, positive correlations were found between the concentrations of organic matter, total nitrogen, P, Fe, Ti, V and Zr, all of which were also negatively correlated with the sand content. The concentrations of organic matter, total nitrogen, P, Fe, Ti, V and Zr in the marsh sediment samples were all significantly greater than the corresponding concentrations of the sandy land (p<0.001). Sand content and Ti, V and Zr concentrations all proved to be valid indicators of sandification intensity, and they showed that the marsh could be divided into three distinct zones. Sand expansion extended about 88 m into the marsh. The mean sand content in the sediments of the sandy land was 91% and then 64% in the marsh, which in turn was higher than that of marshes outside the influence of sandification, suggesting that the marsh in the marsh-sandy land transitional area has already undergone extensive sandification in the past. The study results provide information on the wetland's function of indicating and buffering the sandification process. PMID:24932717

  6. Hydrogeology and geochemistry of aquifers underlying the San Lorenzo and San Leandro areas of the East Bay Plain, Alameda County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Izbicki, John A.; Borchers, James W.; Leighton, David A.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Fields, Latoya; Galloway, Devin L.; Michel, Robert L.

    2003-01-01

    The East Bay Plain, on the densely populated eastern shore of San Francisco Bay, contains an upper aquifer system to depths of 250 feet below land surface and an underlying lower aquifer system to depths of more than 650 feet. Injection and recovery of imported water has been proposed for deep aquifers at two sites within the lower aquifer system. Successful operation requires that the injected water be isolated from surface sources of poor-quality water during storage and recovery. Hydraulic, geochemical, and isotopic data were used to evaluate the isolation of deeper aquifers. Ground-water responses to tidal changes in the Bay suggest that thick clay layers present within these deposits effectively isolate the deeper aquifers in the northern part of the study area from overlying surficial deposits. These data also suggest that the areal extent of the shallow and deep aquifers beneath the Bay may be limited in the northern part of the study area. Despite its apparent hydraulic isolation, the lower aquifer system may be connected to the overlying upper aquifer system through the corroded and failed casings of abandoned wells. Water-level measurements in observation wells and downward flow measured in selected wells during nonpumped conditions suggest that water may flow through wells from the upper aquifer system into the lower aquifer system during nonpumped conditions. The chemistry of water from wells in the East Bay Plain ranges from fresh to saline; salinity is greater than seawater in shallow estuarine deposits near the Bay. Water from wells completed in the lower aquifer system has higher pH, higher sodium, chloride, and manganese concentrations, and lower calcium concentrations and alkalinity than does water from wells completed in the overlying upper aquifer system. Ground-water recharge temperatures derived from noble-gas data indicate that highly focused recharge processes from infiltration of winter streamflow and more diffuse recharge processes from

  7. Indicators of the sources and distribution of nitrate in water from shallow domestic wells in agricultural areas of the New Jersey Coastal Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vowinkel, Eric F.; Tapper, Robert J.

    1995-01-01

    Previously collected and new water-quality data from shallow wells (screened interval less than 30 meters below the land surface) in predominantly agricultural areas of the New Jersey Coastal Plain were used to determine the relation of nitrate concentrations in shallow ground water to various hydrogeologic and land-use factors in the study area. Information on land use, well construction, hydrogeology, and water quality were used to predict the conditions under which concentrations of nitrate as nitrogen in water from domestic wells in predominantly agricultural areas are most likely to be equal to or larger than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 10 milligrams per liter. Results of the analyses of water-quality samples collected during 1980-89 from 230 shallow wells in the outcrop areas of the Kirkwood-Cohansey and Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer systems were used to evaluate the regional effects of land use on shallow-ground-water quality. Results of statistical analysis indicate that concentrations of nitrate in shallow ground water are significantly different (p= 0.001) in agricultural areas than in undeveloped areas in both aquifer systems. Concentrations of nitrate nitrogen exceeded the MCL in water from more than 33 percent of the 60 shallow wells in agricultural areas. Concentrations of hitrate in water from shallow wells in agricultural areas increased as the percentage of agricultural land within an 800-meter-radius buffer zone of the wellhead increased (r= 0.81). Concentrations ofhitrate in water from domestic wells in agricultural areas were similar (p= 0.23) to those concentrations in water from irrigation wells. These results indicate that most of the nitrate in water from domestic wells in agricultural areas results from agricultural practices rather than other sources, such as septic systems. Water-quality samples collected from 12 shallow domestic wells in agricultural areas screened in the outcrop areas of

  8. Stratigraphy of the unsaturated zone and uppermost part of the Snake River Plain aquifer at test area north, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, S.R.; Bowers, B.

    1995-06-01

    A complex sequence of basalt flows and sedimentary interbeds underlies Test Area North (TAN) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory in eastern Idaho. Wells drilled to depths of at least 500 feet penetrate 10 basalt-flow groups and 5 to 10 sedimentary interbeds that range in age from about 940,000 to 1.4 million years. Each basalt-flow group consists of one or more basalt flows from a brief, single or compound eruption. All basalt flows of each group erupted from the same vent, and have similar ages, paleomagnetic properties, potassium contents, and natural-gamma emissions. Sedimentary interbeds consist of fluvial, lacustrine, and eolian deposits of clay, silt, sand, and gravel that accumulated for hundreds to hundreds of thousands of years during periods of volcanic quiescence. Basalt and sediment are elevated by hundreds of feet with respect to rocks of equivalent age south and cast of the area, a relation that is attributed to past uplift at TAN. Basalt and sediment are unsaturated to a depth of about 200 feet below land surface. Rocks below this depth are saturated and make up the Snake River Plain aquifer. The effective base of the aquifer is at a depth of 885 feet below land surface. Detailed stratigraphic relations for the lowermost part of the aquifer in the depth interval from 500 to 885 feet were not determined because of insufficient data. The stratigraphy of basalt-flow groups and sedimentary interbeds in the upper 500 feet of the unsaturated zone and aquifer was determined from natural-gamma logs, lithologic logs, and well cores. Basalt cores were evaluated for potassium-argon ages, paleomagnetic properties, petrographic characteristics, and chemical composition. Stratigraphic control was provided by differences in ages, paleomagnetic properties, potassium content, and natural-gamma emissions of basalt-flow groups and sedimentary interbeds.

  9. Characterization of Lunar Farside Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mest, S.C.; Garry, W. B.; Ostrach, L. R.; Han, S.-C.; Staid, M. I.

    2016-01-01

    The Moon contains broad and isolated areas of plains that have been recognized as mare, cryptomare, impact ejecta, or impact melt. These deposits have been extensively studied on the lunar nearside by remote sensing via telescopes and numerous spacecraft, and in some cases, in situ robotically and by astronauts. Only recently have the deposits on the entire farside been able to be observed and evaluated to the same degree. There are spatially extensive plains deposits located throughout the lunar farside highlands whose formation has remained ambiguous. Many of the plains deposits in the lunar farside highlands display higher albedos than mare materials. Some deposits are located in close proximity to relatively younger impact craters suggesting that plains could be composed of cryptomare or ejecta materials. Some deposits are within the range in which ejecta from large basin-forming events (e.g., SPA and Orientale) likely distributed large amounts of ejecta across the surface. Here we are conducting a series of observations and models in order to resolve the nature and origin of lunar farside plains deposits. Understanding these plains is important for understanding the volcanic and impact histories of the lunar farside, and is important for future mapping and thermal modeling studies.

  10. Historical water-quality data for the High Plains Regional Ground-Water Study Area in Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming, 1930-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Litke, David W.

    2001-01-01

    The High Plains aquifer underlies 174,000 square miles in parts of eight States and includes eight primary hydrogeologic units, including the well-known Ogallala Formation. The High Plains aquifer is an important resource, providing water for 27 percent of the Nation?s irrigated agricultural lands in an otherwise dry landscape. Since the 1980?s there has been concern over the sustainability of the aquifer due to water-level declines caused by substantial pumping. Water quality of the aquifer is a more recent concern. As part of the U.S. Geological Survey?s National Water-Quality Assessment Program, historical water-quality data have been gathered for the High Plains Regional Ground-Water Study Area into a retrospective data base, which can be used to evaluate the occurrence and distribution of water-quality constituents of concern.Data from the retrospective data base verify that nitrate, pesticides, and dissolved solids (salinity) are important water-quality concerns in the High Plains study area. Sixteen percent of all measured nitrate concentrations were larger than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water standard of 10 milligrams per liter. In about 70 percent of the counties within the High Plains study area, nitrate concentrations for 1980-98 were significantly larger than for 1930-69. While nitrate concentrations are largest where depth to water is shallow, concentrations also have increased in the Ogallala Formation where depth to water is large. Pesticide data primarily are available only in the northern half of the study area. About 50 pesticides were detected in the High Plains study area, but only four pesticides (atrazine, alachlor, cyanazine, and simazine) had concentrations exceeding a drinking-water standard. The occasional detection of pesticides in deeper parts of the Ogallala Formation indicates that contamination pathways exist. Dissolved solids, which are a direct measure of salinity, had 29 percent of measured concentrations in

  11. 27 CFR 9.144 - Texas High Plains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Texas High Plains. 9.144... Texas High Plains. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Texas High Plains.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Texas High...

  12. 27 CFR 9.144 - Texas High Plains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Texas High Plains. 9.144... Texas High Plains. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Texas High Plains.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Texas High...

  13. 27 CFR 9.144 - Texas High Plains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Texas High Plains. 9.144... Texas High Plains. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Texas High Plains.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Texas High...

  14. 27 CFR 9.144 - Texas High Plains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Texas High Plains. 9.144... Texas High Plains. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Texas High Plains.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Texas High...

  15. Lunar Smooth Plains Identification and Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, A. K.; Robinson, M. S.; Mahanti, P.; Lawrence, S. J.; Spudis, P.; Jolliff, B. L.

    2012-12-01

    Smooth plains are widespread on the Moon and have diverse origins. The maria comprise the majority of the smooth plains and are volcanic in origin. Highland smooth plains are patchy, and tend to fill large craters and basins; their origins have eluded unambiguous classification. Prior to the Apollo 16 mission, many workers thought that highland plains were volcanic, possibly more silicic than the maria. However, as the Apollo 16 samples are mostly impact breccias, the highland smooth plains were re-interpreted basin impact ejecta, most likely from the Imbrium and possibly Orientale basins. Conversely, some known non-mare volcanic units, such as the Apennine Bench Formation, contain light plains. These interpretations do not rule out alternate origins for a subset of highland smooth plains, including impact melt or volcanic origins (effusive or pyroclastic). We developed an algorithm to identify smooth plains using topographic parameters from the WAC Global Lunar Digital Terrain Model (DTM) (GLD100), sampled at 333 m/pixel. We classify the smooth plains using the Clementine UVVIS FeO map and photometrically corrected Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) Wide Angle Camera (WAC) images. Terrain with slopes less than 2° (1 km baseline) and standard deviation of slope less than 0.75° (1 km x 1 km box, n=9) are defined as smooth plains. Highland smooth plains are distinguished from basaltic smooth plains using the following criteria: LROC WAC 643 nm normalized reflectance > 0.056, LROC WAC 321 nm / 415 nm ratio < 0.74, and Clementine FeO < 12 wt.% (excluding Clementine non-coverage areas). The remaining smooth plains are classified as maria and are subdivided into two classes: LROC WAC 321 nm / 415 nm ratio > 0.77 is termed blue maria and a ratio ≤ 0.77 is termed red maria. The automatic classification was limited to the 87% of the Moon covered by photometrically normalized WAC data (60°S to 60°N). The differences between the maria and highland smooth plains

  16. Northern Plains Patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-513, 14 October 2003

    Patterns are common on the northern plains of Mars. Like their terrestrial counterparts in places like Siberia, Alaska, and northern Canada, patterned ground on Mars might be an indicator of the presence of ground ice. Whether it is true that the patterns on Mars are related to ground ice and whether the ice is still present beneath the martian surface are unknown. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) picture shows an example of patterned ground on the martian northern plains near 72.4oN, 252.6oW. The dark dots and lines are low mounds and chains of mounds. The circular feature near the center of the image is the location of a buried meteor impact crater; its presence today is marked only by the dark boulders on its rim and ejecta blanket that have managed to remain uncovered at the martian surface. The area shown is 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

  17. The Plains City Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Olphen, Marcela; Rios, Francisco; Berube, William; Dexter, Robin; McCarthy, Robert

    2006-01-01

    This case study portrays a contemporary phenomenon that affects many U.S. school districts. Specifically, the authors address the challenges that the superintendent of the Plains City school district faced as a result of a change in the demographic distribution of his district. The gradual development of the pig farming industry in Plains City…

  18. 27 CFR 9.207 - Outer Coastal Plain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Outer Coastal Plain. 9.207 Section 9.207 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.207 Outer Coastal Plain. (a) Name. The name of...

  19. Depopulation of the Northern Plains Natives.

    PubMed

    Decker, J F

    1991-01-01

    Nine major epidemics of acute infectious diseases swept the Northern Plains of the Western Interior of Canada between 1774 and 1839. The Blackfeet, Plains Cree and Assiniboin, Atsina and Saulteaux who exploited the Plains were differentially exposed to these epidemics of smallpox, measles, whooping cough and influenza. Mortality estimates from these epidemics were used in assessing the degree to which a series of epidemics contributed to depopulation of the Plains Natives. A criteria was established to determine an epidemic from a depopulation epidemic, which involved among other factors, the determination of age-selective mortality. The analysis concludes that despite the fact several Native groups exploited, and in some cases co-resided in a similar ecological area, they suffered differential mortality and depopulation rates. PMID:1948151

  20. Trace-metal leaching from plumbing materials exposed to acidic groundwater in three areas of the coastal plain of New Jersey

    SciTech Connect

    Kish, G.R.; Macy, J.A.; Mueller, R.T.

    1987-01-01

    The US Geological Survey analyzed trace metal concentrations in tap water from domestic wells in newly constructed homes in Berkeley Township, Ocean County and Galloway Township, Atlantic County, N.J. The potable water distribution systems in all of the homes sampled are constructed primarily of copper with lead-based solder points. Home water treatment is used in Berkeley Township but not in Galloway Township. Tap water was collected after the water had been standing in the pipes overnight. In Berkeley, 6 to 11 samples exceeded both the US Environmental Protection Agency's primary drinking water regulation (DWR) for lead and the secondary drinking water regulation (SDWR) for copper. In Galloway, 12 of 14 samples exceeded the DWR for lead and 13 of 14 exceeded the SDWR for copper. After collecting the standing-water samples, the water was left running for 15 minutes and a second sample was collected. None of the running-water samples exceeded the regulations for lead or copper. Available data suggest a correlation between the residence time of soft, acidic groundwater in new home plumbing systems and elevated trace-metal concentrations in drinking water derived from domestic wells within the New Jersey Coastal Plain. 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  1. Trace-metal leaching from plumbing materials exposed to acidic ground water in three areas of the coastal plain of New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kish, G.R.; Macy, J.A.; Mueller, R.T.

    1987-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey analyzed trace metal concentrations in tap water from domestic wells in newly constructed homes in Berkeley Township, Ocean County and Galloway Township, Atlantic County, N. J. The potable water distribution systems in all of the homes sampled are constructed primarily of copper with lead-based solder points. Home water treatment is used in Berkeley Township but not in Galloway Township. Tap water was collected after the water had been standing in the pipes overnight. In Berkeley, 6 to 11 samples exceeded both the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 's primary drinking water regulation (DWR) for lead (50 microgram/L) and the secondary drinking water regulation (SDWR) for copper (1,000 microgram/L). In Galloway, 12 of 14 samples exceeded the DWR for lead and 13 of 14 exceeded the SDWR for copper. After collecting the standing-water samples, the water was left running for 15 minutes and a second sample was collected. None of the running-water samples exceeded the regulations for lead or copper. Available data suggest a correlation between the residence time of soft, acidic groundwater in new home plumbing systems and elevated trace-metal concentrations in drinking water derived from domestic wells within the New Jersey Coastal Plain. (USGS)

  2. Guayule production on the southern high plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New production areas need to be identified for guayule in order to meet the expected world-wide shortage of natural rubber by 2020. One promising area is the Texas High Plains region. For guayule to be grown in this region, more cold tolerant lines need to be identified. The objective of our study w...

  3. Spatio-temporal variations in the estimation of PM10 from MODIS-derived aerosol optical depth for the urban areas in the Central Indo-Gangetic Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitranshi, Shikha; Sharma, Satya Prakash; Dey, Sagnik

    2014-09-01

    Particulate air pollution poses a serious health problem to the urban centers in the central Indo-Gangetic plain (IGP) in northern India. Health management planning is constrained by the lack of availability of continuous dataset of particulate matter (PM) at a regional scale. Recently, researchers have established the strength of regression models for estimating PM from satellite-derived aerosol optical depth (AOD) and meteorological factors. The present study is focused on three cities, namely, Agra, Kanpur and Varanasi located in the central IGP. The study envisages four approaches of multi-linear regression modeling to estimate PM10 (particulates smaller than 10 µm) from AOD and the meteorological parameters. The first approach consists of four regional models, three of which estimate regional mean PM10 and the fourth one estimates the distributed PM10. These models have a weak-to-moderate coefficient of determination (R 2 = 0.37-0.63). Spatial and temporal variations in the estimators are separately addressed by the second modeling approach, i.e., city models (CMs) and the third modeling approach, i.e., seasonal models (SMs), respectively. R 2 of these models varies from 0.40 to 0.68. Finally, the spatio-temporal variability of the estimators are addressed by the fourth modeling approach, i.e., city-wise seasonal models (CSMs) which exhibited better results (R 2 = 0.49-0.88). Remarkable variations in the regression estimators of the CSMs are observed both spatially and temporally. The model adequacy checks and the validation studies also support CSMs for more reliable estimation of PM10 in the central IGP. The proposed methodology can, therefore, be reliably used in generating the regional PM10 concentration maps for health impact studies.

  4. Spatio-temporal variations in the estimation of PM10 from MODIS-derived aerosol optical depth for the urban areas in the Central Indo-Gangetic Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitranshi, Shikha; Sharma, Satya Prakash; Dey, Sagnik

    2015-02-01

    Particulate air pollution poses a serious health problem to the urban centers in the central Indo-Gangetic plain (IGP) in northern India. Health management planning is constrained by the lack of availability of continuous dataset of particulate matter (PM) at a regional scale. Recently, researchers have established the strength of regression models for estimating PM from satellite-derived aerosol optical depth (AOD) and meteorological factors. The present study is focused on three cities, namely, Agra, Kanpur and Varanasi located in the central IGP. The study envisages four approaches of multi-linear regression modeling to estimate PM10 (particulates smaller than 10 µm) from AOD and the meteorological parameters. The first approach consists of four regional models, three of which estimate regional mean PM10 and the fourth one estimates the distributed PM10. These models have a weak-to-moderate coefficient of determination ( R 2 = 0.37-0.63). Spatial and temporal variations in the estimators are separately addressed by the second modeling approach, i.e., city models (CMs) and the third modeling approach, i.e., seasonal models (SMs), respectively. R 2 of these models varies from 0.40 to 0.68. Finally, the spatio-temporal variability of the estimators are addressed by the fourth modeling approach, i.e., city-wise seasonal models (CSMs) which exhibited better results ( R 2 = 0.49-0.88). Remarkable variations in the regression estimators of the CSMs are observed both spatially and temporally. The model adequacy checks and the validation studies also support CSMs for more reliable estimation of PM10 in the central IGP. The proposed methodology can, therefore, be reliably used in generating the regional PM10 concentration maps for health impact studies.

  5. A High shear stress segment along the San Andreas Fault: Inferences based on near-field stress direction and stress magnitude observations in the Carrizo Plain Area

    SciTech Connect

    Castillo, D. A.,; Younker, L.W.

    1997-01-30

    Nearly 200 new in-situ determinations of stress directions and stress magnitudes near the Carrizo plain segment of the San Andreas fault indicate a marked change in stress state occurring within 20 km of this principal transform plate boundary. A natural consequence of this stress transition is that if the observed near-field ``fault-oblique`` stress directions are representative of the fault stress state, the Mohr-Coulomb shear stresses resolved on San Andreas sub-parallel planes are substantially greater than previously inferred based on fault-normal compression. Although the directional stress data and near-hydrostatic pore pressures, which exist within 15 km of the fault, support a high shear stress environment near the fault, appealing to elevated pore pressures in the fault zone (Byerlee-Rice Model) merely enhances the likelihood of shear failure. These near-field stress observations raise important questions regarding what previous stress observations have actually been measuring. The ``fault-normal`` stress direction measured out to 70 km from the fault can be interpreted as representing a comparable depth average shear strength of the principal plate boundary. Stress measurements closer to the fault reflect a shallower depth-average representation of the fault zone shear strength. If this is true, only stress observations at fault distances comparable to the seismogenic depth will be representative of the fault zone shear strength. This is consistent with results from dislocation monitoring where there is pronounced shear stress accumulation out to 20 km of the fault as a result of aseismic slip within the lower crust loading the upper locked section. Beyond about 20 km, the shear stress resolved on San Andreas fault-parallel planes becomes negligible. 65 refs., 15 figs.

  6. Spatial variation of chemical constituents from the burning of commonly used biomass fuels in rural areas of the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP), India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saud, T.; Saxena, M.; Singh, D. P.; Saraswati; Dahiya, Manisha; Sharma, S. K.; Datta, A.; Gadi, Ranu; Mandal, T. K.

    2013-06-01

    In the present paper, we have determined emission factor of chemical composition of the emission from the burning of biomass (e.g. Dung cake, Acacia, Neem, Mulberry, Indian Rosewood, Pigeon pea etc.) commonly used as a residential fuel in the rural sector of Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) (Delhi, Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal), India. For comparison, we have selected only those biomass fuels, which are used in at least three of the above mentioned states. Dung cake from all the states reports highest emission of particulate matter (PM) (15.68 g kg-1), Organic Carbon (OC) (4.32 g kg-1) and Elemental Carbon (EC) (0.51 g kg-1). Among all biomass fuels studied, agricultural residue reports substantial amount of emission of Na+ (104 mg kg-1), K+ (331 mg kg-1) and Cl- (447 mg kg-1) particularly in Pigeon pea and Mustard stem. Eucalyptus (fuel wood) emits large amounts of Ca2+ (21.47 mg kg-1) and NO3- (614 mg kg-1). The emission of PM from dung cake is higher in Delhi (19.31 g kg-1) and followed by Uttar Pradesh (17.58 g kg-1) > Haryana (15.46 g kg-1) > Bihar (14.99 g kg-1) > Punjab (12.06 g kg-1) > West Bengal (5.90 g kg-1). Carbonaceous aerosols (OC and EC) and dominant Ionic species (Cl-, K+, SO42-, NO3- and PO43-) are altogether contributing 40-70% of total emissions. Characteristics and ratios of chemical species of emissions may help to develop a methodology of discriminating the sources of ambient particulate matter. Using a laboratory determined emission factor of chemical species, we have determined the emission budget over IGP, India.

  7. Geology of the Arco-Big Southern Butte area, eastern Snake River Plain, and volcanic hazards to the radioactive waste management complex, and other waste storage and reactor facilities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuntz, Mel A.; Kork, John O.

    1978-01-01

    The Arco-Big Southern Butte area of the eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho, includes a volcanic rift zone and more than 70 Holocene and late Quaternary basalt volcanoes. The Arco volcanic rift zone extends southeast for 50 km from Arco to about 10 km southeast of Big Southern Butte. The rift zone is the locus of extensional faults, graben, fissure basaltic volcanic vents, several rhyolite domes at Big Southern Butte, and a ferrolatite volcano at Cedar Butte. Limited radiometric age data and geological field criteria suggest that all volcanism in the area is younger than 700,000 years; at least 67 separate basaltic eruptions are estimated to have occurred within the last 200,000 years. The average volcanic recurrence interval for the Arco-Big Southern Butte area is approximately one eruption per 3,000 years. Radioactive waste storage and reactor facilities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory may be subject to potential volcanic hazards. The geologic history and inferred past volcanic events in the Arco-Big Southern Butte area provide a basis for assessing the volcanic hazard. It is recommended that a radiometric age-dating study be performed on rocks in cored drill holes to provide a more precise estimate of the eruption recurrence interval for the region surrounding and including the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. It is also recommended that several geophysical monitoring systems (dry tilt and seismic) be installed to provide adequate warning of future volcanic eruptions.

  8. The Plains of Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharpton, V. L.

    2013-12-01

    Volcanic plains units of various types comprise at least 80% of the surface of Venus. Though devoid of topographic splendor and, therefore often overlooked, these plains units house a spectacular array of volcanic, tectonic, and impact features. Here I propose that the plains hold the keys to understanding the resurfacing history of Venus and resolving the global stratigraphy debate. The quasi-random distribution of impact craters and the small number that have been conspicuously modified from the outside by plains-forming volcanism have led some to propose that Venus was catastrophically resurfaced around 725×375 Ma with little volcanism since. Challenges, however, hinge on interpretations of certain morphological characteristics of impact craters: For instance, Venusian impact craters exhibit either radar dark (smooth) floor deposits or bright, blocky floors. Bright floor craters (BFC) are typically 100-400 m deeper than dark floor craters (DFC). Furthermore, all 58 impact craters with ephemeral bright ejecta rays and/or distal parabolic ejecta patterns have bright floor deposits. This suggests that BFCs are younger, on average, than DFCs. These observations suggest that DFCs could be partially filled with lava during plains emplacement and, therefore, are not strictly younger than the plains units as widely held. Because the DFC group comprises ~80% of the total crater population on Venus the recalculated emplacement age of the plains would be ~145 Ma if DFCs are indeed volcanically modified during plains formation. Improved image and topographic data are required to measure stratigraphic and morphometric relationships and resolve this issue. Plains units are also home to an abundant and diverse set of volcanic features including steep-sided domes, shield fields, isolated volcanoes, collapse features and lava channels, some of which extend for 1000s of kilometers. The inferred viscosity range of plains-forming lavas, therefore, is immense, ranging from the

  9. Assessment of Hyporheic Zone, Flood-Plain, Soil-Gas, Soil, and Surface-Water Contamination at the McCoys Creek Chemical Training Area, Fort Gordon, Georgia, 2009-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guimaraes, Wladmir B.; Falls, W. Fred; Caldwell, Andral W.; Ratliff, W. Hagan; Wellborn, John B.; Landmeyer, James E.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of the Army Environmental and Natural Resources Management Office of the U.S. Army Signal Center and Fort Gordon, Georgia, assessed the hyporheic zone, flood plain, soil gas, soil, and surface water for contaminants at the McCoys Creek Chemical Training Area (MCTA) at Fort Gordon, from October 2009 to September 2010. The assessment included the detection of organic contaminants in the hyporheic zone, flood plain, soil gas, and surface water. In addition, the organic contaminant assessment included the analysis of organic compounds classified as explosives and chemical agents in selected areas. Inorganic contaminants were assessed in soil and surface-water samples. The assessment was conducted to provide environmental contamination data to the U.S. Army at Fort Gordon pursuant to requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B Hazardous Waste Permit process. Ten passive samplers were deployed in the hyporheic zone and flood plain, and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and octane were detected above the method detection level in every sampler. Other organic compounds detected above the method detection level in the hyporheic zone and flood-plain samplers were trichloroethylene, and cis- and trans- 1, 2-dichloroethylene. One trip blank detected TPH below the method detection level but above the nondetection level. The concentrations of TPH in the samplers were many times greater than the concentrations detected in the blank; therefore, all other TPH concentrations detected are considered to represent environmental conditions. Seventy-one soil-gas samplers were deployed in a grid pattern across the MCTA. Three trip blanks and three method blanks were used and not deployed, and TPH was detected above the method detection level in two trip blanks and one method blank. Detection of TPH was observed at all 71 samplers, but because TPH was detected in the trip and method blanks, TPH was

  10. Silicate weathering in the Ganges alluvial plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frings, Patrick J.; Clymans, Wim; Fontorbe, Guillaume; Gray, William; Chakrapani, Govind J.; Conley, Daniel J.; De La Rocha, Christina

    2015-10-01

    The Ganges is one of the world's largest rivers and lies at the heart of a body of literature that investigates the interaction between mountain orogeny, weathering and global climate change. Three regions can be recognised in the Ganges basin, with the Himalayan orogeny to the north and the plateaus of peninsular India to the south together delimiting the Ganges alluvial plain. Despite constituting approximately 80% of the basin, weathering processes in the peninsula and alluvial plain have received little attention. Here we present an analysis of 51 water samples along a transect of the alluvial plain, including all major tributaries. We focus on the geochemistry of silicon and its isotopes. Area normalised dissolved Si yields are approximately twice as high in rivers of Himalaya origin than the plain and peninsular tributaries (82, 51 and 32 kmol SiO2 km-2 yr-1, respectively). Such dissolved Si fluxes are not widely used as weathering rate indicators because a large but variable fraction of the DSi mobilised during the initial weathering process is retained in secondary clay minerals. However, the silicon isotopic composition of dissolved Si (expressed as δ30Si) varies from + 0.8 ‰ in the Ganges mainstem at the Himalaya front to + 3.0 ‰ in alluvial plain streams and appears to be controlled by weathering congruency, i.e. by the degree of incorporation of Si into secondary phases. The higher δ30Si values therefore reflect decreasing weathering congruency in the lowland river catchments. This is exploited to quantify the degree of removal using a Rayleigh isotope mass balance model, and consequently derive initial silica mobilisation rates of 200, 150 and 107 kmol SiO2 km-2 yr-1, for the Himalaya, peninsular India and the alluvial plain, respectively. Because the non-Himalayan regions dominate the catchment area, the majority of initial silica mobilisation from primary minerals occurs in the alluvial plain and peninsular catchment (41% and 34%, respectively).

  11. Stratigraphy of the Martian northern plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanaka, K. L.

    1993-01-01

    The northern plains of Mars are roughly defined as the large continuous region of lowlands that lies below Martian datum, plus higher areas within the region that were built up by volcanism, sedimentation, tectonism, and impacts. These northern lowlands span about 50 x 10(exp 6) km(sup 2) or 35 percent of the planet's surface. The age and origin of the lowlands continue to be debated by proponents of impact and tectonic explanations. Geologic mapping and topical studies indicate that volcanic, fluvial, and eolian deposition have played major roles in the infilling of this vast depression. Periglacial, glacial, fluvial, eolian, tectonic, and impact processes have locally modified the surface. Because of the northern plains' complex history of sedimentation and modification, much of their stratigraphy was obscured. Thus the stratigraphy developed is necessarily vague and provisional: it is based on various clues from within the lowlands as well as from highland areas within and bordering the plains. The results are summarized.

  12. IRRIGATION WASTEWATER DISPOSAL WELL STUDIES--SNAKE PLAIN AQUIFER

    EPA Science Inventory

    An investigation was conducted to evaluate the impact of irrigation disposal well practices on the water quality of the Snake Plain aquifer. A study site was selected where the geology was determined to be characteristic of areas in the Snake River Plain where irrigation disposal...

  13. High Plains Regional Ground-water Study web site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Qi, Sharon L.

    2000-01-01

    Now available on the Internet is a web site for the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program- High Plains Regional Ground-Water Study. The purpose of the web site is to provide public access to a wide variety of information on the USGS investigation of the ground-water resources within the High Plains aquifer system. Typical pages on the web site include the following: descriptions of the High Plains NAWQA, the National NAWQA Program, the study-area setting, current and past activities, significant findings, chemical and ancillary data (which can be downloaded), listing and access to publications, links to other sites about the High Plains area, and links to other web sites studying High Plains ground-water resources. The High Plains aquifer is a regional aquifer system that underlies 174,000 square miles in parts of eight States (Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming). Because the study area is so large, the Internet is an ideal way to provide project data and information on a near real-time basis. The web site will be a collection of living documents where project data and information are updated as it becomes available throughout the life of the project. If you have an interest in the High Plains area, you can check this site periodically to learn how the High Plains NAWQA activities are progressing over time and access new data and publications as they become available.

  14. Research of land resources comprehensive utilization of coal mining in plain area based on GIS: case of Panyi Coal Mine of Huainan Mining Group Corp.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Chunxiao; Wang, Songhui; Sun, Dian; Chen, Dong

    2007-06-01

    The result of land use in coalfield is important to sustainable development in resourceful city. For surface morphology being changed by subsidence, the mining subsidence becomes the main problem to land use with the negative influence of ecological environment, production and steadily develop in coal mining areas. Taking Panyi Coal Mine of Huainan Mining Group Corp as an example, this paper predicted and simulated the mining subsidence in Matlab environment on the basis of the probability integral method. The change of land use types of early term, medium term and long term was analyzed in accordance with the results of mining subsidence prediction with GIS as a spatial data management and spatial analysis tool. The result of analysis showed that 80% area in Panyi Coal Mine be affected by mining subsidence and 52km2 perennial waterlogged area was gradually formed. The farmland ecosystem was gradually turned into wetland ecosystem in most study area. According to the economic and social development and natural conditions of mining area, calculating the ecological environment, production and people's livelihood, this paper supplied the plan for comprehensive utilization of land resource. In this plan, intervention measures be taken during the coal mining and the mining subsidence formation and development, and this method can solve the problems of Land use at the relative low cost.

  15. The Rare ospC Allele L of Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Stricto, Commonly Found among Samples Collected in a Coastal Plain Area of the Southeastern United States, Is Associated with Ixodes affinis Ticks and Local Rodent Hosts Peromyscus gossypinus and Sigmodon hispidus

    PubMed Central

    Golovchenko, Maryna; Grubhoffer, Libor; Oliver, James H.

    2013-01-01

    The rare ospC allele L was detected in 30% of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto strains cultured from a tick species, Ixodes affinis, and two rodent host species, Peromyscus gossypinus and Sigmodon hispidus, collected in a coastal plain area of Georgia and South Carolina, in the southeastern United States. PMID:23220965

  16. Land-Use Planning in the Chaco Plain (Burruyacú, Argentina). Part 1: Evaluating Land-Use Options to Support Crop Diversification in an Agricultural Frontier Area Using Physical Land Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recatalá Boix, Luis; Zinck, Joseph Alfred

    2008-12-01

    The Burruyacú district (Tucumán province, Argentina) is a farming frontier in the western Chaco plain, at the foothills of the sub-Andean mountain ranges, where agricultural land-uses are in conflict with the conservation and management of the Chaco forest. Over the last decades, large-scale farming rapidly expanded due to population pressure, attractive market prices, easy accessibility, favourable annual rainfall, fertile soils, and flexible land tenure. Cropland extension, mainly for heavily mechanized soybean production, has resulted in important reduction of the Chaco forest and also caused physical soil degradation, especially soil compaction, and soil erosion. Land suitability was assessed using the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) framework for a set of crops ecologically adapted to the area, including soybean, maize, wheat, sugarcane, citrus, and safflower. Only 16% of the study area has high suitability for most of the selected crops. Major limitations for cropping are low annual rainfall and flooding in the east of the study area, and topography (slope) and flooding in the west. As climate varies over relatively short periods of time, with recurrent cycles of dry and rainy years, land suitability for the selected crops was also assessed under extreme but realistic climatic conditions. Under rainy-year conditions, almost all the study area is unsuitable or marginally suitable for most of the crops. Under dry-year conditions, the study area is unsuitable for all crops, except safflower, which is more drought-resistant. This article proposes alternatives to the mono-cropping of soybean with the aim to help farmers make adequate decisions on land-use and management under deteriorating environmental conditions and for addressing the issue of competitive land uses in the context of land-use planning.

  17. Effect of Holocene sea level change on aeolian activity in the coastal plain of Ras El Hekma area, NW coast of Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farghaly, Enas; Torab, Magdy

    2015-04-01

    Ras El Hekma area located in north western coast of Egypt, west of Alexandria city for about 220 km, in this area, environmental changes during the Holocene can be interpreted based on morphological and sedimentological similarities between Holocene geomorphic features such as cemented beaches and fossilized dunes with recent coastal features. Sand dunes and nebkhas are the most common aeolian landforms and they occur in semi-arid climatic conditions. The active separated coastal dunes and nebkhas dunes of Ras El-Hekma area are located between the swash zone and the coastal limestone ridges as well as in the coastal sabkhas. The effect of waves during storms reaches far beyond the actual beach and can cause great changes to sandy beaches at an exceptional speed. Sand accumulated by swash drifts with the wind on open beaches and bays. The aeolian sand, which originates from fluvial-marine sediments washed by sea waves. the available sediment depends on fluvial transport to the littoral zone and on biological activity in the carbonate environments as well as on longshore and cross-shore currents. This paper treats the coastal dunes in Ras El Hekma area in their entirety and defines the effects of sea level change on coastal sand dunes and sabkhas dunes, it depends upon field geomorphic surveying, sampling and mapping as well as satellite image interpretation using ENVI software and GIS techniques.

  18. Distribution of nitrogen species in groundwater aquifers of an industrial area in alluvial Indo-Gangetic Plains--a case study.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kunwar P; Singh, Vinod K; Malik, Amrita; Basant, Nikita

    2006-10-01

    The groundwater samples collected from the shallow and deep groundwater aquifers of an industrial area of the Kanpur city (Uttar Pradesh, India) were analyzed for the concentration levels and distribution pattern of nitrogenous species, such as nitrate-nitrogen (NO(3)-N), nitrite-nitrogen (NO(2)-N), ammonical-nitrogen (NH(4)-N), organic-nitrogen (Org-N) and total Kjeldahl-nitrogen (TKN) to identify the possible contamination source. Geo-statistical approach was adopted to determine the distribution and extent of the contaminant plume. In the groundwater aquifers NO(3)-N, NO(2)-N, NH(4)-N, TKN, Org-N and Total-N ranged from 0.10 to 64.10, BDL (below detection limit)-6.57, BDL-39.00, 7.84-202.16, 1.39-198.97 and 8.89-219.43 mg l(-1), respectively. About 42% and 26% of the groundwater samples of the shallow and deep groundwater aquifers, respectively, exceeded the BIS (Bureau of Indian Standards) guideline value of 10 mg l(-1) for NO(3)-N and may pose serious health hazards to the people of the area. The results of the study revealed that the groundwater aquifers of the study area are highly contaminated with the nitrate and indicates point source pollution of nitrate in the study area. PMID:16791709

  19. Simulated impacts of artificial groundwater recharge and discharge of the source area and source volume of an Atlantic Coastal Plain Stream, Delaware, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kasper, Joshua W.; Denver, Judish M.; McKenna, Thomas E.; Ullman, William J.

    2010-01-01

    A numerical groundwater-flow model was used to characterize the source area and volume of Phillips Branch, a baseflow-dominated stream incising a highly permeable unconfined aquifer on the low relief Delmarva Peninsula, USA. Particle-tracking analyses indicate that the source area (5.51 km2) is ~20% smaller than the topographically defined watershed (6.85 km2), and recharge entering ~37% of the surface watershed does not discharge to Phillips Branch. Groundwater residence time within the source volume ranges from a few days to almost 100 years, with 95% of the volume "flushing" within 50 years. Artificial discharge from groundwater pumping alters the shape of the source area and reduces baseflow due to the interception of stream flow paths, but has limited impacts on the residence time of groundwater discharged as baseflow. In contrast, artificial recharge from land-based wastewater disposal substantially reduces the source area, lowers the range in residence time due to the elimination of older flow paths to the stream, and leads to increased discharge to adjacent surface-water bodies. This research suggests that, in this and similar hydrogeologic settings, the "watershed" approach to water-resource management may be limited, particularly where anthropogenic stresses alter the transport of soluble contaminants through highly permeable unconfined aquifers.

  20. Relations of nonpoint-source nitrate and atrazine concentrations in the High Plains aquifer to selected explanatory variables in six Nebraska study areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Druliner, A.D.; Chen, H.H.; McGrath, T.S.

    1996-01-01

    Statistical techniques were used to relate nonpoint-source ground-water contamination by nitrate and atrazine to a variety of explanatory variables for six study areas in Nebraska. Water samples were collected from 268 wells in 12 counties from 1984 through 1987 and were analyzed for nitrate concentrations; water samples from 210 of the wells were analyzed for atrazine. A number of hydrochemical, climatic, hydrologic, soil, and land-use explanatory variables, which were believed to affect the contamination of ground water by agricultural chemicals, were identified and quantified for each of the 268 wells. Multiple regression methods were used to determine which explanatory variables were statistically related to ground-water concentrations of nitrate and atrazine. Regression models predicting nitrate and atrazine concentrations were produced that explained from about 50 to 68 percent of the variation in the dependent variables. Geographic- information-system methods were used to produce maps predicting nitrate and atrazine concentrations in ground water for one study area using selected regression and logistic models. The results of this study indicate that multiple regression techniques coupled with geographic information systems can be an effective means of identifying areas of potential ground-water contamination by nitrate and atrazine.

  1. Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment (LACIE). Evaluation of the LACIE transition year crop calendar model. [Wheat growth in the Great Plains Corridor, North America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheffin, R. E.; Woolley, S. K. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The estimates of developmental stage dates from the LACIE adjustable crop calendar (ACC) winter wheat model was somewhat more accurate than the historical crop calendar after jointing. The ACC winter wheat model was not so accurate for the Texas Panhandle as it was for the other areas of the USPG-7 because dry soil conditions delayed fall planting in the Panhandle. Since the LACIE ACC winter wheat model does not contain a moisture term and it was started with historical planting dates, lengthy delays in planting mean that the ACC model will probably be started early and will estimate the developmental growth stages to occur too early in the season. The LACIE ACC spring wheat model was also started early in most areas because of late planting due to fields wet from melting snow and rain. The starter model used to estimate spring planting dates was not accurate under these wet soil conditions and tended to predict the developmental stages to occur earlier than the dates observed in the fields.

  2. [Canonical correspondence analysis between phytoplankton community and environmental factors in winter and summer in shallow lakes of plain river network areas, Suzhou].

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiao-Dan; Ruan, Xiao-Hong; Xing, Ya-Nan; Jiao, Tao; Wu, Yun; Zhao, Zhen-Hua; Ni, Li-Xiao

    2008-11-01

    Field investigations on the phytoplankton community were carried out in December 2005 and June 2006 in shallow lakes of plainriver network areas, Suzhou City. Results show that there are 73 species, 62 genus, 8 phylum phytoplankton, which is mainly composed of the Chlorophyta, Bacillariophyta and Cyanophyta. In winter, the average phytoplankton abundance is 254.88 x 10(4) cells x L(-1), and the Bacillariophyta abundance accounts for 62.3% of the total. While in summer, the average phytoplankton abundance is 2704.28 x 10(4) cells x L(-1), and the Cyanophyta abundance accounts for 93.5%. The relationship between 62 genus of phytoplankton and 11 environmental factors from 57 sampling sites in research area was studied by Canonical Correspondence Analysis. It suggests that water temperature, permanganate indexes, nitrate nitrogen and total nitrogen are the main environmental factors correlated with the distribution of phytoplankton community. And in winter, pH, ammonia nitrogen and total phosphorus are also the main environmental factors. Furthermore, the Bacillariophyta has higher adaptability to the changeable environment. The Chlorophyta can tolerate higher concentration of permanganate indexes, phosphorus nutrients, nitrogen nutrients and total organic carbon, whereas the response of Cyanophyta to environmental factors needs further research. PMID:19186793

  3. Hydrogeochemical analysis for Tasuj plain aquifer, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadiri, Ata Allah; Moghaddam, Asghar Asghari; Tsai, Frank T.-C.; Fijani, Elham

    2013-08-01

    This study investigated the hydrogeochemical processes of groundwater in the Tasuj plain, Iran. The Tasuj plain is one of the 12 marginal plains around Urmia Lake which is currently under a critical ecological condition. In the last decades, the Tasuj plain aquifer suffered from severe groundwater level declination and caused degradation of groundwater quality. To better understand hydrogeochemical processes in the Tasuj plain, this study adopted graphical methods and multivariate statistical techniques to analyze groundwater samples. A total of 504 groundwater samples was obtained from 34 different locations (qanats, wells, and springs) over 12 years (1997-2009) and analyzed for 15 water quality parameters. From the results, the Piper diagram indicated four groundwater types and the Stiff diagram showed eight different sources of groundwater samples. The Durov diagram identified five major hydrogeochemical processes in the aquifer. However, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) identified five water types in the groundwater samples because HCA was able to analyze more chemical and physical data than graphical methods. The HCA result was checked by discriminant analysis and found consistency in all samples that were classified into correct groups. Using factor analysis, we identified three factors that accounted for 81.6% of the total variance of the dataset. Based on the high factor loadings of the variables, factors 1 and 2 reflected the natural hydrogeochemical processes and factor 3 explained the effect of agricultural fertilizers and human activities in the Tasuj plain. Dendrograms from 2000 to 2009 were studied to understand the temporal variation of groundwater quality. Comparing the distributions of groundwater types in 2000 and 2009, we found that the mixing zone was expanded. This may be due to artificial groundwater recharge in the recharge area and the effect of inverse ion exchange in the discharge area.

  4. Quaternary geology and geomorphology of the Dinosaur Provincial Park area and surrounding plains, Alberta, Canada: the identification of former glacial lobes, drainage diversions and meltwater flood tracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, David J. A.

    2000-06-01

    The Quaternary geology and geomorphology of the lower Red Deer River drainage basin, centred on the Dinosaur Provincial Park badlands, provides information on pre-Late Wisconsinan drainage patterns and the dynamics of former lobes of the Laurentide Ice Sheet in western Canada. Patterns of deglaciation, proglacial lake evolution and spillway incision are also reconstructed based upon the distribution of surface materials and glacial/glaciofluvial landforms. The Empress Group fluvial and glaciolacustrine sediments, which could be as young as 27 ka BP, infill the precursor Red Deer River and its tributaries and document the initial advance of glacier ice into southern Alberta. Glaciotectonic disturbance of older sediments and bedrock, the production of deformation tills and the construction of a megafluting complex and cupola hills record the advances of a glacier lobe centred over the study area. Stratified inter- and intra-till beds record pulses of subglacial meltwater between phases of subsole deformation. The thickening of tills towards the margin of the lobe represents a till wedge, an expected product of sediment advection by glaciers moving over deformable beds. The eastern margin of the glacier lobe is demarcated by the interlobate Suffield hummocky moraine belt which contains overprinted thrust ridges, which record diachronous oscillations of neighbouring lobes within the ice sheet. Proglacial and glaciofluvial sediments were deposited in the area in association with proglacial Lake Bassano/Patricia, which drained eastwards when the Suffield moraine was dissected by spillways. Changes in the size of glacial lake Bassano/Patricia are clearly documented by a sequence of spillway incisions which culminated in the erosion of scabland topography and the initiation of a new course for the Red Deer River, a 15 km southward diversion of the main channel. In distinct contrast to the documented incision histories of other small rivers in Alberta, One Tree Creek and

  5. EXTERNAL EFFECTS OF IRRIGATORS' PUMPING DECISIONS, HIGH PLAINS AQUIFER.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alley, William M.; Schefter, John E.

    1987-01-01

    The High Plains aquifer, which underlies about 174,000 square miles (1 square mile equals 2. 59 km**2) in the Great Plains, is the principal source of water in one of the nation's major agricultural areas. This paper examines relationships between the scale of management areas and physical factors, resulting from the lateral movement of groundwater, that limit the ability of irrigators in the High Plains to reduce their own future pumping lifts. At the scale of individual farms, irrigators have very limited ability to 'bank' water in order to obtain reduced future pumping lifts.

  6. Tertiary thrust systems and fluid flow beneath the Beaufort coastal plain (1002 area), Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Potter, Christopher J.; Grow, John A.; Perry, William J., Jr.; Moore, Thomas E.; O'Sullivan, Paul B.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; Saltus, Richard W.

    2004-01-01

    In the eastern part of the 1002 area, a northward-younging pattern of thin-skinned deformation is apparent. Converging patterns of Paleocene reflectors on the north flank of the Sabbath syncline indicate that the Aichilik high and the Sabbath syncline formed as a passive-roof duplex and piggyback basin, respectively, just behind the Paleocene deformation front. During the Eocene and possibly the Oligocene, thin-skinned thrusting advanced northward over the present location of the Niguanak high. A passive-roof duplex occupied the frontal part of this system. The Kingak and Hue shales exposed above the Niguanak high were transported into their present structural position during the Eocene to Oligocene motion on the long thrust ramps above the present south flank of the Niguanak high. Broad, basement-cored subsurface domes (Niguanak high and Aurora dome) formed near the deformation front in the Oligocene, deforming the overlying thin-skinned structures and feeding a new increment of displacement into thin-skinned structures directly to the north. Deformation continued through the Miocene above a detachment in the basement. Offshore seismicity and Holocene shortening documented by previous workers may indicate that contractional deformation continues to the present day.

  7. Geologic history of the Cerberus Plains, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanagan, Peter Denham

    would have covered an area of 8.4 x 10 4 km 2 , had an average depth of 12 m, and have contained a volume of 1.0 x 10 3 km 3 of water. Lake waters were likely primarily lost to the atmosphere through sublimation, although some quantity of water likely spilled into the Eastern Cerberus Plains or infiltrated into the shallow crust.

  8. Devil-Streaked Plain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    19 February 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows dark streaks on a plain south of the giant impact basin, Hellas Planitia. The streaks map the routes traveled by dozens of individual southern spring and early summer dust devils.

    Location near: 68.4oS, 296.1oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Summer

  9. Use of Depth-Dependent Sampling to Refine Understanding of Source Areas and Short-Circuit Pathways for Contaminants to Reach Public Supply Wells, High Plains Aquifer, York, Nebraska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landon, M. K.; Clark, B. R.

    2005-12-01

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program, an investigation of the processes controlling the transport of natural and anthropogenic contaminants to public-supply wells has been conducted in layered unconsolidated deposits of the High Plains aquifer near York, Nebraska. Thirty-four monitoring wells with 1.5-m long screens were installed in unconfined and confined layers of the aquifer along or near the zone of contribution to a public-supply well. Analysis of samples collected from the supply well, integrating water from the entire screened interval, indicated concentrations of PCE, TCE, and uranium that were below drinking-water standards but of concern as indicators of contamination. However, these contaminants were not detected in monitoring wells less than 30 m from the supply well in the same confined sand layer. Samples were collected from the supply well under typical pumping conditions at five depths in the 18-m long screen using a submersible 2.2-cm diameter bladder pump lowered down an access pipe. The sample depths were selected based on flow profiling using the tracer pulse method. The samples from the bottom half of the screen had oxygen and hydrogen isotopic values and concentrations of PCE, TCE, major ions, excess nitrogen gas, and uranium consistent with water derived from shallow recharge areas in the urban area mixed with relatively older native water from the confined aquifer. The presence of the unconfined-source water only at the bottom of the supply-well screen implies that well-bore leakage in the supply well itself was not the pathway for contaminant movement. Similar mixed unconfined-source water signatures were detected in a few monitoring wells screened in the confined layer along the zone of contribution. This non-uniform distribution of mixed unconfined-source water implies that there are preferential flow paths that permit urban recharge water and contaminants to move through the confining layer

  10. Dunes on Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03047 Dunes on Plains

    These dunes are located on the plains around Doanus Vallis.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 62.3S, Longitude 335.3E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  11. Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment (LACIE). An overview of the Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment and the outlook for a satellite crop inventory. [Great Plains Corridor (North America), Canada, U.S.S.R., Brazil, China, India, and Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erb, R. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The most important LACIE finding was that the technology worked very well in estimating wheat production in important geographic locations. Based on working through the many successes and shortcomings of LACIE, it can be stated with confidence that: (1) the current technology can successfully monitor what production in regions having similar characteristics to those of the U.S.S.R. wheat areas and the U.S. hard red winter wheat areas; (2) with additional applied research, significant improvements in capabilities to monitor wheat in these and other important production regions can be expected in the near future; (3) the remote sensing and weather effects modeling technology approached used by LACIE is generally applicable to other major crops and crop-producing regions of the world; and (4) with suitable effort, this technology can now advance rapidly and could be widespread use in the late 1980's.

  12. Quails on the High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Southern High Plains of Texas are on the southern end of the North American Great Plains and occupy about 20 million acres. The climate is semi-arid, with long-term (90-year) average annual precipitation at Lubbock of 18.9 inches. Two species of quail, northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) and...

  13. Geomorphological development of Eastern Mongolian plain, Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    khukhuudei, Ulambadrakh; otgonbayar, Orolzodmaa

    2016-04-01

    Several summaries and investigations of the geomorphological description and feature for Eastern Mongolian plain (EMP), the one of the largest geomorphological district, fully covering east side of Mongolia (Murzayev, 1949; Vlodavets, 1950, 1955; Marinov, Khasin, 1954; Marinov, 1966; Nikolayeva, 1971; Selivanov, 1972; Chichagov, 1974, 1976; Grigorov, 1975; Korjuyev, 1982; Syirnev, 1982, 1984) had been publishing continuously. But literature for geomorphology of EMP have been not appeared during over the past 20 years. However, we re-combine the geomorphological development of EMP, according to the results of many publications for surrounding regions of Russia and China and unpublished maps. Main morphology of EMP has the plain, containing with aeolian, fluvial and lacustrine landforms. Plain morphology defined that denudation plains to North Kherlen, South Kherlen, Baruun Urt, Uulbayan, Delgerekh and other which developed on the Paleozoic rocks, layered plain to Choibalsan, Tamsag, Ongon, Gert, Sumiin nuur and Torey- on the Late Cretaceous and Neogene sediments and accumulation plain with alluvial and lacustrine origin such as Menen, Buir nuur, Tamsagbulag, Khalzan and other. These plains of EMP related with tectonics and structure of region and inherited the development of the Mesozoic, particularly Late Mesozoic structure. Large basins of EMP are Tamsag, Choibalsan and Torey and other small basins - from 7-10 km to 25-30 km width and rather a several 10 km extend, cutting a basement. The origin of plain morphology for EMP is interpreted as two main stages of the geomorphological development model, based on geology. In first stage or Late Jurassic (?) - Lower Cretaceous period, there was developed rift basin, then, in second stage or since Late Cretaceous period, plain morphology originated from the intermountain basin that dominated by exogenic process and kept in current EMP area. Data relevant to the development history of EMP are following. 1. Rift volcanism

  14. Ground-water flow in the Coastal Plain aquifers of South Carolina.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aucott, W.R.; Speiran, G.K.

    1985-01-01

    The Coastal Plain aquifers are recharged primarily by precipitation in their outcrop areas. Groundwater flows from these areas of recharge, through the aquifers, and discharges to upper Costal Plain rivers, overlying aquifers as upward leakage, and wells. Ground-water flow in the Floridan aquifer system and the Tertiary sand aquifer prior to development is generally perpendicular to the coast.-from Authors

  15. Ontogeny of a flood plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moody, J.A.; Pizzuto, J.E.; Meade, R.H.

    1999-01-01

    The ontogeny of five flood-plain segments is described for a period of 18 yr following a major flood in 1978 on the Powder River in southeastern Montana. The flood plains developed on relatively elevated sand and gravel deposits left within the channel by the 1978 flood. In cross section, the flood plains resemble benches with well-developed natural levees. Flood-plain growth occurred as sediment was draped onto preexisting surfaces in layers of sand and mud a few centimeters to decimeters thick, resulting in some lateral, but mostly vertical accretion. Annual and biannual measurements indicated that, as the flood-plain segments grew upward, the annual rate of vertical accretion decreased as the partial duration recurrence interval for the threshold or bankfull discharge increased from 0.16 to 1.3 yr. It is clear that a constant recurrence interval for overbank flow cannot be meaningfully assigned to this type of flood-plain ontogeny. These flood plains did not grow on migrating point bars, and vertical accretion at least initially occurred within the channel, rather than across the valley flat during extensive overbank flows. Sediments of these flood plains define narrow, elongated stratigraphic units that border the active channel and onlap older flood-plain deposits. These characteristics are considerably different from those of many facies models for meandering river deposits. Facies similar to those described in this paper are likely to be preserved, thereby providing important evidence in the geologic record for episodes of periodic channel expansion by ancient rivers.

  16. Rocky Martian Plain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The rocky Martian plain surrounding Viking 2 is seen in high resolution in this 85-degree panorama sweeping from north at the left to east at right during the Martian afternoon on September 5. Large blocks litter the surface. Some are porous, sponge-like rocks like the one at the left edge (size estimate: 1 1/2 to 2 feet); others are dense and fine-grained, such as the very bright rounded block (1 to 1 1/2 feet across) toward lower right. Pebbled surface between the rocks is covered in places by small drifts of very fine material similar to drifts seen at the Viking 1 landing site some 4600 miles to the southwest. The fine-grained material is banked up behind some rocks, but wind tails seen by Viking 1 are not well-developed here. On the right horizon, flat-topped ridges or hills are illuminated by the afternoon sun. Slope of the horizon is due to the 8-degree tilt of the spacecraft.

  17. Eco-environmental quality evaluation of Huaibei Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, M.; Zhu, Y.; Lü, H.; Li, Y.; Zhou, X.; Chen, Y.

    2015-05-01

    In recent years, the destruction of the ecological environment in Huaibei Plain has limited the development of the economy. Doing research on eco-environment quality evaluation methods may be helpful to the recovery of the eco-environment in Huaibei Plain and the construction of ecological civilization. A new assessment system was introduced in this paper on the basis of a traditional eco-environmental evaluation method; the NPP index was used to replace biological abundance index and vegetation coverage index. This new method was used to evaluate the eco-environment quality of Huaibei Plain. Results indicate that: (a) the eco-environment of Huaibei Plain has been getting worse since 1990, but has improved since 2000; (b) the water-network density index is the key factor which affects the eco-environment of Huaibei Plain; (c) If human activities, pollution control, land degradation and urban area development are not taken into consideration, the eco-environment of Huaibei Plain in dry years will be serious.

  18. Deep Groundwater Property in the Kanto Plain, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marui, A.

    2001-12-01

    The Kanto Plain is Japan's largest plain, and is also that country's largest groundwater basin. Tokyo City is located in the central part of the plain, and the area was famous for the land subsidence in 20-30 years ago. The plain was enclosed by mountains in the northern and western side, and the groundwater is thought to be infiltrated in the mountain and though the plain. The basin is constituted by marine layers (over than 3000m thick) that contain fossil water, as well as, in some parts, natural gas and fossil seawater. Past research has led one to estimate that the groundwater was recharged by meteoric water in the deep part of the layers. In this study, groundwater taken from hot spring wells was analyzed in order to clarify the chemical characteristics, origin, and flow system of deep groundwater, and chemical analysis of major dissolved ion and isotopic composition of oxygen and hydrogen was carried out. As a result, deep groundwater in the Kanto Plain was divided into two types: one with low EC and Na-HCO3 water quality, and one with high EC and Na-Cl water quality. The isotopic composition leads one to estimate that the former was groundwater originated from meteoric water, and that the latter has been formed by the mixing of meteoric water and fossil seawater. In deeper parts, more than 1,000m in coastal areas, the Cl- concentration of groundwater was lower than that of seawater. This result suggests the existence of a deep groundwater flow system. The groundwater shallower than 400m is controlled by government regulations in the Kanto plain, especially around Tokyo, because of prevent the previous damages like land subsidence. The recent development of hot springs and leisure land, which use deeper groundwater, contribute the study of deep groundwater flow system.

  19. Exploring geothermal structures in the Ilan Plain, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Chen-Tung; Wang, Chien-Ying; Shih, Ruey-Chan

    2016-04-01

    The Ilan Plain in northeast Taiwan is located at the southwestern tip of the Okinawa Trough, which extends westward into the Taiwan orogeny. The Ilan Plain covered by thick sediments is clipped by the Hsuehshan Range in the northwest side and the Central Range in the south side. High geothermal gradients with plenteous hot springs of this area may result from magmatism associated with the back-arc spreading of the Okinawa Trough. In this study, we use geophysical methods to explore underground structures in the whole Ilan Plain, especially around the LangYang river and the SanShin area. We aim to find high geothermal potential spots in the plain area. The research is divided into three parts. First, we use the explosion source refraction with 119 Texan instruments, covering most of the Ilan Plain. Second, we use two mini-vibrators to investigate the area along the LangYang river by reflection seismics. Third, we explore a significant fault by refraction seismics and semi-reflection seismics with the impactor source. Combining large-scale and local scale seismic data, we find that in the Ilan Plain the shallow part is filled with Quaternary alluvial deposits. The basement is gradual thicker from the east to the center and then thin out to the west. In the deep part, there is a significant difference between the northern and southern sides of LangYang river. The northern is deposited with the Szeleng sandstone, dipping obliquely to the south. But, the southern side is separated into the Szeleng sandstone and the Kanko formation, dipping smooth to the north. This suggests that the fault which known as Zailian fault has an offset about 1 km just along the LangYang river and extends to the east along the river. The heat sources from magmatism under the offshore volcanic island (Kueishantao) migrate into the Ilan Plain which may provide heat to the Szeleng sandstone. The hydrothermal solutions migrate in the Szeleng sandstone and move up to the shallow along the Zailian

  20. Ball Games of Native American Women of the Plains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pesavento, Wilma J.

    The problem under investigation concerned (1) determining the ball games of Native American girls and women of the Great Plains, (2) determining the geographical spread of the games within the culture area, and (3) determining the characteristics of the various games. Data for this investigation were obtained from the 48 "Annual Reports of the…

  1. Wind Shear Characteristics at Central Plains Tall Towers (presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, M.; Elliott, D.

    2006-06-05

    The objectives of this report are: (1) Analyze wind shear characteristics at tall tower sites for diverse areas in the central plains (Texas to North Dakota)--Turbines hub heights are now 70-100 m above ground and Wind measurements at 70-100+ m have been rare. (2) Present conclusions about wind shear characteristics for prime wind energy development regions.

  2. Hiding in Plain Sight: The Sibling Connection in Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blessing, Deborah

    2007-01-01

    In this paper the author argues that sibling relationships are a missing piece of the eating disorder puzzle. She notes that disturbing relationships with siblings have been present all along in the literature, but have not been included as a separate area of study. They have thus been hiding in plain sight, present but not accounted for in our…

  3. Groundwater modeling of the Texas High Plains using MODFLOW

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to develop and calibrate a groundwater model for a four county area in the Texas High Plains of the Ogallala Aquifer Region. This study is a major component of a comprehensive regional analysis of groundwater depletion in the Ogallala Aquifer Region with the purpose o...

  4. Optimizing subsurface drip irrigation in the Texas High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the Texas High Plains (THP), irrigated agriculture accounts for half of the cultivated area and > 80% of crop production and gross incomes. This agriculture depends on water extracted from the Ogallala Aquifer, which is declining because withdrawals exceed natural recharge. This fact compromises ...

  5. Plain English Laws: Symbolic or Real?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timm, Paul R.; Oswald, Daniel

    1985-01-01

    Surveyed business communication educators and found widespread confusion about the existence and nature of Plain English laws. Concludes that legally compelling business to use plain language in consumer documents may be futile. (PD)

  6. The Plain Rapper. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Hampshire Educational Media Association, Concord.

    This is a guide to policies and procedures for instructional material selection and reconsideration for school media personnel. It includes the basic statements, interpretations, writings, and forms from national library and teacher organizations. A major section discusses legal precedents in the area of intellectual freedom, in addition to…

  7. Turonian (Eaglefordian) stratigraphy of the Atlantic Coastal Plain and Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentine, P. C.

    A stratigraphic analysis of 14 localities from new England to Georgia and of 1 well from the type area of the Eaglefordian Stage at Dallas, Tex., has resulted in a reevaluation of the ages of both formal and informal stratigraphic units previously established for the Atlantic and eastern Gulf Coastal Plains. Lower Turonian strata, once thought to be absent beneath the Atlantic Coastal Plain, are present. The study focused on a stratigraphic interval that is characterized by the presence of distinctive calcareous nannofossil and pollen floras. The Complesiopollis-atlantopollis pollen assemblage zone, widespread throughout the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains and previously dated as late Cenomanian, is now shown to be late Cenomanian-early Touronian on the Gulf Coast on the basis of its occurrence with calcareous nonfossils, planktic foraminifers, and mollusks of that age.

  8. Older Smooth Plains on Mercury Obscured by Impact Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, P. K.; Denevi, B. W.; Klimczak, C.; Prockter, L. M.; Solomon, S. C.; Whitten, J.; Head, J. W.

    2012-12-01

    On the basis of morphology and spectral reflectance, the surface of Mercury can be broadly divided into three major terrain types: low-reflectance material, intermediate terrain, and smooth plains. This last terrain type is distinguished morphologically by a comparatively smooth and gently rolling surface, has a lower density of impact craters and basins than other surface units on the planet, and typically occupies low-lying areas. Their smooth texture, embayment of other landforms, and distinctive partial to complete burial of older impact features suggests that most of these plains are probably volcanic in nature. Recent mapping work has shown that smooth plains younger than the end of the late heavy bombardment (LHB) occupy ~30% of Mercury's surface. An outstanding question concerns the distribution and nature of older plains units on the planet, especially those that underlie large impact features and may correspond morphologically to smooth plains but have not yet been mapped accordingly. A preliminary survey of such terrain yielded five exemplar sites: at the Amaral (26.5°S, 117.8°E; 101 km diameter), Mickiewicz (23.2°N, 256.7°E; 103 km), and Vivaldi (13.8°N, 274.1°E; 212 km) basins and at two unnamed features at 53.1°S, 38.6°E (83 km in diameter) and 7.1°N, 38.3°E (118 km). We expect that more thorough mapping will uncover additional candidate areas. In each of the example sites, an extensive continuous ejecta deposit and secondary impact field characterize the proximal and distal facies, respectively, of the impact feature; and in each case, the secondaries field (and impact-sculpted terrain in the case of Vivaldi) is superposed upon patches of plains that otherwise appear smooth and host numerous, flooded antecedent craters tens of kilometers in diameter. Moreover, these smooth patches occur at several ranges of azimuths surrounding each crater or basin, suggesting that they may have formed contiguous units prior to formation of the younger

  9. Ages of Lunar Light Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiesinger, Harald; Howes van der Bogert, Carolyn; Thiessen, Fiona; Robinson, Mark

    2013-04-01

    Light plains are characterized by their relative smoothness and lower crater densities (compared to the highlands), and their occurrence as crater fills. They also exhibit highland-like characteristics, such as high albedos (in comparison to mare basalts) and their geological and stratigraphic setting. Despite the long history of investigating light plains, there are still numerous open questions concerning their mode of emplacement, their mineralogical composition, their ages, and their origin. We dated 16 light plains with crater size-frequency distribution (CSFD) measurements. All dated regions were previously identified as light plains in the geologic maps [1-5] and either mapped as smooth light plains (Ip) or light plains with undulatory surfaces (INp). The studied light plains occur both inside and outside the South Pole-Aitken (SPA) basin within a latitudinal band between ~-36° and ~-75°. In particular, we investigated the following smooth light plains: Janssen (40.82°E, -44.96°; Ip [1]), Nishina (-170.8°E, -44.57°; Ip [2]), South of Nishina (Ip [2]), Obruchev (162.43°E, -38.67°; Ip [2]), Oresme (169.22°E, -42.61°, Ip [2]), Schrödinger (132.93°E, -74.73°; Ip [3]), Nearch (39.01°E, -58.58°; Ip [3]), Nasmyth (-56.39°E, -50.49°; Ip [3]), Manzinus (26.37°E, -67.51°; Ip [3]), Klaproth (-26.26°E, -69.85°; Ip [3]), Phocylides (-57.31°E, -52.79°, Ip [3]), Buffon (-133.53°E, -40.64°; Ip [4]), Roche (136.54°E, -42.37°; Ip [5]). We also dated the following light plains with undulatory surfaces: Koch (150.33°E, -42.13°; INp [2]), Garavito (156.78°E, -47.21°; INp [2]), Eötvös (134.43°E, -35.61°; INp [5]). Our CSFD measurements resulted in absolute model ages of 3.71 to 4.02 Ga for all investigated light plains, thus confirming the Imbrian and/or Nectarian ages of the geologic maps [1-5]. We only dated three INp light plains, but they appear to have ages that are close to the upper limit, i.e., 3.96-4.02 Ga. However, further CSFDs of INp

  10. 'Endurance' Goal Across the Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This mosaic image from the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's panoramic camera provides an overview of the rover's drive direction toward 'Endurance Crater,' which is in the upper right corner of image.

    The plains appear to be uniform in character from the rovers current position all the way to Endurance Crater. Granules of various sizes blanket the plains. Spherical granules fancifully called blueberries are present some intact and some broken. Larger granules pave the surface, while smaller grains, including broken blueberries, form small dunes. Randomly distributed 1-centimeter (0.4 inch) sized pebbles (as seen just left of center in the foreground of the image) make up a third type of feature on the plains. The pebbles' composition remains to be determined. Scientists plan to examine these in the coming sols.

    Examination of this part of Mars by NASA's Mars Global Surveyor orbiter revealed the presence of hematite, which led NASA to choose Meridiani Planum as Opportunity's landing site. The rover science conducted on the plains of Meridiani Planum serves to integrate what the rovers are seeing on the ground with what orbital data have shown.

    Opportunity will make stop at a small crater called 'Fram' (seen in the upper left, with relatively large rocks nearby) before heading to the rim of Endurance Crater.

  11. Plain Language Clear and Simple.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Literacy Secretariat, Ottawa (Ontario).

    Written for Canadian public servants and written with their help, this handbook presents principles and tips to make official writing clear, concise, and well organized. The handbook defines "plain language" writing as a technique of organizing information in ways that make sense to the reader--using familiar, straightforward words. The handbook…

  12. The Texas High Plains Evapotranspiration (TXHPET) network

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The newly developed Texas High Plains Evapotranspiration (TXHPET) network is comprised of the North Plains and South Plains evapotranspiration (ET) networks. The TXHPET network currently entails the operation of 18 meteorological stations located in 15 Texas counties and regional coverage is estima...

  13. 49 CFR 229.64 - Plain bearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Plain bearings. 229.64 Section 229.64 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION....64 Plain bearings. A plain bearing box shall contain visible free oil and may not be cracked to...

  14. 49 CFR 229.64 - Plain bearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Plain bearings. 229.64 Section 229.64 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION....64 Plain bearings. A plain bearing box shall contain visible free oil and may not be cracked to...

  15. 49 CFR 229.64 - Plain bearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Plain bearings. 229.64 Section 229.64 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION....64 Plain bearings. A plain bearing box shall contain visible free oil and may not be cracked to...

  16. 49 CFR 229.64 - Plain bearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Plain bearings. 229.64 Section 229.64 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION....64 Plain bearings. A plain bearing box shall contain visible free oil and may not be cracked to...

  17. 49 CFR 229.64 - Plain bearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Plain bearings. 229.64 Section 229.64 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION....64 Plain bearings. A plain bearing box shall contain visible free oil and may not be cracked to...

  18. Geologic map of the northern plains of Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Skinner, James A.; Hare, Trent M.

    2005-01-01

    The northern plains of Mars cover nearly a third of the planet and constitute the planet's broadest region of lowlands. Apparently formed early in Mars' history, the northern lowlands served as a repository both for sediments shed from the adjacent ancient highlands and for volcanic flows and deposits from sources within and near the lowlands. Geomorphic evidence for extensive tectonic deformation and reworking of surface materials through release of volatiles occurs throughout the northern plains. In the polar region, Planum Boreum contains evidence for the accumulation of ice and dust, and surrounding dune fields suggest widespread aeolian transport and erosion. The most recent regional- and global-scale maps describing the geology of the northern plains are largely based on Viking Orbiter image data (Dial, 1984; Witbeck and Underwood, 1984; Scott and Tanaka, 1986; Greeley and Guest, 1987; Tanaka and Scott, 1987; Tanaka and others, 1992a; Rotto and Tanaka, 1995; Crumpler and others, 2001; McGill, 2002). These maps reveal highland, plains, volcanic, and polar units based on morphologic character, albedo, and relative ages using local stratigraphic relations and crater counts. This geologic map of the northern plains is the first published map that covers a significant part of Mars using topography and image data from both the Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Odyssey missions. The new data provide a fresh perspective on the geology of the region that reveals many previously unrecognizable units, features, and temporal relations. In addition, we adapted and instituted terrestrial mapping methods and stratigraphic conventions that we think result in a clearer and more objective map. We focus on mapping with the intent of reconstructing the history of geologic activity within the northern plains, including deposition, volcanism, erosion, tectonism, impact cratering, and other processes with the aid of comprehensive crater-density determinations. Mapped areas include all

  19. An aerodynamic temperature-based regional ET model evaluation for Texas High Plains agrometeorological conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High groundwater pumping costs and rapidly declining water levels in the Texas High Plains makes it imperative to improve irrigation water management for sustainability and economic viability. In this area, agriculture uses approximately 90% of groundwater withdrawals. Accurate regional evapotrans...

  20. Northern Plains Textures Visible Near the Terminator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Each day, Mars Global Surveyor makes 12 orbits around the red planet. On each orbit at the present time (April 1999), the spacecraft passes from daylight into night somewhere over the northern plains of Mars, and re-emerges into daylight over the southern cratered highlands. The illumination conditions near the martian terminator--the line between night and day--are perfect for observing surface texture and topography. This picture shows a common, rough and bumpy texture that MOC has revealed on the northern plains of Mars. Note the eroded impact crater at the bottom right--small black dots along its rim are interpreted to be boulders. This image covers an area 3 kilometers (1.9 miles) wide by 8 kilometers (5 miles) long and is illuminated by the sun shining low from the northeastern horizon (from the upper right).

    Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  1. Origin and relative age of lunar and Mercurian intercrater plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strom, R. G.

    1977-01-01

    Differences in the diameter/density distribution of craters in the size range 7-100 km between heavily cratered areas and areas of intercrater plains indicate the deposition of both lunar and Mercurian intercrater plains has preferentially obliterated craters not greater than about 30 km diameter. This obliteration has altered the original lunar population distribution function from about a -1.3 slope to about -0.7 slope. At least a significant portion of both the lunar and Mercurian intercrater plains appear to be volcanic deposits emplaced during the later stages of heavy bombardment on each body rather than basin ejecta or an ancient primordial surface. The very widespread distribution of intercrater plains on Mercury compared to the moon may be related to Mercury's core formation which would have resulted in a large radius increase leading to widespread extensional fracturing to provide egress for the eruption of volcanic deposits on a global scale. This was followed by a radius decrease due to contraction of the lithosphere to produce thrust faulting represented by Mercury's lobate scarps.

  2. Creep of plain weave polymer matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Abhishek

    Polymer matrix composites are increasingly used in various industrial sectors to reduce structural weight and improve performance. Woven (also known as textile) composites are one class of polymer matrix composites with increasing market share mostly due to their lightweight, their flexibility to form into desired shape, their mechanical properties and toughness. Due to the viscoelasticity of the polymer matrix, time-dependent degradation in modulus (creep) and strength (creep rupture) are two of the major mechanical properties required by engineers to design a structure reliably when using these materials. Unfortunately, creep and creep rupture of woven composites have received little attention by the research community and thus, there is a dire need to generate additional knowledge and prediction models, given the increasing market share of woven composites in load bearing structural applications. Currently, available creep models are limited in scope and have not been validated for any loading orientation and time period beyond the experimental time window. In this thesis, an analytical creep model, namely the Modified Equivalent Laminate Model (MELM), was developed to predict tensile creep of plain weave composites for any orientation of the load with respect to the orientation of the fill and warp fibers, using creep of unidirectional composites. The ability of the model to predict creep for any orientation of the load is a "first" in this area. The model was validated using an extensive experimental involving the tensile creep of plain weave composites under varying loading orientation and service conditions. Plain weave epoxy (F263)/ carbon fiber (T300) composite, currently used in aerospace applications, was procured as fabrics from Hexcel Corporation. Creep tests were conducted under two loading conditions: on-axis loading (0°) and off-axis loading (45°). Constant load creep, in the temperature range of 80-240°C and stress range of 1-70% UTS of the

  3. Comparative studies of lunar, Martian, and Mercurian craters and plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oberbeck, V. R.; Arvidson, R. E.; Aggarwal, H. R.

    1975-01-01

    The spatial distribution of lunar smooth plains is not consistent with experimental simulations of melt rock emplacement during cratering in layered materials. Nor is it consistent with the location of melt rocks (suevite) near the Ries basin. Lunar smooth plains surrounding Imbrium are most extensive in areas where pre-existing craters are most degraded. This observation suggests that plains form by impact of basin and local primary crater ejecta, together with deposition of debris excavated by the resultant secondary cratering events. Craters within the belt of smooth plains surrounding the Caloris basin on Mercury are most degraded nearest the basin; this suggests that Mercurian smooth plains must, at least in part, be emplaced in a manner similar to plains surrounding the Imbrium basin. Mercurian uplands have a primary crater population deficient in small crater diameters (less than approximately 30 km). Lunar uplands far from major basins also have a crater population deficient in small crater sizes. Martian cratered terrain exhibits a similar crater deficiency, which was previously interpreted as due to obliteration of small craters (less than approximately 30 km) by some surface process. A crater size distribution deficient in small sizes (less than approximately 30 km) on the Mercurian, lunar, and Martian uplands has implications for the origin of debris bombarding the inner solar system during the period recorded by these surfaces. It is proposed that during late heavy bombardment, the inner solar system was inundated with bodies that broke up under tidal fission as they approached the planets. Such a mechanism would lend to production of a crater population deficient in small crater sizes, and it would also explain the large degree of spatial clustering of primary craters on Mercury, the moon, and Mars.

  4. Southern Great Plains Safety Orientation

    SciTech Connect

    Schatz, John

    2014-05-01

    Welcome to the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) site is managed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). It is very important that all visitors comply with all DOE and ANL safety requirements, as well as those of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), the National Fire Protection Association, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and with other requirements as applicable.

  5. Groundwater recharge at five representative sites in the Hebei Plain, China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiaohui; Jin, Menggui; van Genuchten, Martinus Th; Wang, Bingguo

    2011-01-01

    Accurate estimates of groundwater recharge are essential for effective management of groundwater, especially when supplies are limited such as in many arid and semiarid areas. In the Hebei Plain, China, water shortage is increasingly restricting socioeconomic development, especially for agriculture, which heavily relies on groundwater. Human activities have greatly changed groundwater recharge there during the past several decades. To obtain better estimates of recharge in the plain, five representative sites were selected to investigate the effects of irrigation and water table depth on groundwater recharge. At each site, a one-dimensional unsaturated flow model (Hydrus-1D) was calibrated using field data of climate, soil moisture, and groundwater levels. A sensitivity analysis of evapotranspirative fluxes and various soil hydraulic parameters confirmed that fine-textured surface soils generally generate less recharge. Model calculations showed that recharge on average is about 175 mm/year in the piedmont plain to the west, and 133 mm/year in both the central alluvial and lacustrine plains and the coastal plain to the east. Temporal and spatial variations in the recharge processes were significant in response to rainfall and irrigation. Peak time-lags between infiltration (rainfall plus irrigation) and recharge were 18 to 35 days in the piedmont plain and 3 to 5 days in the central alluvial and lacustrine plains, but only 1 or 2 days in the coastal plain. This implies that different time-lags corresponding to different water table depths must be considered when estimating or modeling groundwater recharge. PMID:20100294

  6. Applicability of 1994-1995 USRADS{reg_sign} surveys of Bear Creek Valley flood plain and Operable Unit 1 to the radiological characterization of Y-12 grassy/wooded areas

    SciTech Connect

    Bogard, J.S.; Hamm, R.N.; Brown, K.S.

    1997-03-01

    This document, provided in support of the Y-12 Site Radiological Characterization Study, analyzes the utility of data from two reports by Chemrad Tennessee Corporation in identifying radiological contamination in excess of contamination control guidelines at the surface of soils in the Bear Creek Valley Flood Plain (BCVFP) and in Y-12 Operable Unit 1 (OU1). The Chemrad reports were developed under subcontract to Science Applications International Corporation for their remedial investigation of these sites for Martin Marietta Energy Systems Environmental Restoration Division. Surveys were performed by Chemrad using the UltraSonic Ranging and Data System (USRADS{reg_sign}), which utilizes ultrasonic triangulation to determine the location of a survey technician at the same time that radiological monitoring data are telemetered from his instruments to a remote receiving station. Floor monitor and Geiger-Mueller pancake meter results from the USRADS{reg_sign} surveys are shown to be sufficiently precise to reliably detect contamination in excess of the limiting radioactivity value of 1,000 dpm/100 cm{sup 2} for removable uranium contamination specified in 10 CFR 835 Appendix D. MicroRem meter survey results, also included as part of the USRADS{reg_sign} surveys, indicate that the derived limiting value of 56.8 {mu}rem/h for penetrating dose at 1 m (corresponding to 100 mrem/{gamma}) was not exceeded. However, both the pancake meter and floor monitor results suggest that surface contamination exceeding 1,000 dpm/100 cm{sup 2} is not uncommon. Sites in OU1 and BCVFP were visited, and independent surveys made with hand-held instruments, to confirm conclusions about the USRADS{close_quote} survey results and to verify that these results are from contamination uniformly distributed on the soil surface, and not from discrete sources which are not likely transferred to shoes, vehicles, or clothing.

  7. Arctic Refuge coastal plain terrestrial wildlife research summaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Douglas, David C.; Reynolds, Patricia E.; Rhode, E.B.

    2002-01-01

    In 1980, when the U.S. Congress enacted the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act (ANILCA), it also mandated a study of the coastal plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. Section 1002 of ANILCA stated that a comprehensive inventory of fish and wildlife resources would be conducted on 1.5 million acres of the Arctic Refuge coastal plain (1002 Area). Potential petroleum reserves in the 1002 Area were also to be evaluated from surface geological studies and seismic exploration surveys. Results of these studies and recommendations for future management of the Arctic Refuge coastal plain were to be prepared in a report to Congress. In 1987, the Department of the Interior published the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska, Coastal Plain Resource Assessment - Report and Recommendations to the Congress of the United States and Final Environmental Impact Statement. This report to Congress identified the potential for oil and gas production (updated* most recently by the U.S. Geological Survey in 2001), described the biological resources, and evaluated the potential adverse effects to fish and wildlife resources. The 1987 report analyzed the potential environmental consequences of five management alternatives for the coastal plain, ranging from wilderness designation to opening the entire area to lease for oil and gas developement. The report's summary recommended opening the 1002 Area to an orderly oil and gas leasing program, but cautioned that adverse effects to some wildlife populations were possible. Congress did not act on this recommendation nor any other alternative for the 1002 Area, and scientists continued studies of key wildlife species and habitats on the coastal plain of the Arctic Refuge and surrounding areas. This report contains updated summaries of those scientific investigations of caribou, muskoxen, predators (grizzly bears, wolves, golden eagles), polar bears, snow geese, and their wildlife habitats. Contributions to this report were

  8. Ages of plains volcanism on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauber, Ernst; Jagert, Felix; Broz, Petr

    2010-05-01

    Plain-style volcanism [1] is widespread in the Tharsis and Elysium volcanic provinces on Mars, [2,3]. Detailed images and topographic data reveal the morphology and topography of clusters of low shields and associated lava flows. The landforms of plains volcanism on Mars have all well-known terrestrial analogues in basaltic volcanic regions, such as Hawaii, Iceland, and in particular the Snake River Plains [4]. The very gentle flank slopes (<1°) indicate low-viscosity lavas [4-6], and topographic investigations hint at emplacement times for the low shields in the order of a few hundred to a few thousand years [7]. Emplacement itself was characterized by complex interactions between ascending magma bodies and tectonic structures of various ages [8]. Despite these recent studies, the chronology of plains volcanism was only poorly constrained, with a few exceptions of regionally limited studies [e.g., 6]. Here we report on our absolute age determinations of plains volcanism on Mars, as derived from cratering models [9,10] and crater counts that were performed with the software tools CraterTools (crater counting; see [11]) and Craterstats (analysis of crater statistics; see [12]), both developed at FU Berlin. We used images of the Context Camera Investigation (CTX) on Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter [13], which are ideally suited for this purpose due to their good contrast, high resolution (5-6 m/pixel), and wide coverage (swath width ~30 km). Representative surface areas for age determination were mapped on image maps, and several low shields in each shield cluster were dated by crater counts. The goal was to derive absolute ages for a given shield, but also to determine whether the shields within one shield cluster formed at roughly the same time or over a prolonged period. The second question was whether or not the clusters have comparable ages. The results are essential to determine the history of late-stage volcanism in Tharsis and, therefore, help to put constraints

  9. River diversions, avulsions and captures in the Tortuguero coastal plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galve, Jorge Pedro; Alvarado, Guillermo; Pérez Peña, José Vicente; Azañón, José Miguel; Mora, Mauricio; Booth-Rea, Guillermo

    2016-04-01

    The Tortuguero area is a coastal plain that forms part of the North Limón sedimentary basin, the back-arc region of the Caribbean side of Costa Rica. This coastal plain is characterised by an abnormal drainage pattern with river captures, diversions and shifts in channel directions. We are analyzing this anomalous drainage network adopting a classical geomorphological approach combined with geomorphometric techniques. The SRTM DEM at 1 arc-second of resolution (~30 m) from NASA, topographic maps 1:50,000, satellital images and the digital cartography of the drainage network have been used for inventorying the channel pattern anomalies. River segments were categorized according to sinuosity, orientation, slope changes and incision using GIS tools. Initially, anomalies in the analyzed river courses suggested that buried thrust fronts could disrupt their natural pattern. However, we have not identified any evidence to link the activity of buried structures with the disruption of natural drainage. Blind thrusts detected through seismic subsurface exploration in the SE sector of the Tortuguero plain do not seem to produce changes in the sinuosity, orientation, slope and incision of rivers as those observed in the deeply studied tectonically active area of the Po Plain (Italy). The identified river pattern anomalies have been explained due to other alternative causes: (1) the migration of the mouths of Reventazón, Pacuare and Matina rivers is produced by sand sedimentation in the coast because of a successive ridge beach formation. This migration to the SE has the same direction than the main ocean currents those deposited the sand. (2) The anomalous course of Parismina river is most probably conditioned by the fracturation of the dissected volcanic apron of Turrialba volcano. (3) Channel migration and capture of Barbilla river by Matina river can be triggered by the tectonic tilting of the coastal plain towards the SE. The subsidence of the SE sector of the plain was

  10. Vulnerability of recently recharged ground water in the High Plains aquifer to nitrate contamination

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gurdak, Jason J.; Qi, Sharon L.

    2006-01-01

    Nitrate concentrations greater than background levels have been detected in ground water of the High Plains aquifer. Empirically based models and corresponding maps were developed that predict the vulnerability of the aquifer to nonpoint-source nitrate contamination. The models predict the probability of detecting nitrate concentrations larger than 4 milligrams per liter in ground water of the High Plains aquifer that was recharged during the last 50 years. The models were calibrated by correlating concentrations of nitrate in ground water from 336 wells that intercept recently recharged (less than 50 years) water with anthropogenic and hydrogeologic explanatory variables. Particle-tracking simulations delineated well-contributing areas and determined well-screen depths that intercept recently recharged ground water. The models were developed using multivariate logistic regression, and a map was generated from these models using a geographic information system. Two multivariate logistic regression models of vulnerability were found to have the most statistical significance and the best model fit and predictive ability. The two models represent the Northern High Plains and the combined Central and Southern High Plains, and they indicate that ground-water vulnerability of the entire High Plains aquifer is best explained by the spatial distribution of nonirrigated and irrigated agricultural lands, organic matter of the soil, depth to the regional water table, and clay content of the unsaturated zone. Vulnerability of the Northern High Plains is greater in areas that have more nonirrigated and irrigated agricultural lands and less organic matter in the soil. The vulnerability of the Central and Southern High Plains also is greater in areas that have more nonirrigated and irrigated agricultural lands and also in areas with shallow depths to water table and less clay in the unsaturated zone. The majority (53.3 percent) of the High Plains aquifer has less than a 40

  11. 77 FR 75649 - Establishment of Interim Final Supplementary Rules for Public Lands Managed by the Carrizo Plain...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-21

    ... established supplementary rules for the Natural Area at 62 FR 54126 (Oct. 17, 1997). The RMP/ROD for the... the Carrizo Plain National Monument in Kern and San Luis Obispo Counties, CA AGENCY: Bureau of Land... Register and will apply to public lands within the Carrizo Plain National Monument in Kern and San...

  12. 78 FR 17653 - Upper Great Plains Wind Energy Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (DOE/EIS-0408)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-22

    ... Wind Energy Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (DOE/EIS-0408) AGENCIES: Western Area... Service (Service), have, as joint lead agencies, prepared the Upper Great Plains Wind Energy Draft... wind energy development within Western's Upper Great Plains Customer Service Region (UGP Region),...

  13. The High Plains Aquifer, USA: Groundwater development and sustainability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dennehy, K.F.; Litke, D.W.; McMahon, P.B.

    2002-01-01

    The High Plains Aquifer, located in the United States, is one of the largest freshwater aquifers in the world and is threatened by continued decline in water levels and deteriorating water quality. Understanding the physical and cultural features of this area is essential to assessing the factors that affect this groundwater resource. About 27% of the irrigated land in the United States overlies this aquifer, which yields about 30% of the nation's groundwater used for irrigation of crops including wheat, corn, sorghum, cotton and alfalfa. In addition, the aquifer provides drinking water to 82% of the 2.3 million people who live within the aquifer boundary. The High Plains Aquifer has been significantly impacted by human activities. Groundwater withdrawals from the aquifer exceed recharge in many areas, resulting in substantial declines in groundwater level. Residents once believed that the aquifer was an unlimited resource of high-quality water, but they now face the prospect that much of the water may be gone in the near future. Also, agricultural chemicals are affecting the groundwater quality. Increasing concentrations of nitrate and salinity can first impair the use of the water for public supply and then affect its suitability for irrigation. A variety of technical and institutional measures are currently being planned and implemented across the aquifer area in an attempt to sustain this groundwater resource for future generations. However, because groundwater withdrawals remain high and water quality impairments are becoming more commonplace, the sustainability of the High Plains Aquifer is uncertain.

  14. Formation mechanism of land subsidence in the North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Haipeng; Cheng, Guoming

    2014-05-01

    Land subsidence is a progressive and gradual geological disaster, whose development is irreversible. Due to rapid development of industrialization and urbanization, land subsidence occurs commonly in the North China Plain, and has become the main environmental factor impacting sustainable economic and social development. This study presents a brief review on the current situation of land subsidence in the North China Plain. Then the hydrologic, hydrogeologic and anthropogenic conditions favorable for the formation of land subsidence are analyzed, indicating that the formation of land subsidence is mainly determined by local geological condition and enabling conditions, e.g. long-term excessive exploitation of groundwater and engineering construction. A correlation analysis was conducted in both the North China Plain and Cangzhou region, a typical area where severe land subsidence occurs, of the quantitative relationship between deep groundwater yield and the land subsidence. The analysis results indicate that the land subsidence volume accounts for 40% to 44% of deep water yield in the North China Plain, indirectly showing the proportion of released water from compressibility of the aquifer and the aquitard in deep groundwater yield. In Cangzhou region, this proportion was calculated as 58%, far greater than that of the North China Plain. This is induced by the local lithologic structure and recharge condition of deep groundwater in Cangzhou region. The analysis of soil samples in Cangzhou region shows that strong relations exist among different physical parameters, and good change laws of compression with depth and pressure are found for soil samples. The hydraulic conductivities of clay are six orders of magnitude greater than those of the aquifer, implying the strong hypothesis of land subsidence. This analysis provides data and scientific basis for further study on formation mechanism of land subsidence in Cangzhou region and objective evaluation of its

  15. Simulation of changes in water levels and ground-water flow in response to water-use alternatives in the Mud Lake area, eastern Snake River plain, eastern Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spinazola, Joseph M.

    1993-01-01

    Water users rely on surface and ground water to irrigate crops and maintain wildlife refuges in the 2,200-square-mile Mud Lake study area. Water managers need the ability to evaluate the effects of water-use changes on the future supply of surface and ground water. A five-layer, three-dimensional, finite-difference, numerical ground-water flow model, calibrated to assumed 1980 steady-state hydrologic conditions, was used to evaluate potential effects of seven water-use alternatives on ground-water levels and on losses from and gains to streams and lakes. The model was used to simulate steady-state water levels and ground-water flow for average 1980-90 hydrologic conditions and for seven water-use alternatives that represented changes from average 1980-90 conditions. Five alternatives represented reduced withdrawals from five different sets of wells, the sixth represented increased withdrawals in areas that could potentially support additional irrigation development, and the seventh represented reduced recharge in part of the study area where change from subirrigation to sprinkler irrigation is taking place. Simulated results from each alternative were compared with results for average 1980-90 conditions. Among the five water-use alternatives in which withdrawals from wells were reduced, simulated water levels were 0.1 to 40 feet higher than average 1980-90 conditions. Simulated stream and lake losses were as much as 4,700 acre-feet less and simulated gains were as much as 19,000 acre-feet greater in response to simulated water-level rises. Simulated underflow into the study area was as much as 8,200 acre-feet less and simulated underflow out of the study area was as much as 91,000 acre-feet greater. Simulated water-level declines were as great as 15 feet for the sixth alternative (increased withdrawals) and 10 feet for the seventh (reduced recharge). Simulated stream and lake losses were as much as 5,700 acre-feet greater and simulated gains were as much as 37

  16. Basins and Sedimentation Within the Martian Northern Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, K. L.; MacKinnon, D. J.

    1999-03-01

    MOLA data show that six basins and sedimentary plains make up the northern plains of Mars. Four types of plains units are deposited in them, in the following stratigraphic order: marginal, level-top, basin-floor, and downslope units.

  17. Life on the Great Plains. [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    In this four-part lesson, students examine the concept of geographic region by exploring the history of the United States Great Plains. In Part I, students gather information about the location and environment of the Great Plains in order to produce a map outlining the region in formal terms. In Part II, students examine how the region has been…

  18. Implementing Plain Language: A Manager's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Dept. of Education, Toronto.

    Drawn from the experience of various ministries and departments in governments across Canada, this guide is meant to be a practical guide in implementing plain language for managers in the Ontario (Canada) government. The guide describes how to use plain language in planning, writing, designing, and editing forms and documents, and how to set up…

  19. PLAINS CO2 REDUCTION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect

    Edward N. Steadman; John A. Harju; Erin M. O'Leary; James A. Sorensen; Daniel J. Daly; Melanie D. Jensen; Thea E. Reikoff

    2005-01-01

    The Plains CO{sub 2} Reduction (PCOR) Partnership continues to make great progress. Task 2 (Technology Deployment) focused on developing information regarding deployment issues to support Task 5 (Modeling and Phase II Action Plans) by providing information to be used to assess CO{sub 2} sequestration opportunities in the PCOR Partnership region. Task 3 (Public Outreach) focused on developing an informational video about CO{sub 2} sequestration. Progress in Task 4 (Sources, Sinks, and Infrastructure) included the continued collection of data regarding CO{sub 2} sources and sinks and data on the performance and costs for CO{sub 2} separation, capture, treatment, and compression for pipeline transportation. Task 5 focused on screening and qualitatively assessing sequestration options. Task 5 activities also continue to be useful in structuring data collection and other activities in Tasks 2, 3, and 5.

  20. PLAINS CO2 REDUCTION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect

    Edward N. Steadman; John A. Harju; Erin M. O'Leary; James A. Sorensen; Daniel J. Daly; Melanie D. Jensen; Thea E. Reikoff

    2004-10-01

    The Plains CO{sub 2} Reduction (PCOR) Partnership continues to make great progress. Task 2 (Technology Deployment) focused on developing information regarding deployment issues to support Task 5 (Modeling and Phase II Action Plans) by providing information to be used to assess CO{sub 2} sequestration opportunities in the PCOR Partnership region. Task 3 (Public Outreach) focused on developing an informational video about CO{sub 2} sequestration. Progress in Task 4 (Sources, Sinks, and Infrastructure) included the continued collection of data regarding CO{sub 2} sources and sinks and data on the performance and costs for CO{sub 2} separation, capture, treatment, and compression for pipeline transportation. Task 5 focused on screening and qualitatively assessing sequestration options. Task 5 activities also continue to be useful in structuring data collection and other activities in Tasks 2, 3, and 5.

  1. PLAINS CO2 REDUCTION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect

    Edward N. Steadman

    2004-07-01

    The Plains Co{sub 2} Reduction (PCOR) Partnership continues to make great progress. Task 2 (Technology Deployment) activities have focused on developing information on deployment issues to support Task 5 activities by providing information to be used to assess CO{sub 2} sequestration opportunities in the PCOR Partnership region. Task 3 (Public Outreach) activities have focused on developing an informational video about CO{sub 2} sequestration. Progress in Task 4 (Sources, Sinks, and Infrastructure) has included the continued collection of data regarding CO{sub 2} sources and sinks and data on the performance and costs for CO{sub 2} separation, capture, treatment, and compression for pipeline transportation. Task 5 (Modeling and Phase II Action Plans) activities have focused on screening and qualitatively assessing sequestration options. Task 5 activities also continue to be useful in structuring data collection and other activities in Tasks 2, 3, and 5.

  2. Identification of thick sedimentary plains north of Hellas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salese, Francesco; Mangold, Nicolas; Ansan, Veronique; Carter, John; Ody, Anouck; Poulet, François; Ori, Gian Gabriele

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the origin and timing of intercrater plains is crucial to understand the Martian history in relation with endogenic and/or exogenic cycles. Intercrater plains north of Hellas basin on Mars are thought to have hosted different sedimentary environments during the Late Noachian/Early Hesperian, and they offer a well-preserved insight into the regional geological history of Mars. Our new geologic mapping of the intercrater plains north of Hellas Basin is based on the rich data set from MRO and Mars Express and provides new insights into the region's geological history. These findings appear to constrain the interpretation of the nature and age of intercrater plains in this region, although we acknowledge that for example the source of the sedimentary deposits must be subject to further analysis. The northern part of Hellas basin displays topographically flat area, which was characterized during the Late Noachian by sedimentary deposition and later, in the Late Hesperian, by fissural volcanism. The map and crater retention ages enable us to interpret the geologic history of the region. The stratigraphically lower unit is represented by crustal outcrops. Across most of the region, the sedimentary unit covers the basement and is eroded into mesas, erosional windows and perched by fresh craters. Intercrater plains' sedimentary deposits north of Hellas display horizontal light-toned layered rich in Fe/Mg-phyllosilicates and local crossbedding stratification. The Noachian sedimentary deposits of the intercrater plains north of Hellas are locally covered by Hesperian lava flows, showing that intercrater plains are sedimentary and volcanic in origin. We found different erosional (regional and local) surfaces, at HiRISE scale inside sediments due to local erosional windows and at CTX scale we found two important regional erosional surfaces. The oldest between crustal outcrops and sediments, which is likely Middle Noachian in age and the youngest between sediments

  3. Geophysical monitoring and evaluation of coastal plain aquifers.

    PubMed

    Land, Lewis A; Lautier, Jeff C; Wilson, Nathaniel C; Chianese, Gabrielle; Webb, Steven

    2004-01-01

    We use time domain electromagnetic (TDEM) soundings to monitor ground water conditions beneath the coastal plain in eastern North Carolina. The TDEM method measures the earth's response to an induced electromagnetic field. The resulting signal is converted, through a complex inversion process, to apparent resistivity values, which can be directly correlated to borehole resistivity logs. TDEM soundings are used to map the interface between fresh and salt water within coastal aquifers, and estimate depth to basement when siting new monitoring wells. Focused TDEM surveys have identified areas of salt water encroachment caused by high volumes of discharge from local supply wells. Electromagnetic sounding, when used in tandem with the state's network of monitoring wells, is an accurate and inexpensive tool for evaluating fresh water/salt water relationships on both local and regional scales within coastal plain aquifers. PMID:14763617

  4. Major Air Pollutants Over the Western Plain in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, S. C.; Chang, J. S.

    2004-12-01

    The Western Plain of Taiwan where more than two thirds of Taiwan¡¦s 23 million population reside is practically a megacity. Oxidants and particulate matter at levels hazardous to human health are found throughout the Western Plain. In addition, deposition of large amounts of sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium ions has severely stressed the ecosystem. While emission controls have effectively brought down the concentrations of particulate matter in the last decade, ozone concentrations have increased significantly. The cause(s) of the ozone increase is not fully understood. Data taken by Taiwan EPA air quality stations suggest that smaller titration by nitrogen oxide in recent years is a contributor to the ozone increase in urban areas. There is some indication that an increase in synoptic scale background ozone concentration is also a contributor, implying a significant role of long-range transport.

  5. Wrinkle ridges, stress domains, and kinematics of venusian plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgill, George E.

    1993-01-01

    Wrinkle ridges are nearly ubiquitous landforms on the plains of Venus. By analogy with similar structures on other planets, venusian wrinkle ridges are inferred to trend normal to the direction of maximum principal compression in the crust, an inference that is verified by geometrical relationships with positive and negative relief features on Venus. Because plains are the dominant terrain on Venus, wrinkle ridges provide an excellent opportunity to determine the orientations of shallow crustal principal stress trajectories over most of the planet. In most places there are two or more sets of wrinkle ridges, and commonly one of these persists over a large area, defining a regional stress domain. Intersection relationships indicate that these domains differ in age.

  6. Europa’s ridged plains and smooth low albedo plains: Distinctive compositions and compositional gradients at the leading side-trailing side boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirley, James H.; Dalton, James B.; Prockter, Louise M.; Kamp, Lucas W.

    2010-11-01

    This investigation uses linear mixture modeling employing cryogenic laboratory reference spectra to estimate surface compositions and water ice grain sizes of Europa's ridged plains and smooth low albedo plains. Near-infrared spectra for 23 exposures of ridged plains materials are analyzed along with 11 spectra representing low albedo plains. Modeling indicates that these geologic units differ both in the relative abundance of non-ice hydrated species and in the abundance and grain sizes of water ice. The background ridged plains in our study area appear to consist predominantly of water ice (˜46%) with approximately equal amounts (on average) of hydrated sulfuric acid (˜27%) and hydrated salts (˜27%). The solutions for the smooth low albedo plains are dominated by hydrated salts (˜62%), with a relatively low mean abundance of water ice (˜10%), and an abundance of hydrated sulfuric acid similar to that found in ridged plains (˜27%). The model yields larger water ice grain sizes (100 μm versus 50-75 μm) in the ridged plains. The 1.5-μm water ice absorption band minimum is found at shorter wavelengths in the low albedo plains deposits than in the ridged plains (1.498 ± .003 μm versus 1.504 ± .001 μm). The 2.0-μm band minimum in the low albedo plains exhibits a somewhat larger blueshift (1.964 ± .006 μm versus 1.983 ± .006 μm for the ridged plains). The study area spans longitudes from 168° to 185°W, which includes Europa's leading side-trailing side boundary. A well-defined spatial gradient of sulfuric acid hydrate abundance is found for both geologic units, with concentrations increasing in the direction of the trailing side apex. We associate this distribution with the exogenic effects of magnetospheric charged particle bombardment and associated chemical processing of surface materials (the radiolytic sulfur cycle). However, one family of low albedo plains exposures exhibits sulfuric acid hydrate abundances up to 33% lower than found for

  7. Changes in Water Levels and Storage in the High Plains Aquifer, Predevelopment to 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGuire, V.L.

    2009-01-01

    The High Plains aquifer underlies 111.6 million acres (174,000 square miles) in parts of eight States - Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. The area overlying the High Plains aquifer is one of the primary agricultural regions in the Nation. Water-level declines began in parts of the High Plains aquifer soon after the beginning of substantial irrigation with ground water in the aquifer area. By 1980, water levels in the High Plains aquifer in parts of Texas, Oklahoma, and southwestern Kansas had declined more than 100 feet (Luckey and others, 1981). In response to these water-level declines, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with numerous Federal, State, and local water-resources agencies, began monitoring more than 7,000 wells in 1988 to assess annual water-level changes in the aquifer. This fact sheet summarizes changes in water levels and drainable water in storage in the High Plains aquifer from predevelopment (before about 1950) to 2007 and serves as a companion product to a USGS report that presents more detailed and technical information about water-level and storage changes in the High Plains aquifer during this period (McGuire, 2009).

  8. Dynamical connection between Great Plains low-level winds and variability of central Gulf States precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Bing; Dickinson, Robert E.; Fu, Rong

    2016-04-01

    The Great Plains low-level jet has been related to summer precipitation over the northern Great Plains and Midwest through its moisture transport and convergence at the jet exit area. Much less studied has been its negative relationship with precipitation over the southern Great Plains and the Gulf coastal area. This work shows that the southerly low-level winds at 30°-40°N over the southern Great Plains are significantly correlated with anticyclonic vorticity to its east over the central Gulf States (30°-35°N, 85°-95°W) from May to July. When the low-level jet is strong in June and July, anomalous anticyclonic vorticity over the central Gulf States leads to divergence and consequent subsidence suppressing precipitation over that region. In contrast, an enhanced southerly flow at the entrance region of the jet over the Gulf of Mexico, largely uncorrelated with the meridional wind over the southern Great Plains, is correlated with increased precipitation over the central Gulf States. Precipitation is large over the central Gulf States when the meridional wind over the southern Great Plains is weakest and over the Gulf of Mexico is strongest. This increase is consistent with the increased moisture transport and dynamic balance between loss of vorticity by advection and friction and gain by convergence.

  9. Fractures/Pits in Northern Plains (Utopia Plains: 44.9 N, 274.7 W)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Although northern plains are often called 'flat' or 'featureless' by people who study altimetry data, clearly this isn't true. This area has an indurated (strong or cemented) crust that has been subjected to directional stress (that's why the beaded-pitted fractures are almost all aligned the same direction) and that has been undermined (hence the pitting at both the small scale--the beaded fractures--and the large scale--the large irregular depressions.

    Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  10. Impact of Irrigated Agroecosystems on Groundwater Resources in the US High Plains and North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scanlon, B. R.; Longuevergne, L.; Cao, G.; Shen, Y.; Gates, J. B.; Reedy, R. W.; Zheng, C.

    2010-12-01

    Overabstraction of groundwater for irrigation in semiarid regions is depleting the worlds’ largest aquifers at much greater rates than these aquifers are being replenished by recharge. This study evaluates groundwater sustainability in the US High Plains (US HP) and North China Plain (NCP) where intensive irrigation has resulted in large water table declines. A variety of approaches were used to evaluate impacts of irrigation on groundwater resources, including GRACE satellite data, unsaturated zone profiling, and groundwater quantity and quality data. Cultivation (40% of area) and irrigation (12%) are less intensive in the US HP than in the NCP (80% cultivated, 50% irrigated). Irrigation is estimated to consume ~97% of groundwater resources in the US HP and ~70% in the NCP. Although only ~10% of groundwater resources has been consumed in the US HP (330 km3 out of 3,900 km3), the problem lies in the uneven spatial distribution. Groundwater depletion is greatest in the Central High Plains (CHP) where water table declines of up to 1.5 m/yr have been recorded in individual wells and regional declines of up to 30 m have been found over a 7,000 km2 area since irrigation began in the 1950s to 1960s. This depletion indicates an irrigation deficit of ~75 mm/yr over 60 yr (specific yield 15%). Recharge rates in the CHP are extremely low (median ~10 mm/yr) with reductions in groundwater storage exceeding recharge by ~10 times. High correlations between GRACE and measured water storage changes (R = 0.7 - 0.8) show that the satellite can accurately track regional changes in water storage. Groundwater in the NCP has declined from a depth of ~1 m in the 1960s to 20 to 40 m in the Piedmont region since expansion of irrigation beginning in the 1970s. Groundwater level declines in individual hydrographs range from 0.5 to 1.0 m/yr, indicating irrigation deficits ranging from 100 to 200 mm/yr (specific yield 20%). Lower groundwater storage changes from GRACE satellites relative to

  11. San Andreas Fault in the Carrizo Plain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The 1,200-kilometer (800-mile)San Andreas is the longest fault in California and one of the longest in North America. This perspective view of a portion of the fault was generated using data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), which flew on NASA's Space Shuttle last February, and an enhanced, true-color Landsat satellite image. The view shown looks southeast along the San Andreas where it cuts along the base of the mountains in the Temblor Range near Bakersfield. The fault is the distinctively linear feature to the right of the mountains. To the left of the range is a portion of the agriculturally rich San Joaquin Valley. In the background is the snow-capped peak of Mt. Pinos at an elevation of 2,692 meters (8,831 feet). The complex topography in the area is some of the most spectacular along the course of the fault. To the right of the fault is the famous Carrizo Plain. Dry conditions on the plain have helped preserve the surface trace of the fault, which is scrutinized by both amateur and professional geologists. In 1857, one of the largest earthquakes ever recorded in the United States occurred just north of the Carrizo Plain. With an estimated magnitude of 8.0, the quake severely shook buildings in Los Angeles, caused significant surface rupture along a 350-kilometer (220-mile) segment of the fault, and was felt as far away as Las Vegas, Nev. This portion of the San Andreas is an important area of study for seismologists. For visualization purposes, topographic heights displayed in this image are exaggerated two times.

    The elevation data used in this image was acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of Earth's land surface. To collect the 3-D SRTM data, engineers added a mast 60

  12. Sediment deposition in the flood plain of Stemple Creek Watershed, northern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritchie, Jerry C.; Finney, Vernon L.; Oster, Kenneth J.; Ritchie, Carole A.

    2004-08-01

    Over the past 150 years, major land use changes have occurred in the Stemple Creek Watershed in northern California that have caused erosion to move soils from the upland to the flood plain, stream channels, and the bay. The purpose of this study is to document the recent (1954 to present) sediment deposition patterns in the flood plain area adjacent to Stemple Creek using the 137Cesium technique. Sediment deposition ranged from 0.26 to 1.84 cm year -1 for the period from 1964 to 2002 with an average of 0.85±0.41 cm year -1. Sediment deposition rates were higher for the 1954 to 1964 period with a range of 0.31-3.50 cm year -1 and an average of 1.29±1.04 cm year -1. These data indicate that sediment deposition in the flood plain has decreased since the middle 1950s, probably related to reduction in row crop agriculture and an increase in pasturelands. This study shows that the flood plains in the Stemple Creek Watershed are a significant sink for the soils being eroded from the upland area. Given the significance of the flood plain for trapping eroded materials before they reach the stream channels or the bay, efforts need to be made to manage these flood plain areas to insure that they do not change and become a source rather than a sink for eroded materials as improved management practices on the upland areas reduce sediment input to the flood plain.

  13. Methane emission from fixed dome biogas plants in hilly and plain regions of northern India.

    PubMed

    Khoiyangbam, R S; Kumar, Sushil; Jain, M C; Gupta, Navindu; Kumar, Arun; Kumar, Vinod

    2004-10-01

    Methane emissions from the slurry displacement chambers of different fixed dome type biogas plants (Capacity 2 m3) installed in hilly and plain regions of northern India were quantitatively estimated. The slurry temperature in the biogas plants in the hilly areas of Himachal Pradesh at an altitude of 1300 m above mean sea level remains below the lower mesophilic range (16-25 degrees C) during most part of the year. Difference in the ambient temperature under the two climatic conditions of Hills and plain regions affects the CH4 flux. Methane fluxes from the plants ranged between 7 and 120 gm(-2) d(-1). In northern plain, temperature remains warm (21-33 degrees C) throughout the year except during winter (December to January) when there is a steep fall. Seasonal emission of CH4 ranged between 10 and 178 gm(-2) d(-1). The annual average methane emission from the biogas plants in plain areas was 83.1 gm(-2) d(-1) as compared to 43.1 gm(-2) d(-1)in the hilly areas. Annual contribution per plant to the global methane budget from a fixed dome biogas plant (Cap 2 m3) in plain region of northern India was 53.2 kg as compared 22.3 kg in hilly area. PMID:15207292

  14. Utility of Thermal Sharpening Over Texas High Plains Irrigated Agricultural Fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Irrigated crop production in the Texas High Plains (THP) is dependent on water extracted from the Ogallala Aquifer, an area suffering from sever water shortage. Water management in this area is therefore highly important. Thermal satellite imagery at high-temporal (~daily) and high-spatial (~100 m...

  15. 40 CFR 81.149 - Northern Coastal Plain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of... Northern Coastal Plain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (North Carolina) consists of the territorial... territorial area of all municipalities (as defined in section 302(f) of the Clean Air Act, 42 U.S.C....

  16. 40 CFR 81.152 - Southern Coastal Plain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of... Southern Coastal Plain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (North Carolina) consists of the territorial... territorial area of all municipalities (as defined in section 302(f) of the Clean Air Act, 42 U.S.C....

  17. Dissolved phosphorus retention and release from southeastern USA Coastal Plain in-stream wetlands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the southeastern USA Coastal Plain region, many inland surface water systems will meander through flat or depressional landscape areas prior to discharge into coastal estuaries. Slow water flow through these areas often causes flooding that promotes formation of in-stream wetlands with dense vege...

  18. Whillans Ice Plain Stick Slip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipovsky, B.; Dunham, E. M.

    2015-12-01

    Concern about future sea level rise motivates the study of fast flowing ice. The Whillans Ice Plain (WIP) region of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet is notable for decelerating from previously fast motion during the instrumental record. Since most ice flux in Antarctica occurs through ice streams, understanding the conditions that cause ice stream stagnation is of basic importance in understanding the continent's contribution to future sea level rise. Although recent progress has been made in understanding the relationship between basal conditions and ice stream motion, direct observation of the temporal variation in subglacial conditions during ice stream stagnation has remained elusive. The Whillans Ice Plain flows to the sea mostly by way of stick-slip motion. We present numerical simulations of this stick-slip motion that capture the inertial dynamics, seismic waves, and the evolution of sliding with rate- and state-dependent basal friction. Large scale stick-slip behavior is tidally modulated and encompasses the entire WIP. Sliding initiates within one of several locked regions and then propagates outward with low average rupture velocity (~ 200 m/s). Sliding accelerates over a period of 200 s attain values as large as 65 m/d. From Newton's second law, this acceleration is ~ T / (rho H) for average shear stress drop T, ice thickness H, and ice density rho. This implies a 3 Pa stress drop that must be reconciled with the final stress drop of 300 Pa inferred from the total slip and fault dimensions. A possible explanation of this apparent discrepancy is that deceleration of the ice is associated with a substantial decrease in traction within rate-strengthening regions of the bed. During these large-scale sliding events, m-scale patches at the bed produce rapid (20 Hz) stick-slip motion. Each small event occurs over ~ 1/100 s, produces ~ 40 microns of slip, and gives rise to a spectacular form of seismic tremor. Variation between successive tremor episodes allows us

  19. Plains tectonism on Venus: Inferences from canali longitudinal profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komatsu, Goro; Baker, Victor R.

    1994-01-01

    Canali-type channels on Venus show inverted profile segments; that is, large portions of the channels trend uphill. The original gradients for these channels were not horizontal, but must have progressively trended downhill. Therefore, undulation patterns imposed on the profiles have to be the result of tectonism occurring since channel formation. This implies that some of the uppermost geological units of the plains, which are coincident with canali, experienced significant postemplacement tectonic deformation. The pattern of deformation is hierarchical. Within observational limits, at least two scales of deformation are indicated. The longer scale deformation (thousands of kilometers) corresponds to large-scale basins; the shorter scale deformation (hundreds of kilometers) corresponds to ridge belts or to small-scale domes/basins. The latter features, at scales up to a few hundred kilometers, extensively deform some plain areas. Although not appearing in the topographic profiles because of resolution limitations, deformation scales of tens of kilometers or less, which mostly reflect wrinkle ridges, also overlap the longer deformation scales. The channels probably formed relatively quickly in comparison to the time scale of deformation. Canali formation is closely related to the genesis of plains, and canali profile deformation reflects tectonic processes operating at multiple scales. The lower limit rates of large-scale tectonic warping are comparable to epeirogenetic deformation rates for Earth's intraplate continental interiors.

  20. CORN BELT PLAIN RIVER AND STREAMS PROJECT - 3 BIOCRITERIA PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This effort resulted in eight products, as follows: 1) Development of Index of Biotic Integrity Expectations for the Ecoregions of Indiana I. Central Corn Belt Plain; 2) Ibid. II. Huron-Erie Lake Plain; 3) Ibid III. Northern Indiana Till Plain; 4) Ibid .IV.Eastern Corn Belt Plain...

  1. 44 CFR 10.14 - Flood plains and wetlands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Executive Order 11988, Flood Plain Management, and Executive Order 11990, Protection of Wetlands (44 CFR... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flood plains and wetlands. 10... Flood plains and wetlands. For any action taken by FEMA in a flood plain or wetland, the provisions...

  2. 44 CFR 10.14 - Flood plains and wetlands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Executive Order 11988, Flood Plain Management, and Executive Order 11990, Protection of Wetlands (44 CFR... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Flood plains and wetlands. 10... Flood plains and wetlands. For any action taken by FEMA in a flood plain or wetland, the provisions...

  3. 44 CFR 10.14 - Flood plains and wetlands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Executive Order 11988, Flood Plain Management, and Executive Order 11990, Protection of Wetlands (44 CFR... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Flood plains and wetlands. 10... Flood plains and wetlands. For any action taken by FEMA in a flood plain or wetland, the provisions...

  4. 44 CFR 10.14 - Flood plains and wetlands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Executive Order 11988, Flood Plain Management, and Executive Order 11990, Protection of Wetlands (44 CFR... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Flood plains and wetlands. 10... Flood plains and wetlands. For any action taken by FEMA in a flood plain or wetland, the provisions...

  5. 44 CFR 10.14 - Flood plains and wetlands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Executive Order 11988, Flood Plain Management, and Executive Order 11990, Protection of Wetlands (44 CFR... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Flood plains and wetlands. 10... Flood plains and wetlands. For any action taken by FEMA in a flood plain or wetland, the provisions...

  6. The geologic story of the Great Plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trimble, Donald E.

    1980-01-01

    For more than half a century after Lewis and Clark crossed the country in 1805-6, the Great Plains was the testing ground of frontier America here America grew to maturity (fig. 1). In 1805-7, explorer Zebulon Pike crossed the southcentral Great Plains, following the Arkansas River from near Great Bend, Kans., to the Rocky Mountains. In later years, Santa Fe traders, lured by the wealth of New Mexican trade, followed Pike's path as far as Bents Fort, Colo., where they turned southwestward away from the river route. Those pioneers who later crossed the plains on the Oregon Trail reached the Platte River near the place that would become Kearney, Nebr., by a nearly direct route from Independence, Mo., and followed the Platte across the central part of the Great Plains.

  7. Great Plains Synfuels` hidden treasures

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhn, A.K.; Duncan, D.H.

    1996-12-31

    The Great Plains Synfuels Project was commissioned 12 years ago. While demonstrating success regarding SNG production, DGC quietly started development of chemical products derived from the liquid by-product streams of Lurgi moving bed gasifiers. Naphtha, crude phenol, and tar oil are the primary by-products, and these contain valuable compounds such as phenol, cresylic acid, catechols, naphthols, fluorene, and BTX. Process technologies have been developed for (1) separation of various impurities from cresylic acid distillate fractions or from whole cresylic acid; (2) extracting cresylic acid from tar oil; (3) conversion of tar pitch to a blend stock used in making anode binder pitch; and (4) separating high purity catechol and methyl catechols. As a result of this work, DGC built a phenol/cresylic acid facility. The cresylic acid side supplies over 10 percent of the world market. The achievement with the catechols is presently leading to bench scale routes for synthesis of chemical intermediates which ultimately may include compounds such as vanillin, pyrogallol, sesamol, homoveratrylamine, and many others, penetrating the fields of flavors and fragrances, pharmaceuticals, pesticides, photographic chemicals, dyes, etc. These efforts stimulate DGC`s growth and will provide an economic uplift. By-products already contribute more than 10% of revenues and are destined to rival natural gas in importance.

  8. PLAINS CO2 REDUCTION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect

    Edward N. Steadman; John A. Harju; Erin M. O'Leary; James A. Sorensen; Daniel J. Daly; Melanie D. Jensen; Lisa S. Botnen

    2005-07-01

    The Plains CO{sub 2} Reduction (PCOR) Partnership characterization work is nearing completion, and most remaining efforts are related to finalizing work products. Task 2 (Technology Deployment) has developed a Topical Report entitled ''Deployment Issues Related to Geologic CO{sub 2} Sequestration in the PCOR Partnership Region''. Task 3 (Public Outreach) has developed an informational Public Television program entitled ''Nature in the Balance'', about CO{sub 2} sequestration. The program was completed and aired on Prairie Public Television in this quarter. Task 4 (Sources, Sinks, and Infrastructure) efforts are nearing completion, and data regarding CO{sub 2} sources and sinks and data on the performance and costs for CO{sub 2} separation, capture, treatment, and compression for pipeline transportation are being incorporated into a series of topical reports. The expansion of the Decision Support System Geographic Information System database has continued with the development of a ''save bookmark'' feature that allows users to save a map from the system easily. A feature that allows users to develop a report that summarizes CO{sub 2} sequestration parameters was also developed. Task 5 (Modeling and Phase II Action Plans) focused on screening and qualitatively assessing sequestration options and developing economic estimates for important regional CO{sub 2} sequestration strategies.

  9. PLAINS CO2 REDUCTION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect

    Edward N. Steadman; John A. Harju; Erin M. O'Leary; James A. Sorensen; Daniel J. Daly; Melanie D. Jensen; Thea E. Reikoff

    2005-04-01

    The Plains CO{sub 2} Reduction (PCOR) Partnership continues to make great progress. Task 2 (Technology Deployment) focused on developing information regarding deployment issues to support Task 5 (Modeling and Phase II Action Plans) and provided information to be used to assess CO{sub 2} sequestration opportunities in the PCOR Partnership region. Task 2 efforts also included preparation of a draft topical report entitled ''Deployment Issues Related to Geologic CO{sub 2} Sequestration in the PCOR Partnership Region'', which is nearing completion. Task 3 (Public Outreach) focused on developing an informational video about CO{sub 2} sequestration. The video will be completed and aired on Prairie Public Television in the next quarter. Progress in Task 4 (Sources, Sinks, and Infrastructure) included the continued collection of data regarding CO{sub 2} sources and sinks and data on the performance and costs for CO{sub 2} separation, capture, treatment, and compression for pipeline transportation. The addition of the Canadian province of Alberta to the PCOR Partnership region expanded the decision support system (DSS) geographic information system database. Task 5 screened and qualitatively assessed sequestration options. Task 5 activities also continue to be useful in structuring data collection and other activities in Tasks 2, 3, and 5.

  10. Topographic Rise in the Northern Smooth Plains of Mercury: Characteristics from Messenger Image and Altimetry Data and Candidate Modes of Origin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickson, James L.; Head, James W.; Whitten, Jennifer L.; Fassett, Caleb I.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Phillips, Roger J.

    2012-01-01

    MESSENGER observations from orbit around Mercury have revealed that a large contiguous area of smooth plains occupies much of the high northern latitudes and covers an area in excess of approx.6% of the surface of the planet [1] (Fig. 1). Smooth surface morphology, embayment relationships, color data, candidate flow fronts, and a population of partly to wholly buried craters provide evidence for the volcanic origin of these plains and their emplacement in a flood lava mode to depths at least locally in excess of 1 km. The age of these plains is similar to that of plains associated with and postdating the Caloris impact basin, confirming that volcanism was a globally extensive process in the post-heavy bombardment history of Mercury [1]. No specific effusive vent structures, constructional volcanic edifices, or lava distributary features (leveed flow fronts or sinuous rilles) have been identified in the contiguous plains, although vent structures and evidence of high-effusion-rate flood eruptions are seen in adjacent areas [1]. Subsequent to the identification and mapping of the extensive north polar smooth plains, data from the Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) on MESSENGER revealed the presence of a broad topographic rise in the northern smooth plains that is 1,000 km across and rises more than 1.5 km above the surrounding smooth plains [2] (Fig. 2). The purpose of this contribution is to characterize the northern plains rise and to outline a range of hypotheses for its origin.

  11. Deformation associated with ghost craters and basins in volcanic smooth plains on Mercury: Strain analysis and implications for plains evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimczak, Christian; Watters, Thomas R.; Ernst, Carolyn M.; Freed, Andrew M.; Byrne, Paul K.; Solomon, Sean C.; Blair, David M.; Head, James W.

    2012-09-01

    Since its insertion into orbit about Mercury in March 2011, the MESSENGER spacecraft has imaged most previously unseen regions of the planet in unprecedented detail, revealing extensive regions of contiguous smooth plains at high northern latitudes and surrounding the Caloris basin. These smooth plains, thought to be emplaced by flood volcanism, are populated with several hundred ghost craters and basins, nearly to completely buried impact features having rims for which the surface expressions are now primarily rings of deformational landforms. Associated with some ghost craters are interior groups of graben displaying mostly polygonal patterns. The origin of these graben is not yet fully understood, but comparison with numerical models suggests that the majority of such features are the result of stresses from local thermal contraction. In this paper, we highlight a previously unreported category of ghost craters, quantify extensional strains across graben-bearing ghost craters, and make use of graben geometries to gain insights into the subsurface geology of smooth plains areas. In particular, the style and mechanisms of graben development imply that flooding of impact craters and basins led to substantial pooling of lavas, to thicknesses of ˜1.5 km. In addition, surface strains derived from groups of graben are generally in agreement with theoretically and numerically derived strains for thermal contraction.

  12. The hydrological effects of harvesting at Boreal Plain, Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiyani, Ghasemali; Yew Gan, Thian; Devito, Kevin

    2010-05-01

    Unique hydrological characteristics of Boreal Plain environment such as sub-humid climate, deep glacial deposits, and significant heterogeneity in soil and vegetation type creates a complicated hydrology in the region. The study of hydrological effects of harvesting in Boreal Plain, which is occurring at an unprecedented rate for oil and gas exploration and timber harvesting, is necessary for a sustainable forest management. However there are a few previous studies addressing the hydrological effects of harvesting on quantity and quality of water in Boreal Plain. This paper reports on an on-going paired catchments experimental study at Alpac Catchment Experiment (ACE: 55N 112W) area near Lac La Biche, Alberta started in early 2005. A 2-km2 catchment (H2) was harvested almost 70% in winter 2006. Later, the harvesting occurred sequentially within the bigger catchment (H1, 10 km2) i.e. 29% in 2007 and 19% in 2008 totally account for about 80% of aspen forest. Finally, the smallest catchments was harvested approximately 90% in summer 2008. The collected pre- and post harvest data have been used to assess the effect of harvesting on the catchment overall responses and soil moisture. The pre-harvest streamflow data collected at H1 and its reference catchment R1 show that unit area runoff of both catchments are matched fairly good, and may be used to assess changes in streamflow after harvesting. An increase in soil moisture and soil temperature after harvesting was observed in H2, but little to no change in streamflow response. This suggests the dominance of soil moisture in the catchment, which might be a promising indicator for tracking the effect of harvesting. The field data is then used to drive the hydrological model MISBA to simulate the water and energy cycling in the Boreal Plain. By adding a reservoir to MISBA to simulate the significant soil storage characteristic of the Boreal Plain, and by applying different catchment discretization schemes based on soil

  13. Effects of flooding upon woody vegetation along parts of the Potomac River flood plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yanosky, T.M.

    1982-01-01

    A two-part study along the Potomac River flood plain near Washington, D.C., was undertaken to investigate the effects of flooding upon woody vegetation. Floods abrade bark, damage branches and canopies, and often uproot trees. The first study was of vegetation in five monumented flood-plain plots which differed in the frequency and severity of floodflow over a 10-year period. Basal area and survival of trees appears to be related to velocity of floodflow, which in turn is related to flood magnitude and channel shape. However, the effects of flooding also depend on the nature of the flood-plain surface and size and growth habit of vegetation. In the second study, a catastrophic flood after Hurricane Agnes in June 1972 was found to cause large-scale changes in the age, form, and species composition of flood-plain forest below Great Falls, Va. The impact of the flood depended primarily on the flow regime of the river; destruction was greatest in areas exposed to the maximum flood foce, and minimal at sheltered locations. Age determinations from dead trunks and surviving trees suggest that most trees in severely damaged areas started to grow since the last great flood, which occurred in 1952. Trees along sheltered reaches survived several previous catastrophic floods. In addition, species varied in ability to withstand damage from the Hurricane Agnes flood. Least likely to recover were species growing on infrequently flooded surfaces, which may explain, in part, their absence at lower flood-plain elevations. (USGS)

  14. Chinese Tallow: Invading the Southeastern Coastal Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2000-01-01

    Chinese tallow is an ornamental tree with colorful autumn foliage that can survive full sunlight and shade, flooding, drought, and in some cases fire. To horticulturists this kind of tree sounds like a dream, but to ecologists, land managers, and land owners this kind of tree can be a nightmare, especially when it invades an area and takes over native vegetation. Chinese tallow (Triadica sebifera), a nonnative tree from China, is currently transforming the southeastern Coastal Plain. Over the last 30 years, Chinese tallow has become a common tree in old fields and bottomland swamps of coastal Louisiana. Several studies at the U.S. Geological Survey's National Wetlands Research Center (NWRC), Lafayette, Louisiana, are aimed at understanding the factors that contribute to Chinese tallow growth, spread, and management. When tallow invades, it eventually monopolizes an area, creating a forest without native animal or plant species. This tree exhibits classic traits of most nonnative invaders: it is attractive so people want to distribute it, it has incredible resiliency, it grows quickly and in a variety of soils, and it is resistant to pests. In the coastal prairie of Louisiana and Texas, Chinese tallow can grow up to 30 feet and shade out native sun-loving prairie species. The disappearing of prairie species is troublesome because less than 1% of original coastal prairie remains, and in Louisiana, less than 500 of the original 2.2 million acres still exist. Tallow reproduces and grows quickly and can cause large-scale ecosystem modification (fig. 1). For example, when it completely replaces native vegetation, it has a negative effect on birds by degrading the habitat. Besides shading out grasses that cattle like to eat, it can also be potentially harmful to humans and animals because of its berries (fig. 2) and plant sap that contain toxins. There is some concern its leaves may shed toxins that change the soil chemistry and make it difficult for other plants to grow.

  15. Supplement to inventory and analyses of information for flood plain management in North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emerson, D.G.; Wald, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    Governmental units that have been identified as having flood hazard areas but do not have detailed base flood information are required to use the ' best available data ' to regulate new development or expansion of existing development in flood prone areas. Information for flood plain management has been identified for 31 governmental units in North Dakota and includes the determination of what data are available regarding flood hazards, hydraulics, and hydrology, and a review of these data to determine their adequacy for use in flood plain management. (USGS)

  16. Inventory and analyses of information for flood plain management in North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emerson, D.G.; Wald, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    Governmental units that have been identified as having flood hazard areas but do not have detailed base flood information are required to use the ' best available data ' to regulate new development or expansion of existing development in flood prone areas. Information for flood plain management has been identified for 95 governmental units in North Dakota and includes the determination of what data are available regarding flood hazards, hydraulics, and hydrology, and a review of these data to determine their adequacy for use in flood plain management. (USGS)

  17. Space Radar Image of Central Plain, Oman

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Bright, arc-shaped limestone hills and complex, branching drainage patterns dominate this three-frequency space radar image of a desert area in the north central plain of Oman. The hill along the left side of the image, called Jabal Fuhud, lies just south of the town of Fuhud, which appears as small bright rectangular features. The thin red lines that can be seen radiating out from this town are roads. The 'u'-shaped hill in the right center of the image is called Jabal Natih. Layers in the limestone appear as stripes which parallel the crest of the hill. This region is an active area of petroleum production because these geological structures form natural traps for oil and gas. The branching patterns on the image are ancient drainage channels that formed when the climate in this area was much wetter. Two large dry river channels, called wadis, appear on the image. Wadi Umayri is the yellow stripe at the lower right corner of the image. A second orange-colored wadi runs from right to left below the two sets of hills. The bright yellow patterns between the wadis are areas of bedrock covered with a thin layer of sand. These rocks would not be visible in conventional satellite images or photographs. This image is centered at 22.25 degrees north latitude, 56.58 degrees east longitude. The area shown is approximately 42 kilometers by 78 kilometers (26 miles by 48 miles). North is toward the upper right. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is C-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received; and blue is X-band, vertically transmitted and received. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on April 10, 1994, on board the space shuttle Endeavour. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.

  18. Smooth plains on Mercury. A comparison with Vesta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zambon, Francesca; De Sanctis, Maria Cristina; Carli, Cristian; Filacchione, Gianrico; Ferrari, Sabrina; Benkhoff, Johannes; Massironi, Matteo; Capaccioni, Fabrizio; Giacomini, Lorenza; Palumbo, Pasquale

    2015-04-01

    Mercury, the closest planet to the Sun, has been visited by MESSENGER spacecraft and it is the target of the future BepiColombo mission. After 3 years of orbit around Mercury a global coverage of the surface has been done. A recent work by Denevi et al. (2014), based on the MESSENGER data, revels that ~27% of Mercury's surface is covered by smooth plains (SP). Large part of Mercury's SP seems to have volcanic origin, while a further 2% have been identified as Odin-type plains which are of difficult interpretation and represent the knobby and hummocky plains surrounding the Caloris basin. SPs are widespread on Mercury's surface and they have an uneven distribution. Large part of SPs are mainly concentrated in the northern hemisphere, within the Caloris basins and in the circum-Caloris plains. Moreover has been observed that differences in material correspond to spectral slope variations. High-reflectance red plains (HRP) are characterized by spectral slope values greater than the average while low-reflectance blue plains (LBP) are identified thanks to their lower-than-average spectral slopes. X-Ray Spectrometer (XRS) data show that HRP-type areas are associated with a low-Fe (<4wt% Fe) basalt-like composition, while the LBP are Fe poor ultramafic composition (high Mg/Si and Ca/Si and low Al/Si)(Nittler et al., 2011; Weider et al., 2012; Denevi at al., 2014). Vesta, explored by Dawn in 2011, does not show Mercury-like smooth plain, but it presents highly localized smooth material, such as in the Marcia crater floor and rim (Yingst et al., 2014). This unit is characterized by low albedo and has been interpreted as very young impact melt. Another example of smooth terrain on Vesta has been found in the Rheasilvia basin. This area occurs in irregularly-bounded of very smooth material, located on slopes or topographically lower regions (Yingst et al., 2014). This unit has been interpreted as ejecta emplaced during the Rheasilvia impact event, which could be modified by

  19. Heat-flow reconnaissance of the Gulf Coastal Plain

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.L.; Shannon, S.S. Jr.

    1982-04-01

    Most of the 46 new values of heat flow determined for the Gulf Coastal Plain are in the low to normal range, but heat-flow values averaging 1.8 heat-flow unit (HFU) were obtained in Claiborne, Ouachita, and Union parishes, Louisiana. Moreover, a zone of relatively high heat-flow values and steep thermal gradients (35 to 46/sup 0/C/km) extends from northern Louisiana into southwestern Mississippi. Also near Pensacola, Florida, temperatures of 50/sup 0/C at 1-km depth have been extrapolated from thermal gradients. Future development of low-grade geothermal resources may be warranted in these areas.

  20. Middleton-Cross Plains Area Schools Physical Education Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middleton-Cross Plains Area School District, WI.

    A comprehensive physical education curriculum from kindergarten through grade 12 is presented. Objectives are outlined for each grade level along with descriptions of activities. Grading procedures are described as well as physical fitness testing programs. Course descriptions are given for activities at the high school level, including lifetime…

  1. GAP analysis of wetland bird habitat diversity in Sanjiang Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jiping; Li, Chuang; Liu, Qingfeng; Yu, Yang

    2008-10-01

    Sanjiang Plain was chosen as the study area in this paper, based on the relationship between species and their habitats, using principles of landscape ecology and protection biology, "3S" technique, GAP analysis of biodiversity protection on a regional scale, same surface areas of hexagons as forecasting and evaluating units to analyze protection status of wetlands birds and diversity of their habitats, to find the unprotected biodiversity hotspots there and then analyze the priority protection. As expressed from the research, some birds under second class state protection as Bubo bubo, Falco peregrinus, Accipiter gentilis, Falco tinnunculu, and Strix uralensis have not been well protected, ecological systems of forest hummocks, reed swamps and river wetlands gets worse protection. Thirteen hotspots have been discovered in this area, which are mainly distributed in surroundings near nature reserve and coast of some great rivers. GAP analysis for regions lacking data proposed in this paper not only put forward scientific evidence for the protection and management of wetland biodiversity in Sanjiang Plain, but also enriched theories and methods for China biodiversity protection.

  2. Groundwater Modeling of the Texas High Plains using Modflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, J. E.; Gowda, P. H.; Misra, D.; Marek, T.; Howell, T. A.

    2008-12-01

    The objective of this study was to develop and calibrate a groundwater model for a 4-county area in the Texas High Plains of the Ogallala Aquifer Region. This study is a major component of a comprehensive regional analysis of groundwater depletion in the Ogallala Aquifer Region with the purpose of understanding short- and long-term effects of existing and alternative land use scenarios on groundwater changes. A comprehensive geographic information system (GIS) database was developed for this purpose that included a recent land cover map. This 2008 land cover map was developed using Landsat satellite imagery with ground-truth points for Dallam, Sherman, Hartley, and Moore Counties in Texas. Other GIS layers included aquifer elevation contours, surficial geology, hydraulic conductivity contours, saturated thickness areas, well locations and piezometric heads, aquifer discharge and recharge areas, topography, hydrographic data, ecological regions, and soil type data. The hydrologic simulations were done using MODFLOW. Anticipated outcomes from this modeling effort include the effect of change in land use/land cover on sustainability of the aquifer life in the study region. Our results will be used to develop strategies to conserve groundwater in the Ogallala Aquifer beneath Central High Plains and improve regional water planning.

  3. Flood plain and channel dynamics of the Quinault and Queets Rivers, Washington, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Connor, J. E.; Jones, M.A.; Haluska, T.L.

    2003-01-01

    Observations from this study and previous studies on the Queets River show that channel and flood-plain dynamics and morphology are affected by interactions between flow, sediment, and standing and entrained wood, some of which likely involve time frames similar to 200–500-year flood-plain half-lives. On the upper Quinault River and Queets River, log jams promote bar growth and consequent channel shifting, short-distance avulsions, and meander cutoffs, resulting in mobile and wide active channels. On the lower Quinault River, large portions of the channel are stable and flow within vegetated flood plains. However, locally, channel-spanning log jams have caused channel avulsions within reaches that have been subsequently mobile for several decades. In all three reaches, log jams appear to be areas of conifer germination and growth that may later further influence channel and flood-plain conditions on long time scales by forming flood-plain areas resistant to channel migration and by providing key members of future log jams. Appreciation of these processes and dynamics and associated temporal and spatial scales is necessary to formulate effective long-term approaches to managing fluvial ecosystems in forested environments.

  4. Geohazards (floods and landslides) in the Ndop plain, Cameroon volcanic line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wotchoko, Pierre; Bardintzeff, Jacques-Marie; Itiga, Zénon; Nkouathio, David Guimolaire; Guedjeo, Christian Suh; Ngnoupeck, Gerald; Dongmo, Armand Kagou; Wandji, Pierre

    2016-07-01

    The Ndop Plain, located along the Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL), is a volcano-tectonic plain, formed by a series of tectonic movements, volcanic eruptions and sedimentation phases. Floods (annually) and landslides (occasionally) occur with devastating environmental effects. However, this plain attracts a lot of inhabitants owing to its fertile alluvial soils. With demographic explosion in the plain, the inhabitants (143,000 people) tend to farm and inhabit new zones which are prone to these geohazards. In this paper, we use field observations, laboratory analyses, satellite imagery and complementary methods using appropriate software to establish hazard (flood and landslide) maps of the Ndop Plain. Natural factors as well as anthropogenic factors are considered. The hazard maps revealed that 25% of the area is exposed to flood hazard (13% exposed to high flood hazard, 12% to moderate) and 5% of the area is exposed to landslide hazard (2% exposed to high landslide hazard, 3% to moderate). Some mitigation measures for floods (building of artificial levees, raising foundations of buildings and the meticulous regulation of the flood guards at Bamendjing Dam) and landslides (slope terracing, planting of trees, and building retaining walls) are proposed.

  5. Soil and geomorphic evolution within the rolling red plains using pleistocene volcanic ash deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Brian J.; Ward, Phil A.; Shannon, Jean T.

    1990-09-01

    Pleistocene volcanic ash deposits are found within alluvium from the Arkansas river south to the Brazos river. This drainage area includes tributaries originating in the High Plains, the Raton volcanic field and the Rocky Mountain Front Range within the states of Colorado, New Mexico, Kansas, Texas, and Oklahoma. Thirteen ash deposits are dated from within the High Plains of Kansas and Texas eastward into central Oklahoma to understand the geomorphic history and improve soil and geologic mapping. Within the study area unsolidated Tertiary and Quaternary sediments deposited in a west to east direction overlie Triassic, Permian, and Pennsylvanian bedrock. Volcanic ash deposits are predominantly Early to Middle Pleistocene age. Volcanic ash deposits were dated by the fission track method on shards. The ash deposits are contained within four land resource regions, the Southern and Central High Plains, the High Plains Breaks, the Rolling Red Plains, and the Reddish Prairies. Extensive Middle Pleistocene constructional stream terrace surfaces occur within the Rolling Red Plains. Multiple stream terrace surfaces were recognized across the study area with the highest level being dated Early Pleistocene to Pliocene and the lowest bordering the Holocene floodplains. Topographic cross-sections (100 km long at 1:24,000 scale) transecting dated ash deposits and perpendicular to major river systems were used to distinguish terrace levels. Constructional terrace surfaces dated by ash deposits range from 21 to 100 m above and 1 to 16 km distance from present river channels. Soil orders formed in Quaternary alluvium are Entisols, Inceptisols, Mollisols, Alfisols and Vertisols. Ustic and udic soil moisture regimes and a thermic (15 to 22°C mean annual temperature) soil temperature regime dominate the study area. The same soil series is often mapped on terrace surfaces spanning Early to Middle Pleistocene age because current classification does not recognize differences in deeply

  6. Sources and flow of north Canterbury plains groundwater, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, C. B.; Wilson, D. D.; Brown, L. J.; Stewart, M. K.; Burden, R. J.; Brailsford, G. W.

    1989-04-01

    Geological, hydrological, isotope (tritium and 18O) and chemical (mainly nitrate and chloride concentrations) evidence is interpreted to give a mutually consistent picture of the recharge sources and flow patterns of the important groundwater resource in the deep glacial and interglacial deposits of the sector of the Canterbury Plains between the Selwyn River and Ashley River. Particular attention is paid to the confined gravel aquifers which presently provide about 300,000 m 3 daily of mainly very high-quality water for the needs of Christchurch city. The study period for tritium measurements extends over 27 years, encompassing the peak and decline of thermonuclear tritium fallout in this region. Major rivers emerging from the hill and mountain catchments to the west of the Plains are depleted in 18O relative to average low-level precipitation. Most of the groundwater is river-recharged, but some areas of significant local precipitation recharge contribution are clearly identified by 18O and chemical concentrations. The pressure distribution, tritium and chemical data reveal that the artesian ground-water underlying Christchurch ascends from deeper aquifers into the shallowest aquifer via gaps in the confining layers; much of this flow is induced by withdrawal, and the data reveal nothing about possible offshore discharge through the seaward extension of the shallowest aquifer, which is known to outcrop 40 km beyond the coast. The Christchurch aquifers are recharged by infiltration from Waimakariri River in its central Plains reaches, and the resulting flow regime is east- and southeast-directed; satisfactory water quality of the deeper Christchurch aquifers appears to be guaranteed for the future provided the river can be maintained in its present condition. Shallow groundwater, and water recharged to depth by other rivers, irrigation and local precipitation on the unconfined western areas of the Plains, are more susceptible to agricultural and other pollutants

  7. Venus - False Color of Volcanic Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This Magellan full-resolution mosaic of Venus, centered at 10 degrees north latitude, 301 degrees east longitude, shows an area replete with diverse volcanic features. The image, of an area 489 kilometers long by 311 kilometers wide (303 by 193 miles), is dominated by volcanic plains which appear mottled because of varying roughnesses of each solidified lava flow. The rougher the terrain the brighter it appears in the radar image. The small, bright bumps clustered in the left portion of the image are a grouping of small volcanoes called a shield field. Each shield volcano is approximately 2 to 5 kilometers (1.2 to 3.1 miles) in diameter and has very subdued relief. It is believed that the lava flows that make up each shield originates from a common source. To the right of the shield field is another type of volcano, called a scalloped dome. It is 25 kilometers (16 miles) in diameter and has a central pit. Some of the indistinct lobe-shaped pattern around the dome may either be lava flows or rocky debris which has fallen from the scalloped cliffs surrounding the domes. The small radial ridges characteristic of scalloped domes are remnants of catastrophic landslides. To the right of that feature is a large depression called a volcanic caldera. The caldera was formed when lava was expelled from an underground chamber, which when emptied, subsequently collapsed forming the depression. The feature furthermost to the east (right) is another scalloped dome, 35 kilometers (22 miles) in diameter. That feature is unusual in that lava came out through the southeastern margin, rafting a large portion of the dome for 20 kilometers (12 miles). The lava continues into the lower right portion of the area in the image. Its steep rounded boundaries suggest it was a very sticky, oozing lava. That same type of lava is what scientists propose formed the steep-sided domes such as the bright, round feature, slightly northeast of center. It is highly likely that the features are all part

  8. Braid-plain dynamics and bank erosion along the Matanuska River, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curran, J. H.

    2009-12-01

    Braid-plain activity and geomorphic features in the Matanuska River in southcentral Alaska between 1949 and 2006 were examined to support a bank erosion hazard assessment. The glacial Matanuska River drains 6,500 km2 and is braided for 85 percent of its 150 km course, which parallels a major highway and flows through the towns of Sutton and Palmer, Alaska. The historical braid plain was defined as the envelope of areas with active channels, unvegetated bars, or vegetated bars with evidence of channels since 1949 and delineated in a GIS from 1949, 1962, and 2006 aerial orthoimagery. We created a strip map of bank height and composition (primarily bedrock and unconsolidated sediment) at braid-plain margins and outlined valley bottom features (terraces and tributary fans) adjacent to the braid plain to assess erodibility. Braid-plain dynamism has created a mosaic of extensive lightly vegetated bars interspersed with forested bars in strips along the banks and in small mid-channel positions. Abandoned channels filled with groundwater or tributary streamflow have created clearwater side channels within these bars that serve as the primary spawning location for chum, sockeye, and coho salmon in the Matanuska River basin. Erosion magnitudes for the periods 1949-1962 and 1962-2006 were computed as braid-plain expansion at transects across the historical braid-plain boundaries. Episodic, spatially distributed erosion and the antiquity of some eroded surfaces suggests that average annual erosion rates at a location are not adequate for assessing future erosion at that location in a braid plain. Lateral expansion caused bank erosion of 100 -275 m at 20 locations over the full period, about half at tributary fans and most occurring in a single time period. Minor growth of tributary fans constricted the braid plain, and emerging terraces have the potential to shrink the braid plain. Eroded banks included undated but pre-historic fluvial terraces and tributary fans. Where

  9. ESTAR Measurements During the Southern Great Plains Experiment (SGP99)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeVine, D. M.; Jackson, T. J.; Swift, C. T.; Haken, M.; Bidwell, S.; Zukor, Dorothy J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    During the Southern Great Plains experiment, the synthetic aperture radiometer, ESTAR, mapped L-band brightness temperature over a swath about 50 km wide and about 300 km long extending west from Oklahoma City to El Reno and north from the Little Washita River watershed to the Kansas border. ESTAR flew on the NASA P-3B Orion aircraft at an altitude of 7.6 km and maps were made on 7 days between July 8-20, 1999. The brightness temperature maps reflect the patterns of soil moisture expected from rainfall and are consistent with values of soil moisture observed at the research sites within the SGP99 study area and with previous measurements in this area. The data add to the resources for hydrologic modeling in this area and are further validation of the technology represented by ESTAR as a potential path to a future mission to map soil moisture globally from space.

  10. Results of a Two-Year Pink Bollworm Survey in the Southern Plains of Texas and New Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton producing areas in the Southern Plains Region of Texas and New Mexico were surveyed using delta sticky traps baited with gossyplure, the sex pheromone for pink bollworm (PBW). Non-cotton producing areas south of these areas were also surveyed for moths potentially moving into the El Paso/Tra...

  11. Reconstruction of the Friuli Venezia Giulia Plain aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calligaris, Chiara; Cimolino, Aurelie; Cucchi, Franco; Deana, Alberto; Treu, Francesco; Zini, Luca

    2010-05-01

    The constantly increasing of water demand for human consumptions has necessitated a reconstruction of the hydrogeologic characteristics and properties as well isotopic features of the aquifers of the Friuli Venezia Giulia Plain (FP). The DiSGAM and DICA have been engaged by the Hydraulic Survey of the FVG Region in order to coordinate an integrated study finalized to the FP confined and unconfined aquifer geometries reconstruction and to provide guide-lines for water rational exploitation (Agreement D.G.R. n. 1827 dd. 27.07.2007). The Friuli Venezia Giulia Plain, located in the northeastern sector of Italy, hosts well developed Plio-Quaternary unconfined and confined alluvial aquifers. The main surface drainage of the Plain is the Tagliamento River. The regional hydrogeological situation is characterized in the north by an extensive alluvial unconfined aquifer mostly contained in carbonate gravels. This area extends from the Pre-Alps to the resurgence belt. The resurgence belt is 2 to 8 km wide and 80 kilometres long. In this area the water table intersects the topographic surface forming numerous plain springs and rivers. The resurgence belt sets a geohydrological boundary between the Upper and Lower Friulian Plain. In this strip the unconfined aquifer changes into a multi-layered confined that reach a thickness of up to 500 m with a progressive increase in a westward direction towards the Adriatic Sea. In order to define underground aquifer relations and patterns, more than 1800 stratigraphic columns have been collected from different public departments water well database. Well logs have been georeferred, missing elevations calculated by regional DTM, possible correspondences controlled and datasets updated. In order to better correlate spatial data, an unique implemented lithostratigraphy legend has been created from present different ones; it is composed of: Lithological Entries (relating lithology and granulometric features; permeability linked different

  12. Coastal geomorphology of the Martian northern plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Timothy J.; Gorsline, Donn S.; Saunders, Stephen R.; Pieri, David C.; Schneeberger, Dale M.

    1993-01-01

    The paper considers the question of the formation of the outflow channels and valley networks discovered on the Martian northern plains during the Mariner 9 mission. Parker and Saunders (1987) and Parker et al. (1987, 1989) data are used to describe key features common both in the lower reaches of the outflow channels and within and along the margins of the entire northern plains. It is suggested, that of the geological processes capable of producing similar morphologies on earth, lacustrine or marine deposition and subsequent periglacial modification offer the simplest and most consistent explanation for the suit of features found on Mars.

  13. Occurrence and variability of mining-related lead and zinc in the Spring River flood plain and tributary flood plains, Cherokee County, Kansas, 2009--11

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Juracek, Kyle E.

    2013-01-01

    Historical mining activity in the Tri-State Mining District (TSMD), located in parts of southeast Kansas, southwest Missouri, and northeast Oklahoma, has resulted in a substantial ongoing input of cadmium, lead, and zinc to the environment. To provide some of the information needed to support remediation efforts in the Cherokee County, Kansas, superfund site, a 4-year study was begun in 2009 by the U.S. Geological Survey that was requested and funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. A combination of surficial-soil sampling and coring was used to investigate the occurrence and variability of mining-related lead and zinc in the flood plains of the Spring River and several tributaries within the superfund site. Lead- and zinc-contaminated flood plains are a concern, in part, because they represent a long-term source of contamination to the fluvial environment. Lead and zinc contamination was assessed with reference to probable-effect concentrations (PECs), which represent the concentrations above which adverse aquatic biological effects are likely to occur. The general PECs for lead and zinc were 128 and 459 milligrams per kilogram, respectively. The TSMD-specific PECs for lead and zinc were 150 and 2,083 milligrams per kilogram, respectively. Typically, surficial soils in the Spring River flood plain had lead and zinc concentrations that were less than the general PECs. Lead and zinc concentrations in the surficial-soil samples were variable with distance downstream and with distance from the Spring River channel, and the largest lead and zinc concentrations usually were located near the channel. Lead and zinc concentrations larger than the general or TSMD-specific PECs, or both, were infrequent at depth in the Spring River flood plain. When present, such contamination typically was confined to the upper 2 feet of the core and frequently was confined to the upper 6 inches. Tributaries with few or no lead- and zinc-mined areas in the basin—Brush Creek

  14. 40 CFR 81.241 - Southwestern Mountains-Augustine Plains Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Southwestern Mountains-Augustine Plains Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.241 Section 81.241 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality...

  15. 40 CFR 81.241 - Southwestern Mountains-Augustine Plains Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Southwestern Mountains-Augustine Plains Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.241 Section 81.241 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality...

  16. Effect of habitat and foraging height on bat activity in the coastal plain of South Carolina.

    SciTech Connect

    Menzel, Jennifer, M.; Menzel, Michael A.; Kilgo, John C.; Ford, W. Mark; Edwards, John W.; McCracken, Gary F.

    2005-07-01

    A comparison of bat activity levels in the Coastal Plain of South Carolina among 5 habitat types: forested riparian areas, clearcuts, young pine plantations, mature pine plantations and pine savannas, using time expansion radio-microphones and integrated detectors to simultaneously monitor bat activity at three heights in each habitat type.

  17. Early and late maturing grain sorghum under variable climatic conditions in the Texas High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the Texas High Plains, variable climatic conditions prevail between and within growing seasons. As this area continues to experience drought conditions, and water resources for irrigation become more limited, sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] production may become a more popular choice to sus...

  18. Irrigation in the Texas High Plains: A brief history and potential reductions in demand

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Irrigation for crop production in the semi-arid Texas High Plains is dependent on groundwater withdrawals from the Ogallala Aquifer, which is declining because withdrawals exceed natural recharge. Irrigation development in the region accelerated during the 1950s. Both irrigated area and volume pumpe...

  19. Hydrus-3D simulations: Irrigation management strategies for the Texas High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Half of the cultivated area and more than 80% of crop production in the Texas High Plains (THP) comes from irrigated agriculture, which depends on water from the Ogallala Aquifer. The water table of this aquifer is declining because groundwater withdrawals exceed recharge. This fact compromises its ...

  20. Spatial yield response of corn and cotton on a Coastal Plain loamy sand

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A substantial amount of the yield variation in many coastal plain fields in the southeast is related to soil differences in and around poorly drained depression areas. We conducted a six-year study to evaluate the influence of management system and soil map unit on corn (Zea mays L.) and cotton (Gos...

  1. National coal resource assessment: Fort Union coals of the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains

    SciTech Connect

    Flores, R.M.; Bader, L.R.; Ellis, M.S. |

    1996-12-31

    The present investigation assesses geologic controls on the distribution, resource occurrence, and quality of the Paleocene Fort Union and equivalent coals in the northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains. Results of this investigation will assist in predicting areas wit h high quality coals that will be available for development. Published products will include digital output and hard copy readily accessible for analysis and utilization.

  2. Characteristics of Human Resources in the Rural Southeast Coastal Plain...With Emphasis on the Poor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McElveen, Jackson V.; And Others

    The objectives of this study were to determine the anatomy, typology, and conditions surrounding low incomes in the Coastal Plain of South Carolina and to determine the measures most suitable to reduce low income within the area. A sample of 1,000 households was selected and stratified among the 10 counties and between the open-country rural area…

  3. Rural Poverty in Three Southern Regions: Mississippi Delta, Ozarks, Southeast Coastal Plain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, John L.

    The focus of this report is on poverty and its relationships to certain individual characteristics as distributed across 3 regions: the Ozarks, Mississippi Delta, and Southeast Coastal Plain. After a broad description of these areas, the study looks at (1) age of household heads, (2) number of persons in households, (3) housing quality (running…

  4. Impact of agroecosystems on groundwater resources in the Central High Plains, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agroecosystems impact water resources by changing water partitioning at the land surface and by consuming most fresh water through irrigation. The study assesses impacts of agroecosystems on groundwater resources in the Texas High Plains (37,000 km2 area). Borehole samples beneath different agroecos...

  5. Widespread Plains Volcanism on Mercury Ended by 3.6 Ga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, P. K.; Ostrach, L. R.; Fassett, C.; Chapman, C. R.; Evans, A. J.; Klimczak, C.; Banks, M. E.; Head, J. W., III; Solomon, S. C.

    2015-12-01

    The largest volcanic plains deposits on Mercury are situated in its northern hemisphere and include the extensive northern smooth plains and the Caloris interior plains. Crater size-frequency analyses have shown that both deposits were emplaced around 3.8 Ga, for any of the published model production function (MPF) chronologies for impact crater formation on Mercury. The largest volcanic deposit in the southern hemisphere, the Rembrandt interior plains, has a model age of ~3.7 Ga. To test the hypothesis that all major volcanic smooth plains on Mercury were emplaced at about the same time, we determined crater size-frequency distributions for nine additional deposits (see Table 1). The diameters of craters that superpose the smooth plains at each site were measured with CraterTools, yielding crater areal densities in terms of N(10), the number of craters ≥10 km in diameter per 106 km2 area (Table 1). Our crater density measurements span N(10) values of 29-146, a range that encompasses corresponding values for the larger areas of smooth plains. With CraterStats, we fit our data (for craters ≥4 km in diameter) to the MPF chronologies of Le Feuvre and Wieczorek. For porous scaling, the model ages of all nine sites span a narrow window (Table 1). Non-porous scaling fails to match the crater size-frequency distributions. We show that widespread plains volcanism, likely the primary process by which Mercury's crust developed, had ended by 3.6 Ga. Younger volcanic deposits have been identified on the planet, but only within impact structures and at volumes much less than the smallest deposit considered here. Superposition relations between shortening landforms and craters on Mercury indicate that global contraction in response to interior cooling was underway by ~3.6 Ga. The cessation of widespread plains volcanism on Mercury may therefore reflect the onset of a stress state within the planet's lithosphere that inhibited magma ascent. Conversely, mantle thermochemical

  6. Geodatabase compilation of hydrogeologic, remote sensing, and water-budget-component data for the High Plains aquifer, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Houston, Natalie A.; Gonzales-Bradford, Sophia L.; Flynn, Amanda T.; Qi, Sharon L.; Peterson, Steven M.; Stanton, Jennifer S.; Ryter, Derek W.; Sohl, Terry L.; Senay, Gabriel B.

    2013-01-01

    The High Plains aquifer underlies almost 112 million acres in the central United States. It is one of the largest aquifers in the Nation in terms of annual groundwater withdrawals and provides drinking water for 2.3 million people. The High Plains aquifer has gained national and international attention as a highly stressed groundwater supply primarily because it has been appreciably depleted in some areas. The U.S. Geological Survey has an active program to monitor the changes in groundwater levels for the High Plains aquifer and has documented substantial water-level changes since predevelopment: the High Plains Groundwater Availability Study is part of a series of regional groundwater availability studies conducted to evaluate the availability and sustainability of major aquifers across the Nation. The goals of the regional groundwater studies are to quantify current groundwater resources in an aquifer system, evaluate how these resources have changed over time, and provide tools to better understand a systems response to future demands and environmental stresses. The purpose of this report is to present selected data developed and synthesized for the High Plains aquifer as part of the High Plains Groundwater Availability Study. The High Plains Groundwater Availability Study includes the development of a water-budget-component analysis for the High Plains completed in 2011 and development of a groundwater-flow model for the northern High Plains aquifer. Both of these tasks require large amounts of data about the High Plains aquifer. Data pertaining to the High Plains aquifer were collected, synthesized, and then organized into digital data containers called geodatabases. There are 8 geodatabases, 1 file geodatabase and 7 personal geodatabases, that have been grouped in three categories: hydrogeologic data, remote sensing data, and water-budget-component data. The hydrogeologic data pertaining to the northern High Plains aquifer is included in three separate

  7. Hydrologic characteristics of soils in the High Plains, northern Great Plains, and Central Texas Carbonates Regional Aquifer Systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dugan, Jack T.; Hobbs, Ryne D.; Ihm, Laurie A.

    1990-01-01

    Certain physical characteristics of soils, including permeability, available water capacity, thickness, and topographic position, have a measurable effect on the hydrology of an area. These characteristics control the rate at which precipitation infiltrates or is transmitted through the soil, and thus they have an important role in determining the rates of actual evapotranspiration (consumptive water use), groundwater recharge, and surface runoff. In studies of groundwater hydrology, it is useful to differentiate soils spatially according to their physical characteristics and to assign values that indicate their hydrologic responses.The principal purpose of this report is to describe the relation between the hydrologic characteristics of the soils in the study area and those environmental factors that affect the development and distribution of the soils. This objective will be achieved by (1) defining both qualitatively and quantitatively those soil characteristics that affect hydrology, and (2) classifying and delineating the boundaries of the soils in the study area according to these hydrologic characteristics.The study area includes the High Plains, Northern Great Plains, the Central Texas Carbonates, and parts of the Central Midwest Regional Aquifer Systems as described by the U.S. Geological Survey Regional Aquifer-System Analysis (RASA) Program (Sun, 1986, p.5and Sun, personal commun., June 1985) and shown in figures 1 through 5. The spatial patterns of the soils classified according to their quantifiable hydrologic characteristics will subsequently serve as an integral component in the analysis of actual evapotranspiration (consumptive water use), consumptive irrigation requirements, and potential ground-water recharge of the study area.The classification system used to describe the soils in this report is compatible with that of Dugan (1986). Dugan described the same characteristics of soils that are immediately underlain by principal aquifers of

  8. Extent, age, and resurfacing history of the northern smooth plains on Mercury from MESSENGER observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrach, Lillian R.; Robinson, Mark S.; Whitten, Jennifer L.; Fassett, Caleb I.; Strom, Robert G.; Head, James W.; Solomon, Sean C.

    2015-04-01

    MESSENGER orbital images show that the north polar region of Mercury contains smooth plains that occupy ~7% of the planetary surface area. Within the northern smooth plains (NSP) we identify two crater populations, those superposed on the NSP ("post-plains") and those partially or entirely embayed ("buried"). The existence of the second of these populations is clear evidence for volcanic resurfacing. The post-plains crater population reveals that the NSP do not exhibit statistically distinguishable subunits on the basis of crater size-frequency distributions, nor do measures of the areal density of impact craters reveal volcanically resurfaced regions within the NSP. These results suggest that the most recent outpouring of volcanic material resurfaced the majority of the region, and that this volcanic flooding emplaced the NSP over a relatively short interval of geologic time, perhaps 100 My or less. Stratigraphic embayment relationships within the buried crater population, including partial crater flooding and the presence of smaller embayed craters within the filled interiors of larger craters and basins, indicate that a minimum of two episodes of volcanic resurfacing occurred. From the inferred rim heights of embayed craters, we estimate the NSP to be regionally 0.7-1.8 km thick, with a minimum volume of volcanic material of 4 × 106 to 107 km3. Because of the uncertainty in the impact flux at Mercury, the absolute model age of the post-plains volcanism could be either ∼3.7 or ∼2.5 Ga, depending on the chronology applied.

  9. Constraining rates and trends of historical wetland loss, Mississippi River Delta Plain, south-central Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bernier, Julie C.; Morton, Robert A.; Barras, John A.

    2006-01-01

    The timing, magnitude, and rate of wetland loss were described for five wetland-loss hotspots in the Terrebonne Basin of the Mississippi River delta plain. Land and water areas were mapped for 34 dates between 1956 and 2004 from historical National Wetlands Inventory (NWI) datasets, aerial photographs, and Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite images. Since 1956, the emergent land area at the five study areas in south-central Louisiana has decreased by about 50%. Comparison of the water-area curve derived from the 29 TM images with water-level records from the nearby Grand Isle, Louisiana tide gauge (NOS #8761724) clearly shows that changes in land and water areas fluctuate in response to variations in regional water levels. The magnitude of water-area fluctuations decreased from the 1980s to the 1990s as former areas of wet marsh within and immediately adjacent to the wetland-loss hotspots became permanently submerged. The most rapid wetland loss occurred during the late 1960s and 1970s. Peak wetland-loss rates during this period were two to four times greater than both the pre-1970s background rates and the most recent wetland-loss rates. These results provide constraints on predicting future delta-plain wetland losses and identify Landsat TM imagery as an important source for analyzing land- and water-area changes across the entire delta plain.

  10. Evaluation of exposure parameters in plain radiography: a comparative study with European guidelines.

    PubMed

    Lança, L; Silva, A; Alves, E; Serranheira, F; Correia, M

    2008-01-01

    Typical distribution of exposure parameters in plain radiography is unknown in Portugal. This study aims to identify exposure parameters that are being used in plain radiography in the Lisbon area and to compare the collected data with European references [Commission of European Communities (CEC) guidelines]. The results show that in four examinations (skull, chest, lumbar spine and pelvis), there is a strong tendency of using exposure times above the European recommendation. The X-ray tube potential values (in kV) are below the recommended values from CEC guidelines. This study shows that at a local level (Lisbon region), radiographic practice does not comply with CEC guidelines concerning exposure techniques. Further national/local studies are recommended with the objective to improve exposure optimisation and technical procedures in plain radiography. This study also suggests the need to establish national/local diagnostic reference levels and to proceed to effective measurements for exposure optimisation. PMID:18430717

  11. Are Noachian-age ridged plains (Nplr) actually early Hesperian in age

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, Herbert V.; Doudnikoff, C. E.; Mongeon, A. M.

    1990-01-01

    Whether or not the Nplr units in Memnonia and Argyre truly represent ridged plains volcanism of Noachian age or are simply areas of younger (Early Hesperian age) volcanism which failed to bury older craters and therefore have a greater total crater age than really applies to the ridged plains portion of those terrains is examined. The Nuekum and Hiller technique is used to determine the number of preserved crater retention surfaces in the Memnonia and Argyre regions where Scott and Tanaka show Nplr units to be common. The results for cratered terrain (Npl) in Memnonia is summarized along with those for ridged plains (Nplr) in both Memnonia and Argyre, and they are compared with similar results obtained for Tempe Terra and Lunae Plunum.

  12. High-Resolution Image of Europa's Ridged Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This spectacular image taken by NASA's Galileo spacecraft camera shows a region of ridged plains on Jupiter's moon Europa. The plains are comprised of many parallel and cross-cutting ridges, commonly in pairs. The majority of the region is of very bright, but darker material is seen primarily in valleys between ridges. Some of the most prominent ridges have dark deposits along their margins and in their central valleys. Some of this dark material probably moved down the flanks of the ridges and has piled up along their bases. The most prominent ridges are about a kilometer in width (less than a mile). In the top right hand corner of the image the end of a dark wide ridge (about 2 kilometers or 1.2 miles across) is visible. Several deep fractures cut through this ridge and continue into the plains. The brightness of the region suggests that frost covers much of Europa's surface. This image looks different from those obtained earlier in Galileo's mission, because this image was taken with the Sun higher in Europa's sky.

    This image was taken on December 16, 1997 at a range of 1,300 kilometers (800 miles) by Galileo's solid state imaging system. North is to the top of the picture, and the Sun illuminates the surface from the upper left. This image, centered at approximately 14 degrees south latitude and 194 degrees west longitude, covers an area approximately 20 kilometers (12 miles) on each side. The resolution is 26 meters (85 feet) per picture element.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/ galileo.

  13. NITROGEN EXPORT FROM COASTAL PLAIN FIELD DITCHES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Successfully mitigating the adverse impact of agricultural N and P applications will depend on a sound understanding of transport mechanisms and flow pathways (from fields). The objective of this study was to evaluate N losses from ditches for a Coastal Plain landscape on the Maryland Eastern Shore,...

  14. Water Production Functions for High Plains Crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water Production Functions for High Plains Crops Water consumptive use by a crop can be reduced through limited (deficit) irrigation. If the reduced consumptive use (CU) can be quantified, the saved water can be transferred to other users. If the value of the transferred water is greater than the fa...

  15. Climate vulnerabilities in the southern plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The value of agricultural production in the Southern Plains exceeded $59 bil (2012 Agricultural Census) with livestock accounting for 58% of total agricultural sales. Crop and livestock commodities exceeding $1 bil include wheat, corn, horticultural crops, cotton, hay and forages, sorghum, soybean, ...

  16. Second chance for the plains bison

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Freese, Curtis H.; Aune, K.; Boyd, D.; Derr, James N.; Forrest, Steven C.; Gates, C. Cormack; Gogan, Peter J.; Grassel, Shaun M.; Halbert, Natalie D.; Kunkel, Kyran; Redford, K.

    2007-01-01

    Before European settlement the plains bison (Bison bison bison) numbered in the tens of millions across most of the temperate region of North America. Within the span of a few decades during the mid- to late-1800s its numbers were reduced by hunting and other factors to a few hundred. The plight of the plains bison led to one of the first major movements in North America to save an endangered species. A few individuals and the American Bison Society rescued the remaining animals. Attempts to hybridize cattle and bison when bison numbers were low resulted in extensive cattle gene introgression in bison. Today, though approximately 500,000 plains bison exist in North America, few are free of cattle gene introgression, 96% are subject to anthropogenic selection for commodity production, and only 4% are in herds managed primarily for conservation purposes. Small herd size, artificial selection, cattle-gene introgression, and other factors threaten the diversity and integrity of the bison genome. In addition, the bison is for all practical purposes ecologically extinct across its former range, with multiple consequences for grassland biodiversity. Urgent measures are needed to conserve the wild bison genome and to restore the ecological role of bison in grassland ecosystems. Socioeconomic trends in the Great Plains, combined with new information about bison conservation needs and new conservation initiatives by both the public and public sectors, have set the stage for significant progress in bison conservation over the next few years.

  17. Water Production Functions For High Plains Crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Declining water supplies is the critical resource issue for irrigated agriculture in the High Plains and much of the western U.S. Farmers need to maximize production per unit water consumed to remain economically viable and sustain irrigated agriculture. The Agricultural Research Service (ARS) Wat...

  18. Calibrating northern Texas High Plains groundwater model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the Northern High Plains of Texas, irrigated crop production accounts for a major portion of groundwater withdrawals from the Ogallala aquifer. The concern is that diminishing groundwater supplies will severely reduce regional crop and animal production, which in turn would impact the regional ec...

  19. Arapahos on the Great Plains. Student Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spoonhunter, Bob; Woodenlegs, Martha

    The student workbook is derived from "An Ethnological Report on Cheyenne and Arapaho: Aboriginal Occupation," by Zachary Gussow and "Northern Snows to Southern Summers--An Arapaho Odyssey," by Bob Spoonhunter. The first section discusses the Arapaho origins by recounting many different legends that explain how they arrived on the Great Plains. The…

  20. Great plains regional climate assessment technical report

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Great Plains region (GP) plays important role in providing food and energy to the economy of the United States. Multiple climatic and non-climatic stressors put multiple sectors, livelihoods and communities at risk, including agriculture, water, ecosystems and rural and tribal communities. The G...

  1. Study on the Groundwater Vulnerability Assessment in Sanjiang Plain in Northeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Y.; Tang, W. K.; Liu, C.

    2012-12-01

    The Sanjiang Plain is located in eastern part of China's Heilongjiang Province.It's total area is 109 000 km2, with cultivated land area being 3.6677 million hm2. It is a major national commodity grain base. Rice planting area in Sanjiang Plain has been increasing year by year. Groundwater exploitation is increasing rapidly as a result of rapid increase of paddy field area. It is necessary to research and analyze spatial diversity of groundwater pollution vulnerability for Sanjiang Plain, so as to fulfill the goal of integrated planning, rational utilization of land and water resource, avoiding or minimizing groundwater contamination, and protecting grain security of China. Based on the commonly used DRASTIC method internationally, and according to hydrogeology, land use and other characteristics of Sanjiang Plain, this paper establishes groundwater vulnerability assessment index system. Since the Sanjiang Plain is an area that gives priority to agriculture, and impact of agricultural land and agricultural activity on groundwater vulnerability can not be ignored. Two indicators of agricultural land use rate (L) and population density (P) are increased in the DRASTC index system, the remaining 5 indicators are groundwater depth (D), aquifer net recharge(R), aquifer media type (A), soil type(S), aquifer hydraulic conductivity (C). Taking ArcGis as a calculation analysis platform to assess groundwater vulnerability of the Sanjiang Plain, by using hierarchical analysis method of the fuzzy mathematics method to calculate each index weigh of evaluation vulnerability. This paper applies 6 levels of assessment standard as follows: vulnerability index DI <2 stands for not vulnerable; 2 8 stands for extremely vulnerable. Groundwater vulnerably contaminated area is delineated based on the groundwater vulnerability spatial

  2. Dynamics of playa lakes in the Texas High Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeves, C. C., Jr. (Principal Investigator)

    1972-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Three small playa lake basins on the southern High Plains, Texas, have been examined by geologists, pedologists, hydrologists, and botanists to establish ground truth for correlation with ERTS-1 imagery. Although the sites are recognizable, details of the three playa basins are too small, at present resolution, to be accurately determined by the available MSS imagery. However, a fourth study site, consisting of a dual playa complex approximately 5 miles long in a basin of 9 square miles, does resolve available imagery allowing accurate measurement of water fluctuations and water depth. Of the available MSS imagery, Band 5 is the most usable. Definition of Band 4 is less due to reduced tonal contrast. The greatest tonal contrast appears on Band 6 and Band 7 between dry land and water areas. Band 6 is particularly good for defining large water areas, Band 7 being best for small lake basins, and Band 5 for growing fields.

  3. Pieced in the Plains: Kansas Amish Quilts and Cultural Adaptation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smucker, Janneken L.

    2004-01-01

    While the Old Order Amish are often thought of as the plain dressing religious sect that attracts millions of tourists annually to Pennsylvania Dutch country, this Anabaptist group also has a significant history in the Great Plains. The Amish who settled in the Great Plains share commonalities with the Old Order Amish who remained in more…

  4. Calculating crop water use in the northern Texas High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The North Plains Evapotranspiration network (NPET) has been in operation providing meteorological and crop water use (evapotranspiration or ET) data to producers for over 14 years. Recently, the NPET and South Plains ET (SPET) merged to form the Texas High Plains ET network (TXHPET). Each of the r...

  5. 12 CFR 611.1217 - Plain language requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Plain language requirements. 611.1217 Section 611.1217 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM ORGANIZATION Termination of System Institution Status § 611.1217 Plain language requirements. (a) Plain language presentation....

  6. 12 CFR 611.1217 - Plain language requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Plain language requirements. 611.1217 Section 611.1217 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM ORGANIZATION Termination of System Institution Status § 611.1217 Plain language requirements. (a) Plain language presentation....

  7. 12 CFR 611.1217 - Plain language requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Plain language requirements. 611.1217 Section 611.1217 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM ORGANIZATION Termination of System Institution Status § 611.1217 Plain language requirements. (a) Plain language presentation....

  8. 12 CFR 611.1217 - Plain language requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Plain language requirements. 611.1217 Section 611.1217 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM ORGANIZATION Termination of System Institution Status § 611.1217 Plain language requirements. (a) Plain language presentation....

  9. 49 CFR 230.102 - Tender plain bearing journal boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Tender plain bearing journal boxes. 230.102... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.102 Tender plain bearing journal boxes. Plain bearing journal boxes... expected to damage the bearing; or have a detrimental effect on the lubrication of the journal and...

  10. 49 CFR 230.102 - Tender plain bearing journal boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Tender plain bearing journal boxes. 230.102... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.102 Tender plain bearing journal boxes. Plain bearing journal boxes... expected to damage the bearing; or have a detrimental effect on the lubrication of the journal and...

  11. 49 CFR 230.102 - Tender plain bearing journal boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tender plain bearing journal boxes. 230.102... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.102 Tender plain bearing journal boxes. Plain bearing journal boxes... expected to damage the bearing; or have a detrimental effect on the lubrication of the journal and...

  12. 49 CFR 230.102 - Tender plain bearing journal boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Tender plain bearing journal boxes. 230.102... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.102 Tender plain bearing journal boxes. Plain bearing journal boxes... expected to damage the bearing; or have a detrimental effect on the lubrication of the journal and...

  13. 49 CFR 230.102 - Tender plain bearing journal boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Tender plain bearing journal boxes. 230.102... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.102 Tender plain bearing journal boxes. Plain bearing journal boxes... expected to damage the bearing; or have a detrimental effect on the lubrication of the journal and...

  14. Writing Government Policies and Procedures in Plain Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Don

    2008-01-01

    Plain language involves more than just a few simple techniques, such as using everyday words, short sentences, and active voice. Although there is no single definition, "plain language" basically stands for several dozen well-established principles of clear communication. In this article, the author discusses the significance of plain language…

  15. 12 CFR 611.1217 - Plain language requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Plain language requirements. 611.1217 Section 611.1217 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM ORGANIZATION Termination of System Institution Status § 611.1217 Plain language requirements. (a) Plain language presentation....

  16. Gas Geochemistry of Ground Water in the Ilan Plain, Northeast Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yu-Chen; Yang, Tsanyao Frank; Chen, Ai-Ti; Fu, Ching-Chou; Lin, Shih-Jung; Liu, Tsung-Kwei; Chen, Wen-Fu; Wang, Yunshuen

    2014-05-01

    Ilan Plain is located at the northeast Taiwan and has been tectonically spreading due to the westward back-arc rifting of the Okinawa Trough. In previous studies, geological survey, geophysical research, and stratigraphic correlation were conducted to rebuild the aquifer systems in the Ilan Plain. However, few gas geochemical data of ground water are available. In this study, it is first time to systematically analyze the gas geochemistry of ground water from 37 wells to recognize the gas sources/components in the Ilan Plain. Water samples can be classified as three main groups, most samples are classified as sulfate and bicarbonate groups, few samples belong to chloride group due to the contamination of sea water. Based on the major dissolved gases compositions, the ground water samples can be divided into two groups, i.e., CH4-enriched group and N2 enriched group. Ten out of total 37 wells show CH4-enriched affinities with CH4 proportions of 30-50%, in which three wells exhibit very high CH4 contents, up to 70-90%. Two of the CH4-enriched wells are located in the northwest, and the remains are in the southeast of Ilan Plain. The dissolved radon concentrations are in the range of 800-10000 Bq/m3 in the studied area. It is interesting to note that the radon actives are higher in the west mountain areas and gradually decreasing toward the east coast areas. Meanwhile, the oxidation-reduction potential and dissolved oxygen data show positive correlations with the radon actives. It implies that the recharge of the ground water in the Ilan Plain may be from the Hsuehshan Range in west. Furthermore, elevated helium isotopic results suggest that mantle component may play an important role for the gas sources in the southeast and center of the Ilan Plain, where may be corresponding to the extensional structure or the suspected faults in the Ilan Plain. Keyword: ground water, dissolved gases, radon actives, helium isotopes, Ilan Plain

  17. Long term and seasonal ground deformation monitoring of Larissa Plain (Central Greece) by persistent scattering interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vassilopoulou, Spyridoula; Sakkas, Vasileios; Wegmuller, Urs; Capes, Ren

    2013-03-01

    The land subsidence which occurs at the Larissa Basin (Thessaly Plain, Central Greece) is due to various causes including aquifer system compaction. Deformation maps of high spatial resolution deduced by the Persistent Scattering Interferometry (PSI) technique (using radar scenes from ERS and ENVISAT satellites) for the period 1992-2006 were produced to study the spatial and temporal ground deformation. A developed GIS database (including geological, tectonic, morphological, hydrological, meteorological and watertable variation from wells in the area) offered the possibility of studying in detail the intense subsidence. The PSI based average deformation image clearly shows that subsidence generally takes place inside the Larissa Plain ranging from 5-250 mm. The largest amplitude rates (-25 mm/yr) are observed around the urban area of Larissa City (especially at Gianouli and Nikea villages), while the Larissa City center appears to be relatively stable with a tendency to subside. The rest of the plain regions seem to subside at moderate rates (about 5-10 mm/yr). The surrounding mountainous area is stable, or has slightly been uplifted with respect to the NE located reference point. It was found that there is a correlation between the seasonal water-table variation (deduced from wells data), the seasonal water demand for irrigation associated with specific types of cultivation (cotton fields), the monthly rainfall, and the observed subsidence rate in the rural regions of the Thessaly Plain.

  18. Evaluation of nine-frame enhanced multiband photography San Andreas fault zone, Carrizo Plain, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, R. E.

    1969-01-01

    Nine-frame multiband aerial photography of a sample area 4500 feet on a side was processed to enhance spectral contrasts. The area concerned is in the Carrizo Plain, 45 miles west of Bakersfield, California, in sec. 29, T 31 S., R. 21 E., as shown on the Panorama Hills quadrangle topographic map published by the U. S. Geological Survey. The accompany illustrations include an index map showing the location of the Carrizo Plain area; a geologic map of the area based on field studies and examination of black and white aerial photographs; an enhanced multiband aerial photograph; an Aero Ektachrome photograph; black and white aerial photographs; and infrared image in the 8-13 micron band.

  19. Climate Change Impacts of Irrigation on the Central High Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotterman, K. A.; Kendall, A. D.; Basso, B.; Hyndman, D. W.

    2015-12-01

    Since the 1940s, the High Plains Aquifer (HPA) has been pivotal for irrigation over the Central High Plains (CHP), a region spanning parts of five states in the central U.S.. Today after decades of over-pumping, many areas of the CHP are no longer able to irrigate due to localized depletion of the HPA. With a range of global climate models predicting an increase in temperature and decrease in growing-season precipitation for the CHP, demand for irrigation is likely to increase and exacerbate drawdown and depletion of the aquifer. Here we apply the Landscape Hydrology Model (LHM) coupled with the crop simulation model SALUS to simulate irrigation water use in response to historical climate and land use. This model is validated using historical groundwater levels. We then simulate future climate scenarios to predict how irrigation demand and water availability will alter the hydrology of the CHP. This study provides a predictive relationship of future irrigation demand linked to both climate change and agricultural management, and presents a modeling approach to answer two questions: How will future climate change affect irrigation demand? How will climate change and irrigation demand affect groundwater availability for the future? Different climate scenarios based on the representative concentration pathways (RCPs) are used to simulate the impact of different projected future climate conditions through the year 2100. By examining predicted groundwater levels along with saturated thickness we analyze where irrigation is likely to be viable in the future and compare this to current irrigation extent.

  20. Estimating canopy fuel parameters for Atlantic Coastal Plain forest types.

    SciTech Connect

    Parresol, Bernard, R.

    2007-01-15

    Abstract It is necessary to quantify forest canopy characteristics to assess crown fire hazard, prioritize treatment areas, and design treatments to reduce crown fire potential. A number of fire behavior models such as FARSITE, FIRETEC, and NEXUS require as input four particular canopy fuel parameters: 1) canopy cover, 2) stand height, 3) crown base height, and 4) canopy bulk density. These canopy characteristics must be mapped across the landscape at high spatial resolution to accurately simulate crown fire. Currently no models exist to forecast these four canopy parameters for forests of the Atlantic Coastal Plain, a region that supports millions of acres of loblolly, longleaf, and slash pine forests as well as pine-broadleaf forests and mixed species broadleaf forests. Many forest cover types are recognized, too many to efficiently model. For expediency, forests of the Savannah River Site are categorized as belonging to 1 of 7 broad forest type groups, based on composition: 1) loblolly pine, 2) longleaf pine, 3) slash pine, 4) pine-hardwood, 5) hardwood-pine, 6) hardwoods, and 7) cypress-tupelo. These 7 broad forest types typify forests of the Atlantic Coastal Plain region, from Maryland to Florida.

  1. A reconnaissance study of the effect of irrigated agriculture on water quality in the Ogallala Formation, Central High Plains Aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMahon, Peter B.

    2000-01-01

    In 1998, the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program began a regional study of water quality in the High Plains aquifer. The High Plains aquifer underlies an area of about 174,000 square miles in parts of eight States. Because of its large size, the High Plains aquifer has been divided into three regions: the Southern High Plains, Central High Plains, and Northern High Plains (fig. 1A). Although an assessment of water quality in each of the three regions is planned, the initial focus will be the Central High Plains aquifer. Anyone who has flown over the Central High Plains in the summer and has seen the large green circles associated with center pivot sprinklers (fig. 2) knows that irrigated agriculture is a widespread land use. Pesticides and fertilizers applied on those irrigated fields will not degrade ground-water quality if they remain in or above the root zone (fig. 3). However, if those chemicals move downward through the unsaturated zone to the water table, they may degrade the quality of the ground water. Water is the principal agent for transporting chemicals from land surface to the water table, and in the semiarid Central High Plains, irrigation often represents the most abundant source of water during the growing season. One objective of NAWQA's High Plains Regional Ground-Water study is to evaluate the effect of irrigated agriculture on the quality of recently recharged water in the Ogallala Formation of the Central High Plains aquifer (figs. 1A and 1B). The Ogallala Formation is the principal geologic unit in the Central High Plains aquifer, and it consists of poorly sorted clay, silt, sand, and gravel that generally is unconsolidated (Gutentag and others, 1984). Approximately 23 percent of the cropland overlying the Ogallala Formation is irrigated (U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1999). The NAWQA Program generally defines recently recharged ground water to be water recharged in the last 50 years. The water table in

  2. Light Plains in the South-Pole Aitken Basin: Surface Ages and Mineralogical Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiessen, F.; Hiesinger, H.; van der Bogert, C. H.; Pasckert, J. H.; Robinson, M. S.

    2012-04-01

    We studied light plains in the north-eastern South-Pole Aitken basin to investigate their origin, ages, and mineralogical composition. Light plains, also known as the Cayley Formation, occur on the near- and farside of the Moon. Due to their smooth texture, lower crater densities, and occurrence as crater fills, they were thought to be of volcanic origin [e.g., 1]. However, Apollo 16 samples of light plains deposits were in fact highly brecciated rocks [2]. Therefore, the Imbrium and Orientale impacts were thought to have formed light plains because they reshaped the surface thousands of kilometers from their impact sites. Subsequent studies revealed varying surface ages of light plains [e.g., 3] and different mineralogical compositions, which are in some cases more highland-like and in others more mare-like. Hence, an origin solely from the Imbrium and/or Orientale impacts is unlikely. Thus, the question whether light plains formed due to large impacts or regional cratering, or through endogenic processes remains open. We performed crater size-frequency measurements [e.g., 4] on Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Wide Angle Camera images and obtained absolute model ages between 3.43 and 3.81 Ga. We observed neither a distinctive peak of light plains ages nor clustering of similar ages in any specific regions of the studied area. Due to the fact that the derived ages vary as much as 380 Ma, an origin by a single event seems unlikely. Moreover, some ages even post-date the Imbrium and Orientale impacts, and thus an origin related to those impacts is not likely. Examination of multispectral data from Clementine [5] shows that the Ti abundances vary between 0.2 and 3 wt % and Fe abundances between 12.5 and 19 wt %. We observed a regional difference in distribution: light plains units within the Apollo basin have lower Fe and Ti values and are more highland-like, whereas light plains outside the Apollo basin show higher Fe and Ti values and are more mare-like. Furthermore, M

  3. Generalized potentiometric surface, estimated depth to water, and estimated saturated thickness of the High Plains aquifer system, March–June 2009, Laramie County, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartos, Timothy T.; Hallberg, Laura L.

    2011-01-01

    The High Plains aquifer system, commonly called the High Plains aquifer in many publications, is a nationally important water resource that underlies a 111-million-acre area (173,000 square miles) in parts of eight States including Wyoming. Through irrigation of crops with groundwater from the High Plains aquifer system, the area that overlies the aquifer system has become one of the major agricultural regions in the world. In addition, the aquifer system also serves as the primary source of drinking water for most residents of the region. The High Plains aquifer system is one of the largest aquifers or aquifer systems in the world. The High Plains aquifer system underlies an area of 8,190 square miles in southeastern Wyoming. Including Laramie County, the High Plains aquifer system is present in parts of five counties in southeastern Wyoming. The High Plains aquifer system underlies 8 percent of Wyoming, and 5 percent of the aquifer system is located within the State. Based on withdrawals for irrigation, public supply, and industrial use in 2000, the High Plains aquifer system is the most utilized source of groundwater in Wyoming. With the exception of the Laramie Mountains in western Laramie County, the High Plains aquifer system is present throughout Laramie County. In Laramie County, the High Plains aquifer system is the predominant groundwater resource for agricultural (irrigation), municipal, industrial, and domestic uses. Withdrawal of groundwater for irrigation (primarily in the eastern part of the county) is the largest use of water from the High Plains aquifer system in Laramie County and southeastern Wyoming. Continued interest in groundwater levels in the High Plains aquifer system in Laramie County prompted a study by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Wyoming State Engineer's Office to update the potentiometric-surface map of the aquifer system in Laramie County. Groundwater levels were measured in wells completed in the High Plains

  4. A decade of investigations on groundwater arsenic contamination in Middle Ganga Plain, India.

    PubMed

    Saha, Dipankar; Sahu, Sudarsan

    2016-04-01

    Groundwater arsenic (As) load in excess of drinking limit (50 µg L(-1)) in the Gangetic Plains was first detected in 2002. Though the menace was known since about two decades from the downstream part of the plains in the Bengal Basin, comprising of Lower Ganga Plain and deltaic plains of Ganga-Brahmaputra-Meghna River system, little thought was given to its possible threat in the upstream parts in the Gangetic Plains beyond Garo-Rajmahal Hills. The contamination in Bengal Basin has become one of the extensively studied issues in the world and regarded as the severest case of health hazard in the history of mankind. The researches and investigations in the Gangetic Plains during the last decade (2003-2013) revealed that the eastern half of the plains, also referred as Middle Ganga Plain (MGP), is particularly affected by contamination, jeopardising the shallow aquifer-based drinking water supply. The present paper reviews researches and investigations carried out so far in MGP by various research institutes and government departments on wide array of issues of groundwater As such as its spatio-temporal variation, mobilisation paths, water level behaviour and flow regime, configuration of contaminated and safe aquifers and their recharge mechanism. Elevated conc. of groundwater As has been observed in grey and dark grey sediments of Holocene age (Newer Alluvium) deposited in a fluvio-lacustrine environment in the floodplain of the Ganga and most of its northern tributaries from Himalayas. Older Alluvium, comprising Pleistocene brownish yellow sediment, extending as deeper aquifers in Newer Alluvium areas, is low in groundwater As. Similarities and differences on issues between the MGP and the Bengal Basin have been discussed. The researches point towards the mobilisation process as reductive dissolution of iron hydroxide coating, rich in adsorbed As, mediated by microbial processes. The area is marked with shallow water level (<8.0 m below ground) with ample

  5. Chenier plain development: feedbacks between waves, mud and sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nardin, W.; Fagherazzi, S.

    2015-12-01

    Cheniers are sandy ridges parallel to the coast established by high energy waves. Here we discuss Chenier plains ontogeny through dimensional analysis and numerical results from the morphodynamic model Delft3D-SWAN. Our results show that wave energy and shelf slope play an important role in the formation of Chenier plains. In our numerical experiments waves affect Chenier plain development in three ways: by winnowing sediment from the mudflat, by eroding mud and accumulating sand over the beach during extreme wave events. We further show that different sediment characteristics and wave climates can lead to three alternative coastal landscapes: strand plains, mudflats, or the more complex Chenier plains. Low inner-shelf slopes are the most favorable for strand plain and Chenier plain formation, while high slopes decrease the likelihood of mudflat development and preservation.

  6. Stratigraphy of Glen Rose Formation, Gulf coastal plain

    SciTech Connect

    Pittman, J.G. )

    1989-09-01

    Strata of the Glen Rose Formation and equivalent units crop out in a continuous band across the Edwards Plateau, the area of outcrop skirting the Llano uplift, the Lampasas cut plain, north-central Texas, southeastern Oklahoma, and southwestern Arkansas. These rocks dip into the subsurface of the Gulf coastal plain. Although the Glen Rose interval has been studied on outcrop and in the subsurface in these areas through numerous investigations of local scale and several regional review papers, a synthesis integrating subsurface with outcrop across the broad region and a more detailed lithostratigraphic framework are needed. On outcrop on the Edwards Plateau, the Glen Rose is divided into upper and lower members by the Corbula bed, a thin but widespread accumulation of the minute clam Carycorbula matinae. In this region, the Corbula bed lies beneath anhydrite and gypsum beds (dissolution zones on outcrop), which may be traced through laterally equivalent limestones in the subsurface around the Llano uplift to thin anhydrite stringers above the Ferry Lake Anhydrite in northeastern Texas. These stringers may be traced to the lower part of the Thorp Springs Member of the Glen Rose din the subsurface and outcrop area of north-central Texas. In the Paluxy River Valley, the Corbula bed occurs beneath the Thorp Springs. This specific correlation allows clear demarcation between beds of the upper and lower Glen Rose members in the region. Correlation of this type within the Glen Rose interval allows a detailed understanding of the depositional history of this sequence and provides a more explicitly defined lithostratigraphic framework into which future studies may be integrated.

  7. Effects of controlled agricultural practices on water quality in the Minnesota sand-plain aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, H.W., Jr.; Stoner, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    Recent studies of Minnesota's sand plains indicate that ground-water chemistry is related to agricultural practices. Surficial sand-plain aquifers cover 8,000,000 acres of Minnesota and are a major source of water for domestic use, irrigation, and some municipal systems. The sand-plain aquifers consist of sand and gravel deposits that are from 20 to greater than 100 feet thick and are covered by a thin sandy loam that generally is less than 2 feet thick. Sand-plain aquifers are recharged by the downward percolation of precipitation through the soil root zone and the unsaturated zone in the sand to the water table. The water table is the upper surface of the zone of saturation and forms the top of the sand-plain aquifer. Sand-plain aquifers are susceptible to contamination by agricultural chemicals (fertilizers and pesticides), if downward-percolating recharge water contains these chemicals. The concentrations of nitrate, pesticides, and some other chemical constituents fluctuate seasonally and differ with depth below the water table (Anderson, 1989). Despite the availability of water-quality data for about 260 wells that were collected during previous studies in three U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) project areas in Minnesota, it is not known how concentrations of agricultural chemicals in ground water relate to the rate and timing of fertilizer and pesticide application or to the tillage practices used. Field-scale research is needed to determine the effects of different farming practices on the concentrations of nitrate, pesticides, and other agricultural chemicals in ground water in the unsaturated and saturated zones.

  8. Groundwater depletion and sustainability of irrigation in the US High Plains and Central Valley.

    PubMed

    Scanlon, Bridget R; Faunt, Claudia C; Longuevergne, Laurent; Reedy, Robert C; Alley, William M; McGuire, Virginia L; McMahon, Peter B

    2012-06-12

    Aquifer overexploitation could significantly impact crop production in the United States because 60% of irrigation relies on groundwater. Groundwater depletion in the irrigated High Plains and California Central Valley accounts for ~50% of groundwater depletion in the United States since 1900. A newly developed High Plains recharge map shows that high recharge in the northern High Plains results in sustainable pumpage, whereas lower recharge in the central and southern High Plains has resulted in focused depletion of 330 km(3) of fossil groundwater, mostly recharged during the past 13,000 y. Depletion is highly localized with about a third of depletion occurring in 4% of the High Plains land area. Extrapolation of the current depletion rate suggests that 35% of the southern High Plains will be unable to support irrigation within the next 30 y. Reducing irrigation withdrawals could extend the lifespan of the aquifer but would not result in sustainable management of this fossil groundwater. The Central Valley is a more dynamic, engineered system, with north/south diversions of surface water since the 1950s contributing to ~7× higher recharge. However, these diversions are regulated because of impacts on endangered species. A newly developed Central Valley Hydrologic Model shows that groundwater depletion since the 1960s, totaling 80 km(3), occurs mostly in the south (Tulare Basin) and primarily during droughts. Increasing water storage through artificial recharge of excess surface water in aquifers by up to 3 km(3) shows promise for coping with droughts and improving sustainability of groundwater resources in the Central Valley. PMID:22645352

  9. Groundwater depletion and sustainability of irrigation in the US High Plains and Central Valley

    PubMed Central

    Scanlon, Bridget R.; Faunt, Claudia C.; Longuevergne, Laurent; Reedy, Robert C.; Alley, William M.; McGuire, Virginia L.; McMahon, Peter B.

    2012-01-01

    Aquifer overexploitation could significantly impact crop production in the United States because 60% of irrigation relies on groundwater. Groundwater depletion in the irrigated High Plains and California Central Valley accounts for ∼50% of groundwater depletion in the United States since 1900. A newly developed High Plains recharge map shows that high recharge in the northern High Plains results in sustainable pumpage, whereas lower recharge in the central and southern High Plains has resulted in focused depletion of 330 km3 of fossil groundwater, mostly recharged during the past 13,000 y. Depletion is highly localized with about a third of depletion occurring in 4% of the High Plains land area. Extrapolation of the current depletion rate suggests that 35% of the southern High Plains will be unable to support irrigation within the next 30 y. Reducing irrigation withdrawals could extend the lifespan of the aquifer but would not result in sustainable management of this fossil groundwater. The Central Valley is a more dynamic, engineered system, with north/south diversions of surface water since the 1950s contributing to ∼7× higher recharge. However, these diversions are regulated because of impacts on endangered species. A newly developed Central Valley Hydrologic Model shows that groundwater depletion since the 1960s, totaling 80 km3, occurs mostly in the south (Tulare Basin) and primarily during droughts. Increasing water storage through artificial recharge of excess surface water in aquifers by up to 3 km3 shows promise for coping with droughts and improving sustainability of groundwater resources in the Central Valley. PMID:22645352

  10. Groundwater depletion and sustainability of irrigation in the US High Plains and Central Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scanlon, Bridget R.; Faunt, Claudia C.; Longuevergne, Laurent; Reedy, Robert C.; Alley, William M.; McGuire, Virginia L.; McMahon, Peter B.

    2012-01-01

    Aquifer overexploitation could significantly impact crop production in the United States because 60% of irrigation relies on groundwater. Groundwater depletion in the irrigated High Plains and California Central Valley accounts for ~50% of groundwater depletion in the United States since 1900. A newly developed High Plains recharge map shows that high recharge in the northern High Plains results in sustainable pumpage, whereas lower recharge in the central and southern High Plains has resulted in focused depletion of 330 km3 of fossil groundwater, mostly recharged during the past 13,000 y. Depletion is highly localized with about a third of depletion occurring in 4% of the High Plains land area. Extrapolation of the current depletion rate suggests that 35% of the southern High Plains will be unable to support irrigation within the next 30 y. Reducing irrigation withdrawals could extend the lifespan of the aquifer but would not result in sustainable management of this fossil groundwater. The Central Valley is a more dynamic, engineered system, with north/south diversions of surface water since the 1950s contributing to ~7× higher recharge. However, these diversions are regulated because of impacts on endangered species. A newly developed Central Valley Hydrologic Model shows that groundwater depletion since the 1960s, totaling 80 km3, occurs mostly in the south (Tulare Basin) and primarily during droughts. Increasing water storage through artificial recharge of excess surface water in aquifers by up to 3 km3 shows promise for coping with droughts and improving sustainability of groundwater resources in the Central Valley.

  11. Circulation of Surface Water And Groundwater. Geophysical approach (electrical tomography). Western Haouz plain. Western Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ibtissam, Chouikri; Mandour Abdennabi, El; Mohammed, Jeffal; Mahjoub, Himi; Rochdane, Samia; Karroum, Morad; Elgettafi, Mohammed; Casas, Albert

    2016-04-01

    The Western Haouz plain and the Mejjate plain constitute a vast alluvial plain of about 2800 km2. The area is located between 30 and 80 km south-west of Marrakech city and it is characterized by a semi-arid climate. The morphology of the plain is known by a flat topography, monotone and it is drained by three wadis: Nfis wadi, Assif El Mal wadi and Chichaoua wadi. The compilation of Geological, Geophysical and hydrogeological data shows that the Western Haouz plain is divided into two parts, it is a synclinal form separated by Marmouta horst and Guemassa horst. In the southern part, the Mejjate syncline is subsiding and shows a several formations from the shales of the Paleozoic to the alluvium of the quaternary. In the northern part, the syncline is less developed and it is formed by the conglomerates of the Mio-Pliocene and the alluvium of the Quaternary. The gravity map established shows positive anomalies due to the outcrop of the basement, and negative anomalies in the subsiding basins. Hydrogeologically, the geometry of the reservoirs and the groundwater circulation are controlled by geology (Rifts, flexure, anticline and syncline). The southern part of the plain between the Marmouta anticline and the piedmont of the High Atlas Mountains shows two aquifers; the unconfined aquifer housed in thick formations of Quaternary and Mio-Pliocene; and the confined aquifer housed in dolomitic limestones of the Cenomanian-Turonian. The confined aquifer is fed at the northern flank of the High Atlas showing karts morphology and high cliff of limestone slab of the Turonian. The outlet of the deep confined aquifer is shown by Abainou source with a variation between 300 and 600 l/s south of the Marmouta anticline and constitutes a barrier for the deep waters flow circulations.

  12. Changes in water levels and storage in the High Plains Aquifer, predevelopment to 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGuire, V.L.

    2011-01-01

    The High Plains aquifer underlies 111.8 million acres (175,000 square miles) in parts of eight States - Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. The area overlying the High Plains aquifer is one of the primary agricultural regions in the Nation. Water-level declines began in parts of the High Plains aquifer soon after the onset of substantial irrigation with groundwater from the aquifer (about 1950 and termed "predevelopment" in this fact sheet). By 1980, water levels in the High Plains aquifer in parts of Texas, Oklahoma, and southwestern Kansas had declined more than 100 feet (ft) (Luckey and others, 1981). In 1987, in response to declining water levels, Congress directed the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with numerous Federal, State, and local water-resources entities, to assess and track water-level changes in the aquifer. This fact sheet summarizes changes in water levels and drainable water in storage in the High Plains aquifer from predevelopment to 2009. Drainable water in storage is the fraction of water in the aquifer that will drain by gravity and can be withdrawn by wells. The remaining water in the aquifer is held to the aquifer material by capillary forces and generally cannot be withdrawn by wells. Drainable water in storage is termed "water in storage" in this report. A companion USGS report presents more detailed and technical information about water-level and storage changes in the High Plains aquifer during this period (McGuire, 2011).

  13. Upscaling carbon fluxes over the Great Plains grasslands: Sinks and sources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, Li; Wylie, Bruce K.; Ji, Lei; Gilmanov, Tagir G.; Tieszen, Larry L.; Howar, Daniel M.

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies suggested that the grasslands may be carbon sinks or near equilibrium, and they often shift between carbon sources in drought years and carbon sinks in other years. It is important to understand the responses of net ecosystem production (NEP) to various climatic conditions across the U.S. Great Plains grasslands. Based on 15 grassland flux towers, we developed a piecewise regression model and mapped the grassland NEP at 250 m spatial resolution over the Great Plains from 2000 to 2008. The results showed that the Great Plains was a net sink with an averaged annual NEP of 24 ± 14 g C m−2 yr−1, ranging from a low value of 0.3 g C m−2 yr−1 in 2002 to a high value of 47.7 g C m−2 yr−1 in 2005. The regional averaged NEP for the entire Great Plains grasslands was estimated to be 336 Tg C yr−1 from 2000 to 2008. In the 9 year period including 4 dry years, the annual NEP was very variable in both space and time. It appeared that the carbon gains for the Great Plains were more sensitive to droughts in the west than the east. The droughts in 2000, 2002, 2006, and 2008 resulted in increased carbon losses over drought-affected areas, and the Great Plains grasslands turned into a relatively low sink with NEP values of 15.8, 0.3, 20.1, and 10.2 g C m−2 yr−1 for the 4 years, respectively.

  14. Hydrologic and geochemical characterization of the Santa Rosa Plain watershed, Sonoma County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nishikawa, Tracy

    2013-01-01

    The Santa Rosa Plain is home to approximately half of the population of Sonoma County, California, and faces growth in population and demand for water. Water managers are confronted with the challenge of meeting the increasing water demand with a combination of water sources, including local groundwater, whose future availability could be uncertain. To meet this challenge, water managers are seeking to acquire the knowledge and tools needed to understand the likely effects of future groundwater development in the Santa Rosa Plain and to identify efficient strategies for surface- and groundwater management that will ensure the long-term viability of the water supply. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Sonoma County Water Agency and other stakeholders in the area (cities of Cotati, Rohnert Park, Santa Rosa, and Sebastopol, town of Windsor, Cal-American Water Company, and the County of Sonoma), undertook this study to characterize the hydrology of the Santa Rosa Plain and to develop tools to better understand and manage the groundwater system. The objectives of the study are: (1) to develop an updated assessment of the hydrogeology and geochemistry of the Santa Rosa Plain; (2) to develop a fully coupled surface-water and groundwater-flow model for the Santa Rosa Plain watershed; and (3) to evaluate the potential hydrologic effects of alternative groundwater-management strategies for the basin. The purpose of this report is to describe the surface-water and groundwater hydrology, hydrogeology, and water-quality characteristics of the Santa Rosa Plain watershed and to develop a conceptual model of the hydrologic system in support of the first objective. The results from completing the second and third objectives will be described in a separate report.

  15. Martian lake basins and lacustrine plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Hon, R. A.

    1992-02-01

    A classification of Martian lake basins based on the location of the basin in respect to water sources is proposed. The classes are type 1: valley-head basins; type 2: intravalley basins; type 3: valley-terminal basins; and type 4: isolated basins. Martian lakes are ephemeral features. Many craters and irregular depressions impounded water only until the basins filled and overflowed. Water escaping by spillover rapidly cut crevasses in the downstream side of basins and drained the ponds. Clastic lacustrine sediments collected in the lakes as flowing water lost velocity and turbulence. Evaporitic deposits may be significant in those basins that were not rapidly drained. Sediments deposited in lake basins form smooth, featureless plains. Lacustrine plains are potentially candidate sites for Mars landings and for the search for evidence of ancient life.

  16. Depth-dependent mechanisms that drive land subsidence in Beijing plain, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Gong, H.; Wang, R.; Liu, H.; Gu, Z.; Li, X.

    2014-12-01

    The Beijing city, located in the north of North China Plain, China, has undergone severe land subsidence for the last several decades. An integrated subsidence-monitoring program, including leveling survey, borehole extensometer and and Satellite radar interferometry (InSAR) time series analysis, has been designed to meet the needs of mapping and monitoring land subsidence in this region. The monitoring data reveal that the subsidence rates of plain area exhibit significant spatial variability, ranging from 1cm to 15cm/yr. The purpose of this article is to identify and analyze the natural and anthropogenic mechanisms that drive the land subsidence. The movement sources are described and classified by their depth of occurrence. We attribute effects of displacement of the Beijing plain to three major components: (1) shallow components, (2) mediate component, and (3) deep component. Deep components are recognized as tectonic movement of the pre-Tertiary basement. Medium component act at depths generally range of 50 to 450m, and include groundwater exploitation; geochemical compaction, due to the high salt concentration in the deep lacustrine sendiments. Shallow components are related to the settlement of building; natural consolidation, due to the compaction of the loose sediments occurred mainly in the clayey layers of the uppermost 26-m Holocene deposits and organic soil subsidence occurs mainly with drainage and development of peat by land reclamation. The latter factor primarily involve the southeast area of the Beijing plain. The loads of new buildings may also cause short-live compaction of shallow deposits. Groundwater exploitation is thought to be the major factor that contributes to the present land subsidence in the Beijing plain. Settlement caused by buildings loads cannot be omitted in newly developed area, but such phenomenon might be localized.

  17. Improvement of water resources management through the use of satellites flood plain delineation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castruccio, P. A.; Rango, A.

    1974-01-01

    The delineation of flood-prone areas is an important activity in several parts of the world. Conventional methods map the topography surrounding the river via ground surveys and supplementary aerophotography. The conventional method costs approximately $2,000 per river-kilometer, is laborious and time-consuming. ERTS information can supplement this method by two complementary techniques: (1) the dynamic method images the floods as they occur, exploiting the fact that visible evidence of inundation remains for a substantial period after the high waters have receded; (2) the static method utilizes the fact that several flood plains have been found recognizable on ERTS imagery from distinctive, permanent indicators left by previous floods. For areas whose full development is still in the future, the dynamic method allows the gradual buildup with time of a flood plain map, by simply correlating existing ERTS imagery. The static method allows in several areas, a first-cut indication, of proneness to floods.

  18. Simplified Micromechanics of Plain Weave Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mital, Subodh K.; Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Chamis, Christos C.

    1996-01-01

    A micromechanics based methodology to simulate the complete hygro-thermomechanical behavior of plain weave composites is developed. This methodology is based on micromechanics and the classical laminate theory. The methodology predicts a complete set of thermal, hygral and mechanical properties of plain woven composites, generates necessary data for use in a finite element structural analysis, and predicts stresses all the way from the laminate to the constituent level. This methodology is used in conjunction with a composite mechanics code to analyze and predict the properties/response of a generic graphite/epoxy woven textile composite and a plain weave ceramic composite. The fiber architecture, including the fiber waviness and fiber end distributions through the thickness, is properly accounted for. Predicted results compare reasonably well with those from detailed three-dimensional finite element analyses as well as available experimental data. However, the main advantage of the proposed methodology is its high computational efficiency as compared with three-dimensional finite element analyses.

  19. Hydrology of Salt Wells Creek : a plains stream in southwestern Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lowham, H.W.; DeLong, L.L.; Collier, K.R.; Zimmerman, E.A.

    1982-01-01

    Development of energy minerals in plains areas of Wyoming is expanding rapidly. Such development may affect water resources and hydrologic relations of the plains; however, little information exists concerning hydrologic processes for these areas. This report summarizes results of a hydrologic study made during 1975-78 of Salt Wells creek, a drainage area of about 500 square miles located southeast of Rock Springs, Wyoming. The area is typical of arid and semiarid plains areas in southwestern Wyoming where mineral development is occurring. Salt Wells Creek is predominately an intermittent stream. Numerous springs in the headwaters cause small perennial flows in some upstream tributaries, but evaporation, freezeup, and seepage deplete these flows so that the middle and lower reaches of the main channel have only intermittent flows. The intermittent nature of streamflow affects water quality. It was observed that a flushing of dissolved solids and suspended sediment occurs during the first flows of a runoff event. A striking feature of the stream is its deeply incised channel. The downcutting is attributed to the cummulative effects of: (1) a change in the relative climate, amounts of annual precipitation occurring as rain and snow, (2) change in base level due to downstream channelization, and (3) changes in land use. Because of the incision, erosion is now expanding to include intervening tributaries. (USGS)

  20. The Greater Plains Collaborative: a PCORnet Clinical Research Data Network.

    PubMed

    Waitman, Lemuel R; Aaronson, Lauren S; Nadkarni, Prakash M; Connolly, Daniel W; Campbell, James R

    2014-01-01

    The Greater Plains Collaborative (GPC) is composed of 10 leading medical centers repurposing the research programs and informatics infrastructures developed through Clinical and Translational Science Award initiatives. Partners are the University of Kansas Medical Center, Children's Mercy Hospital, University of Iowa Healthcare, the University of Wisconsin-Madison, the Medical College of Wisconsin and Marshfield Clinic, the University of Minnesota Academic Health Center, the University of Nebraska Medical Center, the University of Texas Health Sciences Center at San Antonio, and the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center. The GPC network brings together a diverse population of 10 million people across 1300 miles covering seven states with a combined area of 679 159 square miles. Using input from community members, breast cancer was selected as a focus for cohort building activities. In addition to a high-prevalence disorder, we also selected a rare disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. PMID:24778202

  1. Active tectonics of the Oran (Algeria) Quaternary plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    youcef, Bouhadad; rabah, Bensalem; e-hadi, oubaiche

    2016-04-01

    The Oran region, in north-western Algeria, has been hit several times in the past by destructive moderate-sized and strong earthquakes. The Oran October 9th , 1790 (I0= X) was among the strongest seismic events in the western Mediterranean area comparable, if we consider the described effects, to the El- Asnam (1980, Ms=7.3) and Zemmouri (2003, Mw=6.8) earthquakes. Such strong seismic events requires the presence of major active geological structures that are re-activated several times in the past. In this work we present results of a multi- disciplinary study combining geomorphic analysis, field earthquake geological investigations and geophysical methods, undertaken to study the southern border of the Oran Quaternary plain. A 50 km long, SW-dipping and NE-SW trending active fault has been identified that showing clear quaternary deformation. Keywords: earthquake geology, active fault, geomorphic, geophysics, Algeria.

  2. Smooth plains deformation in a buried crater of Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, V.; Ruiz, J.; Vazquez, A.

    2012-09-01

    The surface of Mercury shows different kinds of tectonics landforms, mostly indicating surface contraction [1,2]. Compressional features include lobate scarps, wrinkle ridges, and high relief ridges, which are different manifestations of thrust faults, depending on, for example, deep angle of faulting and type of surface geology [3-5]. Also, there are evidences of long-wavelengh topography variations, affecting to the northern smooth plains and Caloris basin, which could also be the expression of contraction (and maybe large scale folding) related to the cooling of Mercury [6]. In this work we focus on the deformation in an area centered in the equator comprising a buried crater affected by two different sets of tectonic features.

  3. Organized Stone Stripes in the Northern Plains of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, D. P.

    2008-12-01

    Polygonally-patterned ground at scales of meters to tens of meters is nearly ubiquitous in the northern plains of Mars. Collections of cobble to boulder-sized clasts are commonly found superimposed on polygonal terrain in a regular pattern that resembles the surface of a basketball [Mellon et al., 2008; Malin and Edgett, 2001]. Here we describe a variation of this basketball terrain, dubbed "stone stripes," in which piles of clastic debris are arranged into a series of parallel to subparallel ridges spaced at intervals of ~40 m. Stone stripes appear to be continuous or nearly continuous over areas of tens to hundreds of square kilometers. This type of landform is most prevalent poleward of ~70°N latitude, at the northern margin of Utopia Planitia . We hypothesize that the orientation of stone stripes is controlled by regional structures, such as wrinkle ridges. First results from a survey of THEMIS VIS images within the area from 60°N-80°N and from 70°E-130°E show no obvious correlation between wrinkle ridge orientation and the orientation of stone stripes. Work is ongoing to further characterize the orientation of stone stripes in relation to regional structures and local and regional topographic slopes. Mellon et al., (2008), Periglacial landforms at the Phoenix landing site and the northern plains of Mars, Journal of Geophysical Research, doi:10.1029/2007JE003039, in press. Malin and Edgett, (2001), Mars global surveyor mars orbiter camera: Interplanetary cruise through primary mission, Journal of Geophysical Research, 106, 23429-23570.

  4. Altitude and configuration of the water table in the High Plains Aquifer in Kansas, 1960

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pabst, Marilyn E.; Stullken, Lloyd E.

    1986-01-01

    The High Plains aquifer in Kansas is part of a regional aquifer system that extends into Colorado, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. The aquifer in Kansas underlies an area of 31,000 square miles in the western and south-central part of the State. The aquifer is a hydraulically connected assemblage of unconsolidated water-bearing deposits. In western Kansas, the High Plains aquifer consists principally of the Ogallala Formation of the late Tertiary age and the overlying deposits of Quaternary age. In south-central Kansas, the aquifer consists of unconsolidated deposits principally of Quaternary age. Valley alluvium of Quaternary age also is included in the deposits in both areas. The High Plains aquifer is delimited on the east by outcrops of Permian or Cretaceous rocks and by unsaturated deposits of Quaternary age. The altitude and configuration of the water table during 1960 are shown for the High Plains aquifer in Kansas. The water table sloped generally from west to east at an average rate of 10 feet per mile. The altitude of the water table ranged from about 3,900 feet in the southwest corner of Sherman County, northwestern Kansas, to about 1,350 feet in northern Sedgwick County, southcentral Kansas. Groundwater moves perpendicular to the water table contours from higher altitudes in the western part of the High Plains to lower altitudes in the east. Contours that cross stream valleys without flexure may indicate that the water table was below the streambed. Upstream flexure of water table contours along streams indicates that groundwater flowed toward, and discharged into, streams. This is most evident along the South Fork Republican River in Cheyenne County, Northwestern Kansas, and the South Fork Ninnescah River in Pratt and Kingman Counties, south-central Kansas. (USGS)

  5. Irrigated acreage and other land uses on the Snake River Plain, Idaho and eastern Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindholm, Gerald F.; Goodell, S.A.

    1986-01-01

    Prompted by the need for a current, accurate, and repeatable delineation of irrigated acreage on the Snake River Plain, the U.S. Geological Survey entered into a cooperative agreement with the Idaho Department of Water Resources Image Analysis Facility and the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation to delineate 1980 land use form Landsat data. Irrigated acreage data were needed as input to groundwater flow models developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in a study of the regional aquifer system underlying the Snake River Plain. Single-date digital multispectral scanner data analyzed to delineate land-use classes. Source of irrigation water (surface water, ground water, and combined) was determined from county maps of 1975 water-related land use, data from previous investigations, and field checking. Surface-water diversions for irrigation on the Snake River Plain began in the 1840's. With the stimulus of Federal aid authorized by the Desert Land Act, Carey Act, and Reclamation Act, irrigated area increased rapidly in the early 1900's. By 1929, 2.2 million acres were irrigated. Ground water became and important source of irrigation water after World War II. In 1980, about 3.1 million acres of the Snake River Plain were irrigate: 2.0 million acres with surface water, 1.0 million with ground water, and 0.1 million with combined surface and ground water. About 5.2 million acres (half of the plain) are undeveloped rangeland, 1.0 million acres (one-tenth) are classified as barren. The remaining land is a mixture of dryland agriculture, water bodies, wetland, forests, and urban areas.

  6. Estimating grassland aboveground biomass using multitemporal MODIS data in the West Songnen Plain, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fei; Jiang, Lei; Wang, Xufeng; Zhang, Xiaoqiang; Zheng, Jiajia; Zhao, Qianjun

    2013-01-01

    The West Songnen Plain is an ecologically fragile area. The grasslands on the plain have been seriously degraded over the past five decades and this process is continuing. The reliable estimation of grassland aboveground biomass (AGB) provides scientific data for determining the livestock stocking rate on rangeland. AGB is also of considerable significance for biodiversity and environmental protection in this region. Remote sensing is the most effective way to estimate grassland AGB on a regional scale. Multitemporal, remotely sensed data were used for grassland AGB estimation with statistical models and an artificial neural network (ANN), and the accuracy of estimation for these methods was compared. The results demonstrate that the use of multi-temporal remotely sensed data has advantages for grassland AGB estimation, whether with statistical models or ANN methods, compared with single-temporal remotely sensed data, although the ANN had a higher accuracy of estimation for grassland AGB. Finally, the grassland AGB on the Songnen Plain was estimated with the ANN using multitemporal MODIS data. The spatial distribution pattern of grassland AGB showed large variations, and grassland productivity was generally low. The maximum green weight of the grassland AGB was 927.22 g/m2 and was mainly distributed on the northeast of the West Songnen Plain. The minimum green weight of the grassland AGB was 194.82 g/m2 and was mainly distributed on the central and southwestern West Songnen Plain. Most of the areas had medium- and low-yielding grasses. The significant increases of population and livestock number were the primary and direct reasons for the decrease in grassland quality. This study will contribute to policy making for the control of grazing and for biodiversity and environmental protection.

  7. Shallow Groundwater Mercury Supply in a Coastal Plain Stream

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Fluvial methylmercury (MeHg) is attributed to methylation in up-gradient wetland areas. This hypothesis depends on efficient wetland-to-stream hydraulic transport under nonflood and flood conditions. Fluxes of water and dissolved (filtered) mercury (Hg) species (FMeHg and total Hg (FTHg)) were quantified in April and July of 2009 in a reach at McTier Creek, South Carolina to determine the relative importance of tributary surface water and shallow groundwater Hg transport from wetland/floodplain areas to the stream under nonflood conditions. The reach represented less than 6% of upstream main-channel distance and 2% of upstream basin area. Surface-water discharge increased within the reach by approximately 10%. Mean FMeHg and FTHg fluxes increased within the reach by 23–27% and 9–15%, respectively. Mass balances indicated that, under nonflood conditions, the primary supply of water, FMeHg, and FTHg within the reach (excluding upstream surface water influx) was groundwater discharge, rather than tributary transport from wetlands, in-stream MeHg production, or atmospheric Hg deposition. These results illustrate the importance of riparian wetland/floodplain areas as sources of fluvial MeHg and of groundwater Hg transport as a fundamental control on Hg supply to Coastal Plain streams. PMID:22734594

  8. Small sinkhole-like features in alluvial plains: the example of Paganico (Lucca Plain, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dell'Aringa, M.; Giannecchini, R.; Puccinelli, A.

    2014-01-01

    Paganico is a little village located in the southeastern portion of the Lucca Plain (northwestern Tuscany, Italy). Since the seventies, a few square kilometers' area around Paganico has been involved in the opening of small cavities (sinkhole-like) on the land surface. At the beginning they were very small and sporadic. Later on the phenomena were characterized by a significant extension, increasing in frequency and size (up to 2 m in diameter and depth), causing inconvenience to local people, agricultural operations and occasionally a little damage (cracks to buildings, fencing walls and outside floorings). The cavities prevalently occur at the end of the dry season, during or immediately after the first intense rainy events, that is, between the end of summer and early autumn. Even so, the predisposition and triggering causes at present are not completely clarified. Therefore this study is aimed at individuating the triggering and evolution mechanism of the Paganico sinkhole-like features, particularly referring to the stratigraphic, hydrogeological and geotechnical features of the involved materials. Another important issue made clear with this research is represented by the overexploitation of the local aquifer, characterized by particular hydro-structural conditions. In fact, the Paganico underground shows three horizons with different lithologic, hydrogeological and geotechnical properties: a superficial silty-sandy horizon (2-3 m thick), which is particularly involved in collapses; an intermediate silty-clayey horizon (2-4 m thick); and a lower and thick gravel-pebbly horizon, characterized by important water resources and heavy pumping. Since the seventies, such water pumping rose considerably due to the local demographic (well field), industrial (paper manufacture) and agricultural development. From a hydrogeological point of view, this area is consequently characterized by two water tables: a temporary one, housed in the superficial silty-sandy horizon

  9. Altitude and configuration of the water table in the High Plains aquifer system of Kansas, pre-1950

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stullken, Lloyd E.; Pabst, Marilyn E.

    1985-01-01

    The High Plains aquifer in Kansas is a part of a regional system that extends from South Dakota to Texas. The aquifer in Kansas underlies an area of 31,000 square miles in the western and south-central part. The aquifer is a hydraulically connected assemblage of unconsolidated water-bearing deposits of Tertiary and Quaternary age. Maps at a scale of 1:500,000 show the altitude and configuration of the water table in Kansas prior to 1950. The water-table maps depict the water-level surface that was present prior to major development of the High Plains aquifer. Ground water moves from higher altitudes in the western part of the High Plains to lower altitudes in the eastern part at an average slope of 10 feet per mile. The upgradient flexure of water-table contours along some of the valleys indicates that ground water is discharged to the streams in those areas. (USGS)

  10. Age determinations and Earth-based multispectral observations of lunar light plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koehler, U.; Jaumann, R.; Neukum, G.

    1993-01-01

    The history of light plains still remains doubtful, but there are good arguments - mainly obtained by age determinations and supported by multispectral observations - for an endogenic (magmatic) instead of an (exclusively) impact related origin. Light plains are characterized by smooth areas with an albedo lower than the surrounding highlands (12 - 13 percent), but significantly higher than maria (5 - 6 percent). Before Apollo 16 a volcanic source has been supposed, but analysis of returned samples (highly brecciated and metamorphosed rocks) favored an impact ejecta related origin. Among the currently discussed models are formation by ejecta sedimentation from multi-ringed basins, formation by secondary and tertiary cratering action of ballistically ejected material during the formation of multi-ringed basins, in situ formation by impact melt of large events, and premare (crypto-) volcanism basalts covered by a thin ejecta cover; younger impacts penetrated the ejecta surface to create the dark haloed craters. To find arguments in favor or against these ideas the chronology of light plains is of major importance. Obviously a genetic relationship between the evolution of light plains and the basin forming impacts can be possible only if the events of emplacement features happened simultaneously.

  11. A data-management system for areal interpretive data for the High Plains in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luckey, R.R.; Ferrigno, C.F.

    1982-01-01

    The High Plains Regional Aquifer System Analysis has developed a regional water-resources (and related) data storage and retrieval system to organize and preserve areal interpretative data. The system is general and can easily be adapted for other studies. This report documents the High Plains data base as well as the general system that is independent of the High Plains area. The system is built around a hierarchically structured data base consisting of related latitude-longitude blocks. Various parameters in the data base are stored at different degrees of detail, with the finest detail being a block of 1 minute of latitude by 1 minute longitude (approximately 1 square mile). (USGS)

  12. 7 CFR 650.25 - Flood-plain management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... plantings (7 CFR Part 613, Plant Materials Centers, 16 U.S.C. 590 a-e, f, and 7 U.S.C. 1010-1011). If NRCS... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flood-plain management. 650.25 Section 650.25... Flood-plain management. Through proper planning, flood plains can be managed to reduce the threat...

  13. 7 CFR 650.25 - Flood-plain management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... plantings (7 CFR Part 613, Plant Materials Centers, 16 U.S.C. 590 a-e, f, and 7 U.S.C. 1010-1011). If NRCS... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flood-plain management. 650.25 Section 650.25... Flood-plain management. Through proper planning, flood plains can be managed to reduce the threat...

  14. 7 CFR 650.25 - Flood-plain management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... plantings (7 CFR Part 613, Plant Materials Centers, 16 U.S.C. 590 a-e, f, and 7 U.S.C. 1010-1011). If NRCS... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flood-plain management. 650.25 Section 650.25... Flood-plain management. Through proper planning, flood plains can be managed to reduce the threat...

  15. Altitude and configuration of the 1980 water table in the High Plains regional aquifer, northwestern Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Havens, John S.

    1982-01-01

    During 1978, the U.S. Geological Survey began a 5-year study of the High Plains regional aquifer system to provide hydrologic information for evaluation of the effects of long-term development of the aquifer and to develop computer models for prediction of aquifer response to alternative changes in ground-water management (Weeks, 1978). This report is one of a series presenting hydrologic information of the High Plains aquifer in Oklahoma. The altitude and configuration of the water table are shown for the eastern area, consisting of Harper, Ellis, Woodward, Dewey, and Roger Mills Counties (sheet 1), and for the Panhandle area, consisting of Cimarron, Texas, and Beaver Counties (sheet 2). Water levels were measured in January, February, and March 1980 by the Oklahoma Water Resources Board.

  16. Historical and contemporary imagery to assess ecosystem change on the Arctic coastal plain of northern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tape, Ken D.; Pearce, John M.; Walworth, Dennis; Meixell, Brandt W.; Fondell, Tom F.; Gustine, David D.; Flint, Paul L.; Hupp, Jerry W.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Ward, David H.

    2014-01-01

    In this report, we describe and make available a set of 61 georectified aerial images of the Arctic Coastal Plain (taken from 1948 to 2010) that were obtained by the USGS to inform research objectives of the USGS CAE Initiative. Here, we describe the origins, metadata, and public availability of these images that were obtained within four main study areas on the Arctic Coastal Plain: Teshekpuk Lake Special Area, Chipp River, the Colville River Delta, and locations along the Dalton Highway Corridor between the Brooks Range and Deadhorse. We also provide general descriptions of observable changes to the geomorphology of landscapes that are apparent by comparing historical and contemporary images. These landscape changes include altered river corridors, lake drying, coastal erosion, and new vegetation communities. All original and georectified images and metadata are available through the USGS Alaska Science Center Portal (search under ‘Project Name’ using title of this report) or by contacting ascweb@usgs.gov.

  17. Altitude and configuration of the water table in the High Plains aquifer in Kansas, 1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pabst, Marilyn E.; Stullken, Lloyd E.

    1985-01-01

    The High Plains aquifer in Kansas is a part of a regional system that extends from South Dakota to Texas. The aquifer in Kansas underlies an area of 31,000 square miles in the western and south-central part of the State. This aquifer is a hydraulically connected assemblage of unconsolidated water-bearing deposits of Tertiary and Quaternary age. Maps published at a scale of 1:500 ,000 show the altitude and configuration of the water table in Kansas during 1980. Ground water moves from higher altitudes in the western part of the high Plains to lower altitudes in the eastern part at an average rate of 10 feet per mile. The up-gradient flexure of water-table contours along some of the valleys indicates that ground water discharges to the streams in those areas. (USGS)

  18. Altitude and configuration of the water table in the High Plains Aquifer in Kansas, 1970

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pabst, Marilyn E.; Stullken, Lloyd E.

    1985-01-01

    The High Plains aquifer in Kansas is a part of a regional system that extends from South Dakota to Texas. The aquifer in Kansas underlies an area of 31,000 square miles in the western and south-central part. This aquifer is a hydraulically connected assemblage of unconsolidated water-bearing deposits of Tertiary and Quaternary age. Maps published at a scale of 1:500,000 show the altitude and configuration of the water table in Kansas during 1970. Ground water moved from higher altitudes in the western part of the High Plains to lower altitudes in the eastern part under an average gradient of 10 feet per mile. The upgradient flexure of water-table contours along some of the valleys indicates that ground water was discharged to the streams in those areas. (USGS)

  19. Altitude and configuration of the water table in the High Plains Aquifer in Kansas, 1965

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pabst, Marilyn E.; Stullken, Lloyd E.

    1982-01-01

    The High Plains aquifer in Kansas is a part of a regional system that extends South Dakota to Texas. The aquifer in Kansas underlies an area of 31,000 square miles in the western and south-central part. This aquifer is a hydraulically connected assemblage of unconsolidated water-bearing deposits of Tertiary and Quaternary age. Maps published at a scale of 1:500,000 show the altitude and configuration of the water table in Kansas during 1965. Groundwater moved from higher altitudes in the western part of the High Plains to lower altitudes in the eastern part at a average rate of 10 ft/mi. The upgradient flexure of water table contours along some of the valleys indicates that groundwater was discharged to the streams in those areas. (USGS)

  20. Definition of a Sinkhole hazard methodology in the Pontina Plain (Latium Region, Central Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teoli, Pamela; Mazza, Roberto; Capelli, Giuseppe

    2010-05-01

    The work presented here is the continuation of " Sinkhole Project of Latium Region" (2002), carried out by Researchers of the Laboratory of Applied Geology and Hydrogeology of the Department of Geological Sciences of the University "Roma Tre", Rome (Italy), through which were found, in different plain of the whole Region, Sinkhole prone areas, using a methodology based on the superimposition of thematic layers corresponding to geological and anthropogenic breaking factors. In the last years several specific investigations have been conducted by Researchers of the Laboratory in the Pontina Plain, that is located in the south west of the Latium Region, concerning the geological-stratigraphic setting, the sketch of flow in the aquifers located in the Pontine depression, the chemiphysical groundwater characheteristics, the density of wells, the amount of well pumping and piezometric changes. This required the implementation of several piezometric and chemiphysical surveys, the collection and validation of a large number of stratigraphic and geophysical data. All data in the archive have been computerized and the maps vectorized. This makes it possible today to address the analysis with Geographical Information Systems and to start numerical flow simulations, regarding both the heavily drained deep confined aquifer, and the areas subject to the presence of an important water exchange between the recharge area in the Lepini Mountains (carbonatic ridge) and terrigenous aquifers of the plain. Among the main causes that trigger the catastrophic collapses there are, in fact, all the phenomena that cause the mass density reduction through erosion, leaching, dissolution. All these agents are associated with water circulation: flow, velocity, CO2 saturation rate, carbonates saturation rate. The spread in the Pontina plain of deep and high pumping wells, wrongly built without the correct way of progress, and without the realization of cemented portions properly located, can lead

  1. Drought variability over Thessaly plain, Greece. Present and future changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nastos, Panagiotis T.; Kapsomenakis, John; Dalezios, Nicolas R.; Kotsopoulos, Spyridon; Poulos, Serafim

    2015-04-01

    The diachronic variability of precipitation is of major scientific concern, because it is linked to water availability or deficiency on regional scale. The latter, resulted from a prolonged period of abnormally low precipitation or permanent absence of precipitation, is associated with dryness, having on one hand, a substantial impact on agricultural production and thus the society itself, and on the other hand, the redistribution of flora and fauna. In some cases, dryness drive climate refugees, and this is a great challenge - threat - that must be faced - mitigated - by stake holders in international organizations and fora. The Aridity Index (AI) measures the degree of dryness of the climate at a given region, and according to the United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) it is defined as the ratio of precipitation to the potential evapotranspiration. In this study, we investigate the climate change impacts on AI over Thessaly plain, Greece. Thessaly, the largest plain and granary of Greece, includes a total area of 14,036 km2, which represents almost 11% of the Greek territory. Regarding the geomorphology, the ground is 50% mountainous-hilly and 50% flat, irrigated by Peneus, the third largest river in the country, which flows through the axis east-west. The assessment of AI was conducted utilizing daily evapotranspiration losses, based on the modified FAO-56 Penman-Monteith formula, and daily precipitation totals from a number of Regional Climate Models (RCMs), within the ENSEMBLE European Project. Further, the projected changes of AI between the period 1961-1990 (reference period) and the periods 2021-2050 (near future) and 2071-2100 (far future) along with the inter-model standard deviations are presented, under SRES A1B. The findings of the analysis revealed significant spatiotemporal changes of AI over Thessaly plain, focusing on their societal aspects. Acknowlegdements. This work is supported by the project AGROCLIMA (11SYN_3_1913), which is funded by

  2. Current situation and regional characteristics of groundwater quality in central part of the Kanto Plain, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hachinohe, S.; Hamamoto, H.; Ishiyama, T.; Hayashi, T.; Miyakoshi, A.; Yasuhara, M.

    2012-12-01

    The Kanto Plain is known as the largest plain in Japan, where a lot of huge cities are located and about 30% of population of Japan is concentrated. In the inland part of the Kanto Plain, dependence on groundwater for water requirements is relatively high; in particular around 40% of the municipal water supply is dependent on groundwater. On the other hand, various kinds of controlled substances such as arsenic, nitrate and nitrite-nitrogen, volatile organic compounds are detected in groundwater in excess of the Japanese environmental standards. Therefore, in order to evaluate current situation and regional characteristics of groundwater quality in the central part of the Kanto Plain, we investigated around 500 wells. These wells are distributed throughout the plain area of Saitama Prefecture, stretching about 80 kilometers from east to west and about 60 kilometers from north to south. Depths of these wells range from 5m to 200m. We analyzed heavy metals and metalloids such as Fe, Mn, Al, As, Pb, using the ICP/AES and ICP/MS and also analyzed major dissolved ions such as Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Cl-, SO42-, using the ion chromatograph. As a result of investigation, rate of samples exceeded the Japanese environmental standards of arsenic (0.01 mg/l) in groundwater was about 1%, and the maximum concentration was about 10 times of the environmental standards. Groundwater with a high arsenic concentration was detected in the specific area, such as in the lowlands located upstream from the former shoreline at the Holocene glacial retreat. Taking the land use of surrounding area, well depth and groundwater condition of aquifers into account, detected arsenic is considered to be of natural origin and mainly originate from natural layers. According to the previous studies, the release mechanisms of natural arsenic are summarized in some ways and in case of this research area, it was explained that natural arsenic is released with dissolution of the iron oxide in the reduction

  3. Dust storms - Great Plains, Africa, and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woiceshyn, P. M.; Krauss, R.; Minzner, R.; Shenk, W.

    1977-01-01

    Dust storms in the Great Plains of North America and in the Sahara Desert are analyzed on the basis of imagery from the geostationary Synchronous Meteorological Satellite. The onset time, location and areal extent of the dust storms are studied. Over land surfaces, contrast enhancement techniques are needed to obtain an adequate picture of dust storm development. In addition, infrared imagery may provide a means of monitoring the strong horizontal temperature gradients characteristic of dust cloud boundaries. Analogies between terrestrial dust storms and the airborne rivers of dust created by major Martian dust storms are also drawn.

  4. Impact crater degradation on venusian plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izenberg, N. R.; Arvidson, R. E.; Phillips, R. J.

    1994-02-01

    In venusian plains, impact craters without extensive low backscatter ejecta deposits are more likely to have low backscatter floors, be embayed by volcanic deposits, and exhibit fractures as compared to craters with extensive low backscatter ejecta. We interpret these trends as evidence of ongoing degradation of low backscatter ejecta by aeolian activity, weathering, and volcanism. Using a crater age sequence based on extent of preservation of low backscatter ejecta, together with Monte Carlo simulations, we find that tectonic activity has extended over a longer time period than volcanism.

  5. Plain English? A Study of Plain English Vocabulary and International Audiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thrush, Emily A.

    2001-01-01

    Investigates French and German undergraduate engineering and computer science students' comprehension of phrasal verbs. Concludes that phrasal verbs may make texts less accessible to non-native speakers of English. Indicates there are features of Plain English that are less applicable when the intended audience consists of non-native speakers of…

  6. Kansas environmental and resource study: A Great Plains model, tasks 1-6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haralick, R. M.; Kanemasu, E. T.; Morain, S. A.; Yarger, H. L. (Principal Investigator); Ulaby, F. T.; Shanmugam, K. S.; Williams, D. L.; Mccauley, J. R.; Mcnaughton, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    There are no author identified significant results in this report. Environmental and resources investigations in Kansas utilizing ERTS-1 imagery are summarized for the following areas: (1) use of feature extraction techniqued for texture context information in ERTS imagery; (2) interpretation and automatic image enhancement; (3) water use, production, and disease detection and predictions for wheat; (4) ERTS-1 agricultural statistics; (5) monitoring fresh water resources; and (6) ground pattern analysis in the Great Plains.

  7. Groundwater hydrochemical characteristics and processes along flow paths in the North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Lina; Guo, Huaming; Zhan, Yanhong

    2013-07-01

    The North China Plain is one of the biggest plains in China, where municipal, agricultural and industrial water supplies are highly dependent on groundwater resources. It is crucial to investigate water chemistry and hydrogeochemical processes related to hydrogeologic settings for sustainable utilization of groundwater resources. Two hydrochemical profiles proximately along the groundwater flow paths were selected for hydrogeochemical study. Major components and 2H and 18O isotopes were analyzed in groundwater samples from the profiles. The study area was divided into three zones, including strong runoff-alluvial/pluvial fans in the piedmont area (Zone I), slow runoff-alluvial/lacustrine plain in the central area (Zone II), and discharge-alluvial/marine plain in the coastal area (Zone III). Major components of groundwater samples showed obvious zonation patterns from Zone I to Zone III. Total dissolved solid (TDS) concentrations gradually increased, and the hydrochemical type changed from HCO3-SO4-Ca-Mg and HCO3-Cl-Ca-Mg types to HCO3-SO4-Na-Ca, SO4-Cl-Na-Ca and SO4-Cl-Na types from Zone I to Zone III. Abrupt increases in concentrations of Na+, Cl- and SO42- in deep groundwater were observed around the depression cones, which indicated that overexploitation resulted in water quality deterioration. Calcite and dolomite precipitation occurred in Zone I of deep groundwater systems and shallow groundwater systems. Cation exchange was believed to take place along the entire flow paths. Gypsum tended to dissolve in groundwater systems. The depletion in D and 18O isotopes in deep groundwater was related to the recharge from precipitation in paleo-climate conditions in glacial or interglacial periods, indicating that renewal groundwater was very limited. Efficient strategies must be taken to preserve the valued water resources for sustainable development.

  8. Correlation of spacecraft passive microwave system data with soil moisture indices (API). [great plains corridor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, B. J.; Mcfarland, M. J.; Theis, S.; Richter, J. G.

    1981-01-01

    Electrical scanning microwave radiometer brightness temperature, meteorological data, climatological data, and winter wheat crop information were used to estimate that soil moisture content in the Great Plains region. Results over the predominant winter wheat areas indicate that the best potential to infer soil moisture occurs during fall and spring. These periods encompass the growth stages when soil moisture is most important to winter wheat yield. Other significant results are reported.

  9. Identification of possible recent water/lava source fissures in the Cerberus Plains: stratigraphic and crater count age constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Rebecca J.

    2013-04-01

    The Cerberus plains are one of the youngest surfaces on Mars. They are thought to have been formed by lava and/or water flows, but there is considerable debate regarding the source of this material. Much of the material forming the western plains, including the Athabasca Valles outflow channels, appears to have flowed from the region of the Cerberus Fossae graben system [1,2,3] and limited areas forming the eastern plains may have been erupted by low shield volcanoes [4,5]. However, flow of material from west to east is obstructed by a ridge centred on 157°E, 7°N and, prior to this study, vents which might be the source of fluid of a low enough viscosity to form the majority of the flat eastern plains had not been identified. We studied new HiRISE (25cm/px, High Resolution Science Imaging Experiment) images of the ridge between the east and west plains and observed possible source vents for this material: the ridge is cut by a series of pits and fissures which lie at the heads of flows and channels extending towards the surrounding plains. In order to establish the stratigraphic relationships between the vents and plains, this study produced large scale geomorphological maps based on the HiRISE images. The mapping showed that both incised channels and leveed flows extend onto the plain to the south of the ridge and that these were the final phase of plains-forming activity in that region. Conversely, to the north, ridge-sourced deposits only form the plains surface close to the ridge - beyond that, they are overlain by large-scale regional flows that appear to have originated from the direction of Athabasca Valles. In the southeast, a large-scale flow which does not emanate from this ridge forms the plains surface, but there is evidence that the youngest outflow activity from the ridge was contemporaneous with emplacement of this unit. We also performed crater counts to age-date the surfaces and these indicate that plains-forming and ridge-sourced units are of a

  10. Digital map of hydraulic conductivity for the High Plains Aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cederstrand, J.R.; Becker, M.F.

    1998-01-01

    This digital data set consists of hydraulic conductivity contours and polygons for the High Plains aquifer in the central United States. The High Plains aquifer extends from south of 32 degrees to almost 45 degrees north latitude and from 96 degrees 30 minutes to almost 104 degrees west longitude. The area covers 174,000 square miles and is present in Texas, Oklahoma, New Mexico, Kansas, Colorado, Nebraska, Wyoming, and South Dakota.

  11. Geology of the Gusec cratered plains from the Spirit rover transverse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golombek, M. P.; Crumpler, L. S.; Grant, J. A.; Greely, R.; Cabrol, N. A.; Parker, T. J.; Rice, J. W., Jr.; Ward, J. G.; Arvidson, R. E.; Moersch, J. E.; Fergason, J. F.; Christensen, P. R.; Castano, A.; Castano, R.; Haldemann, A. F. C.; Li, R.; Bell, J. F., III; Squyres, S. W.

    2006-01-01

    The cratered plains of Gusev traversed by Spirit are generally low-relief rocky plains dominated by impact and eolian processes. Ubiquitous shallow, soil-filled, circular depressions, called hollows, are modified impact craters. Rocks are dark, fine-grained basalts, and the upper 10 m of the cratered plains appears to be an impact-generated regolith developed over intact basalt flows. Systematic field observations across the cratered plains identified vesicular clasts and rare scoria similar to original lava flow tops, consistent with an upper inflated surface of lava flows with adjacent collapse depressions. Crater and hollow morphometry are consistent with most being secondaries. The size frequency distribution of rocks >0.1 m diameter generally follows exponential functions similar to other landing sites for total rock abundances of 5-35%. Systematic clast counts show that areas with higher rock abundance and more large rocks have higher thermal inertia. Plains with lower thermal inertia have fewer rocks and substantially more pebbles that are well sorted and evenly spaced, similar to a desert pavement or lag. Eolian bed forms (ripples and wind tails) have coarse surface lags, and many are dust covered and thus likely inactive. Deflation of the surface _5-25 cm likely exposed two-toned rocks and elevated ventifacts and transported fines into craters creating the hollows. This observed redistribution yields extremely slow average erosion rates of _0.03 nm/yr and argues for very little long-term net change of the surface and a dry and desiccating environment similar to today's since the Hesperian (or _3 Ga).

  12. Lithosphere stress changes due to groundwater unloading in North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Yajin; Zhang, Huai; Shi, Yaolin

    2015-04-01

    During the past 50 years, excessive groundwater pumping has led to the continuous decline of groundwater table in North China Plain, which becomes one of the global hotspots of groundwater depletion. Over most of the rural areas of the plain, the shallow aquifer has experienced a water-table decline of more than 15m, with greater declines up to 50m in most urban centres, such as Beijing, Tangshan, Shijiangzhuang and so forth in 1960-2000. The entire groundwater depletion area covers a total area of approximately 56,273 km2 , more than 40% of the North China Plain. The vast area of enormous groundwater exploitation in North China Plain will definitely unload the lithosphere and create stress perturbations, the problem is if the stresses change large enough to affect tectonic activities. In this essay, we set up a 3 dimensional numerical visco-elastic model to discuss the effect of groundwater over-pumping on the lithosphere deformation and stress state in North China Plain. Based on the records of total groundwater-table decline during 1960-2010 in North China Plain, we estimate the accumulated deformation and lithosphere stress due to unloading of human-induced groundwater depletion. The area in the model ranges from 34° To 42°N, and 112° To 119°E, including the major groundwater depression cones in North China Plain. According to the simulating result, the maximum surface vertical uplift caused by groundwater unloading is 8cm. Meanwhile cumulative horizontal crustal stress changes near the surface goes up to 100kPa, and up to 40kPa at 15km depth where most earthquakes occurred in this area. The tectonic compressive stress rate is about 0.25kPa per year. Therefore, the stress changes due to groundwater pumping is significant compared with the tectonic driven stress changes. As China developed rapidly since 1978, the groundwater table mainly declined after 1978. Taking the earthquake catalog in the vicinity of groundwater depression zone into consideration, we

  13. Estimating 1980 ground-water pumpage for irrigation on the High Plains in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heimes, F.J.; Luckey, R.R.

    1983-01-01

    Current ground-water use is required for the High Plains Regional Aquifer-System Analysis. In response to this need, a sampling approach was developed to estimate water pumped for irrigation on the High Plains during 1980. Pumpage was computed by combining application estimates with mapped irrigated-acreage information. Irrigation application (inches of water applied) was measured at 480 sites in 15 counties in the High Plains during the 1980 growing season. The relationship between calculated Blaney-Criddle irrigation demand and measured application was used to estimate application for unsampled areas of the High Plains. Application estimates multiplied by irrigated-acreate estimates, compiled from Landsat-satellite imagery, yielded the volume of ground water pumped for irrigation. The estimate of ground water pumped for irrigation in the High Plains during 1980 and 18,902,000 acre-feet for 13 ,715,000 irrigated areas. The sampled application data were evaluated for significant trends. The application was greater for crops requiring more water such as corn and hay and less for crops such as sorghum, grain, and cotton. The data showed greater application for flood-irrigated systems than for sprinkler-irrigation systems. Areas of the High Plains with thin saturated thickness tended to have a smaller average discharge per well, fewer irrigated acres per well, and a predominance of crops requiring less water crops. (USGS).

  14. Organic manure as an alternative to crop residues for no-tillage wheat-maize systems in North China Plain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    NT can provide both environmental and economic benefits and has been recognized as a sustainable land use practice in many areas worldwide. NT has induced some concerns in the North China Plain (NCP), e.g. unstable crop yield and fodder shortage, with regards to the amount of crop residues retained ...

  15. Casting the Buffalo Commons: A Rhetorical Analysis of Print Media Coverage of the Buffalo Commons Proposal for the Great Plains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umberger, Mary L.

    2002-01-01

    In 1987, Frank and Deborah Popper, a planner/geographer team from Rutgers University, proposed the Buffalo Commons. If implemented, the Buffalo Commons would have preserved a large area of the Great Plains, including land in ten states, in a national park to be used by exiting Native American reservations, and for the reintroduction of buffalo.

  16. The water conundrum of planting cover crops in the great plains: when is an inch not an inch?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cover crop use is being widely promoted throughout the entire United States because of the potential benefits related to protecting and improving the soil. However, the semi-arid environment of the western and central Great Plains has a much different environment from areas where cover cropping has ...

  17. Vulnerability of crops and native grasses to summer drying in the U.S. Southern Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Southern Great Plains are characterized by a fine-scale mixture of different land cover types, predominantly winter-wheat and pasture lands, with relatively small areas of other crops, native prairie, and switchgrass. Recent droughts and predictions of increased drought (especially during the s...

  18. Research achievements and adoption of no-till, dryland cropping in the semi-arid US Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Great Plains region of the United States and Canada is an area of widespread dryland crop production, with wheat being the dominant crop. Precipitation in the region ranges from 300 to 500 mm annually, with the majority of precipitatioCPRLn falling during hot summer months. The prevailing croppi...

  19. Distribution and nesting success of ferruginous hawks and Swainson's hawks on an agricultural landscape in the Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We studied nest site land cover associations, and reproductive success of two Buteo species of conservation concern on the southern Great Plains, USA. The study area was in Cimarron County, Oklahoma, where land use is dominated by row crop agriculture, livestock grazing, and Conservation Reserve Pro...

  20. Mercury dynamics in a Coastal Plain watershed: Insights from multiple models and empirical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golden, H. E.; Knightes, C. D.; Conrads, P. A.; Davis, G. M.; Feaster, T.; Benedict, S.; Journey, C.; Brigham, M. E.; Bradley, P. M.

    2011-12-01

    Interactions among atmospherically deposited mercury, abundant wetlands, and surface waters with elevated acidity and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) often lead to widespread mercury-related fish consumption advisories in the Coastal Plain of the southeastern United States (US). However, the science behind understanding mercury dynamics in these mixed land cover, Coastal Plain watersheds is just beginning to emerge. Watershed models are important tools for answering questions related to watershed mercury cycling - including the spatial and temporal variations in surface water mercury concentrations and fluxes - particularly when limited data exist and multiple models with different underlying dynamics are available. We quantify total mercury (HgT) concentrations and fluxes to the outlet of McTier Creek Watershed, located in the upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina, US, an area with more diverse land cover, a larger drainage area, and different geophysical setting than many previous mercury studies in North America (primarily from small forested headwater boreal or northern forested catchments). We apply three independently developed watershed mercury models with distinct mathematical frameworks that emphasize different system processes. Because spatially-explicit watershed scale mercury modeling is a recent advancement, the use of multiple models combined with data affords broader insights to HgT dynamics in the watershed. As a result, we employ a spatially-explicit grid based watershed mercury model (GBMM), the spatially-explicit VELMA-Hg model, and the semi-empirical TOPLOAD-Hg model for HgT concentration and flux calculations. We use the S-LOADEST model for seasonal HgT fluxes, while measured in-stream HgT concentrations and fluxes provide additional insights and data for model calibrations. Our findings begin to elucidate important abiotic processes controlling HgT, areas within the landscape where HgT at the outlet is derived, and potential governing dynamics

  1. Plains Indians of North America. Grade Level: Fourth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Beth

    This is a fourth-grade teaching unit on the Plains Indians of North America. It is composed of a content outline, statement of unit goals, unit behavioral objectives, initiating activities, developmental activities, closing activities, unit evaluation plan, and a bibliography. The content outline shows that the unit covers the Plains Indian's…

  2. O Wakaga. Activities for Learning about the Plains Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Linda Skinner

    A companion to The Mamook Book (ED 214 720), the student activity book teaches about Plains Indian cultures (in particular about Lakota life) through a series of activities such as: coloring panoramas of a Plains tipi encampment and a contemporary reservation; depicting historical and contemporary children; making a mobile; constructing a tipi and…

  3. 7 CFR 650.25 - Flood-plain management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flood-plain management. 650.25 Section 650.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SUPPORT ACTIVITIES COMPLIANCE WITH NEPA Related Environmental Concerns § 650.25 Flood-plain management. Through...

  4. History of the Central Great Plains Research Station

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Central Great Plains Research Station was established in 1907 as one of several Agricultural Fact Finding Institutions located in the Great Plains of the United States by the Bureau of Plant Industry. This document summarizes the circumstances surrounding the creation of the station and changes ...

  5. Analyzing the Various Approaches of Plain Language Laws.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Betsy A., And Others

    1986-01-01

    Proposes a two-phase evaluation of the plain language laws that are designed to ensure that consumers can understand and use the personal business contracts they sign so that the best model for plain language legislation can be identified. (DF)

  6. Land and Land-use Change in the Climate Sensitive High Plains: An Automated Approach with Landsat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goetz, Alexander F.; Williams, D. L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The High Plains is an economically important and climatologically sensitive region of the United States and Canada. The High Plains contain 100,000 sq km of Holocene sand dunes and sand sheets that are currently stabilized by natural vegetation. Droughts and the larger threat of global warming are climate phenomena that could cause depletion of natural vegetation and make this region susceptible to sand dune reactivation. The original proposal was directed toward the use of Landsat TM data to establish the state and ongoing changes of the surface in the 1.2 million sq. km, semi-arid High Plains region of the central US, A key objective was to develop a model to predict the reactivation of the 100,000 sq. km of Holocene dunes found on the High Plains during an extended drought. At least one Landsat 5 image per year for 1985, 1988 and 1996 was obtained for 32 scenes on the High Plains to coincide with wet and dry years. Additional Landsat 7 data were acquired for 1999 and 2000 primarily for Colorado and Nebraska. As luck would have it, there was no severe drought during the study period 1985-2000. Attention was focused on developing methods for mapping dry vs. green vegetation on sparsely vegetated rangelands in sandy soils, since these were the areas most susceptible to surface reactivation during a drought.

  7. Artesian water in the Malabar coastal plain of southern Kerala, India

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, George C.; Ghosh, P.K.

    1964-01-01

    The present report is based on a geological and hydrological reconnaissance during 1954 of the Malabar Coastal Plain and adjacent island area of southern Kerala to evaluate the availability of ground water for coastal villages and municipalities and associated industries and the potentialities for future development. The work was done in cooperation with the Geological Survey of India and under the auspices of the U.S. Technical Cooperation Mission to India. The State of Kerala, which lies near the southern tip of India and along the eastern shore of the Caspian Sea, contains a total area of 14,937 square miles. The eastern part of the state is s rugged mountainous highland which attains altitudes of more than 6,000 feet. This highland descends westward through piedmont upland to s narrow coastal plain, which reaches a maximum width of about 16 miles in the latitude of Shertalli. A tropical monsoon rain-forest climate prevails in most of Kerala, and annual rainfall ranges from 65 to 130 inches in the southern part of the coastal plain to as much a 200 inches in the highland. The highland and piedmont upland tracts of Kerala are underlain by Precambrian meamorphic and igneous rocks belonging in large parabola-the so-called Charnockite Series. Beneath ahe coastal plain are semiconsolidated asunconsolidated sedimentary deposits whose age ranges from Miocene to Recent. These deposits include sofa sandstone and clay shale containing some marl or limestone and sand, and clay and pea containing some gravel. The sofa sandstone, sand, and gravel beds constitute important aquifers a depths ranging from a few tens of feet to 400 feet or more below the land surface. The shallow ground war is under water-able or unconfined conditions, but the deeper aquifers contain water under artesian pressure. Near the coast, drilled wells tapping the deeper aquifers commonly flow with artesian heads as much as 10 to 12 feet above the land surface. The draft from existing wells in the

  8. Distribution, abundance, and habitat affinities of the Coastal Plain Swamp Sparrow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beadell, J.; Greenberg, R.; Droege, S.; Royle, J. Andrew

    2003-01-01

    We examined the distribution and abundance of the Coastal Plain Swamp Sparrow (Melospiza georgiana nigrescens) at previously occupied sites and points within potential habitat. We found Swamp Sparrows throughout their formerly documented range except in southern Chesapeake Bay. Swamp Sparrows were most common in the Mullica River region of New Jersey where we detected individuals at 78% of systematically chosen points with a mean count of 4.1 birds/point. The percentages of points with positive detections in. the regions of Delaware River (39%), eastern Delaware Bay (23%), western Delaware Bay (34%), and Tuckahoe River (31%) were lower. The mean count of birds/point was between 0.4 and 0.6 in these regions. A higher resolution Poisson model of relative abundance suggested that the greatest concentrations of Swamp Sparrows occurred not only in the Mullica River area but also along northwestern Delaware Bay. Regression analysis of Swamp Sparrow counts and habitat features identified shrubs (Iva frutescens and Baccharis halimifolia) as a key habitat component. By applying density estimates generated by DISTANCE (Thomas et al. 1998) to the approximate area of potential shrub habitat along Delaware Bay, we estimated that the core population of Coastal Plain Swamp Sparrows was less than 28,000 pairs. We recommend that the Coastal Plain Swamp Sparrow be listed as a subspecies of concern by state and local governments because of its relatively small population size, restricted distribution in the mid-Atlantic region, and narrow habitat requirements.

  9. Wetland hydrology and tree distribution of the Apalachicola River flood plain, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leitman, H.M.; Sohm, J.E.; Franklin, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    The Apalachicola River is part of a 50,800-square-kilometer drainage basin in northwest Florida, Alabama, and Georgia. The river is formed by the confluence of the Chattahoochee and Flint Rivers at Jim Woodruff Dam and flows 171 kilometers to Apalachicola Bay in the Gulf of Mexico. Its flood plain supports 450 square kilometers of bottom-land hardwood and tupelco-cypress forests. The most common trees, constituting 62 percent of the total basal area, were five wet-site species; water tupelo, Ogeeche tupelo, baldcypress, Carolina ash, and swamp tupelo. Other common species were sweetgum, overcup oak, planertree, green ash, water hickory, sugarberry, and diamond-leaf oak. Five forest types were defined based on species predominance by basal area. Biomass increased downstream and was greatest in forests growing on permanently saturated soils. Water and tree relations varied with river location because range in water-level fluctuation and topographic relief in the flood plain diminished downstream. Heights of natural riverbank levees and size and distribution of breaks in levees had a major controlling effect on flood-plain hydrology. Depth of water, duration of inundation and saturation, and river location, but not water velocity, were very highly correlated with forest types. (USGS)

  10. Myxomatosis on the Western Plains of Victoria.

    PubMed Central

    Tighe, F. G.; Edmonds, J. W.; Nolan, I. F.; Shepherd, R. C.; Gocs, A.

    1977-01-01

    Myxomatosis on the Western Plains is an enzootic disease in contrast with the epizootic pattern which is general in eastern Australia. The most unusual aspects are the presence of significant numbers of diseased rabbits throughout the winter and the continuously low percentage of rabbits with antibodies to myxoma virus. Climatic and topographic conditions are unsuited to the production of the high densities of mosquitoes necessary for widespread epizootics. Under these conditions the effects of less efficient methods of myxomatosis transmission are apparent. The unusual epidemiology of myxomatosis has resulted in selection for virulence of the virus similar to that which has occurred under summer epizootic conditions. All field strains are now in the mid range of virulence. PMID:20473

  11. Geomorphic history of a portion of the Savannah River flood plain, Barnwell County, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Stevenson, A.E.

    1982-01-01

    As a result of an intensive archeological survey undertaken on the Plant, the Savannah River Valley has become the focus of an effort to tie the history of the Savannah River with cultural trends observed in the surrounding highlands. The flood-plain swamp contains well-preserved remnant sedimentologic evidence of former Savannah River occupations. This study utilizes geomorphic detail obtained from low level infra-red aerial photographs of the Savannah River flood plain in the area to interpret and distinguish various types of alluvial depositional environments. Relative temporal succession of the Savannah River across the modern (Holocene) valley floor is determined by evaluation of fluvial trends and their cross-cutting relationships. Sampling of sedimentary deposits for general alluvial stratigraphy and radiocarbon dating of plant detritus determine geomorphic trends and their absolute temporal relationships.

  12. Diversity and distribution of zooplankton in ponds on the Southeastern coastal plain

    SciTech Connect

    Debiase, A.E.; Taylor, B.E. )

    1994-06-01

    The Southeastern coastal plain is scattered with numerous Carolina bays and other isolated temporary wetlands, which are unstudied in comparison to wetlands in other regions of the United States. We studied 88 Carolina bays and other temporary ponds on the upper coastal plain of South Carolina. These ponds support diverse planktonic communities, including several species as yet undescribed. Species distribution and diversity were most strongly linked to hydrology, rather than factors such as pond area or past disturbance. Ponds with longer duration were more diverse, mainly in the number of cladocerans. Correlations between species distribution and vegetation type or geomorphic region were observed for some species. Assemblage similarity decreased with distance between ponds, suggesting that dispersal is poor.

  13. A New Strategy to Land Precisely on the Northern Plains of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Yang; Huertas, Andres

    2010-01-01

    During the Phoenix mission landing site selection process, the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) images revealed widely spread and dense rock fields in the northern plains. Automatic rock mapping and subsequent statistical analyses showed 30-90% CFA (cumulative fractional area) covered by rocks larger than 1 meter in dense rock fields around craters. Less dense rock fields had 5-30% rock coverage in terrain away from craters. Detectable meter-scale boulders were found nearly everywhere. These rocks present a risk to spacecraft safety during landing. However, they are the most salient topographic features in this region, and can be good landmarks for spacecraft localization during landing. In this paper we present a novel strategy that uses abundance of rocks in northern plains for spacecraft localization. The paper discusses this approach in three sections: a rock-based landmark terrain relative navigation (TRN) algorithm; the TRN algorithm feasibility; and conclusions.

  14. Application of wheat yield model to United States and India. [Great Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feyerherm, A. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The wheat yield model was applied to the major wheat-growing areas of the US and India. In the US Great Plains, estimates from the winter and spring wheat models agreed closely with USDA-SRS values in years with the lowest yields, but underestimated in years with the highest yields. Application to the Eastern Plains and Northwest indicated the importance of cultural factors, as well as meteorological ones in the model. It also demonstrated that the model could be used, in conjunction with USDA-SRRS estimates, to estimate yield losses due to factors not included in the model, particularly diseases and freezes. A fixed crop calendar for India was built from a limited amount of available plot data from that country. Application of the yield model gave measurable evidence that yield variation from state to state was due to different mixes of levels of meteorological and cultural factors.

  15. Changes in Water Levels and Storage in the High Plains Aquifer, Predevelopment to 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGuire, V.L.

    2007-01-01

    The High Plains aquifer underlies 111.4 million acres (174,000 square miles) in parts of eight States-Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. The area overlying the High Plains aquifer is one of the major agricultural regions in the world. Water-level declines began in parts of the High Plains aquifer soon after the beginning of extensive ground-water irrigation. By 1980, water levels in the High Plains aquifer in parts of Texas, Oklahoma, and southwestern Kansas had declined more than 100 feet (Luckey and others, 1981). In response to these water-level declines, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with numerous Federal, State, and local water-resources agencies, began monitoring more than 7,000 wells in 1988 to assess annual water-level change in the aquifer. A report by the USGS, 'Water-Level Changes in the High Plains Aquifer, Predevelopment to 2005 and 2003 to 2005' (McGuire, 2007), shows the areas of substantial water-level changes in the aquifer from the time prior to substantial ground-water irrigation development (predevelopment or about 1950) to 2005 (fig. 1). In parts of the area, farmers began using ground water for irrigation extensively in the 1930s and 1940s. Estimated irrigated acreage in the area overlying the High Plains aquifer increased rapidly from 1940 to 1980 and changed slightly from 1980 to 2002: 1949-2.1 million acres, 1980-13.7 million acres, 1997-13.9 million acres, 2002-12.7 million acres. Irrigated acres in 2002 were 12 percent of the aquifer area, not including the areas with little or no saturated thickness (McGuire, 2007). Ground-water withdrawals for irrigation and other uses are compiled and reported by the USGS and agencies in each State about every 5 years. Ground-water withdrawals from the High Plains aquifer for irrigation increased from 4 to 19 million acre-feet from 1949 to 1974. Ground-water withdrawals for irrigation in 1980, 1985, 1990, and 1995 were from 4 to 18

  16. The oligocene stratigraphic framework of the coastal plain of the southeastern United States

    SciTech Connect

    Huddlestun, P.F. )

    1993-03-01

    Four lithostratigraphic associations are recognized in the Oligocene of the southeastern Coastal Plain: (1) an eastern Gulf of Mexico stratigraphic association, (2) a Gulf Trough stratigraphic association, (3) a Florida Bank stratigraphic association and (4), an Atlantic continental shelf stratigraphic association. Oligocene formations and faunal provinces appear to be directly related to the stratigraphic associations. The Vicksburg Group is restricted to the eastern Gulf of Mexico continental shelf stratigraphic association and to the Coastal Plain north and west of the Gulf Trough. The Gulf Trough stratigraphic association includes the Ochlockonee Formation, Wolf Pit Dolostone, Okapilco Limestone, and Bridgeboro Limestone (the Bridgeboro Limestones occurs only on and adjacent to the northern and southern flanks of the trough). The Florida Bank stratigraphic association is largely restricted to the area south of the Gulf Trough and includes the Ellaville Limestone, Suwannacoochee Dolostone, and Suwannee Limestone (the Suwannee Limestone also occurs immediately north of the Gulf Trough in the central Georgia Coastal Plain). The Cooper and Lazaretto Creek Formations are restricted to the Atlantic continental shelf stratigraphic association and occur only in the coastal area of Georgia, South Carolina, and beneath the continental shelf. Three faunal provinces (or subprovinces) are recognized in the southeastern Coastal Plain during the Oligocene: (1) a Gulf of Mexico continental shelf faunal province that characterizes the Gulf Trough and the region north and west of the trough, (2) a Florida province characteristic and largely restricted to the Florida Bank and (3), an Atlantic continental shelf faunal province. Through the Early Oligocene, the trough marked the limits of the Gulf of Mexico and Florida provinces.

  17. Petrography of Rocks Examined by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit within the Gusev Plains and Columbia Hills, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crumpler, L. S.; McSween, H.

    2005-12-01

    Petrographic and megascopic textures of rocks encountered along the traverse of the Spirit Mars Exploration Rover within the Gusev plains (landing site to hills) and within the Columbia Hills (West Spur to lower Husband Hill), together with chemical data based on in situ measurements with the Athena spectrometers, provide information about the mechanisms and conditions of rock emplacement. Primary igneous and low-grade alteration textures are identified within the plains whereas clastic and alteration textures dominate within the Columbia Hills. Plains rocks include primary igneous petrographic textures common to xenocrystic and phyric rocks, megascopic textures similar to that known to occur within differing vertical positions of terrestrial basaltic lavas, and uniform chemical compositions typical of batch melted mantle rocks. Apparent vesicularity (ratio of summed vesicle volume from area over rock unit volume) of rocks in the plains lava surface varied with host rock dimension and angularity. Vesicle distributions in the smaller clasts in the Gusev plains tend to be exponential, typical of upper sections, whereas, dis-tributions in larger, more angular Gusev plains blocks are characterized by hybrid distri-butions, typical of flow interiors. Since small vesicular clasts are a small fraction of the observed clast population, it is inferred that the upper vesicular zones within the Gusev plains lava flows were rela-tively thin (low vesicularity at shallow depths) compared with that predicted for lava flows on Earth. A thin upper vesicular zone in the Gusev plains lavas could be indirect evidence for atmospheric pressure close to current values at the time of Gusev plains basalt emplacement during the Hesperian. Rocks with volcaniclastic or impactite textures occur in outcrops visited within the Columbia Hills. Megascopic and microscopic (Microscopic Imager) textures were examined along apparent lamination planes at several outcrops of moderately consolidated

  18. Tobacco plain packaging: Evidence based policy or public health advocacy?

    PubMed

    McKeganey, Neil; Russell, Christopher

    2015-06-01

    In December 2012, Australia became the first country to require all tobacco products be sold solely in standardised or 'plain' packaging, bereft of the manufacturers' trademarked branding and colours, although retaining large graphic and text health warnings. Following the publication of Sir Cyril Chantler's review of the evidence on the effects of plain tobacco packaging, the Ministers of the United Kingdom Parliament voted in March 2015 to implement similar legislation. Support for plain packaging derives from the belief that tobacco products sold in plain packs have reduced appeal and so are more likely to deter young people and non-smokers from starting tobacco use, and more likely to motivate smokers to quit and stay quit. This article considers why support for the plain packaging policy has grown among tobacco control researchers, public health advocates and government ministers, and reviews Australian survey data that speak to the possible introductory effect of plain packaging on smoking prevalence within Australia. The article concludes by emphasising the need for more detailed research to be undertaken before judging the capacity of the plain packaging policy to deliver the multitude of positive effects that have been claimed by its most ardent supporters. PMID:26041731

  19. A critical review of seismotectonic setting of the Campanian Plain (Southern Italy) in GIS environment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudiosi, Germana; Alessio, Giuliana; Luiso, Paola; Nappi, Rosa; Ricciolino, Patrizia

    2010-05-01

    The Plio-Pleistocene Campanian Plain is a structural depression of the Southern Italy located between the eastern side of the Tyrrhenian Sea and the Southern Apennine chain. It is surrounded to the North, East and South by the Mesozoic carbonate massifs of the Apennine chain and, to the West, by the Tyrrhenian Sea. The graben origin is similar to other peri-Tyrrhenian regions and is related to a stretching and thinning of the continental crust by the counterclockwise rotation of the Italian peninsula and the contemporaneous opening of the Tyrrhenian sea. The consequent subsidence of the Campanian carbonate platform took place along the Tyrrhenian coast during the Plio-Pleistocene with a maximum vertical extent of 5 km. The plain is filled by volcanic and clastic, continental and marine deposits. Voluminous volcanic activity of Roccamonfina, Campi Flegrei, Ischia, Procida and Vesuvio occurred in the Plain during the Quaternary. In the middle of the plain lies the city of Naples, bordered by the two active volcanoes of Campi Flegrei and Vesuvio. It is a very densely inhabited area that is exposed to high potential volcanic risk. The stress field acting in the Campanian area is poorly known. Structural observations on the Pleistocene faults suggest normal to sinistral movements for the NW- SE-trending faults and normal to dextral for the NE-SW-trending structures. These movements are consistent with those of the structures affecting the inner margin of the Southern Apennines. The Campanian Plain is characterized by seismicity of energy lower than the seismic activity of the Southern Apennine chain. The earthquakes mainly occur along the margin of the plain, in the volcanic areas and a minor seismicity spreads out inside the Plain. The aim of this paper is an attempt to identify active, outcropping and buried fault systems of the Campanian plain through the correlation between seismicity and tectonic structures. Seismic, geologic and geomorphologic data have been

  20. Extensive Middle Amazonian mantling of debris aprons and plains in Deuteronilus Mensae, Mars: Implications for the record of mid-latitude glaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, David M. H.; Head, James W.

    2015-11-01

    The mid-latitudes of Mars are host to a record of recent episodes of accumulations of ice-rich materials. The record includes debris aprons, interpreted to be debris-covered glaciers, that may represent the preserved remnants of a much more extensive ice sheet. We assessed the possibility of former glacial extents by examining debris aprons and the surrounding plains in Deuteronilus Mensae. Geomorphic units and stratigraphic relationships were mapped and documented from Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Context (CTX) and High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera images, and crater retention ages were estimated from crater size-frequency distributions. Three major units are observed within the study area: debris aprons, lower plains, and upper plains. Debris aprons exhibit characteristics typical for these features documented elsewhere and in previous studies, including integrated flow lineations and patterns, convex-upward profiles, and knobby and brain terrain surface textures. A lower bound on the age for debris aprons is estimated to be 0.9 Ga. Debris aprons are superposed on a lower plains unit having a lower bound age of 3.3-3.5 Ga. A 50-100 m thick upper plains unit superposes both debris apron landforms and lower plains units and has a best-fit minimum age of 0.6 Ga. The upper plains unit exhibits characteristics of atmospherically-emplaced mantle material, including fine-grained nature, sublimation textures, cyclic layering, draping character, and widespread spatial distribution. Fracturing and subsequent sublimation/erosion of upper plains on debris aprons has contributed to many of the surface textures on debris aprons. The upper plains unit has also been eroded from the lower plains and plateaus, evidenced by isolated blocks of upper plains in the interiors of craters and on the walls and tops of plateaus. While no conclusive evidence diagnostic of former cold-based ice sheets are observed in the plains within the study region, such

  1. Hydrology, vegetation, and soils of four north Florida River flood plains with an evaluation of state and federal wetland determinations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Light, H.M.; Darst, M.R.; MacLaughlin, M.T.; Sprecher, S.W.

    1993-01-01

    A study of hydrologic conditions, vegetation, and soils was made in wetland forests of four north Florida streams from 1987 to 1990. The study was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Florida Department of Environmental Regulation to support State and Federal efforts to improve wetland delineation methodology in flood plains. Plant communities and soils were described and related to topographic position and long-term hydrologic conditions at 10 study plots located on 4 streams. Detailed appendixes give average duration, frequency, and depth of flooding; canopy, subcanopy, and ground-cover vegetation; and taxonomic classification, series, and profile descriptions of soils for each plot. Topographic relief, range in stage, and depth of flooding were greatest on the alluvial flood plain of the Ochlockonee River, the largest of the four streams. Soils were silty in the lower elevations of the flood plain, and tree communities were distinctly different in each topographic zone. The Aucilla River flood plain was dominated by levees and terraces with very few depressions or low backwater areas. Oaks dominated the canopy of both lower and upper terraces of the Aucilla flood plain. Telogia Creek is a blackwater stream that is a major tributary of the Ochlockonee River. Its low, wet flood plain was dominated by Wyssa ogeche (Ogeechee tupelo) trees, had soils with mucky horizons, and was inundated by frequent floods of very short duration. The St. Marks River, a spring-fed stream with high base flow, had the least topographic relief and lowest range in stage of the four streams. St. Marks soils had a higher clay content than the other streams, and limestone bedrock was relatively close to the surface. Wetland determinations of the study plots based on State and Federal regulatory criteria were evaluated. Most State and Federal wetland determinations are based primarily on vegetation and soil characteristics because hydrologic records are usually not

  2. Factors Affecting Nitrate Delivery to Streams from Shallow Ground Water in the North Carolina Coastal Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harden, Stephen L.; Spruill, Timothy B.

    2008-01-01

    An analysis of data collected at five flow-path study sites between 1997 and 2006 was performed to identify the factors needed to formulate a comprehensive program, with a focus on nitrogen, for protecting ground water and surface water in the North Carolina Coastal Plain. Water-quality protection in the Coastal Plain requires the identification of factors that affect the transport of nutrients from recharge areas to streams through the shallow ground-water system. Some basins process or retain nitrogen more readily than others, and the factors that affect nitrogen processing and retention were the focus of this investigation to improve nutrient management in Coastal Plain streams and to reduce nutrient loads to coastal waters. Nitrate reduction in ground water was observed at all five flow-path study sites in the North Carolina Coastal Plain, although the extent of reduction at each site was influenced by various environmental, hydrogeologic, and geochemical factors. Denitrification was the most common factor responsible for decreases in nitrate along the ground-water flow paths. Specific factors, some of which affect denitrification rates, that appeared to influence ground-water nitrate concentrations along the flow paths or in the streams include soil drainage, presence or absence of riparian buffers, evapotranspiration, fertilizer use, ground-water recharge rates and residence times, aquifer properties, subsurface tile drainage, sources and amounts of organic matter, and hyporheic processes. The study data indicate that the nitrate-reducing capacity of the buffer zone combined with that of the hyporheic zone can substantially lower the amount of ground-water nitrate discharged to streams in agricultural settings of the North Carolina Coastal Plain. At the watershed scale, the effects of ground-water discharge on surface-water quality appear to be greatly influenced by streamflow conditions and the presence of extensive riparian vegetation. Streamflow statistics

  3. Bat use of a high-plains urban wildlife refuge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Everette, A.L.; O'Shea, T.J.; Ellison, L.E.; Stone, L.A.; McCance, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    Bats are significant components of mammalian diversity and in many areas are of management concern. However, little attention has been given to bats in urban or prairie landscapes. In 1997 and 1998, we determined species richness, relative abundance, roosting habits, and echolocation activity of bats at Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge (RMA), the largest urban unit in the United States refuge system, located on the high plains near Denver, Colorado. An inventory using mist nets revealed 3 species foraging at the site: big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus), hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus), and silver-haired bats (Lasionycteris noctivagans). Big brown bats comprised 86% of captures (n=176). This pattern was consistent with continental-scale predictions of bat species richness and evenness based on availability of potential roosts. Relative abundance based on captures was similar to that revealed by echolocation detector surveys, except that the latter revealed the likely presence of at least 2 additional species (Myotis spp. and red bats [Lasiurus borealis]). Echolocation activity was significantly greater (P=0.009) in areas with tree or water habitat edges than in open prairie, suggesting that maintaining such features is important for bats. Big brown bats commuted greater distances (9.20-18.8 km) from roosts in urban core areas to foraging sites on the refuge than typically reported for this species elsewhere, emphasizing the value of the site to these bats. Urban refuges can provide habitat of importance to bat populations, but may be characterized by abundant bats that roost in buildings if a variety of other kinds of roosting habitats are unavailable.

  4. High Resolution Mosaic of Ridges, Plains, and Mountains on Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This mosaic shows some of the highest resolution images obtained by the Solid State Imaging (SSI) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft during its eleventh orbit around Jupiter. North is to the top of the image. The sun illuminates the scene from the left, showing hundreds of ridges that cut across each other, indicating multiple episodes of ridge formation either by volcanic or tectonic activity within the ice. Also visible in the image are numerous isolated mountains or 'massifs'. The highest of these, located in the upper right corner and lower center of the mosaic, are approximately 500 meters (1,640 feet) high. Irregularly shaped areas where the ice surface appears to be lower than the surrounding plains (e.g., in the left-center and lower left corner of the mosaic) may be related to the 'chaos' areas of iceberg-like features seen in earlier SSI images of Europa.

    The mosaic, centered at 35.4 degrees north latitude and 86.8 degrees west longitude, covers an area of 108 kilometers by 90 kilometers (66 miles by 55 miles). The smallest distinguishable features in the image are about 68 meters (223 feet) across. These images were obtained on November 6, 1997, when the Galileo spacecraft was approximately 3,250 kilometers (1,983 miles) from Europa.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is a division of California Institute of Technology.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  5. Ius Chasma Tributary Valleys and Adjacent Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This image covers valley tributaries of Ius Chasma, as well as the plains adjacent to the valleys. Ius Chasma is one of several canyons that make up the Valles Marineris canyon system. Valles Marineris likely formed by extension associated with the growth of the large volcanoes and topographic high of Tharsis to the northwest. As the ground was pulled apart, large and deep gaps resulted in the valleys seen in the top and bottom of this HiRISE image. Ice that was once in the ground could have also melted to create additional removal of material in the formation of the valleys. HiRISE is able to see the rocks along the walls of both these valleys and also impact craters in the image. Rock layers that appear lower down in elevation appear rougher and are shedding boulders. Near the top of the walls and also seen in patches along the smooth plains are brighter layers. These brighter layers are not shedding boulders so they must represent a different kind of rock formed in a different kind of environment than those further down the walls. Because they are highest in elevation, the bright layers are youngest in age. HiRISE is able to see dozens of the bright layers, which are perhaps only a meter in thickness. Darker sand dunes and ripples cover most of the plains and fill the floors of impact craters.

    Image PSP_001351_1715 was taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft on November 9, 2006. The complete image is centered at -8.3 degrees latitude, 275.4 degrees East longitude. The range to the target site was 254.3 km (158.9 miles). At this distance the image scale ranges from 25.4 cm/pixel (with 1 x 1 binning) to 101.8 cm/pixel (with 4 x 4 binning). The image shown here has been map-projected to 25 cm/pixel and north is up. The image was taken at a local Mars time of 3:32 PM and the scene is illuminated from the west with a solar incidence angle of 59 degrees, thus the sun was about

  6. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the High Plains Aquifer in western Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Becker, C.J.; Runkle, D.L.; Rea, Alan

    1997-01-01

    ARC/INFO export files This diskette contains digitized aquifer boundaries and maps of hydraulic conductivity, recharge, and ground-water level elevation contours for the High Plains aquifer in western Oklahoma. This area encompasses the panhandle counties of Cimarron, Texas, and Beaver, and the western counties of Harper, Ellis, Woodward, Dewey, and Roger Mills. The High Plains aquifer underlies approximately 7,000 square miles of Oklahoma and is used extensively for irrigation. The High Plains aquifer is a water-table aquifer and consists predominately of the Tertiary-age Ogallala Formation and overlying Quaternary-age alluvial and terrace deposits. In some areas the aquifer is absent and the underlying Triassic, Jurassic, or Cretaceous-age rocks are exposed at the surface. These rocks are hydraulically connected with the aquifer in some areas. The High Plains aquifer is composed of interbedded sand, siltstone, clay, gravel, thin limestones, and caliche. The proportion of various lithological materials changes rapidly from place to place, but poorly sorted sand and gravel predominate. The rocks are poorly to moderately well cemented by calcium carbonate. The aquifer boundaries, hydraulic conductivity, and recharge data sets were created by extracting geologic contact lines from published digital surficial geology maps based on a scale of 1:125,000 for the panhandle counties and 1:250,000 for the western counties. The water-level elevation contours and some boundary lines were digitized from maps in a published water-level elevation map for 1980 based on a scale of 1:250,000. The hydraulic conductivity and recharge values in this report were used as input to the ground-water flow model on the High Plains aquifer. Ground-water flow models are numerical representations that simplify and aggregate natural systems. Models are not unique; different combinations of aquifer characteristics may produce similar results. Therefore, values of hydraulic conductivity and

  7. Mapping the northern plains of Mars: origins, evolution and response to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balme, Matthew; Conway, Susan; Costard, François; Gallagher, Colman; van Gasselt, Stephan; Hauber, Ernst; Johnsson, Andreas; Kereszturi, Akos; Platz, Thomas; Ramsdale, Jason; Reiss, Dennis; Séjourné, Antoine; Skinner, James; Swirad, Zuzanna

    2014-05-01

    An ISSI (International Space Science Institute) international team has been convened to study the Northern Plain of Mars. The northern plains are extensive, geologically young, low-lying areas that contrast in age and relief to Mars' older, heavily cratered, southern highlands. Mars' northern plains are characterised by a wealth of landforms and landscapes that have been inferred to be related to the presence of ice or ice-rich material near, beneath, or at the surface. Such landforms include 'scalloped' pits and depressions, polygonally-patterned grounds, and viscous flow features similar in form to terrestrial glacial or ice-sheet landforms. Furthermore, new (within the last few years) impact craters have exposed ice in the northern plains, and spectral data from orbiting instruments have revealed the presence of tens of percent by weight of water within the upper most ~50 cm of the martian surface at high latitudes. The northern plains comprise three linked zones: Acidalia Planitia, Utopia Planitia and Arcadia Planitia. Each region consists of a shallow basin, with the three areas are separated by low topographic divides. Our aim is to study the ice-related geomorphology of each region in order to understand the origins, evolution and response to climate change of ice on Mars. In particular, by comparing and contrasting the three separate basins we hope to determine if the processes that created the ice-related terrains are regional (perhaps basin limited) or global in scope, and whether the differing geology of each basin has an effect on the ice-related features observed there. The ISSI team is using planetary geomorphological mapping to meet this aim. Three long strips, each about 250 km wide and spanning the ~30N to ~80N latitude range have been defined and sub-teams are each mapping a single area. The group contains experts in mapping, GIS and crater counting (details in the size-frequency distribution of impact craters on a planetary surface can reveal

  8. Application of remote sensing data to land use and land cover assessment in the Tubarao River coastal plain, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    By means of aerial photography and MSS-LANDSAT data a land use/land cover classification was applied to the Tubarao River coastal plain. The following classes were identified: coal related areas, permanently flooded wetlands, periodically flooded wetlands, agricultural lands, bare soils, water bodies, urban areas, forestlands.

  9. Land Transitions in the American Plains: Multilevel Modeling of Drivers of Grassland Conversion (1950 to 2000)

    PubMed Central

    Sylvester, Kenneth M.; Brown, Daniel G.; Deane, Glenn D.; Kornak, Rachel N.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines drivers of land-cover change in the U.S. Great Plains in the last half of the twentieth century. Its central aim is to evaluate the dynamics of grassland preservation and conversion, across the region, and to identify areas of grassland that were never plowed during the period. The research compares land-cover data from 400 sample areas, selected from and nested within 50 counties, to aggregate data from the agricultural and population censuses. The spatially explicit land-cover data were interpreted from aerial photographs taken at three time points (1950s, 1970s and 2000s). Sample areas were chosen using a stratified random design based on the Public Land Survey grid with in the target counties, in several clusters across the region. We modeled the sequences and magnitudes of changes in the interpreted air photo data in a multi-level panel model that included soil quality and slope of sample areas and agricultural activities and employment reported in the U.S. Censuses of Agriculture and Population. We conclude that land retirement programs and production subsidies have worked at cross purposes, destabilizing micro-level patterns of land use in recent decades, increasing levels of switching between cropland and grassland and reducing the size of remaining areas of native grassland in the U.S. Great Plains. PMID:23626382

  10. Great Plains Wind Energy Transmission Development Project

    SciTech Connect

    Brad G. Stevens, P.E.; Troy K. Simonsen; Kerryanne M. Leroux

    2012-06-09

    In fiscal year 2005, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) received funding from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to undertake a broad array of tasks to either directly or indirectly address the barriers that faced much of the Great Plains states and their efforts to produce and transmit wind energy at the time. This program, entitled Great Plains Wind Energy Transmission Development Project, was focused on the central goal of stimulating wind energy development through expansion of new transmission capacity or development of new wind energy capacity through alternative market development. The original task structure was as follows: Task 1 - Regional Renewable Credit Tracking System (later rescoped to Small Wind Turbine Training Center); Task 2 - Multistate Transmission Collaborative; Task 3 - Wind Energy Forecasting System; and Task 4 - Analysis of the Long-Term Role of Hydrogen in the Region. As carried out, Task 1 involved the creation of the Small Wind Turbine Training Center (SWTTC). The SWTTC, located Grand Forks, North Dakota, consists of a single wind turbine, the Endurance S-250, on a 105-foot tilt-up guyed tower. The S-250 is connected to the electrical grid on the 'load side' of the electric meter, and the power produced by the wind turbine is consumed locally on the property. Establishment of the SWTTC will allow EERC personnel to provide educational opportunities to a wide range of participants, including grade school through college-level students and the general public. In addition, the facility will allow the EERC to provide technical training workshops related to the installation, operation, and maintenance of small wind turbines. In addition, under Task 1, the EERC hosted two small wind turbine workshops on May 18, 2010, and March 8, 2011, at the EERC in Grand Forks, North Dakota. Task 2 involved the EERC cosponsoring and aiding in the planning of three transmission workshops in the midwest and western regions. Under Task 3, the

  11. Avian associations of the Northern Great Plains grasslands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kantrud, H.A.; Kologiski, R.L.

    1983-01-01

    The grassland region of the northern Great Plains was divided into six broad subregions by application of an avian indicator species analysis to data obtained from 582 sample plots censused during the breeding season. Common, ubiquitous species and rare species had little classificatory value and were eliminated from the data set used to derive the avian associations. Initial statistical division of the plots likely reflected structure of the dominant plant species used for nesting; later divisions probably were related to foraging or nesting cover requirements based on vegetation height or density, habitat heterogeneity, or possibly to the existence of mutually similar distributions or shared areas of greater than average abundance for certain groups of species. Knowledge of the effects of grazing, mostly by cattle, on habitat use by the breeding bird species was used to interpret the results of the indicator species analysis. Moderate grazing resulted in greater species richness in nearly all subregions; effects of grazing on total bird density were more variable.

  12. Net Ecosystem Production (NEP) of the Great Plains, United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howard, Daniel; Gilmanov, Tagir; Gu, Yingxin; Wylie, Bruce; Zhang, Li

    2012-01-01

    Flux tower networks, such as AmeriFlux and FLUXNET, consist of a growing number of eddy covariance flux tower sites that provide a synoptic record of the exchange of carbon, water, and energy between the ecosystem and atmosphere at various temporal frequencies. These towers also detect and measure certain site characteristics, such as wind, temperature, precipitation, humidity, atmospheric pressure, soil features, and phenological progressions. Efforts are continuous to combine flux tower network data with remote sensing data to upscale the conditions observed at specific sites to a regional and, ultimately, worldwide scale. Data-driven regression tree models have the ability to incorporate flux tower records and remote sensing data to quantify exchanges of carbon with the atmosphere (Wylie and others, 2007; Xiao and others, 2010; Zhang and others, 2010; Zhang and others, 2011). Previous study results demonstrated the dramatic effect weather has on NEP and revealed specific ecoregions and times acting as carbon sinks or sources. As of 2012, more than 100 site-years of flux tower measurements, represented by more than 50 individual cropland or grassland sites throughout the Great Plains and surrounding area, have been acquired, quality controlled, and partitioned into gross photosynthesis (Pg) and ecosystem Re using detailed light-response, soil temperature, and vapor pressure deficit (VPD) based analysis.

  13. Tensile failure behavior of plain carbon steels at elevated temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wray, P. J.

    1984-11-01

    The onset of tensile instability and the occurrence of fracture in plain carbon steels containing up to 1.89C has been examined in the temperature range 500 to 1300 °C and the strain-rate range 6 X lO-6 to 2 × 10-2 s-1. In the ferrite-plus-pearlite mixtures at temperatures below the eutectoid temperature, the work-hardening exponent decreases with increasing amount of pearlite, and there is a corresponding decrease in the Considére strain. However, the onset of necking is delayed to well beyond the Considére strain, and these mixtures are inherently ductile even at the eutectoid composition. In the austenite region, the general intrusion of dynamic recrystallization compctes with intergranular embrittlement at temperatures below about 1050 °C. The embrittlement is related to precipitation which takes place either during cooling (MnS) or at the deformation temperature [AIN, Nb (CN), etc.]. In hypereutectoid steels, the ductility of austenite-plus-cementite and pearlite-plus-cementite mixtures diminishes drastically with decreasing temperature and increasing amount of cementite. The areas of possible fracture modes are mapped in temperature-strain rate and temperature-carbon content space.

  14. View east over the Rocky Mountains and Great Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A color oblique view looking east over the Rocky Mountains and Great Plains (40.0N, 106.0W). This view covers a portion of the States of Colorado, Wyoming, and Nebraska. This entire region, covered with snow, depicts much of the structural and topographic features of the Rocky Mountain chain. Only change to snow pattern seen here is the (right center) metropolitan areas of Denver and Colorado Springs, Colorado, which can be observed along the eastern edge of the mountain front. The major inter-montane valleys of South Park (right center), Middle Park (center), and North Park (left center) are clearly visible and separate the Colorado Rockies Front Range from the high rugged mountains that form the core of the Rocky Mountains. Individual mountains can be discovered such as Pikes Peak near right border (center), Mt. Cunnison region, circular feature accentuated by the Cunnison River (dark) in the right center (bottom) of the photograph. The snow covered peaks of Mts. Harvard, Princeton,

  15. Subophitic lithologies in KREEP-rich poikilitic impact melt rocks from Cayley Plains, Apollo 16 - Remnants of a volcanic Highland crust?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reimold, W. U.; Borchardt, R.

    1984-01-01

    Attention is given to the three KREEP-rich poikilitic impact melt rocks from the Cayley Plains stations of Apollo 16 with subophitic texture areas. The bulk chemistry of these areas and the surrounding poikilitic matrices, as well as mineral compositions, were determined by electron microprobe analysis, and all subophitic areas have been identified as impact melt rock clasts. The absence of pristine volcanic target rock fragments and the existence of KREEP-rich and anorthositic impact melt clasts in KREEP-rich impact melt rocks from Cayley Plains supports the theory that the Plains formation is part of the ejecta blanket from a large, basin-type impact crater which is underlain by anorthositic material and has been reworked by local impacts in post-Imbrian times.

  16. Dating the period when intensive anthropogenic activity began to influence the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China

    PubMed Central

    Cong, Jinxin; Gao, Chuanyu; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Shaoqing; He, Jiabao; Wang, Guoping

    2016-01-01

    Dating the start of intensive anthropogenic influence on ecosystems is important for identifying the conditions necessary for ecosystem recovery. However, few studies have focused on determining when anthropogenic influences on wetland began through sedimentary archives. To fill this critical gap in our knowledge, combustion sources and emission intensities, reconstructed via black carbon (BC) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed in two wetlands in the Sanjiang Plain in Northeast China. 14C provided age control for the sedimentary records. By combining previous sedimentary and archaeological studies, we attempt to date the beginning of intensive anthropogenic influences on the Sanjiang Plain. Our results showed that BC deposition fluxes increased from 0.02 to 0.7 g C/m2.yr during the last 10,000 years. An upward trend was apparent during the last 500 years. Before 1200 cal yr BP, human activities were minor, such that the wetland ecosystem in the Sanjiang Plain before this period may represent the reference conditions that for the recovery of these wetlands. As the human population increased after 1200 cal yr BP, combustion sources changed and residential areas became a major source of BC and PAHs. In this way, the wetland ecosystem gradually became more heavily influenced by human activities. PMID:26907560

  17. Estimated areal extent of colonies of black-tailed prairie dogs in the northern Great Plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sidle, John G.; Johnson, D.H.; Euliss, B.R.

    2001-01-01

    During 1997-1998, we undertook an aerial survey, with an aerial line-intercept technique, to estimate the extent of colonies of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) in the northern Great Plains states of Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming. We stratified the survey based on knowledge of colony locations, computed 2 types of estimates for each stratum, and combined ratio estimates for high-density strata with average density estimates for low-density strata. Estimates of colony areas for black-tailed prairie dogs were derived from the average percentages of lines intercepting prairie dog colonies and ratio estimators. We selected the best estimator based on the correlation between length of transect line and length of intercepted colonies. Active colonies of black-tailed prairie dogs occupied 2,377.8 km2 i?? 186.4 SE, whereas inactive colonies occupied 560.4 i?? 89.2 km2. These data represent the 1st quantitative assessment of prairie-dog colonies in the northern Great Plains. The survey dispels popular notions that millions of square kilometers of colonies of black-tailed prairie dogs exist in the northern Great Plains and can form the basis for future survey efforts

  18. Long-term change in the megabenthos of the Porcupine Abyssal Plain (NE Atlantic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billett, D. S. M.; Bett, B. J.; Rice, A. L.; Thurston, M. H.; Galéron, J.; Sibuet, M.; Wolff, G. A.

    A radical change in the abundance of invertebrate megafauna on the Porcupine Abyssal Plain is reported over a period of 10 years (1989-1999). Actiniarians, annelids, pycnogonids, tunicates, ophiuroids and holothurians increased significantly in abundance. However, there was no significant change in wet weight biomass. Two holothurian species, Amperima rosea and Ellipinion molle, increased in abundance by more than two orders of magnitude. Samples from the Porcupine Abyssal Plain over a longer period (1977-1999) show that prior to 1996 these holothurian species were always a minor component of the megafauna. From 1996 to 1999 A. rosea was abundant over a wide area of the Porcupine Abyssal Plain indicating that the phenomenon was not a localised event. Several dominant holothurian species show a distinct trend in decreasing body size over the study period. The changes in megafauna abundance may be related to environmental forcing (food supply) rather than to localised stochastic population variations. Inter-annual variability and long-term trends in organic matter supply to the seabed may be responsible for the observed changes in abundance, species dominance and size distributions.

  19. Generalized altitude and configuration of the base of the High Plains regional aquifer, northwestern Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Havens, John S.

    1981-01-01

    During 1978, the U.S. Geological Survey began a 5-year study of the High Plains regional aquifer system to provide hydrologic information for evaluation of the effects of long-term development of the aquifer and to develop computer models for prediction of aquifer response to alternative changes in ground-water management (Weeks, 1978). This report is one of a series presenting hydrologic information of the High Plains aquifer in Oklahoma. This report consists of two maps showing the altitude and configuration of the eroded pre-Ogallala bedrock surface (sheets 1 and 2) that forms the base of the aquifer. Bedrock slopes generally from west to east and is composed of rocks of Permian, Triassic-Jurassic, and Cretaceous age. The subcrop extent of these rocks is shown by Morton (1973) for Oklahoma and by Weeks and Gutentag (1981) for the entire High Plains study area. Altitudes of the aquifer base were determined from drillers' logs provided by the Oklahoma Water Resources Board and from published and unpublished information in the files of the U.S. Geological Survey. Where data were sparse, the total well depth was used as the aquifer base under the assumption that wells generally are not drilled very deep into non-water yielding bedrock.

  20. Land change variability and human-environment dynamics in the United States Great Plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drummond, Mark A.; Auch, Roger F.; Karstensen, Krista A.; Sayler, Kristi L.; Taylor, Janis L.; Loveland, Thomas R.

    2012-01-01

    Land use and land cover changes have complex linkages to climate variability and change, biophysical resources, and socioeconomic driving forces. To assess these land change dynamics and their causes in the Great Plains, we compare and contrast contemporary changes across 16 ecoregions using Landsat satellite data and statistical analysis. Large-area change analysis of agricultural regions is often hampered by change detection error and the tendency for land conversions to occur at the local-scale. To facilitate a regional-scale analysis, a statistical sampling design of randomly selected 10 km x 10 km blocks is used to efficiently identify the types and rates of land conversions for four time intervals between 1973 and 2000, stratified by relatively homogenous ecoregions. Nearly 8% of the overall Great Plains region underwent land-use and land-cover change during the study period, with a substantial amount of ecoregion variability that ranged from less than 2% to greater than 13%. Agricultural land cover declined by more than 2% overall, with variability contingent on the differential characteristics of regional human–environment systems. A large part of the Great Plains is in relatively stable land cover. However, other land systems with significant biophysical and climate limitations for agriculture have high rates of land change when pushed by economic, policy, technology, or climate forcing factors. The results indicate the regionally based potential for land cover to persist or fluctuate as land uses are adapted to spatially and temporally variable forcing factors.

  1. Land change variability and human-environment dynamics in the United States Great Plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drummond, M.A.; Auch, R.F.; Karstensen, K.A.; Sayler, K.L.; Taylor, J.L.; Loveland, T.R.

    2012-01-01

    Land use and land cover changes have complex linkages to climate variability and change, biophysical resources, and socioeconomic driving forces. To assess these land change dynamics and their causes in the Great Plains, we compare and contrast contemporary changes across 16 ecoregions using Landsat satellite data and statistical analysis. Large-area change analysis of agricultural regions is often hampered by change detection error and the tendency for land conversions to occur at the local-scale. To facilitate a regional-scale analysis, a statistical sampling design of randomly selected 10 km ?? 10 km blocks is used to efficiently identify the types and rates of land conversions for four time intervals between 1973 and 2000, stratified by relatively homogenous ecoregions. Nearly 8% of the overall Great Plains region underwent land-use and land-cover change during the study period, with a substantial amount of ecoregion variability that ranged from less than 2% to greater than 13%. Agricultural land cover declined by more than 2% overall, with variability contingent on the differential characteristics of regional human-environment systems. A large part of the Great Plains is in relatively stable land cover. However, other land systems with significant biophysical and climate limitations for agriculture have high rates of land change when pushed by economic, policy, technology, or climate forcing factors. The results indicate the regionally based potential for land cover to persist or fluctuate as land uses are adapted to spatially and temporally variable forcing factors. ?? 2011.

  2. Dating the period when intensive anthropogenic activity began to influence the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cong, Jinxin; Gao, Chuanyu; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Shaoqing; He, Jiabao; Wang, Guoping

    2016-02-01

    Dating the start of intensive anthropogenic influence on ecosystems is important for identifying the conditions necessary for ecosystem recovery. However, few studies have focused on determining when anthropogenic influences on wetland began through sedimentary archives. To fill this critical gap in our knowledge, combustion sources and emission intensities, reconstructed via black carbon (BC) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed in two wetlands in the Sanjiang Plain in Northeast China. 14C provided age control for the sedimentary records. By combining previous sedimentary and archaeological studies, we attempt to date the beginning of intensive anthropogenic influences on the Sanjiang Plain. Our results showed that BC deposition fluxes increased from 0.02 to 0.7 g C/m2.yr during the last 10,000 years. An upward trend was apparent during the last 500 years. Before 1200 cal yr BP, human activities were minor, such that the wetland ecosystem in the Sanjiang Plain before this period may represent the reference conditions that for the recovery of these wetlands. As the human population increased after 1200 cal yr BP, combustion sources changed and residential areas became a major source of BC and PAHs. In this way, the wetland ecosystem gradually became more heavily influenced by human activities.

  3. A river is reborn--Use Attainability Analysis for the Lower Des Plaines River, Illinois.

    PubMed

    Novotny, Vladimir; O'Reilly, Neal; Ehlinger, Timothy; Frevert, Toby; Twait, Scott

    2007-01-01

    The goal of the Use Attainability Analysis (UAA) of the Lower Des Plaines River was to upgrade the designated "Secondary Contact Recreation and Indigenous Aquatic Life Use" to a higher use that would be commensurate with the goals of the Clean Water Act (CWA). In Illinois, the water body use in compliance with the goals of the CWA is named "General Use". The river has been extensively modified and receives most point-source and urban runoff discharges from the Chicago metropolitan area (9.5 million inhabitants). The study included an extensive assessment of the physical, chemical, biological, and bacteriological integrity status of the water body and sediments. The UAA found that the water quality situation of the river has improved significantly since the 1970s, when the Illinois Pollution Control Board defined and assigned the Secondary Contact Recreation and Indigenous Aquatic Life Use designation to the Lower Des Plaines River. The study defined and suggested a "Modified Impounded Use" for one highly modified reach, with adjusted standards for dissolved oxygen and recreation. The study also recommended adoption of the General Use standards, some of them in a modified form, for other water quality parameters. Standards for limited recreation were also developed. The UAA also outlines a suggested action plan that will bring UAA segments of the Lower Des Plaines River in compliance with UAA goals. PMID:17290974

  4. Stratigraphic evolution of the late Holocene Ganges Brahmaputra lower delta plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, M. A.; Khan, S. R.; Goodbred, S. L.; Kuehl, S. A.

    2003-02-01

    Sediment cores from the Ganges-Brahmaputra delta in Bangladesh were examined for sedimentological character, clay mineralogy, elemental trends (C, N, S), and 14C geochronology to develop a model for the sedimentary sequence resulting from lower delta plain progradation in the late Holocene. A widespread facies succession from Muddy Sand to Interbedded Mud records progradation of shoal-island complexes and the transition from subtidal to intertidal conditions. Mangrove-vegetated islands and peninsulas represent the final phase of progradation; a Mottled Mud that is deposited by penetration of turbid coastal water into the mangroves during high water events. Organic matter preservation is generally low (<1% TOC) in most of these well-drained deposits that are characterized by a permeable, silt-dominated granulometry. Clay mineralogy in the cores records the relative influence of smectite and kaolinite-rich Ganges sediments and illite and chlorite-rich Brahmaputra material. The lower delta plain west of the modern river mouths was deposited as a Ganges-dominated delta in three phases since 5000 cal years BP, with Brahmaputra influence confined to the Meghna estuary area and to the supratidal section of western delta deposits. Evolution of the lower delta plain in the late Holocene was influenced by regional subsidence patterns in the tectonically active Bengal Basin, which controlled distributary channel avulsion and migration, and the creation of accommodation space.

  5. Wetland degradation: its driving forces and environmental impacts in the Sanjiang Plain, China.

    PubMed

    Song, Kaishan; Wang, Zongming; Du, Jia; Liu, Lei; Zeng, Lihong; Ren, Chunying

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated human-induced long-term wetland degradation that occurred in the Sanjiang Plain. Results from analyzing land-use/land-cover data sets derived from remotely sensed Landsat Multispectral Scanner/Thematic Mapper imagery for four time points showed that wetlands in the Sanjiang Plain have been severely transformed, and the area of wetlands decreased by 38 % from 1976 to 1986, by 16 % from 1986 to 1995, and by 31 % from 1995 to 2005. This study showed that transition to agricultural cultivation accounted for 91 % of wetland losses, whereas transition to grassland and forest accounted for 7 % of the wetlands losses. Institutional strategies and market policies probably exerted great impacts on agricultural practice that directly or indirectly influenced the decrease in wetlands. This study also indicated that an increased population likely led to wetland conversion to cropland by showing a high correlation between population and cropland (R (2) = 0.92, P < 0.001). Wetland loss occurred during later time intervals at a low rate. This study suggests that the existing wetland-protection measures in the Sanjiang Plain should be reinforced further because of possible environmental consequences of wetland loss, such as enhanced soil carbon emission, changed hydrological cycling, and regional temperature increase. PMID:24844462

  6. Achieving conservation goals in managed forests of the southeastern coastal plain.

    PubMed

    Loehle, Craig; Wigley, T Bently; Schilling, Erik; Tatum, Vickie; Beebe, John; Vance, Eric; Van Deusen, Paul; Weatherford, Philip

    2009-12-01

    Managed forests are a primary land use within the Coastal Plain of the southern United States. These forests are generally managed under standards, guidelines, or regulations to conserve ecosystem functions and services. Economic value of commercial forests provides incentives for landowners to maintain forests rather than convert them to other uses that have substantially reduced environmental benefits. In this review, we describe the historical context of commercial forest management in the southern United States Coastal Plain, describe how working forests are managed today, and examine relationships between commercial forest management and maintenance of functional aquatic and wetland systems and conservation of biological diversity. Significant challenges for the region include increasing human population and urbanization and concomitant changes in forest area and structure, invasive species, and increased interest in forest biomass as an energy feedstock. Research needs include better information about management of rare species and communities and quantification of relationships between ecosystem attributes and forest management, including biomass production and harvest. Incentives and better information may help commercial forest managers in the Coastal Plain more efficiently contribute to landscape-scale conservation goals. PMID:19856021

  7. Production and decomposition of forest litter fall on the Apalachicola River flood plain, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elder, J.F.; Cairns, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    Measurements of litter fall (leaves and other particulate organic material) and leaf decomposition were made on the Apalachicola River flood plain in 1979-80. Litter fall was collected monthly in five different forest types in swamp and levee areas. Leaves from 42 species of trees and other plants accounted for 58 percent of total litter fall. The remaining 42 percent was nonleaf material. Average litter fall was 800 grams per square meter per year in the flood plain. Tupelo (Nyssa), baldcypress (Taxodium), and ash (Fraxinus), all swamp-adapted trees, produce over 50 percent of the leaf fall. Common levee species such as sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) and diamond-leaf oak (Quercus laurifolia) are also major contributors to total flood-plain litter fall. Annual flooding of the river provides an important mechanism for mobilization of the litter-fall products. Leaf decomposition rates were greatly reduced in dry environments. Carbon loss was nearly linear over a 6-month period, but nitrogen and phosphorus loss was exponential and nearly complete within 1 month. (USGS)

  8. Wetland Degradation: Its Driving Forces and Environmental Impacts in the Sanjiang Plain, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Kaishan; Wang, Zongming; Du, Jia; Liu, Lei; Zeng, Lihong; Ren, Chunying

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated human-induced long-term wetland degradation that occurred in the Sanjiang Plain. Results from analyzing land-use/land-cover data sets derived from remotely sensed Landsat Multispectral Scanner/Thematic Mapper imagery for four time points showed that wetlands in the Sanjiang Plain have been severely transformed, and the area of wetlands decreased by 38 % from 1976 to 1986, by 16 % from 1986 to 1995, and by 31 % from 1995 to 2005. This study showed that transition to agricultural cultivation accounted for 91 % of wetland losses, whereas transition to grassland and forest accounted for 7 % of the wetlands losses. Institutional strategies and market policies probably exerted great impacts on agricultural practice that directly or indirectly influenced the decrease in wetlands. This study also indicated that an increased population likely led to wetland conversion to cropland by showing a high correlation between population and cropland ( R 2 = 0.92, P < 0.001). Wetland loss occurred during later time intervals at a low rate. This study suggests that the existing wetland-protection measures in the Sanjiang Plain should be reinforced further because of possible environmental consequences of wetland loss, such as enhanced soil carbon emission, changed hydrological cycling, and regional temperature increase.

  9. Classification of irrigated land using satellite imagery, the High Plains aquifer, nominal date 1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Qi, Sharon L.; Konduris, Alexandria; Litke, David W.; Dupree, Jean

    2002-01-01

    Satellite imagery from the Landsat Thematic Mapper (nominal date 1992) was used to classify and map the location of irrigated land across the High Plains aquifer. The High Plains aquifer underlies 174,000 square miles in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. The U.S. Geological Survey is conducting a waterquality study of the High Plains aquifer as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program. To help interpret data and select sites for the study, it is helpful to know the location of irrigated land within the study area. To date, the only information available for the entire area is 20 years old. To update the data on irrigated land, 40 summer and 40 spring images (nominal date 1992) were acquired from the National Land Cover Data set and processed using a band-ratio method (Landsat Thematic Mapper band 4 divided by band 3) to enhance the vegetation signatures. The study area was divided into nine subregions with similar environmental characteristics, and a band-ratio threshold was selected from imagery in each subregion that differentiated the cutoff between irrigated and nonirrigated land. The classified images for each subregion were mosaicked to produce an irrigated land map for the study area. The total amount of irrigated land classified from the 1992 imagery was 13.1 million acres, or about 12 percent of the total land in the High Plains. This estimate is approximately 1.5 percent greater than the amount of irrigated land reported in the 1992 Census of Agriculture (12.8 millions acres). This information was also compared to a similar data set based on 1980 imagery. The 1980 data classified 13.7 million acres as irrigated. Although the change in the amount of irrigated land between the two times was not substantial, the location of the irrigated land did shift from areas where there were large ground-water-level declines to other areas where ground-water levels were static or rising.

  10. Mid Pliocene sea levels along the southeast US coastal plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovere, A.; Hearty, P. J.; Raymo, M. E.; Mitrovica, J. X.; Inglis, J.

    2012-12-01

    Proxy data suggest that during the Mid-Pliocene Warm Period (MPWP) atmospheric CO2 levels were roughly similar to today (between 350 and 450 ppmv) and that global average temperature was elevated by as much as 3°C with respect to preindustrial values. Estimates of sea level (SL) during the MPWP range from +10 m to >+40 m relative to present, reflecting uncertainties in our knowledge of the sensitivity to modest climate warming of the East Antarctic, West Antarctic and Greenland Ice Sheets. A primary objective of the PLIOMAX project (www.pliomax.org) is to combine models of paleosea-level signals with geological observations to significantly improve constraints on eustatic sea level during the MPWP. In this regard, the southeast US coastal plain is of strategic importance in MPWP sea level studies (Dowsett and Cronin, Geology, 1990). In fact, it is one of the few places where predicted glacio-isostatic effects are expected to exhibit a significant geographic variation (in this case, north-to-south). The coastal plain may also be influenced by dynamic topography driven by mantle convective flow. In this area, two factors drive the up-to-the-west dynamic tilting of the coast. The first is the descent of the Farallon slab, now located under the mid-part of the North American continent. The other is upwelling return flow under the east coast (Moucha et al., Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 2008). That is, over the last few million years, dynamic topography is responsible for potentially tens of meters of uplift (sea-level fall) of the Pliocene shoreline along the southeast US coastal plain. We have mapped an almost continuous MPWP shoreline cut into Miocene and older formations. However, as a result of multiple inter-state investigations extending over the last century, both the geomorphic escarpment and the associated deposits have been named differently across the region. In Virginia, the Chippenham Thornburg scarp is associated with the Moore House formation; in North and

  11. The Great Plains IDEA Gerontology Program: An Online, Interinstitutional Graduate Degree

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Gregory F.

    2011-01-01

    The Great-Plains IDEA Gerontology Program is a graduate program developed and implemented by the Great Plains Interactive Distance Education Alliance (Great Plains IDEA). The Great Plains IDEA (Alliance) originated as a consortium of Colleges of Human Sciences ranging across the central United States. This Alliance's accomplishments have included…

  12. Integrated hydrological modeling of the North China Plain: Options for sustainable groundwater use in the alluvial plain of Mt. Taihang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Yunqiao; Villholth, Karen G.; Jensen, Karsten H.; Stisen, Simon; Lei, Yuping

    2012-09-01

    SummaryThe integrated hydrological model MIKE SHE was applied to a part of the North China Plain to examine the dynamics of the hydrological system and to assess water management options to restore depleted groundwater resources. The model simulates the spatio-temporal distribution of recharge to and the associated dynamics of the alluvial aquifers based on climatic conditions, land use, soil characteristics, irrigation and coupled unsaturated-saturated zone processes. The model was auto-calibrated for the period 1996-2002 against daily observations of groundwater head from wells distributed across the 7230 km2 region and actual evapotranspiration measured at an agricultural station located within the model area. The model simulations compared well with observations and acceptable values were obtained for both root mean square error and correlation coefficient. The calibrated model was subsequently used for scenario analysis of the effect of different cropping rotations, irrigation intensity, and other water management options, like the implementation of the South to North Water Transfer (SNWT) project. The model analysis verified that groundwater tables in the region are subject to steep declines (up to 1 m/yr) due to decades of intensive exploitation of the groundwater resources for crop irrigation, primarily the widespread crop rotation of irrigated winter wheat and mostly rainfed summer maize. The SNWT project mitigates water stress in Shijiazhuang city and areas adjacent to wastewater canals but cannot solely reverse declining water tables across the region. Combining the SNWT project and implementing region-wide crop and irrigation system changes, including deficit irrigation, wastewater irrigation, and alternating winter fallow, provides a feasible means to stabilize groundwater levels in the area.

  13. Particulate Loads Caused by Wind Erosion in the Great Plains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagen, Lawrence J.; Woodruff, Neil P.

    1975-01-01

    In this paper the annual flux of suspended particulates caused by wind erosion in the Great Plains is estimated. This study demonstrated that climate causes wide variations in air pollution from wind erosion. (BT)

  14. 131. ELEVATION AND PLAIN OF PUMP AND WATER MAIN, DATED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    131. ELEVATION AND PLAIN OF PUMP AND WATER MAIN, DATED MARCH 8, 1847 Frederic Graff, Jr., Collection of Philadelphia Museum of Art - Fairmount Waterworks, East bank of Schuylkill River, Aquarium Drive, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  15. Animated Flyover of Pluto’s Icy Mountain and Plains

    NASA Video Gallery

    This simulated flyover of Pluto’s Norgay Montes (Norgay Mountains) and Sputnik Planum (Sputnik Plain) was created from New Horizons closest-approach images. Norgay Montes have been informally named...

  16. SECOND FLOOR, VIEW OF THE NORTH PLAIN OF THE 1772 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SECOND FLOOR, VIEW OF THE NORTH PLAIN OF THE 1772 ROOF TO SHOW ROUND-BUTT WOOD SHINGLES; THIS ROOF IS PROTECTED BY THE 1784 SHED ADDITION - Murray-Dick-Fawcett House, 517 Prince Street, Alexandria, Independent City, VA

  17. Flying over Pluto’s icy plains and Hillary Mountains

    NASA Video Gallery

    This simulated flyover of two regions on Pluto, northwestern Sputnik Planum (Sputnik Plain) and Hillary Montes (Hillary Mountains), was created from New Horizons close-approach images. Sputnik Plan...

  18. Frozen Plains in the Heart of Pluto's 'Heart'

    NASA Video Gallery

    In the center left of Pluto’s vast heart-shaped feature – informally named “Tombaugh Regio” - lies a vast, craterless plain that appears to be no more than 100 million years old, and is possibly st...

  19. 18. PLAIN OFFICE; SHOWS WOODWORK AND WALL TREATMENT. ROOM 2662, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. PLAIN OFFICE; SHOWS WOODWORK AND WALL TREATMENT. ROOM 2662, SECOND FLOOR, SOUTH SIDE. - Hughes Aircraft Company, Processing & Electronics Building, 6775 Centinela Avenue, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  20. 18 CFR 801.8 - Flood plain management and protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... nonstructural nature for the protection of flood plains subject to frequent flooding. (3) Assist in the study and classification of flood prone lands to ascertain the relative risk of flooding, and...

  1. 18 CFR 801.8 - Flood plain management and protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... nonstructural nature for the protection of flood plains subject to frequent flooding. (3) Assist in the study and classification of flood prone lands to ascertain the relative risk of flooding, and...

  2. 18 CFR 801.8 - Flood plain management and protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... nonstructural nature for the protection of flood plains subject to frequent flooding. (3) Assist in the study and classification of flood prone lands to ascertain the relative risk of flooding, and...

  3. 18 CFR 801.8 - Flood plain management and protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... nonstructural nature for the protection of flood plains subject to frequent flooding. (3) Assist in the study and classification of flood prone lands to ascertain the relative risk of flooding, and...

  4. 18 CFR 801.8 - Flood plain management and protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... nonstructural nature for the protection of flood plains subject to frequent flooding. (3) Assist in the study and classification of flood prone lands to ascertain the relative risk of flooding, and...

  5. 49 CFR 215.107 - Defective plain bearing box: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components... service a car, if the car has— (a) A plain bearing box that does not contain visible free oil; (b) A...

  6. 49 CFR 215.107 - Defective plain bearing box: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components... service a car, if the car has— (a) A plain bearing box that does not contain visible free oil; (b) A...

  7. 49 CFR 215.111 - Defective plain bearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components Suspension System § 215.111 Defective plain bearing. A railroad may not place or continue in service a car, if the car...

  8. 49 CFR 215.113 - Defective plain bearing wedge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components... car, if a plain bearing wedge on that car is— (a) Missing; (b) Cracked; (c) Broken; or (d) Not...

  9. 49 CFR 215.113 - Defective plain bearing wedge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components... car, if a plain bearing wedge on that car is— (a) Missing; (b) Cracked; (c) Broken; or (d) Not...

  10. 49 CFR 215.107 - Defective plain bearing box: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components... service a car, if the car has— (a) A plain bearing box that does not contain visible free oil; (b) A...

  11. 49 CFR 215.113 - Defective plain bearing wedge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components... car, if a plain bearing wedge on that car is— (a) Missing; (b) Cracked; (c) Broken; or (d) Not...

  12. 49 CFR 215.107 - Defective plain bearing box: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components... service a car, if the car has— (a) A plain bearing box that does not contain visible free oil; (b) A...

  13. 49 CFR 215.111 - Defective plain bearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components Suspension System § 215.111 Defective plain bearing. A railroad may not place or continue in service a car, if the car...

  14. 49 CFR 215.111 - Defective plain bearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components Suspension System § 215.111 Defective plain bearing. A railroad may not place or continue in service a car, if the car...

  15. 49 CFR 215.111 - Defective plain bearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components Suspension System § 215.111 Defective plain bearing. A railroad may not place or continue in service a car, if the car...

  16. 49 CFR 215.113 - Defective plain bearing wedge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components... car, if a plain bearing wedge on that car is— (a) Missing; (b) Cracked; (c) Broken; or (d) Not...

  17. 49 CFR 215.111 - Defective plain bearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components Suspension System § 215.111 Defective plain bearing. A railroad may not place or continue in service a car, if the car...

  18. 49 CFR 215.113 - Defective plain bearing wedge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components... car, if a plain bearing wedge on that car is— (a) Missing; (b) Cracked; (c) Broken; or (d) Not...

  19. 49 CFR 215.107 - Defective plain bearing box: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components... service a car, if the car has— (a) A plain bearing box that does not contain visible free oil; (b) A...

  20. Snake River Plain FORGE Site Characterization Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Robert Podgorney

    2016-04-18

    The site characterization data used to develop the conceptual geologic model for the Snake River Plain site in Idaho, as part of phase 1 of the Frontier Observatory for Research in Geothermal Energy (FORGE) initiative. This collection includes data on seismic events, groundwater, geomechanical models, gravity surveys, magnetics, resistivity, magnetotellurics (MT), rock physics, stress, the geologic setting, and supporting documentation, including several papers. Also included are 3D models (Petrel and Jewelsuite) of the proposed site. Data for wells INEL-1, WO-2, and USGS-142 have been included as links to separate data collections. These data have been assembled by the Snake River Geothermal Consortium (SRGC), a team of collaborators that includes members from national laboratories, universities, industry, and federal agencies, lead by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Other contributors include the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), the Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CEAS), the University of Idaho, Idaho State University, Boise State University, University of Wyoming, University of Oklahoma, Energy and Geoscience Institute-University of Utah, US Geothermal, Baker Hughes Campbell Scientific Inc., Chena Power, US Geological Survey (USGS), Idaho Department of Water Resources, Idaho Geological Survey, and Mink GeoHydro.

  1. Seismoelectric studies in an outwash plain

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, P.J.; Yu, Jianming; Gershenzon, N.

    1996-11-01

    Initial studies of the seismoelectric effect in an outwash plain have been conducted near Yellow Springs, Ohio. The purpose was to make seismoelectric measurements in a simple, well-understood test site where the seismoelectric signals could be clearly recorded and theoretical predictions could be calculated with as few assumptions as possible. Suppression of electrical noise was a major concern because 60 Hz electromagnetic fields from the power grid system are unavoidable in most parts of the United States. The site was characterized by seismic refraction surveys, DC resistivity surveys, and two drill holes. The site has a fairly uniform, 3 m thick unsaturated layer over a thick saturated sandy layer. The water table was near the top of the outwash layer. For the seismoelectric studies a sledgehammer source was used. Seismic signals and electrical signals were recorded separately and jointly with a variety of electrode combinations. An engineering seismograph was used to record both the seismic and electrical signals. The built-in 60 Hz and 180 Hz notch filters were effective in suppressing much of the power grid pickup. Electrical signals were observed which were consistent in time and frequency with the expectation of seismoelectric response due to the electrokinetic effect. The peak-to-peak electric field amplitude was about 6 mV/m and the time delay corresponded with one-way seismic travel times to the water table.

  2. Groundwater Management Innovations in the High Plains Aquifer, USA: A possible path towards sustainability? (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sophocleous, M. A.

    2009-12-01

    The U.S. High Plains aquifer, one of the largest freshwater aquifer systems in the world covering parts of eight US states, continues to decline, threatening the long-term viability of the region’s irrigation-based economy. The theory of the commons has meaningful messages for High-Plains jurisdictions as no private incentive exists to save for tomorrow, and agricultural prosperity depends on mining water from large portions of the aquifer. The eight High Plains states take different approaches to the development and management of the aquifer based on each state’s body of water laws that abide by different legal doctrines, on which Federal laws are superposed, thus creating difficulties in integrated regional water management efforts. Although accumulating hydrologic stresses and competing demands on groundwater resources are making groundwater management increasingly complex, they are also leading to innovative approaches to the management of groundwater supplies, and those are highlighted in this presentation as good examples for emulation in managing groundwater resources. The highlighted innovations include (1) the Texas Groundwater Availability Modeling program, (2) Colorado’s water-augmentation program, (3) Kansas’ Intensive Groundwater Use Control Area policy, (4) the Kansas Groundwater Management Districts’ “safe yield” policies, (5) the water-use reporting program in Kansas, (6) the Aquifer Storage and Recovery program of the City of Wichita, Kansas, and (7) Nebraska’s Natural Resources Districts. It is concluded that the fragmented and piecemeal institutional arrangements for managing the supplies and quality of water are unlikely to be sufficient to meet the water challenges of the future. A number of recommendations for enhancing the sustainability of the aquifer are presented, including the formation of an interstate groundwater commission for the High Plains aquifer along the lines of the Delaware and Susquehanna River Basins

  3. Arsenic groundwater contamination in Middle Ganga Plain, Bihar, India: a future danger?

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborti, Dipankar; Mukherjee, Subhash C; Pati, Shyamapada; Sengupta, Mrinal K; Rahman, Mohammad M; Chowdhury, Uttam K; Lodh, Dilip; Chanda, Chitta R; Chakraborti, Anil K; Basu, Gautam K

    2003-01-01

    The pandemic of arsenic poisoning due to contaminated groundwater in West Bengal, India, and all of Bangladesh has been thought to be limited to the Ganges Delta (the Lower Ganga Plain), despite early survey reports of arsenic contamination in groundwater in the Union Territory of Chandigarh and its surroundings in the northwestern Upper Ganga Plain and recent findings in the Terai area of Nepal. Anecdotal reports of arsenical skin lesions in villagers led us to evaluate arsenic exposure and sequelae in the Semria Ojha Patti village in the Middle Ganga Plain, Bihar, where tube wells replaced dug wells about 20 years ago. Analyses of the arsenic content of 206 tube wells (95% of the total) showed that 56.8% exceeded arsenic concentrations of 50 micro g/L, with 19.9% > 300 micro g/L, the concentration predicting overt arsenical skin lesions. On medical examination of a self-selected sample of 550 (390 adults and 160 children), 13% of the adults and 6.3% of the children had typical skin lesions, an unusually high involvement for children, except in extreme exposures combined with malnutrition. The urine, hair, and nail concentrations of arsenic correlated significantly (r = 0.72-0.77) with drinking water arsenic concentrations up to 1,654 micro g/L. On neurologic examination, arsenic-typical neuropathy was diagnosed in 63% of the adults, a prevalence previously seen only in severe, subacute exposures. We also observed an apparent increase in fetal loss and premature delivery in the women with the highest concentrations of arsenic in their drinking water. The possibility of contaminated groundwater at other sites in the Middle and Upper Ganga Plain merits investigation. PMID:12842773

  4. Effects of sea level rise on deltaic coastal marshlands, Mississippi River deltaic plain

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsey, K.E.; Penland, S. ); Roberts, H.H.; Coleman, J.M. )

    1990-05-01

    Low-relief deltaic coastal plains commonly experience land loss because of the cumulative effects of natural and human-induced processes. Although it is difficult to separate the individual factors within the overall process, interplay between these factors can result in a rate of relative sea level rise greater than the natural rate of coastal-plain aggradation that causes land loss. Between 1956 and 1978, about 11,400 and 2,490 ha of marsh were lost in east Texas and Mississippi, respectively. Louisiana's loss was 18,755 ha. Relative sea level rise over the last 65 yr has averaged 0.23 cm/yr in the Gulf and as much as 1-1.5 cm/yr in the delta plain. The Environmental Protection Agency predicts the rate of sea level rise to increase over the next century. Rates of relative sea level rise for the Gulf of Mexico are expected to increase from 0.23-1.5 cm/yr to 0.6-3.7 cm/yr. The current rate of relative sea level rise and land loss in the subsiding Mississippi delta is a response that can be expected for many US coastal areas over the next century. With the predicted change, the Mississippi River delta complex will experience dramatically increased rates of land loss. Isles Dernieres will disappear by the year 2000, and Plaquemines and Terrebonne marshes will be gone between 2020 and 2080. Based on the lowest predicted sea level rise rate, by the year 2100, the delta plain could be reduced from 150.9 {times} 10{sup 3} ha to 29.8 x 10{sup 3} ha or to 4.9 {times} 10{sup 3} ha if calculations are based on the highest rate.

  5. Great Plains Drought in Simulations of Twentieth Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCrary, R. R.; Randall, D. A.

    2008-12-01

    The Great Plains region of the United States was influenced by a number of multi-year droughts during the twentieth century. Most notable were the "Dust Bowl" drought of the 1930s and the 1950s Great Plains drought. In this study we evaluate the ability of three of the Coupled Global Climate Models (CGCMs) used in the Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) of the IPCC to simulate Great Plains drought with the same frequency and intensity as was observed during the twentieth century. The models chosen for this study are: GFDL CM 2.0, NCAR CCSM3, and UKMO HadCM3. We find that the models accurately capture the climatology of the hydrologic cycle of the Great Plains, but that they tend to overestimate the variability in Great Plains precipitation. We also find that in each model simulation at least one long-term drought occurs over the Great Plains region during their representations 20th Century Climate. The multi-year droughts produced by the models exhibit similar magnitudes and spatial scales as was observed during the twentieth century. This study also investigates the relative roles that external forcing from the tropical Pacific and local feedbacks between the land surface and the atmosphere have in the initiation and perpetuation of Great Plains drought in each model. We find that cool, La Nina-like conditions in the tropical pacific are often associated with long-term drought conditions over the Great Plains in GFDL CM 2.0 and UKMO HadCM3, but there appears to be no systematic relationship between tropical Pacific SST variability and Great Plains drought in CCSM3. It is possible the strong coupling between the land surface and the atmosphere in the NCAR model causes precipitation anomalies to lock into phase over the Great Plains thereby perpetuating drought conditions. Results from this study are intended to help assess whether or not these climate models are credible for use in the assessment of future drought over the Great Plains region of the United States.

  6. The 2011 Tohoku-oki Earthquake Tsunami: Similarities and Differences to the 869 Jogan Tsunami on the Sendai Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugawara, Daisuke; Imamura, Fumihiko; Goto, Kazuhisa; Matsumoto, Hideaki; Minoura, Koji

    2013-05-01

    A post-tsunami field survey following the 2011 Tohoku-oki Earthquake Tsunami was carried out to asses inundated area in Sendai Plain, Northeast Japan. The type of inundation was classified into two categories (major and minor) according to the amount of accumulated debris, garbage and sediment. Major and minor inundations were identified up to 4 and 5 km from the coastline, respectively. Many artificial geomorphological features, such as roadway embankments and canals, were believed to have affected the run-up process of the tsunami. The inundation area of the 2011 tsunami on the Sendai Plain is compared with that of the 869 Jogan tsunami, which was reconstructed using numerical modeling based on available historical and geological records. The inundation area of the 2011 Tohoku-oki tsunami is comparable to that of the 869 Jogan tsunami, although a direct comparison is difficult due to differences in geomorphological contexts between the paleo period and the present.

  7. Effects of urbanization on local winds and thermal environment in Nohbi Plain, coastal region of Central Japan - a numerical analysis by meso-scale meteorological model with k-{epsilon} turbulence model

    SciTech Connect

    Kitada, Toshihiro; Okamura, Kiyoshi; Tanaka, Setsu

    1996-12-31

    Japanese large cities, mostly located in coastal region, have rapidly expanded in the last three decades. People in the region now experience warmer and unpleasant thermal environment in summer season, supposedly because of the extensive urbanization. Especially, under fine weather with light synoptic-scale gradient wind, the highest temperature often appears in rather inland area. An explanation to this phenomenon is horizontal transport of heat by the sea breeze which is strongly heated during its passage over the coastal urban area. This study investigated how and how much urbanization in Nohbi Plain of central Japan influences local wind and temperature distribution over the plain and its surrounding region, Nohbi Plain which faces to the Pacific Ocean and is surrounded by the Japanese Alps, and thus is in a typical topographic situation in Japan. For the study we performed numerical simulations using our meso-scale meteorological model which includes k-c model for turbulence. One of the major results obtained is to have clarified a hierarchy in natural and artificial topography of various scales on their contributions to formation of characteristic diurnal pattern of wind and temperature distributions in the plain area. The Japanese Alps, the largest topographic feature in central Japan and often called the roof of Japan, gave the most important influence on the wind, although the mountains are located quite far, around 200 km, from Nohbi Plain. The way for the influence of the high mountains was to warm air mass in upper layer but below 2 km in altitude, over the Nohbi Plain through heat transport due to a large scale circulation consisting of the {open_quotes}flows from plain to plateau in lower layer and plateau to plain in upper layer{close_quotes}. Urbanization in the coastal Nohbi Plain showed little effect on the flow pattern, but caused large temperature rises at surface level in the inland area because of horizontal heat transfer by the sea breeze.

  8. Guide for selecting Manning's roughness coefficients for natural channels and flood plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arcement, George J.; Schneider, Verne R.

    1989-01-01

    Although much research has been done on Manning's roughness coefficient, n, for stream channels, very little has been done concerning the roughness values for densely vegetated flood plains. The n value is determined from the values of the factors that affect the roughness of channels and flood plains. In densely vegetated flood plains, the major roughness is caused by trees, vines, and brush. The n value for this type of flood plain can be determined by measuring the vegetation density of the flood plain. Photographs of flood-plain segments where n values have been verified can be used as a comparison standard to aid in assigning n values to similar flood plains.

  9. Spatial variability of the shallow groundwater level and its chemistry characteristics in the low plain around the Bohai Sea, North China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zaiming; Zhang, Guanghui; Yan, Mingjiang; Wang, Jinzhe

    2012-06-01

    To characterize the spatial distribution of groundwater level (GWL) and its chemistry characteristics in the low plain around the Bohai Sea, shallow groundwater depth of 130 wells were determined. Water soluble ions composition, total dissolved solid (TDS), electric conductivity (EC), total hardness (TH), total alkalinity (TA), and total salt content (TS) of 128 representative groundwater samples were also measured. Classical statistics, geostatistical method combined with GIS technique were then used to analyze the spatial variability and distribution of GWL and groundwater chemical properties. Results show that GWL, TDS, EC, TH, TA, and TS all presented a lognormal distribution and could be fitted by different semivariogram models (spherical, exponential, and Gaussian). Spatial structure of GWL, TDS, EC, TH, TA, and TS changed obviously. GWL decreased from west inland plain to the east coastal plain, however, TDS, EC, and TS increased from west to east, TH and TA were higher in the middle and coastal plain area. Groundwater chemical type in the coastal plain was SO (4) (2-) ·Cl(-)-Na(+) while chemical types in the inland plain were SO (4) (2-) ·Cl(-)-Ca(2+)·Mg(2+) and HCO (3) (-) -Ca(2+)·Mg(2+). PMID:21769558

  10. Plain packaging of cigarettes: do we have sufficient evidence?

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Collin N; Kraemer, John D; Johnson, Andrea C; Mays, Darren

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco industry marketing is a primary factor influencing cigarette smoking behavior and the cigarette pack has become an important marketing vehicle for tobacco companies. Standardized “plain” cigarette packaging is advocated as a public health policy to prevent and reduce morbidity and mortality caused by smoking by reducing youth smoking initiation and promoting cessation among smokers. Plain packaging was implemented in Australia in December 2012, and several other countries are considering doing so, but each faces foreseeable legal resistance from opponents to such measures. Tobacco companies have challenged these public health policies, citing international trade agreements and intellectual property laws. Decision-making in these court cases will hinge in part on whether the evidence indicates the public health benefits of plain packaging outweigh any potential harm to tobacco manufacturers’ interests. We reviewed the available evidence in support of plain packaging, finding evidence from observational, experimental, and population-based studies. Results indicate that plain packaging can reduce positive perceptions of smoking and dissuade tobacco use. Governments deciding to implement plain cigarette packaging measures can rely on this evidence to help make a strong case that plain packaging plays an important role in the context of comprehensive smoking prevention efforts. PMID:25897269

  11. Altitude and configuration of the predevelopment water table in the High Plains regional aquifer, northwestern Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Havens, John S.

    1982-01-01

    During 1978, the U.S. Geological Survey began a 5-year study of the High Plains regional aquifer system to provide hydrologic information for evaluation of the effects of long-term development of the aquifer and to develop computer models for prediction of aquifer response to alternative changes in ground-water management (Weeks, 1978). This report is one of a series presenting hydrologic information of the High Plains aquifer in Oklahoma. The altitude and configuration of the water table are shown for the eastern area (sheet 1) and for the Panhandle area (sheet 2). In the eastern area, consisting of Harper, Ellis, Woodward, Dewey, and Roger Mills Counties, water levels measured from the 1950's to the 1970's represent predevelopment conditions and were obtained from published and unpublished data in the files of the U.S. Geological Survey. In the Panhandle, predevelopment contours were based on measurements made from 1937 to 1940. Some water levels in Beaver County were measured as late as 1959 in areas where significant development had not occurred previously.

  12. Governmental policies drive the LUCC trajectories in the Jianghan Plain.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongzhi; Shao, Qihui; Li, Rendong; Song, Mingjie; Zhou, Yong

    2013-12-01

    The prosperity of farmers is closely tied to governmental policies. The Jianghan Plain is an important region for commodity grains, cotton and edible oil for China. The trajectories of land use and land cover change (LUCC) of the study area from 1995 to 2010 were studied based on the LUCC database of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. The LUCC was characterised by a continuous decrease of arable land and continuous increase of waters and construction land. The LUCC was obviously concurrent with the implementation of related national policies. The transition to construction land was ever well controlled by 'Notice regarding the further strengthening of land management and arable land protection' promulgated in 1997. However, it flourished again with the 'Rise of Central China Strategy' taking effect since 2006. The transition of construction land to others reflects an uncommon trend, which must be strengthened with the strict implementation of the overall plan, which imposes a limited acreage quota of construction land to each district. The policies were quite contradictory to the transition of waters. LUCC related to waters is most active, which was driven by both natural forces and national policies. Just after the devastating flood of 1998, the state council of China put forward the Green Policy to govern the major rivers. As to the study area, it is mainly to 'push over dykes to let flood through and return farmland to lakes'. In 2004, the Grain Direct Subsidy Policy was implemented, which, along with the surge in the price of rice, resulted in a strengthening trend of conversion of ponds to paddy fields. PMID:23884914

  13. Determinants of fish assemblage structure in Northwestern Great Plains streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mullen, J.A.; Bramblett, R.G.; Guy, C.S.; Zale, A.V.; Roberts, D.W.

    2011-01-01

    Prairie streams are known for their harsh and stochastic physical conditions, and the fish assemblages therein have been shown to be temporally variable. We assessed the spatial and temporal variation in fish assemblage structure in five intermittent, adventitious northwestern Great Plains streams representing a gradient of watershed areas. Fish assemblages and abiotic conditions varied more spatially than temporally. The most important variables explaining fish assemblage structure were longitudinal position and the proportion of fine substrates. The proportion of fine substrates increased proceeding upstream, approaching 100% in all five streams, and species richness declined upstream with increasing fine substrates. High levels of fine substrate in the upper reaches appeared to limit the distribution of obligate lithophilic fish species to reaches further downstream. Species richness and substrates were similar among all five streams at the lowermost and uppermost sites. However, in the middle reaches, species richness increased, the amount of fine substrate decreased, and connectivity increased as watershed area increased. Season and some dimensions of habitat (including thalweg depth, absolute distance to the main-stem river, and watershed size) were not essential in explaining the variation in fish assemblages. Fish species richness varied more temporally than overall fish assemblage structure did because common species were consistently abundant across seasons, whereas rare species were sometimes absent or perhaps not detected by sampling. The similarity in our results among five streams varying in watershed size and those from other studies supports the generalization that spatial variation exceeds temporal variation in the fish assemblages of prairie and warmwater streams. Furthermore, given longitudinal position, substrate, and stream size, general predictions regarding fish assemblage structure and function in prairie streams are possible. ?? American

  14. The influence of snow depth and surface air temperature on satellite-derived microwave brightness temperature. [central Russian steppes, and high plains of Montana, North Dakota, and Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, J. L.; Hall, D. K.; Chang, A. T. C.; Rango, A.; Allison, L. J.; Diesen, B. C., III

    1980-01-01

    Areas of the steppes of central Russia, the high plains of Montana and North Dakota, and the high plains of Canada were studied in an effort to determine the relationship between passive microwave satellite brightness temperature, surface air temperature, and snow depth. Significant regression relationships were developed in each of these homogeneous areas. Results show that sq R values obtained for air temperature versus snow depth and the ratio of microwave brightness temperature and air temperature versus snow depth were not as the sq R values obtained by simply plotting microwave brightness temperature versus snow depth. Multiple regression analysis provided only marginal improvement over the results obtained by using simple linear regression.

  15. Wetland hydrology and tree distribution of the Apalachicola River flood plain, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leitman, Helen M.; Sohm, James E.; Franklin, Marvin A.

    1984-01-01

    The Apalachicola River in northwest Florida is part of a three-State drainage basin encompassing 50,800 km 2 in Alabama, Georgia, and Florida. The river is formed by the confluence of the Chattahoochee and Flint Rivers at Jim Woodruff Dam from which it flows 171 km to Apalachicola Bay in the Gulf of Mexico. Its average annual discharge at Chattahoochee, Fla., is 690 m3/s (1958-80) with annual high flows averaging nearly 3,000 m3/s. Its flood plain supports 450 km 2 of bottom-land hardwood and tupelo-cypress forests. The Apalachicola River Quality Assessment focuses on the hydrology and productivity of the flood-plain forest. The purpose of this part of the assessment is to address river and flood-plain hydrology, flood-plain tree species and forest types, and water and tree relations. Seasonal stage fluctuations in the upper river are three times greater than in the lower river. Analysis of long-term streamflow record revealed that 1958-79 average annual and monthly flows and flow durations were significantly greater than those of 1929-57, probably because of climatic changes. However, stage durations for the later period were equal to or less than those of the earlier period. Height of natural riverbank levees and the size and distribution of breaks in the levees have a major controlling effect on flood-plain hydrology. Thirty-two kilometers upstream of the bay, a flood-plain stream called the Brothers River was commonly under tidal influence during times of low flow in the 1980 water year. At the same distance upstream of the bay, the Apalachicola River was not under tidal influence during the 1980 water year. Of the 47 species of trees sampled, the five most common were wet-site species constituting 62 percent of the total basal area. In order of abundance, they were water tupelo, Ogeechee tupelo, baldcypress, Carolina ash, and swamp tupelo. Other common species were sweetgum, overcup oak, planertree, green ash, water hickory, sugarberry, and diamond-leaf oak

  16. A Science Plan for a Comprehensive Regional Assessment of the Atlantic Coastal Plain Aquifer System in Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shedlock, Robert J.; Bolton, David W.; Cleaves, Emery T.; Gerhart, James M.; Nardi, Mark R.

    2007-01-01

    The Maryland Coastal Plain region is, at present, largely dependent upon ground water for its water supply. Decades of increasing pumpage have caused ground-water levels in parts of the Maryland Coastal Plain to decline by as much as 2 feet per year in some areas of southern Maryland. Continued declines at this rate could affect the long-term sustainability of ground-water resources in Maryland's heavily populated Coastal Plain communities and the agricultural industry of the Eastern Shore. In response to a recommendation in 2004 by the Advisory Committee on the Management and Protection of the State's Water Resources, the Maryland Geological Survey and the U.S. Geological Survey have developed a science plan for a comprehensive assessment that will provide new scientific information and new data management and analysis tools for the State to use in allocating ground water in the Coastal Plain. The comprehensive assessment has five goals aimed at improving the current information and tools used to understand the resource potential of the aquifer system: (1) document the geologic and hydrologic characteristics of the aquifer system in the Maryland Coastal Plain and appropriate areas of adjacent states; (2) conduct detailed studies of the regional ground-water-flow system and water budget for the aquifer system; (3) improve documentation of patterns of water quality in all Coastal Plain aquifers, including the distribution of saltwater; (4) enhance ground-water-level, streamflow, and water-quality-monitoring networks in the Maryland Coastal Plain; and (5) develop science-based tools to facilitate sound management of the ground-water resources in the Maryland Coastal Plain. The assessment, as designed, will be conducted in three phases and if fully implemented, is expected to take 7 to 8 years to complete. Phase I, which was initiated in January 2006, is an effort to assemble all the information and investigation tools needed to do a more comprehensive assessment of

  17. PLAINS CO2 REDUCTION (PCOR) PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect

    Edward N. Steadman; Daniel J. Daly; Lynette L. de Silva; John A. Harju; Melanie D. Jensen; Erin M. O'Leary; Wesley D. Peck; Steven A. Smith; James A. Sorensen

    2006-01-01

    During the period of October 1, 2003, through September 30, 2005, the Plains CO2 Reduction (PCOR) Partnership, identified geologic and terrestrial candidates for near-term practical and environmentally sound carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration demonstrations in the heartland of North America. The PCOR Partnership region covered nine states and three Canadian provinces. The validation test candidates were further vetted to ensure that they represented projects with (1) commercial potential and (2) a mix that would support future projects both dependent and independent of CO2 monetization. This report uses the findings contained in the PCOR Partnership's two dozen topical reports and half-dozen fact sheets as well as the capabilities of its geographic information system-based Decision Support System to provide a concise picture of the sequestration potential for both terrestrial and geologic sequestration in the PCOR Partnership region based on assessments of sources, sinks, regulations, deployment issues, transportation, and capture and separation. The report also includes concise action plans for deployment and public education and outreach as well as a brief overview of the structure, development, and capabilities of the PCOR Partnership. The PCOR Partnership is one of seven regional partnerships under Phase I of the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory's Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership program. The PCOR Partnership, comprising 49 public and private sector members, is led by the Energy & Environmental Research Center at the University of North Dakota. The international PCOR Partnership region includes the Canadian provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba and the states of Montana (part), Wyoming (part), North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Missouri, Iowa, Minnesota, and Wisconsin.

  18. Diagnosing Femoroacetabular Impingement From Plain Radiographs

    PubMed Central

    Ayeni, Olufemi R.; Chan, Kevin; Whelan, Daniel B.; Gandhi, Rajiv; Williams, Dale; Harish, Srinivasan; Choudur, Hema; Chiavaras, Mary M.; Karlsson, Jon; Bhandari, Mohit

    2014-01-01

    Background: A diagnosis of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) requires careful history and physical examination, as well as an accurate and reliable radiologic evaluation using plain radiographs as a screening modality. Radiographic markers in the diagnosis of FAI are numerous and not fully validated. In particular, reliability in their assessment across health care providers is unclear. Purpose: To determine inter- and intraobserver reliability between orthopaedic surgeons and musculoskeletal radiologists. Study Design: Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Six physicians (3 orthopaedic surgeons, 3 musculoskeletal radiologists) independently evaluated a broad spectrum of FAI pathologies across 51 hip radiographs on 2 occasions separated by at least 4 weeks. Reviewers used 8 common criteria to diagnose FAI, including (1) pistol-grip deformity, (2) size of alpha angle, (3) femoral head-neck offset, (4) posterior wall sign abnormality, (5) ischial spine sign abnormality, (6) coxa profunda abnormality, (7) crossover sign abnormality, and (8) acetabular protrusion. Agreement was calculated using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Results: When establishing an FAI diagnosis, there was poor interobserver reliability between the surgeons and radiologists (ICC batch 1 = 0.33; ICC batch 2 = 0.15). In contrast, there was higher interobserver reliability within each specialty, ranging from fair to good (surgeons: ICC batch 1 = 0.72; ICC batch 2 = 0.70 vs radiologists: ICC batch 1 = 0.59; ICC batch 2 = 0.74). Orthopaedic surgeons had the highest interobserver reliability when identifying pistol-grip deformities (ICC = 0.81) or abnormal alpha angles (ICC = 0.81). Similarly, radiologists had the highest agreement for detecting pistol-grip deformities (ICC = 0.75). Conclusion: These results suggest that surgeons and radiologists agree among themselves, but there is a need to improve the reliability of radiographic interpretations for FAI between the

  19. Groundwater availability in the shallow aquifers of the southern voltaian system: a simulation and chemical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yidana, Sandow; Ophori, Duke; Banoeng-Yakubo, Bruce

    2008-10-01

    A steady state groundwater flow simulation model was developed using available well data and general hydrogeological and geological information, for the Afram Plains area, Ghana. The hydrochemistry of groundwater from wells in the area was then evaluated to determine its suitability for irrigation and domestic uses. The assessment of the irrigation quality of groundwater from this area was based on salinity (EC) and sodium adsorption ratios (SAR), residual sodium carbonate (RSC), and permeability indices (PI). The simulation model reveals that groundwater in the Afram Plains area generally flows from the midsections in the neighborhood of Tease and surrounding areas, where significant recharge takes place, to the outer regions and discharges into the Volta Lake in the southern and eastern sections of the area. Flow magnitude and piezometric maps suggest that there is probably of less potential for groundwater extraction for sustainable irrigation in the central regions of the area, when compared to the other discharge areas. This study reveals that more than 70% of the samples analyzed fall within the C2 S1 category, referring to the medium level salinity and low sodium. Medium salinity waters may be used for irrigation on coarse textured soils with good permeability. About 15% of the data fall within the C3 S2 category, referring to water of high salinity and medium sodicity. High salinity, medium sodicity irrigation water cannot be used on fine-grained soils where drainage is restricted. This is because restricted flow is likely to result in the accumulation of salts in the root zones of crops, leading to salinity and soil clogging crisis. About 3% falls within the C3 S3 (high salinity, high sodicity) category. This category requires special soil management including improved drainage, heavy leaching and the use of chemical amendments on the water. Only one point plots within the extreme salinity sodicity range. Concentrations of fluoride, arsenic and other

  20. Thermal Inertia, Albedo, and MOLA-derived Roughness for Terrains in the Terra Meridiani Area, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arvidson, R. E.; Deal, K.; Hynek, B. M.; Seelos, F. P., IV; Snider, N. O.; Mellon, M. T.; Garvin, J. B.

    2002-01-01

    Surface properties of layered deposits draped on dissected, cratered terrain in the Terra Meridiani area are analyzed using remote sensing data. The etched plains are cemented and differentially eroded, and the hematite plains are loose and drifting. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  1. Stratigraphic evidence of desertification in the west-central Great Plains within the past 1000 yr

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madole, R.F.

    1994-01-01

    Stratigraphic and geomorphic relations, archaeological data, and eight radiocarbon ages at five widely scattered localities in northeastern Colorado indicate that eolian sand was mobilized over broad areas within the past 1000 yr. The mobilization began after 1 ka, was episodic, and ended at some as yet undetermined time prior to the latter part of the 19th century. Given that climate-model simulations suggest only slight variation in average surface temperature and annual precipitation in this region during the past 1000 yr, this part of the Great Plains evidently is near the threshold of widespread eolian sand transport under the present climate. -Author

  2. Evaluation of plain river channel deformation in the absence of observation data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savichev, O. G.; Reshetko, M. V.; Matveenko, I. A.; Ivanova, Ye V.

    2015-02-01

    Evaluation and long-term forecast techniques for plain river channel deformation has been developed in the absence of observation data. Their testing was performed by the example of medium rivers (with catchment area from 2000 to 50000 km2) in taiga zone of Western Siberia (the Ob river basin on the section of its midstream). The technique is based on determination of flow parameters, at which the maximum river bed deformations are observed. Standard data of hydrometric observations obtained at the state hydrological network are used for calculation.

  3. Geomorphology and flood-plain vegetation of the Sprague and lower Sycan Rivers, Klamath Basin, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Connor, James E.; McDowell, Patricia F.; Lind, Pollyanna; Rasmussen, Christine G.; Keith, Mackenzie K.

    2015-01-01

    Despite these effects of human disturbances, many of the fundamental physical processes forming the Sprague River fluvial systems over the last several thousand years still function. In particular, flows are unregulated, sediment transport processes are active, and overbank flooding allows for floodplain deposition and erosion. Therefore, restoration of many of the native physical conditions and processes is possible without substantial physical manipulation of current conditions for much of the Sprague River study area. An exception is the South Fork Sprague River, where historical trends are not likely to reverse until it attains a more natural channel and flood-plain geometry and the channel aggrades to the extent that overbank flow becomes common.

  4. Coastal Plain Soil Fertility Degradation And Natural Forest Ecosystem Regeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casagrande, J. C.; Sato, C. A.; Reis-Duarte, R. M.; Soares, M. R.; Galvão Bueno, M. S.

    2009-04-01

    The sand coastal plain vegetation (Restinga Forest) has been described as an ecosystem associated with the Atlantic Forest, constituted of mosaics, which occur in areas of great ecological diversity, particularly the features of the soil which mostly influence the forest, therefore assigned as edaphic community. The Restinga forest is one of the most fragile, showing low resilience to human damage This work was carried out in several points (14) of Restinga Forest (six low - trees from 3 to 10 m high - and eight high forest - trees from 10 to 15 m high) in the litoral coast of the state of São Paulo. Each sample was made of 15 subsamples of each area collected in each depth (one in 0 - 5, 5 - 10, 10 - 15, 15 - 20, and another in 0 - 20, 20 - 40, 40 and 60 cm). Soil characteristics analyzed were pH, P, Na, K, Ca, Mg, S, H + Al, Al, B, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn contents and base saturation, cation exchange capacity and aluminum saturation. The vegetation physiognomies of Restinga forest (low and high) were associated with soil results and with the history of human occupation. The soils are sandy (2 to 4% of clay), resulting in a low capacity of nutrient retention. Soil fertility analysis to low and high Restinga forest were similar and showed very low contents of phosphorous, calcium and magnesium in all areas investigated. The base saturation was low due to low amounts of Na, K, Ca and Mg. Base saturation presents low level in all cases, less than 10, indicating low nutritional reserve in the soil. The aluminum saturation values varied from 58 to 69%. The level of calcium and magnesium were low in the subsurface soil layer mainly, associate with high aluminum saturation, representing an limiting factor for the root system development in depth. If soil fertility parameters do not show any significant difference between low and high Restinga physiognomy, what make distinction is the recuperation time. In the areas of high Forest can be note a too long time of recuperation

  5. Lavinia Region Ridge Belts, Plains and Lava Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This is a Magellan full resolution radar mosaic of the Lavinia region of Venus. The mosaic is centered at 50 degrees south latitude, 345 degrees east longitude, and spans 540 kilometers (338 miles) north to south and 900 kilometers (563 miles) east to west. As with all Magellan images acquired thus far, the illumination of the radar is from the left hand side of the image. This area shows a diverse set of geologic features. The bright area running from the upper right to the lower left is interpreted as part of a belt of ridges, formed by compression and thickening of the upper layers of the planet. The areas between ridges suggest flooding by radar dark (and thus presumably) smoother lavas. The varied texture of the lavas can be seen in the mottled appearance of the plains which are cut by the ridges; brighter, rougher flows are also quite common. The particularly bright flows in the lower right corner are the northern extension of Mylitta Fluctus. The bright ridges adjacent to Mylitta Fluctus at the bottom center of the image also appear to have been affected by the volcanic activity. Some of these bright features have been interpreted as down dropped areas roughly 5 kilometers (3 miles) wide. This would imply a region of extension where the crust has been pulled apart and thus was more easily flooded by the later lava flows. The thinner fractures running from the upper left seem to end at the ridge belt in the center of this mosaic. These thinner fractures are a continuation of a pattern seen throughout much of Lavinia and suggest a pattern of compression over a very large region. At the bottom of the image, overlying the ridges, is an impact crater 10 to 15 kilometers (6 to 10 miles) in diameter. The double or overlapped crater structure and asymmetrical ejecta pattern suggests that the incoming body broke up shortly before it hit, leaving closely spaced craters. The placement of the crater on top of the ridges implies it is younger than the ridges; in fact

  6. Unexpectedly higher metazoan meiofauna abundances in the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench compared to the adjacent abyssal plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Christina; Martínez Arbizu, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    We studied meiofauna standing stocks and community structure in the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench and its adjacent abyssal plains in the northwestern Pacific Ocean. In general, the Nematoda were dominant (93%) followed by the Copepoda (4%). Nematode abundances ranged from 87% to 96%; those of copepods from 2% to 7%. The most diverse deployment yielded 17 taxa: Acari, Amphipoda, Annelida, Bivalvia, Coelenterata, Copepoda, Cumacea, Gastrotricha, Isopoda, Kinorhyncha, Loricifera, Nematoda, Ostracoda, Priapulida, Tanaidacea, Tantulocarida, and Tardigrada. Nauplii were also present. Generally, the trench slope and the southernmost deployments had the highest abundances (850-1392 individuals/cm2). The results of non-metric multidimensional scaling indicated that these deployments were similar to each other in meiofauna community structure. The southernmost deployments were located in a zone of higher particulate organic carbon (POC) flux (g Corg m-2 yr-1), whereas the trench slope should have low POC flux due to depth attenuation. Also, POC and abundance were significantly correlated in the abyssal plains. This correlation may explain the higher abundances at the southernmost deployments. Lateral transport was also assumed to explain high meiofauna abundances on the trench slope. Abundances were generally higher than expected from model results. ANOSIM revealed significant differences between the trench slope and the northern abyssal plains, between the central abyssal plains and the trench slope, between the trench slope and the southern abyssal plains, between the central and the southern abyssal plains, and between the central and northern deployments. The northern and southern abyssal plains did not differ significantly. In addition, a U-test revealed highly significant differences between the trench-slope and abyssal deployments. The taxa inhabited mostly the upper 0-3 cm of the sediment layer (Nematoda 80-90%; Copepoda 88-100%). The trench-slope and abyssal did not differ

  7. The peatlands developing history in the Sanjiang Plain, NE China, and its response to East Asian monsoon variation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhenqing; Xing, Wei; Wang, Guoping; Tong, Shouzheng; Lv, Xianguo; Sun, Jimin

    2015-01-01

    Studying the peatlands accumulation and carbon (C) storage in monsoonal areas could provide useful insights into the response of C dynamics to climate variation in the geological past. Here, we integrated 40 well-dated peat/lake sediment cores to reveal the peatlands evolution history in the Sanjiang Plain and examine its links to East Asian monsoon variations during the Holocene. The results show that 80% peatlands in the Sanjiang Plain initiated after 4.7 ka (1 ka = 1000 cal yr BP), with the largest initiating frequency around 4.5 ka. The mean C accumulation rate of peatlands in the Sanjiang Plain exhibits a synchronous increase with the peatlands expansion during the Holocene. Such a peatlands expanding and C accumulating pattern corresponds well to the remarkable drying event subsequent to the Holocene monsoon maximum. We suggest that in addition to the locally topographic conditions, Holocene variations of East Asian summer monsoon (especially its associated precipitation) have played a critical role in driving the peatlands initiation and expansion in the Sanjiang Plain. PMID:26076653

  8. Hydrogeochemical considerations about the origin of groundwater salinization in some coastal plains of Elba Island (Tuscany, Italy).

    PubMed

    Giménez-Forcada, Elena; Bencini, Alberto; Pranzini, Giovanni

    2010-06-01

    Several coastal plains of the Elba Island (Marina di Campo, Portoferraio, Schiopparello, Mola, Porto Azzurro and Barbarossa plains) in Tuscany (Italy) were studied to determine the causes of decline in groundwater quality, using major ion chemistry to establish the causes of groundwater salinization. The study demonstrates that salinization of coastal plain alluvial aquifers is not simply linked to seawater intrusion but is also intimately related to inflows from adjacent aquifers. Ionic ratios, correlation graphs and distribution value maps were employed as the means to understand the hydrochemistry of the study areas. The Mg/Cl ratio in particular can be considered a good tracer to distinguish the main salinization processes that control groundwater chemistry. Seawater intrusion only partly determines the chemistry of some groundwaters, which generally belong to a chloride facies where the salinity is derived principally from freshwater-seawater mixing and the participation of cation exchange. Proceeding inland groundwater quality seems to be principally determined by the inflow of Mg, Ca-HCO(3) or Ca, Na-HCO(3) waters formed from the weathering of silicate minerals in adjoining aquifers. Hydrolysis of these minerals is of prime importance in controlling groundwater chemistry in adjacent alluvial plains. The lateral recharge flows introduce water with a different chemical composition and this variable of freshwater recharge changes the hydrochemistry as a result of mixing between two or more waters types. This situation is further complicated when seawater and base exchange reactions participate, due to seawater intrusion. PMID:19894127

  9. Trends and Numerical Simulation of Land Subsidence Caused by Groundwater Exploitation in the North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Cao, G.; Liu, J.; Zheng, C.

    2010-12-01

    The North China Plain (NCP) refers to the alluvial plain to the north of Yellow River, the south of Yanshan Mountain, and the east of Taihang Mountain, with a total area of 140,000 km2. Due to decades of groundwater overexploitation, the NCP has one of the the largest area of water table depression cones and the most severe land subsidence in the world. The maximum accumulated subsidence of the NCP, found in Tanggu District of Tianjin, is 3,187 mm and the total area with accumulated subsidence over 200 mm is 64,296 km2. The NCP aquifer system is composed of Quaternary deposits, which can be divided into one unconfined aquifer and three confined aquifers. According to the hydrogeological monitoring data from 1960 to 2008, it can be inferred that the land subsidence in the NCP is caused by continuously excessive extraction of groundwater from deep confined aquifer zones. In this study, we developed a coupled numerical model of groundwater flow and land subsidence for the NCP based on the computer program MODFLOW-2000 and aquifer-system compaction package (SUB). We calibrated the numerical model by comparing the simulated and measured extents and magnitudes of land subsidence. The calibrated model provides a useful tool for managing groundwater resources in the NCP.

  10. Constraints on establishment of plains cottonwood in an urban riparian preserve

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Auble, G.T.; Scott, M.L.; Friedman, J.M.; Back, J.; Lee, V.J.

    1997-01-01

    Plot sampling and hydraulic modeling were combined to investigate establishment and survival of plains cottonwood along Boulder Creek, an urban stream on the Colorado Plains. We tested the hypothesis that establishment is limited to bare, moist surfaces produced by spring flooding in the current year. No cottonwood germination was observed in 1989 when peak flow was low. A moderate peak of 11.9 m3/s in 1990 resulted in cottonwood establishment on surfaces inundated by discharges less than 15 m3/s. Surviving sapling cottonwoods established before 1989 occurred on surfaces inundated by discharges of 15-31 m3/s and dated to years with peak flows over 15 m3/s. Since 1969, establishment of cottonwood has been limited to a floodplain 21 m wide. Flow regulation and channel stabilization upstream and downstream of the study area have reduced the channel movement and overbank flooding that otherwise would have created bare, moist sites suitable for cottonwood establishment across a wider area. GIS analysis of aerial photographs shows that between 1937 and 1992 the channel has not moved and forest has encroached upon formerly open areas near the channel. A terrace, 317 m wide, is now dominated by trees that can reproduce in the absence of disturbance, especially the exotic crack willow.

  11. Vegetation change, erosion risk and land management on the Nullarbor Plain, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillieson, D.; Wallbrink, P.; Cochrane, A.

    1996-10-01

    Arid karst landscapes that have been degraded by human activities provide a challenge for rehabilitation and an opportunity to test ideas about the stability and resilience of limestone ecosystems. The Nullarbor Plain is the largest arid karst area in Australia (220 000 km2) and is divided into extensive closed karstic depressions separated by low rocky ridges, while the dominant vegetation is chenopod shrubland. Since European settlement there has been considerable change in the vegetation, with significant reduction in shrub and grass cover over large areas of the plain. These changes are related to a state and transition model of vegetation dynamics which incorporates climatic variability, fire history and grazing pressure from sheep, kangaroos and rabbits. A partial sediment budget using 137Cs inventories reveals local and regional patterns of soil redistribution within this arid karst landscape. Rehabilitation of eroded soil in pastoral lands has been accomplished at several sites but is labour intensive and vulnerable to climatic fluctuations. Given the low stock numbers, limited number of people involved, and poor economic returns, it would be sensible to make pastoral activities on the Nullarbor secondary to conservation priorities. This would necessitate a change in land ethic to stewardship, with emphasis on rehabilitation and control of feral animals. Management of increased numbers of visitors to the caves and karst also requires that resource inventories and management plans for each area be drawn up and used.

  12. Estimating contributions of nitrate and herbicides from groundwater to headwater streams, northern Atlantic Coastal Plain, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ator, Scott; Denver, Judith

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater transport often complicates understanding of surface-water contamination. We estimated the regional flux of nitrate and selected herbicides from groundwater to nontidal headwater streams of the Atlantic Coastal Plain (New Jersey through North Carolina) based on late-winter or spring base-flow samples from 174 streams. Sampled streams were selected randomly, and flux estimates are based on resulting population estimates rather than on empirical models, which have been used previously for similar estimates. Base-flow flux in the estimated 8,834 headwater streams of the study area are an estimated 21,200 kg/day of nitrate (as N) and 5.83, 0.565, and 20.7 kg/day of alachlor, atrazine, and metolachlor (and selected degradates), respectively. Base-flow flux of alachlor and metolachlor is <3% of the total base-flow flux of those compounds plus degradates. Base-flow flux of nitrate and herbicides as a percentage of applications is typically highest in well-drained areas and lowest in areas with abundant poor drainage and anoxic conditions. In Coastal Plain watersheds of Albemarle and Pamlico Sounds, <2% of applied nitrogen reaches headwater streams as base flow. On the Delmarva Peninsula part of the Chesapeake Bay watershed, however, more than 10% of such applications are transported through groundwater to streams, and base-flow nitrate flux represents 70% of total nitrogen flux in headwater streams.

  13. Contribution of landbird migration to the biological diversity of the northwest gulf coastal plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barrow, W.C., Jr.; Hamilton, R.B.; Powell, M.A.; Ouchley, K.

    2000-01-01

    This study examined seasonal diversity and feeding behavior of those avian species utilizing that region of the Northwest Gulf Coastal Plain known as the Chenier Plain. Field observations were conducted at three forested locations on coastal cheniers for three years (1993-95) in the spring and at one location for three years (1996-98) in autumn to determine species presence and diet. One hundred and twenty-eight species were present during the spring and 103 species in autumn. The majority of these species were migrants (103 species in spring and 89 species in autumn) and the majority of these were Nearctic/Neotropical species (73 species in spring and 66 species in autumn). The diet of these migrants was more variable than expected. Many insectivorous species were observed to consume seeds, fruit and nectar as well as insects. Because of these varied diets, many species serve as seed dispersers, occasional pollinators and important predators of herbivorus insects. Wooded areas were found to be important in providing food, cover and water for migrating species. A review of historical changes in the landscape of this area is presented and management practices designed to restore wooded habitat to this area are proposed.

  14. Impacts of Climate Changes on the Future Groundwater Storage in the High Plains Aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, M. H.; Wu, W. Y.; Wada, Y.; Reager, J. T., II; Famiglietti, J. S.; Yeh, P. J. F.; Ducharne, A.

    2015-12-01

    Groundwater contributes approximately 40% of global freshwater use, and it is critical for water supply and associated food production in arid or semi-arid areas during dry seasons. The increasing demand for water and finite water sources have led to long-term groundwater depletion, creating an obstacle to sustainability in several regions of the world under the pressures of population growth and climate change. The High Plains Aquifer System has an area of 450,000 km2, and is the most pumped aquifer and one of the most important agricultural areas in the United States. In this study, we use coupled climate-hydrological model simulations from the NCAR Community Earth System Model Large Ensemble Project to investigate the groundwater storage changes in the High Plains Aquifer under future climate changes and also to explore how such groundwater storage changes might in turn affect the climate through land-atmosphere coupling. Preliminary results indicate that not only the amount of groundwater recharge declines, but the seasonal variations of groundwater recharge also become smaller, resulting in widespread water table decline in a future warmer climate. We will explore how such variations associate to projected changes in precipitation and evapotranspiration, and feedback to the climate.

  15. Buried paleoindian-age landscapes in stream valleys of the central plains, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mandel, R.D.

    2008-01-01

    A systematic study of late-Quaternary landscape evolution in the Central Plains documented widespread, deeply buried paleosols that represent Paleoindian-age landscapes in terrace fills of large streams (> 5th order), in alluvial fans, and in draws in areas of western Kansas with a thick loess mantle. Alluvial stratigraphic sections were investigated along a steep bio-climatic gradient extending from the moist-subhumid forest-prairie border of the east-central Plains to the dry-subhumid and semi-arid shortgrass prairie of the west-central Plains. Radiocarbon ages indicate that most large streams were characterized by slow aggradation accompanied by cumulic soil development from ca. 11,500 to 10,000??14C yr B.P. In the valleys of some large streams, such as the Ninnescah and Saline rivers, these processes continued into the early Holocene. The soil-stratigraphic record in the draws of western Kansas indicates slow aggradation punctuated by episodes of landscape stability and pedogenesis beginning as early as ca. 13,300??14C yr B.P. and spanning the Pleistocene-Holocene boundary. The development record of alluvial fans in western Kansas is similar to the record in the draws; slow aggradation was punctuated by multiple episodes of soil development between ca. 13,000 and 9000??14C yr B.P. In eastern Kansas and Nebraska, development of alluvial fans was common during the early and middle Holocene, but evidence shows fan development as early as ca. 11,300??14C yr B.P. Buried soils dating between ca. 12,600 and 9000??14C yr B.P. were documented in fans throughout the region. In stream valleys across the Central Plains, rapid alluviation after ca. 9000??14C yr B.P. resulted in deeply buried soils that may harbor Paleoindian cultural deposits. Hence, the paucity of recorded stratified Paleoindian sites in the Central Plains is probably related to poor visibility (i.e., deep burial in alluvial deposits) instead of limited human occupation in the region during the terminal

  16. Arsenic in New Jersey Coastal Plain streams, sediments, and shallow groundwater: effects from different geologic sources and anthropogenic inputs on biogeochemical and physical mobilization processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barringer, Julia L.; Reilly, Pamela A.; Eberl, Dennis D.; Mumford, Adam C.; Benzel, William M.; Szabo, Zoltan; Shourds, Jennifer L.; Young, Lily Y.

    2013-01-01

    With a history of agriculture in the New Jersey Coastal Plain, anthropogenic inputs of As, such as residues from former pesticide applications in soils, can amplify any geogenic As in runoff. Such inputs contribute to an increased total As load to a stream at high stages of flow. As a result of yet another anthropogenic influence, microbes that reduce and mobilize As beneath the streambeds are stimulated by inputs of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Although DOC is naturally occurring, anthropogenic contributions from wastewater inputs may deliver increased levels of DOC to subsurface soils and ultimately groundwater. Arsenic concentrations may increase with the increases in pH of groundwater and stream water in developed areas receiving wastewater inputs, as As mobilization caused by pH-controlled sorption and desorption reactions are likely to occur in waters of neutral or alkaline pH (for example, Nimick and others, 1998; Barringer and others, 2007b). Because of the difference in As content of the geologic materials in the two sub-provinces of the Coastal Plain, the amount of As that is mobile in groundwater and stream water is, potentially, substantially greater in the Inner Coastal Plain than in the Outer Coastal Plain. In turn, streams within the Inner and Outer Coastal Plain can receive substantially more As in groundwater discharge from developed areas than from environments where DOC appears to be of natural origin.

  17. Statistical Downscaling for the Northern Great Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coburn, J.

    2014-12-01

    The need for detailed, local scale information about the warming climate has led to the use of ever more complex and geographically realistic computer models as well as the use of regional models capable of capturing much finer details. Another class of methods for ascertaining localized data is known as statistical downscaling, which offers some advantages over regional models, especially in the realm of computational efficiency. Statistical downscaling can be described as the process of linking coarse resolution climate model output to that of fine resolution or even station-level data via statistical relationships with the purpose of correcting model biases at the local scale. The development and application of downscaling has given rise to a plethora of techniques which have been applied to many spatial scales and multiple climate variables. In this study two downscaling processes, bias-corrected statistical downscaling (BCSD) and canonical correlation analysis (CCA), are applied to minimum and maximum temperatures and precipitation for the Northern Great Plains (NGP, 40 - 53°N and 95 - 120°W) region at both daily and monthly time steps. The abilities of the methods were tested by assessing their ability to recreate local variations in a set of both spatial and temporal climate metrics obtained through the analysis of 1/16 degree station data for the period 1950 to 2000. Model data for temperature, precipitation and a set of predictor variables were obtained from CMIP5 for 15 models. BCSD was applied using direct comparison and correction of the variable distributions via quadrant mapping. CCA was calibrated on the data for the period 1950 to 1980 using a series of model-based predictor variables screened for increasing skill, with the derived model being applied to the period 1980 to 2000 so as to verify that it could recreate the overall climate patterns and trends. As in previous studies done on other regions, it was found that the CCA method recreated

  18. Plains Elevated Convection at Night (PECAN) Experiment Science Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, D; Parsons, D; Geerts, B

    2015-03-01

    The Plains Elevated Convection at Night (PECAN) experiment is a large field campaign that is being supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF) with contributions from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the National Atmospheric and Space Administration (NASA), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The overarching goal of the PECAN experiment is to improve the understanding and simulation of the processes that initiate and maintain convection and convective precipitation at night over the central portion of the Great Plains region of the United States (Parsons et al. 2013). These goals are important because (1) a large fraction of the yearly precipitation in the Great Plains comes from nocturnal convection, (2) nocturnal convection in the Great Plains is most often decoupled from the ground and, thus, is forced by other phenomena aloft (e.g., propagating bores, frontal boundaries, low-level jets [LLJ], etc.), (3) there is a relative lack of understanding how these disturbances initiate and maintain nocturnal convection, and (4) this lack of understanding greatly hampers the ability of numerical weather and climate models to simulate nocturnal convection well. This leads to significant uncertainties in predicting the onset, location, frequency, and intensity of convective cloud systems and associated weather hazards over the Great Plains.

  19. Flood hydrology and methylmercury availability in Coastal Plain rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, Paul M.; Journey, Celeste A.; Chapelle, Francis H.; Lowery, Mark A.; Conrads, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) burdens in top-predator fish differ substantially between adjacent South Carolina Coastal Plain river basins with similar wetlands coverage. In the Congaree River, floodwaters frequently originate in the Blue Ridge and Piedmont regions, where wetlands coverage and surface water dissolved methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations are low. Piedmont-driven flood events can lead to downward hydraulic gradients in the Coastal Plain riparian wetland margins, inhibiting MeHg transport from wetland sediments, and decreasing MeHg availability in the Congaree River habitat. In the adjacent Edisto River basin, floodwaters originate only within Coastal Plain sediments, maintaining upward hydraulic gradients even during flood events, promoting MeHg transport to the water column, and enhancing MeHg availability in the Edisto River habitat. These results indicate that flood hydrodynamics contribute to the variability in Hg vulnerability between Coastal Plain rivers and that comprehensive regional assessment of the relationship between flood hydrodynamics and Hg risk in Coastal Plain streams is warranted.

  20. Landform, artificial and tidal effects for stream water chemistry of the Neyagawa river systems in the Osaka Plain, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoo, Yoriko; Shima, Yuka

    2016-04-01

    We determined the elemental compositions of stream water of the Neyagawa river systems in the Osaka Plain, Japan. The river water were enriched in Na+ and HCO3‑in the southeast part of the Osaka Plain and in Ca2+ and HCO3‑ in the upper stretches of the Neyagawa river systems. These results indicate that these ionic compositions are derived mainly from geological inputs from the drainage basins. The river water were rich in Na+ and Cl‑ in Hiranogawa, Hiranogawa canal, the middle part of Neyagawa and the upper part of Furukawa. This ionic composition is largely attributable to artificial effect. Major ionic compositions of river water showed temporal variation in the center of the Osaka Plain. Tidal effect was shown in this area. The distribution of major ions and trace elements had a relationship to the factor such as geological, tidal, and artificial effect in each area. The origin of Na+, Cl‑, SO42‑, NO3‑, Rb and Ni was artificial activity and tide. Geological input was mainly the provenance of HCO3‑, Ca2+, Mg2+, Si and Ba. The concentrations of B, Li and Sr varied same as HCO3‑ and Ca2+ in the southeast part of the Osaka Plain. Moreover, the temporal variations of these elements showed the same trend as Na+and Cl‑under the tidal effect area. These results suggest that it is possible to distinguish that tidal effect is reaching or not to the area by using the concentration ratios of B, Li and Sr to Na+.

  1. Climate change projections for the Texas High Plains and Rolling Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modala, Naga Raghuveer; Ale, Srinivasulu; Goldberg, Daniel W.; Olivares, Miriam; Munster, Clyde L.; Rajan, Nithya; Feagin, Rusty A.

    2016-03-01

    Potential changes in future climate in the Texas Plains region were investigated in the context of agriculture by analyzing three climate model projections under the A2 climate scenario (medium-high emission scenario). Spatially downscaled historic (1971-2000) and future (2041-2070) climate datasets (rainfall and temperature) were downloaded from the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP). Climate variables predicted by three regional climate models (RCMs) namely the Regional Climate Model Version3-Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (RCM3-GFDL), Regional Climate Model Version3-Third Generation Coupled Global Climate Model (RCM3-CGCM3), and Canadian Regional Climate Model-Community Climate System Model (CRCM-CCSM) were evaluated in this study. Gaussian and Gamma distribution mapping techniques were employed to remove the bias in temperature and rainfall data, respectively. Both the minimum and maximum temperatures across the study region in the future showed an upward trend, with the temperatures increasing in the range of 1.9 to 2.9 °C and 2.0 to 3.2 °C, respectively. All three climate models predicted a decline in rainfall within a range of 30 to 127 mm in majority of counties across the study region. In addition, they predicted an increase in the intensity of extreme rainfall events in the future. The frost-free season as predicted by the three models showed an increase by 2.6-3.4 weeks across the region, and the number of frost days declined by 17.9 to 30 %. Overall, these projections indicate considerable changes to the climate in the Texas Plains region in the future, and these changes could potentially impact agriculture in this region.

  2. Identifying the effect of irrigation on evapotranspiration variability over the High Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, R.; Cai, X.

    2015-12-01

    Irrigation is widely adopted as a measure to maintain crop yield when precipitation is limited and stabilize crop yield to buffer climatic fluctuation. Irrigation has considerably interfered with hydrological processes in many areas with extensive and intensive irrigation requirement; with the increasing demand for food and weather variability related to climate change, irrigation application is expected to increase, which would aggravate the interferences to hydrologic processes. Current studies focus on the impact of irrigation on the mean value of ET at either local or regional scale, however, how irrigation changes the variability of ET has not been well understood. This study analyzes the impact of extensive irrigation on ET variability in the High Plains. We apply an ET variance decomposition framework (Zeng and Cai 2015) to quantify the effects of both climate and irrigation on ET variance in in the High Plains watersheds. Based on climatic and groundwater storage data, we assess the monthly ET variance and its components for both pre-development (1930s-1960s) and development periods (1970-2010s). It is found that irrigation not only causes the well-known groundwater drawdown and stream depletion problems in the area associated with, but also changes ET variance, which further affects land surface processes. With complementary water supply from irrigation, ET approaches to potential ET, and ET variance is more attributed to climatic variables such as temperature, while causing significant seasonal fluctuations to groundwater storage. For sustainable water resources management in the High Plains, we argue that both the mean value and the variance of ET should be considered together for the regulation of irrigation in this region.

  3. Cadmium Contents of Soils, Durum, and Bread Wheats in Harran Plain, Southeast Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Büyükkılıç, Asuman; Mermut, Ahmet; Faz Cano, Angel; Carmona Garces, Doria

    2010-05-01

    Turkey is growing significant amount of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum durum - (Desf.)Husn) which is widely used for making pasta, spaghetti, noodles etc. Objective of this study were to: 1) determine Cd concentrations of the soils, durum and bread wheats grown in the Harran plain, southeast Turkey and 2) evaluate this element in terms of food safety. Soil samples from the selected 16 profiles, grains, roots, and leaves of durum and bread wheats were taken for analyses. Total Cd contents of the soils were below the threshold values. The soils in the northern part of the plain have more than 0.2 ppm of Cd. Carbonate and clay contents are > 15% and 40% respectively and have substantial amounts of Fe-oxy-hydroxides. Three phosphorus fertilizer samples, frequently used in the area, had > 2 ppm of Cd. As expected, the amounts of Cd in bread wheat were lower than durum wheat. However, the Cd contents in durum wheat grains in the area studied were < 50 ?g kg-1 which is less than those in Canada (> 100 ?g kg-1) and similar to the drum grains from Italy. Some samples in Italy even had 71 ?g kg-1. These were attributed to the presence of high amounts of carbonates, Fe-oxy-hydroxides, and clay in the soils we studied. In the surface soil, Zn contents were between 21.5 and 72.8 mg kg-1.This could be another reason for lower contents of Cd in our durum wheat. Our study confirms that durum wheat grown in the Harran plain southeast Turkey has a better quality, therefore advantageous; in terms of food safety from the standpoint of Cd contents.

  4. The Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment (LACIE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdonald, R. B.

    1976-01-01

    A Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment (LACIE) was undertaken to prove out an economically important application of remote sensing from space. The experiment focused upon determination of wheat acreages in the U.S. Great Plains and upon the development and testing of yield models. The results and conclusions are presented.

  5. 50 CFR 37.32 - Special areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... April 30 of the following year as are prescribed by the Regional Director. (d) Snow goose staging... significantly adversely affect staging snow geese, the Regional Director shall designate within the general area... Hulahula River, and on the south by the southern boundary of the coastal plain, specific snow goose...

  6. 50 CFR 37.32 - Special areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... April 30 of the following year as are prescribed by the Regional Director. (d) Snow goose staging... significantly adversely affect staging snow geese, the Regional Director shall designate within the general area... Hulahula River, and on the south by the southern boundary of the coastal plain, specific snow goose...

  7. 50 CFR 37.32 - Special areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... April 30 of the following year as are prescribed by the Regional Director. (d) Snow goose staging... significantly adversely affect staging snow geese, the Regional Director shall designate within the general area... Hulahula River, and on the south by the southern boundary of the coastal plain, specific snow goose...

  8. 50 CFR 37.32 - Special areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... April 30 of the following year as are prescribed by the Regional Director. (d) Snow goose staging... significantly adversely affect staging snow geese, the Regional Director shall designate within the general area... Hulahula River, and on the south by the southern boundary of the coastal plain, specific snow goose...

  9. 50 CFR 37.32 - Special areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... April 30 of the following year as are prescribed by the Regional Director. (d) Snow goose staging... significantly adversely affect staging snow geese, the Regional Director shall designate within the general area... Hulahula River, and on the south by the southern boundary of the coastal plain, specific snow goose...

  10. Comparison of Plains Volcanism in the Tempe Terra Region of Mars to the Eastern Snake River Plains, Idaho with Implications for Geochemical Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weren, S. L.; Sakimoto, S. E. H.; Hughes, S. S.; Gregg, T. K. P.

    2004-01-01

    The Eastern Snake River Plains (ESRP) in Idaho have long been considered a terrestrial analog for the plains volcanism like that evident in Syria Planum and Tempe Terra, Mars. Both the ESRP and Tempe Terra are sediment-blanketed volcanic fields in areas with significant extensional faulting. Similar volcanic features can be observed throughout both study areas using field analysis and DEMs of the ESRP and the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) data from Mars. These features include flow fields, low shields, shields with steep summits, and fissure eruptions. A few other volcanic features, such as cinder cones, which suggest variable compositions, volatile interactions, and multiple volcanic events can be seen in both areas. The eruptions in both the ESRP and Tempe Terra generally originate from the fissures creating elongate, multi-vent shields as well as isolated or aligned single vent shields. Many of these show evidence of radial flow patterns from summit craters as well as lava tube fed flows. The volcanoes of Tempe Terra display some of the global latitudinal parameter trends of small volcanoes on Mars. Some of these trends may be explained by the variation of volatile content and compositional variation across Mars. However, within Tempe Terra no significant local latitudinal trends can be seen in edifice attributes and not all variations are explained by global trends. This study builds upon previous studies of the Tempe Terra region and the ESRP in order to develop a more detailed representation of features and topographic data. Using these data we attempt to help constrain the composition and eruptive style of the Tempe Terra volcanoes by correlating them with the similar and quantified ESRP variations.

  11. Tobacco branding, plain packaging, pictorial warnings, and symbolic consumption.

    PubMed

    Hoek, Janet; Gendall, Philip; Gifford, Heather; Pirikahu, Gill; McCool, Judith; Pene, Gina; Edwards, Richard; Thomson, George

    2012-05-01

    We use brand association and symbolic consumption theory to explore how plain cigarette packaging would influence the identities young adults cocreate with tobacco products. Group discussions and in-depth interviews with 86 young adult smokers and nonsmokers investigated how participants perceive tobacco branding and plain cigarette packaging with larger health warnings. We examined the transcript data using thematic analysis and explored how removing tobacco branding and replacing this with larger warnings would affect the symbolic status of tobacco brands and their social connotations. Smokers used tobacco brand imagery to define their social attributes and standing, and their connection with specific groups. Plain cigarette packaging usurped this process by undermining aspirational connotations and exposing tobacco products as toxic. Replacing tobacco branding with larger health warnings diminishes the cachet brand insignia creates, weakens the social benefits brands confer on users, and represents a potentially powerful policy measure. PMID:22203384

  12. Ice in the northern plains: Relic of a frozen ocean?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucchitta, B. K.

    1993-01-01

    Viking images revealed many features in the northern plains and along their boundary that early investigators believed to be formed by ice-related processes. The features are possible pingos, pseudocraters, table mountains and moberg ridges, thermokarst depressions, moraines, patterned ground, and lobate aprons that suggest viscous flow such as that of ice or rock glaciers. More recently, many of these features were reinterpreted as related to sedimentation in hypothetical former polar lakes, oceans, or alluvial plains or as shoreline features of associated water bodies. Some evidence that points toward the existence of former bodies of standing water in the northern plains, but is also consistent with the idea that these bodies were ice covered or completely frozen is reviewed.

  13. A two-dimensional dam-break flood plain model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hromadka, T.V., II; Berenbrock, C.E.; Freckleton, J.R.; Guymon, G.L.

    1985-01-01

    A simple two-dimensional dam-break model is developed for flood plain study purposes. Both a finite difference grid and an irregular triangle element integrated finite difference formulation are presented. The governing flow equations are approximately solved as a diffusion model coupled to the equation of continuity. Application of the model to a hypothetical dam-break study indicates that the approach can be used to predict a two-dimensional dam-break flood plain over a broad, flat plain more accurately than a one-dimensional model, especially when the flow can break-out of the main channel and then return to the channel at other downstream reaches. ?? 1985.

  14. Putting the 'informed' into 'consent': a matter of plain language.

    PubMed

    Green, J B; Duncan, R E; Barnes, G L; Oberklaid, F

    2003-12-01

    Health professionals frequently write at the same level for lay readers as they write for peers. In relation to health research and ethical requirements to provide written explanation of studies, this can complicate the notion of informed consent. Plain language information statements need to be clearly understood by research subjects if the ethics process for research approval is to fulfil its objective. Many delays in gaining ethics approval for child-related research are caused by substandard plain language statements (PLS). We describe specific issues for information statements for research with children, young people and their parents/guardians, particularly in consideration of the literacy capabilities of the general population. We highlight the usefulness of everyday language when explaining research and science in writing to families, and present some guidelines for writing PLS that have emerged from the introduction of a plain language service by an Ethics in Human Research Committee. PMID:14629504

  15. Geohydrology of the Englishtown Formation in the northern Coastal Plain of New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, W.D.

    1977-01-01

    The Englishtown Formation of the Matawan Group of Late Cretaceous age is exposed in the western part of the New Jeresy Coastal Plain along a northeast-southwest trending zone extending from Raritan Bay to Delaware Bay. In outcrop, in the northern part of the Coastal Plain, the Englishtown typically consists of a series of thin, cross-stratified, fine- to medium-grained lignitic quartz sand beds intercalated with thin beds of sandy silty clay and clayey silt, ranging in total thickness from about 140 feet (43 meters) near Raritan Bay to about 50 feet (15 meters) near Trenton. In the subsurface of the northern part of the Coastal Plain, the formation retains most of the lithologic characteristics displayed in outcrop. In northern and eastern Ocean County the Englishtown can be subdivided into three distinct lithologic units; upper and lower units of quartz sand with thin interbeds of dark sandy silt, separated by a thick sequence of sandy and clayey lignitic silt. The confined part of the aquifer in the Englishtown Formation is utilized as a source of water over an area of about 1,100 square miles (2,849 square kilometers) of the New Jersey Coastal Plain and is an important source of supply in Monmouth and northern Ocean Counties. The annual average rate of withdrawal from the aquifer in the two-county area increased from 5.5 million gallons per day (0.24 cubic meters per second) in 1959 to 9.5 million gallons per day (0.4 cubic meters per second) in 1970. Water levels in parts of this area were declining 8 to 12 feet (2.4 to 3.6 meters) per year as of 1970 and they declined as much as 140 feet (43 meters) between 1959 and 1970 near pumping centers. The aquifer transmissivity ranges from 2,400 square feet per day to 650 square feet per day (223 square meters per day to 60 square meters per day); the estimated hydraulic conductivity ranges from about 11 feet per day to 20 feet per day (3.3 meters per day to 6.1 meters per day); and the storage coefficient ranges from

  16. Hydrogeology and effects of tailings basins on the hydrology of Sands Plain, Marquette County, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grannemann, N.G.

    1984-01-01

    A hydrogeological study of Sands Plain, a sandy outwash area in the north-central part of Michigan 's Upper Peninsula, was conducted during 1979-82. Parts of the area are being considered as possible sites for construction and operation of iron mining tailings basins. Gribben Basin, an existing tailings basin in the western part of Sands Plains, covers 2.5 square miles; hypothetical tailings basins may cover as much as 11 square miles. Glacial deposits are the area 's principal aquifer. The general direction of ground-water flow is from the outwash area toward Lake Superior. Before reaching Lake Superior, however, most ground water is discharged in a series of nearly parallel streams. Ground water accounts for 95 percent of the discharge of these streams. Precipitation collected at two sites had average pH values of 4.0. Dissolved solids concentrations in water from wells ranged from 41 to 246 milligrams per liter; in water from streams, they ranged from 82 to 143 milligrams per liter. Calcium and bicarbonate were the principal dissolved ions. A two-dimensional digital model of ground-water flow was used to simulate ground-water levels and runoff. The predictive computer simulations indicate that construction and operation of Gribben tailings basin, located in the western part of the study area, decreased ground-water flow to Goose Lake Outlet by 0.9 to 1.6 cubic feet per second. Construction and operation of four hypothetical tailings basins covering a total of 11 square miles is estimated to reduce ground-water flow to the area 's streams by 7 to 18 cubic feet per second depending on the hydraulic properties of material comprising the basin boundaries. Leakage from all of the basins is estimated to range from 0.7 to 7 cubic feet per second. (USGS)

  17. [Fragmentation process of wetland landscape in watersheds of Sanjiang Plain, China].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongyu; Lü, Xianguo; Zhang, Shikui; Yang, Qing

    2005-02-01

    The Sanjiang Plain is the largest fresh water wetland distribution area in China and the center of waterfowls breeding and habitat area in Asia, but over the past 50 years, more than 73% of its wetland had lost because of agricultural development, and as a result, the wetland biodiversity declines dramatically, and the remnant wetlands are in a very fragment state. Based on historical maps, remote sensing data and GIS techniques, this paper selected two watersheds to analyze their wetland landscape fragmentation process during 1950-2000. It was indicated that land reclamation resulted in a decrease of 98% wetland corridors in Qixing River, 90% in Naoli River, 87% in the middle reach of Bielahong River, and 94% in the lower reach of Bielahong River; The amount of isolated wetlands in watershed increased dramatically; The maximum patch areas of wetland decreased by 92.6% in Naoli River watershed and 74.6% in Bielahong River watershed, and the mean wetland patch area in the two watersheds decreased by 99%. Before 1983, the wetland landscape was in an extensive area distribution state (the index of patch density was < 0.1), but after 1983, it fragmented dramatically, with the index of patch density larger than 1.5. The shape fragmentation indices of wetland decreased from 1950 to 2000, indicating a very big change in wetland patch shapes in the watersheds. The area fragmentation indices of wetland also increased from 1950 to 2000, especially after 1983, showing that the wetlands were in a serious fragmentation state. The wetland landscape fragmentation changed from a landmass and island model to a satellite model, and finally to a completely isolated model, which indicated the great changes in spatial structure of wetland in the Sanjiang Plain. PMID:15852925

  18. Connecting Indigenous Knowledge to Thaw Lake Cycle Research on the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisner, W. R.; Cuomo, C. J.; Hinkel, K. M.; Jones, B. M.; Hurd, J.

    2005-12-01

    Thaw lakes cover about 20% of the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska. Another 26% is scarred by basins that form when lakes drain, and these drained thaw-lake basins are sites for preferential carbon accumulation as plant biomass. Recent studies in the continuous permafrost zone of Western Siberia suggest that lakes have been expanding in the past several decades in response to regional warming. Anticipated regional warming would likely mobilize sequestered soil organic carbon, resulting in the emission of CO2 and CH4. Our understanding of the processes leading to thaw lake formation, expansion, and drainage in northern Alaska has been limited because models are specific to the flat, young Outer (seaward) Coastal Plain comprising 1/3 of the region. Furthermore, spatial and temporal analysis of lake dynamics is largely restricted to the period since 1948, when aerial photographs first became available across large regions of the Coastal Plain. In order to fill these gaps, we have been interviewing Iñupiaq elders, hunters, and berry pickers from the villages of Atqasuk and Barrow. The objective of these interviews is to obtain accounts of lake formation, expansion and drainage that have occurred within living or oral memory, and extend the record back several generations. To date, we have interviewed fifteen Iñupiat; most of these are people who travel the tundra frequently and have done so for decades. They have first-hand experience of lake drainage, sea cliff and river bank erosion, permafrost degradation, and other landscape changes. Many informants expressed concern that landscape changes are occurring at an increasingly rapid rate. They have identified lakes that have drained, areas where the permafrost is thawing, and places where the sea and river coastline is eroding. We have been able to corroborate reports of lake drainage from our informants with a series of aerial photographs, satellite images, and radiocarbon dates. In many instances, the elders have

  19. Magnetotelluric characterization of a tectonic boundary in the Chaco-Pampean Plain (27° S), Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peri, V. G.; Pomposiello, C.; Favetto, A.; Barcelona, H.; Rossello, E.

    2013-05-01

    The study area is placed in the Chaco-Pampean Plain (Central-North Argentina), which is part of the distal plain of the central Andean piedmont originated by the uplift and erosion of the Andean Cordillera. A sedimentary aggradational process typifies this region and buries a large history related to Western Gondwana and Andean Orogeny. The Andean piedmont is composed of a collage of crustal blocks that were amalgamated by different orogeny and deformation belts. The Transbrasiliano lineament constitutes one of these continental belts and transversely intersects the South American Platform, from NNE to SSW. Northward, this lineament is well evidenced, while southward, in the distal Andean foreland, it remains unknown and is associated with the tectonic boundary between the Río de la Plata Craton (RPC) and the Pampean terrane (PT). This tectonic boundary is mostly unexposed in the Chaco-Pampean Plain. An east or west dipping subduction and a later collision between these terranes is still under debate. Deep geophysical studies are not abundant in this region. Few works have locally characterized the composition and structure of the crust and upper mantle beneath this extensive intracontinental plain. Magnetotelluric (MT), gravimetric and magnetic data have inferred the boundary between the RPC and the PT at the limit between Eastern Pampean Ranges and the Chaco-Pampean Plain. Furthermore, at regional scale, 3-D seismic tomographies and images of the seismic structure of the crust and the uppermost mantle have revealed the Moho depths and other lithospheric discontinuities. Here, we report the results of a MT survey along a W-E profile located at 27° S between 63°45' and 60°30' W, that characterized the geoelectric structure of the tectonic boundary between the RPC and the PT beneath the Chaco-Pampean Plain. The MT method provides an image of the electrical resistivity distribution of the Earth's subsurface and constitutes an effective and complementary technique

  20. Ice-walled-lake plains: Implications for the origin of hummocky glacial topography in middle North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayton, Lee; Attig, John W.; Ham, Nelson R.; Johnson, Mark D.; Jennings, Carrie E.; Syverson, Kent M.

    2008-05-01

    Ice-walled-lake plains are prominent in many areas of hummocky-till topography left behind as the Laurentide Ice Sheet melted from middle North America. The formation of the hummocky-till topography has been explained by: (1) erosion by subglacial floods; (2) squeezing of subglacial till up into holes in stagnant glacial ice; or (3) slumping of supraglacial till. The geomorphology and stratigraphy of ice-walled-lake plains provide evidence that neither the lake plains nor the adjacent hummocks are of subglacial origin. These flat lake plains, up to a few kilometers in diameter, are perched as much as a few tens of meters above surrounding depressions. They typically are underlain by laminated, fine-grained suspended-load lake sediment. Many ice-walled-lake plains are surrounded by a low rim ridge of coarser-grained shore sediment or by a steeper rim ridge of debris that slumped off the surrounding ice slopes. The ice-walled lakes persisted for hundreds to thousands of years following glacial stagnation. Shells of aquatic molluscs from several deposits of ice-walled-lake sediment in south-central North Dakota have been dated from about 13 500 to 10 500 B.P. (calibrated radiocarbon ages), indicating a climate only slightly cooler than present. This is confirmed by recent palaeoecological studies in nearby non-glacial sites. To survive so long, the stagnant glacial ice had to be well-insulated by a thick cover of supraglacial sediment, and the associated till hummocks must be composed primarily of collapsed supraglacial till.