Science.gov

Sample records for africa burkina faso

  1. Groundwater arsenic contamination in Burkina Faso, West Africa: Predicting and verifying regions at risk.

    PubMed

    Bretzler, Anja; Lalanne, Franck; Nikiema, Julien; Podgorski, Joel; Pfenninger, Numa; Berg, Michael; Schirmer, Mario

    2017-04-15

    Arsenic contamination in groundwater from crystalline basement rocks in West Africa has only been documented in isolated areas and presents a serious health threat in a region already facing multiple challenges related to water quality and scarcity. We present a comprehensive dataset of arsenic concentrations from drinking water wells in rural Burkina Faso (n=1498), of which 14.6% are above 10μg/L. Included in this dataset are 269 new samples from regions where no published water quality data existed. We used multivariate logistic regression with arsenic measurements as calibration data and maps of geology and mineral deposits as independent predictor variables to create arsenic prediction models at concentration thresholds of 5, 10 and 50μg/L. These hazard maps delineate areas vulnerable to groundwater arsenic contamination in Burkina Faso. Bedrock composed of schists and volcanic rocks of the Birimian formation, potentially harbouring arsenic-containing sulphide minerals, has the highest probability of yielding groundwater arsenic concentrations >10μg/L. Combined with population density estimates, the arsenic prediction models indicate that ~560,000 people are potentially exposed to arsenic-contaminated groundwater in Burkina Faso. The same arsenic-bearing geological formations that are positive predictors for elevated arsenic concentrations in Burkina Faso also exist in neighbouring countries such as Mali, Ghana and Ivory Coast. This study's results are thus of transboundary relevance and can act as a trigger for targeted water quality surveys and mitigation efforts.

  2. Effectively introducing a new meningococcal A conjugate vaccine in Africa: the Burkina Faso experience.

    PubMed

    Djingarey, Mamoudou H; Barry, Rodrigue; Bonkoungou, Mete; Tiendrebeogo, Sylvestre; Sebgo, Rene; Kandolo, Denis; Lingani, Clement; Preziosi, Marie-Pierre; Zuber, Patrick L F; Perea, William; Hugonnet, Stéphane; Dellepiane de Rey Tolve, Nora; Tevi-Benissan, Carole; Clark, Thomas A; Mayer, Leonard W; Novak, Ryan; Messonier, Nancy E; Berlier, Monique; Toboe, Desire; Nshimirimana, Deo; Mihigo, Richard; Aguado, Teresa; Diomandé, Fabien; Kristiansen, Paul A; Caugant, Dominique A; Laforce, F Marc

    2012-05-30

    A new Group A meningococcal (Men A) conjugate vaccine, MenAfriVac™, was prequalified by the World Health Organization (WHO) in June 2010. Because Burkina Faso has repeatedly suffered meningitis epidemics due to Group A Neisseria meningitidis special efforts were made to conduct a country-wide campaign with the new vaccine in late 2010 and before the onset of the next epidemic meningococcal disease season beginning in January 2011. In the ensuing five months (July-November 2010) the following challenges were successfully managed: (1) doing a large safety study and registering the new vaccine in Burkina Faso; (2) developing a comprehensive communication plan; (3) strengthening the surveillance system with particular attention to improving the capacity for real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing of spinal fluid specimens; (4) improving cold chain capacity and waste disposal; (5) developing and funding a sound campaign strategy; and (6) ensuring effective collaboration across all partners. Each of these issues required specific strategies that were managed through a WHO-led consortium that included all major partners (Ministry of Health/Burkina Faso, Serum Institute of India Ltd., UNICEF, Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization, Meningitis Vaccine Project, CDC/Atlanta, and the Norwegian Institute of Public Health/Oslo). Biweekly teleconferences that were led by WHO ensured that problems were identified in a timely fashion. The new meningococcal A conjugate vaccine was introduced on December 6, 2010, in a national ceremony led by His Excellency Blaise Compaore, the President of Burkina Faso. The ensuing 10-day national campaign was hugely successful, and over 11.4 million Burkinabes between the ages of 1 and 29 years (100% of target population) were vaccinated. African national immunization programs are capable of achieving very high coverage for a vaccine desired by the public, introduced in a well-organized campaign, and supported at the highest

  3. Neogene cratonic erosion fluxes and landform evolution processes from regional regolith mapping (Burkina Faso, West Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimaud, Jean-Louis; Chardon, Dominique; Metelka, Václav; Beauvais, Anicet; Bamba, Ousmane

    2015-07-01

    The regionally correlated and dated regolith-paleolandform sequence of Sub-Saharan West Africa offers a unique opportunity to constrain continental-scale regolith dynamics as the key part of the sediment routing system. In this study, a regolith mapping protocol is developed and applied at the scale of Southwestern Burkina Faso. Mapping combines field survey and remote sensing data to reconstruct the topography of the last pediplain that formed over West Africa in the Early and Mid-Miocene (24-11 Ma). The nature and preservation pattern of the pediplain are controlled by the spatial variation of bedrock lithology and are partitioned among large drainage basins. Quantification of pediplain dissection and drainage growth allows definition of a cratonic background denudation rate of 2 m/My and a minimum characteristic timescale of 20 Ma for shield resurfacing. These results may be used to simulate minimum export fluxes of drainage basins of constrained size over geological timescales. Background cratonic denudation results in a clastic export flux of ~ 4 t/km2/year, which is limited by low denudation efficiency of slope processes and correlatively high regolith storage capacity of tropical shields. These salient characteristics of shields' surface dynamics would tend to smooth the riverine export fluxes of shields through geological time.

  4. Survey data on key climate and environmental drivers of farmers' migration in Burkina Faso, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Sanfo, Safiétou; Fonta, M William; Boubacar, Ibrahim; Lamers, P A John

    2016-12-01

    This article describes two datasets generated from various sources in south western Burkina Faso to identify the key climate and environmental drivers that cause farmers to migrate. The survey sampling is random but reasoned and rational. The first dataset from 367 farm households contains data on farmers' perception of climate change risks or hazards, their impacts on farmland productivity and farm households' risk management strategies. The second dataset from 58 farm households contains data on agricultural practices, environmental changes, and environmental migration. Three supplemental Excel sheets show the results of the surveys. Details on the sample as well as further interpretation and discussion of the surveys are available in the associated research article ('Field Facts for Crop Insurance Design: Empirical Evidence from South Western Burkina Faso' (W. M. Fonta, S. Sanfo, B. Ibrahim, B. Barry, 2015) [1]).

  5. HIV prevalence and poverty in Africa: micro- and macro-econometric evidences applied to Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Lachaud, Jean-Pierre

    2007-05-01

    Based on the data of the Demographic and Health Survey, and of the Household Priority Survey, carried out in 2003, the present study, examining the factors of HIV prevalence in Burkina Faso, provides two conclusions. Firstly, the fight against poverty is not necessarily a means of reducing simultaneously and drastically HIV/AIDS prevalence, an assertion based on several elements of empirical analysis. First of all, the micro-econometric estimates of the probit models suggest a positive relationship between HIV prevalence in adult women and men, and living standards of individuals. Then, the macro-econometric approach reveals the existence of a positive (negative) relationship between, on the one hand, the level of regional HIV prevalence, and, on the other hand, the average monetary provincial standard of living (poverty) of households. At the same time, the relationship between HIV prevalence and poverty, apprehended at the regional level, is not linear. Secondly, and correlatively, the relationship between HIV prevalence and poverty is called into question. First of all, some structural factors may contribute to a distortion of the relationship between resources of households and the prevalence of HIV/AIDS. This may be due, on the one hand, to the persistence of cognitive and behavioural factors inherent in a traditional society, and in particular, to the fact that the social construction of female attributes and roles confers to men a statute of "decision-makers" with regard to sexual intercourse, while the persistence of secular beliefs contributes to minimizing the perception of HIV/AIDS in terms of risk, independently of standards of living. In addition, the enclavement of Burkina Faso required development of road and railway traffic with neighbouring countries, in particular Côte d'Ivoire. Therefore, it may be that the structural conditions of the process of development of Burkina Faso, concomitant with significant flows of the exchange of goods, services

  6. Equity and health policy in Africa: Using concept mapping in Moore (Burkina Faso)

    PubMed Central

    Ridde, Valéry

    2008-01-01

    Background This methodological article is based on a health policy research project conducted in Burkina Faso (West Africa). Concept mapping (CM) was used as a research method to understand the local views of equity among stakeholders, who were concerned by the health policy under consideration. While this technique has been used in North America and elsewhere, to our knowledge it has not yet been applied in Africa in any vernacular language. Its application raises many issues and certain methodological limitations. Our objective in this article is to present its use in this particular context, and to share a number of methodological observations on the subject. Methods Two CMs were done among two different groups of local stakeholders following four steps: generating ideas, structuring the ideas, computing maps using multidimensional scaling and cluster analysis methods, and interpreting maps. Fifteen nurses were invited to take part in the study, all of whom had undergone training on health policies. Of these, nine nurses (60%) ultimately attended the two-day meeting, conducted in French. Of 45 members of village health committees who attended training on health policies, only eight were literate in the local language (Moore). Seven of these (88%) came to the meeting. Results The local perception of equity seems close to the egalitarian model. The actors are not ready to compromise social stability and peace for the benefit of the worst-off. The discussion on the methodological limitations of CM raises the limitations of asking a single question in Moore and the challenge of translating a concept as complex as equity. While the translation of equity into Moore undoubtedly oriented the discussions toward social relations, we believe that, in the context of this study, the open-ended question concerning social justice has a threefold relevance. At the same time, those limitations were transformed into strengths. We understand that it was essential to resort to the

  7. Reconstructing the Geomagnetic Field in West Africa: First Absolute Intensity Results from Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Kapper, Lisa; Donadini, Fabio; Serneels, Vincent; Tema, Evdokia; Goguitchaichvili, Avto; Julio Morales, Juan

    2017-01-01

    We present absolute geomagnetic intensities from iron smelting furnaces discovered at the metallurgical site of Korsimoro, Burkina Faso. Up to now, archaeologists recognized four different types of furnaces based on different construction methods, which were related to four subsequent time periods. Additionally, radiocarbon ages obtained from charcoal confine the studied furnaces to ages ranging from 700–1700 AD, in good agreement with the archaeologically determined time periods for each type of furnace. Archaeointensity results reveal three main groups of Arai diagrams. The first two groups contain specimens with either linear Arai diagrams, or slightly curved diagrams or two phases of magnetization. The third group encompasses specimens with strong zigzag or curvature in their Arai diagrams. Specimens of the first two groups were accepted after applying selection criteria to guarantee the high quality of the results. Our data compared to palaeosecular variation curves show a similar decreasing trend between 900–1500 AD. However, they reveal larger amplitudes at around 800 AD and 1650 AD than the reference curves and geomagnetic field models. Furthermore, they agree well with archaeomagnetic data from Mali and Senegal around 800 AD and with volcanic data around 1700 AD. PMID:28350006

  8. Opportunities and Challenges in Using Hydrologic Information and Decision Support Tools to Improve Livelihoods in Burkina Faso, West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirshen, P.; Jost, C.; Roncoli, M. C.; Hoogenboom, G.

    2006-12-01

    Burkina Faso is part of the Sahel-Sudan climatic zone south of the Sahara Desert. The rainfall of the region is characterized by extreme seasonal and annual temporal and spatial variability. Soils are generally of low fertility. The major livelihood activity in Burkina Faso, one of the lowest ranked countries in the world in the Human Development Index where 80 percent of the population rely on subsistence farming, is rainfed cultivation of cereal crops. Cotton is the dominant export crop and is mostly grown in the southwest. Livestock management is an important complement to farm activities, especially in the Sahelian zone. There are several major rivers flowing through the region and many ephemeral streams. Surface water resources are becoming more important to Burkina Faso as it tries to improve food security and water supplies, and increase energy production. One of the major opportunities to improve livelihoods in the region has been improvements in seasonal rainfall forecasting based upon global sea surface temperatures. In the past decade, the generation and use of forecasts in Burkina Faso has evolved from the nation just receiving forecasts almost as an after thought from USA and European meteorological services to the Burkina Faso Meteorological Services generating their own forecasts with support from these services. There is now also more focused international research on improving the forecasts for this region. The use of stochastic decision support tools (DST) that combine the seasonal forecasts with hydrologic and crop models, land conditions, and information on farmer and policy maker goals could improve both rainfed and irrigated agricultural systems. Their implementation requires overcoming many technical and socio-economic challenges. Examples include forecasting the start and end of rains, dissemination and explanation of forecasts, streamflow forecasting in data scarce regions, possible different incentives for subsistence and cash crop farmers

  9. Personality and Personality Disorders in Urban and Rural Africa: Results from a Field Trial in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Rossier, Jérôme; Ouedraogo, Abdoulaye; Dahourou, Donatien; Verardi, Sabrina; Meyer de Stadelhofen, Franz

    2013-01-01

    When conducting research in different cultural settings, assessing measurement equivalence is of prime importance to determine if constructs and scores can be compared across groups. Structural equivalence implies that constructs have the same meaning across groups, metric equivalence implies that the metric of the scales remains stable across groups, and full scale or scalar equivalence implies that the origin of the scales is the same across groups. Several studies have observed that the structure underlying both normal personality and personality disorders (PDs) is stable across cultures. Most of this cross-cultural research was conducted in Western and Asian cultures. In Africa, the few studies were conducted with well-educated participants using French or English instruments. No research was conducted in Africa with less privileged or preliterate samples. The aim of this research was to study the structure and expression of normal and abnormal personality in an urban and a rural sample in Burkina Faso. The sample included 1,750 participants, with a sub-sample from the urban area of Ouagadougou (n = 1,249) and another sub-sample from a rural village, Soumiaga (n = 501). Most participants answered an interview consisting of a Mooré language adaptation of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory and of the International Personality Disorders Examination. Mooré is the language of the Mossi ethnic group, and the most frequently spoken local language in Burkina Faso. A sub-sample completed the same self-report instruments in French. Demographic variables only had a small impact on normal and abnormal personality traits mean levels. The structure underlying normal personality was unstable across regions and languages, illustrating that translating a complex psychological inventory into a native African language is a very difficult task. The structure underlying abnormal personality and the metric of PDs scales were stable across regions. As scalar equivalence

  10. Anaemia during pregnancy in Burkina Faso, west Africa, 1995-96: prevalence and associated factors. DITRAME Study Group.

    PubMed Central

    Meda, N.; Mandelbrot, L.; Cartoux, M.; Dao, B.; Ouangré, A.; Dabis, F.

    1999-01-01

    We report the results of a cross-sectional study carried out in 1995-96 on anaemia in pregnant women who were attending two antenatal clinics in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso, as part of a research programme including a clinical trial of zidovudine (ZDV) in pregnancy (ANRS 049 Clinical Trial). For women infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Africa, anaemia is of particular concern when considering the use of ZDV to decrease mother-to-child transmission of HIV. The objectives were to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for maternal anaemia in the study population, and the effect of HIV infection on the severity of maternal anaemia. HIV counselling and testing were offered to all women, and haemograms were determined for those women who consented to serological testing. Haemoglobin (Hb) levels were available for 2308 of the 2667 women who accepted HIV testing. The prevalence of HIV infection was 9.7% (95% confidence interval (CI): 8.6-10.8%). The overall prevalence of anaemia during pregnancy (Hb level < 11 g/dl) was 66% (95% CI: 64-68%). The prevalence of mild (10 g/dl < or = Hb < 11 g/dl), moderate (7 g/dl < or = Hb < 10 g/dl) and severe (Hb < 7 g/dl) anaemia was 30.8%, 33.5% and 1.7%, respectively. The prevalence of anaemia was 78.4% in HIV-infected women versus 64.7% in HIV-seronegative women (P < 0.001). Although the relative risk of HIV-seropositivity increased with the severity of anaemia, no significant association was found between degree of anaemia and HIV serostatus among the study women with anaemia. Logistic regression analysis showed that anaemia was significantly and independently related to HIV infection, advanced gestational age, and low socioeconomic status. This study confirms the high prevalence of anaemia during pregnancy in Burkina Faso. Antenatal care in this population must include iron supplementation. Although HIV-infected women had a higher prevalence of anaemia, severe anaemia was infrequent, possibly because few

  11. Mineral values of selected plant foods common to southern Burkina Faso and to Niamey, Niger, west Africa.

    PubMed

    Smith, G C; Clegg, M S; Keen, C L; Grivetti, L E

    1996-01-01

    Wild and cultivated fruits, leaves, nuts, seeds, spices and vegetables from southern Burkina Faso and Niamey, Niger, were analysed for their copper, iron, magnesium, manganese and zinc concentrations and compared to imported, exotic reference foods found within the study area. The species analysed covered a broad spectrum of local diet; 33 were wild and 16 were cultivated. The edible wild plants were often the highest in mineral concentrations. Five species analysed, exhibited consistently high mineral values, specifically, Adansonia digitata, Boerhavia diffusa, Cerathoteca sesamoides, Sclerocarya birrea and Xylopia sp. The latter was particularly high in zinc, an observation which suggests that there may be a solid rationale for local traditions which recommended its consumption during pregnancy and lactation. Respondents indicated that during times of drought, wild plants were not consumed in the volume they once were, due to changes of infrastructure and in famine relief programmes.

  12. First biologic and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from chickens from Africa (Democratic Republic of Congo, Mali, Burkina Faso, and Kenya).

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Karhemere, S; Dahl, E; Sreekumar, C; Diabaté, A; Dabiré, K R; Vianna, M C B; Kwok, O C H; Lehmann, T

    2005-02-01

    The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-ranging chickens (Gallus domesticus) is a good indicator of the prevalence of T. gondii oocysts in the soil because chickens feed from the ground. In the present study, prevalence of T. gondii in chickens from Democratic Republic of Congo, Mali, Burkina Faso, and Kenya is reported. The prevalence of T. gondii antibodies in sera of 50 free-range chickens from Congo was 50% based on the modified agglutination test (MAT); antibody titers were 1:5 in 7, 1:10 in 7, 1:20 in 6, 1:40 in 1, and 1:160 or more in 4 chickens. Hearts, pectoral muscles, and brains of 11 chickens with titers of 1:20 or more were bioassayed individually in mice; T. gondii was isolated from 9, from the hearts of 9, brains of 3, and muscles of 3 chickens. Tissues of each of the 14 chickens with titers of 1:5 or 1:10 were pooled and bioassayed in mice; T. gondii was isolated from 1 chicken with a titer of 1:10. Tissues from the remaining 25 seronegative chickens were pooled and fed to 1 T. gondii-free cat. Feces of the cat were examined for oocysts, but none was seen. The results indicate that T. gondii localizes in the hearts more often than in other tissues of naturally infected chickens. Genotyping of these 10 isolates using the SAG2 locus indicated that 8 were isolates were type III, 1 was type II, and 1 was type I. Two isolates (1 type I and 1 type III) were virulent for mice. Toxoplasma gondii was isolated by mouse bioassay from a pool of brains and hearts of 5 of 48 chickens from Mali and 1 of 40 chickens from Burkina Faso; all 6 isolates were avirulent for mice. Genetically, 4 isolates were type III and 2 were type II. Sera were not available from chickens from Mali and Burkina Faso. Toxoplasma gondii antibodies (MAT 100 or more) were found in 4 of 30 chickens from Kenya, and T. gondii was isolated from the brain of 1 of 4 seropositive chickens; this strain was avirulent for mice and was type II. This is the first report on isolation and genotyping

  13. Monitoring Dry Season Persistence of Anopheles gambiae s.l. Populations in a Contained Semi-Field System in Southwestern Burkina Faso, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Mamai, W; Simard, F; Couret, D; Ouedraogo, G A; Renault, D; Dabiré, K R; Mouline, K

    2016-01-01

    To gain insight into the dry season survival strategies of Anopheles gambiae s.l., a new contained semi-field system was developed and used for the first time in Burkina Faso, West Africa. The system consisted of a screened greenhouse within which the local environment was reproduced, including all ecological requirements for mosquito development cycle completion. The system was seeded with the progenies of female Anopheles gambiae, Anopheles coluzzii, and Anopheles arabiensis collected in the vicinity of the greenhouse during the rainy season. After successful establishment in the semi-field system, mosquito populations were monitored over a 1-yr period by regular surveys of larval and adult specimens. We provided evidence for the persistence of adult mosquitoes throughout the dry season, in the absence of any suitable larval development site. During the hot and dry periods, adult insects were observed in artificial shelters (clay pots, building blocks, and dark corners). The mosquito population rapidly built up with the return of the rainy season in the area, when artificial breeding sites were refilled in the enclosure. However, only An. coluzzii and, later, An. arabiensis were detected in the subsequent rainy season, whereas no An. gambiae specimen was found. Our findings suggest that An. coluzzii and An. arabiensis may be able to aestivate throughout the dry season in Southwestern Burkina Faso, whereas An. gambiae might adopt a different dry-season survival strategy, such as long-distance re-colonization from distant locations. These results may have important implications for malaria control through targeted vector control interventions.

  14. Termite mounds as hot spots of nitrous oxide emissions in South-Sudanian savanna of Burkina Faso (West Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brümmer, Christian; Papen, Hans; Wassmann, Reiner; Brüggemann, Nicolas

    2009-05-01

    Despite a considerable knowledge of the significant role of termites in the global methane budget, very little is known about their contribution to the global nitrous oxide (N2O) budget. Release of N2O from termite (Cubitermes fungifaber) mounds was measured at a natural savanna site in the southwest of Burkina Faso from May to September 2006. Termite N2O emissions were around 20 μg N2O-N m-2 h-1 at the end of the dry season, and up to two orders of magnitude higher than N2O emissions from the surrounding termite-free soil after the onset of the rainy season. The average N2O emission rate from termite mounds during the observation period was 204 μg N2O-N m-2 h-1, and termite mounds contributed 3.0% to total N2O emissions from this savanna ecosystem. However, in other tropical terrestrial ecosystems with other termite species and/or higher termite density this share might be significantly higher.

  15. Savannas Ecosystems Services: Local Knowledge On Vulnerability And Adaptation To Climate Change In South-Western Burkina Faso (West Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimobe, K.; Goetze, D.; Ouédraogo, A.; Thiombiano, A.; Porembski, S.

    2015-12-01

    Local knowledge could form an effective channel and base through which climate change adaptation and mitigation can be realized. This paper uses the context of savannas ecosystem services in Burkina Faso to examine local knowledge and perspectives on the changing trends in vulnerability and adaptation to climate change. The survey targeted farmers, traditional authorities and administrators at the local government level. Semi-structured questionnaires were employed for one-on-one interviews and focused group discussions for data collection. Descriptive statistics and explanatory factor analysis were used to analyze the collected data. A total of 230 farmers, 6 traditional authorities and 5 administrators belonging to 32 villages were interviewed. Most of local people (95.1-96.7%) believe that climate change is occurring, and cited general increases in average temperatures, fluctuating rainfall regimes and extended drought periods as some of their observations. They explain the increasing changes and vulnerability of savannas ecosystems through the longer time spent and distance covered to collect medicinal plants and forest food; decreasing productivity and availability of fodder, fuel wood, forest food and medicinal plant, changing uses of forest food and medicinal plant species. The views of farmers were generally shared by the traditional authorities and administrators. Adaptation actions employed by local communities are tree planting, protection of forestry resources, migration, awareness raising, conservation of soil and water resources.

  16. A Climate Trend Analysis of Burkina Faso

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Funk, Christopher C.; Rowland, Jim; Eilerts, Gary; Adoum, Alkhalil; White, Libby

    2012-01-01

    This brief report, drawing from a multi-year effort by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET), examines recent trends in rainfall and air temperatures. These analyses are based on quality controlled station observations. Conclusions: * Summer rains have remained steady over the past 20 years, but remain 15 percent below the 1920-69 average. * Temperatures have increased by 0.6° Celsius since 1975, amplifying the effect of droughts. * The amount of farmland per person is low, and declining. * Burkina Faso has offset rapid population growth with improved yields. * Continued yield growth would maintain current levels of per capita food production.

  17. Collaborative development and implementation of a knowledge brokering program to promote research use in Burkina Faso, West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Dagenais, Christian; Somé, Télesphore D.; Boileau-Falardeau, Michèle; McSween-Cadieux, Esther; Ridde, Valéry

    2015-01-01

    Despite efforts expended over recent decades, there is a persistent gap between the production of scientific evidence and its use. This is mainly due to the difficulty of bringing such knowledge to health workers and decision-makers so that it can inform practices and decisions on a timely basis. One strategy for transferring knowledge to potential users, that is, gaining increasing legitimacy, is knowledge brokering (KB), effectiveness of which in certain conditions has been demonstrated through empirical research. However, little is known about how to implement such a strategy, especially in the African context. The KB program presented here is aimed specifically at narrowing the gap by making scientific knowledge available to users with the potential to improve health-related practices and decision making in Burkina Faso. The program involves Canadian and African researchers, a knowledge broker, health practitioners, and policy-makers. This article presents the collaborative development of the KB strategy and the evaluation of its implementation at year 1. The KB strategy was developed in stages, beginning with a scoping study to ensure the most recent studies were considered. Two one-day workshops were then conducted to explore the problem of low research use and to adapt the strategy to the Burkinabè context. Based on these workshops, the KB program was developed and brokers were recruited and trained. Evaluation of the program's implementation after the first year showed that: 1) the preparatory activities were greatly appreciated by participants, and most considered the content useful for their work; 2) the broker had carried out his role in accordance with the logic model; and 3) this role was seen as important by the participants targeted by the activities and outputs. Participants made suggestions for program improvements in subsequent years, stressing particularly the need to involve decision-makers at the central level. PMID:25630708

  18. Collaborative development and implementation of a knowledge brokering program to promote research use in Burkina Faso, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Dagenais, Christian; Somé, Télesphore D; Boileau-Falardeau, Michèle; McSween-Cadieux, Esther; Ridde, Valéry

    2015-01-01

    Despite efforts expended over recent decades, there is a persistent gap between the production of scientific evidence and its use. This is mainly due to the difficulty of bringing such knowledge to health workers and decision-makers so that it can inform practices and decisions on a timely basis. One strategy for transferring knowledge to potential users, that is, gaining increasing legitimacy, is knowledge brokering (KB), effectiveness of which in certain conditions has been demonstrated through empirical research. However, little is known about how to implement such a strategy, especially in the African context. The KB program presented here is aimed specifically at narrowing the gap by making scientific knowledge available to users with the potential to improve health-related practices and decision making in Burkina Faso. The program involves Canadian and African researchers, a knowledge broker, health practitioners, and policy-makers. This article presents the collaborative development of the KB strategy and the evaluation of its implementation at year 1. The KB strategy was developed in stages, beginning with a scoping study to ensure the most recent studies were considered. Two one-day workshops were then conducted to explore the problem of low research use and to adapt the strategy to the Burkinabè context. Based on these workshops, the KB program was developed and brokers were recruited and trained. Evaluation of the program's implementation after the first year showed that: 1) the preparatory activities were greatly appreciated by participants, and most considered the content useful for their work; 2) the broker had carried out his role in accordance with the logic model; and 3) this role was seen as important by the participants targeted by the activities and outputs. Participants made suggestions for program improvements in subsequent years, stressing particularly the need to involve decision-makers at the central level.

  19. From Funding Projects to Supporting Sectors? Observation on the Aid Relationship in Burkina Faso

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samoff, Joel

    2004-01-01

    Burkina Faso is among the largest recipients of development aid in West Africa. The new aid terminology emphasizes partnership and a sectoral approach. Yet, recent research suggests more continuity than change in the aid relationship. Projects persist. Funding and technical assistance agencies cooperate more but adhere to their interests,…

  20. Larval habitat segregation between the molecular forms of the mosquito, Anopheles gambiae in a rice field area of Burkina Faso, West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Gimonneau, Geoffrey; Pombi, Marco; Choisy, Marc; Morand, Serge; Dabiré, Roch K.; Simard, Frederic

    2011-01-01

    In West Africa, lineage splitting between the M and S molecular forms of the major Afro-tropical malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae is thought to be driven by ecological divergence, occurring mainly at the larval stage. Here, we present evidences for habitat segregation between the two molecular forms in and around irrigated rice-fields located within the humid savannahs background of western Burkina Faso. Longitudinal sampling of adult mosquitoes emerging from a range of breeding sites distributed along a transect extending from the heart of the rice-fields area into the surrounding savannahs was conducted from June to November 2009. Analysis revealed that the two molecular forms and their sibling species An. arabiensis are not randomly distributed in the area. A major ecological gradient was extracted, in relation to the rice-fields perimeter. The M form was associated with larger breeding sites, which were mainly represented by rice field paddies whereas the S form and An. arabiensis were found to depend upon temporary, rain-filled breeding sites. These results support hypotheses about larval habitat segregation and confirm that both forms have different larval habitat requirement. Segregation appears clearly linked to anthropogenic permanent habitats and the community structure they support. PMID:21501199

  1. Impacts of urbanization and climate on groundwater in a growing Africa city: the case of Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouhouddine, Alihoumadi; Yameogo, Suzanne; Genthon, Pierre; Travi, Yves

    2016-04-01

    African cities are presently facing the combined impacts of growing urbanization and climate change. In several instances; providing safe drinking water for all is still a challenge, especially for cities located on basement aquifers, were groundwater is scarce. Here we assess the effects of climate change and land use change on groundwater amount and quality in the main city of Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso) taking advantage of the CIEH borehole, where a mostly continuous record lasts since 1978. This record spans most of the Great African Drought (1970-1990) and recovery from the Drought since the 2000s. A piezometric network of 14 wells and boreholes was setup around the CIEH borehole and monitored during the 2013-2014 hydrologic year. The piezometric network spans an old settlement, the Ouagadougou University, a vegetable gardening area and a natural forested area. Water balance estimates are provided by a 1D box model. The study area, although it lies partly on an old settlement in Ouagadougou and on the University area, presents a rather uniform runoff coefficient of 22% and ET amounting to 80-90 % of rainfall, which usually characterizes natural areas. It is suspected that the almost absence of asphalted surfaces, the presence of trees and flow of rainwater from roofs toward bare soils or sumps could be responsible of this budget. However, the two wells located in the forested Bangr Weogo recreational area are characterized by almost no runoff and a nearly 100 % ET. While drinking water can be pumped in several places in the city of Ouagadougou, chemical major analyses show that two mechanisms impact groundwater quality during the rainy season: (i) rise of the water table at pit latrine level, mainly in old settlements, and entrainment of harmful substances from soil to the aquifer in gardening area near some artisan activities. The CIEH borehole is not fully representative of its neighboring area since (i) it lies in a piezometric low, (ii) it presents the

  2. Associations of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes with high-grade cervical neoplasia (CIN2+) in a cohort of women living with HIV in Burkina Faso and South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Objective To describe associations of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) with high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2+) in women living with HIV (WLHIV) in Burkina Faso (BF) and South Africa (SA). Methods Prospective cohort of WLHIV attending HIV outpatient clinics and treatment centres. Recruitment was stratified by ART status. Cervical HPV genotyping using INNO-LiPA and histological assessment of 4-quadrant cervical biopsies at enrolment and 16 months later. Results Among women with CIN2+ at baseline, the prevalence of any HR-HPV genotypes included in the bi/quadrivalent (HPV16/18) or nonavalent (HPV16/18/31/35/45/52/58) HPV vaccines ranged from 37% to 90%. HPV58 was most strongly associated with CIN2+ (aOR = 5.40, 95%CI: 2.77–10.53). At 16-months follow-up, persistence of any HR-HPV was strongly associated with incident CIN2+ (aOR = 7.90, 95%CI: 3.11–20.07), as was persistence of HPV16/18 (aOR = 5.25, 95%CI: 2.14–12.91) and the additional HR types in the nonavalent vaccine (aOR = 3.23, 95%CI: 1.23–8.54). Conclusion HR-HPV persistence is very common among African WLHIV and is linked to incident CIN2+. HPV vaccines could prevent between 37–90% of CIN2+ among African WLHIV. PMID:28333966

  3. Suppressed convective rainfall by agricultural expansion in southeastern Burkina Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mande, Theophile; Ceperley, Natalie C.; Katul, Gabriel G.; Tyler, Scott W.; Yacouba, Hamma; Parlange, Marc B.

    2015-07-01

    With the "green economy" being promoted as a path to sustainable development and food security within the African continent, the influx of agricultural land is proliferating at a rapid pace often replacing natural savannah forests. Where agriculture is primarily rainfed, the possible adverse impacts of agricultural land influx on rainfall occurrences in water-limited areas such as West Africa warrant attention. Using field observations complemented by model calculations in southeastern Burkina Faso, the main causes of a 10-30% suppressed daytime rainfall recorded over agricultural fields when referenced to natural savannah forests are examined. Measurements and model runs reveal that the crossing of the mixed layer height and lifting condensation levels, a necessary condition for cloud formation and subsequent rainfall occurrence, was 30% more frequent above the natural savannah forest. This increase in crossing statistics was primarily explained by increases in measured sensible heat flux above the savannah forest rather than differences in lifting condensation heights.

  4. Metagenomic-Based Screening and Molecular Characterization of Cowpea-Infecting Viruses in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Palanga, Essowè; Filloux, Denis; Martin, Darren P; Fernandez, Emmanuel; Gargani, Daniel; Ferdinand, Romain; Zabré, Jean; Bouda, Zakaria; Neya, James Bouma; Sawadogo, Mahamadou; Traore, Oumar; Peterschmitt, Michel; Roumagnac, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Cowpea, (Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp)) is an annual tropical grain legume. Often referred to as "poor man's meat", cowpea is one of the most important subsistence legumes cultivated in West Africa due to the high protein content of its seeds. However, African cowpea production can be seriously constrained by viral diseases that reduce yields. While twelve cowpea-infecting viruses have been reported from Africa, only three of these have so-far been reported from Burkina Faso. Here we use a virion-associated nucleic acids (VANA)-based metagenomics method to screen for the presence of cowpea viruses from plants collected from the three agro-climatic zones of Burkina Faso. Besides the three cowpea-infecting virus species which have previously been reported from Burkina Faso (Cowpea aphid borne mosaic virus [Family Potyviridae], the Blackeye cowpea mosaic virus-a strain of Bean common mosaic virus-[Family Potyviridae] and Cowpea mottle virus [Family Tombusviridae]) five additional viruses were identified: Southern cowpea mosaic virus (Sobemovirus genus), two previously uncharacterised polerovirus-like species (Family Luteoviridae), a previously uncharacterised tombusvirus-like species (Family Tombusviridae) and a previously uncharacterised mycotymovirus-like species (Family Tymoviridae). Overall, potyviruses were the most prevalent cowpea viruses (detected in 65.5% of samples) and the Southern Sudan zone of Burkina Faso was found to harbour the greatest degrees of viral diversity and viral prevalence. Partial genome sequences of the two novel polerovirus-like and tombusvirus-like species were determined and RT-PCR primers were designed for use in Burkina Faso to routinely detect all of these cowpea-associated viruses.

  5. Metagenomic-Based Screening and Molecular Characterization of Cowpea-Infecting Viruses in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Palanga, Essowè; Filloux, Denis; Martin, Darren P.; Fernandez, Emmanuel; Gargani, Daniel; Ferdinand, Romain; Zabré, Jean; Bouda, Zakaria; Neya, James Bouma; Sawadogo, Mahamadou; Traore, Oumar; Peterschmitt, Michel; Roumagnac, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Cowpea, (Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp)) is an annual tropical grain legume. Often referred to as “poor man’s meat”, cowpea is one of the most important subsistence legumes cultivated in West Africa due to the high protein content of its seeds. However, African cowpea production can be seriously constrained by viral diseases that reduce yields. While twelve cowpea-infecting viruses have been reported from Africa, only three of these have so-far been reported from Burkina Faso. Here we use a virion-associated nucleic acids (VANA)-based metagenomics method to screen for the presence of cowpea viruses from plants collected from the three agro-climatic zones of Burkina Faso. Besides the three cowpea-infecting virus species which have previously been reported from Burkina Faso (Cowpea aphid borne mosaic virus [Family Potyviridae], the Blackeye cowpea mosaic virus—a strain of Bean common mosaic virus—[Family Potyviridae] and Cowpea mottle virus [Family Tombusviridae]) five additional viruses were identified: Southern cowpea mosaic virus (Sobemovirus genus), two previously uncharacterised polerovirus-like species (Family Luteoviridae), a previously uncharacterised tombusvirus-like species (Family Tombusviridae) and a previously uncharacterised mycotymovirus-like species (Family Tymoviridae). Overall, potyviruses were the most prevalent cowpea viruses (detected in 65.5% of samples) and the Southern Sudan zone of Burkina Faso was found to harbour the greatest degrees of viral diversity and viral prevalence. Partial genome sequences of the two novel polerovirus-like and tombusvirus-like species were determined and RT-PCR primers were designed for use in Burkina Faso to routinely detect all of these cowpea-associated viruses. PMID:27764211

  6. Droughts, Irrigation Development, and Hydropower: Different Development Priorities in Ghana and Burkina Faso and Their Effect on Management of the Volta River, West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Giesen, N.; Andreini, M.; van Edig, A.

    2001-05-01

    The Volta Basin covers 400,000 km2 of the West-African savanna zone. Ghana lies downstream and contains 42% of the basin. Most of the upstream part of the basin lies in Burkina Faso (43% of total), and the remaining 15% lies in Mali, Côte d'Ivoire, Togo, and Benin. Average rainfall is 1000 mm per year of which around 9% or 36 km3 becomes available as runoff in the Volta River. Small variations in rainfall cause relatively large variations in runoff. The Volta Basin is undergoing rapid changes in land use and water resource development, mainly driven by the high population growth of 3% per year. However, different countries pursue economic development in different ways. At independence in 1957, Ghana's leaders saw industrialization as essential to development and electric power from the Volta Dam as central to that industrialization. In 1964, the Volta Dam was built and Ghana's economic growth in the mining, industrial, and service sectors has depended on the dam's hydropower ever since. In contrast, land-locked Burkina Faso has less industrial potential and seeks to develop through its agriculture, both for subsistence and export crops. Given the extremely unreliable rainfall, irrigation development is seen as the only way to increase agricultural production. In general, irrigation in Burkina Faso takes the form of many small scale, village-based schemes of which the downstream impact is difficult to gauge. A minor drought in 1997 and 1998 caused the level of Lake Volta to drop, resulting in widespread power outages. In the ensuing public discussion, hydraulic development in Burkina Faso was seen as one of the potential causes of the lack of water. No firm data were available to substantiate this claim. In fact, over-withdrawals in previous years combined with climate variability were more likely culprits. A recently initiated multi-disciplinary research project will be presented that seeks to provide a scientific basis on which future discussions between the two

  7. Evidence that agricultural use of pesticides selects pyrethroid resistance within Anopheles gambiae s.l. populations from cotton growing areas in Burkina Faso, West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Hien, Aristide Sawdetuo; Soma, Dieudonné Diloma; Hema, Omer; Bayili, Bazoma; Namountougou, Moussa; Gnankiné, Olivier; Baldet, Thierry; Diabaté, Abdoulaye; Dabiré, Kounbobr Roch

    2017-01-01

    Many studies have shown the role of agriculture in the selection and spread of resistance of Anopheles gambiae s.l. to insecticides. However, no study has directly demonstrated the presence of insecticides in breeding sources as a source of selection for this resistance. It is in this context that we investigated the presence of pesticide residues in breeding habitats and their formal involvement in vector resistance to insecticides in areas of West Africa with intensive farming. This study was carried out from June to November 2013 in Dano, southwest Burkina Faso in areas of conventional (CC) and biological cotton (BC) growing. Water and sediment samples collected from breeding sites located near BC and CC fields were submitted for chromatographic analysis to research and titrate the residual insecticide content found there. Larvae were also collected in these breeding sites and used in toxicity tests to compare their mortality to those of the susceptible strain, Anopheles gambiae Kisumu. All tested mosquitoes (living and dead) were analyzed by PCR for species identification and characterization of resistance genes. The toxicity analysis of water from breeding sites showed significantly lower mortality rates in breeding site water from biological cotton (WBC) growing sites compared to that from conventional cotton (WCC) sites respective to both An. gambiae Kisumu (WBC: 80.75% vs WCC: 92.75%) and a wild-type strain (49.75% vs 66.5%). The allele frequencies L1014F, L1014S kdr, and G116S ace -1R mutations conferring resistance, respectively, to pyrethroids and carbamates / organophosphates were 0.95, 0.4 and 0.12. Deltamethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin were identified in the water samples taken in October/November from mosquitoes breeding in the CC growing area. The concentrations obtained were respectively 0.0147ug/L and 1.49 ug/L to deltamethrin and lambdacyhalothrin. Our results provided evidence by direct analysis (biological and chromatographic tests) of the role

  8. [Burkina Faso: review of population policies and programs].

    PubMed

    Kano, H

    1999-12-01

    When Burkina Faso gained its independence, no one thought to act upon the various demographic variables with the aim of achieving certain specific, planned goals. It was necessary to wait until 1986 for the adoption of a planning policy and the abrogation of part of 1920 legislation on contraceptive distribution before the first signs of attitudinal change could be observed with regard to population concerns. Formerly confused with birth limiting policy, family planning is increasingly becoming an essential component of maternal and infant health. The author describes the evolution of population policies in Burkina Faso from independence, after the 1974 Bucharest conference on population, and up until now. Today, general population policy goals in Burkina Faso are in favor of whatever will improve quality of life and well-being across all social strata. This goal will only be attained through the establishment of better balance between population and available resources. It involves meeting the population¿s essential food, nutrition, health, education, and employment needs; raising the value of available human resources; lowering morbidity and mortality; improving women¿s status; improving the population¿s spatial distribution; managing the environment better; and accounting for demographic variables when establishing development goals. Burkina Faso therefore plans to pursue a comprehensive approach toward its population problems.

  9. Developing Multiliteracies through Bilingual Education in Burkina Faso

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavoie, Constance

    2008-01-01

    Being literate involves being able to move from the ability to read and write to include different forms of knowledge and modes of communication of the milieu (drumming, dancing, story-telling, etc.). This article examines the new literacy allowed through the existence of two types of schools (bilingual and monolingual) in Burkina Faso, in West…

  10. Parental Death and Children's Schooling in Burkina Faso

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobiane, Jean-Francois; Calves, Anne-Emmanuele; Marcoux, Richard

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the authors review the literature on orphanhood, schooling, and the role of the extended family system in supporting the education of orphans in Burkina Faso. They also summarize the historical, social, and economic context of this study. The objective of this study is to assess the effect of orphanhood on children's access to…

  11. Pattern of sexually transmitted diseases among pregnant women in Burkina Faso, west Africa: potential for a clinical management based on simple approaches.

    PubMed Central

    Meda, N; Sangaré, L; Lankoandé, S; Sanou, P T; Compaoré, P I; Catraye, J; Cartoux, M; Soudré, R B

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: (1) To determine the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in pregnant women in Burkina Faso. (2) To evaluate the potential of clinical management of STDs based on screening with clinical data and urine leucocyte esterase test (LET). METHODS: Cross sectional study among antenatal clinic attendees was conducted in 1994 in Ouagadougou and Bobo-Dioulasso, the two largest urban centres in Burkina Faso, where more than 94% of the pregnant women benefit from antenatal care at least twice during their pregnancy. Each woman selected underwent an interview, general and gynaecological examination. Genital samples were collected to confirm the presence of STD pathogens. Logistic regression analysis was done to identify models that predict (a) gonorrhoea and/or chlamydia, (b) trichomoniasis and/or bacterial vaginosis, (c) candidiasis. Sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values of these models were assessed using standard methods. RESULTS: All 645 consecutive pregnant women were enrolled in the two sites. Among these women 32.4% presented at least one STD. The major STDs were: trichomoniasis (14%), bacterial vaginosis (13%), recent syphilis (3.6%), chlamydial infection (3.1%), genital warts (3%), gonococcal infection (1.6%) and genital ulcer (0.8%). Prevalence of vaginal candidiasis was 14%. The use of a risk marker (length of relationship with regular sexual partner < 3 years), and the positivity +3 of the urine LET provided a sensitivity of 80% and a positive predictive value of 7% for the screening of gonococcal and/or chlamydial infection. If clinical signs and positivity of the urine LET were taken into account sensitivity and positive predictive value of trichomoniasis and/or bacterial vaginosis screening were 77% and 37%, respectively. Clinical signs and positivity of the urine LET showed a low sensitivity (23%) for screening vaginal candidiasis. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of STDs in pregnant women is high in urban

  12. Malnutrition determinants in young children from Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Beiersmann, Claudia; Bermejo Lorenzo, Justo; Bountogo, Mamadou; Tiendrébeogo, Justin; Gabrysch, Sabine; Yé, Maurice; Jahn, Albrecht; Müller, Olaf

    2013-10-01

    Childhood malnutrition remains a major challenge to public health in poor countries. Data on malnutrition determinants in African children are scarce. A cross-sectional survey was performed in eight villages of Burkina Faso in June 2009, including 460 children aged 6-31 months. Demographic, socioeconomic, parasitological, clinical and anthropometric characteristics were collected. The main outcome variable was weight-for-length (WFL) z-score (i.e. wasting). A multiple regression model identified village, age group, religion and the presence of younger siblings as significantly associated with wasting. Villages differed in their mean WFL z-score by up to one unit. Compared with younger children, the mean WFL z-score of children aged 24-35 months was 0.63 units higher than the WFL z-score in younger children. This study confirms the still unacceptable high level of malnutrition in young children of rural West Africa and supports the fact that childhood malnutrition is a complex phenomenon highly influenced by contextual variables.

  13. Reference Ranges of Cholesterol Sub-Fractions in Random Healthy Adults in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Koumaré, Alice T. C. R. Kiba; Sakandé, Linda P. L.; Kabré, Elie; Sondé, Issaka; Simporé, Jacques; Sakandé, Jean

    2015-01-01

    In Burkina Faso, the values that serve as clinical chemistry reference ranges are those provided by European manufacturers’ insert sheets based on reference of the Western population. However, studies conducted so far in some African countries reported significant differences in normal laboratory ranges compared with those of the industrialized world. The aim of this study was to determine reference values of cholesterol fractions in apparently normal adults in Burkina Faso that could be used to better assess the risks related to cardiovascular diseases. Study population was 279 healthy subjects aged from 15 to 50 years including 139 men and 140 women recruited at the Regional Center of Blood Transfusion of Ouagadougou, capital city of Burkina Faso (West Africa). Exclusion criteria based on history and clinical examination were used for defining reference individuals. The dual-step precipitation of HDL cholesterol sub-fractions using dextran sulfate was performed according to the procedure described by Hirano. The medians were calculated and reference values were determined at 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles. The median and upper ranges for total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, total HDL cholesterol and HDL2 cholesterol were observed to be higher in women in comparison to men (p <0.05). These reference ranges were similar to those derived from other African countries but lower than those recorded in France and in USA. This underscores the need for such comprehensible establishment of reference values for limited resources countries. Our study provides the first cholesterol sub-fractions (HDL2 and HDL3) reference ranges for interpretation of laboratory results for cardiovascular risk management in Burkina Faso. PMID:25611320

  14. Pilot study on agricultural pesticide poisoning in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Ouedraogo, Mustapha; Ouedraogo, Richard; Ilboudo, Sylvain; Guissou, Pierre I.

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiologic data related to agricultural pesticide poisoning cases in Burkina Faso were collected. The study was carried out using retrospective (from January 2002 to June 2010) surveys conducted among farmers and healthcare centers. One hundred and fifty-three (153) pest control products were recorded during the survey and 56 active ingredients were identified. Out of the 153 pest control products, 49 (i.e. 32%) were authorized for sale in Burkina Faso. The main risk factors are socio-demographic characteristics of farmers, their low education level, and some attitudes and practices on using agricultural pesticides. Pesticide poisonings are relatively frequent and their management was not always efficacious. Actions are needed to reduce pesticide poisoning as a global public health problem and to improve management of pesticide poisoning. To this purpose, advanced investigations should be carried out over a longer period of time to complement the present pilot study. PMID:24678256

  15. Swarming behaviour in natural populations of Anopheles gambiae and An. coluzzii: review of 4 years survey in rural areas of sympatry, Burkina Faso (West Africa).

    PubMed

    Sawadogo, P S; Namountougou, M; Toé, K H; Rouamba, J; Maïga, H; Ouédraogo, K R; Baldet, T; Gouagna, L C; Kengne, P; Simard, F; Costantini, C; Gibson, G; Diabaté, A; Lees, R S; Gilles, J R L; Dabiré, K R

    2014-04-01

    The swarming behaviour of natural populations of Anopheles gambiae and An. coluzzii (formerly known as An. gambiae S and M forms, respectively) were investigated through longitudinal surveys conducted between July 2006 and October 2009 in two rural areas of south-western Burkina Faso where these forms are sympatric. In both sites, the majority of swarms were recorded above visual markers localised among houses. In Soumousso, a wooded area of savannah, 108 pairs caught in copula from 205 swarms were sampled; in VK7, a rice growing area, 491 couples from 250 swarms were sampled. If segregated swarms were the norm in both sites, many visual markers were shared by the two forms of An. gambiae. Furthermore, mixed swarms were collected annually in frequencies varying from one site to another, though no mixed inseminations were recorded, corroborating the low hybrid rate previously reported in the field. The occurrence of inter-specific mate-recognition mechanisms, which allow individuals to avoid hybridisation, is discussed.

  16. Understanding enrolment in community health insurance in sub-Saharan Africa: a population-based case-control study in rural Burkina Faso.

    PubMed Central

    De Allegri, Manuela; Kouyaté, Bocar; Becher, Heiko; Gbangou, Adjima; Pokhrel, Subhash; Sanon, Mamadou; Sauerborn, Rainer

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify factors associated with decision to enrol in a community health insurance (CHI) scheme. METHODS: We conducted a population-based case-control study among 15 communities offered insurance in 2004 in rural Burkina Faso. For inclusion in the study, we selected all 154 enrolled (cases) and a random sample of 393 non-enrolled (controls) households. We used unconditional logistic regression (applying Huber-White correction to account for clustering at the community level) to explore the association between enrolment status and a set of household head, household and community characteristics. FINDINGS: Multivariate analysis revealed that enrolment in CHI was associated with Bwaba ethnicity, higher education, higher socioeconomic status, a negative perception of the adequacy of traditional care, a higher proportion of children living within the household, greater distance from the health facility, and a lower level of socioeconomic inequality within the community, but not with household health status or previous household health service utilization. CONCLUSION: Our study provides evidence that the decision to enrol in CHI is shaped by a combination of household head, household, and community factors. Policies aimed at enhancing enrolment ought to act at all three levels. On the basis of our findings, we discuss specific policy recommendations and highlight areas for further research. PMID:17143458

  17. Monitoring Inland Water Turbidity: Contribution of SPOT5 Take5 to Health Hazard Monitoring in West Africa (Bagre Lake, Burkina Faso)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robert, Elodie; Grippa, Manuela; Kergoat, Laurent; Martinez, Jean-Michel; Pinet, Sylvain; Somdecoste, Tom; Gal, Laetitia

    2016-08-01

    Monitoring turbidity and Surface Suspended Sediment Concentration (SSSC) of inland waters in tropics is essential to assess human health risks, in particular the diarrheal disease risk. In this study, we explore the use of Spot5 time series acquired for the Spot5Take5 Program to monitor turbidity and SSSC on the Bagre Lake (Burkina Faso). Field measurements (turbidity, SSSC, radiometry) are used to evaluate different radiometric indices. The combination of the NIR with a visible band (R or G) is found to be the best suited to retrieve SSSC and turbidity from Spot5 images. Large differences between upstream and downstream areas of the lake are well capture by the Spot5 time series, with large difference in the seasonal maximum both for absolute values and timing. A large sediment transport is observed from upstream to downstream between June and September caused by surface runoff and erosion. The high turbidity values observed suggest that the associated health hazard is potentially high, especially at the beginning of the rainy season and in the upstream areas of the lake.

  18. Metabolomic and ecdysteroid variations in Anopheles gambiae s.l. mosquitoes exposed to the stressful conditions of the dry season in Burkina Faso, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Mamai, W; Mouline, K; Blais, C; Larvor, V; Dabiré, K R; Ouedraogo, G A; Simard, F; Renault, D

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the metabolic adjustments prompted by a switch between the rainy and dry season conditions in the African malaria mosquitoes Anopheles gambiae (M and S molecular forms) and Anopheles arabiensis. Mosquitoes were reared in contrasted experimental conditions reflecting environmental variation in Burkina Faso. Thirty-five metabolites (including sugars, polyols, and amino acids) were monitored in newly emerged males and females, and their ecdysteroid titers were determined. Metabolomic signatures were remarkably similar across species, when specimens of same age and sex were reared under identical experimental conditions. In males and females, amino acids (including glycine, leucine, phenylanine, serine, threonine, and valine) were accumulated in 1-h-old mosquitoes, then decreased 24 h after emergence, probably reflecting adult maturation and the amino acid-consuming process of cuticle sclerotisation. In turn, elevated amounts of alanine and proline in 24-h-old mosquitoes may assist the development of flight ability. Lower concentration of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates and isoleucine characterized older females reared under dry season conditions, suggesting metabolic and reproduction depression. In all cases, ecdysteroid concentration was much higher in males than in females, with significant seasonal variation in males. This might reflect a unique role of these hormones in shaping reproductive strategies and population demography in the An. gambiae s.l. species complex, further contributing to local adaptation in a highly fluctuating environment.

  19. Application of the material flow analysis method for evaluating strategic sanitation plan in Sub-Saharan Africa: the case of Fada N'Gourma-Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Yiougo, Lydie; Koanda, Halidou; Luethi, Christoph; Wéthé, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    In the context of rapid urbanization across Sub-Saharan Africa there is a critical need for more robust decision-making between different ways of providing sanitation services in existing and new peri-urban areas. In several countries, authorities tried to find solutions by developing strategies to address sanitation problems in the form of Strategic Sanitation Plans. In Burkina, Strategic Sanitation Plans have been elaborated and implemented since the 1990s. Fada N'Gourma, a secondary city in Burkina, also adopted a Strategic Plan for wastewater and excreta management in 2006. In this study we use material flow analysis as a decision making tool to verify technology options of the Plan. A model was developed and data was collected in order to assess material and nitrogen flows. The status quo situation was compared to scenario based on the proposals made in the Sanitation Plan. Results show that the technology options which were recommended improved human health in the short term. However, the options led to groundwater pollution in the medium term. Compared to the current situation, matter and nitrogen flows would increase by 7% and 7.4% respectively in groundwater. It is thus concluded that the proposed options will not achieve the Plan's stated objectives of environmental protection.

  20. Peacekeeping, a New Challenge for Burkina Faso’s Armed Forces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    political leaders about the role of the armed forces. This resulted in the lack of trust among the leadership. Second, there was a time when wrong analysis ...How is it to be used?” has been the goal of this analysis . Burkina Faso has elected to be a key player in the peace process in Africa. The use of...Wall, http://www.wsws.org/en/articles/2009/11per-n09html (accessed January 2, 2013.) 2 Francois Mitterand, “Le discours de la Baule », http

  1. Fear, guilt, and debt: an exploration of women’s experience and perception of cesarean birth in Burkina Faso, West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Richard, Fabienne; Zongo, Sylvie; Ouattara, Fatoumata

    2014-01-01

    Background This paper explores women’s experience and perception of cesarean birth in Burkina Faso and its social and economic implications within the household. Methods Five focus groups comprising mothers or pregnant women were conducted among residents of Bogodogo Health District in Ouagadougou to assess the perceptions of cesarean section (CS) by women in the community. In addition, 35 individual semistructured interviews were held at the homes of women who had just undergone CS in the referral hospital, and were conducted by an anthropologist and a midwife. Results Home visits to women with CS identified common fears about the procedure, such as “once you have had a CS, you will always have to deliver by CS”. The central and recurring theme in the interviews was communication between patients and care providers, ie, women were often not informed of the imminence of CS in the delivery room. Information given by health care professionals was often either not explicit enough or not understood. The women received insufficient information about postoperative personal hygiene, diet, resumption of sexual activity, and contraception. Overall, analysis of the experiences of women who had undergone CS highlighted feelings of guilt in the aftermath of CS. Other concerns included the feeling of not being a “good mother” who can give birth normally, alongside concerns about needing a CS in future pregnancies, the high costs that this might incur for their households, general fatigue, and possible medical complications after surgery. Conclusion Poor quality of care and the economic burden of CS place women in a multifaceted situation of vulnerability within the family. CS has a medical, emotional, social, and economic impact on poor African women that cannot be ignored. Managers of maternal health programs need to understand women’s perceptions of CS so as to overcome existing barriers to this life-saving procedure. PMID:24851057

  2. Rotavirus in diarrheal children in rural Burkina Faso: high prevalence of genotype G6P[6].

    PubMed

    Nordgren, Johan; Bonkoungou, Isidore Juste O; Nitiema, Leon W; Sharma, Sumit; Ouermi, Djeneba; Simpore, Jacques; Barro, Nicolas; Svensson, Lennart

    2012-12-01

    Group A rotavirus (RVA) is the most common cause of severe gastroenteritis in young children globally, and responsible for a significant number of deaths in African countries. While vaccines are available, trials have shown a lesser efficacy in Africa. One of the reasons could be the prevalence and/or emergence of unusual or novel RVA strains, as many strains detected in African countries remain uncharacterized. In this study, we characterized RVA positive specimens from two remote rural areas in Burkina Faso, West Africa. In total 56 RVA positive specimens were subgrouped by their VP6 gene, and G-and P typed by PCR and/or sequencing of the VP7 and VP4 genes, respectively. Notably, we found a high prevalence of the unusual G6P[6]SGI strains (23%). It was the second most common constellation after G9P[8]SGII (32%); and followed by G1P[8]SGII (20%) and G2P[4]SGI (9%). We also detected a G8P[6]SGI strain, for the first time in Burkina Faso. The intra-genetic diversity was high for the VP4 gene with two subclusters within the P[8] genotype and three subclusters within the P[6] genotype which were each associated with a specific G-type, thereby suggesting a genetic linkage. The G6P[6]SGI and other SGI RVA strains infected younger children as compared to SGII strains (p<0.05). To conclude, in this study we observed the emergence of unusual RVA strains and high genetic diversity of RVA in remote rural areas of Burkina Faso. The results highlight the complexity of RVA epidemiology which may have implication for the introduction of rotavirus vaccines currently being evaluated in many African countries.

  3. Measuring women's perceived ability to overcome barriers to healthcare seeking in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In sub-Saharan Africa, women must overcome numerous barriers when they need modern healthcare. Respect of gender norms within the household and the community may still influence women's ability to obtain care. A lack of gender-sensitive instruments for measuring women's ability to overcome barriers compromises attempts to adequately quantify the burden and risk of exclusion they face when seeking modern healthcare. The aim of this study was to create and validate a synthetic measure of women's access to healthcare from a publicly available and possibly internationally comparable population-based survey. Method Seven questionnaire items from the Burkina Faso 2003 DHS were combined to create the index. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was used to test the reliability of the index. Exploratory factor analyses (EFA) and confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) were applied to evaluate the factorial structure and construct validity of the index while taking into account the hierarchical structure of the data. Results The index has a Cronbach's alpha of 0.75, suggesting adequate reliability. In EFA, three correlated factors fitted the data best. In CFA, the construct of perceived ability to overcome barriers to healthcare seeking emerged as a second-order latent variable with three domains: socioeconomic barriers, geographical barriers and psychosocial barriers. Model fit indices support the index's global validity for women of reproductive age in Burkina Faso. Evidence for construct validity comes from the finding that women's index scores increase with household living standard. Conclusion The DHS items can be combined into a reliable and valid, gender-sensitive index quantifying reproductive-age women's perceived ability to overcome barriers to healthcare seeking in Burkina Faso. The index complies conceptually with the sector-cross-cutting capability approach and enables measuring directly the perceived access to healthcare. Therefore it can help to improve the

  4. Beating back the desert: the case of Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Sanou, L R

    1993-01-01

    The views of a geographer, agricultural scientist, and women's activist focused on the importance of improving women's status and involvement in development. Women in Burkina Faso have shown an ability to organize themselves, but there was insufficient coordination among aid organizations. Researchers and development professionals must broaden and deepen their knowledge about climate, farming methods and traditional natural resource management methods, and women's concerns and occupations. Women need to be engaged in the planning and implementation of natural resource management strategies and in learning about appropriate training and information dissemination methods. The expertise in environmental disciplines is concentrated in developed nations and is needed by Sahelian women. Burkina's environment is replete with droughts, lack of forested areas, and dependence on subsistence farming. Famine and mass migration of men to urban areas have left women in poverty. Women must work 14-16 hours a day to provide food for their families and help husbands with cash crops. About 25% of women die from malnutrition, anemia, repeated pregnancies, malaria, and overexertion, as reported in a 1987 UNICEF study. The literature on women in Burkina Faso has focused only on broad issues of women's status. The few studies of local conditions conducted on a small scale by nongovernmental organizations have revealed that women were 60-80% of the labor force on anti-desertification projects. Women's overwhelming work load prevented even greater participation in environmental protection. Property laws gave land titles to men or the state. Women's groups have set up cereal banks, village pharmacies, and other self help projects pertaining to health, the environment, and agriculture. Women in development individual programs have not sufficiently integrated women and programs were archaic and dispersed. Environmental enforcement was limited.

  5. Distribution and Prevalence of Parasitic Nematodes of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Sawadogo, A; Thio, B; Kiemde, S; Drabo, I; Dabire, C; Ouedraogo, J; Mullens, T R; Ehlers, J D; Roberts, P A

    2009-06-01

    A comprehensive survey of the plant parasitic nematodes associated with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) production fields was carried out in the three primary agro-climatic zones of Burkina Faso in West Africa. Across the three zones, a total of 109 samples were collected from the farms of 32 villages to provide a representative coverage of the cowpea production areas. Samples of rhizosphere soil and samples of roots from actively growing cowpea plants were collected during mid- to late-season. Twelve plant-parasitic nematode genera were identified, of which six appeared to have significant parasitic potential on cowpea based on their frequency and abundance. These included Helicotylenchus, Meloidogyne, Pratylenchus, Scutellonema, Telotylenchus, and Tylenchorhynchus. Criconemella and Rotylenchulus also had significant levels of abundance and frequency, respectively. Of the primary genera, Meloidogyne, Pratylenchus, and Scutellonema contained species which are known or suspected to cause losses of cowpea yield in other parts of the world. According to the prevalence and distribution of these genera in Burkina Faso, their potential for damage to cowpea increased from the dry Sahelian semi-desert zone in the north (annual rainfall < 600 mm/year), through the north-central Soudanian zone (annual rainfall of 600-800 mm/year), to the wet Soudanian zone (annual rainfall ≥ 1000 mm) in the more humid south-western region of the country. This distribution trend was particularly apparent for the endoparasitic nematode Meloidogyne and the migratory endoparasite Pratylenchus.

  6. [Strokes and hemoglobinopathies in Burkina Faso].

    PubMed

    Napon, C; Kaboré, A; Ouédraogo, M; Dravé, A; Lompo, L; Kaboré, J

    2012-01-01

    S and C hemoglobinopathies are a group of inherited blood disorders including sickle cell disease, characterized by the presence of abnormal S and C hemoglobins. They are common in tropical Africa. Stroke is a common complication of sickle cell disease. Studies of the relation between these two diseases are virtually nonexistent in sub-saharan Africa. Our work aimed to study the influence of these hemoglobinopathies on the onset of strokes in adults. This cross-sectional study took place from 1st December 2009 to 31st May 2010 at University Hospital Yalgado Ouedraogo. Out of 142 patients admitted to our neurology department during this period, 74 patients had had strokes. Their mean age was 55.9 years and their sex ratio 1.53. Ischemic strokes accounted for 57% of the total, followed by cerebral hemorrhage (39%). Forty-six patients (62%) were AA genotype, 27 (36%) patients had sickle cell trait (16 AC and 11 AS) and three patients were homozygous CC. This study showed a higher prevalence of hemoglobinopathies in patients with stroke than in the general population. Unlike heterozygous SC and homozygous SS forms, the existence of sickle cell trait in this population does not appear to increase the risk of onset of ischemic stroke but may reduce the age at onset of cerebral hemorrhage.

  7. Universal access to electricity in Burkina Faso: scaling-up renewable energy technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moner-Girona, M.; Bódis, K.; Huld, T.; Kougias, I.; Szabó, S.

    2016-08-01

    This paper describes the status quo of the power sector in Burkina Faso, its limitations, and develops a new methodology that through spatial analysis processes with the aim to provide a possible pathway for universal electricity access. Following the SE4All initiative approach, it recommends the more extensive use of distributed renewable energy systems to increase access to electricity on an accelerated timeline. Less than 5% of the rural population in Burkina Faso have currently access to electricity and supply is lacking at many social structures such as schools and hospitals. Energy access achievements in Burkina Faso are still very modest. According to the latest SE4All Global Tracking Framework (2015), the access to electricity annual growth rate in Burkina Faso from 2010 to 2012 is 0%. The rural electrification strategy for Burkina Faso is scattered in several electricity sector development policies: there is a need of defining a concrete action plan. Planning and coordination between grid extension and the off-grid electrification programme is essential to reach a long-term sustainable energy model and prevent high avoidable infrastructure investments. This paper goes into details on the methodology and findings of the developed Geographic Information Systems tool. The aim of the dynamic planning tool is to provide support to the national government and development partners to define an alternative electrification plan. Burkina Faso proves to be paradigm case for the methodology as its national policy for electrification is still dominated by grid extension and the government subsidising fossil fuel electricity production. However, the results of our analysis suggest that the current grid extension is becoming inefficient and unsustainable in order to reach the national energy access targets. The results also suggest that Burkina Faso’s rural electrification strategy should be driven local renewable resources to power distributed mini-grids. We find that

  8. Barriers to Cervical Cancer Screening in Burkina Faso: Needs for Patient and Professional Education.

    PubMed

    Compaore, Salomon; Ouedraogo, Charlemagne M R; Koanda, Seni; Haynatzki, Gleb; Chamberlain, Robert M; Soliman, Amr S

    2016-12-01

    rates. Organized patient and professional education programs in gynecologic services are warranted for improving screening in Burkina Faso and other low-resource countries in Africa.

  9. Toward a Better Representation of Women in Physics in Burkina Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafando, P.; Sido-Pabyam, M. N.; Zerbo, I.

    2009-04-01

    Although 52% of Burkina Faso's population is women, boys receive preference in schooling. In 2006, only about 10% of the secondary school pupils were girls. At the University of Ouagadougou in 2000-2005 one quarter of the students were women, but just 5% of students in the sciences were women. This rate is dramatically lower in physics, both for the students (less than 1%) and for the teachers (only two women). This condition can be explained by religious and cultural considerations, financial and economic reasons, social pressure (mathematics, physics, and technology are dedicated to men), and future prospects for scientists in Burkina Faso. Some strategies to better feminize physics (and the sciences) in Burkina Faso are presented.

  10. Updating the Northern Tsetse Limit in Burkina Faso (1949–2009): Impact of Global Change

    PubMed Central

    Courtin, Fabrice; Rayaissé, Jean-Baptiste; Tamboura, Issa; Serdébéogo, Oumar; Koudougou, Zowindé; Solano, Philippe; Sidibé, Issa

    2010-01-01

    The northern distribution limit of tsetse flies was updated in Burkina Faso and compared to previous limits to revise the existing map of these vectors of African trypanosomiases dating from several decades ago. From 1949 to 2009, a 25- to 150-km shift has appeared toward the south. Tsetse are now discontinuously distributed in Burkina Faso with a western and an eastern tsetse belt. This range shift can be explained by a combination of decreased rainfall and increased human density. Within a context of international control, this study provides a better understanding of the factors influencing the distribution of tsetse flies. PMID:20617055

  11. [Smoking in students in secondary schools in Burkina Faso].

    PubMed

    Sondo, B; Testa, J; Soura, Y

    1996-10-01

    A multi-centre enquiry in 12 of 30 provinces of Burkina Faso was carried out to study smoking in pupils at secondary schools. The prevalence of smoking was 13.6 per cent. Amongst the smokers, occasional smoking was the most common, involving 62 per cent. Boys smoked more than girls. The average age of starting smoking was early, at 13.4 years. The majority of smokers consumed less than five cigarettes a day and the favourite place for consumption was the home of their parents or guardian and at school. The determinants of school smokers were above all environmental: the influence of friends and advertising. The students showed a good knowledge of the harmful effects of smoking. This knowledge was linked to their educational level and to their status as a smoker or non-smoker. The proportion of pupils who had obtained good results in the term which preceded the enquiry was more significant amongst the non-smokers than amongst the smokers. An awareness of the significance of smoking amongst pupils by their parents, guardians and teachers involves health education and rigorous legislative measures on advertising and these would contribute to some reduction in the extent of the phenomenon in educational establishments.

  12. Benefits of meeting women's contraceptive needs in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Vlassoff, Michael; Sundaram, Aparna; Bankole, Akinrinola; Remez, Lisa; Belemsaga-Yugbare, Danielle

    2011-01-01

    Many women and couples in Burkina Faso do not have the knowledge, means or support they need to protect their reproductive health and to have the number of children they desire. Consequently, many women have more children than they want or can care for. Others turn to induced abortion, which is overwhelmingly clandestine and potentially unsafe. By helping women and couples plan their families and have healthy babies, good reproductive health care--including sufficient access to contraceptive services--contributes directly to attaining three Millennium Development Goals (MDGs): reducing child mortality, improving maternal health, and combating HIV/AIDS. Improving contraceptive services may also make meeting other MDGs--such as achieving universal primary education, reducing endemic poverty and promoting women's empowerment and equality--easier and more affordable. This In Brief aims to chart a course toward better health for Burkinabe women and their families by highlighting the health benefits and cost savings that would result from improved contraceptive services. Building on prior work and using national data to provide estimates for 2009 (see box), it describes current patterns of contraceptive use and two hypothetical scenarios of increased use to quantify the net benefits to women and society that would result from helping women avoid pregnancies they do not want. We focus on the disability and deaths that would be averted and the financial resources that would be saved through preventing unintended pregnancy.

  13. Molecular characteristics and epidemiology of meningococcal carriage, Burkina Faso, 2003.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Judith E; Sangaré, Lassana; Njanpop-Lafourcade, Berthe-Marie; Tarnagda, Zekiba; Traoré, Yves; Yaro, Seydou; Borrow, Raymond; Gessner, Bradford D; Nicolas, Pierre

    2007-06-01

    To describe Neisseria meningitidis strains in the African meningitis belt in 2003, we obtained 2,389 oropharyngeal swabs at 5 monthly visits a representative population sample (age range 4-29 years) in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. A total of 152 carriage isolates were grouped, serotyped, and genotyped. Most isolates were NG:NT:NST sequence type (ST) 192 (63% of all N. meningitidis), followed by W135:2a:P1.5,2 of ST-11 (16%) and NG:15:P1.6 of ST-198 (12%). We also found ST-2881 (W135:NT:P1.5,2), ST-751 (X:NT:P1.5), and ST-4375 (Y:14:P1.5,2) but not serogroups A or C. Estimated average duration of carriage was 30 days (95% confidence interval 24-36 days). In the context of endemic group W135 and meningococcal A disease, we found substantial diversity in strains carried, including all strains currently involved in meningitis in this population, except for serogroup A. These findings show the need for large samples and a longitudinal design for N. meningitidis serogroup A carriage studies.

  14. Estimating abortion incidence in Burkina Faso using two methodologies.

    PubMed

    Sedgh, Gilda; Rossier, Clémentine; Kaboré, Idrissa; Bankole, Akinrinola; Mikulich, Meridith

    2011-09-01

    Abortion is illegal in Burkina Faso except in cases of incest, rape, fetal defect, or when the woman's life or physical health is endangered. As a result, abortion procedures are often conducted illegally and unsafely and measuring incidence proves difficult. We estimate incidence of abortion and associated morbidity using two methodologies. The first is the Abortion Incidence Complications Method (AICM), which uses information on women hospitalized for abortion-related complications as well as health professionals' assessments of the proportion of women who seek treatment for complications from unsafe abortions. The second is the Anonymous Third Party Reporting (ATPR) method, which entails surveying women about their confidantes' abortions. We conclude that the AICM yields a more accurate result. We estimate that 87,200 abortion procedures were carried out in 2008, representing 25 for every 1,000 women aged 15-49. More than one in four procedures resulted in complications treated at a health facility. The abortion rate estimated using the ATPR approach was 72 percent of that estimated with the AICM. The ATPR method yields information on the characteristics of the women who have abortions as well as the providers and methods they use.

  15. The Influence of Urbanization Modes on the Spatial Circulation of Flaviviruses within Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso)

    PubMed Central

    Fournet, Florence; Rican, Stéphane; Vaillant, Zoé; Roudot, Anna; Meunier-Nikiema, Aude; Kassié, Daouda; Dabiré, Roch K.; Salem, Gérard

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is an emerging infectious disease of global significance. Although this virus has been reported for a long time, its significance within the burden of diseases in West Africa is not obvious, especially in Burkina Faso. Our objective was to evaluate flavivirus presence in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso) and the link between anti-flavivirus antibody seroprevalence and urbanization modes. A population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted and 3015 children were enrolled from Ouagadougou districts with different types and degrees of urbanization (with/without equipment and high/low building density). Flavivirus (FLAV) IgM MAC-ELISA and FLAV indirect IgG ELISA were performed. Associations between FLAV IgG presence (sign of past infection) and various independent variables were assessed using the chi-square test and a multivariate logistic regression analysis. The apparent prevalence of past flavivirus infections among the enrolled children was 22.7% (95% CI: 22.4–26.7) (n = 685). Eleven children (0.4%; 95% CI: 0.61–2.14) were positive for FLAV IgM, indicating active transmission. Factors associated with flavivirus infection were identified among the enrolled children (age, sex), householders (educational level, asset index) and in the environment (building density, water access, waste management and house appearance); however, they showed great variability according to the city districts. The water access modality did not significantly influence FLAV IgG positivity. Conversely, apparently good practices of waste management had unexpected consequences (increased risk related to municipal dumpsters). Given the scale of ongoing urbanization and the spread of arboviral diseases, close collaboration between health and city stakeholders is needed. PMID:27973402

  16. The Influence of Urbanization Modes on the Spatial Circulation of Flaviviruses within Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso).

    PubMed

    Fournet, Florence; Rican, Stéphane; Vaillant, Zoé; Roudot, Anna; Meunier-Nikiema, Aude; Kassié, Daouda; Dabiré, Roch K; Salem, Gérard

    2016-12-10

    Dengue is an emerging infectious disease of global significance. Although this virus has been reported for a long time, its significance within the burden of diseases in West Africa is not obvious, especially in Burkina Faso. Our objective was to evaluate flavivirus presence in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso) and the link between anti-flavivirus antibody seroprevalence and urbanization modes. A population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted and 3015 children were enrolled from Ouagadougou districts with different types and degrees of urbanization (with/without equipment and high/low building density). Flavivirus (FLAV) IgM MAC-ELISA and FLAV indirect IgG ELISA were performed. Associations between FLAV IgG presence (sign of past infection) and various independent variables were assessed using the chi-square test and a multivariate logistic regression analysis. The apparent prevalence of past flavivirus infections among the enrolled children was 22.7% (95% CI: 22.4-26.7) (n = 685). Eleven children (0.4%; 95% CI: 0.61-2.14) were positive for FLAV IgM, indicating active transmission. Factors associated with flavivirus infection were identified among the enrolled children (age, sex), householders (educational level, asset index) and in the environment (building density, water access, waste management and house appearance); however, they showed great variability according to the city districts. The water access modality did not significantly influence FLAV IgG positivity. Conversely, apparently good practices of waste management had unexpected consequences (increased risk related to municipal dumpsters). Given the scale of ongoing urbanization and the spread of arboviral diseases, close collaboration between health and city stakeholders is needed.

  17. Carriage of Neisseria lactamica in 1- to 29-Year-Old People in Burkina Faso: Epidemiology and Molecular Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Kristiansen, Paul A.; Diomandé, Fabien; Ouédraogo, Rasmata; Sanou, Idrissa; Sangaré, Lassana; Ouédraogo, Abdoul-Salam; Ba, Absatou Ky; Kandolo, Denis; Dolan Thomas, Jennifer; Clark, Thomas A.; Préziosi, Marie-Pierre; LaForce, F. Marc

    2012-01-01

    Neisseria lactamica is a true commensal bacterium occupying the same ecological niche as the pathogenic Neisseria meningitidis, which is responsible for outbreaks and large epidemics, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. To better understand the epidemiology of N. lactamica in Africa and its relationship to N. meningitidis, we studied N. lactamica carriage in 1- to 29-year-old people living in three districts of Burkina Faso from 2009 to 2011. N. lactamica was detected in 18.2% of 45,847 oropharyngeal samples. Carriage prevalence was highest among the 2-year-olds (40.1%) and decreased with age. Overall prevalence was higher for males (19.1%) than females (17.5%) (odds ratio [OR], 1.11; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04 to 1.18), while among the 18- to 29-year-olds, carriage prevalence was significantly higher in women (9.1%) than in men (3.9%) (OR, 2.49; 95% CI, 1.94 to 3.19). Carriage prevalence of N. lactamica was remarkably homogeneous in the three districts of Burkina Faso and stable over time, in comparison with carriage of N. meningitidis (P. A. Kristiansen et al., Clin. Vaccine Immunol. 18:435–443, 2011). There was no significant seasonal variation of N. lactamica carriage and no significant change in carriage prevalence after introduction of the serogroup A meningococcal conjugate vaccine, MenAfriVac. Multilocus sequence typing was performed on a selection of 142 isolates. The genetic diversity was high, as we identified 62 different genotypes, of which 56 were new. The epidemiology of N. lactamica carriage and the molecular characteristics of carried isolates were similar to those reported from industrialized countries, in contrast to the particularities of N. meningitidis carriage and disease epidemiology in Burkina Faso. PMID:23035186

  18. Carriage of Neisseria lactamica in 1- to 29-year-old people in Burkina Faso: epidemiology and molecular characterization.

    PubMed

    Kristiansen, Paul A; Diomandé, Fabien; Ouédraogo, Rasmata; Sanou, Idrissa; Sangaré, Lassana; Ouédraogo, Abdoul-Salam; Ba, Absatou Ky; Kandolo, Denis; Dolan Thomas, Jennifer; Clark, Thomas A; Préziosi, Marie-Pierre; Laforce, F Marc; Caugant, Dominique A

    2012-12-01

    Neisseria lactamica is a true commensal bacterium occupying the same ecological niche as the pathogenic Neisseria meningitidis, which is responsible for outbreaks and large epidemics, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. To better understand the epidemiology of N. lactamica in Africa and its relationship to N. meningitidis, we studied N. lactamica carriage in 1- to 29-year-old people living in three districts of Burkina Faso from 2009 to 2011. N. lactamica was detected in 18.2% of 45,847 oropharyngeal samples. Carriage prevalence was highest among the 2-year-olds (40.1%) and decreased with age. Overall prevalence was higher for males (19.1%) than females (17.5%) (odds ratio [OR], 1.11; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04 to 1.18), while among the 18- to 29-year-olds, carriage prevalence was significantly higher in women (9.1%) than in men (3.9%) (OR, 2.49; 95% CI, 1.94 to 3.19). Carriage prevalence of N. lactamica was remarkably homogeneous in the three districts of Burkina Faso and stable over time, in comparison with carriage of N. meningitidis (P. A. Kristiansen et al., Clin. Vaccine Immunol. 18:435-443, 2011). There was no significant seasonal variation of N. lactamica carriage and no significant change in carriage prevalence after introduction of the serogroup A meningococcal conjugate vaccine, MenAfriVac. Multilocus sequence typing was performed on a selection of 142 isolates. The genetic diversity was high, as we identified 62 different genotypes, of which 56 were new. The epidemiology of N. lactamica carriage and the molecular characteristics of carried isolates were similar to those reported from industrialized countries, in contrast to the particularities of N. meningitidis carriage and disease epidemiology in Burkina Faso.

  19. Politics of Language: The Struggle for Power in Schools in Mali and Burkina Faso

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kone, A'ame

    2010-01-01

    Power can be equated to the possession of a particular language used to navigate the world. In Mali and Burkina Faso, two former colonies of France, language choice for instruction in mainstream primary schools remains a struggle between the powerful and the powerless. Fifty years after independence from France, both countries continue to…

  20. Genetic characterization of HPAI (H5N1) viruses from poultry and wild vultures, Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Ducatez, Mariette F; Tarnagda, Zekiba; Tahita, Marc C; Sow, Adama; de Landtsheer, Sebastien; Londt, Brandon Z; Brown, Ian H; Osterhaus, D M E; Fouchier, Ron A M; Ouedraogo, Jean-Bosco B; Muller, Claude P

    2007-04-01

    Genetic analysis of highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1) viruses from poultry and hooded vultures in Burkina Faso shows that these viruses belong to 1 of 3 sublineages initially found in Nigeria and later in other African countries. Hooded vultures could potentially be vectors or sentinels of influenza subtype H5N1, as are cats and swans elsewhere.

  1. High Contribution of Gallery Forests to Local Evaporation in Semi-Arid Burkina Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceperley, N. C.; Mande, T.; Tyler, S. W.; Van De Giesen, N.; Rinaldo, A.; Parlange, M. B.

    2014-12-01

    Management of the hydrologic cycle is critical to the primary livelihood of a large part of semi-arid West Africa's primary livelihood, rain-fed farming. We use flux measurements from an eddy-covariance station coupled with a dense network of small wireless meteorological stations to examine the relationship between land surface properties (albedo, soil moisture, and roughness) and evapotranspiration in a small (3.5 km2) catchment in Burkina Faso, West Africa. The catchment is a matrix of savanna and agricultural land maintained under various regimes, providing a comparison of multiple land use types of Sudanian Wooded Savanna including a canyon gallery forest, agroforestry parklands, occasionally grazed semi-open savanna, a semi-closed wooded slope, fallow fields, rice paddies, and ephemeral wetlands. By filtering out times when dry air was entrained, we demonstrate the small control of soil moisture and vegetation on the evaporative fraction, which was not initially visible. Additionally we document the high contribution of the gallery forest to the the catchment evaporation, despite its small size. These small meteorological stations could be paired with currently available satellite data to calculate evaporation over a much larger area, even when eddy-covariance equipment is not available. These findings reinforce local cultural beliefs of the importance of gallery forests for climate regulation and may provide tools to key local decision makers, rural farmers.

  2. Primary health care and donor dependency: a case study of nongovernment assistance in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Maclure, R

    1995-01-01

    Primary health care assistance has become prominent in the rural development programs of many nongovernment organizations throughout sub-Saharan Africa. By emphasizing education and the promotion of new participatory health systems, most such programs aim to enhance the conditions of women as principal community care givers. Yet village-level health assistance in Africa is not without shortcomings. This is exemplified in a case study of two nongovernment programs in Burkina Faso's Namentenga Province. Although both programs have contributed to maternal health and infant survival, they have also induced new ties of donor dependency. This appears to present a conundrum for the sponsoring agencies which espouse self-reliance as a development assistance goal. In fact, however, where the intervention of nongovernment organizations helps to improve rural health, new dimensions of dependency may prove to be a positive first stage in the mobilization of women and the development of locally managed health systems. For this to be so, much is contingent on the capacity of these organizations to integrate local participation in their own planning and management processes, and to augment the professional status of indigenous health workers.

  3. Environmental changes and microbiological health risks. Satellite-derived turbidity: an indicator of "health hazard" for surface water in West Africa (Bagre lake, Burkina Faso).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robert, E.; Grippa, M.; Kergoat, L.; Martinez, J.; Pinet, S.; Gal, L.; Soumaguel, N.

    2015-12-01

    A significant correlation exists between the concentration of parasites, bacteria and some water quality parameters including surface suspended solids (SSS) and turbidity. Suspended particles can carry viruses and pathogenic bacteria affecting human health and foster their development. High SSS, associated with high turbidity, can therefore be considered as a vector of microbiological contaminants, causing diarrheal diseases. Few studies have focused on the turbidity parameter in rural Africa, while many cases of intestinal parasitic infections are due to the consumption of unsafe water from ponds, lakes, and rivers. Monitoring turbidity may therefore contribute to health hazard monitoring. Turbidity refers to the optical properties of water and is known to impact water reflectance in the visible and near-infrared domain. Ideally, its spatial and temporal variability requires the use of high temporal resolution (MODIS) and spatial resolution (Landsat, SPOT, Sentinel-2). Here we investigate turbidity in West-Africa. Various algorithms and indices proposed in the literature for inland waters are applied to MODIS series and to Landsat 7 and 8 CDR images, and SPOT5 images. The data and algorithms are evaluated with field measurements: turbidity, SSS, and hyperspectral ground radiometry. We show that turbidity of the Bagre Lake displays a strong increase over 2000-2015, associated with the corresponding increase of the red and NIR reflectances, as well as a reduction of the seasonal variations. Water level derived from the Jason 2 altimeter does not explain such variations. The most probable hypothesis is a change in land use (increase in bare and degraded soils), that leads to an increase in the particles transported by surface runoff to the lake. Such an increase in turbidity reinforces the health risk. We will discuss the link between turbidity and health in view of data from health centers on diarrheal diseases as well as data on practices and uses of populations.

  4. Contrasting maternal and paternal histories in the linguistic context of Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Barbieri, Chiara; Whitten, Mark; Beyer, Klaus; Schreiber, Henning; Li, Mingkun; Pakendorf, Brigitte

    2012-04-01

    Burkina Faso is located in the heart of West Africa and is a representative of the local structured patterns of human variability. Here, different cultures and languages are found in a geographic contiguity, as a result of several waves of migration and the succession of long- and short-term empires. However, historical documentation for this area is only partial, focusing predominantly on the recent empires, and linguistic surveys lack the power to fully elucidate the social context of the contact-induced changes. In this paper, we report Y-chromosomal data and complete mtDNA genome sequences for ten populations from Burkina Faso whose languages belong to two very distantly related branches of the Niger-Congo phylum, the Gur and Mande language families. In addition, two further populations, the Mande-speaking Mandenka from Senegal and the Yoruba from Nigeria, were included for regional comparison. We focus on the different historical trajectories undergone by the maternal and paternal lineages. Our results reveal a striking structure in the paternal line, which matches the linguistic affiliation of the ethnolinguistic groups, in contrast to the near-complete homogeneity of the populations in the maternal line. However, while the ancient structure along the linguistic lines is apparent in the Y-chromosomal haplogroup affiliation, this has clearly been overlain by more recent migrations, as shown by significant correlations between the genetic distances based on Y chromosome short tandem repeats and geographic distances between the populations, as well as by the patterns of shared haplotypes. Using the complete mtDNA sequences, we are able to reconstruct population size variation in the past, showing a strong sign of expansion in the concomitance with the Holocene Climate Optimum approximately 12,000-10,000 years ago, which has been suggested as the cause of the spread of the Niger-Congo phylum in the area. However, subsequent climatic fluctuations do not appear to

  5. Serogroup A meningococcal conjugate vaccination in Burkina Faso: analysis of national surveillance data

    PubMed Central

    Novak, Ryan T; Kambou, Jean Ludovic; Diomandé, Fabien V K; Tarbangdo, Tiga F; Ouédraogo-Traoré, Rasmata; Sangaré, Lassana; Lingani, Clement; Martin, Stacey W; Hatcher, Cynthia; Mayer, Leonard W; LaForce, F Marc; Avokey, Fenella; Djingarey, Mamoudou H; Messonnier, Nancy E; Tiendrébéogo, Sylvestre R; Clark, Thomas A

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background An affordable, highly immunogenic Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A meningococcal conjugate vaccine (PsA–TT) was licensed for use in sub-Saharan Africa in 2009. In 2010, Burkina Faso became the first country to implement a national prevention campaign, vaccinating 11.4 million people aged 1–29 years. We analysed national surveillance data around PsA–TT introduction to investigate the early effect of the vaccine on meningitis incidence and epidemics. Methods We examined national population-based meningitis surveillance data from Burkina Faso using two sources, one with cases and deaths aggregated at the district level from 1997 to 2011, and the other enhanced with results of cerebrospinal fluid examination and laboratory testing from 2007 to 2011. We compared mortality rates and incidence of suspected meningitis, probable meningococcal meningitis by age, and serogroup-specific meningococcal disease before and during the first year after PsA–TT implementation. We assessed the risk of meningitis disease and death between years. Findings During the 14 year period before PsA–TT introduction, Burkina Faso had 148 603 cases of suspected meningitis with 17 965 deaths, and 174 district-level epidemics. After vaccine introduction, there was a 71% decline in risk of meningitis (hazard ratio 0.29, 95% CI 0.28–0.30, p<0.0001) and a 64% decline in risk of fatal meningitis (0.36, 0.33–0.40, p<0.0001). We identified a statistically significant decline in risk of probable meningococcal meningitis across the age group targeted for vaccination (62%, cumulative incidence ratio [CIR] 0.38, 95% CI 0.31–0.45, p<0.0001), and among children aged less than 1 year (54%, 0.46, 0.24–0.86, p=0.02) and people aged 30 years and older (55%, 0.45, 0.22–0.91, p=0.003) who were ineligible for vaccination. No cases of serogroup A meningococcal meningitis occurred among vaccinated individuals, and epidemics were eliminated. The incidence of laboratory

  6. Diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli detected by 16-plex PCR in children with and without diarrhoea in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Bonkoungou, I J O; Lienemann, T; Martikainen, O; Dembelé, R; Sanou, I; Traoré, A S; Siitonen, A; Barro, N; Haukka, K

    2012-09-01

    The importance of diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) in Africa is poorly understood, and is unknown in Burkina Faso. This study investigated the occurrence of five major DEC pathogroups in primary cultures of stool samples from 658 Burkinabe children under 5 years old using 16-plex PCR for virulence-associated genes. At least one DEC pathogroup was detected in 45% of 471 children with diarrhoea and in 29% of 187 children without diarrhoea (p <0.001). More than one DEC pathogroup was detected in 11% of children with and 1% of children without diarrhoea (p <0.001). Enteroaggregative E. coli was the most common pathogroup in both children with diarrhoea (26%) and children without diarrhoea (21%). Enteropathogenic E. coli and enterotoxigenic E. coli were detected significantly more often in children with diarrhoea (16% and 13%) than in children without diarrhoea (5% and 4%; p <0.001 for both pathogroups). Shiga toxin-producing E. coli and enteroinvasive E. coli were detected only in children with diarrhoea (2% and 1%, respectively). Diarrhoeagenic E. coli, especially enteropathogenic and enterotoxigenic, may be important, unrecognized causes of childhood diarrhoea in Burkina Faso.

  7. Diets of hartebeest and roan antelope in Burkina Faso: Support of the long-faced hypothesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schuette, J.R.; Leslie, David M.; Lochmiller, R.L.; Jenks, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    Diets of hartebeest (Alcelaphus buselaphus) and roan antelope (Hippotragus equinus) were assessed at the Nazinga Game Ranch in southern Burkina Faso, West Africa. Microhistological analysis of feces indicated that dietary overlap was high during the rainy (X?? = 73.7%) and cool-dry (68.2%) seasons, low during the hot-dry season (48.2%), and lowest during the last month of the hot-dry season (31.5%). As the hot-dry season progressed and food presumably became less available, diets of the two antelopes diverged. Hartebeest maintained a high percentage of grass in their diet, but roan antelope switched from being predominantly grazers (>95% grass) to mixed feeders (<50% grass). As grass feeders, both antelopes have skeletal features that facilitate acquisition and grinding of highly fibrous diets, but 11 of 12 mass-relative indices of the skull morphology of hartebeest exceeded those of roan antelope. Because of those differences in skull morphology, and in keeping with the "long-faced" hypothesis, hartebeest were apparently more capable than roan antelope of acquiring and masticating scarce regrowth of perennial grasses when availability of forage was lowest. Such divergence within a single foraging class of African bovids, such as grass feeders, should reduce competition and perpetuate coexistence.

  8. Community factors associated with malaria prevention by mosquito nets: an exploratory study in rural Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Okrah, Jane; Traoré, Corneille; Palé, Augustin; Sommerfeld, Johannes; Müller, Olaf

    2002-03-01

    Malaria-related knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) were examined in a rural and partly urban multiethnic population of Kossi province in north-western Burkina Faso prior to the establishment of a local insecticide-treated bednet (ITN) programme. Various individual and group interviews were conducted, and a structured questionnaire was administered to a random sample of 210 heads of households in selected villages and the provincial capital of Nouna. Soumaya, the local illness concept closest to the biomedical term malaria, covers a broad range of recognized signs and symptoms. Aetiologically, soumaya is associated with mosquito bites but also with a number of other perceived causes. The disease entity is perceived as a major burden to the community and is usually treated by both traditional and western methods. Malaria preventive practices are restricted to limited chloroquine prophylaxis in pregnant women. Protective measures against mosquitoes are, however, widespread through the use of mosquito nets, mosquito coils, insecticide sprays and traditional repellents. Mosquito nets are mainly used during the rainy season and most of the existing nets are used by adults, particularly heads of households. Mosquito nets treated with insecticide (ITN) are known to the population through various information channels. People are willing to treat existing nets and to buy ITNs, but only if such services would be offered at reduced prices and in closer proximity to the households. These findings have practical implications for the design of ITN programmes in rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA).

  9. Identification of dengue type 2 virus in febrile travellers returning from Burkina Faso to France, related to an ongoing outbreak, October to November 2016

    PubMed Central

    Eldin, Carole; Gautret, Philippe; Nougairede, Antoine; Sentis, Mélanie; Ninove, Laetitia; Saidani, Nadia; Million, Matthieu; Brouqui, Philippe; Charrel, Remi; Parola, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Dengue fever is rarely reported in travellers returning from Africa. We report two cases of dengue fever in travellers returning from Burkina Faso to France. One of them presented a severe dengue fever with ALT > 1,000 IU/L and pericarditis. Serotype 2 was identified. The cases reflect a large ongoing outbreak with over 1,000 reported cases between August and November in the capital city. Clinicians should consider dengue fever in malaria-negative febrile travellers returning from Africa. PMID:28006651

  10. Religious differences in female genital cutting: a case study from Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Hayford, Sarah R; Trinitapoli, Jenny

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between religious obligations and female genital cutting is explored using data from Burkina Faso, a religiously and ethnically diverse country where approximately three-quarters of adult women are circumcised. Data from the 2003 Burkina Faso Demographic and Health Survey are used to estimate multilevel models of religious variation in the intergenerational transmission of female genital cutting. Differences between Christians, Muslims, and adherents of traditional religions are reported, along with an assessment of the extent to which individual and community characteristics account for religious differences. Religious variation in the intergenerational transmission of female genital cutting is largely explained by specific religious beliefs and by contextual rather than individual characteristics. Although Muslim women are more likely to have their daughters circumcised, the findings suggest the importance of a collective rather than individual Muslim identity for the continuation of the practice.

  11. Re-Emerging Malaria Vectors in Rural Sahel (nouna, Burkina Faso): the Paluclim Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vignolles, Cécile; Sauerborn, Rainer; Dambach, Peter; Viel, Christian; Soubeyroux, Jean-Michel; Sié, Ali; Rogier, Christophe; Tourre, Yves M.

    2016-06-01

    The Paluclim project applied the tele-epidemiology approach, linking climate, environment and public health (CNES, 2008), to rural malaria in Nouna (Burkina Faso). It was to analyze the climate impact on vectorial risks, and its consequences on entomological risks forecast. The objectives were to: 1) produce entomological risks maps in the Nouna region, 2) produce dynamic maps on larvae sites and their productivity, 3) study the climate impact on malaria risks, and 4) evaluate the feasibility of strategic larviciding approach.

  12. Quality of Antenatal Care and Obstetrical Coverage in Rural Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Kameli, Y.; Capon, G.; Sondo, B.; Martin-Prével, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Improving maternal health is one of the Millennium Development Goals of the United Nations. Despite the efforts to promote maternal and neonatal care to achieve this goal, the use of delivery care remains below expectations in Burkina Faso. This situation raises the question of the quality of care offered in maternity wards. The aim of this study was to identify primary healthcare facility and antenatal care characteristics predictive of an assisted delivery in rural Burkina Faso. A cross-sectional study was carried out in Gnagna province (North-East Burkina Faso) in November 2003. The operational capacities of health facilities were assessed, and a non-participating observation of the antenatal care (ANC) procedure was undertaken to evaluate their quality. Scores were established to summarize the information gathered. The rate of professional childbirth (obstetrical coverage) was derived from the number of childbirths registered in the health facility compared to the size of the population. The established scores were related to the obstetrical coverage using non-parametric tests (Kendall). In total, 17 health facilities were visited, and 81 antenatal consultations were observed. Insufficiencies were observed at all steps of ANC (mean total score for the quality of ANC=10.3±3.0, ranging from 6 to 16, out of a maximum of 20). Health facilities are poorly equipped, and the availability of qualified staff remained low (mean total score for the provision of care was 22.9±4.2, ranging from 14 to 33). However, these scores were not significantly related to the rate of professional childbirth (tau Kendall=0.27: p=0.14 and 0.01, p=0.93 respectively). The ability of the primary health centres to provide good antenatal care remains low in rural Burkina Faso. The key factors involved in the limited use of professional childbirth relating to maternal health services may be the quality of ANC. PMID:20214088

  13. [Living conditions, nutritional status and morbidity in children in prisons and detention centers in Burkina Faso].

    PubMed

    Ye, D; Zoma, A; Kabore, A; Yonaba, C; Savadogo, H; Ouedraogo, S A P; Dao, L; Koueta, F

    2015-01-01

    In Burkina Faso, although children are sometimes separated from adults in prisons, they still live in the same conditions of overcrowding, which can reach 180% of the capacity. The aim of our study was to describe living conditions, nutritional status, and morbidity of children in detention centers of Burkina Faso. The objective of this cross-sectional descriptive study is to describe the social and health conditions of children held in 20 detention centers in Burkina Faso. During the study period, 109 children, with a mean age of 16.3 years, were examined in 20 correction centers. The main reason for incarceration was theft (66% cases, n = 72). Detention exceeded more than one month for 76 children (70%), and 59% (N = 46) had had fewer than one visit per month since their incarceration. Of these 20 facilities, 6 had no separate quarters for children. The main symptoms and diseases encountered in these children were fever in 19% of the cases (N = 16), macroscopic hematuria in 13% (N = 11), urinary tract infection in 12% (N = 10) and diarrhea in 12% (N = 10). These results show that there is a need to take preventive measures to protect these children's health, especially by improving the quality of living conditions in detention center.

  14. [Surveillance system for adverse events following immunization against yellow fever in Burkina Faso in 2008. Good practice recommendations].

    PubMed

    Yaméogo, T M; Breugelmans, J G; Kambou, J L; Badolo, O; Tiendrebéogo, S; Traoré, E; Avokey, F; Yactayo, S

    2009-08-01

    Yellow fever (YF) remains a public health problem in Africa. In 2007 and 2008, Togo, Senegal, Mali and Burkina Faso became the first countries to implement mass YF immunization campaigns within the framework of the Yellow Fever Initiative. The goal of this initiative led by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) with the support of The Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI) is to organize mass YF immunization campaigns in 12 African countries at high risk forYF transmission between 2006 and 2013. A total of 290 million USD have been allocated for vaccination of 180 million people with the highly effective attenuated 17DYF vaccine. Working in partnership with the WHO, the 12 member states are to identify and target high risk areas with the dual aim of preventing epidemics and increasing immunization coverage. Surveillance of adverse events following immunization (AEFI) is a mandatory component for organization of these campaigns. Purpose. The purpose of this article is to describe the AEFI surveillance system implemented in Burkina Faso in 2008. Methods. The strategy used in Burkina Faso was based on a combination of regular passive surveillance and active surveillance. General guidelines and related operational processes were established including reporting forms, investigation forms, and procedures for collection, storage and transport of biological specimens. Classification of cases was based on clearly defined criteria. Any patient meeting the defined criteria and requiring hospitalization was considered as a serious case. In addition to case definition criteria, serious cases were tracked according to presented signs and symptoms using a line-listing form at two university hospital centers in Ouagadougou and one regional hospital center. Emergency room admission records and patient charts were examined during the surveillance period (30 days after the end of the immunization campaign) and on

  15. Access to malaria treatment in young children of rural Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Effective and timely treatment is an essential aspect of malaria control, but remains a challenge in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa. The objective of this study was to describe young children's access to malaria treatment in Nouna Health District, Burkina Faso. Methods In February/March 2006, a survey was conducted in a representative sample of 1,052 households. Results Overall 149/1052 (14%) households reported the current possession of anti-malarial medicine, which was significantly associated with urban area, literacy of household head, having young children, and high socio-economic status. Out of a total of 802 children under five years, at least one malaria episode was reported for 239 (30%) within the last month. Overall 95% of children received treatment, either modern (72%), traditional (18%) or mixed (5%). Most of the medicines were provided as home treatment by the caregiver and half of children received some type of modern treatment within 24 hours of the occurrence of first symptoms. Despite a recent policy change to artemisinin-based combination therapy, modern anti-malarials consisted mainly of chloroquine (93%). Modern drugs were obtained more often from a health facility in localities with a health facility compared to those without (60% vs. 25.6%, p < 0.001). In contrast, beside informal providers, volunteer community health workers (CHW) were the main source of modern medicine in localities without a health centre (28% vs. 3%, p < 0.001). Conclusion Access to modern health services providing quality controlled effective combination therapies against malaria needs to be strengthened in rural Africa, which should include a re-investigation of the role of CHW 30 years after Alma Ata. PMID:19930680

  16. Re-greening the Sahel: farmer-led innovation in Burkina Faso and Niger

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reij, Chris; Smale, Melinda; Tappan, Gary; Spielman, David J.; Pandya-Lorch, Rajul

    2009-01-01

    The Sahel—the belt of land that stretches across Africa on the southern edge of the Sahara—has always been a tough place to farm. Rainfall is low and droughts are frequent. The crust of hard soil is, at times, almost impermeable, and harsh winds threaten to sweep away everything in their path. Over the past three decades, however, hundreds of thousands of farmers in Burkina Faso and Niger have transformed large swaths of the region’s arid landscape into productive agricultural land, improving food security for about 3 million people. Once-denuded landscapes are now home to abundant trees, crops, and livestock. Although rainfall has improved slightly from the mid-1990s relative to earlier decades, indications are that farmer management is a stronger determinant of land and agroforestry regeneration. Sahelian farmers achieved their success by ingeniously modifying traditional agroforestry, water, and soil-management practices. To improve water availability and soil fertility in Burkina Faso’s Central Plateau, farmers have sown crops in planting pits and built stone contour bunds, which are stones piled up in long narrow rows that follow the contours of the land in order to capture rainwater runoff and soil. These practices have helped rehabilitate between 200,000 and 300,000 hectares of land and produce an additional 80,000 tons of food per year. In southern Niger, farmers have developed innovative ways of regenerating and multiplying valuable trees whose roots already lay underneath their land, thus improving about 5 million hectares of land and producing more than 500,000 additional tons of food per year. While the specific calculations of farm-level benefits are subject to various methodological and data limitations, the order of magnitude of these benefits is high, as evidenced by the wide-scale adoption of the improved practices by large numbers of farmers. Today, the agricultural landscapes of southern Niger have considerably more tree cover than they

  17. [History of an epidemiological route between Ivory Coast and Burkina Faso: the case of the Koudougou sleeping sickness foci].

    PubMed

    Kiendrébéogo, D; Kambiré, R; Jamonneau, V; Lingué, K; Solano, P; Courtin, F

    2012-11-01

    In the first half of the XXth century, while Upper-Volta (now Burkina Faso) was suffering a terrible epidemic of sleeping sickness, the French colonial administration encouraged the movement of people from Upper-Volta to Ivory Coast to meet their demands for labour. This led to the establishment of Mossi villages, such as those of Koudougou, in the Ivorian forest with populations originating from areas of Upper-Volta that were not only densely populated but also severely affected by sleeping sickness. Since 2000, most cases of sleeping sickness in the Koudougou district of Burkina Faso have been in people originally from Ivory Coast. Who are they? Where did they settle in Burkina Faso? Where do they come from in Ivory Coast? After having retraced the epidemiological history of Koudougou villages in Burkina Faso and Ivory Coast, the history of ten cases of sleeping sickness detected passively at Koudougou hospital since 2000 were analysed. All cases originated from the forest area of Ivory Coast. Understanding the spread of sleeping sickness between Burkina Faso and Ivory Coast will assist in the identification of areas of disease risk.

  18. Rewards and challenges of providing HIV testing and counselling services: health worker perspectives from Burkina Faso, Kenya and Uganda.

    PubMed

    Bott, Sarah; Neuman, Melissa; Helleringer, Stephane; Desclaux, Alice; Asmar, Khalil El; Obermeyer, Carla Makhlouf

    2015-10-01

    The rapid scale-up of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing, counselling and treatment throughout sub-Saharan Africa has raised questions about how to protect patients' rights to consent, confidentiality, counselling and care in resource-constrained settings. The Multi-country African Testing and Counselling for HIV (MATCH) study investigated client and provider experiences with different modes of testing in sub-Saharan Africa. One component of that study was a survey of 275 HIV service providers in Burkina Faso, Kenya and Uganda that gathered quantifiable indicators and qualitative descriptions using a standardized instrument. This article presents provider perspectives on the challenges of obtaining consent, protecting confidentiality, providing counselling and helping clients manage disclosure. It also explores health workers' fear of infection within the workplace and their reports on discrimination against HIV clients within health facilities. HIV care providers in Burkina Faso, Kenya and Uganda experienced substantial rewards from their work, including satisfaction from saving lives and gaining professional skills. They also faced serious resource constraints, including staff shortages, high workloads, lack of supplies and inadequate infrastructure, and they expressed concerns about accidental exposure. Health workers described heavy emotional demands from observing clients suffer emotional, social and health consequences of being diagnosed with HIV, and also from difficult ethical dilemmas related to clients who do not disclose their HIV status to those around them, including partners. These findings suggest that providers of HIV testing and counselling need more resources and support, including better protections against HIV exposure in the workplace. The findings also suggest that health facilities could improve care by increasing attention to consent, privacy and confidentiality and that health policy makers and ethicists need to address some

  19. Schistosomiasis in school-age children in Burkina Faso after a decade of preventive chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Ouedraogo, Hamado; Drabo, François; Zongo, Dramane; Bagayan, Mohamed; Bamba, Issouf; Pima, Tiba; Yago-Wienne, Fanny; Toubali, Emily

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess the impact of a decade of biennial mass administration of praziquantel on schistosomiasis in school-age children in Burkina Faso. Methods In 2013, in a national assessment based on 22 sentinel sites, 3514 school children aged 7–11 years were checked for Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni infection by the examination of urine and stool samples, respectively. We analysed the observed prevalence and intensity of infections and compared these with the relevant results of earlier surveys in Burkina Faso. Findings S. haematobium was detected in 287/3514 school children (adjusted prevalence: 8.76%, range across sentinel sites: 0.0–56.3%; median: 2.5%). The prevalence of S. haematobium infection was higher in the children from the Centre-Est, Est and Sahel regions than in those from Burkina Faso’s other eight regions with sentinel sites (P < 0.001). The adjusted arithmetic mean intensity of S. haematobium infection, among all children, was 6.0 eggs per 10 ml urine. Less than 1% of the children in six regions had heavy S. haematobium infections – i.e. at least 50 eggs per 10 ml urine – but such infections were detected in 8.75% (28/320) and 11.56% (37/320) of the children from the Centre-Est and Sahel regions, respectively. Schistosoma mansoni was only detected in two regions and 43 children – i.e. 1 (0.31%) of the 320 from Centre-Sud and 42 (8.75%) of the 480 from Hauts Bassins. Conclusion By mass use of preventive chemotherapy, Burkina Faso may have eliminated schistosomiasis as a public health problem in eight regions and controlled schistosome-related morbidity in another three regions. PMID:26769995

  20. Effect of a policy to reduce user fees on the rate of skilled birth attendance across socioeconomic strata in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Langlois, Étienne V; Karp, Igor; Serme, Jean De Dieu; Bicaba, Abel

    2016-01-01

    Background. In Sub-Saharan Africa, maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality rates are associated with underutilization of skilled birth attendance (SBA). In 2007, Burkina Faso introduced a subsidy scheme for SBA fees. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Burkina Faso’s subsidy policy on SBA rate across socioeconomic status (SES) strata. Methods. We used a quasi-experimental design. The data sources were two representative surveys (n = 1408 and n = 1403) of women from Houndé and Ziniaré health districts of Burkina Faso, and a survey of health centres assessing structural quality of care. Multilevel Poisson regression models were used with robust variance estimators. We estimated adjusted rate ratios (RR) and rate differences (RD) as a function of time and SES. Results. For lowest-SES women, immediately upon the introduction of the subsidy policy, the rate of SBA was 45% higher (RR = 1.45, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.19–1.77) than expected in the absence of subsidy introduction. The results indicated a sustained effect after introduction of the subsidy policy, based on RR estimate (95% CI) of 1.48 (1.21–1.81) at 2 years. For middle-SES women, the RR estimates were 1.28 (1.09–1.49) immediately after introduction of the subsidy policy and 1.30 (1.11–1.51) at 2 years, respectively. For highest-SES women, the RR estimates were 1.19 (1.02–1.38) immediately after subsidy introduction and 1.21 (1.06–1.38) at 2 years, respectively. The RD (95% CI) was 14% (3–24%) for lowest-SES women immediately after introduction of the policy, and the effect was sustained at 14% (4–25%) at 2 years. Conclusion. Our study suggests that the introduction of a user-fee subsidy in Burkina Faso resulted in increased rates of SBA across all SES strata. The increase was sustained over time and strongest among the poorest women. These findings have important implications for evidence-informed policymaking in Burkina Faso and other

  1. Adapting to an innovation: Solar cooking in the urban households of Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toonen, Hilde M.

    Most households in Sub-Saharan Africa rely on wood as primary energy source. The availability of wood is decreasing and deforestation is a major ecological problem in Sub-Saharan Africa. The scarcity of wood is demanding for a sustainable solution. The sun seems to provide a good alternative. Solar energy is free, without unhealthy smoke or chances to burns. The idea of using solar energy for cooking is not new: many different techniques have already been tested. Most variants are expensive, and therefore not available for most families in Sub-Saharan Africa. A cheap solar cooking device is the CooKit, a cardboard panel cooker covered with aluminium foil. In the adaptation to the CooKit, as to all innovations, it is important that the users are convinced of the advantages. An important step in the adaptation process is learning how to use the cooking device; the best way to do this is by home practice. Monitoring and evaluating the real use is needed, for it is interesting to know if the CooKit is actually used, and also to find out how women have implemented the new technique in their kitchens. In 2005, the SUPO foundation started a project in Burkina Faso: Programme Energie Solaire Grand-Ouaga (PESGO). The aim of PESGO is to introduce the CooKit in the urban households in Ouagadougou by providing training sessions and home assistance. In this paper, a mid-term review on this small-scale cooking project is presented. The possibilities and challenges of solar cooking are outlined, taking the urban context of Ouagadougou in account. In PESGO, dependence on weather conditions is found to be one of the challenges: if sunrays are blocked by clouds or dust in the air, the cooking will be slowed down. The CooKit cannot replace firewood entirely, and a complementary element has to be found. SUPO is exploring the use of Jatropha oil as a complement to the CooKit. The Jatropha plant is drought tolerant and its fruits contain oil which can be used as fuel substitute. Further

  2. Health Providers’ Perceptions of Clinical Trials: Lessons from Ghana, Kenya and Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Angwenyi, Vibian; Asante, Kwaku-Poku; Traoré, Abdoulaye; Febir, Lawrence Gyabaa; Tawiah, Charlotte; Kwarteng, Anthony; Ouédraogo, Alphonse; Sirima, Sodiomon Bienvenue; Owusu-Agyei, Seth; Imoukhuede, Egeruan Babatunde; Webster, Jayne; Chandramohan, Daniel; Molyneux, Sassy; Jones, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Background Clinical trials conducted in Africa often require substantial investments to support trial centres and public health facilities. Trial resources could potentially generate benefits for routine health service delivery but may have unintended consequences. Strengthening ethical practice requires understanding the potential effects of trial inputs on the perceptions and practices of routine health care providers. This study explores the influence of malaria vaccine trials on health service delivery in Ghana, Kenya and Burkina Faso. Methods We conducted: audits of trial inputs in 10 trial facilities and among 144 health workers; individual interviews with frontline providers (n=99) and health managers (n=14); and group discussions with fieldworkers (n=9 discussions). Descriptive summaries were generated from audit data. Qualitative data were analysed using a framework approach. Results Facilities involved in trials benefited from infrastructure and equipment upgrades, support with essential drugs, access to trial vehicles, and placement of additional qualified trial staff. Qualified trial staff in facilities were often seen as role models by their colleagues; assisting with supportive supervision and reducing facility workload. Some facility staff in place before the trial also received formal training and salary top-ups from the trials. However, differential access to support caused dissatisfaction, and some interviewees expressed concerns about what would happen at the end of the trial once financial and supervisory support was removed. Conclusion Clinical trials function as short-term complex health service delivery interventions in the facilities in which they are based. They have the potential to both benefit facilities, staff and communities through providing the supportive environment required for improvements in routine care, but they can also generate dissatisfaction, relationship challenges and demoralisation among staff. Minimising trial related

  3. [Disclosure of infant HIV status: mothers' experiences and health workers' interpretations in Burkina Faso].

    PubMed

    Desclaux, Alice; Alfieri, Chiara

    2013-07-01

    Disclosure of HIV status in infants is a special case which does not correspond to general recommendations for counseling as defined for adults, and few norms exist. Whereas preventing mother to child transmission (PMTCT) programs should result in 700,000 annual disclosures regarding infants born to HIV-positive mothers in Africa, the actual figures are much lower and the conditions for disclosure implementation and its social dimensions in the field are not precisely documented. The aims of this article are to describe and analyze the experience of HIV status disclosure for infants and children on the basis of interviews held with mothers and PMTCT teams in Burkina Faso. The method was based on repeated interviews with 37 mothers and with health workers. Their discourses show the complexity of disclosure in a context characterized by uncertainty. They show delays due to difficulties in venipuncture and in methods for laboratory diagnosis and information management in health services. HIV disclosure is implemented by PMTCT physicians and also other professionals, sometimes in other services. The mother plays a key role, sometimes by requesting disclosure; the father is generally informed only secondarily, in spite of his legal responsibility for the child. Interactions analysis reveals some ambiguities of disclosure, regarding information that doctors keep secret, reciprocal expectations of communication between doctors and mothers, mothers' interpretation of apparent signs regarding their child's health, and uncertain information being given. The information often contains guilt-inducing elements for mothers; communication about follow-up does not reduce this effect. These results encourage the elaboration of a model for specific counseling that should provide mothers with general information, and personalized interaction and support that they need in order to receive and manage disclosure of their child's HIV status.

  4. Importance of Soil Moisture and Vegetation Cover for Energy Balance partition in Burkina Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceperley, N. C.; Mande, T.; Tyler, S. W.; Bou-Zeid, E.; Van De Giesen, N.; Parlange, M. B.

    2015-12-01

    Land surface characteristics are the main control on hydrologic processes, the driver of most livelihoods, in semi arid West Africa. We use the energy and water balance measured with two eddy-covariance towers, coupled with a dense network of small, wireless meteorological stations in a small (3.5 km2) catchment to understand these relationships. Time series of monthly averages of soil moisture, rainfall, air temperature, cloud cover, components of net radiation, wind speed, and NDVI are presented in relation to the evaporative fraction and energy balance. We found that both latent and sensible heat fluxes are greater over mixed forest and savanna areas compared agricultural land. Sensible heat is found to be most different between the two land-covers at the end of the year, when the grass and vegetation is dry, and latent heat is found to be most different at the beginning of the year, when bare ground dominates. Further examination shows that soil moisture and vegetation indexes provide the main controls on evaporative fraction. These findings have implications for modeling the evaporation over large regions based on remotely sensed land surface temperature. The site is characteristic of the contrasts in vegetation and moisture availability present in the rocky escarpments found in Northern Benin and Southeastern Burkina Faso. Historically these sites are important in location for village choice and land use designation. These findings reinforce local cultural beliefs of the importance of vegetation for climate regulation and may provide support to local farmers for improving the resilience of natural resources and livelihood security.

  5. Regolith landform mapping based on remote sensing data and airborne geophysics in Western Burkina Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metelka, Vaclav; Baratoux, Lenka; Jessell, Mark; Naba, Seta

    2010-05-01

    The Precambrian granite-greenstone belts of West Africa are currently of great interest both to scientific community as well as the exploration industry. Studying and observing the geology of these ancient terrains is not an easy task mainly due to complex, deep weathering, which effectively masks the underlying bedrock. It is the weathered regolith material and its landforms that can be directly accessed by surface mapping. Knowing the distribution of these regolith landform units and understanding the processes which led to their formation is crucial for any kind of successful geological mapping or geochemical exploration project. In our research we have focused on regolith units in the Houndé and Boromo greenstone belts in Western Burkina Faso. We examined three approaches to map regolith material and subsequently regolith landform units: subpixel classification, based on spectral characteristics of indicative materials, a polarimetric segmentation of radar data, and a classification of an integrated dataset of remote sensing data and airborne gamma-ray spectrometry data. In situ spectral measurements were used to calibrate ASTER and LANDSAT scenes and served as endmember identifiers. A spectral library has been created containing over three hundred unique spectral measurements. ASTER and Landsat data were classified using the Mixture tuned matched filtering method. Wishart supervised classifier was used on ALOS PALSAR data. Classifications based on supervised maximum likelihood method and neural networks have been applied to an integrated dataset which included SRTM elevation data and airborne gamma-ray spectrometry. Feruginous duricrusts rich in hematite and goethite, clay rich mottled zones relics and fluvial sediments were mapped successfully in the region. The results were compared with existing regolith landform maps and field observations.

  6. Reasons for attending dental-care services in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.

    PubMed Central

    Varenne, Benoît; Msellati, Philippe; Zoungrana, Célestin; Fournet, Florence; Salem, Gérard

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine why patients attend dental-care facilities in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso and to improve understanding of the capacity of oral health-care services in urban west Africa. METHODS: We studied a randomly selected sample of patients attending 15 dental-care facilities in Ouagadougou over a 1-year period in 2004. Data were collected using a simple daily record form. FINDINGS: From a total of 44,975 patients, the final sample was established at 14,591 patients, of whom 55.4% were new patients and 44.6% were "booking patients". Most patients seeking care (71.9%) were aged 15-44 years. Nongovernmental not-for-profit dental services were used by 41.5% of all patients, 36% attended private dental-care services, and 22.5% of patients visited public services. The most common complaint causing the patient to seek dental-care services was caries with pulpal involvement (52.4%), and 60% of all complaints were associated with pain. The patients' dental-care requirements were found to differ significantly according to sex, health insurance coverage and occupation. CONCLUSION: Urban district health authorities should ensure provision of primary health-care services, at the patients' first point of contact, which are directed towards the relief of pain. In addition to the strengthening of outreach emergency care, health centres should also contribute to the implementation of community-based programmes for the prevention of oral disease and the promotion of oral health. Exchange of experiences from alternative oral health-care systems relevant to developing countries is urgently needed for tackling the growing burden of oral disease. PMID:16211155

  7. Pest-managing activities of plant extracts and anthraquinones from Cassia nigricans from Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Georges, Kambou; Jayaprakasam, Bolleddula; Dalavoy, Sanjeev S; Nair, Muraleedharan G

    2008-04-01

    Insecticidal activity of eight plants collected from Burkina Faso was studied using mosquito (Ochlerotatus triseriatus), Helicoverpa zea and Heliothis virescens larvae and adult white fly (Bemisia tabaci). The n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Pseudocedrela kotschyi, Strophantus hispidus, Securidaca longepedunculata, Sapium grahamii, Swartzia madagascariensis, Cassia nigricans, Jatropha curcas and Datura innoxia were used in this study. Extracts were tested at 250 microg/mL concentration. All three extracts of C. nigricans, J. curcas (skin and seeds) and D. innoxia exhibited 100% mortality on fourth instar mosquito (O. triseriatus) larvae. In addition, the n-hexane and ethyl acetate extracts of S. hispidus, S. longepedunculata, S. grahamii showed 100% mortality. The ethyl acetate extract of S. madagascariensis was the most active on adult white fly and exhibited 80% mortality. Extracts of all other plants exhibited 30-50% mortality on B. tabaci. In the antifeedant assays against H. zea and H. virescens, the MeOH extracts of C. nigricans, S. madagascarensis and S. hispidus were more effective against H. zea as indicated by 74% larval weight reduction as compared to the control. Since C. nigricans is commonly used in West Africa to protect grain storage from insects, we have characterized the insecticidal components present in its extract. Bioassay directed isolation of C. nigricans leaf extract yielded anthraquinones emodin, citreorosein, and emodic acid and a flavonoid, luteolin. Emodin, the most abundant and active anthraquinone in C. nigricans showed approximately 85% mortality on mosquito larvae Anopheles gambiaea and adult B. tabaci at 50 and 25 microg/mL, respectively, in 24 h. These results suggest that the extract of C. nigricans has the potential to be used as an organic approach to manage some of the agricultural pests.

  8. A cost-effectiveness study of caesarean-section deliveries by clinical officers, general practitioners and obstetricians in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Hounton, Sennen H; Newlands, David; Meda, Nicolas; De Brouwere, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    Background The aim of this paper was to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of alternative training strategies for increasing access to emergency obstetric care in Burkina Faso. Methods Case extraction forms were used to record data on 2305 caesarean sections performed in 2004 and 2005 in hospitals in six out of the 13 health regions of Burkina Faso. Main effectiveness outcomes were mothers' and newborns' case fatality rates. The costs of performing caesarean sections were estimated from a health system perspective and Incremental Cost-Effectiveness Ratios were computed using the newborn case fatality rates. Results Overall, case mixes per provider were comparable. Newborn case fatality rates (per thousand) varied significantly among obstetricians, general practitioners and clinical officers, at 99, 125 and 198, respectively. The estimated average cost per averted newborn death (x 1000 live births) for an obstetrician-led team compared to a general practitioner-led team was 11 757 international dollars, and for a general practitioner-led team compared to a clinical officer-led team it was 200 international dollars. Training of general practitioners appears therefore to be both effective and cost-effective in the short run. Clinical officers are associated with a high newborn case fatality rate. Conclusion Training substitutes is a viable option to increase access to life-saving operations in district hospitals. The high newborn case fatality rate among clinical officers could be addressed by a refresher course and closer supervision. These findings may assist in addressing supply shortages of skilled health personnel in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:19371433

  9. [Does post-test counseling support PLHIV in disclosing their HIV status? Practices and propositions by counselors in Burkina Faso].

    PubMed

    Ky-Zerbo, Odette; Somé, Jean-François; Simaga, Fodé

    2013-07-01

    Disclosure of HIV test results is discussed during post-test counseling, following norms. However, while barriers to disclosing a positive HIV result have been documented, the literature is sparse on the way guidelines are applied in the field. The aim of this article is to describe and analyze counseling practices regarding HIV disclosure to 'significant others' (partner, family members, friends) reported by clients and providers of HIV voluntary counseling and testing in Burkina Faso. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in urban and rural areas in 2008 . A questionnaire incorporating semi-open questions was used. A total of 542 people who completed the test in 2007 and 111 service providers of HIV counseling and testing were interviewed. The data were analyzed using SPSS 12. Only 29% of those tested stated that disclosure to partner or family members was discussed with them during post-test counseling. This result is explained by providers' uncertainties and concerns regarding how to disclose, risks related to disclosure and adverse consequences of disclosure. Strategies are developed by counseling providers to support people who have been diagnosed HIV positive in disclosing to significant others, but they recognize that these actions are insufficient. Providers' suggestions are to keep fighting against the stigmatization of PLHIV, to improve counseling providers' competence in this area, and to adopt legal texts to make mandatory disclosure of the HIV result to partners. The study identified several ways to improve counseling practices regarding clients' disclosure of their HIV status in Burkina Faso. These findings could have significance for Africa as a whole.

  10. Clinical spectrum of rheumatologic diseases in a department of rheumatology in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso).

    PubMed

    Ouédraogo, Dieu-Donné; Ntsiba, Honoré; Tiendrébéogo Zabsonré, Joelle; Tiéno, Hervé; Bokossa, Laurelle I F; Kaboré, Fulgence; Drabo, Joseph

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study is to review over a period of 5 years the clinical spectrum of rheumatic diseases seen in a tertiary hospital in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. A retrospective study of case records was conducted from March 1, 2006 to March 30, 2011 in the Rheumatology service, Department of Internal Medicine of the University Hospital Yalgado Ouedraogo. Of the 4,084 patients seen, 2,381 were women (58.30%) and 1,703 were men (41.70%). The mean age at disease onset was 42.12 years, ranging from 3 to 92 years. Among the rheumatologic conditions, mechanical and degenerative disorders were the most common, found in 3,053 cases (74.76%). Among these cases, spinal pathology predominated, especially low back pain (19.93 %). The frequency of osteoarthritis was 19.70 % (804 cases) with a predominance of knee osteoarthritis (657 cases). Infectious pathology was dominated by osteoarticular tuberculosis (48 cases), particularly Pott's disease (43.68% of infectious diseases). Among the cases of inflammatory arthritides, rheumatoid arthritis was the leading cause (116 cases or 2.84%). It was followed by spondyloarthropathies in which arthritis related to HIV predominated (21 out of 81 cases). Metabolic diseases were mainly represented by the gout (162 cases or 3.96%) with male predominance. Comorbidities included high blood pressure (46.57%), diabetes mellitus (13.78%), hemoglobinopathies (9.66%), epigastric pain (7.25%), and peptic ulcer confirmed by endoscopy (6.75%). Rheumatology in Burkina Faso is booming. The profile of rheumatologic diseases in Burkina Faso, after 5 years of practice, confirms the diversity and importance of these conditions dominated by a degenerative pathology of the spine and limbs, including infectious diseases such as Pott's disease and the inflammatory and metabolic diseases.

  11. Climate change, renewable energy and population impact on future energy demand for Burkina Faso build environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouedraogo, B. I.

    This research addresses the dual challenge faced by Burkina Faso engineers to design sustainable low-energy cost public buildings and domestic dwellings while still providing the required thermal comfort under warmer temperature conditions caused by climate change. It was found base don climate change SRES scenario A2 that predicted mean temperature in Burkina Faso will increase by 2oC between 2010 and 2050. Therefore, in order to maintain a thermally comfortable 25oC inside public buildings, the projected annual energy consumption for cooling load will increase by 15%, 36% and 100% respectively for the period between 2020 to 2039, 2040 to 2059 and 2070 to 2089 when compared to the control case. It has also been found that a 1% increase in population growth will result in a 1.38% and 2.03% increase in carbon emission from primary energy consumption and future electricity consumption respectively. Furthermore, this research has investigated possible solutions for adaptation to the severe climate change and population growth impact on energy demand in Burkina Faso. Shading devices could potentially reduce the cooling load by up to 40%. Computer simulation programming of building energy consumption and a field study has shown that adobe houses have the potential of significantly reducing energy demand for cooling and offer a formidable method for climate change adaptation. Based on the Net Present Cost, hybrid photovoltaic (PV) and Diesel generator energy production configuration is the most cost effective local electricity supply system, for areas without electricity at present, with a payback time of 8 years when compared to diesel generator stand-alone configuration. It is therefore a viable solution to increase electricity access to the majority of the population.

  12. Seroprevalence of Fecal-Oral Transmitted Hepatitis A and E Virus Antibodies in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Traoré, Kuan Abdoulaye; Rouamba, Hortense; Nébié, Yacouba; Sanou, Mahamadou; Traoré, Alfred S.

    2012-01-01

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections occur chiefly as a result of unhygienic conditions. The purpose of this study was to assess the seroprevalence of antibodies to both viruses in central Burkina Faso in the absence of a recorded hepatitis epidemic. Serum samples from 178 blood donors (131 males and 47 females) and from 189 pregnant women were collected from November 2010 to March 2012, at blood banks and medical centers in Burkina Faso. An immunochromatography test was used to screen for Anti-HAV IgM and IgG in a subgroup of 91 blood donors and 100 pregnant women. The seroprevalence of anti-HAV IgG was 14.3% [CI95, 7.1–21.4%] for all blood donors and 23% [CI95, 14.8–31.2%] for pregnant women. Anti-HEV IgG were detected using the ELISA kits Dia.pro and Wantai and were found in 19.1% [CI95, 13.3–24.9%] of the blood donors and 11.6% [CI95, 7.1–16.2%] of the pregnant women. The seroprevalences of anti-HAV and anti-HEV IgGs did not differ significantly between men and women blood donors. Anti-HAV IgM was detected in 3.3% of the blood donors and in 2% of the pregnant women. These findings for asymptomatic individuals indicate that the HAV and HEV circulate at low but significant levels. This is the first evaluation of the acute hepatitis virus burden in Burkina Faso and the underlying epidemiologic status of the population. PMID:23110187

  13. Volcanic facies and preliminary geochemical observations of the Goren greenstone belt, Burkina Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Luke

    2013-04-01

    Volcanic facies and preliminary geochemical observations of the Goren greenstone belt, Burkina Faso L.F.H. Peters and K.A.A Hein School of Geosciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, Wits 2050, South Africa. The Goren Greenstone Belt (GGB) is a Palaeoproterozoic volcano-sedimentary belt situated in the northeast of Burkina Faso in the West African craton (WAC). Basalt is the main volcanic constituent of the GGB, specifically mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORBS), which have undergone pervasive greenschist facies metamorphism during at least 2 deformation including the Tangaean Event (2170-2130 Ma) and Eburnean Orogeny (2130-1980 Ma). Remarkably, many of the primary textures and minerals remain intact in less deformed regions of the GBB. Textural characteristics and petrographic analyses include aphyric and aphanitic textures, amygdales, hyaloclastic brecciation, pillow structures and preserved (chloritised) volcanic glass. Despite the ubiquitous presence of chlorite and epidote, plagioclase and clinopyroxene microlites are fairly common albeit altered. Phenocrysts (< 1 mm) of plagioclase and CPX are present in some samples but aphyric texture is dominant. These textures indicate that the basalts represent coherent units of sub-aqueous extrusion from a proximal volcanic facies setting relative to the original magma conduit. A repetitious succession of Fe-rich meta-siltstones, fine-grained, carbonaceous, Fe-rich exhalatives and volcaniclastic units is intercalated with the basalts. The volcaniclastic units contrast with the MORBs, which raises questions about the source region of the volcaniclastics. In hand sample, the volcaniclastic rocks show an array of various sized fragments, compared to the fine-grained nature of the MORBs. They are dominated by euhedral, zoned, brown volcanic hornblende, large (2.5-5 mm) euhedral plagioclase crystals, and sub-angular to rounded quartz grains in a poorly sorted volcanogenic sedimentary sequence. Due to the

  14. Host Genetic Factors Affect Susceptibility to Norovirus Infections in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Nordgren, Johan; Nitiema, Léon W.; Ouermi, Djeneba; Simpore, Jacques; Svensson, Lennart

    2013-01-01

    Norovirus (NoV) constitutes the second most common viral pathogen causing pediatric diarrhea after rotavirus. In Africa, diarrhea is a major health problem in children, and yet few studies have been performed regarding NoV. The association of histo-blood group antigens (HBGA) and susceptibility to NoV infection is well established in Caucasian populations with non-secretors being resistant to many common NoV strains. No study regarding HBGA and NoV susceptibility has yet been performed in Africa. We collected 309 stool and 208 saliva samples from diarrheal children in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso; May 2009 to March 2010. NoV was detected using real-time PCR, and genotyped by sequencing. Saliva samples were ABO, Lewis and secretor phenotyped using in house ELISA assays. NoV was detected in 12% (n = 37) of the samples. The genotype diversity was unusually large; overall the 37 positive samples belonged to 14 genotypes. Only children <2 years of age were NoV positive and the GII.4 NoVs were more frequent in the late dry season (Jan-May). NoV infections were observed less in children with the secretor-negative phenotype or blood group A (OR 0.18; p = 0.012 and OR 0.31; p = 0.054; respectively), with two non-secretors infected with genotypes GII.7 and GII.4 respectively. Lewis-negative (Lea−b−) children, representing 32% of the study population, were susceptible to GII, but were not infected with any NoV GI. GII.4 strains preferentially infected children with blood group B whereas secretor-positive children with blood group O were infected with the largest variety of genotypes. This is the first study identifying host genetic factors associated with susceptibility to NoV in an African population, and suggests that while the non-secretor phenotype provides protection; the Lewis b antigen is not necessary for GII infection. PMID:23894502

  15. Participatory Assessment of Development Interventions: Lessons Learned from a New Evaluation Methodology in Ghana and Burkina Faso

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pouw, Nicky; Dietz, Ton; Bélemvire, Adame; de Groot, Dieneke; Millar, David; Obeng, Francis; Rijneveld, Wouter; Van der Geest, Kees; Vlaminck, Zjos; Zaal, Fred

    2017-01-01

    This article presents the principles and findings of developing a new participatory assessment of development (PADev) evaluation approach that was codesigned with Dutch nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and northern and southern research institutes over a period of 4 years in the context of rural development in Ghana and Burkina Faso. Although…

  16. Maltreatment and Mental Health Outcomes among Ultra-Poor Children in Burkina Faso: A Latent Class Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ismayilova, Leyla; Gaveras, Eleni; Blum, Austin; Tô-Camier, Alexice; Nanema, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Research about the mental health of children in Francophone West Africa is scarce. This paper examines the relationships between adverse childhood experiences, including exposure to violence and exploitation, and mental health outcomes among children living in ultra-poverty in rural Burkina Faso. Methods This paper utilizes baseline data collected from 360 children ages 10–15 and 360 of their mothers recruited from twelve impoverished villages in the Nord Region of Burkina, located near the Sahel Desert and affected by extreme food insecurity. We used a Latent Class Analysis to identify underlying patterns of maltreatment. Further, the relationships between latent classes and mental health outcomes were tested using mixed effected regression models adjusted for clustering within villages. Results About 15% of the children in the study scored above the clinical cut-off for depression, 17.8% for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and 6.4% for low self-esteem. The study identified five distinct sub-groups (or classes) of children based on their exposure to adverse childhood experiences. Children with the highest exposure to violence at home, at work and in the community (Abused and Exploited class) and children not attending school and working for other households, often away from their families (External Laborer class), demonstrated highest symptoms of depression and trauma. Despite living in adverse conditions and working to assist families, the study also identified a class of children who were not exposed to any violence at home or at work (Healthy and Non-abused class). Children in this class demonstrated significantly higher self-esteem (b = 0.92, SE = 0.45, p<0.05) and lower symptoms of trauma (b = -3.90, SE = 1.52, p<0.05). Conclusions This study offers insight into the psychological well-being of children in the context of ultra-poverty in Burkina Faso and associated context-specific adverse childhood experiences. Identifying specific sub

  17. [Physicochemical composition of bottled drinking water marketed in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso)].

    PubMed

    Some, Issa Touridomon; Banao, Issouf; Gouado, Inocent; Tapsoba, Théophile Lincoln

    2009-01-01

    The bottled drinking water marketed in urban areas includes natural mineral water, spring water, and treated drinking water. Their physicochemical qualities depend on the type and quantity of their components and define their safe use. Bottled water is widely consumed in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso), and many brand names exist. Although many publications have examined the microbiological qualities of such water, no study has examined the physicochemical quality of water from Burkina Faso. This study, conducted from March 2005 through January 2006, aimed to assess the physicochemical composition of drinking water sold in Ouagadougou to facilitate better choices and use by consumers. Results showed that all the water analyzed in Ouagadougou is soft (TH < 50 ppm) or moderately soft (50 < TH < 200 ppm) and weakly mineralized (total dissolved solid content < 500 mg/L, sulfates [SO(2-)(4)] < 200 mg/L, [Ca(++)] < 150 mg/L, [Mg(2+)] < 50 mg/L, and [HCO(3)-] < 600 mg/l). Some imported water, however, is hard and highly mineralized. French standards do not set limit values for the natural mineral water parameters described above, and much of the water sold in Ouagadougou was natural mineral water. The spring water met potability standards, except for the Montagne d'Arrée brand, which had a pH value of 5.8, below the WHO standards of 6.5 < pH 8.5.

  18. Sorghum malt and traditional beer (dolo) quality assessment in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Pale, Siébou; Taonda, Sibiri Jean-Baptiste; Bougouma, Boniface; Mason, Stephen C

    2010-01-01

    Sorghum malt and dolo quality evaluation criteria and parameters affecting quality were surveyed in six cities in Burkina Faso through questionnaires addressed to malt processors, dolo processors, retailers, and consumers. The major quality criteria for malt quality assessment were perceived to be taste and presence/absence of roots in the malt. Taste, alcohol content, and wort sufficiently cooked were perceived as major criteria for the dolo quality assessment. The major parameters affecting malt quality were perceived to be malt production period, proportions of grain and the amount of water entering malting, presence of pesticide residues in the malting grains, and age of grain. Processing method, yeast source, proportions of the components (crushed grain, water, mucilage, yeast) entering dolo production, malt quality, wort temperature at time of inoculation, amount of energy available for cooking, wort and sediment boiling time, quality of mucilage, malt with non-sweet taste, presence/absence of roots in the malt, and ease of filtering crushed malt were perceived as major parameters affecting the dolo quality. These results will be used in the improvement of the dolo supply chain in Burkina Faso by providing more reliable information for training programs for efficient dolo brewing processes, development of best cropping practices to improve grain quality, and providing better selection criteria for sorghum breeding programs.

  19. Species abundance and insecticide resistance of Anopheles gambiae in selected areas of Ghana and Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Yawson, A E; McCall, P J; Wilson, M D; Donnelly, M J

    2004-12-01

    The Ghanaian National Malaria Control Programme has prioritized insecticide-treated materials as a key strategy for malaria control. We report on a survey of the distribution of the molecular forms of Anopheles gambiae Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) and insecticide resistance (the kdr mutation), carried out by sampling mosquitoes from 11 locations in Ghana and one additional site in Burkina Faso. The molecular M and S forms of An. gambiae were found to occur in sympatry in southern Ghana. The S form predominated throughout its distribution in the coastal savannah, except at one location in the strand and mangrove zone where rice was cultivated. The M form was the only form collected in northern Ghana and was the predominant form (97.5%) in Burkina Faso. No M/S hybrids were detected. The kdr mutation was observed at very high frequencies (98-100%) within the S form but reached a maximum of only 3.38% in the M form in one population at an irrigation scheme in the Ghanaian coastal savannah zone.

  20. Removal of user fees no guarantee of universal health coverage: observations from Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Laokri, Samia; Weil, Olivier; Drabo, K Maxime; Dembelé, S Mathurin; Kafando, Benoît; Dujardin, Bruno

    2013-04-01

    In theory, the removal of user fees puts health services within reach of everyone, including the very poor. When Burkina Faso adopted the DOTS strategy for the control of tuberculosis, the intention was to provide free tuberculosis care. In 2007-2008, interviews were used to collect information from 242 smear-positive patients with pulmonary tuberculosis who were enrolled in the national tuberculosis control programme in six rural districts. The median direct costs associated with tuberculosis were estimated at 101 United States dollars (US$) per patient. These costs represented 23% of the mean annual income of a patient's household. During the course of their care, three quarters of the interviewed patients apparently faced "catastrophic" health expenditure. Inadequacies in the health system and policies appeared to be responsible for nearly half of the direct costs (US$ 45 per patient). Although the households of patients developed coping strategies, these had far-reaching, adverse effects on the quality of lives of the households' members and the socioeconomic stability of the households. Each tuberculosis patient lost a median of 45 days of work as a result of the illness. For a population living on or below the poverty line, every failure in health-care delivery increases the risk of "catastrophic" health expenditure, exacerbates socioeconomic inequalities, and reduces the probability of adequate treatment and cure. In Burkina Faso, a policy of "free" care for tuberculosis patients has not met with complete success. These observations should help define post-2015 global strategies for tuberculosis care, prevention and control.

  1. Emergence of Unusual G6P[6] Rotaviruses in Children, Burkina Faso, 2009–2010

    PubMed Central

    Nitiema, Leon W.; Sharma, Sumit; Ouermi, Djeneba; Traore, Alfred S.; Simpore, Jacques; Svensson, Lennart

    2012-01-01

    To obtain more information about rotavirus (ROTAV) genotypes in Burkina Faso, we characterized 100 ROTAVs isolated from fecal samples of children with acute gastroenteritis in the capital city of Ouagadougou, during December 2009–March 2010. Of note, 13% of the ROTAV-positive samples, including those with mixed infections, were positive for the unusual G6 genotype ROTAV strain. The genotypes identified were G9P[8], G6P[6], G1P[6], G3P[6], G1P[8], and G2P[4]. G9P[8] subgroup (SG)II strains dominated during the beginning of the ROTAV season, but later in the season, other G types associated with P[6] and SGI specificity emerged. This emergence was related to a shift in the overall age of infected children; ROTAV SGII infected younger children and induced more severe symptoms. The finding of a high incidence of G6P[6] strains highlights the need for long-term surveillance of ROTAV strains in Burkina Faso, especially when ROTAV vaccination is being considered in several African countries. PMID:22469076

  2. Social Determinants and Access to Induced Abortion in Burkina Faso: From Two Case Studies

    PubMed Central

    Ouédraogo, Ramatou

    2014-01-01

    Unsafe abortion constitutes a major public health problem in Burkina Faso and concerns mainly young women. The legal restriction and social stigma make abortions most often clandestine and risky for women who decide to terminate a pregnancy. However, the exposure to the risk of unsafe induced abortion is not the same for all the women who faced unwanted pregnancy and decide to have an abortion. Drawn from a qualitative study on the issue of abortion in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso's capital, the contrasting cases of two young women who had abortion allow us to show how the women's personal resources (such as the school level, financial resources, the compliance to social norms, the social network, etc.) may determine the degree of vulnerability of women, the delay to have an abortion, the type of care they are likely to benefit from, and the cost they have to face. This study concludes that the poorest always pay more (cost and consequences), take longer to have an abortion, and have more exposure to the risk of unsafe abortion. PMID:24790605

  3. Modeling the Cost-Effectiveness of the Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) System: Meningitis in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Somda, Zana C.; Perry, Helen N.; Messonnier, Nancy R.; Djingarey, Mamadou H.; Ki, Salimata Ouedraogo; Meltzer, Martin I.

    2010-01-01

    Background Effective surveillance for infectious diseases is an essential component of public health. There are few studies estimating the cost-effectiveness of starting or improving disease surveillance. We present a cost-effectiveness analysis the Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) strategy in Africa. Methodology/Principal Findings To assess the impact of the IDSR in Africa, we used pre- and post- IDSR meningococcal meningitis surveillance data from Burkina Faso (1996–2002 and 2003–2007). IDSR implementation was correlated with a median reduction of 2 weeks to peak of outbreaks (25th percentile 1 week; 75th percentile 4 weeks). IDSR was also correlated with a reduction of 43 meningitis cases per 100,000 (25th–40: 75th-129). Assuming the correlations between reductions in time to peak of outbreaks and cases are related, the cost-effectiveness of IDSR was $23 per case averted (25th-$30; 75th - cost saving), and $98 per meningitis-related death averted (25th-$140: 75th – cost saving). Conclusions/Significance We cannot absolutely claim that the measured differences were due to IDSR. We believe, however, that it is reasonable to claim that IDSR can improve the cost-effectiveness of public health surveillance. PMID:20927386

  4. Integrated monitoring and evaluation and environmental risk factors for urogenital schistosomiasis and active trachoma in Burkina Faso before preventative chemotherapy using sentinel sites

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    constitute public health problems in Burkina Faso. Sentinel site (at school level) surveys for these two NTDs can be implemented simultaneously. However, to support MDA treatment decisions in Burkina Faso, the protocol used in this study would only be applicable to hypoendemic trachoma areas. More research is needed to confirm if these findings can be generalized to West Africa and beyond. PMID:21749703

  5. Taenia hydatigena in pigs in Burkina Faso: A cross-sectional abattoir study.

    PubMed

    Dermauw, Veronique; Ganaba, Rasmané; Cissé, Assana; Ouedraogo, Boubacar; Millogo, Athanase; Tarnagda, Zékiba; Hul, Anke Van; Gabriël, Sarah; Carabin, Hélène; Dorny, Pierre

    2016-10-30

    Taenia hydatigena is a non-zoonotic cestode that has canines as definitive hosts and ruminants and pigs as intermediate hosts. In pigs, its presence causes cross-reactivity in serological testing for Taenia solium cysticercosis. Therefore, knowledge on the occurrence of T. hydatigena is paramount for validly estimating the seroprevalence of T. solium cysticercosis in pigs. In a cross-sectional abattoir study, we estimated the prevalence of T. hydatigena in pigs slaughtered in Koudougou, Burkina Faso. Carcasses of 452 pigs were examined by investigators for perceived and suspected T. hydatigena cysticercus lesions in the abdominal cavity or on the surface of abdominal organs. Routine meat inspection was performed by local inspectors to identify T. solium cysticerci. All lesions were subjected to PCR-RFLP analysis in order to differentiate Taenia spp. Additionally, individual blood samples were examined for the presence of circulating cysticercus antigens using the B158/B60 Ag-ELISA. Perceived T. hydatigena cysticerci were found in 13 pigs, whereas meat inspectors found seven carcasses infected with T. solium cysticerci. All were confirmed by molecular analysis. Of pigs with other suspected lesions, mostly located in the liver, 27 and six were found to harbour T. hydatigena and T. solium cysticerci, respectively. Overall, 8.8% of pigs (40/452) were found infected with T. hydatigena and 2.9% (13/452) with T. solium. Of these positive pigs, one was found infected with both Taenia spp. (0.2%, 1/452). Blood samples of 48.5% of pigs (219/452) were positive in the Ag-ELISA. Pigs with confirmed cysts of T. hydatigena and T. solium had a positive Ag-ELISA result in 57.5% (23/40) and 61.5% (8/13) of cases, respectively. The observed T. hydatigena prevalence in this study is relatively high in comparison to other studies in Africa. Estimates of the occurrence of active porcine T. solium infection using the B158/B60 Ag-ELISA should therefore be adjusted for the presence of T

  6. Flexibility of Household Structure: Child Fostering Decisions in Burkina Faso

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akresh, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Using data I collected in Africa, this paper examines a household's decision to adjust its size through child fostering, an institution where biological parents temporarily send children to live with other families. Households experiencing negative idiosyncratic income shocks, child gender imbalances, located further from primary schools, or with…

  7. Molecular diversity of Cotton leaf curl Gezira virus isolates and their satellite DNAs associated with okra leaf curl disease in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Okra leaf curl disease (OLCD) is a major constraint on okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) production and is widespread in Africa. Using a large number of samples representative of the major growing regions in Burkina Faso (BF), we show that the disease is associated with a monopartite begomovirus and satellite DNA complexes. Twenty-three complete genomic sequences of Cotton leaf curl Gezira virus (CLCuGV) isolates associated with OLCD, sharing 95 to 99% nucleotide identity, were cloned and sequenced. Six betasatellite and four alphasatellite (DNA-1) molecules were also characterized. The six isolates of betasatellite associated with CLCuGV isolates correspond to Cotton leaf curl Gezira betasatellite (CLCuGB) (88 to 98% nucleotide identity). One isolate of alphasatellite is a variant of Cotton leaf curl Gezira alphasatellite (CLCuGA) (89% nucleotide identity), whereas the three others isolates appear to correspond to a new species of alphasatellite (CLCuGA most similar sequence present 52 to 60% nucleotide identity), provisionally named Okra leaf curl Burkina Faso alphasatellite (OLCBFA). Recombination analysis of the viruses demonstrated the interspecies recombinant origin of all CLCuGV isolates, with parents being close to Hollyhock leaf crumple virus (AY036009) and Tomato leaf curl Diana virus (AM701765). Combined with the presence of satellites DNA, these results highlight the complexity of begomoviruses associated with OLCD. PMID:20178575

  8. [Contents of macromineral and trace elements in spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) from France, Chad, Togo, Niger, Mali, Burkina-Faso and Central African Republic].

    PubMed

    Vicat, Jean-Paul; Doumnang Mbaigane, Jean-Claude; Bellion, Yves

    2014-01-01

    Data on mineral elements in spirulinas being limited, we analyzed macrominerals and trace elements of samples from France and Africa. Spirulinas cultivated in France have a composition in macromineral elements similar to those of the literature. The entire contents of trace elements are low. Unlike marine cyanobacteria, they do not concentrate rare-earth elements. Spirulina harvested in Chad has high levels in macrominerals and trace elements, due to traditional drying and harvesting methods. Rare-earth element levels are attributed to this pollution and not to their concentration in spirulinas, because rare-earth element normalized profiles of spirulina are strictly parallel to those of ouadis mud and very different from those of ouadis water. Despite the sometimes high content of total As, normal water consumption in Chad presents no health problems. Spirulinas grown in Togo, Niger, Mali, Burkina-Faso and Central African Republic have chemical compositions similar to those of Chad spirulinas, but with a lower content of macromineral and trace elements, reflecting a lower mineral pollution. Rare-earth element normalized patterns dismiss an aeolian pollution and the pollution is rather of pedological origin. They show no toxicity problem except spirulinas from Burkina-Faso, whose Pb content is too high. The variability of composition of spirulinas can be largely attributed to the mineral pollution of the samples. Significant levels of rare-earth elements sometimes found in the literature reflect this pollution.

  9. Costs of Neisseria meningitidis Group A Disease and Economic Impact of Vaccination in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Colombini, Anaïs; Trotter, Caroline; Madrid, Yvette; Karachaliou, Andromachi; Preziosi, Marie-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Background. Five years since the successful introduction of MenAfriVac in a mass vaccination campaign targeting 1- to 29-year-olds in Burkina Faso, consideration must be given to the optimal strategies for sustaining population protection. This study aims to estimate the economic impact of a range of vaccination strategies in Burkina Faso. Methods. We performed a cost-of-illness study, comparing different vaccination scenarios in terms of costs to both households and health systems over a 26-year time horizon. These scenarios are (1) reactive vaccination campaign (baseline comparator); (2) preventive vaccination campaign; (3) routine immunization at 9 months; and (4) a combination of routine and an initial catchup campaign of children under 5. Costs were estimated from a literature review, which included unpublished programmatic documents and peer-reviewed publications. The future disease burden for each vaccination strategy was predicted using a dynamic transmission model of group A Neisseria meningitidis. Results. From 2010 to 2014, the total costs associated with the preventive campaign targeting 1- to 29-year-olds with MenAfriVac were similar to the estimated costs of the reactive vaccination strategy (approximately 10 million US dollars [USD]). Between 2015 and 2035, routine immunization with or without a catch-up campaign of 1- to 4-year-olds is cost saving compared with the reactive strategy, both with and without discounting costs and cases. Most of the savings are accrued from lower costs of case management and household costs resulting from a lower burden of disease. After the initial investment in the preventive strategy, 1 USD invested in the routine strategy saves an additional 1.3 USD compared to the reactive strategy. Conclusions. Prevention strategies using MenAfriVac will be significantly cost saving in Burkina Faso, both for the health system and for households, compared with the reactive strategy. This will protect households from

  10. The lateritic profile of Balkouin, Burkina Faso: Geochemistry, mineralogy and genesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giorgis, Ilaria; Bonetto, Sabrina; Giustetto, Roberto; Lawane, Abdou; Pantet, Anne; Rossetti, Piergiorgio; Thomassin, Jean-Hugues; Vinai, Raffaele

    2014-02-01

    This study reports on the geochemical and mineralogical characterization of a lateritic profile cropping out in the Balkouin area, Central Burkina Faso, aimed at obtaining a better understanding of the processes responsible for the formation of the laterite itself and the constraints to its development. The lateritic profile rests on a Paleoproterozoic basement mostly composed of granodioritic rocks related to the Eburnean magmatic cycle passing upwards to saprolite and consists of four main composite horizons (bottom to top): kaolinite and clay-rich horizons, mottled laterite and iron-rich duricrust. In order to achieve such a goal, a multi-disciplinary analytical approach was adopted, which includes inductively coupled plasma (ICP) atomic emission and mass spectrometries (ICP-AES and ICP-MS respectively), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS) and micro-Raman spectroscopy.

  11. BoulSat Project: Low-Cost Wireless Metropolitan Network Implementation in Burkina Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catusian, Samuele S.; Longobardi, Federico; Panicucci, Francesco; Bartalesi, Raphael P.; Demi, Libertario; Cuomo, Antonio D.; Orlandi, Silvano

    The BoulSat Project involves the realization of a bidirectional VSAT (satellite connection system) and the study of "poor" a Wireless Metropolitan Area Network (WMAN) to extend the Internet connectivity to the public institutions in the town area. Low-cost or waste materials have been used to build components where possible, thus to make possible for the local technicians with no specific and theoretical skills to build their network components by hand. This pilot scheme has been applied in Boulsa, in the Sahel region at the north of Burkina Faso. Besides the Boulsa case study, the whole work analyses a typical situation, due to the wide range of problems which have been handled, of remote communities in the South of the World. The aim is to characterize a standard of intervention, suitable for Developing Countries, to set up low-cost wireless telecommunication infrastructures.

  12. Siting guidelines for concentrating solar power plants in the Sahel: Case study of Burkina Faso

    SciTech Connect

    Azoumah, Y.; Tapsoba, G.; Thiam, S.; Ramde, E.W.

    2010-08-15

    Selecting a site that meets the technical requirements for a concentrating solar power plant (CSP) is a very critical exercise. This paper points out crucial factors and provides guidelines regarding the selection of suitable sites. It especially focuses on Sahelian countries which have their own climatic peculiarities. These countries, characterized by low access to electricity, are well endowed in solar resources. They are potentially good locations for concentrating solar power plants since their mean daily solar radiation exceeds 5.5 kWh/m{sup 2}. CSP presents therefore, a good opportunity for them to increase in a sustainable manner, their energy supply. The guidelines developed in this paper are applied to Burkina Faso as a case study. (author)

  13. Large-scale mapping of hard-rock aquifer properties applied to Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Courtois, Nathalie; Lachassagne, Patrick; Wyns, Robert; Blanchin, Raymonde; Bougaïré, Francis D; Somé, Sylvain; Tapsoba, Aïssata

    2010-01-01

    A country-scale (1:1,000,000) methodology has been developed for hydrogeologic mapping of hard-rock aquifers (granitic and metamorphic rocks) of the type that underlie a large part of the African continent. The method is based on quantifying the "useful thickness" and hydrodynamic properties of such aquifers and uses a recent conceptual model developed for this hydrogeologic context. This model links hydrodynamic parameters (transmissivity, storativity) to lithology and the geometry of the various layers constituting a weathering profile. The country-scale hydrogeological mapping was implemented in Burkina Faso, where a recent 1:1,000,000-scale digital geological map and a database of some 16,000 water wells were used to evaluate the methodology.

  14. Polyphenol content and antioxidant activity of fourteen wild edible fruits from Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Lamien-Meda, Aline; Lamien, Charles Euloge; Compaoré, Moussa M Y; Meda, Roland N T; Kiendrebeogo, Martin; Zeba, Boukare; Millogo, Jeanne F; Nacoulma, Odile G

    2008-03-06

    A total of fourteen (14) species of wild edible fruits from Burkina Faso were analyzed for their phenolic and flavonoid contents, and their antioxidant activities using the DPPH, FRAP and ABTS methods. The data obtained show that the total phenolic and total flavonoid levels were significantly higher in the acetone than in the methanol extracts.Detarium microcarpum fruit had the highest phenolic and the highest flavonoid content,followed by that of Adansonia digitata, Ziziphus mauritiana, Ximenia americana and Lannea microcarpa. Significant amounts of total phenolics were also detected in the other fruit species in the following order of decreasing levels: Tamarindus indica > Sclerocaryabirrea > Dialium guineense > Gardenia erubescens > Diospyros mespiliformis > Parkiabiglobosa > Ficus sycomorus > Vitellaria paradoxa. Detarium microcarpum fruit also showed the highest antioxidant activity using the three antioxidant assays. Fruits with high antioxidant activities were also found to possess high phenolic and flavonoid contents. There was a strong correlation between total phenolic and flavonoid levels and antioxidant activities.

  15. A delicate web: household changes in health behaviour enabled by microcredit in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Hennink, Monique; McFarland, Deborah A

    2013-01-01

    Providing microcredit to women in developing countries has long been highlighted as a simple and effective strategy for poverty reduction and health improvement. However, little is known about how microcredit enables changes in health behaviour. This knowledge is critical to further strengthen microcredit initiatives. This qualitative study, conducted in Burkina Faso, shows how microcredit can not only facilitate savings and investment strategies, but also lead to changes in household decision-making, enabling women to initiate health prevention, seek health treatment and manage health emergencies. Some changes led to increased household burdens for women that impeded health gains, such as administrative loan delays by the microcredit institution and reduced household contributions by the husband. Furthermore, the study highlighted the fragile nature of health gains, which may be eroded due to economic shocks on a household, such as crop failure, drought or illness.

  16. Evaluation of a knowledge transfer strategy from a user fee exemption program for vulnerable populations in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Dagenais, Christian; Queuille, Ludovic; Ridde, Valéry

    2013-03-01

    As part of this special issue contributing to the development of knowledge on vulnerability and health in Africa, this article analyzes one example of a knowledge transfer strategy aimed at improving the use of research results that could help reduce the vulnerability of certain populations. In this case, since September 2008, the Non-Governmental Organization (NGO) Hilfe zur Selbsthilfe e.V. (HELP) has conducted a trial of subsidizing 100% of the costs of health care for vulnerable populations in two health districts of Burkina Faso. A scientific partnership was created to produce evidence on the intervention, and a knowledge transfer strategy was developed to promote the use of that evidence by stakeholders (decision-makers, people working in the health system, funding partners, etc.). The results showed that considerable efforts were invested in knowledge transfer activities and that these led to all types of use (instrumental, conceptual, persuasive). However, considerable variation in use was observed from one setting to another. This article presents some lessons to be drawn from this experience.

  17. ‘This year I will not put her to work’: the production/reproduction nexus in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Storeng, Katerini Tagmatarchi; Akoum, Mélanie Stephanie; Murray, Susan F.

    2012-01-01

    Global advocacy campaigns increasingly highlight the negative impact of reproductive morbidity on economic productivity and development in order to justify donor investment in maternal health. Anthropological approaches nuance such narrow economic estimations of reproductive health. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork from Burkina Faso in West Africa, this paper analyses the dynamic, and sometimes contradictory, relationship between women's work and reproductive health in impoverished communities. Specifically, it examines the consequences of life-threatening ‘near-miss’ obstetric complications for women's work across domestic, agricultural and economic spheres over a four-year period. Such events provide a window onto the diverse ways in which production and reproduction are intimately linked within women's everyday lives. Reproduction and production entail sources of potential empowerment and enhancement, as well as potential threats, to health and well-being. In the aftermath of ‘near-miss’ events, the realms of reproduction and production sometimes jeopardise each other and at other times reinforce each other, while strength in one domain can compensate for weakness in the other. Women's experiences thus reveal how ‘production’ and ‘reproduction’ are mutually constituted, challenging the purely instrumental accounts of pregnancy-related ‘productivity loss’ that dominate current global health discourse. PMID:22897630

  18. 'This year I will not put her to work': the production/reproduction nexus in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Storeng, Katerini Tagmatarchi; Akoum, Mélanie Stephanie; Murray, Susan F

    2013-04-01

    Global advocacy campaigns increasingly highlight the negative impact of reproductive morbidity on economic productivity and development in order to justify donor investment in maternal health. Anthropological approaches nuance such narrow economic estimations of reproductive health. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork from Burkina Faso in West Africa, this paper analyses the dynamic, and sometimes contradictory, relationship between women's work and reproductive health in impoverished communities. Specifically, it examines the consequences of life-threatening 'near-miss' obstetric complications for women's work across domestic, agricultural and economic spheres over a four-year period. Such events provide a window onto the diverse ways in which production and reproduction are intimately linked within women's everyday lives. Reproduction and production entail sources of potential empowerment and enhancement, as well as potential threats, to health and well-being. In the aftermath of 'near-miss' events, the realms of reproduction and production sometimes jeopardise each other and at other times reinforce each other, while strength in one domain can compensate for weakness in the other. Women's experiences thus reveal how 'production' and 'reproduction' are mutually constituted, challenging the purely instrumental accounts of pregnancy-related 'productivity loss' that dominate current global health discourse.

  19. Mother-to-Children Plasmodium falciparum Asymptomatic Malaria Transmission at Saint Camille Medical Centre in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Douamba, Zoenabo; Dao, Nangnéré Ginette Laure; Zohoncon, Théodora Mahoukédé; Bisseye, Cyrille; Compaoré, Tegwindé Rebeca; Kafando, Jacques Gilbert; Sombie, Bavouma Charles; Ouermi, Djeneba; Djigma, Florencia W.; Ouedraogo, Paul; Ghilat, Nadine; Colizzi, Vittorio; Simpore, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Background. Malaria's prevalence during pregnancy varies widely in parts of sub-Saharan Africa, including Burkina Faso. The objective of this study was to evaluate the incidence of mother-to-child malaria transmission during childbirth at St. Camille Medical Centre in the city of Ouagadougou. Methods. Two hundred and thirty-eight (238) women and their newborns were included in the study. Women consenting to participate in this study responded to a questionnaire that identified their demographic characteristics. Asymptomatic malaria infection was assessed by rapid detection test Acon (Acon Malaria Pf, San Diego, USA) and by microscopic examination of Giemsa-stained thick and thin smears from peripheral, placental, and umbilical cord blood. Birth weights were recorded and the biological analyses of mothers and newborns' blood were also performed. Results. The utilization of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) were 86.6% and 84.4%, respectively. The parasitic infection rates of 9.5%, 8.9%, and 2.8% were recorded, respectively, for the peripheral, placental, and umbilical cord blood. Placental infection was strongly associated with the presence of parasites in the maternal peripheral blood and a parasite density of >1000 parasites/µL. Conclusion. The prevalence of congenital malaria was reduced but was associated with a high rate of mother-to-child malaria transmission. PMID:25506464

  20. Prevalence and Genetic Diversity of Enteric Viruses in Children with Diarrhea in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Ouédraogo, Nafissatou; Kaplon, Jérôme; Bonkoungou, Isidore Juste O.; Traoré, Alfred Sababénédjo; Pothier, Pierre; Barro, Nicolas; Ambert- Balay, Katia

    2016-01-01

    Enteric viruses are a major cause of diarrhea in children, especially those under five years old. Identifying the viral agents is critical to the development of effective preventive measures. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and genetic diversity of common enteric viruses in children under five years old in Burkina Faso. Stool samples from children with (n = 263) and without (n = 50) diarrhea disorders were collected in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso from November 2011 to September 2012. Rotavirus, norovirus, sapovirus, astrovirus, adenovirus and Aichivirus A were detected using real-time or end-point (RT-)PCR. Rotavirus strains were G and P genotyped by multiplex RT-PCR and other viral strains were characterized by sequencing of viral subgenomic segements. At least one viral agent was detected in 85.6% and 72% of the symptomatic and asymptomatic patients, respectively. Rotavirus (63.5%), adenovirus (31.2%) and genogroup II norovirus (18.2%) were the most prevalent viruses in symptomatic patients, but only rotavirus and genogroup II norovirus were significantly associated with diarrhea (OR: 7.9, 95%CI: 3.7–17; OR: 3.5, 95%CI: 1–11.7, respectively). Sapovirus (10.3%), astrovirus (4.9%), genogroup I norovirus (2.7%) and Aichivirus A (0.8%) were less prevalent. The predominant genotype of rotavirus was G9P[8] (36.5%), and the predominant norovirus strain was GII.4 variant 2012 (71.4%). Among sapovirus, the genogroup II (87.5%) predominated. Astrovirus type 1 (41.7%) was the most frequent astrovirus identified. Aichivirus A belonged to the three genotypes (A, B and C). Enteric adenoviruses type 40 and 41 were identified in 10.2% and 5.1% respectively. Several cases of co-infections were detected. The results highlight the high prevalence and the high diversity of enteric viruses in Burkinabe children. PMID:27092779

  1. Removal of user fees no guarantee of universal health coverage: observations from Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Weil, Olivier; Drabo, K Maxime; Dembelé, S Mathurin; Kafando, Benoît; Dujardin, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Abstract In theory, the removal of user fees puts health services within reach of everyone, including the very poor. When Burkina Faso adopted the DOTS strategy for the control of tuberculosis, the intention was to provide free tuberculosis care. In 2007–2008, interviews were used to collect information from 242 smear-positive patients with pulmonary tuberculosis who were enrolled in the national tuberculosis control programme in six rural districts. The median direct costs associated with tuberculosis were estimated at 101 United States dollars (US$) per patient. These costs represented 23% of the mean annual income of a patient’s household. During the course of their care, three quarters of the interviewed patients apparently faced “catastrophic” health expenditure. Inadequacies in the health system and policies appeared to be responsible for nearly half of the direct costs (US$ 45 per patient). Although the households of patients developed coping strategies, these had far-reaching, adverse effects on the quality of lives of the households’ members and the socioeconomic stability of the households. Each tuberculosis patient lost a median of 45 days of work as a result of the illness. For a population living on or below the poverty line, every failure in health-care delivery increases the risk of “catastrophic” health expenditure, exacerbates socioeconomic inequalities, and reduces the probability of adequate treatment and cure. In Burkina Faso, a policy of “free” care for tuberculosis patients has not met with complete success. These observations should help define post-2015 global strategies for tuberculosis care, prevention and control. PMID:23599551

  2. Healthcare-associated infection in Burkina Faso: an assessment in a district hospital

    PubMed Central

    Hien, Hervé; Drabo, Koiné Maxime; Ouédraogo, Laurent; Konfé, Salifou; Zeba, Sylvain; Sangaré, Lassana; Compaoré, Sidzabda C.; Ouédraogo, Jean Bosco; Ouendo, Edgard M.; Makoutodé, Michel; Meda, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    In developing countries, few data are available on healthcare-associated infections. In Burkina Faso, there has been a failure to take into account risk management and patient safety in the quality assurance program. The main objective of our study was to carry out an assessment of healthcare-associated infection in a first level hospital. We conducted a cross-sectional study in June 2011 in the care units of Ziniaré District Hospital (Ziniaré, Burkina Faso). The hospital has been divided in three components: i) hospital population (care providers, in-patients and patients' guardians); ii) healthcare and services organization; iii) hospital environment. We included: care providers of the clinical services, hospital in-patients and patients' guardians, hospitalization infrastructure and nursing units, and all the documents relating to standards and protocols. Data collection has been done by direct observation, interviews and biological samples taken at different settings. In hospital population, care providers and patients' guardians represented a high source of infection: adherence to hygiene practice on the part of care providers was low (12/19), and no patients' guardian experienced good conditions of staying in the hospital. In healthcare and services organization, healthcare waste management represented a high-risk source of infection. In hospital environment, hygiene level of the infrastructure in the hospital rooms was low (6.67%). Prevalence of isolated bacteria was 71.8%. Urinary-tract catheters infections were the most significant in our sample, followed by surgical-site infections. In total, 56.26% (9/19) of germs were -Lactamase producers (ESBL). They were represented by Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Our analysis identified clearly healthcare-associated infection as a problem in Ziniaré district hospital. Hence, a national program of quality assurance in the hospitals should now integrate the risk infectious management of healthcare

  3. Prevalence and Genetic Diversity of Enteric Viruses in Children with Diarrhea in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Ouédraogo, Nafissatou; Kaplon, Jérôme; Bonkoungou, Isidore Juste O; Traoré, Alfred Sababénédjo; Pothier, Pierre; Barro, Nicolas; Ambert-Balay, Katia

    2016-01-01

    Enteric viruses are a major cause of diarrhea in children, especially those under five years old. Identifying the viral agents is critical to the development of effective preventive measures. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and genetic diversity of common enteric viruses in children under five years old in Burkina Faso. Stool samples from children with (n = 263) and without (n = 50) diarrhea disorders were collected in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso from November 2011 to September 2012. Rotavirus, norovirus, sapovirus, astrovirus, adenovirus and Aichivirus A were detected using real-time or end-point (RT-)PCR. Rotavirus strains were G and P genotyped by multiplex RT-PCR and other viral strains were characterized by sequencing of viral subgenomic segements. At least one viral agent was detected in 85.6% and 72% of the symptomatic and asymptomatic patients, respectively. Rotavirus (63.5%), adenovirus (31.2%) and genogroup II norovirus (18.2%) were the most prevalent viruses in symptomatic patients, but only rotavirus and genogroup II norovirus were significantly associated with diarrhea (OR: 7.9, 95%CI: 3.7-17; OR: 3.5, 95%CI: 1-11.7, respectively). Sapovirus (10.3%), astrovirus (4.9%), genogroup I norovirus (2.7%) and Aichivirus A (0.8%) were less prevalent. The predominant genotype of rotavirus was G9P[8] (36.5%), and the predominant norovirus strain was GII.4 variant 2012 (71.4%). Among sapovirus, the genogroup II (87.5%) predominated. Astrovirus type 1 (41.7%) was the most frequent astrovirus identified. Aichivirus A belonged to the three genotypes (A, B and C). Enteric adenoviruses type 40 and 41 were identified in 10.2% and 5.1% respectively. Several cases of co-infections were detected. The results highlight the high prevalence and the high diversity of enteric viruses in Burkinabe children.

  4. [Failure of first-line antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected children in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso].

    PubMed

    Kouéta, F; Yé, D; Zoungrana, A; Sacko, A; Ouédraogo-Traoré, R; Kafando, E; Ouédraogo, S

    2010-12-01

    Approximately one-fourth of the estimated 10,000 HIV-infected children in Burkina Faso are undergoing antiretroviral (ARV) therapy. At the Charles de Gaulle Pediatric Hospital Center in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, Support for ARV therapy began in July 2003 and a total of 250 children were undergoing treatment in late 2007. The purpose of this retrospective case-control study conducted over a period of 54 months from July 2003 to December 2007 was to investigate cases involving failure of first-line ARV therapy in particular with regard to cause. All patients (n = 32) showing poor virological, immunological, and/or clinical response to ARV therapy were considered as failures and thus included in the case group. The control group (n = 160) consisted of patients with good responses to treatment. Cases and controls were compared using the Chi-square test and odds ratio (OR) technique with a confidence interval at 95%. The failure rate was 12.8%. Failure was significantly correlated with low socioeconomic level (OR = 3), orphan status (OR = 4), age over 10 years (OR = 5), male gender (OR = 3), baseline viral load > or = 1,000,000 copies/mL (OR = 9), and poor compliance (OR = 37). Mortality in children who failed to respond to first-line ARV therapy was 25% due to the unavailability of a national second-line ARV therapy program. This study underlines the need for patient education to promote compliance and for creation of reference centers to prescribe ARV therapy to HIV-infected children including second-line ARV and genotyping.

  5. Parasitological Indices of Malaria Transmission in Children under Fifteen Years in Two Ecoepidemiological Zones in Southwestern Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Sangaré, Ibrahim; Coulibaly, Sanata; Namountougou, Moussa; Paré-Toé, Léa; Ouédraogo, Anicet Georges; Diabaté, Abdoulaye; Foy, Brian D.

    2017-01-01

    Twenty years after the latest publications performed on the parasitological indices of malaria transmission in northwest of the second city of Burkina Faso, it was important to update the epidemiological profile of malaria in children under the age of 15 years. The objective of this study was to determine and compare the parasitological parameters of malaria transmission by season, area, and age in the two zones (rice and savanna) in the northwest of Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. Overall, the results showed that there was no significant difference in the parasitological indices of malaria transmission within children under fifteen years between the rice site and the savannah site and whatever the season (P > 0.05). The profound environmental modifications that occurred in the rice zone would have led to changes in vector behavior and consequently to changes in the epidemiological profile of malaria, contrary to the results obtained since the last publications. An entomological study correlated with this study is therefore necessary for effective decision-making for the malaria control in both areas. Future research must now focus on the impact that these profound environmental modifications of rice area are having on malaria control in Burkina Faso. PMID:28286526

  6. Geology of the world-class Kiaka polyphase gold deposit, West African Craton, Burkina Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontaine, Arnaud; Eglinger, Aurélien; Ada, Koumangdiwè; André-Mayer, Anne-Sylvie; Reisberg, Laurie; Siebenaller, Luc; Le Mignot, Elodie; Ganne, Jérôme; Poujol, Marc

    2017-02-01

    The Kiaka gold deposit is a major resource in West Africa, with measured and indicated resources of 124 Mt at 1.09 g/t Au (3.9 Moz) and inferred resources of 27 Mt at 0.83 g/t Au (0.8 Moz). Located within the Manga-Fada N'Gourma greenstone and plutonic belt in south of the Burkina Faso, the deposit is hosted by a metamorphosed volcano-sedimentary sequence of lithic-, quartz-biotite metagreywackes, aluminosilicate-bearing metapelites and garnet-orthopyroxene-bearing schists and volcanic units. Structural observations indicate four local deformation events: DK1, DK2 and DK3 and DK4. Respectively, these events are linked to regional D1 E-W compression, D2 NW-SE compression and lastly, D3- and D4-related reactivations along D2 shear zones. The S2 foliation and D2 shear zones are developed during lower amphibolite facies metamorphism whereas retrogression occurs during D3-4 reactivations along these shear zones at upper greenschist facies conditions. The emplacement of a dioritic intrusion, dated at 2140 ± 7 Ma (Concordia U-Pb age on magmatic zircon), is interpreted to be contemporaneous with sinistral displacement along mineralized, NE-trending D2 shear zones. The intersection of these shears zones and the Markoye shear zone (dextral-reverse D1 and sinistral-reverse D2 reactivations) controlled the final geometry of the host rocks and the ore zones. Four subparallel elongated ore bodies are mainly hosted within D2-related shear zones and some are developed in an apparent axial plane of a F2 isoclinal fold. Detailed petrographic studies have identified two main types of hydrothermal alteration associated with two stages of gold mineralization. The stage (1) corresponds to replacement zones with biotite and clinozoisite during the D2 event associated with pyrrhotite ± pyrite, chalcopyrite (disseminated gold stage). The stage (2) occurs during reactivations of the D2-related auriferous shear zones (vein stage) and is characterized by diopside ± actinolite D3 veins and

  7. Bioaccumulation and trophic transfer of mercury and selenium in african sub-tropical fluvial reservoirs food webs (Burkina Faso).

    PubMed

    Ouédraogo, Ousséni; Chételat, John; Amyot, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The bioaccumulation and biomagnification of mercury (Hg) and selenium (Se) were investigated in sub-tropical freshwater food webs from Burkina Faso, West Africa, a region where very few ecosystem studies on contaminants have been performed. During the 2010 rainy season, samples of water, sediment, fish, zooplankton, and mollusks were collected from three water reservoirs and analysed for total Hg (THg), methylmercury (MeHg), and total Se (TSe). Ratios of δ13C and δ15N were measured to determine food web structures and patterns of contaminant accumulation and transfer to fish. Food chain lengths (FCLs) were calculated using mean δ15N of all primary consumer taxa collected as the site-specific baseline. We report relatively low concentrations of THg and TSe in most fish. We also found in all studied reservoirs short food chain lengths, ranging from 3.3 to 3.7, with most fish relying on a mixture of pelagic and littoral sources for their diet. Mercury was biomagnified in fish food webs with an enrichment factor ranging from 2.9 to 6.5 for THg and from 2.9 to 6.6 for MeHg. However, there was no evidence of selenium biomagnification in these food webs. An inverse relationship was observed between adjusted δ15N and log-transformed Se:Hg ratios, indicating that Se has a lesser protective effect in top predators, which are also the most contaminated animals with respect to MeHg. Trophic position, carbon source, and fish total length were the factors best explaining Hg concentration in fish. In a broader comparison of our study sites with literature data for other African lakes, the THg biomagnification rate was positively correlated with FCL. We conclude that these reservoir systems from tropical Western Africa have low Hg biomagnification associated with short food chains. This finding may partly explain low concentrations of Hg commonly reported in fish from this area.

  8. Meningococcal Seroepidemiology 1 Year After the PsA-TT Mass Immunization Campaign in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Tall, Haoua; Yaro, Seydou; Kpoda, Hervé B. N.; Ouangraoua, Soumeya; Trotter, Caroline L.; Njanpop Lafourcade, Berthe-Marie; Findlow, Helen; Bai, Xilian; Martin, Catherine; Nwakamma, Ikenna; Ouedraogo, Jean Bosco; Gessner, Bradford D.; Borrow, Ray; Mueller, Judith E.

    2015-01-01

    Background. A group A meningococcal (MenA) conjugate vaccine, PsA-TT (MenAfriVac), was introduced in Burkina Faso via mass campaigns between September and December 2010, targeting the 1- to 29-year-old population. This study describes specific antibody titers in the general population 11 months later and compares them to preintroduction data obtained during 2008 using the same protocol. Methods. During October–November 2011, we recruited a representative sample of the population of urban Bobo-Dioulasso aged 6 months to 29 years, who underwent standardized interviews and blood draws. We assessed anti-MenA immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentrations (n = 200) and, using rabbit complement, serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) titers against 2 group A strains: reference strain F8238 (SBAref) (n = 562) and strain 3125 (SBA3125) (n = 200). Results. Among the 562 participants, 481 (86%) were aged ≥23 months and had been eligible for the PsA-TT campaign. Among them, vaccine coverage was 86.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 82.7%–89.9%). Prevalence of putatively protective antibodies among vaccine-eligible age groups was 97.3% (95% CI, 95.9%–98.7%) for SBAref titers ≥128, 83.6% (95% CI, 77.6%–89.7%) for SBA3125 ≥128, and 84.2% (95% CI, 78.7%–89.7%) for anti-MenA IgG ≥2 µg/mL. Compared to the population aged 23 months to 29 years during 2008, geometric mean titers of SBAref were 7.59-fold higher during 2011, 51.88-fold for SBA3125, and 10.56-fold for IgG. Conclusions. This study shows high seroprevalence against group A meningococci in Burkina Faso following MenAfriVac introduction. Follow-up surveys will provide evidence on the persistence of population-level immunity and the optimal vaccination strategy for long-term control of MenA meningitis in the African meningitis belt. PMID:26553686

  9. [Management of suspected cases of malaria before admission to a district hospital in Burkina Faso].

    PubMed

    Yaméogo, T M; Kyelem, C G; Bamba, S; Savadogo, L B; Sombié, I; Traoré, A-Z; Sanon, D; Ouédraogo, S M; Guiguemdé, T G

    2014-01-01

    After widespread use and misuse of antimalarial drugs led to the emergence of resistance, new guidelines for malaria treatment with artemisinine-based combination therapy (ACT) were introduced in Burkina Faso in 2005. To describe the management (drug therapy and other practices) of patients with suspected malaria before their admission to the district hospital of Dô, seven years later. This cross-sectional study was conducted during admission to the district hospital, during the low season for malaria, from December 2010 to May 2011. It included all patients aged 6 months or older diagnosed with suspected malaria according to the criteria of the national malaria control program, excluding those with severe comorbidities. The study included 476 suspected cases, 422 (88.7%) uncomplicated and 54 (11.3%) complicated. They accounted for 7.9% of all admissions. Their mean age was 14.4 years, and 35.3% (n = 168) were younger than 5 years. Only 23 (4.8%) had first consulted in a primary health care facility; 346 (72.7%) had used initial self-medication (or, more precisely in some cases, parental administration of medication without medical consultation). Overall, 435 (91.4%) came directly to the district hospital, 331 (76.1%) of them after self-medication; 10 (2.1%) had first consulted a traditional healer. The practice of self-medication did not differ according to age, gender, or complications (p>0.05). The drugs used for self-medication were mainly antipyretics (94.5%) and antimalarials (16.8%); the latter included ACT (39.6%), quinine (19.0%), and non-recommended antimalarial agents (41.4%). During the malaria low season, the treatment itinerary of suspected malaria cases is marked by equal use of ACT and non-recommended antimalarials for self-medication and minimal use of the primary level of care. A study underway of this management and these itineraries during the epidemic season may provide more data about use of ACT, the last armament against malaria in drug

  10. Parental HIV disclosure in Burkina Faso: experiences and challenges in the era of HAART.

    PubMed

    Tiendrebeogo, Georges; Hejoaka, Fabienne; Belem, Edwige Mireille; Compaoré, Pascal Louis Germain; Wolmarans, Liezel; Soubeiga, André; Ouangraoua, Nathalie

    2013-07-01

    Increasingly parents living with HIV will have to confront the dilemmas of concealing their lifelong treatment or disclosing to their children exposed to their daily treatment practices. However, limited data are available regarding parental HIV disclosure to children in Burkina Faso. Do parents on antiretroviral therapy disclose their HIV status to their children? What drives them? How do they proceed and how do children respond? We conducted in-depth interviews with 63 parents of children aged seven and above where the parents had been in treatment for more than 3 years in two major cities of Burkina Faso. Interviews addressed parental disclosure and the children's role in their parents' treatment. The rate of parental HIV status disclosure is as high as that of non-disclosure. Factors associated with parental disclosure include female sex, parent's older age, parent's marital history and number of children. After adjustment, it appears that the only factor remaining associated with parental disclosure was the female gender of the parent. In most of the cases, children suspected, and among non-disclosers many believed their children already knew without formal disclosure. Age of the children and history of divorce or widowhood were associated with parental disclosure. Most parents believed children do not have the necessary emotional skills to understand or that they cannot keep a secret. However, parents who disclosed to their children did not experience blame nor was their secret revealed. Rather, children became treatment supporters. Challenges to parental HIV disclosure to children are neither essential nor specific since disclosure to adults is already difficult because of perceived risk of public disclosure and subsequent stigma. However, whether aware or not of their parents' HIV-positive status, children contribute positively to the care of parents living with HIV. Perceptions about children's vulnerability and will to protect them against stigma lead

  11. Malaria related care-seeking-behaviour and expenditures in urban settings: A household survey in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Beogo, Idrissa; Huang, Nicole; Drabo, Maxime K; Yé, Yazoumé

    2016-08-01

    In Sub-Sahara Africa, malaria inflicts a high healthcare expenditure to individuals. However, little is known about healthcare expenditure to individual affected by malaria and determinants of healthcare seeking behaviour in urban settings where private sector is thriving. This study investigated the level and correlates of expenditure among individuals with self-reported malaria episode in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. A cross-sectional household survey conducted in August-November 2011 in Ouagadougou covered 8,243 individuals (1,600 households). Using Generalized Estimating Equations, the analysis included 1082 individuals from 715 households, who reported an episode of malaria. Of individuals surveyed, 38.3% sought care from public, 27.4% from private providers, and, 34.2% self-medicated. The median cost for malaria treatment was USD10.1 (4,850.0XOF) with significant different between public, private and self-medication (p<0.001). In public primary care health facilities, the median cost was USD8.4 (4,050.0XOF) for uncomplicated malaria and USD15.2 (7,333.5XOF) for severe malaria. In private-for-profit facilities run by a medical doctor, the median cost was USD30.3 (14,600.0XOF) for uncomplicated malaria and USD 43.0 (20,725.0XOF) for severe malaria. Regardless of the source of care, patients with insurance incurred significantly higher expenditure compared to those without insurance (p<0.001) and medicine accounted for the largest share of the expenditure. The type of provider, having insurance, and the severity of the malaria predict the amount of money spent. The high financial cost of malaria treatment regardless of the providers poses threat to the goal of universal access to malaria interventions, the unique way to achieve elimination goals.

  12. The impacts of land cover change to savannah on the convective rainfall in the southeastern Burkina Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mande, T.; Ceperley, N. C.; Katul, G. G.; Yacouba, H.; Tyler, S. W.; Van De Giesen, N.; Rinaldo, A.; Parlange, M. B.

    2013-12-01

    Resolving the pathways by which landcover changes impact rainfall occurrences is essential to sustaining ecosystem goods and services in water limited areas such as West Africa (southeastern Burkina Faso) where agriculture is primarily rain-fed. The focus of this work is to investigate the main causes of enhanced rainfall observed over savannah forest versus agricultural areas within this region. These two areas experience similar synoptic scale weather patterns but there are significant differences in land-cover properties. A model for predicting the time evolution of the mixed layer (ML) height as driven by measured sensible heat flux using a thermodynamic encroachment hypothesis was combined with a model for predicting the lifting condensation level (LCL) driven by measured mean air temperature and relative humidity collected above both land-cover types. Measured convective rainfall events from tipping bucket gauges were then identified following the crossing of the LCL and ML heights. The analysis revealed that the crossing of ML and LCL was 30% more frequent above the savannah forest when compared to the agricultural area because of increased sensible heat flux and not because of significant differences in LCL heights between the two sites. These enhancements in crossing statistics were commensurate with the 10-30% increases in annual rainfall recorded above the savannah forest when compared to the agricultural site. The probability density function (pdf) of the measured intensity (mm h-1) of the identified convective rainfall events (=x) at both sites scaled as an approximate power given by pdf(x)~xa, where the exponent a=-1.5 was computed for both sites. This exponent is in good agreement with reported exponents for summertime convective rainfall in other regions, lending further confidence in the identification of convective rainfall events here. The biotic (leaf area index) and abiotic (well drained soil) factors causing the enhanced sensible heat flux at

  13. Monitoring water turbidity and surface suspended sediment concentration of the Bagre Reservoir (Burkina Faso) using MODIS and field reflectance data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robert, Elodie; Grippa, Manuela; Kergoat, Laurent; Pinet, Sylvain; Gal, Laetitia; Cochonneau, Gérard; Martinez, Jean-Michel

    2016-10-01

    Monitoring turbidity and Surface Suspended Sediment Concentration (SSSC) of inland waters is essential to address several important issues: erosion, sediment transport and deposition throughout watersheds, reservoir siltation, water pollution, human health risks, etc. This is especially important in regions with limited conventional monitoring capacities such as West Africa. In this study, we explore the use of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer data (MODIS, MOD09Q1 and MYD09Q1 products, red (R) and near infrared (NIR) bands) to monitor turbidity and SSSC for the Bagre Reservoir in Burkina Faso. High values ​​of these parameters associated with high spatial and temporal variability potentially challenge the methodologies developed so far for less turbid waters. Field measurements (turbidity, SSSC, radiometry) are used to evaluate different radiometric indices. The NIR/R ratio is found to be the most suited to retrieve SSSC and turbidity for both in-situ spectoradiometer measurements and satellite reflectance from MODIS. The spatio temporal variability of MODIS NIR/R together with rainfall estimated by the Tropical Rainforest Measuring Mission (TRMM) and altimetry data from Jason-2 is analyzed over the Bagre Reservoir for the 2000-2015 period. It is found that rain events of the early rainy season (February-March) through mid-rainy season (August) are decisive in triggering turbidity increase. Sediment transport is observed in the reservoir from upstream to downstream between June and September. Furthermore, a significant increase of 19% in turbidity values is observed between 2000 and 2015, mainly for the July to December period. It is especially well marked for August, with the central and downstream areas showing the largest increase. The most probable hypothesis to explain this evolution is a change in land use, and particularly an increase in the amount of bare soils, which enhances particle transport by runoff.

  14. Malaria in rural Burkina Faso: local illness concepts, patterns of traditional treatment and influence on health-seeking behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Beiersmann, Claudia; Sanou, Aboubakary; Wladarsch, Evelyn; De Allegri, Manuela; Kouyaté, Bocar; Müller, Olaf

    2007-01-01

    Background The literature on health care seeking behaviour in sub-Saharan Africa for children suffering from malaria is quite extensive. This literature, however, is predominately quantitative and, inevitably, fails to explore how the local concepts of illness may affect people's choices. Understanding local concepts of illness and their influence on health care-seeking behaviour can complement existing knowledge and lead to the development of more effective malaria control interventions. Methods In a rural area of Burkina Faso, four local concepts of illness resembling the biomedical picture of malaria were described according to symptoms, aetiology, and treatment. Data were collected through eight focus group discussions, 17 semi-structured interviews with key informants, and through the analysis of 100 verbal autopsy questionnaires of children under-five diagnosed with malaria. Results Sumaya, dusukun yelema, kono, and djoliban were identified as the four main local illness concepts resembling respectively uncomplicated malaria, respiratory distress syndrome, cerebral malaria, and severe anaemia. The local disease categorization was found to affect both treatment and provider choice. While sumaya is usually treated by a mix of traditional and modern methods, dusukun yelema and kono are preferably treated by traditional healers, and djoliban is preferably treated in modern health facilities. Besides the conceptualization of illness, poverty was found to be another important influencing factor of health care-seeking behaviour. Conclusion The findings complement previous evidence on health care-seeking behaviour, by showing how local concepts of illness strongly influence treatment and choice of provider. Local concepts of illness need to be considered when developing specific malaria control programmes. PMID:17686147

  15. Prevalence of and Factors Associated with Human Cysticercosis in 60 Villages in Three Provinces of Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Carabin, Hélène; Millogo, Athanase; Cissé, Assana; Gabriël, Sarah; Sahlu, Ida; Dorny, Pierre; Bauer, Cici; Tarnagda, Zekiba; Ganaba, Rasmané

    2015-01-01

    Background Taenia solium, a zoonotic infection transmitted between humans and pigs, is considered an emerging infection in Sub-Saharan Africa, yet individual and community-level factors associated with the human infection with the larval stages (cysticercosis) are not well understood. This study aims to estimate the magnitude of association of individual-level and village-level factors with current human cysticercosis in 60 villages located in three Provinces of Burkina Faso. Methodology/Principal Findings Baseline cross-sectional data collected between February 2011 and January 2012 from a large community randomized-control trial were used. A total of 3609 individuals provided serum samples to assess current infection with cysticercosis. The association between individual and village-level factors and the prevalence of current infection with cysticercosis was estimated using Bayesian hierarchical logistic models. Diffuse priors were used for all regression coefficients. The prevalence of current cysticercosis varied across provinces and villages ranging from 0% to 11.5%. The results obtained suggest that increased age, being male and consuming pork as well as a larger proportion of roaming pigs and percentage of sand in the soil measured at the village level were associated with higher prevalences of infection. Furthermore, consuming pork at another village market had the highest increased prevalence odds of current infection. Having access to a latrine, living in a household with higher wealth quintiles and a higher soil pH measured at the village level decreased the prevalence odds of cysticercosis. Conclusions/Significance This is the first large-scale study to examine the association between variables measured at the individual-, household-, and village-level and the prevalence odds of cysticercosis in humans. Factors linked to people, pigs, and the environment were of importance, which further supports the need for a One Health approach to control

  16. Biodegradation of free cyanide by bacterial species isolated from cyanide-contaminated artisanal gold mining catchment area in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Razanamahandry, Lovasoa Christine; Andrianisa, Harinaivo Anderson; Karoui, Hela; Kouakou, Koffi Marcelin; Yacouba, Hamma

    2016-08-01

    Soil and water samples were collected from a watershed in Burkina Faso where illegal artisanal gold extraction using cyanidation occurs. The samples were used to evaluate cyanide contamination and the presence of cyanide degrading bacteria (CDB). Free cyanide (F-CN) was detected in all samples, with concentrations varying from 0.023 to 0.9 mg kg(-1), and 0.7-23 μg L(-1) in the soil and water samples, respectively. Potential CDB also were present in the samples. To test the effective F-CN degradation capacity of the isolated CDB species, the species were cultivated in growth media containing 40, 60 or 80 mg F-CN L(-1), with or without nutrients, at pH 9.5 and at room temperature. More than 95% of F-CN was degraded within 25 h, and F-CN degradation was associated with bacterial growth and ammonium production. However, initial concentrations of F-CN higher than 100 mg L(-1) inhibited bacterial growth and cyanide degradation. Abiotic tests showed that less than 3% of F-CN was removed by volatilization. Thus, the degradation of F-CN occurred predominately by biological mechanisms, and such mechanisms are recommended for remediation of contaminated soil and water. The bacteria consortium used in the experiment described above exist in a Sahelian climate, which is characterized by a long hot and dry season. Because the bacteria are already adapted to the local climate conditions and show the potential for cyanide biodegradation, further applicability to other contaminated areas in West Africa, where illegal gold cyanidation is widespread, should be explored.

  17. [Impact of a conjugated anti meningococcal A vaccine on notification of bacterial meningitis in West Burkina Faso (2009-2012)].

    PubMed

    Ouangraoua, S; Schlumberger, M; Yaro, S; Ouédraogo, A S; Sanou, S; Drabo, A; Yaméogo, T M; Ouedraogo, R

    2014-02-01

    Burkina Faso is a sub-saharan African country completely included in the meningococcal meningitis belt. The western part of the country suffered from many meningococcal A epidemics, in spite of reactive collective campaigns with polysaccharide A vaccine. On 6th December 2010, Burkina Faso was the first African country to conduct a collective vaccination campaign of all the 1-29 years old population with a new conjugated meningococcal Avaccine (MenAfriVac™). Before this campaign, in Western Burkina (4,064,928 inhabitants, 27.5% of total population), a rehearsal of the staff of all peripheral medical laboratories has been conducted, with delivery of laboratory equipment, reactants, and possibility to transfer CSF specimens at the central level to confirm bacteriologic species in cause by latex, culture and PCR analysis. For this campaign, an administrative coverage of 100.3% was reached. A nearly complete disappearance of meningitis due to meningococcus A was recorded, but an increase of cases due to meningococcus X, W135. With the increase of quality of surveillance, and MenAfriVac™ vaccination showed its beneficial effect on meningococcus A meningitis. If we want however to impact on the number of recorded acute bacteriological meningitis, we will have to use multi-antigenic, if possible conjugated, meningococcal vaccines against locally circulating meningococcal species, the number of pneumococcal meningitis being contained by the recent inclusion in EPI of a 13-valent conjugated pneumococcal vaccine.

  18. Children take the lead in peer education in Burkina Faso villages.

    PubMed

    Tankoano, F

    1994-01-01

    Plan International, a nongovernmental organization working in 46 villages in Burkina Faso, undertook a pilot project in response to villagers' wishes to have more information on AIDS and its prevention. The 10 pilot villages were identified as high-risk because they had a young population which frequently migrated to the Ivory Coast, were proximate to a weekly market, and were proximate to sites rich in gold (which creates zones of economic activity that attract prostitutes). The villagers were asked to designate 3 young men and 3 young women to be trained in prevention methods, including condom use. Experienced women trainers trained the girls, and men trainers trained the boys using knowledge techniques adapted to everyday village life and developing the dynamic presentation skills of the young people. The youths wore special t-shirts and were able to sell condoms and keep the revenues. Pre/post-tests conducted among 30 individuals per village (5 adults and 5 youth of each sex) revealed that 84% of the population attended discussion groups and that condom use doubled from 9 to 18%. The youth trained in this project went on to form theater and choral groups and to obtain funding to produce a video of their performance for use in other villages. This project has been extended to 105 villages. 1495 village communicators (580 youth) have been trained, and 13,528 condoms have been sold in the first 6 months of 1994.

  19. Decreasing child mortality, spatial clustering and decreasing disparity in North-Western Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Becher, Heiko; Müller, Olaf; Dambach, Peter; Gabrysch, Sabine; Niamba, Louis; Sankoh, Osman; Simboro, Seraphin; Schoeps, Anja; Stieglbauer, Gabriele; Yé, Yazoume; Sié, Ali

    2016-04-01

    Within relatively small areas, there exist high spatial variations of mortality between villages. In rural Burkina Faso, with data from 1993 to 1998, clusters of particularly high child mortality were identified in the population of the Nouna Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS), a member of the INDEPTH Network. In this paper, we report child mortality with respect to temporal trends, spatial clustering and disparity in this HDSS from 1993 to 2012. Poisson regression was used to describe village-specific child mortality rates and time trends in mortality. The spatial scan statistic was used to identify villages or village clusters with higher child mortality. Clustering of mortality in the area is still present, but not as strong as before. The disparity of child mortality between villages has decreased. The decrease occurred in the context of an overall halving of child mortality in the rural area of Nouna HDSS between 1993 and 2012. Extrapolated to the Millennium Development Goals target period 1990-2015, this yields an estimated reduction of 54%, which is not too far off the aim of a two-thirds reduction.

  20. Prevalence case-control study of epilepsy in three Burkina Faso villages

    PubMed Central

    Nitiéma, Pascal; Carabin, Hélène; Hounton, Sennen; Cowan, Linda D; Ganaba, Rasmané; Kompaoré, C; Millogo, Athanase

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To estimate the association between the prevalence of epilepsy and potential risk factors in three Burkina Faso villages. Methods Three villages were selected based on local reports of high numbers of epilepsy cases and pig-rearing practices. One person aged 7 or older was selected at random from all households of selected concessions for epilepsy screening and blood sampling. Epilepsy was confirmed by a physician using the ILAE definition. The cross-sectional associations between epilepsy and selected factors and sero-response to the antigens of Taenia solium were estimated using a Bayesian hierarchical logistic regression. Prevalence odds ratios (POR) and their 95% Credible Intervals (95%BCI) were estimated. Results Of 888 individuals interviewed, 39 of 70 screened positive were confirmed to have epilepsy for a lifetime prevalence of 4.5% (95%CI: 3.3–6.0). The prevalence of epilepsy was associated with a positive reaction to cysticercosis Ag-ELISA serology (POR=3.1, 95% BCI= 1.0;8.3), past pork consumption (POR=9.7, 95% BCI=2.5;37.9), and being salaried or a trader compared to a farmer or housewife (POR=2.9, 95% BCI= 1.2;6.4). Discussion Several factors were associated with prevalent epilepsy, with Ag-ELISA suggesting the presence of neurocysticercosis. The association of epilepsy and some occupations may reflect differences in local attitudes toward epilepsy and should be further explored. PMID:22289127

  1. Evidence of behaviour change following a hygiene promotion programme in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, V.; Kanki, B.; Cousens, S.; Diallo, I.; Kpozehouen, A.; Sangaré, M.; Nikiema, M.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine whether a large, 3-year hygiene promotion programme in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso, was effective in changing behaviours associated with the spread of diarrhoeal diseases. The programme was tailored to local customs, targeted specific types of behaviour, built on existing motivation for hygiene, and used locally appropriate channels of communication. METHODS: Two population surveys recorded the coverage of the programme among target audiences (mothers of children aged 0-35 months). Four surveys were carried out: three prior to the programme and one in 1998 (after the programme had been running for 3 years), using structured observation of hygiene behaviours in the participants' homes to document changes in target behaviours. FINDINGS: After the programme had run for 3 years, three-quarters of the mothers targeted had had contact with programme activities. Half could cite the two main messages of the programme correctly. Although the safe disposal of children's stools changed little between 1995 and 1998 (80% pre-intervention, 84% post-intervention), hand-washing with soap after cleaning a child's bottom rose from 13% to 31%. The proportion of mothers who washed their hands with soap after using the latrine increased from 1% to 17%. CONCLUSION: Hygiene promotion programmes can change behaviour and are more likely to be effective if they are built on local research and use locally appropriate channels of communication repeatedly and for an extended time. PMID:11436473

  2. Active Referral: An Innovative Approach to Engaging Traditional Healthcare Providers in TB Control in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Kaboru, Berthollet Bwira

    2013-01-01

    Background and objective: The involvement of traditional healthcare providers (THPs) has been suggested among strategies to increase tuberculosis case detection. Burkina Faso has embarked on such an attempt. This study is a preliminary assessment of that model. Methods: Qualitative data were collected using unstructured key informant interviews with policy makers, group interviews with THPs and health workers, and field visits to THPs. Quantitative data were collected from program reports and the national tuberculosis (TB) control database. Results and analysis: The distribution of tasks among THPs, intermediary organizations and clinicians is appealing, especially the focus on active referral. THPs are offered incentives based on numbers of suspected cases confirmed by health workers at the clinic, based on microscopy results or clinical assessment. The positivity rate was 23% and 9% for 2006 and 2007, respectively. The contribution of the program to national case detection was estimated at 2% for 2006. Because it relied totally on donor funding, the program suffered from irregular disbursements, resulting in periodic decreases in activities and outcomes. Conclusions: The study shows that single interventions require a broader positive policy environment to be sustainable. Even if the active referral approach seems effective in enhancing TB case detection, more complex policy work and direction, domestic financial contribution and additional evidence for cost-effectiveness are needed before the approach can be established as a national policy. PMID:24359717

  3. A spatial analysis of a community-based selection of indigents in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Ridde, Valéry; Bonnet, Emmanuel; Nikiema, Aude; Kadio, Kadidiatou

    2013-03-01

    Over recent decades, Burkina Faso has improved the geographic accessibility of its health centres. However, patients are still required to pay point-of-service user fees, which excludes the most vulnerable from access to care. In 2010, 259 village committees in the Ouargaye district selected 2649 indigents to be exempted from user fees. The 26 health centre management committees that fund this exemption retained 1097 of those selected indigents. Spatial analysis showed that the management committees retained the indigents who were geographically closer to the health centres, in contrast to the selections of the village committees which were more diversified. Using village committees to select indigents would seem preferable to using management committees. It is not yet known whether the management committees' selections were due to a desire to maximize the benefits of exemption by giving it to those most likely to use it, or to the fact that they did not personally know the indigents who were more geographically distant from them, or that some villages are not represented at the management committees.

  4. The occurence of high nitrate concentration in groundwater in villages in Northwestern Burkina Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groen, J.; Schuchmann, J. B.; Geirnaert, W.

    In the ≪Volta Noire≫ rural water supply project 168 boreholes have been drilled and equipped with handpumps in north-western Burkina Faso in the period 1984 - 1986. In 15% of these drilled wells nitrate concentrations exceeded the World Health Organization recommended limit of 45 mg/1. This was also the case in 36% of dug wells sampled during reconnaissance surveys. A review of the field data showed that high nitrate concentrations were more pronounced in villages of certain ethnic groups characterized by a high housing density. Nitrate contamination is caused by the dumping of organic waste in and around the villages. When villages or village-quarters are spread out over larger areas, the contamination is more diffuse and the crops grown between the houses are presumed to take up a substancial part of the nitrogen charge. Groundwater with a high electrical conductivity is positively related to high nitrate concentrations. Near villages with high housing density, conductive groundwater bodies have been detected by routine geo-electrical profiling. It was observed that in horeholes downstream of the village with regard to the direction of groundwater flow, a higher incidence of nitrate contamination is present. It is therefore recommended to site boreholes in villages with a close grouping of houses upstream from the village and to observe a minimum distance from the village center of at least 200m. Siting of boreholes can be improved by applying electrical or electro-magnetic methods.

  5. Changing land management practices and vegetation on the Central Plateau of Burkina Faso (1968-2002)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reij, C.; Tappan, G.; Belemvire, A.

    2005-01-01

    In the early 1980s, the situation on the northern part of the Central Plateau of Burkina Faso was characterized by expanding cultivation on lands marginal to agriculture, declining rainfall, low and declining cereal yields, disappearing and impoverishing vegetation, falling ground-water levels and strong outmigration. This crisis situation provoked two reactions. Farmers, as well as technicians working for non-governmental organizations, started to experiment in improving soil and water conservation (SWC) techniques. When these experiments proved successful, donor agencies rapidly designed SWC projects based on simple, effective techniques acceptable to farmers. A study looked at the impact of SWC investments in nine villages and identified a number of major impacts, including: significant increases in millet and sorghum yields since the mid-1980s, cultivated fields treated with SWC techniques have more trees than 10-15 years ago, but the vegetation on most of the non-cultivated areas continues to degrade, greater availability of forage for livestock, increased investment in livestock by men and women and a beginning change in livestock management from extensive to semi-intensive methods, improved soil fertility management by farmers, locally rising ground-water tables, a decrease in outmigration and a significant reduction in rural poverty. Finally, data are presented on the evolution of land use in three villages between 1968 and 2002. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Influence of deltamethrin treatment of bed nets on malaria transmission in the Kou valley, Burkina Faso.

    PubMed Central

    Robert, V.; Carnevale, P.

    1991-01-01

    A 3-year entomological study was carried out on the transmission of malaria in a village of 900 inhabitants in a rice-growing area of Burkina Faso. In the study area inhabitants use bed nets to protect themselves from mosquito bites. In the first year of the study, baseline data were collected; in the second year, the village was divided in two parts and all the bed nets in the southern part were sprayed with deltamethrin (25 mg/m2); and in the third year, all the bed nets in both parts of the village were sprayed. The inoculation rate was estimated by hand collection of mosquitos on human volunteers who were not protected by bed nets. The overall inoculation rate in the first year was 55 infected bites per person and was higher in the southern than in the northern part of the village. During the second year the rate increased to 70 bites per person on average (but was slightly lower than this in the southern part of the village). During the third year, the inoculation rate fell to three infected bites per year, i.e., a reduction of 94% compared with the first year. This reduction arose primarily because of a marked decrease in the sporozoitic index and a lower density of vectors. Thus, use of pyrethroid-impregnated bed nets by all members of the community appears to be a major tool in preventing transmission of malaria. PMID:1786622

  7. Household food insecurity and food expenditure in Bolivia, Burkina Faso, And the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Melgar-Quinonez, Hugo R; Zubieta, Ana C; MkNelly, Barbara; Nteziyaremye, Anastase; Gerardo, Maria Filipinas D; Dunford, Christopher

    2006-05-01

    This study examined the association between food insecurity, determined by a modified version of the U.S. Household Food Security Survey Module (US HFSSM), and total daily per capita (DPC) consumption (measured as household expenditures) in Bolivia, Burkina Faso, and the Philippines. Household food insecurity was determined by an adapted 9-item US HFSSM version. A short version of the World Bank's Living Standards Measurement Study (LSMS) consumption module measured household expenditures. Focus groups were used to adapt the survey instrument to each local context. The sample (n approximately 330 per country) includes residents of urban and rural areas. A 12-month food expenditure aggregate was generated as part of the total household expenditures calculation. DPC food expenditure, which represented over 60% of the total household consumption, as well as expenditures on specific food groups correlated with food insecurity both as a continuous Food Insecurity Score (FinSS) and a tricategorical food insecurity status variable. ANOVA and regression analysis were executed adjusting for social and demographic covariates. Food-secure households have significantly higher (P < 0.05) total DPC food expenditures as well as expenditures on animal source foods, vegetables, and fats and oils than moderately and severely food-insecure households. The results offer evidence that the US HFSSM is able to discriminate between households at different levels of food insecurity status in diverse developing world settings.

  8. Key determinants of induced abortion in women seeking postabortion care in hospital facilities in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Ilboudo, Patrick GC; Somda, Serge MA; Sundby, Johanne

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Despite the universal recognition of unsafe abortion as a major public health problem, very little research has been conducted to document its precipitating factors in Burkina Faso. Our aim was to investigate the key determinants of induced abortion in a sample of women who sought postabortion care. Materials and methods A cross-sectional household survey was carried out from February to September 2012 in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Data of 37 women who had had an induced abortion and 267 women who had had a spontaneous abortion were prospectively collected on sociodemographic characteristics, pregnancy and birth history, abortion experience, including previous abortion experience, and selected clinical information, including the type of abortion. A two-step regression analysis consisting of a univariate and a multivariate logistic regression was run on Stata version 11.2 in order to identify the key determinants of induced abortion. Results The findings indicated that 12% of all abortions were certainly induced. Three key factors were significantly and positively associated with the probability of having an induced abortion: whether the woman reported that her pregnancy was unwanted (odds ratio [OR] 10.45, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.59–30.41); whether the woman reported was living in a household headed by her parents (OR 6.83, 95% CI 2.42–19.24); and if the woman reported was divorced or widowed (OR 3.47, 95% CI 1.08–11.10). On the contrary, being married was protective against induced abortion, with women who reported being married having an 83% (OR 0.17, CI 0.03–0.89) lower chance of having an induced abortion, even when the pregnancy was unwanted. Conclusion This study has identified three major determinants of induced abortion in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Improved targeted programs on family planning counseling, methods of contraception, and availability of contraceptives should be widely promoted. PMID:24920938

  9. Evolution of rainfall and temperature trend and variability in Burkina Faso: Analysis of meteorological data and farmers' perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Y. B.

    2015-12-01

    Farmers in Burkina Faso are among the most exposed to climate change/ climate variability, as their livelihoods are greatly linked to climate hazards. Rainfall and in some extent temperature are among the inputs farmers use to take decisions in their farming activities. A better understanding of factors that shape farmers' perceptions of climate change and decision to adapt farming practices is needed to take appropriate measures. In the current study farmers' perception of climate change and climate variability- specifically, changes in rainfall and temperature- were compared to historical recorded climate data. Primary data was collected through village focus-group surveys and household surveys. Nine Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) were conducted in the study areas' villages; 450 households were also selected randomly from three locations and sampled out through a multi-stage sampling procedure. Secondary data on the historical precipitation and temperature of Burkina Faso from 1960 to 2012 was obtained from the National Meteorological Service of Burkina Faso (DGM) and the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute. Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and temperature anomalies methodology have been used to assess anomalies in rainfall and temperature covering a period of 48 years, from 1964 to 2011; and Mann-Kendall test and Theil-Sen slope estimator to assess the significance of the trends and the Theil-Sen slope estimator is used to identify their magnitude. The analysis of farmers' perceptions of climate change indicates that most farmers perceived a declining trend of precipitation and an increasing trend of temperature in all areas. Results from recorded climate data's analysis, revealed contrasting evidence, while that farmers' perception of temperature match with historical data, their perception of rainfall evolution were not always corroboted by scientific evidence.

  10. Lessons learnt from 20 years surveillance of malaria drug resistance prior to the policy change in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Tinto, Halidou; Valea, Innocent; Ouédraogo, Jean-Bosco; Guiguemdé, Tinga Robert

    2016-01-01

    The history of drug resistance to the previous antimalarial drugs, and the potential for resistance to evolve to Artemisinin-based combination therapies, demonstrates the necessity to set-up a good surveillance system in order to provide early warning of the development of resistance. Here we report a review summarizing the history of the surveillance of drug resistance that led to the policy change in Burkina Faso. The first Plasmodium falciparum Chloroquine-Resistance strain identified in Burkina Faso was detected by an in vitro test carried out in Koudougou in 1983. Nevertheless, no further cases were reported until 1987, suggesting that resistant strains had been circulating at a low prevalence before the beginning of the systematic surveillance system from 1984. We observed a marked increase of Chloroquine-Resistance in 2002-2003 probably due to the length of follow-up as the follow-up duration was 7 or 14 days before 2002 and 28 days from 2002 onwards. Therefore, pre-2002 studies have probably under-estimated the real prevalence of Chloroquine-Resistance by not detecting the late recrudescence. With a rate of 8.2% treatment failure reported in 2003, Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine was still efficacious for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria in Burkina Faso but this rate might rapidly increase as the result of its spreading from neighboring countries and due to its current use for both the Intermittent Preventive Treatment in pregnant women and Seasonal Malaria Chemoprophylaxis. The current strategy for the surveillance of the Artemisinin-based combination treatments resistance should build on lessons learnt under the previous period of 20 years surveillance of Chloroquine and Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine resistance (1994-2004). The most important aspect being to extend the number of sentinel sites so that data would be less patchy and could help understanding the dynamic of the resistance.

  11. The vulnerability of men to virologic failure during antiretroviral therapy in a public routine clinic in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Penot, Pauline; Héma, Arsène; Bado, Guillaume; Kaboré, Firmin; Soré, Ibrahim; Sombié, Diamasso; Traoré, Jean-Richard; Guiard-Schmid, Jean-Baptiste; Fontanet, Arnaud; Slama, Laurence; Sawadogo, Adrien Bruno; Laurent, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Gender differences in antiretroviral therapy (ART) outcomes are critical in sub-Saharan Africa. We assessed the association between gender and virologic failure among adult patients treated in a public routine clinic (one of the largest in West Africa) in Burkina Faso. Methods We performed a case-control study between July and October 2012 among patients who had received ART at the Bobo Dioulasso Day Care Unit. Patients were eligible if they were 15 years or older, positive for HIV-1 or HIV-1+2, and on first-line ART for at least six months. Cases were all patients with two consecutive HIV loads >1000 copies/mL (Biocentric Generic or Abbott Real Time assays), or one HIV load >1000 copies/mL associated with immunologic or clinical failure criteria. Controls were all patients who only had HIV loads <300 copies/mL. The association between gender and virologic failure was assessed using a multivariate logistic regression, adjusted on age, level of education, baseline CD4+ T cell count, first and current antiretroviral regimens and time on ART. Results Of 2303 patients (74.2% women; median age: 40 years; median time on ART: 34 months), 172 had virologic failure and 2131 had virologic success. Among the former, 130 (75.6%) had confirmed virologic failure, 38 (22.1%) had viro-immunologic failure, and four (2.3%) had viro-clinical failure. The proportion of men was significantly higher among the cases than among the controls (37.2% vs. 24.9%; p<0.001). Compared to controls, cases were also younger, more immunodeficient at ART initiation, less likely to receive a protease inhibitor-based antiretroviral regimen and had spent a longer period of time on ART. After adjustment, male gender remained strongly associated with virologic failure (odds ratio 2.52, 95% CI: 1.77–3.60; p<0.001). Conclusions Men on ART appeared more vulnerable to virologic failure than women. Additional studies are needed to confirm the poorer prognosis of men in this setting and to

  12. [Understanding and reaching young clandestine sex workers in Burkina Faso to improve response to HIV].

    PubMed

    Berthé, Abdramane; Huygens, Pierre; Ouattara, Cécile; Sanon, Anselme; Ouédraogo, Abdoulaye; Nagot, Nicolas

    2008-01-01

    In 1998, researchers in Burkina Faso enrolled 300 women more or less involved in commercial sex work in an open cohort to determine whether adequate management of their sexually transmitted infections and exposure to well-designed, well-delivered, and plentiful communication for behaviour change (CBC) might reduce their vulnerability to HIV. In 2000, they observed that the non-professional sex workers (occasional or clandestine sex workers) were more difficult to reach, to mobilize and to keep involved in the project's different activities. This group was also infected at the same or higher rates than professional sex workers because they did not use condoms routinely. To accomplish the project objectives, they therefore chose to recruit more non-professional sex workers in the new cohort of 700 women. This social-anthropological study was conducted to help them to enrol young clandestine sex workers. The overall objective of this study was to understand the life of this category of sex workers and to identify strategic actors to reach them. Using a qualitative method, social anthropologists reviewed literature, identified and geo-referenced all local places suitable to encountering these women, obtained life stories from some of them and interviewed key informants and participants in the field. The results showed that in Bobo-Dioulasso (Burkina Faso): - most young women who are clandestine sex workers are Burkinabe, and girls entering the sex trade are increasingly young and increasingly uneducated; - most of them come from families with low capital (financial, cultural, or social). The parents' socioeconomic status (contextual poverty) results in unmet financial needs, which in turn exposes them to starting work early, including commercial sex work; - of all the income-generating activities available to unskilled young girls, commercial sex work is one of the most profitable and easily accessible; - in the three-fold context of an HIV epidemic, poverty, and

  13. Targeted Water Quality Assessment in Small Reservoirs in Brazil, Zimbabwe, Morocco and Burkina Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boelee, Eline; Rodrigues, Lineu; Senzanje, Aidan; Laamrani, Hammou; Cecchi, Philippe

    2010-05-01

    Background Physical and chemical parameters of water in reservoirs can be affected by natural and manmade pollutants, causing damage to the aquatic life and water quality. However, the exact water quality considerations depend on what the water will be used for. Brick making, livestock watering, fisheries, irrigation and domestic uses all have their own specific water quality requirements. In turn, these uses impact on water quality. Methodology Water quality was assessed with a variety of methods in small multipurpose reservoirs in the São Francisco Basin in Brazil, Limpopo in Zimbabwe, Souss Massa in Morocco and Nakambé in Burkina Faso. In each case the first step was to select the reservoirs for which the water quality was to be monitored, then identify the main water uses, followed by a determination of key relevant water quality parameters. In addition, a survey was done in some cases to identify quality perceptions of the users. Samples were taken from the reservoir itself and related water bodies such as canals and wells where relevant. Results Accordingly in the four basins different methods gave different locally relevant results. In the Preto River in the Sao Francisco in Brazil small reservoirs are mainly used for irrigated agriculture. Chemical analysis of various small reservoirs showed that water quality was mainly influenced by geological origins. In addition there was nutrient inflow from surrounding areas of intensive agriculture with high fertilizer use. In the Limpopo basin in Zimbabwe small reservoirs are used for almost all community water needs. Plankton was selected as indicator and sampling was carried out in reservoirs in communal areas and in a national park. Park reservoirs were significantly more diversified in phytoplankton taxa compared to those in the communal lands, but not for zooplankton, though communal lands had the highest zooplankton abundance. In Souss Massa in Morocco a combination of perceptions and scientific water

  14. Recrudescence of onchocerciasis in the Comoé valley in Southwest Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Koala, Lassane; Nikiema, Achille; Post, Rory J; Paré, Alain Brice; Kafando, Claude Montant; Drabo, François; Traoré, Soungalo

    2017-02-01

    Onchocerciasis control by vector control was instigated in southwest Burkina Faso in January 1969 by ORSTOM/OCCGE, and continued until operations were taken over by the WHO Onchocerciasis Control Programme (OCP) in February 1975, which itself ceased operations in the area in 1989 when onchocerciasis was judged to have been reduced to insignificant levels. Initially (1969-1975) vector immigration maintained unacceptably high levels of transmission, but OCP was much larger than the preceding campaign and in 1975 the Annual Transmission Potential (ATP) dropped below 100 at all sites in the Comoé river valley except Folonzo, which continued to be subject to reinvasion, along with the whole of the Léraba river valley. However, after the southern extension of the OCP in 1979, ATPs dropped below 100 everywhere in the Comoé basin (including the Léraba valley), and further dropped to insignificant levels after the western extension of the OCP in 1985. Thus transmission dropped more quickly in the Comoé river valley than the Léraba river valley (which had been subject to vector reinvasion), and this was also reflected in prevalence of microfilaraemia in the human population. After 1986 prevalence was less than 5% in all villages in the Comoé river valley (except for two, which subsequently dropped to 0% and 3.7% by 1999). However, in 2001 (12 years after the cessation of vector control) the prevalence in one village in the Comoé river valley had increased to 39.6%, and two more had increased above 5% by 2007. New epidemiological surveys in 2011 and 2012 showed that in 13 out of 30 villages in the Comoé river valley prevalence of microfilaraemia was above 5%, although this was not observed in the Léraba river valley where prevalence remained low. This is the first documented case of recrudescence of onchocerciasis in the old OCP area, and the reasons are not clear. It is possible that there has been immigration of parasites with humans or vectors from areas where

  15. Information Technologies as a Tool for Agricultural Extension and Farmer-to-Farmer Exchange: Mobile-Phone Video Use in Mali and Burkina Faso

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sousa, Fernando; Nicolay, Gian; Home, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Mobile phones are widespread in the rural areas of Mali and Burkina Faso, but their potential as a tool for knowledge transfer by extension services in the region remains largely unexplored. The aim of this contribution is to evaluate the potential of video on mobile phones as a tool for farmer-to-farmer exchange and agricultural extension in…

  16. [The current situation with regard to nicotine addiction in Burkina Faso: tobacco supply and data from the KAB-P survey of young people in Ouagadougou].

    PubMed

    Ouédraogo, A; Ouédraogo, T L; Ouoba, D E; Sawadogo, J P

    2000-01-01

    Smoking is a worldwide phenomenon and many studies have demonstrated that tobacco use is a risk factor for morbidity and mortality. We investigated aspects of the supply of, and demand for, tobacco in Burkina Faso, with a view to helping the public authorities design strategies to combat this phenomenon. We used data on the importation of tobacco and the making of cigarettes in Burkina Faso and carried out a survey of adolescents and young adults (n = 289) with a mean age of 20.9 years. In 1997, Burkina Faso imported 1,905, 214 metric tons of tobacco of all kinds, with a CAF value of 5,808, 905,269 CFA francs. In the survey, 30.7% of those interviewed said that they smoked. These individuals gave various reasons for their use of tobacco including imitating friends (38.6%) and personal liberty (14.1%). These young people were generally aware of the risks of tobacco use, but this did not deter them from smoking. In countries like Burkina Faso, which is faced with many challenges, controlling tobacco advertising and providing ways and means to help young people to stop smoking or to deter them from starting to smoke are of major importance for future public health.

  17. [Microbial quality assessment of some street food widely consumed in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso].

    PubMed

    Barro, Nicolas; Ouattara, Cheik A T; Nikiema, Philippe A; Ouattara, Aboubakar S; Traoré, Alfred S

    2002-01-01

    The major part of the population of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, have their breakfast, dinner and lunch in street food shops. The characteristics of street food vendors are indicated. It appeared clearly that women play a major part (75%) in street food sale. Vendors have only a slight knowledge of food processing and of hygienic practices. There is a high proportion (about 50%) of people among them. This dietary habit has some negative aspects on the consumers' health. Ours studies clearly showed that hygienic practices during sales operations are not respected by all categories of vendors of food products. Also, it was observed that street food vendors sometimes sit close to the waste water drainage system and solid wastes. Sometimes, the food is not covered and it is manipulated by consumers in areas infested by flies and others insects. The water used to wash the materials is of poor quality. The second aspects of our studies showed that, in most cases, when the safety and hygienic practices were not respected, the food became a true microorganism culture medium under tropical climatic conditions. A table reports microbial analysis and contamination rates of some important street foods consumed in Ouagadougou. In general these results showed the failure of microbial quality of some food which is not preheated (milk product, fruit juice, vegetable, fruit) and in the case of food which is not reheated after a long time of exposition (dry meat and meat on sticks). The presence of Salmonella and Shigella species in some food represents a serious danger for consumers. These aspects were observed with most street food vendors. It probably makes street food the source of most diseases caused by bacteria and other microorganisms.

  18. Unpacking capacity to utilize research: A tale of the Burkina Faso public health association.

    PubMed

    Hamel, Nadia; Schrecker, Ted

    2011-01-01

    One of the most important challenges in addressing global health is for institutions to monitor and use research in policy-making. In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), civil society organizations such as health professional associations can be key contributors to effective national health systems. However, there is little empirical data on their capacity to use research. This case study was used to gain insight into the factors that affect the knowledge translation performance of health professional associations in LMICs by describing the organizational elements and processes constituting capacity to use research, and examining the potential determinants of this capacity. Case study methodology was chosen for its flexibility to capture the multiple and often tacit processes within organizational routines. The Burkina Faso Public Health Association (ABSP) was studied, using in-depth, semi-structured interviews and key documents review. Five key dimensions that affect the association's capacity to use research to influence health policy emerged: organizational motivation; catalysts; organizational capacity to acquire and organizational capacity to transform research findings; moderating organizational factors. Also examined were the dissemination strategies used by ABSP and its abilities to enhance its capacity through networking, to advocate for more relevant research and to develop its potential role as knowledge broker, as well as limitations due to scarce resources. We conclude that a better understanding of the organizational capacity to use research of health professional associations in LMICs is needed to assess, improve and reinforce such capacity. Increased knowledge translation potential may leverage research resources and promote knowledge-sharing.

  19. Different delivery mechanisms for insecticide-treated nets in rural Burkina Faso: a provider's perspective

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) have been confirmed to be a very effective tool in malaria control. Two different delivery strategies for roll-out of ITN programmes have been the focus of debate in the last years: free distribution and distribution through commercial marketing systems. They are now seen as complementary rather than opponent. Acceptance of these programmes by the community and involved providers is an important aspect influencing their sustainability. This paper looks at how providers perceived, understood and accepted two interventions involving two different delivery strategies (subsidized sales supported by social marketing and free distribution to pregnant women attending antenatal care services). Methods The interventions took place in one province of north-western Burkina Faso in 2006 in the frame of a large randomized controlled ITN intervention study. For this descriptive qualitative study data were collected through focus group discussions and individual interviews. A total of four focus group discussions and eleven individual interviews have been conducted with the providers of the study interventions. Results The free distribution intervention was well accepted and perceived as running well. The health care staff had a positive and beneficial view of the intervention and did not feel overwhelmed by the additional workload. The social marketing intervention was also seen as positive by the rural shopkeepers. However, working in market economy, shopkeepers feared the risk of unsold ITNs, due to the low demand and capacity to pay for the product in the community. Conclusion The combination of ITN free distribution and social marketing was in general well accepted by the different providers. However, low purchasing power of clients and the resulting financial insecurities of shopkeepers remain a challenge to ITN social marketing in rural SSA. PMID:21129224

  20. [A survey of sustainable funding mechanisms for essential drugs in Loumbila, Burkina Faso].

    PubMed

    Saouadogo, Hamado; Amoussou, Koffi Miwonovi; Ouedraogo, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    Households are the main source of health care financing in Burkina Faso. The current system based on out-of-pocket health payments is a major cause of poverty. The purpose of this study was to contribute to the improvement of local health funding in Loumbila and throughout the country. A descriptive and analytical study was conducted among 271 household heads, 3 health committee members, the prefet (the top state official in the area), and the secretary general of the municipality between 25 June and 5 August 2010. A survey guide and questionnaires were used to collect data. The standard public health survey method was used to collect, process, analyze and discuss the results. The results of the survey indicate that 82.3% of the participating households were willing to contribute to the creation of a local health fund in the village. The study found that the average contribution rate of each household amounted to 9% of their annual income. The best periods for collecting funds are during the harvest season (in the case of farmers) or any favorable period (in the case of other households). The municipal committee will need to be responsible for managing and coordinating the municipal health fund. This requires the participation of the state, health districts, NGOs and other partners. The cost of effective treatment for the top ten priority diseases in the village in 2010 is estimated to be 4,011,300 FCFA. If all the households in the village were to contribute to the municipal health fund, the total amount of contributions would amount to 15,575,515 FCFA. Under this system, all households within the village can have access to essential drugs. The municipal health fund can also support municipal development boards to improve the independence and sustainability of the system.

  1. Study of a Localized Meningococcal Meningitis Epidemic in Burkina Faso: Incidence, Carriage, and Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Yaro, Seydou; Njanpop-Lafourcade, Berthe-Marie; Drabo, Aly; Idohou, Régina S.; Kroman, Sita S.; Sanou, Oumarou; Diagbouga, Serge; Traoré, Yves; Sangaré, Lassana; Borrow, Raymond; Gessner, Bradford D.

    2011-01-01

    Background. To better understand localized meningococcal meningitis epidemics, we evaluated a serogroup A (NmA) epidemic in Burkina Faso by surveillance, carriage, and seroprevalence studies. Methods. During March–April 2006, cerebrospinal fluid samples from patients suspected to have meningitis in 3 epidemic villages were analyzed by culture or polymerase chain reaction. We assessed meningococcal carriage and serogroup-specific serum bactericidal antibody titers with baby rabbit complement (rSBA) in a representative population sample (N = 624; age range, 1–39 years). A serogroup A/C polysaccharide vaccine campaign occurred in parallel. Results. Cumulative incidence of Nm meningitis was 0.45% and varied among villages (0.08%–0.91%). NmA carriage prevalence was 16% without variation by vaccination status. NmA carriage and anti-NmA seroprevalence varied by village and incidence. In the 2 villages with highest incidence and seroprevalence, presence of rSBA titers ≥8 was associated with NmA carriage (odds ratio [OR], 9.33 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.90–45.91]) and vaccination ≤4 days earlier (OR, 0.10 [95% CI, .03–.32]). Visibly purulent or Nm meningitis was significantly associated with recent flulike symptoms and exposure to kitchen smoke (risk ratios >15). Conclusions. A surge of NmA carriage may be involved in the development of meningococcal epidemics and rapidly increase anti-NmA seroprevalence. Flulike infection and kitchen smoke may contribute to the strength of epidemics. PMID:21998478

  2. Land Cover Signature on the Convective Rainfall Mechanism over a Sudanian Savannah Basin, Tambarga, Burkina Faso.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mande, T.; Ceperley, N. C.; Katul, G. G.; Yacouba, H.; Rinaldo, A.; Parlange, M. B.

    2014-12-01

    For water limited areas such as southeastern Burkina Faso where the main activity is rainfed agriculture, it is crucial to understand the rainfall mechanism and its main drivers. The triggering convective mechanisms are important and contribute to more than 30% of the total rainfall. Several studies were devoted to the convective rainfall characterization. However, the rainfall partitioning between convective and non-convective events and the effects of land cover signature on the rainfall type at small scales remain relatively unexplored topics. The following study aims to investigate the triggering mechanisms of rainfall and their interaction with land cover. For this purpose a simple realistic model combining the mixed layer growth (ML) and lifting condensation level (LCL) was implemented for convective rainfall tracking. Convective events occur when the LCL and ML curves intersect at the time corresponding to the rain event start. Sensible heat flux, air temperature and humidity measurements used for this analysis were collected over three years with twelve advanced weather monitoring Sensorscope stations and two eddy flux towers distributed over two different landscapes, an agricultural field and an savanna forest The land cover signature evidence is highlighted by the similarity of the pdf of the rainfall over the forested region and agricultural fields with a slope -1.5. While a 10 to 30% difference in total yearly precipitation is observed between the agriculture zone and the forest region. Therefore, in addition to the soil moisture, higher temperature (Clausius-Clapeyron) and CO2 effect on rainfall mechanisms, the local land cover signature should be added for better rainfall modeling.

  3. Scavenging pullets in Burkina Faso: effect of season, location and breed on feed and nutrient intake.

    PubMed

    Pousga, S; Boly, H; Lindberg, J E; Ogle, B

    2005-11-01

    A study on scavenging local (n = 64) and crossbred (n = 64) pullets was undertaken in the dry and rainy seasons in two villages in Burkina Faso: Korea in the arid northern Sahelian region and Bounouna in the sub-humid south. After 4 weeks of scavenging, the birds were killed and the crop contents were subjected to physical and chemical analysis. Cereal grains, brans, green and dry forages, insects/worms and household leftovers were the main physical components. The proportion of cereal grains was higher in the rainy season, whereas the proportion of bran, peanut and sand/grit was higher in the dry season (p < 0.05). The proportion of kitchen waste and millet/milo grains was higher in local than in crossbred birds, whereas the opposite was the case for millet/milo bran (p < 0.05). Rice and local beer residues were not found in the crops of birds from Korea. Dry matter, ash, crude fibre and potassium contents were higher in the dry season (p < 0.05), while calculated metabolizable energy content was higher in the rainy season (p < 0.05). There were no location or breed effects on chemical composition parameters (p > 0.05), except that potassium content was higher in Korea. Mean live weight at slaughter was 806 +/- 22.0 g (local breed) and 881 +/- 22.0 g (crossbreds) (p < 0.05). Digestive organ weights, including contents, were higher for crossbred birds (p < 0.05). Gastrointestinal tract percentage was higher in the rainy season and in Bounouna (p < 0.05). The nutrient composition of the crop contents indicates the need for supplementation, particularly of protein, for higher levels of production.

  4. HIV testing and care in Burkina Faso, Kenya, Malawi and Uganda: ethics on the ground

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The ethical discourse about HIV testing has undergone a profound transformation in recent years. The greater availability of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has led to a global scaling up of HIV testing and counseling as a gateway to prevention, treatment and care. In response, critics raised important ethical questions, including: How do different testing policies and practices undermine or strengthen informed consent and medical confidentiality? How well do different modalities of testing provide benefits that outweigh risks of harm? To what degree do current testing policies and programs provide equitable access to HIV services? And finally, what lessons have been learned from the field about how to improve the delivery of HIV services to achieve public health objectives and protections for human rights? This article reviews the empirical evidence that has emerged to answer these questions, from four sub-Saharan African countries, namely: Burkina Faso, Kenya, Malawi and Uganda. Discussion Expanding access to treatment and prevention in these four countries has made the biomedical benefits of HIV testing increasingly clear. But serious challenges remain with regard to protecting human rights, informed consent and ensuring linkages to care. Policy makers and practitioners are grappling with difficult ethical issues, including how to protect confidentiality, how to strengthen linkages to care, and how to provide equitable access to services, especially for most at risk populations, including men who have sex with men. Summary The most salient policy questions about HIV testing in these countries no longer address whether to scale up routine PITC (and other strategies), but how. Instead, individuals, health care providers and policy makers are struggling with a host of difficult ethical questions about how to protect rights, maximize benefits, and mitigate risks in the face of resource scarcity. PMID:23343572

  5. Investigating rural poverty and marginality in Burkina Faso using remote sensing-based products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imran, M.; Stein, A.; Zurita-Milla, R.

    2014-02-01

    Poverty at the national and sub-national level is commonly mapped on the basis of household surveys. Typical poverty metrics like the head count index are not able to identify its underlaying factors, particularly in rural economies based on subsistence agriculture. This paper relates agro-ecological marginality identified from regional and global datasets including remote sensing products like the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and rainfall to rural agricultural production and food consumption in Burkina Faso. The objective is to analyze poverty patterns and to generate a fine resolution poverty map at the national scale. We compose a new indicator from a range of welfare indicators quantified from Georeferenced household surveys, indicating a spatially varying set of welfare and poverty states of rural communities. Next, a local spatial regression is used to relate each welfare and poverty state to the agro-ecological marginality. Our results show strong spatial dependency of welfare and poverty states over agro-ecological marginality in heterogeneous regions, indicating that environmental factors affect living conditions in rural communities. The agro-ecological stress and related marginality vary locally between rural communities within each region. About 58% variance in the welfare indicator is explained by the factors of rural agricultural production and 42% is explained by the factor of food consumption. We found that the spatially explicit approach based on multi-temporal remote sensing products effectively summarizes information on poverty and facilitates further interpretation of the newly developed welfare indicator. The proposed method was validated with poverty incidence obtained from national surveys.

  6. Human Vulnerability to Climate Variability in the Sahel: Farmers' Adaptation Strategies in Northern Burkina Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbier, Bruno; Yacouba, Hamma; Karambiri, Harouna; Zoromé, Malick; Somé, Blaise

    2009-05-01

    In this study, the authors investigate farmers’ vulnerability to climate variability and evaluate local adoption of technology and farmers’ perceptions of adaptation strategies to rainfall variability and policies. A survey was conducted in a community in northern Burkina Faso following the crop failure of 2004. In 2006, following a better harvest, another survey was conducted to compare farmers’ actions and reactions during two contrasted rainy seasons. The results confirm that farmers from this community have substantially changed their practices during the last few decades. They have adopted a wide range of techniques that are intended to simultaneously increase crop yield and reduce yield variability. Micro water harvesting (Zaï) techniques have been widely adopted (41%), and a majority of fields have been improved with stone lines (60%). Hay (48%) and sorghum residues are increasingly stored to feed animals during the dry season, making bull and sheep fattening now a common practice. Dry season vegetable production also involves a majority of the population (60%). According to farmers, most of the new techniques have been adopted because of growing land scarcity and new market opportunities, rather than because of climate variability. Population pressure has reached a critical threshold, while land scarcity, declining soil fertility and reduced animal mobility have pushed farmers to intensify agricultural production. These techniques reduce farmers’ dependency on rainfall but are still insufficient to reduce poverty and vulnerability. Thirty-nine percent of the population remains vulnerable after a good rainy season. Despite farmers’ desire to remain in their own communities, migrations are likely to remain a major source of regular income and form of recourse in the event of droughts.

  7. Domestic Larval Control Practices and Malaria Prevalence among Under-Five Children in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Diabaté, Souleymane; Druetz, Thomas; Millogo, Tiéba; Ly, Antarou; Fregonese, Federica; Kouanda, Seni; Haddad, Slim

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Larval source management has contributed to malaria decline over the past years. However, little is known about the impact of larval control practices undertaken at the household level on malaria transmission. Methods The study was conducted in Kaya health district after the 2010 mass distribution of insecticide treated-nets and the initiation of malaria awareness campaigns in Burkina Faso. The aim was to (i) estimate the level of domestic larval control practices (cleaning of the house and its surroundings, eradication of larval sources, and elimination of hollow objects that might collect water); (ii) identify key determinants; and (iii) explore the structural relationships between these practices, participation in awareness-raising activities and mothers’ knowledge/attitudes/practices, and malaria prevalence among under-five children. Results Overall, 2004 households were surveyed and 1,705 under-five children were examined. Half of the mothers undertook at least one action to control larval proliferation. Mothers who had gone to school had better knowledge about malaria and were more likely to undertake domestic larval control practices. Living in highly exposed rural areas significantly decreased the odds of undertaking larval control actions. Mothers’ participation in malaria information sessions increased the adoption of vector control actions and bednet use. Malaria prevalence was statistically lower among children in households where mothers had undertaken at least one vector control action or used bed-nets. There was a 0.16 standard deviation decrease in malaria prevalence for every standard deviation increase in vector control practices. The effect of bednet use on malaria prevalence was of the same magnitude. Conclusion Cleaning the house and its surroundings, eradicating breeding sites, and eliminating hollow objects that might collect water play a substantial role in preventing malaria among under-five. There is a need for national

  8. Fostering low-cost soil moisture monitoring techniques to improve irrigation efficiency in Burkina Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouleau, Clémence; Baracchini, Theo; Razurel, Pierre; Gorla, Lorenzo; Bolay, Jean-Claude; Perona, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    Irrigated agriculture is a significant activity in water stressed semi-arid (e.g., the Sahel) regions, thereby yield and water management are fundamental aspects of irrigation success. Small farmers have often difficulties in managing crops and in evaluating water needs resulting in low yield with excessive water consumption, elevated pumping costs and soil degradation. In different proportions, this overuse of water concerns all irrigation techniques: gravity flows from reservoirs, watering cans irrigation from groundwater wells, micro- or drip irrigation. Baseline requirements for supporting sustainable technology are low costs, easy installation, minimal maintenance, and local production. We present and discuss results from the Info4Dourou2.0 explorative project in Burkina Faso, the main goal of which is to improve small-scale agriculture by the use of sensing and communication technologies. In particular, a support system that couples autonomous and continuous measurements of meteorological variables and soil matrix potential as well as soil humidity with agronomic models has been tested in drip-irrigated fields over a three-year period. In particular, the system is collecting data from three water potential sensors at different locations per field and informs the farmers through a simple interface of the correct amount of water needed by the plant. In its simplicity this system provides an easy to use and install irrigation management setup, and is therefore an ideal candidate in favor of sustainability. Info4Dourou2.0 pilot experiments have shown that farmers can obtain significantly higher yields using lower amounts of water. Overall, this methodology allows facing multiple urgent problems such as the use of environmental data to improve agricultural production towards ecosystem conservation, food security issues and adaptation to climatic change scenarios.

  9. Ethical considerations of providers and clients on HIV testing campaigns in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Campaigns have been conducted in a number of low HIV prevalence African settings, as a strategy to expand HIV testing, and it is important to assess the extent to which individual rights and quality of care are protected during campaigns. In this article we investigate provider and client perceptions of ethical issues, including whether they think that accessibility of counseling and testing sites during campaigns may hinder confidentiality. Methods To examine how campaigns have functioned in Burkina Faso, we undertook a qualitative study based on individual interviews and focus group discussions with 52 people (providers and clients tested during or outside campaigns and individuals never tested). Thematic analysis was performed on discourse about perceptions and experiences of HIV-testing campaigns, quality of care and individual rights. Results Respondents value testing accessibility and attractiveness during campaigns; clients emphasize convenience, ripple effect, the sense of not being alone, and the anonymity resulting from high attendance. Confronted with numerous clients, providers develop context-specific strategies to ensure consent, counseling, confidentiality and retention in the testing process, and they adapt to workplace arrangements, local resources and social norms. Clients appreciate the quality of care during campaigns. However, new ethical issues arise about confidentiality and accessibility. Confidentiality of HIV-status may be jeopardized due to local social norms that encourage people to share their results with others, when HIV-positive people may not wish to do so. Providers’ ethical concerns are consistent with WHO norms known as the ‘5 Cs,’ though articulated differently. Clients and providers value the accessibility of testing for all during campaigns, and consider it an ethical matter. The study yields insights on the way global norms are adapted or negotiated locally. Conclusions Future global recommendations for HIV

  10. Seasonality of the dietary dimension of household food security in urban Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Becquey, Elodie; Delpeuch, Francis; Konaté, Amadou M; Delsol, Hervé; Lange, Matthias; Zoungrana, Mahama; Martin-Prevel, Yves

    2012-06-01

    Food insecurity is affecting an increasing number of urban poor in the developing world. Yet seasonal characteristics of food intakes have rarely been studied in West African cities. The objective of the present study was to assess the seasonality of the dietary dimension of household food security in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso). In 2007, two sets of data were collected during the lean and post-harvest seasons, respectively, on a representative sample of 1056 households. At each season, two non-consecutive 24 h recalls were performed at the household level. Food prices were also recorded. Household food security was assessed by the household's mean adequacy ratio (MAR) for energy and eleven micronutrients. Changes in the MAR according to the season were analysed by mixed multivariate linear regression. Results showed that intakes of energy and of ten micronutrients were significantly lower during the lean season than during the post-harvest season, leading to a lower MAR in the lean season (49·61 v. 53·57, P < 0·0001). This was related to less frequent consumption and consumption of smaller amounts of vegetables and of foods prepared at home. Food security relied heavily on food expenses (P < 0·0001) and on the price of meat/fish (P = 0·026). Households with economically dependent adults (P = 0·021) and larger households (P < 0·0001) were the most vulnerable, whereas education (P = 0·030), social network (P = 0·054) and urban origin other than Ouagadougou (P = 0·040) played a positive role in food security. To achieve food security in Ouagadougou, access to micronutrient-dense foods needs to be ensured in all seasons.

  11. Spatial patterns of schistosomiasis in Burkina Faso: relevance of human mobility and water resources development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Saez, Javier; Bertuzzo, Enrico; Frohelich, Jean-Marc; Mande, Theophile; Ceperley, Natalie; Sou, Mariam; Yacouba, Hamma; Maiga, Hamadou; Sokolow, Susanne; De Leo, Giulio; Casagrandi, Renato; Gatto, Marino; Mari, Lorenzo; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    We study the spatial geography of schistosomiasis in the african context of Burkina Faso by means of a spatially explicit model of disease dynamics and spread. The relevance of our work lies in its ability to describe quantitatively a geographic stratification of the disease burden capable of reproducing important spatial differences, and drivers/controls of disease spread. Among the latters, we consider specifically the development and management of water resources which have been singled out empirically as an important risk factor for schistosomiasis. The model includes remotely acquired and objectively manipulated information on the distributions of population, infrastructure, elevation and climatic drivers. It also includes a general description of human mobility and addresses a first-order characterization of the ecology of the intermediate host of the parasite causing the disease based on maximum entropy learning of relevant environmenal covariates. Spatial patterns of the disease were analyzed about their disease-free equilibrium by proper extraction and mapping of suitable eigenvectors of the Jacobian matrix subsuming all stability properties of the system. Human mobility was found to be a primary control of both pathogen invasion success and of the overall distribution of disease burden. The effects of water resources development were studied by accounting for the (prior and posterior) average distances of human settlements from water bodies that may serve as suitable habitats to the intermediate host of the parasite. Water developments, in combination with human mobility, were quantitatively related to disease spread into regions previously nearly disease-free and to large-scale empirical incidence patterns. We concluded that while the model still needs refinements based on field and epidemiological evidence, the framework proposed provides a powerful tool for large-scale, long-term public health planning and management of schistosomiasis.

  12. Moving towards universal coverage with malaria control interventions: achievements and challenges in rural Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    De Allegri, Manuela; Louis, Valérie R; Tiendrébeogo, Justin; Souares, Aurelia; Yé, Maurice; Tozan, Yesim; Jahn, Albrecht; Mueller, Olaf

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on a study, which assessed coverage with malaria control interventions in rural Burkina Faso, namely insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITN) ownership, intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp) for pregnant women and artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) for under-five children. The study also addressed the distributional impact of such interventions, with specific reference to equity. The study used data from a representative household survey conducted on 1106 households in the Nouna Health District in 2010. Findings indicated that 59% of all households owned at least one ITN, 66% of all pregnant women received IPT at least once and 34% of under-five children reporting a malaria case were treated with ACT. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that higher socio-economic status, ownership of at least one radio and living in a village within a Health and Demographic Surveillance System were significantly positively associated with ITN, IPTp and ACT coverage. ITN coverage was higher among households in villages, which had previously hosted an ITN trial and/or the most favourable arm of a trial. Comparing current findings with previous estimates suggests that the country has made substantial progress towards scaling up malaria control interventions but that current coverage rates are still far from achieving the universal coverage targets set by the Roll Back Malaria Partnership. In addition, current coverage patterns reveal the existence of multiple inequities across groups, suggesting that current policies are inadequate to achieve equitable scaling up. Future planning of malaria control interventions ought to take into consideration current inadequacies and lead to programmes better designed to overcome them.

  13. Tectonic evolution of the Gaoua region, Burkina Faso: Implications for mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baratoux, L.; Metelka, V.; Naba, S.; Ouiya, P.; Siebenaller, L.; Jessell, M. W.; Naré, A.; Salvi, S.; Béziat, D.; Franceschi, G.

    2015-12-01

    The interpretation of high-resolution airborne geophysical data integrated with field structural and lithological observations were employed in the creation of a litho-structural framework for the Gaoua region, Burkina Faso. The granite-greenstone domain of Paleoproterozoic age was affected by multiple deformation and mineralization events. The early tectonic phase is characterized by the emplacement of voluminous tholeiitic and calc-alkaline lavas, probably in a volcanic arc setting. The copper mineralization in Gongondy, Dienemera and Mt Biri is concentrated in a diorite/andesite breccia, and is interpreted as porphyry-copper style formed at an early stage of the evolution of the area. Evidence for the first deformation event D1Ga corresponding to N-S shortening was only found in the E-W trending mafic unit bordering the Gaoua batholith to the south. A second deformation phase D2Ga occurred under greenschist facies conditions and lead to a development of more or less penetrative metamorphic foliation and its subsequent folding under overall E-W compression. At later stages, the D2Ga switched to a transcurrent regime characterized by intense N-S to NW-trending steeply dipping shear zones. The first significant gold mineralization event is related to this transcurrent tectonic phase. During subsequent D3Ga, intense network of brittle to brittle-ductile NW and NE faults developed. Economic gold concentrations are attributed to the D3Ga event and are associated with the remobilization of early disseminated low grade gold concentrations. Significant deposits in the area are Nassara, Gomblora, Batié West and Kampti. The last deformation event D4Ga resulted in E-W trending thrust faults and crenulation cleavage planes, under overall N-S compression. No mineralization events related to this stage have been seen.

  14. Prevalence and characterization of Salmonella enterica from the feces of cattle, poultry, swine and hedgehogs in Burkina Faso and their comparison to human Salmonella isolates

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Production and wild animals are major sources of human salmonellosis and animals raised for food also play an important role in transmission of antimicrobial resistant Salmonella strains to humans. Furthermore, in sub-Saharan Africa non-typhoidal Salmonella serotypes are common bloodstream isolates in febrile patients. Yet, little is known about the environmental reservoirs and predominant modes of transmission of these pathogens. The purpose of this study was to discover potential sources and distribution vehicles of Salmonella by isolating strains from apparently healthy slaughtered food animals and wild hedgehogs and by determining the genetic relatedness between the strains and human isolates. For this purpose, 729 feces samples from apparently healthy slaughtered cattle (n = 304), poultry (n = 350), swine (n = 50) and hedgehogs (n = 25) were examined for the presence of Salmonella enterica in Burkina Faso. The isolates were characterized by serotyping, antimicrobial-susceptibility testing, phage typing, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) with XbaI and BlnI restriction enzymes. Results Of the 729 feces samples, 383 (53%) contained Salmonella, representing a total of 81 different serotypes. Salmonella was present in 52% of the cattle, 55% of the poultry, 16% of the swine and 96% of the hedgehog feces samples. Antimicrobial resistance was detected in 14% of the isolates. S. Typhimurium isolates from poultry and humans (obtained from a previous study) were multiresistant to the same antimicrobials (ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfonamides and trimethoprim), had the same phage type DT 56 and were closely related in PFGE. S. Muenster isolates from hedgehogs had similar PFGE patterns as the domestic animals. Conclusions Based on our results it seems that production and wild animals can share the same Salmonella serotypes and potentially transmit some of them to humans. As the humans and animals often live in close

  15. The Saturation+ Approach to Behavior Change: Case Study of a Child Survival Radio Campaign in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Murray, Joanna; Remes, Pieter; Ilboudo, Rita; Belem, Mireille; Salouka, Souleymane; Snell, Will; Wood, Cathryn; Lavoie, Matthew; Deboise, Laurent; Head, Roy

    2015-11-03

    A 35-month cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted in Burkina Faso to test whether a radio campaign focused on child health, broadcast between March 2012 and January 2015, could reduce under-5 mortality. This paper describes the design and implementation of the mass media intervention in detail, including the Saturation+ principles that underpinned the approach, the creative process, the lessons learned, and recommendations for implementing this intervention at scale. The Saturation+ approach focuses on the 3 core principles of saturation (ensuring high exposure to campaign messages), science (basing campaign design on data and modeling), and stories (focusing the dramatic climax on the target behavior) to maximize the impact of behavior change campaigns. In Burkina Faso, creative partnerships with local radio stations helped us obtain free airtime in exchange for training and investing in alternative energy supplies to solve frequent energy problems faced by the stations. The campaign used both short spots and longer drama formats, but we consider the short spots as a higher priority to retain during scale-up, as they are more cost-effective than longer formats and have the potential to ensure higher exposure of the population to the messages. The implementation research synthesized in this paper is designed to enable the effective adoption and integration of evidence-based behavior change communication interventions into health care policy and practice.

  16. Population Dynamics of Aphthona whitfieldi (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), Pest of Jatropha curcas, and Environmental Factors Favoring Its Abundance in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Sawadogo, Alizèta; Nagalo, Estérer; Nacro, Souleymane; Rouamba, Mathurin; Kenis, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The flea beetle Aphthona whitfieldi Bryant (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is the main pest of the bioenergy crop Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae) in Burkina Faso and several other West African countries. Adults severely defoliate plants, resulting in seedling mortality, poor growth, and low yields. To study the population dynamics of the pest in the Sissili Province of Burkina Faso, 12 sites were monitored weekly during a year and 31 sites were inspected for damage at the peak period of insect abundance. The effect of cropping systems (hedge, intercropping, and monoculture) and surrounding vegetation on population densities of A. whitfieldi was assessed. Beetles were rarely found in the dry season and peaked in the second half of the rainy season. The cropping system did not significantly influence the abundance and attack level. In contrast, the close vicinity of fallow lands seems to increase damage levels. Many aspects of the biology and ecology of A. whitfieldi remain to be investigated before sustainable control methods can be developed. However, this study already allows us to propose recommendations for further research on management. PMID:26206896

  17. Effectiveness of vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides L. Nash) for phytoremediation of endosulfan in two cotton soils from Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Abaga, Norbert Ondo Zue; Dousset, Sylvie; Munier-Lamy, Colette; Billet, David

    2014-01-01

    The influence of vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides) on the fate of endosulfan was studied using a vertisol and a lixisol soils from cotton-growing areas of Burkina Faso. Endosulfan adsorption isotherms were prepared for planted and unplanted soils. Pot experiments were then conducted for six months. For both soils, endosulfan adsorption was higher on planted soils (K(f) = 6.53-9.73 mg(l-n) L(n) kg(-1)) than on unplanted soils (6.27-7.24 mg(l-n) L(n) kg(-1)). In unplanted soils, vertisol adsorbed more endosulfan than lixisol. From the pot experiments, the estimated half-lives of endosulfan in unplanted soils (40.6 to 43.1 days) were higher than in planted soils (34.5 to 40.6 days) containing a greater number of endosulfan-degrading microorganisms. Six months after treatment, endosulfan was not detected in soils. The effectiveness of vetiver in promoting adsorption and the disappearance of endosulfan in both studied soils should be validated on the cotton plot scale in Burkina Faso.

  18. The politics of unsafe abortion in Burkina Faso: the interface of local norms and global public health practice.

    PubMed

    Storeng, Katerini T; Ouattara, Fatoumata

    2014-01-01

    In Burkina Faso, abortion is legally restricted and socially stigmatised, but also frequent. Unsafe abortions represent a significant public health challenge, contributing to the country's very high maternal mortality ratio. Inspired by an internationally disseminated public health framing of unsafe abortion, the country's main policy response has been to provide post-abortion care (PAC) to avert deaths from abortion complications. Drawing on ethnographic research, this article describes how Burkina Faso's PAC policy emerged at the interface of political and moral negotiations between public health professionals, national bureaucrats and international agencies and NGOs. Burkinabè decision-makers and doctors, who are often hostile to induced abortion, have been convinced that PAC is 'life-saving care' which should be delivered for ethical medical reasons. Moreover, by supporting PAC they not only demonstrate compliance with international standards but also, importantly, do not have to contend with any change in abortion legislation, which they oppose. Rights-based international NGOs, in turn, tactically focus on PAC as a 'first step' towards their broader institutional objective to secure safe abortion and abortion rights. Such negotiations between national and international actors result in widespread support for PAC but stifled debate about further legalisation of abortion.

  19. The Saturation+ Approach to Behavior Change: Case Study of a Child Survival Radio Campaign in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Joanna; Remes, Pieter; Ilboudo, Rita; Belem, Mireille; Salouka, Souleymane; Snell, Will; Wood, Cathryn; Lavoie, Matthew; Deboise, Laurent; Head, Roy

    2015-01-01

    A 35-month cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted in Burkina Faso to test whether a radio campaign focused on child health, broadcast between March 2012 and January 2015, could reduce under-5 mortality. This paper describes the design and implementation of the mass media intervention in detail, including the Saturation+ principles that underpinned the approach, the creative process, the lessons learned, and recommendations for implementing this intervention at scale. The Saturation+ approach focuses on the 3 core principles of saturation (ensuring high exposure to campaign messages), science (basing campaign design on data and modeling), and stories (focusing the dramatic climax on the target behavior) to maximize the impact of behavior change campaigns. In Burkina Faso, creative partnerships with local radio stations helped us obtain free airtime in exchange for training and investing in alternative energy supplies to solve frequent energy problems faced by the stations. The campaign used both short spots and longer drama formats, but we consider the short spots as a higher priority to retain during scale-up, as they are more cost-effective than longer formats and have the potential to ensure higher exposure of the population to the messages. The implementation research synthesized in this paper is designed to enable the effective adoption and integration of evidence-based behavior change communication interventions into health care policy and practice. PMID:26681703

  20. The politics of unsafe abortion in Burkina Faso: The interface of local norms and global public health practice

    PubMed Central

    Storeng, Katerini T.; Ouattara, Fatoumata

    2014-01-01

    In Burkina Faso, abortion is legally restricted and socially stigmatised, but also frequent. Unsafe abortions represent a significant public health challenge, contributing to the country's very high maternal mortality ratio. Inspired by an internationally disseminated public health framing of unsafe abortion, the country's main policy response has been to provide post-abortion care (PAC) to avert deaths from abortion complications. Drawing on ethnographic research, this article describes how Burkina Faso's PAC policy emerged at the interface of political and moral negotiations between public health professionals, national bureaucrats and international agencies and NGOs. Burkinabè decision-makers and doctors, who are often hostile to induced abortion, have been convinced that PAC is ‘life-saving care’ which should be delivered for ethical medical reasons. Moreover, by supporting PAC they not only demonstrate compliance with international standards but also, importantly, do not have to contend with any change in abortion legislation, which they oppose. Rights-based international NGOs, in turn, tactically focus on PAC as a ‘first step’ towards their broader institutional objective to secure safe abortion and abortion rights. Such negotiations between national and international actors result in widespread support for PAC but stifled debate about further legalisation of abortion. PMID:25132157

  1. Diversity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains isolated from Borassus akeassii palm wines from Burkina Faso in comparison to other African beverages.

    PubMed

    Tapsoba, François; Legras, Jean-Luc; Savadogo, Aly; Dequin, Sylvie; Traore, Alfred Sababenedyo

    2015-10-15

    In South-West of Burkina Faso, palm wine is produced by spontaneous fermentation of the sap from a specific palm tree Borassus akeassii and plays an important role in people's lives. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the main agent of this alcoholic fermentation but little is known about the diversity of the isolates from palm. In this work, 39 Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were isolated from palm wine samples collected from 14 sites in Burkina Faso, as well as 7 isolates obtained from sorghum beer (Dolo) from 3 distant sites. Their diversity was analyzed at 12 microsatellite loci, and compared to the genotypes obtained for other African yeast populations isolated from Cocoa hulks from Ghana, sorghum beer from Ivory Coast, palm wine from Djibouti Republic, and to our database of strains from miscellaneous origins (bread, beer, wine, sake, oaks…). The ploidy of these strains has been assessed as well by flow cytometry. Our results show that B. akeassii palm wine contains a specific yeast population of diploid strains, different from Dolo produced in the same area and from other palm wine strains from Ivory Coast, Nigeria, or Djibouti Republic. In contrast, Dolo strains appeared as a group of related and mainly tetraploid strains despite being isolated from different countries.

  2. Assessment of seasonal features based on Landsat time series for tree crown cover mapping in Burkina Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jinxiu; Heiskanen, Janne; Aynekuly, Ermias; Pellikka, Petri

    2016-04-01

    Tree crown cover (CC) is an important vegetation attribute for land cover characterization, and for mapping and monitoring forest cover. Free data from Landsat and Sentinel-2 allow construction of fine resolution satellite image time series and extraction of seasonal features for predicting vegetation attributes. In the savannas, surface reflectance vary distinctively according to the rainy and dry seasons, and seasonal features are useful information for CC mapping. However, it is unclear if it is better to use spectral bands or vegetation indices (VI) for computation of seasonal features, and how feasible different VI are for CC prediction in the savanna woodlands and agroforestry parklands of West Africa. In this study, the objective was to compare seasonal features based on spectral bands and VI for CC mapping in southern Burkina Faso. A total of 35 Landsat images from November 2013 to October 2014 were processed. Seasonal features were computed using a harmonic model with three parameters (mean, amplitude and phase), and spectral bands, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), green normalized difference vegetation index (GNDVI), normalized difference water index (NDWI), tasseled cap (TC) indices (brightness, greenness, wetness) as input data. The seasonal features were employed to predict field estimated CC (n = 160) using Random Forest algorithm. The most accurate results were achieved when using seasonal features based on TC indices (R2: 0.65; RMSE: 10.7%) and spectral bands (R2: 0.64; RMSE: 10.8%). GNDVI performed better than NDVI or NDWI, and NDWI resulted in the poorest results (R2: 0.56; RMSE: 11.9%). The results indicate that spectral features should be carefully selected for CC prediction as shown by relatively poor performance of commonly used NDVI. The seasonal features based on three TC indices and all the spectral bands provided superior accuracy in comparison to single VI. The method presented in this study provides a feasible method to map

  3. La stigmatisation des PVVIH en Afrique: analyse de ses formes et manifestations au Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Ky-Zerbo, Odette; Desclaux, Alice; Asmar, Khalil El; Makhlouf-Obermeyer, Carla; Msellati, Philippe; Somé, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Introduction l’impact négatif de la stigmatisation sur la prévention du VIH et la prise en charge a été documenté. La stigmatisation a été analysée au plan qualitatif au Burkina Faso, où la prévalence VIH est faible (1 %). Des mesures quantitatives sont encore nécessaires pour identifier les formes et manifestations majeures de la stigmatisation. Méthodologie dans le cadre de l’étude MATCH (Multi-country African Study on Testing and Counselling for HIV), une étude transversale a été conduite auprès de personnes ayant déjà fait le test VIH. Les personnes séropositives ont été interrogées sur les conséquences du résultat VIH+. Leur vécu de la stigmatisation a été évalué à travers 20 indicateurs de manifestations de la stigmatisation, regroupés en trois formes de stigmatisation/discrimination. Résultats au total 219 PVVIH ont été recrutées. L’autostigmatisation est la forme majeure de stigmatisation. Elle est estimée dans cette étude à 46 % comparativement à la stigmatisation dans les relations interpersonnelles évaluée à 40 % et la stigmatisation dans les services de santé qui est de 11 %. L’expérience de la stigmatisation dans les relations interpersonnelles est davantage rapportée par les PVVIH qui ont partagé leur résultat, celles qui ont un faible niveau de scolarisation, les veufs/veuves ou séparés, et les membres d’association. La stigmatisation dans les services de santé est rapportée plus souvent par les membres d’associations. Conclusion les programmes de prise en charge doivent, parallèlement à l’extension des antirétroviraux, intégrer un volet psychologique plus adapté aux besoins. Les activités d’appui psychosocial ciblant davantage l’individu doivent être développées, surtout au sein des associations. PMID:25291886

  4. A guideline for sizing Photovoltaic panels across different climatic zones in Burkina Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waongo, M.; Koalaga, Z.; Zougmore, F.

    2012-02-01

    In many developing countries a long time series of solar radiation measurements are not often available. This is due to the cost, maintenance and calibration requirements of measuring devices. Consequently, the use of solar energy by Photovoltaic (PV) conversion copes with the choice and the optimization of the PV system. This work concerned the analysis of climate parameters strongly influencing the Photovoltaic (PV) systems energy production and the simulation of an ideal system based on a single PV module. Estimation and analysis of time series of climate parameters covered a set of six weather stations with respect to the three climatic zones in Burkina Faso (BF), over 38 years. The analysis showed that the solar irradiation in BF lies between 3 kWh/m2/day and 7.5 kWh/m2/day. The highest values of the solar irradiation are measured in the Northern part of the country while lowest values are measured in the Southern part. Daily mean temperature for all weather stations was greater than the Standard Test Condition (STC) temperature (25°C) over a long period of the year. Information on solar irradiation and temperature is fundamental for PV systems sizing process. For PV performance evaluation, a simulation is carried out using an ideal system composed of a single PV module from TENESOL Company. This simulation is performed for three classes of climatic conditions "Mean situation", "Adverse situation", and "Beneficial situation", and evaluated for six sitesacross BF. The results revealed intra-annual and spatial variability of Maximum Power (MP). Across BF, MP varied between 60 W/day and 190 W/day in Sahelian zone, between 65 W/day and 185 W/day in soudano-sahelian zone, and between 67 W/day and 208 W/day in Soudanian zone. MP intra-annual variability is higher during the period July-August, mainly for "Beneficial situation". The negative effect of temperature on PV energy production is specially amplified in Sahelian zone due to its highest temperatures. This

  5. Policy entrepreneurs and structural influence in integrated community case management policymaking in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Shearer, Jessica C

    2015-12-01

    Policy entrepreneurs are individuals who attempt to influence the policy process and its outcomes through their opportunistic or incremental actions. Their success in the policy-making process has been associated with the convergence of four factors: behavioural traits; institutional factors; network position and political capital. Policy entrepreneurs have received little study in low- and middle-income country policy research despite observations of individualized decision-making, informal institutions and the unequal distribution and exercise of power in policymaking. This article aims to identify whether policy entrepreneurs were present in the policy process around integrated community case management (iCCM) in Burkina Faso, whether they were successful in achieving policy change, and whether success or failure can be explained using existing policy entrepreneur frameworks from high-income polities. This mixed methods policy study collected data from in-depth qualitative interviews and social network surveys of actors involved in iCCM policymaking [known locally as C-integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI)]; data were analysed based on the framework categories. Interview data pointed to one key individual who played a significant role in the inclusion of pneumonia treatment into the country's iCCM policy, an issue that had been a point of contention between government policy elites and development partners. Social network data confirmed that this actor was strategically located in the policy network to be able to reach the most other actors and to be able to control the flow of information. Although some development partner actors were as strategically located, none had the same level of authority or trust as was imbued by being a member of the government civil service. The entrepreneur's mid-level rank in the health ministry may have encouraged him/her to invest political capital and take risks that would not have been feasible or attractive to a

  6. Situational analysis of infant and young child nutrition policies and programmatic activities in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Wuehler, Sara E; Ouedraogo, Albertine Wendpagnagdé

    2011-04-01

    Progress towards reducing mortality and malnutrition among children < 5 years of age has been less than needed to achieve related Millennium Development Goals. Therefore, several international agencies joined to 'Reposition children's right to adequate nutrition in the Sahel', starting with an analysis of current activities related to infant and young child nutrition (IYCN). The objectives of the present paper are to compare relevant national policies, training materials, programmes, and monitoring and evaluation activities with internationally accepted IYCN recommendations. These findings are available to assist countries in identifying inconsistencies and filling gaps in current programming. Between August and November 2008, key informants responsible for conducting IYCN-related activities in Burkina Faso were interviewed, and 153 documents were examined on the following themes: optimal breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices, prevention of micronutrient deficiencies, screening and treatment of acute malnutrition, prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV, food security and hygienic practices. National policy documents addressed nearly all of the key IYCN topics, specifically or generally. Formative research has identified some local barriers and beliefs related to general breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices, and other formative research addressed about half of the IYCN topics included in this review. However, there was little evidence that this formative research was being utilized in developing training materials and designing programme interventions. Nevertheless, the training materials that were reviewed do provide specific guidance for nearly all of the key IYCN topics. Although many of the IYCN programmes are intended for national coverage, we could only confirm with available reports that programme coverage extended to certain regions. Some programme monitoring and evaluation were conducted, but few of these provided

  7. Evaluation d'un ecosysteme pastoral sahelien: Apport de la geomatique (Oursi, Burkina Faso)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabore, Seraphine Sawadogo

    L'objectif principal de cette recherche est la mise au point d'une architecture d'integration de donnees socio-bio-geographiques et de donnees satellitales dans un Systeme d'Information Geographique (SIG) en vue d'une aide a la prise de decisions dans un environnement semi-aride au nord du Burkina Faso. Elle repond a la question fondamentale de l'interpretation des effets des facteurs climatiques et socioeconomiques sur le milieu pastoral. La recherche s'est appuyee sur plusieurs hypotheses de travail: possibilite d'utilisation de modele de simulation, d'approche multicritere et de donnees de teledetection dans un cadre de systeme d'information geographique. L'evolution spatiotemporelle des parametres de productivite du milieu a ete evaluee par approche dynamique selon le modele de Wu et al. (1996) qui modelise les interactions entre le climat, le milieu physique, le vegetal et l'animal pour mieux quantifier la biomasse primaire. A ce modele, quatre parametres ont ete integres par approche floue et multicritere afin de prendre en compte la dimension socioeconomique de la productivite pastorale (apport majeur de la recherche): la sante, l'education, l'agriculture et l'eau. La teledetection (imagerie SPOT) a permis de definir la production primaire a partir de laquelle les simulations ont ete realisees sur 10 annees. Les resultats obtenus montrent une bonne correlation entre biomasse primaire in situ et celle calculee pour les deux modeles, avec toutefois une meilleure efficacite du modele modifie (4 fois plus) dans les zones de forte productivite ou l'on note un taux de surexploitation agricole eleve. A cause de la variabilite spatiale de la production primaire in situ, les erreurs des resultats de simulation (8 a 11%) sont acceptables et montrent la pertinence de l'approche grace a l'utilisation des SIG pour la spatialisation et l'integration des differents parametres des modeles. Les types de production secondaire preconises (production de lait pendant 7 mois ou

  8. Nursing and midwife staffing needs in maternity wards in Burkina Faso referral hospitals

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In 2006, Burkina Faso set up a policy to subsidize the cost of obstetric and neonatal emergency care. This policy has undoubtedly increased attendance at all levels of the health pyramid. The aim of this study was to measure the capacity of referral hospitals’ maternity services to cope with the demand for health services after the implementation of this policy. Methods This study was conducted in three referral health centres (CMAs, CHRs, and CHUs). The CHU Yalgado Ouédraogo (tertiary level) and the CMA in Sector 30 (primary level) were selected as health facilities in the capital, along with the Kaya CHR (secondary level). At each health facility, the study included official maternity ward staff only. We combined the two occupational categories (nurses and midwives) because they perform the same activities in these health facilities. We used the WISN method recommended by WHO to assess the availability of nurses and midwives. Results Nurses and midwives represented 38% of staff at the University Hospital, 65% in the CHR and 80% in the CMA. The number of nurses and midwives needed for carrying out the activities in the maternity ward in the University Hospital and the CMA is greater than the current workforce, with WISN ratio of 0.68 and 0.79 respectively. In the CHR, the current workforce is greater than the number required (WISN ratio = 2). This medical centre is known for performing a high number curative and preventive activities compared to the Kaya CHR. Like the CHU, the delivery room is a very busy unit. This activity requires more time and more staff compared to other activities. Conclusion This study showed a shortage of nurses and midwives in two health facilities in Ouagadougou, which confirms that there is considerable demand. At the Kaya CHR, there is currently enough staff to handle the workload in the maternity ward, which may indicate a need to expand the analysis to other health facilities to determine whether a redistribution of

  9. Which incentive package will retain regionalized health personnel in Burkina Faso: a discrete choice experiment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The lack of motivation of health workers to practice in rural areas remains a crucial problem for decision-makers, as it deprives the majority of access to health care. To solve the problem, many countries have implemented health worker retention strategies. However, the development of such strategies requires an understanding of the preferences of health workers. The objective of the study was to identify a package for attracting and retaining health workers in underserved areas. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted in three health regions of Burkina Faso in 2012. A discrete choice experiment was used to investigate preferences for incentive packages among health workers recruited under the regionalized policy. In-depth interviews and focus group discussions with health workers currently working in the East and Sahel regions and policy makers, and a literature review on attraction and retention in low income countries, were performed to identify the attributes and levels. These attributes were: the regionalized recruitment policy, health insurance, work equipment, housing, and specific incentive compensation. The final design resulted in 16 choice sets. A multinomial logistic regression was used to determine the influence of socio-demographic characteristics on choice of a given option. A probit logistic regression model was then used to analyze the effect of these difference variables on choice, to identify the incentive package best suited to health workers. In total, questionnaires were administered to 315 regional health workers. Results For all participants, choice of package was strongly influenced by length of commitment under the policy and provision of housing. Sex, number of years in profession, and location also influenced the choice of package. Women are twice more likely to choose a package with free housing and the cancellation of the policy. Conclusion It is important that governments consider health worker preferences in

  10. Assessing Land Management Changes and Population Dynamics in Central Burkina Faso in Response to Climate Change.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabore Bontogho, P. E.; Boubacar, I.; Afouda, A.; Joerg, H.

    2015-12-01

    Assessing landscape and population's dynamics at watershed level contribute to address anthropogenic aspect of climate change issue owing to the close link between LULC and climate changes. The objective of this study is to explore the dependencies of population to land management changes in Massili basin (2612 km²) located in central Burkina Faso. A set of three satellite scenes was acquired for the years 1990 (Landsat 7 ETM), 2002 (Landsat 7 ETM+) and 2013 (Landsat 8 OLI/TIRS) from the Global Land Cover Facility's (GLCF) website. Census data were provided by the National institute of statistics and demographic (INSD). The satellites images were classified using object-oriented classification method which was supported by historic maps and field data. Those were collected in order to allow for class definition, verification and accuracy assessments. Based on the developed land use maps, change analysis was carried out using post classification comparison in GIS. Finally, derived land use changes were compared with census data in order to explore links between population dynamics and the land use changes. It was found in 1990 that Massili watershed LULC was dominated by Tree/shrub savannah (69%, 1802.28 km2 ), Farm/Fallow was representing 22%, Gallery forest (4%), Settlement (3%), Barre soil (1%), Water bodies (1%). In 2002, the major landscape was Farm (54%). Tree/Shrub savannas were reduced to 36% while the Gallery Forest was decreased to1% of the basin area. The situation has also slightly changed in 2013 with an increase of the area devoted to farm/fallow and settlement at a rate of 3% and Gallery forest has increased to 4%. The changes in land use are in agreement with a notable increase in population. The analysis of census data showed that the number of inhabitants increased from 338 inhabitants per km2 in 1990 to 1150 inhabitants per km2 in 2013. As shown by statistical analysis (Kendall correlation tau=0.9), there is a close relation between both dynamics.

  11. Carbon dynamics with prolonged arable cropping soils in the Dano district (Southwest Burkina-Faso)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hounkpatin, Ozias; Welp, Gerhard; Amelung, Wulf

    2016-04-01

    The conversion of natural ecosystems into agricultural land affects the atmospheric CO2 concentration whose increase contributes to global warming. In the low activity clay soils (LAC) of the tropics, farming is largely dependent on the level of soil organic carbon (SOC) for sustainable crop production. In this study, we investigated the changes in SOC in Plinthosols along a cultivation chronosequence in the Dano district (Southwest Burkina-Faso). The chronosequence consisted of undisturbed savannah (Y0) and 11 agricultural fields with short and long histories of cultivation ranging from 1-year-old cropland to 29-year-old cropland (Y29). About 14 soil profiles were described and soil composite samples were taken per horizon. Particulate organic matter (POM) was fractionated according to particle size: fraction 2000 - 250 μm (POM1), 250 μm - 53 μm (POM2), 53 μm - 20 μm (POM3), and < 20 μm (nonPOM). Our results revealed that the extent of change in SOC stock varied with depth and the age of the cropland. The impact of cultivation was greater in the top 10 cm with a decrease in SOC stock of 21 t C/ha after 29 years of cropping indicating that about 60% of the initial stock in the native vegetation had been released. The SOC content and stock in the different POM fractions followed the following pattern: non POM > POM1 > POM3 > POM2 carbon no matter the duration of land use. However, SOC losses occurred not only in the labile C pools but also in the stabile nonPOM fraction with increasing duration of agricultural land use. Compared to the initial carbon content in the Y0 field, about 59% of carbon content loss occurred in the POM1 (> 250 μm), 53% in the POM2 (250 - 53 μm), 52 % in the POM3 (53 - 20 μm) and 47% in the nonPOM fraction (< 20 μm) after 11 years of cultivation while 79 % occurred in the POM1 C, 75% in the POM2C, 78 % in the POM3 C and 67% in the nonPOM C after 29 years of cultivation. Though most carbon was found as nonPOM, indicating that organo

  12. Policy entrepreneurs and structural influence in integrated community case management policymaking in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Policy entrepreneurs are individuals who attempt to influence the policy process and its outcomes through their opportunistic or incremental actions. Their success in the policy-making process has been associated with the convergence of four factors: behavioural traits; institutional factors; network position and political capital. Policy entrepreneurs have received little study in low- and middle-income country policy research despite observations of individualized decision-making, informal institutions and the unequal distribution and exercise of power in policymaking. This article aims to identify whether policy entrepreneurs were present in the policy process around integrated community case management (iCCM) in Burkina Faso, whether they were successful in achieving policy change, and whether success or failure can be explained using existing policy entrepreneur frameworks from high-income polities. This mixed methods policy study collected data from in-depth qualitative interviews and social network surveys of actors involved in iCCM policymaking [known locally as C-integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI)]; data were analysed based on the framework categories. Interview data pointed to one key individual who played a significant role in the inclusion of pneumonia treatment into the country’s iCCM policy, an issue that had been a point of contention between government policy elites and development partners. Social network data confirmed that this actor was strategically located in the policy network to be able to reach the most other actors and to be able to control the flow of information. Although some development partner actors were as strategically located, none had the same level of authority or trust as was imbued by being a member of the government civil service. The entrepreneur’s mid-level rank in the health ministry may have encouraged him/her to invest political capital and take risks that would not have been feasible or attractive to

  13. Biological Status and Dietary Intakes of Iron, Zinc and Vitamin A among Women and Preschool Children in Rural Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Prevel, Yves; Allemand, Pauline; Nikiema, Laetitia; Ayassou, Kossiwavi A.; Ouedraogo, Henri Gautier; Moursi, Mourad; De Moura, Fabiana F.

    2016-01-01

    Background Food-based approaches such as biofortification are meant to sustainably address micronutrient deficiencies in poor settings. Knowing more about micronutrient intakes and deficiencies is a prerequisite to designing and evaluating interventions. Objective The objectives of the study were to assess biological status and dietary intakes of iron, zinc and vitamin A among women and children aged 36–59 months in rural Burkina Faso and to study relationships between intake and status to better inform future food-based interventions. Design A cross-sectional survey was carried out in two rural provinces of Burkina Faso on a random cluster sample of 480 mother-child pairs. Dietary data was obtained by 24-hour recalls repeated on a random sub-selection of 37.5% of subjects to allow calculation of nutrient’s probability of adequacy (PA). Biomarkers were measured on a sub-sample of 180 mother-child pairs. Blood samples were analyzed for hemoglobin, serum ferritin, soluble transferrin receptors (sTfR), C-reactive protein, alpha-1-glycoprotein, serum zinc concentration (SZnC) and retinol. For each micronutrient the relationship between biomarker and dietary intake was investigated by multiple linear regression models accounting for inflammatory biomarkers. Results Mean PA for iron, zinc and vitamin A was 0.49, 0.87 and 0.21 among women and 0.61, 0.95 and 0.33 among children, respectively. Prevalence of anemia, corrected low serum ferritin and high sTfR was 37.6%, 4.0% and 77.5% among women and 72.1%, 1.5% and 87.6% among children, respectively. Prevalence of low SZnC and corrected low serum retinol was 39.4% and 12.0% among women and 63.7% and 24.8% among children, respectively. There was a tendency for a positive relationship between vitamin A intakes and serum retinol among women (β = 0.0003, P = 0.06). Otherwise, no link was found between micronutrients biomarkers and intakes. Conclusion Our study depicted different images of micronutrient deficiencies when

  14. Seasonal And Intra-seasonal Hydrological Responses To Change In Climate Pattern And Small Dams of the Faga Watershed In Burkina-Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamounata, K.

    2015-12-01

    In response to the increasing demand for food linked to the substantial growth of population in Burkina Faso, irrigation has been widely used by the farming community to support agricultural production. Thus a promising option for water resources development in such a context is to increase the number of small dams. It is assumed that the great number of small dams may have effect on sub-basins' hydrological dynamic. This study aims to assess the seasonal and the intra-seasonal change in river basins hydrology with the case study of the Faga River sub-basin located in Burkina-Faso, West Africa, using Water Simulation Model (WaSiM). For this watershed the number of small dams is slightly very important (More than 60) and their impact on the watershed runoff has been estimated simultaneously with the change in climate pattern. The coefficient of variation for rainfall in this sub-basin from 1982 to 2010 is 0.097 and the stream flow presents a seasonal average of 25.58Km3 per month for the same period. The intra-seasonal climate variation for the same period is estimated at 0.087 in the scenario where any dam has not been considered. Results based on simulation including the five important dams over the sub-basin show that the overall effect of small dams is on average a 20.76% in runoff. Projections using the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5 climate scenarios with increase of 25% of dams' number show a probable decrease of about 29.54% and 35.25% of the average during the next fifty years runoff. The study findings show that small dams reduce significantly the runoff from their watershed and the uncertainties related to the sustainability of the resource seems to be increasing during the same period. Therefore, despite the very large number of water storage infrastructures, reservoirs operating strategies have to be achieved for water sustainability within the Faga sub-basin.

  15. Dynamics of multiple insecticide resistance in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae in a rice growing area in South-Western Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Dabiré, Kounbobr Roch; Diabaté, Abdoulaye; Djogbenou, Luc; Ouari, Ali; N'Guessan, Raphaël; Ouédraogo, Jean-Bosco; Hougard, Jean-Marc; Chandre, Fabrice; Baldet, Thierry

    2008-01-01

    Background Insecticide resistance of the main malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae, has been reported in south-western Burkina Faso, West Africa. Cross-resistance to DDT and pyrethroids was conferred by alterations at site of action in the sodium channel, the Leu-Phe kdr mutation; resistance to organophosphates and carbamates resulted from a single point mutation in the oxyanion hole of the acetylcholinesterase enzyme designed as ace-1R. Methods An entomological survey was carried out during the rainy season of 2005 at Vallée du Kou, a rice growing area in south-western Burkina Faso. At the Vallée du Kou, both insecticide resistance mechanisms have been previously described in the M and S molecular forms of An. gambiae. This survey aimed i) to update the temporal dynamics and the circumsporozoite infection rate of the two molecular forms M and S of An. gambiae ii) to update the frequency of the Leu-Phe kdr mutation within these forms and finally iii) to investigate the occurrence of the ace-1R mutation. Mosquitoes collected by indoor residual collection and by human landing catches were counted and morphologically identified. Species and molecular forms of An. gambiae, ace-1R and Leu-Phe kdr mutations were determined using PCR techniques. The presence of the circumsporozoite protein of Plasmodium falciparum was determined using ELISA. Results Anopheles gambiae populations were dominated by the M form. However the S form occurred in relative important proportion towards the end of the rainy season with a maximum peak in October at 51%. Sporozoite rates were similar in both forms. The frequency of the Leu-Phe kdr mutation in the S form reached a fixation level while it is still spreading in the M form. Furthermore, the ace-1R mutation prevailed predominately in the S form and has just started spreading in the M form. The two mutations occurred concomitantly both in M and S populations. Conclusion These results showed that the Vallée du Kou, a rice growing area

  16. Econometric analysis to evaluate the effect of community-based health insurance on reducing informal self-care in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Robyn, Paul Jacob; Hill, Allan; Liu, Yuanli; Souares, Aurélia; Savadogo, Germain; Sié, Ali; Sauerborn, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study examines the role of community-based health insurance (CBHI) in influencing health-seeking behaviour in Burkina Faso, West Africa. Community-based health insurance was introduced in Nouna district, Burkina Faso, in 2004 with the goal to improve access to contracted providers based at primary- and secondary-level facilities. The paper specifically examines the effect of CBHI enrolment on reducing the prevalence of seeking modern and traditional methods of self-treatment as the first choice in care among the insured population. Methods Three stages of analysis were adopted to measure this effect. First, propensity score matching was used to minimize the observed baseline differences between the insured and uninsured populations. Second, through matching the average treatment effect on the treated, the effect of insurance enrolment on health-seeking behaviour was estimated. Finally, multinomial logistic regression was applied to model demand for available health care options, including no treatment, traditional self-treatment, modern self-treatment, traditional healers and facility-based care. Results For the first choice in care sought, there was no significant difference in the prevalence of self-treatment among the insured and uninsured populations, reaching over 55% for each group. When comparing the alternative option of no treatment, CBHI played no significant role in reducing the demand for self-care (either traditional or modern) or utilization of traditional healers, while it did significantly increase consumption of facility-based care. The average treatment effect on the treated was insignificant for traditional self-care, modern self-care and traditional healer, but was significant with a positive effect for use of facility care. Discussion While CBHI does have a positive impact on facility care utilization, its effect on reducing the prevalence of self-care is limited. The policy recommendations for improving the CBHI scheme

  17. Effects of a cereal and soy dietary formula on rehabilitation of undernourished children at ouagadougou, in burkina faso.

    PubMed

    Douamba, Zoenabo; Martinetto, Marina; Pietra, Virginio; Pignatelli, Salavatore; Schumacher, Fabian; Nikiema, Jean-Baptiste; Simpore, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    The New Misola consists of millet soybean, peanut, vitamins, minerals, and industrial amylase. Our objective is to demonstrate that porridge made from local grains and legumes restores the nutritional balance of malnourished children. The study was carried on 304 malnourished children aged 6-48 months including 172 girls and 132 boys from Saint Camille Medical Centre. At the beginning, these malnourished children had a WHZ z-score of -3.10 and a WAZ z-score of -3.85, which reflected, according to WHO, a severe malnutrition. After eight weeks of nutritional rehabilitation, a normal WHZ of -1.41 was obtained. These children recovered more than those in a similar study performed in 2006 with the old formula of Misola. This study shows that malnutrition remains a public health problem in Burkina Faso. It should be necessary that public health services and the epidemiologists work in synergy with nutritionists and "nutrigenetics" in order to combat malnutrition efficiently.

  18. Short-term and long-term outcomes following DOTS-based treatment for tuberculosis patients in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Doulougou, B; Kouanda, S; Nikiéma, L; Ouédraogo, G; Tiendrébeogo, S; Sondo, B; Greenwell, F; Salomon, J A

    2012-03-21

    A cross-sectional study was initiated in Burkina Faso's National Tuberculosis Programme to confirm successful treatment results within 3 months of completing treatment and to characterise longer-term outcomes 12-24 months after completion. The sample (n = 278) included 91 patients who had completed treatment 0-3 months earlier ('short-term' sample) and 187 patients who had completed treatment 12-24 months earlier ('long-term' sample). All sputum specimens from the short-term sample were confirmed as negative. In the long-term sample, among 154 patients with available information, 13 (8%) had died, 24 were not traced, and 117 (76%) were interviewed and had sputum examinations, of which 2 (2%) were smear-positive. Recording of successful treatment outcomes shows good validity.

  19. Education status among orphans and non-orphans in communities affected by AIDS in Tanzania and Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Kürzinger, M L; Pagnier, J; Kahn, J G; Hampshire, R; Wakabi, T; Dye, T D V

    2008-07-01

    The AIDS pandemic has created an estimated 15 million orphans who may face elevated risk of poor health and social outcomes. This paper compares orphans and non-orphans regarding educational status and delay using data collected in three low-income communities affected by AIDS in Tanzania and Burkina Faso. Orphans were significantly more likely not to attend school than were non-orphans and also to be delayed when in school, though, after controlling for confounders, the risk was borderline and non-significant. Multivariate analysis indicates that variables such as age, religion, family of origin, the relation between the child and the head of household and the dependency ratio of the household better explain differences in education than does orphan status. This study suggests, therefore, that orphans' educational status is relatively equivalent to non-orphans perhaps as a result of family based or community program safety nets.

  20. Impacts of small built infrastructure in inland valleys in Burkina Faso and Mali: Rationale for a systems approach that thinks beyond rice?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katic, Pamela; Lautze, Jonathan; Namara, Regassa E.

    The potential to increase agricultural production in inland valleys in West Africa has received a good degree of attention in both national development strategies and academic literature, and improving agriculture productivity in inland valleys has been an active area of donor engagement. Despite this attention, documentation of the degree to which benefits are enhanced through construction of built water storage infrastructure in such sites is somewhat scant. This paper examines evidence from eight inland valley sites with recently-built water retention infrastructure (4 in southwest Burkina Faso, 4 in southeast Mali) to determine how economic returns derived from agricultural production have changed through built infrastructure construction. Farmer interviews were undertaken at each site to identify costs and benefits of agricultural production before and after small built infrastructure construction. Overall results indicate that net present value increased substantially after built infrastructure was constructed. The results nonetheless highlight substantial variation in economic impacts across sites. A central variable explaining such variation appears to be the degree to which water retention is exploited for groundwater-based offseason cultivation. These findings will help development planners to better predict the degree and nature of change engendered by water storage projects in inland valley sites, and help to ground-truth grand statements about the development potential of this piece of natural infrastructure.

  1. Genetic structure among sorghum landraces as revealed by morphological variation and microsatellite markers in three agroclimatic regions of Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Barro-Kondombo, Clarisse; Sagnard, Fabrice; Chantereau, Jacques; Deu, Monique; Vom Brocke, Kirsten; Durand, Patrick; Gozé, Eric; Zongo, Jean Didier

    2010-05-01

    Diversity among 124 sorghum landraces from 10 villages surveyed in 3 regions of Burkina Faso covering different agroecological zones was assessed by 28 agromorphological traits and 29 microsatellite markers. 94.4% of the landraces collected belonged to the botanical race guinea (consisting of 96.6% guinea gambicum and 3.4% guinea margaritiferum), 74.2% had white kernels, 13.7% had orange and 12.1% had red kernels. Compared to the "village nested within zone" factor, the "variety nested within village within zone" factor predominately contributed to the diversity pattern for all nine statistically analysed quantitative traits. The multivariate analyses performed on ten morphological traits identified five landrace groups, and of these, the red kernel sorghum types appeared the most homogenous. 2 to 17 alleles were detected per locus with a mean 4.9 alleles per locus and a gene diversity (He) of 0.37. Landraces from the sub-Sahelian zone had the highest gene diversity (He = 0.38). Cluster analysis revealed that the diversity was weakly stratified and could not be explained by any biophysical criteria. One homogenous guinea margaritiferum group was distinguished from other guinea landraces. The red kernel type appeared to be genetically distinct from all other guinea landraces. The kernel colour was the principal structuring factor. This is an example of a homogeneous group of varieties selected for a specific use (for local beer preparation), mainly grown around the households in compound fields, and presenting particular agromorphological and genetic traits. This is the most original feature of sorghum diversity in Burkina Faso and should be the focus of special conservation efforts.

  2. Women's sexual health and contraceptive needs after a severe obstetric complication ("near-miss"): a cohort study in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Little is known about the reproductive health of women who survive obstetric complications in poor countries. Our aim was to determine how severe obstetric complications in Burkina Faso affect reproductive events in the first year postpartum. Methods Data were collected from a prospective cohort of women who either experienced life threatening (near-miss) pregnancy-related complications or an uncomplicated childbirth, followed from the end of pregnancy to one year postpartum or post-abortum. Documented outcomes include menses resumption, sexual activity resumption, dyspareunia, uptake of contraceptives, unmet needs for contraception and women's reproductive intentions. Participants were recruited in seven hospitals between December 2004 and March 2005 in six towns in Burkina Faso. Results Reproductive events were associated with pregnancy outcome. The frequency of contraceptive use was low in all groups and the method used varied according to the presence or not of a live baby. The proportion with unmet need for contraception was high and varied according to the time since end of pregnancy. Desire for another pregnancy was highest among near-miss women with perinatal death or natural abortion. Women in the near-miss group with induced abortion, perinatal death and natural abortion had significantly higher odds of subsequent pregnancy. Unintended pregnancies were observed mainly in women in the near-miss group with live birth and the uncomplicated delivery group. Conclusions Considering the potential deleterious impact (on health and socio-economic life) of new pregnancies in near-miss women, it is important to ensure family planning coverage includes those who survive a severe complication. PMID:20799964

  3. Efficacy of home-based lymphoedema management in reducing acute attacks in subjects with lymphatic filariasis in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Jullien, Patrick; Somé, Jeanne d'Arc; Brantus, Pierre; Bougma, Roland W; Bamba, Issouf; Kyelem, Dominique

    2011-09-01

    One of the two main goals of the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (LF) is to provide care for those suffering from the devastating clinical manifestations of this filarial infection. Among the 120 million infected people worldwide, up to 16 million have lymphoedema. The WHO strategy for managing lymphoedema is based on rigorous skin hygiene, exercise, antibiotics and antifungals when indicated. The aim is to reduce acute attacks of adenolymphangitis and cellulitis responsible for lymphoedema progression and disability. The objective of our study was to assess the effectiveness of home-based lymphoedema management implemented by the national health system of Burkina Faso. Any patient was eligible to participate in the study if suffering from LF-related lymphoedema of a lower limb at any stage, and receiving care as part of the health education and washing project between April 2005 and December 2007. The primary readout was the occurrence of an acute attack in the month preceding the consultation reported by the patient or observed by the care-giver. In all, 1089 patients were enrolled in the study. Before lymphoedema management intervention, 78.1% (95%CI: 75.5-80.5) of the patients had an acute attack in the month preceding the consultation; after four and half months of lymphoedema management, this was reduced to 39.1% (95%CI: 36.2-42.1). A reduction of acute attacks related to the number of consultations or related to the patients' age and gender was not observed. Our results suggest that the home-based lymphoedema management programme in the primary health care system of Burkina Faso is effective in reducing morbidity due to LF in the short-term (4.5 months). The lymphoedema management requires no additional human resources, but whether its effect can be sustained remains to be seen.

  4. Prevalence of common gastrointestinal nematode parasites in scavenging pigs of different ages and sexes in eastern centre province, Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Tamboura, H H; Banga-Mboko, H; Maes, D; Youssao, I; Traore, A; Bayala, B; Dembele, M A

    2006-03-01

    The range and infestation intensities of gastrointestinal parasitic nematode species depend on the type of swine production system. The present study focused mainly on nematodes of veterinary importance in scavenging pigs in Burkina Faso, and aimed at determining the prevalence of gastro-intestinal nematode parasites by means of faecal egg per gram (EPG) counts. Between November 2001 and October 2002, faecal samples from 383 pigs of different sexes and ages (< 5 months, 5-12 months and > 12 months) were collected from the rectum and examined for gastrointestinal nematodes parasites using the Mc Master method. Of the 383 pigs examined, 91% were infected by one or more parasites. Ascaris suum (40%; 100-1 400 EPG) was the most prevalent parasite followed by Strongyloides ransomi (21%; 100-4200 EPG), Oesophagostomum spp. (18%; 100-1000 EPG), Hyostrongylus rubidus (11%; 100-1 800 EPG), Globocephalus spp. (10%; 100-400 EPG) and Trichuris suis (1 %; 100-200 EPG). The prevalence was significantly higher in female pigs (n = 239) than in males. In addition, females excreted significantly (P < 0.05) more eggs in their faeces than males, except in the case of Globocephalus spp. The age of the animal had no effect on the prevalence of A. suum whereas there were significant differences in age categories concerning S. ransomi, H. rubidus, Oesophagostumum spp. and Globocephalus spp. Unexpectedly, the high prevalence of these common parasites was not accompanied by elevated EPG values, which suggests the existence of moderate infestations. The present work indicates that the common nematode infestations in pigs do not necessarily need a systematic herd anthelmintic treatment, as only a small number of worms is required to induce immunity. A further study is needed to formulate appropriate and cost-effective strategies for the control of gastro-intestinal nematode parasites in pigs in Burkina Faso.

  5. Nationwide Trends in Bacterial Meningitis before the Introduction of 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine—Burkina Faso, 2011–2013

    PubMed Central

    Ouédraogo-Traoré, Rasmata; Medah, Isaïe; Sangare, Lassana; Yaméogo, Issaka; Sawadogo, Guetawendé; Ouédraogo, Abdoul-Salam; Hema-Ouangraoua, Soumeya; McGee, Lesley; Srinivasan, Velusamy; Aké, Flavien; Congo-Ouédraogo, Malika; Sanou, Soufian; Ba, Absatou Ky; Novak, Ryan T.; Van Beneden, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Background Following introduction of Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine in 2006 and serogroup A meningococcal conjugate vaccine in 2010, Streptococcus pneumoniae (Sp) became the leading cause of bacterial meningitis in Burkina Faso. We describe bacterial meningitis epidemiology, focusing on pneumococcal meningitis, before 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) introduction in the pediatric routine immunization program in October 2013. Methods Nationwide population-based meningitis surveillance collects case-level demographic and clinical information and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) laboratory results. Sp infections are confirmed by culture, real-time polymerase chain reaction (rt-PCR), or latex agglutination, and CSF serotyped using real-time and conventional PCR. We calculated incidence rates in cases per 100,000 persons, adjusting for age and proportion of cases with CSF tested at national reference laboratories, and case fatality ratios (CFR). Results During 2011–2013, 1,528 pneumococcal meningitis cases were reported. Average annual adjusted incidence rates were 26.9 (<1 year), 5.4 (1–4 years), 7.2 (5–14 years), and 3.0 (≥15 years). Overall CFR was 23% and highest among children aged <1 year (32%) and adults ≥30 years (30%). Of 1,528 cases, 1,036 (68%) were serotyped: 71% were PCV13-associated serotypes, 14% were non-PCV13-associated serotypes, and 15% were non-typeable by PCR. Serotypes 1 (45%) and 12F/12A/12B/44/46 (8%) were most common. Among children aged <1 year, serotypes 5 (15%), 6A/6B (13%) and 1 (12%) predominated. Conclusions In Burkina Faso, the highest morbidity and mortality due to pneumococcal meningitis occurred among children aged <1 year. The majority of cases were due to PCV13-associated serotypes; introduction of PCV13 should substantially decrease this burden. PMID:27832151

  6. Reflections on the Unintended Consequences of the Promotion of Institutional Pregnancy and Birth Care in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Diallo, Abdoulaye Hama; Ruano, Ana Lorena; Tylleskär, Thorkild; Moland, Karen Marie

    2016-01-01

    The policy of institutional delivery has been the cornerstone of actions aimed at monitoring and achieving MDG 5. Efforts to increase institutional births have been implemented worldwide within different cultural and health systems settings. This paper explores how communities in rural Burkina Faso perceive the promotion and delivery of facility pregnancy and birth care, and how this promotion influences health-seeking behaviour. A qualitative study was conducted in South-Western Burkina Faso between September 2011 and January 2012. A total of 21 in-depth interviews and 8 focus group discussions with women who had given birth recently and community members were conducted. The data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis and interpreted through Merton’s concept of unintended consequences of purposive social action. The study found that community members experienced a strong pressure to give birth in a health facility and perceived health workers to define institutional birth as the only acceptable option. Women and their families experienced verbal, economic and administrative sanctions if they did not attend services and adhered to health worker recommendations, and reported that they felt incapable of questioning health workers’ knowledge and practices. Women who for social and economic reasons had limited access to health facilities found that the sanctions came with increased cost for health services, led to social stigma and acted as additional barriers to seek skilled care at birth. The study demonstrates how the global and national policy of skilled pregnancy and birth care can occur in unintentional ways in local settings. The promotion of institutional care during pregnancy and at birth in the study area compromised health system trust and equal access to care. The pressure to use facility care and the sanctions experienced by women not complying may further marginalize women with poor access to facility care and contribute to worsened health

  7. Measuring population health: costs of alternative survey approaches in the Nouna Health and Demographic Surveillance System in rural Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Lietz, Henrike; Lingani, Moustapha; Sié, Ali; Sauerborn, Rainer; Souares, Aurelia; Tozan, Yesim

    2015-01-01

    Background There are more than 40 Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) sites in 19 different countries. The running costs of HDSS sites are high. The financing of HDSS activities is of major importance, and adding external health surveys to the HDSS is challenging. To investigate the ways of improving data quality and collection efficiency in the Nouna HDSS in Burkina Faso, the stand-alone data collection activities of the HDSS and the Household Morbidity Survey (HMS) were integrated, and the paper-based questionnaires were consolidated into a single tablet-based questionnaire, the Comprehensive Disease Assessment (CDA). Objective The aims of this study are to estimate and compare the implementation costs of the two different survey approaches for measuring population health. Design All financial costs of stand-alone (HDSS and HMS) and integrated (CDA) surveys were estimated from the perspective of the implementing agency. Fixed and variable costs of survey implementation and key cost drivers were identified. The costs per household visit were calculated for both survey approaches. Results While fixed costs of survey implementation were similar for the two survey approaches, there were considerable variations in variable costs, resulting in an estimated annual cost saving of about US$45,000 under the integrated survey approach. This was primarily because the costs of data management for the tablet-based CDA survey were considerably lower than for the paper-based stand-alone surveys. The cost per household visit from the integrated survey approach was US$21 compared with US$25 from the stand-alone surveys for collecting the same amount of information from 10,000 HDSS households. Conclusions The CDA tablet-based survey method appears to be feasible and efficient for collecting health and demographic data in the Nouna HDSS in rural Burkina Faso. The possibility of using the tablet-based data collection platform to improve the quality of population health

  8. The Day-Hospital of the University Hospital, Bobo Dioulasso: An Example of Optimized HIV Management in Southern Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Chas, Julie; Hema, Arsène; Slama, Laurence; Kabore, Nongondo Firmin; Lescure, François-Xavier; Fontaine, Camille; Pialoux, Gilles; Sawadogo, Adrien

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the epidemiological evolution of patients with HIV (PtHIV), between 2002 and 2012, in a day-hospital that became an HIV reference centre for south-west Burkina Faso. Materials and Methods This was a retrospective study of PtHIV followed in the Bobo Dioulasso university hospital since 2002. The study was based on clinical data recorded using ESOPE software and analysed using Excel and SAS. Results A total of 7320 patients have been treated at the centre since 2002; the active file of patients increased from 147 in 2002 to 3684 patients in 2012. Mean age was stable at 38.4 years and the majority were female (71%). The delay to initiation of antiretroviral (ARV) treatment after HIV diagnosis decreased from 12.9 months in 2002 to 7.2 months in 2012. The percentage of PtHIV lost to follow-up, untreated for HIV and deaths all decreased after 2005. Voluntary anonymous screening and/or an evocative clinical picture were the main reasons for HIV diagnosis, usually at a late stage (41.1% at WHO stage 3). Virological success increased due to a decrease in time to initiation of ARV treatment and an increase in percentage of patients treated (90.5% in 2012, mainly with 1st line drugs). However, there was also a slight increase in the rate of therapeutic failures and the percentage of patients who progressed to 2nd or 3rd line-ARVs. Conclusion Our day-hospital is a good example of the implementation of a specialist centre for the management of PtHIV in a resource-limited country (Burkina Faso). PMID:25970181

  9. Polymorphisms in K13, pfcrt, pfmdr1, pfdhfr, and pfdhps in parasites isolated from symptomatic malaria patients in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Somé, Anyirékun Fabrice; Sorgho, Hermann; Zongo, Issaka; Bazié, Thomas; Nikiéma, Frédéric; Sawadogo, Amadé; Zongo, Moussa; Compaoré, Yves-Daniel; Ouédraogo, Jean-Bosco

    2016-01-01

    Background: The emergence of resistance to artemisinin derivatives in western Cambodia is threatening to revert the recent advances made toward global malaria control and elimination. Known resistance-mediating polymorphisms in the K13, pfcrt, pfmdr1, pfdhfr, and pfdhps genes are of greatest importance for monitoring the spread of antimalarial drug resistance. Methods: Samples for the present study were collected from 244 patients with uncomplicated malaria in health centers of Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. Blood sample was collected on filter paper before the subject received any treatment. The parasite DNA was then extracted and amplified by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) to evaluate the prevalence of polymorphism of pfcrtK76T, pfmdr1 (N86Y, Y184F), and pfdhps (A437G, K540E). The K13 gene polymorphism was analyzed by nested PCR followed by sequencing. Results: The overall results showed 2.26% (5/221) of K13 synonymous mutant alleles (two C469C, one Y493Y, one G496G, and one V589V), 24.78%, 19.58%, 68.75%, 60.9%, 53.7%, 63.8%, and 64.28%, respectively, for mutant pfcrt 76T, pfmdr1-86Y, pfmdr1-184F, pfdhfr51I, pfdhfr59R, pfdhfr108N, and pfdhps 437G. We did not report any mutation at codon 540 of pfdhps. Conclusion: These results provide baseline prevalence of known drug resistance polymorphisms and suggest that artemisinin combination therapies may retain good efficacy in the treatment of uncomplicated malaria in Burkina Faso. PMID:28004634

  10. Is vetiver grass of interest for the remediation of Cu and Cd to protect marketing gardens in Burkina Faso?

    PubMed

    Ondo Zue Abaga, Norbert; Dousset, Sylvie; Mbengue, Saliou; Munier-Lamy, Colette

    2014-10-01

    In Burkina-Faso, urban vegetable agriculture is often characterized by urban solid waste fertilizer inputs containing heavy metals such as Cu and Cd. Thus, the relevance of surrounding urban vegetable plots with vetiver hedges to reduce environmental pollution by Cu and Cd was investigated by adsorption studies and pot experiments. Vetiver biomass, its metal contents and, its total and MgCl2 extractable soil metals were monitored over 6months in the presence of a mixture of metal at two concentrations: 2-10 and 100-500mgkg(-1), for Cd and Cu, respectively. The Freundlich adsorption coefficient (Kf) values increased after vetiver growth and were significantly higher for vertisol than for lixisol. After 6months, the vetiver that was grown on lixisol accumulated more metal, increasing up to 4635mgkg(-1) for Cu and to 21.8mgkg(-1) for Cd, than did the vetiver that was grown on vertisol, increasing up to 1534mgkg(-1) for Cu and to 7.2mgkg(-1) for Cd. The metal bioconcentration factor, which was significantly higher for Cd, increased with the applied concentration and ranged from 1.6 to 14 for Cu and from 2.3 to 22 for Cd. Additionally, the translocation factors were higher for Cd (0.38-7.3) than for Cu (0.07-2.6), and the translocation was easiest from lixisol than from vertisol. Thus our results demonstrate the ability of vetiver for Cu and Cd phytoremediation in Burkina Faso soils. Nevertheless, these results should be confirmed across the field to advocate the establishment of vetiver hedges.

  11. Tectonic evolution of the Oudalan-Gorouol greenstone belt in NE Burkina Faso and Niger, West African craton.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tshibubudze, Asinne; Hein, Kim A. A.

    2010-05-01

    The Oudalan-Gorouol Greenstone Belt (OGGB) forms part of the Palaeoproterozoic as the Baoulé-Mossi domain of the West African Craton (WAC) and hosts gold deposits at Essakane, Gossey, Korizena, and Falagountou in NE Burkina Faso, and Kossa goldfield in Niger. The Birimian supracrustal sequences in the OGGB are dominated by meta-volcanoclastic greywacke intercalated meta-conglomerate, siltstone and shale, carbonate (dolomite) and volcanic units pillow basalts). The belt is surrounded by plutonic rocks including granite, TTG suite granitoids and granite gneiss. The sequences where subjected to two phases of deformation, and several phases of contact metamorphosed to hornblende-hornfels facies during emplacement of pyroxenite-gabbro-norite, granodiorite-tonalite and gabbro dykes and porphyritic sills. The OGGB is bounded and/or crosscut by several major NNE to NE-trending shear zones including the steeply east-dipping Markoye Shear Zone (western margin of the OGGB), Tin Takanet-Bellekcire Shear Zone, Dori Shear Zone, Kargouna Shear Zone, Takabougou Shear Zone, and Bom Kodjelé Shear Zone (transects the centre of the OGGB). The structures were readily identified using LANDSAT, Aster, aeromagnetic and RTP magnetic data, with follow-up strategic mapping, highlighting the value of interpreting geophysical and remotely sensed data in regional mapping in Burkina Faso and Niger. Structural studies completed in 2007 adjacent to the Essakane gold mine indicated that the NE-trending, first-order crustal-scale Markoye Shear Zone (MSZ) has undergone at least two phases of reactivation concomitant to two phases of regional deformation (Tshibubudze et al., 2009). The first phase of deformation, D1, resulted in the formation of NNW-NW trending folds and thrusts during dextral-reverse displacement on the MSZ. The deformation predates the Eburnean Orogeny is termed the Tangaean Event (meaning low hills in the Moré language of Burkina Faso) and is tentatively dated at ca. 2170

  12. Analysis of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola population in Mali and Burkina Faso reveals a high level of genetic and pathogenic diversity.

    PubMed

    Wonni, I; Cottyn, B; Detemmerman, L; Dao, S; Ouedraogo, L; Sarra, S; Tekete, C; Poussier, S; Corral, R; Triplett, L; Koita, O; Koebnik, R; Leach, J; Szurek, B; Maes, M; Verdier, V

    2014-05-01

    Bacterial leaf streak (BLS) caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola was first reported in Africa in the 1980s. Recently, a substantial reemergence of this disease was observed in West Africa. Samples were collected at various sites in five and three different rice-growing regions of Burkina Faso and Mali, respectively. Sixty-seven X. oryzae pv. oryzicola strains were isolated from cultivated and wild rice varieties and from weeds showing BLS symptoms. X. oryzae pv. oryzicola strains were evaluated for virulence on rice and showed high variation in lesion length on a susceptible cultivar. X. oryzae pv. oryzicola strains were further characterized by multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) using six housekeeping genes. Inferred dendrograms clearly indicated different groups among X. oryzae pv. oryzicola strains. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis using the transcriptional activator like effector avrXa7 as probe resulted in the identification of 18 haplotypes. Polymerase chain reaction-based analyses of two conserved type III effector (T3E) genes (xopAJ and xopW) differentiated the strains into distinct groups, with xopAJ not detected in most African X. oryzae pv. oryzicola strains. XopAJ functionality was confirmed by leaf infiltration on 'Kitaake' rice Rxo1 lines. Sequence analysis of xopW revealed four groups among X. oryzae pv. oryzicola strains. Distribution of 43 T3E genes shows variation in a subset of X. oryzae pv. oryzicola strains. Together, our results show that African X. oryzae pv. oryzicola strains are diverse and rapidly evolving, with a group endemic to Africa and another one that may have evolved from an Asian strain.

  13. Grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems with batteries storage as solution to electrical grid outages in Burkina Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdoulaye, D.; Koalaga, Z.; Zougmore, F.

    2012-02-01

    This paper deals with a key solution for power outages problem experienced by many African countries and this through grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems with batteries storage. African grids are characterized by an insufficient power supply and frequent interruptions. Due to this fact, users who especially use classical grid-connected photovoltaic systems are unable to profit from their installation even if there is sun. In this study, we suggest the using of a grid-connected photovoltaic system with batteries storage as a solution to these problems. This photovoltaic system works by injecting the surplus of electricity production into grid and can also deliver electricity as a stand-alone system with all security needed. To achieve our study objectives, firstly we conducted a survey of a real situation of one African electrical grid, the case of Burkina Faso (SONABEL: National Electricity Company of Burkina). Secondly, as study case, we undertake a sizing, a modeling and a simulation of a grid-connected PV system with batteries storage for the LAME laboratory at the University of Ouagadougou. The simulation shows that the proposed grid-connected system allows users to profit from their photovoltaic installation at any time even if the public electrical grid has some failures either during the day or at night.

  14. River contract in Wallonia (Belgium) and its application for water management in the Sourou valley (Burkina Faso).

    PubMed

    Rosillon, F; Vander Borght, P; Bado Sama, H

    2005-01-01

    Inspired by the experience of a river contract in Wallonia (Belgium) since 1990, the implementation of a first river contract has been initiated in a West African country, Burkina Faso. This application is not limited to a simple transposition of the Walloon model. The Burkina context calls for adaptation to the local environmental and socio-economical realities with an adequate partnership management. The importance of the mobilization around this project of institutional partners, as well as local collectivities, agricultural producers and water users in general reveals the great expectations of the actors concerning this new tool of water participative management. But will the latter be equal to the task? A first assessment has been drawn up one year after the launch. During the first year of the project, a participative diagnostic was implemented but the understanding of basic notions of water management such as 'river' (not translatable in the local language), 'watershed', 'contract' were not obvious. After the identification of functions and uses of water in the basin, an environmental survey was started. This approach allows study with the river committees of the priority actions to be developed as a first project of restoration of the gallery forest alongside the stream to fight against desertification. This project of integrated and participative management of water at sub-basin level is a concrete example of solidarity and exchange know-how between North and South in the context of a sustainable development.

  15. Potentials for Indication of Potentially Harmful Toxic Algal Blooms Using PROBA1-CHRIS Hyperspectral Imagery- A Case Study in Burkina Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beiermann, Timo

    2010-12-01

    Toxic algal blooms are an issue affecting water quality and can cause harmful health impacts. The aim of the conducted case study is to assess such blooms by chlorophyll a and phycocyanin detection as indicators of the occurrence. Using demonstrated single reflectance ratio algorithms published as in [7] and processed with provided tools for hyperspectral Proba1-CHRIS imagery in a study site including Loumbila reservoir near Ouagadougou, capital of Burkina Faso to investigate potentials of this approach.

  16. La cardiothyréose au centre hospitalier universitaire de Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Yaméogo, Aimé Arsène; Yaméogo, Nobila Valentin; Compaoré, Yves Daniel; Ouédraogo, Tinoago Laurent; Zabsonré, Patrice

    2012-01-01

    Introduction La cardiothyréose est une affection fréquente et grave à l’ouest du Burkina Faso. Notre objectif était d’étudier les caractéristiques épidémiologiques, cliniques, thérapeutiques et évolutives des cardiothyréoses au centre hospitalier universitaire de Bobo-Dioulasso. Méthodes Etude prospective de 12 mois pourtant sur des cas de cardiothyréose colligés dans les services de cardiologie et de médecine interne. Résultats Quatorze (14) cas de cardiothyréose ont été colligés soit 33,3% des patients hospitalisés pour hyperthyroïdies. L’âge moyen des patients était de 53,57 ans ± 9,97. Les femmes au foyer (71,40%) aux conditions socio-économiques défavorables étaient les plus touchées. Parmi nos cas 21,42% des patients avaient déjà un antécédent d’hyperthyroïdie et l’HTA était le facteur de risque cardiovasculaire majeur (64,28%). Tous les patients présentaient une insuffisance cardiaque associée à un trouble du rythme (57,14%), essentiellement à type de fibrillation auriculaire (42,9%), une insuffisance coronarienne (7,14%) et un trouble de la conduction (7,14%). Le goitre multi-nodulaire a été l’entité étiopathogénique la plus fréquente (57,10%). Les antithyroïdiens de synthèse, les mesures hygiéno-diététiques et un traitement spécifique de l’insuffisance cardiaque ont été constamment utilisés pendant une durée d’hospitalisation moyenne de 23,57 jours ± 7,54. Si l’évolution immédiate peut être satisfaisante avec une euthyroïdie à 28,5% à moyen terme, les ruptures thérapeutiques peuvent être mortelles (un patient soit 7,14%) chez des patients généralement âgés majoritairement de sexe féminin avec un niveau socio-économique bas. Conclusion Le traitement de la cardiothyréose est efficace d’où l’intérêt d’une politique sanitaire pour une prise en charge adéquate. PMID:22593774

  17. Soil hydrological and soil property changes resulting from termite activity on agricultural fields in Burkina Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mettrop, I.; Cammeraat, L. H.; Verbeeten, E.

    2009-04-01

    Termites are important ecosystem-engineers in subtropical and tropical regions. The effect of termite activity affecting soil infiltration is well documented in the Sahelian region. Most studies find increased infiltration rates on surfaces that are affected by termite activity in comparison to crusted areas showing non-termite presence. Crusted agricultural fields in the Sanmatenga region in Burkina Faso with clear termite activity were compared to control fields without visual ground dwelling termite activity. Fine scale rainfall simulations were carried out on crusted termite affected and control sites. Furthermore soil moisture change, bulk density, soil organic matter as well as general soil characteristics were studied. The top soils in the study area were strongly crusted (structural crust) after the summer rainfall and harvest of millet. They have a loamy sand texture underlain by a shallow sandy loam Bt horizon. The initial soil moisture conditions were significantly higher on the termite plots when compared to control sites. It was found that the amount of runoff produced on the termite plots was significantly higher, and also the volumetric soil moisture content after the experiments was significantly lower if compared to the control plots. Bulk density showed no difference whereas soil organic matter was significantly higher under termite affected areas, in comparison to the control plots. Lab tests showed no significant difference in hydrophobic behavior of the topsoil and crust material. Micro and macro-structural properties of the topsoil did not differ significantly between the termite sites and the control sites. The texture of the top 5 cm of the soil was also found to be not significantly different. The infiltration results are contradictory to the general literature, which reports increased infiltration rates after prolonged termite activity although mostly under different initial conditions. The number of nest entrances was clearly higher in

  18. The challenges of developing an instrument to assess health provider motivation at primary care level in rural Burkina Faso, Ghana and Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Prytherch, Helen; Leshabari, Melkidezek T.; Wiskow, Christiane; Aninanya, Gifty A.; Kakoko, Deodatus C.V.; Kagoné, Moubassira; Burghardt, Juliane; Kynast-Wolf, Gisela; Marx, Michael; Sauerborn, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    Background The quality of health care depends on the competence and motivation of the health workers that provide it. In the West, several tools exist to measure worker motivation, and some have been applied to the health sector. However, none have been validated for use in sub-Saharan Africa. The complexity of such tools has also led to concerns about their application at primary care level. Objective To develop a common instrument to monitor any changes in maternal and neonatal health (MNH) care provider motivation resulting from the introduction of pilot interventions in rural, primary level facilities in Ghana, Burkina Faso, and Tanzania. Design Initially, a conceptual framework was developed. Based upon this, a literature review and preliminary qualitative research, an English-language instrument was developed and validated in an iterative process with experts from the three countries involved. The instrument was then piloted in Ghana. Reliability testing and exploratory factor analysis were used to produce a final, parsimonious version. Results and discussion This paper describes the actual process of developing the instrument. Consequently, the concepts and items that did not perform well psychometrically at pre-test are first presented and discussed. The final version of the instrument, which comprises 42 items for self-assessment and eight for peer-assessment, is then shown. This is followed by a presentation and discussion of the findings from first use of the instrument with MNH providers from 12 rural, primary level facilities in each of the three countries. Conclusions It is possible to undertake work of this nature at primary health care level, particularly if the instruments are kept as straightforward as possible and well introduced. However, their development requires very lengthy preparatory periods. The effort needed to adapt such instruments for use in different countries within the region of sub-Saharan Africa should not be underestimated. PMID

  19. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of meningococcal carriage and disease isolates in Burkina Faso after mass vaccination with a serogroup a conjugate vaccine

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The conjugate vaccine against serogroup A Neisseria meningitidis (NmA), MenAfriVac, was first introduced in mass vaccination campaigns of the 1-29-year-olds in Burkina Faso in 2010. The aim of this study was to genetically characterize meningococcal isolates circulating in Burkina Faso before and up to 13 months after MenAfriVac mass vaccination. Methods A total of 1,659 meningococcal carriage isolates were collected in a repeated cross-sectional carriage study of the 1-29-year-olds in three districts of Burkina Faso in 2010 and 2011, before and up to 13 months after mass vaccination. Forty-two invasive isolates were collected through the national surveillance in Burkina Faso in the same period. All the invasive isolates and 817 carriage isolates were characterized by serogroup, multilocus sequence typing and porA-fetA sequencing. Results Seven serogroup A isolates were identified, six in 2010, before vaccination (4 from carriers and 2 from patients), and one in 2011 from an unvaccinated patient; all were assigned to sequence type (ST)-2859 of the ST-5 clonal complex. No NmA carriage isolate and no ST-2859 isolate with another capsule were identified after vaccination. Serogroup X carriage and disease prevalence increased before vaccine introduction, due to the expansion of ST-181, which comprised 48.5% of all the characterized carriage isolates. The hypervirulent serogroup W ST-11 clone that was responsible for most of meningococcal disease in 2011 and 2012 was not observed in 2010; it appeared during the epidemic season of 2011, when it represented 40.6% of the serogroup W carriage isolates. Conclusions Successive clonal waves of ST-181 and ST-11 may explain the changing epidemiology in Burkina Faso after the virtual disappearance of NmA disease and carriage. No ST-2859 strain of any serogroup was found after vaccination, suggesting that capsule switching of ST-2859 did not occur, at least not during the first 13 months after vaccination. PMID:23914778

  20. A community-based approach to indigent selection is difficult to organize in a formal neighbourhood in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso: a mixed methods exploratory study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In most African countries, indigents treated at public health centres are supposed to be exempted from user fees. In Africa, most of the available knowledge has to do with targeting processes in rural areas, and little is known about how to select the worst-off in an urban area. In rural communities of Burkina Faso, trials of participatory community-based selection of indigents have been effective. However, the process for selecting indigents in urban areas is not yet clear. Methods This study evaluates a community-funded participatory indigent selection process in both a formal (loti) and an informal (non-loti) neighbourhood in the urban setting of Burkina Faso’s capital. This was an exploratory study to evaluate the processes and effectiveness of participatory targeting. We conducted individual interviews (n = 26) and analyzed secondary qualitative data (eight focus groups, 16 individual interviews). We also used the results of a socioeconomic survey (carried out by the Ouaga HDSS in 2011) of all the households established in the areas, including those of selected indigents. Results The coverage of indigent targeting was very low: 0.33% (loti) and 0.22% (non loti). In the non loti neighbourhood, the level of poverty among people selected was higher than the mean level of the poor who were not selected. Some indigents selected in the loti neighbourhood were not among the worst-off. The process was difficult to organize in the loti neighbourhood; people knew each other less well and were not very available, and there were cases of collusion. The process worked well in the non loti neighbourhood. Conclusions This intervention research provides new evidence about the feasibility of a community-based selection process in an urban setting in Africa by comparing two different urban settings. The participatory community-based selection process appeared to be suitable for the non loti neighbourhood, but other targeting strategies need to be found for loti

  1. Serological diagnosis of human immuno-deficiency virus in Burkina Faso: reliable, practical strategies using less expensive commercial test kits.

    PubMed Central

    Meda, N.; Gautier-Charpentier, L.; Soudré, R. B.; Dahourou, H.; Ouedraogo-Traoré, R.; Ouangré, A.; Bambara, A.; Kpozehouen, A.; Sanou, H.; Valéa, D.; Ky, F.; Cartoux, M.; Barin, F.; Van de Perre, P.

    1999-01-01

    Reported are the results of a cross-sectional survey in Burkina Faso to identify reliable, practical strategies for the serological diagnosis of HIV-1 and/or HIV-2 infections, using less-expensive commercial test kits in various combinations, as an alternative to the conventional Western blot (WB) test, which costs US$ 60. Serum samples, collected from blood donors, patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and pregnant women, were tested between December 1995 and January 1997. Twelve commercial test kits were available: five Mixt enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), three Mixt rapid tests, and four additional tests including monospecific HIV-1 and HIV-2 ELISA. The reference strategy utilized a combination of one ELISA or one rapid test with WB, and was conducted following WHO criteria. A total of 768 serum samples were tested; 35 were indeterminate and excluded from the analysis. Seroprevalence of HIV in the remaining 733 sera was found to be 37.5% (95% confidence interval: 34.0-41.1). All the ELISA tests showed 100% sensitivity, but their specificities ranged from 81.4% to 100%. GLA (Genelavia Mixt) had the highest positive delta value, while ICE HIV-1.0.2 (ICE) produced the most distinct negative results. Among the rapid tests, COM (CombAIDS-RS) achieved 100% sensitivity and SPO (HIV Spot) 100% specificity. Various combinations of commercial tests, according to recommended WHO strategies I, II, III, gave excellent results when ICE was included in the sequence. The best combination of tests for strategy II, which achieved 100% sensitivity and specificity, was to use ICE and COM, the cost of which was US$ 2.10, compared with US$ 55.60 for the corresponding conventional strategy. For strategy III, the best combination, which achieved 100% sensitivity and specificity, was to use ICE, ZYG (Enzygnost Anti HIV-1/HIV-2 Plus) and COM, the cost of which was US$ 2.90 (19.2 times lower than the corresponding strategy requiring WB). No rapid test

  2. Knowledge of Obstetric Fistula Prevention amongst Young Women in Urban and Rural Burkina Faso: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Banke-Thomas, Aduragbemi O.; Kouraogo, Salam F.; Siribie, Aboubacar; Taddese, Henock B.; Mueller, Judith E.

    2013-01-01

    Obstetric fistula is a sequela of complicated labour, which, if untreated, leaves women handicapped and socially excluded. In Burkina Faso, incidence of obstetric fistula is 6/10,000 cases amongst gynaecological patients, with more patients affected in rural areas. This study aims to evaluate knowledge on obstetric fistula among young women in a health district of Burkina Faso, comparing rural and urban communities. This cross-sectional study employed multi-stage sampling to include 121 women aged 18-20 years residing in urban and rural communities of Boromo health district. Descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression analysis were used to compare differences between the groups and to identify predictors of observed knowledge levels. Rural women were more likely to be married (p<0.000) and had higher propensity to teenage pregnancy (p=0.006). The survey showed overall poor obstetric fistula awareness (36%). Rural residents were less likely to have adequate preventive knowledge than urban residents [OR=0.35 (95%-CI, 0.16–0.79)]. This effect was only slightly explained by lack of education [OR=0.41 (95%-CI, 0.18–0.93)] and only slightly underestimated due to previous pregnancy [OR=0.27 (95%-CI, 0.09–0.79)]. Media were the most popular source of awareness amongst urban young women in contrast to their rural counterparts (68% vs. 23%). Most rural young women became ‘aware’ through word-of-mouth (68% vs. 14%). All participants agreed that the hospital was safer for emergency obstetric care, but only 11.0% believed they could face pregnancy complications that would require emergency treatment. There is urgent need to increase emphasis on neglected health messages such as the risks of obstetric fistula. In this respect, obstetric fistula prevention programs need to be adapted to local contexts, whether urban or rural, and multi-sectoral efforts need to be exerted to maximise use of other sectoral resources and platforms, including existing routine

  3. Knowledge of obstetric fistula prevention amongst young women in urban and rural Burkina Faso: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Banke-Thomas, Aduragbemi O; Kouraogo, Salam F; Siribie, Aboubacar; Taddese, Henock B; Mueller, Judith E

    2013-01-01

    Obstetric fistula is a sequela of complicated labour, which, if untreated, leaves women handicapped and socially excluded. In Burkina Faso, incidence of obstetric fistula is 6/10,000 cases amongst gynaecological patients, with more patients affected in rural areas. This study aims to evaluate knowledge on obstetric fistula among young women in a health district of Burkina Faso, comparing rural and urban communities. This cross-sectional study employed multi-stage sampling to include 121 women aged 18-20 years residing in urban and rural communities of Boromo health district. Descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression analysis were used to compare differences between the groups and to identify predictors of observed knowledge levels. Rural women were more likely to be married (p<0.000) and had higher propensity to teenage pregnancy (p=0.006). The survey showed overall poor obstetric fistula awareness (36%). Rural residents were less likely to have adequate preventive knowledge than urban residents [OR=0.35 (95%-CI, 0.16-0.79)]. This effect was only slightly explained by lack of education [OR=0.41 (95%-CI, 0.18-0.93)] and only slightly underestimated due to previous pregnancy [OR=0.27 (95%-CI, 0.09-0.79)]. Media were the most popular source of awareness amongst urban young women in contrast to their rural counterparts (68% vs. 23%). Most rural young women became 'aware' through word-of-mouth (68% vs. 14%). All participants agreed that the hospital was safer for emergency obstetric care, but only 11.0% believed they could face pregnancy complications that would require emergency treatment. There is urgent need to increase emphasis on neglected health messages such as the risks of obstetric fistula. In this respect, obstetric fistula prevention programs need to be adapted to local contexts, whether urban or rural, and multi-sectoral efforts need to be exerted to maximise use of other sectoral resources and platforms, including existing routine health

  4. Immune Reconstitution During the First Year of Antiretroviral Therapy of HIV-1-Infected Adults in Rural Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Tiba, Fabrice; Nauwelaers, Frans; Traoré, Siaka; Coulibaly, Boubacar; Ouedraogo, Thierry; Compaoré, Adama; Kräusslich, Hans-Georg; Böhler, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    There are no data on the outcome of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in HIV-infected adults in rural Burkina Faso. We therefore assessed CD4+ T-cell counts and HIV-1 plasma viral load (VL), the proportion of naive T-cells (co-expressing CCR7 and CD45RA) and T-cell activation (expression of CD95 or CD38) in 61 previously untreated adult patients from Nouna, Burkina Faso, at baseline and 2 weeks, 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after starting therapy. Median CD4+ T-cell counts increased from 174 (10th-90th percentile: 33-314) cells/µl at baseline to 300 (114- 505) cells/µl after 3 months and 360 (169-562) cells/µl after 12 months of HAART. Median VL decreased from 5.8 (4.6- 6.6) log10 copies/ml at baseline to 1.6 (1.6-2.3) log10 copies/ml after 12 months. Early CD4+ T-cell recovery was accompanied by a reduction of the expression levels of CD95 and CD38 on T-cells. Out of 42 patients with complete virological follow-up under HAART, 19 (45%) achieved concordant good immunological (gain of ≥100 CD4+ T-cells/µl above baseline) and virological (undetectable VL) responses after 12 months of treatment (intention-to-treat analysis). Neither a decreased expression of the T-cell activation markers CD38 and CD95, nor an increase in the percentage of naive T-cells reliably predicted good virological treatment responses in patients with good CD4+ T-cell reconstitution. Repeated measurement of CD4+ T-cell counts during HAART remains the most important parameter for immunologic monitoring. Substitution of repeated VL testing by determination of T-cell activation levels (e.g., CD38 expression on CD8+ T-cells) should be applied with caution. PMID:22435082

  5. Women's dietary diversity scores and childhood anthropometric measurements as indices of nutrition insecurity along the urban–rural continuum in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Chagomoka, Takemore; Drescher, Axel; Glaser, Rüdiger; Marschner, Bernd; Schlesinger, Johannes; Nyandoro, George

    2016-01-01

    Background Malnutrition is still prevalent worldwide, and its severity, which differs between regions and countries, has led to international organisations proposing its inclusion in the global development framework that will succeed the Millennium Development Goals (post-2015 framework). In Sub-Saharan Africa, malnutrition is particularly severe, among women and children under 5 years. The prevalence of malnutrition has been reported worldwide, differing from region to region and country to country. Nevertheless, little is known about how malnutrition differs between multiple locations along an urban–rural continuum. Objective A survey was carried out in and around Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, between August and September 2014 to map household nutrition insecurity along the urban–rural continuum, using a transect approach to guide the data collection. Design Transects of 70 km long and 2 km wide directed radially from the city centre outwards were laid, and data were collected from randomly selected households along these transects. Women's dietary diversity scores (WDDSs) were calculated from a sample of 179 women of reproductive age (15–49 years) from randomly selected households. Additionally, anthropometric data (height/length and weight) of 133 children under 5 years of age were collected along the same transects for the computation of anthropometric indices. Results We found that relative proportions of the nutrition indices such as stunting, wasting and underweight varied across the urban–rural continuum. Rural households (15%) had the highest relative proportion of WDDS compared with urban households (11%) and periurban households (8%). There was a significant association between children under 5 years’ nutritional status (wasting, stunting and underweight) and spatial location (p=0.023). The level of agricultural activities is a possible indicator of wasting in children aged 6–59 months (p=0.032). Conclusion Childhood undernutrition certainly

  6. Study through surveys and fermentation kinetics of the traditional processing of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) into ben-saalga, a fermented gruel from Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Tou, E H; Guyot, J P; Mouquet-Rivier, C; Rochette, I; Counil, E; Traoré, A S; Trèche, S

    2006-01-15

    Traditional cereal-based fermented foods are frequently used as complementary foods for infants and young children in Africa. This is the case for ben-saalga, a popular fermented gruel produced from pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) in Burkina Faso. Detailed knowledge of traditional processing is a prerequisite for investigating ways to improve both the nutritional and sanitary qualities of the corresponding foodstuff. In this work, the traditional processing of pearl millet into ben-saalga was investigated in 24 production units, and fermentation kinetics were studied in pilot scale experiments. Processing steps include: washing (optional), soaking of the grains (first fermentation step), grinding and sieving of the wet flour, settling (second fermentation step), and cooking. The soaking step was mainly characterized by alcoholic fermentation whereas lactic acid fermentation occurred during the settling step. Fermentation kinetics during settling indicates a temporal variation of metabolic activity. Initially, both homofermentative and heterofermentative pathways were simultaneously active, and later only a homofermentative pathway was active. The paste produced at the end of settling had a low pH (4.0+/-0.4) and its microflora was dominated by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with an amylolytic LAB/LAB ratio of 12%. Sucrose disappeared in the grains during soaking but was not detected in the soaking water, whereas glucose, fructose and maltose appeared transiently. Glucose and fructose were the main substrates observed for lactic acid fermentation during the settling step; however unbalanced fermentation led to the hypothesis that starch hydrolysis products may also serve as substrates for lactic acid formation. At the end of the processing, a 75% and 83% decrease was observed in phytate (IP6) and raffinose, respectively. The sour gruel ben-saalga resulting from cooking the sour paste had inadequate nutritional characteristics with respect to infants' and young

  7. Land degradation in a semi-urban catchment in Burkina Faso: monitoring land use change and soil erosion with earth observations and field surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angeluccetti, Irene; Coviello, Velio; Vezza, Paolo; Grimaldi, Stefania; Steffenino, Sara; Magloire Koussoubé, Alain

    2015-04-01

    Soil erosion is currently menacing the availability of arable land in various countries worldwide. In particular the countries located in the Sahel area of Sub-Saharan Africa are extremely prone to this type of environmental degradation. The same countries rely traditionally upon subsistence farming, which makes the population more vulnerable to environmental changes. The study here presented exploits remote sensed data for identifying the main degradation processes occurring in a small catchment of central Burkina Faso (i.e., Boulbi watershed). This catchment, approximately 100 square km large, is characterized by the presence of a 30 years old dam, whose reservoir feeds 80 ha of rice-fields. This produce contributes up to 13% of the regional rice production. Nonetheless other crops, along with rain-fed rice, are grown all across the Boulbi catchment during the rainy season. Both the increasing gully erosion and the urbanization of the capital city pushing from the North are significantly threatening the farming activities. By using aerial frames acquired with a 16 years' time interval (i.e., 1996, 2012), free satellite imagery, and field surveys, the base cartography of the investigated area was updated and the most active gullies were identified. Moreover a change detection analysis was performed on both artifacts and land use features. More than 200.000 square m of erosion areas and an increase of nearly 90% in built-up areas were detected. In addition, the importance of producing up-to-date base data was proven by the exploitation of the outcomes for the production of a catchment land and water management plan.

  8. Seroprevalence of latent Toxoplasma gondii infection among HIV-infected pregnant women in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Bamba, S; Sourabié, Y; Guiguemdé, T R; Karou, D S; Simporé, J; Bambara, M; Villena, I

    2014-09-01

    The deficit of cellular immunity, as found in HIV infected individuals, may lead to the reactivation of latent Toxoplasma gondii cysts, with as consequence, the occurrence of toxoplasmosis and an eventual vertical transmission of the disease during pregnancy. The present study was designed for determining the occurrence of latent Toxoplasma gondii among HIV-infected pregnant women during the first trimester in Bobo-Dioulasso. Thus, 348 pregnant women aged from 17 to 47 years (average age of 6.64 ± 4.75 yaers) were enrolled. The specific anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG and IgM antibodies were quantified from whole blood specimens using the high-sensitivity direct agglutination and the enzyme linked fluorescent assays, respectively, the IgG avidity test being used for the dating of the primary infection. The results revealed that the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii latent infection was 34.7%. It was significantly higher in HIV-infected women compared with uninfected ones (68,7%; CI 95%: 43,6%-88,9%) versus (33,1%; CI 95%: 28, 2%-38,3%). In addition, all the occurrences of the high IgG avidity were closely linked with the presence of IgM. These results underlined the need for the clinical follow-up of the maternal HIV diseases including the toxoplasmosis during the pregnancy since; the newborns are still exposed to vertical transmission of Toxoplasma infection in endemic areas like Burkina Faso.

  9. The Sensitivity of Food Prices to Climate Dynamics in the Informal Markets of Mali, Burkina Faso and Niger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, M. E.; Pinzon, J. E.; Prince, S. D.

    2006-05-01

    Systematic evaluation of food security throughout the West African Sahel has been attempted for nearly two decades. Food security analyses use food prices to determine the ability of the population to access food, and satellite derived vegetation indices to establish how much food is available each year. The relationship between these different food security indicators was explored in this study using correspondence analysis and through the use of Markov chain models. Two sources of quantitative data were used in these analysis that are readily available: 8km normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data from the NOAA series of satellites carrying the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometers (AVHRR), and monthly millet grain prices from 445 markets in Mali, Niger and Burkina Faso. The results of this study show that the quality of the growing season affects the price of millet at the annual and the seasonal time scales. If the growing season was characterized by erratic, sparse rainfall it resulted in higher prices, and well- distributed, abundant rainfall resulted in lower prices. Model output was used to determine the impact of coupled price pressure and production deficits on the livelihoods of three demographic groups in Niger, demonstrating the power of integrating disparate datasets for food security estimation. The model can be used to estimate the economic and societal impacts resulting from climate variation, causing significant changes in human consumptions patterns. These changes can have global consequences when drought affects large portions of the growing regions simultaneously in the same year.

  10. Operational performance of the photovoltaic-powered grain mill and water pump at Tangaye, Burkina Faso (formerly Upper Volta)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martz, J. E.; Roberts, A. F.

    1985-01-01

    A photovoltaic (PV) system powering a grain mill and water pump was installed in the remote African village of Tangaye, Burkina Faso (formerly Upper Volta) under the sponsorship of the U.S. Agency for International Development (AID) and by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Lewis Research Center (LeRC) in early 1979. The presence reports covers the second two years of operation from April 1981 through June 1983. During this time, the grain mill and water pump were operational 96 and 88 percent of the time respectively, and the PV system generated sufficient electricity to enable the grinding of about 111 metric tons of finely ground flow and the pumping of over 5000 cm sq of water from the 10 m deep well. The report includes a description of the current configuration of the system, a review of system performance, a discussion of the socioeconomic impact of the system on the villagers and a summary of results and conclusions covering the entire four-year period.

  11. The effect of trees on preferential flow and soil infiltrability in an agroforestry parkland in semiarid Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Bargués Tobella, A; Reese, H; Almaw, A; Bayala, J; Malmer, A; Laudon, H; Ilstedt, U

    2014-04-01

    Water scarcity constrains the livelihoods of millions of people in tropical drylands. Tree planting in these environments is generally discouraged due to the large water consumption by trees, but this view may neglect their potential positive impacts on water availability. The effect of trees on soil hydraulic properties linked to groundwater recharge is poorly understood. In this study, we performed 18 rainfall simulations and tracer experiments in an agroforestry parkland in Burkina Faso to investigate the effect of trees and associated termite mounds on soil infiltrability and preferential flow. The sampling points were distributed in transects each consisting of three positions: (i) under a single tree, (ii) in the middle of an open area, and (iii) under a tree associated with a termite mound. The degree of preferential flow was quantified through parameters based on the dye infiltration patterns, which were analyzed using image analysis of photographs. Our results show that the degree of preferential flow was highest under trees associated with termite mounds, intermediate under single trees, and minimal in the open areas. Tree density also had an influence on the degree of preferential flow, with small open areas having more preferential flow than large ones. Soil infiltrability was higher under single trees than in the open areas or under trees associated with a termite mound. The findings from this study demonstrate that trees have a positive impact on soil hydraulic properties influencing groundwater recharge, and thus such effects must be considered when evaluating the impact of trees on water resources in drylands.

  12. Catastrophic household expenditure for health care in a low-income society: a study from Nouna District, Burkina Faso.

    PubMed Central

    Su, Tin Tin; Kouyaté, Bocar; Flessa, Steffen

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To quantify the extent of catastrophic household health care expenditure and determine the factors responsible for it in Nouna District, Burkina Faso. METHODS: We used the Nouna Health District Household Survey to collect data on 800 households during 2000-01 for our analysis. The determinants of household catastrophic expenditure were identified by multivariate logistic regression method. FINDINGS: Even at very low levels of health care utilization and modest amount of health expenditure, 6-15% of total households in Nouna District incurred catastrophic health expenditure. The key determinants of catastrophic health expenditure were economic status, household health care utilization especially for modern medical care, illness episodes in an adult household member and presence of a member with chronic illness. CONCLUSION: We conclude that the poorest members of the community incurred catastrophic health expenses. Setting only one threshold/cut-off value to determine catastrophic health expenses may result in inaccurate estimation leading to misinterpretation of important factors. Our findings have important policy implications and can be used to ensure better access to health services and a higher degree of financial protection for low-income groups against the economic impact of illness. PMID:16501711

  13. The effect of trees on preferential flow and soil infiltrability in an agroforestry parkland in semiarid Burkina Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bargués Tobella, A.; Reese, H.; Almaw, A.; Bayala, J.; Malmer, A.; Laudon, H.; Ilstedt, U.

    2014-04-01

    Water scarcity constrains the livelihoods of millions of people in tropical drylands. Tree planting in these environments is generally discouraged due to the large water consumption by trees, but this view may neglect their potential positive impacts on water availability. The effect of trees on soil hydraulic properties linked to groundwater recharge is poorly understood. In this study, we performed 18 rainfall simulations and tracer experiments in an agroforestry parkland in Burkina Faso to investigate the effect of trees and associated termite mounds on soil infiltrability and preferential flow. The sampling points were distributed in transects each consisting of three positions: (i) under a single tree, (ii) in the middle of an open area, and (iii) under a tree associated with a termite mound. The degree of preferential flow was quantified through parameters based on the dye infiltration patterns, which were analyzed using image analysis of photographs. Our results show that the degree of preferential flow was highest under trees associated with termite mounds, intermediate under single trees, and minimal in the open areas. Tree density also had an influence on the degree of preferential flow, with small open areas having more preferential flow than large ones. Soil infiltrability was higher under single trees than in the open areas or under trees associated with a termite mound. The findings from this study demonstrate that trees have a positive impact on soil hydraulic properties influencing groundwater recharge, and thus such effects must be considered when evaluating the impact of trees on water resources in drylands.

  14. New strains of chickpea chlorotic dwarf virus discovered on diseased papaya and tomato plants in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Ouattara, Alassane; Tiendrébéogo, Fidèle; Lefeuvre, Pierre; Hoareau, Murielle; Claverie, Sohini; Traoré, Edgar Valentin; Barro, Nicolas; Traoré, Oumar; Varsani, Arvind; Lett, Jean-Michel

    2017-02-22

    This is the first description of full genome sequences of chickpea chlorotic dwarf virus (CpCDV; genus Mastrevirus; family Geminiviridae) identified in papaya and tomato plants sampled in Burkina Faso. The CpCDV full genome sequences from papaya and tomato share the highest pairwise sequence identity (84% and 93.5%) with Sudanese isolates of the CpCDV-K and CpCDV-M strains, respectively. Based on the strain demarcation threshold (>94% identity) for mastreviruses, we propose two new strains, CpCDV-Q and CpCDV-R, identified in papaya and tomato, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that the sequences belong to a distinct clade of the highly diverse population of CpCDVs. Evidence of inter-strain recombination provided more support for the important role of recombination in CpCDV evolution. The discovery of CpCDV on papaya, a previously unsuspected host, raises many questions about the natural and potential host range of this dicot-infecting mastrevirus species that is reported to be emerging worldwide.

  15. Knowledge and attitude of young people regarding HIV prevention and unwanted pregnancy in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso

    PubMed

    Come Yélian Adohinzin, Clétus; Meda, Nicolas; Anicet Ouédraogo, Georges; Gaston Belem, Adrien Marie; Sombié, Issiaka; Berthé, Abdramane; Bakwin Kandala, Ngianga; Damienne Avimadjenon, Georgette; Fond-Harmant, Laurence

    2016-10-19

    Introduction: Despite health education efforts, young people are still faced with major health problems. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitude regarding HIV prevention and unwanted pregnancy among young people in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. Methods: Based on two-level sampling, representing 94,947 households in the Bobo-Dioulasso municipality, 573 young people between the ages of 15 and 24 years were interviewed. This data collection was conducted from September 2014 to January 2015 in the three districts of the municipality. A questionnaire was used to assess the knowledge and attitudes of young people. Results: The interviewees had a poor knowledge about HIV transmission and prevention and contraception Very few young people (9%) had complete knowledge about the modes of transmission and 5% had no knowledge. Persistent misperceptions about the effectiveness of condoms (25%) and contraception (32%) did not prevent some young people from using them (79% used condoms and 46% used contraceptives). Knowledge and attitudes of young people regarding HIV and contraception varied according to age, sex, education level and type of parental supervision. Conclusion: A significant proportion of young people still has incomplete knowledge about HIV/AIDS and contraception. Actions designed to reinforce the knowledge of young people are of paramount importance. The capacities of parents and healthcare providers also need to be reinforced to improve the quality of relationship with young people.

  16. Effects of a Cereal and Soy Dietary Formula on Rehabilitation of Undernourished Children at Ouagadougou, in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Douamba, Zoenabo; Martinetto, Marina; Pietra, Virginio; Pignatelli, Salavatore; Schumacher, Fabian; Nikiema, Jean-Baptiste; Simpore, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    The New Misola consists of millet soybean, peanut, vitamins, minerals, and industrial amylase. Our objective is to demonstrate that porridge made from local grains and legumes restores the nutritional balance of malnourished children. The study was carried on 304 malnourished children aged 6–48 months including 172 girls and 132 boys from Saint Camille Medical Centre. At the beginning, these malnourished children had a WHZ z-score of −3.10 and a WAZ z-score of −3.85, which reflected, according to WHO, a severe malnutrition. After eight weeks of nutritional rehabilitation, a normal WHZ of −1.41 was obtained. These children recovered more than those in a similar study performed in 2006 with the old formula of Misola. This study shows that malnutrition remains a public health problem in Burkina Faso. It should be necessary that public health services and the epidemiologists work in synergy with nutritionists and “nutrigenetics” in order to combat malnutrition efficiently. PMID:22175011

  17. HIV treatment and reproductive health in the health system in Burkina Faso: resource allocation and the need for integration.

    PubMed

    Windisch, Ricarda; de Savigny, Don; Onadja, Geneviève; Somda, Antoine; Wyss, Kaspar; Sié, Ali; Kouyaté, Bocar

    2011-11-01

    Organizational changes, increased funding and the demands of HIV antiretroviral (ARV) treatment create particular challenges for governance in the health sector. We assess resource allocation, policy making and integration of the national responses to ARV provision and reproductive health in Burkina Faso, using national and district budgets related to disease burden, policy documents, organizational structures, and coordination and implementation processes. ARV provision represents the concept of a "crisis scenario", in which reforms are pushed due to a perception of urgent need, whereas the national reproductive health programme, which is older and more integrated, represents a "politics-as-usual scenario". Findings show that the early years of the national response to HIV and AIDS were characterized by new institutions with overlapping functions, and failure to integrate with and strengthen existing structures. National and district budget allocations for HIV compared to other interventions were disproportionately high when assessed against burden of disease. Strategic documents for ARV provision were relatively less developed and referred to, compared to those of the Ministry of Health Directorates for HIV and for Family Health and district health planning teams for reproductive health services. Imbalances and new structures potentially trigger important adverse effects which are difficult to remedy and likely to increase due to the dynamics they create. It therefore becomes crucial, from the outset, to integrate HIV/AIDS funding and responses into health systems.

  18. [Risk factors for death from severe malaria in children at the Charles de Gaulle pediatric hospital of Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso)].

    PubMed

    Kouéta, Fla; Dao, Lassina; Yé, Diarra; Zoungrana, Alice; Kaboré, Aïssata; Sawadogo, Alphonse

    2007-01-01

    To determine the risk factors for death from severe malaria in children in Burkina Faso, we conducted a retrospective case-control study covering a period of 24 months from January 2004 through December 2005, at the Charles de Gaulle Pediatric Hospital in Ouagadougou. Cases (n=72) were defined as all children hospitalized for and dying of confirmed severe malaria. The control subjects (n=72), matched for age, sex and date of hospitalization; were children hospitalized for confirmed severe malaria who were discharged after recovery. Risk factors assessed included: place of residence, socioeconomic level, self-medication, promptness of hospitalization, nutritional status, temperature and parasitemia. Case and control children were compared with pairwise tests. Low socioeconomic level (OR=5.4), late care (OR=15.5), poor nutritional status (OR=7.9) and a parasitemia greater than or equal to 5% (OR=2.8) were associated with a significant increase in the risk of death. In contrast, the malaria deaths were not associated with place of residence (OR=0.5), self-medication (OR=1) or fever of 41 degrees C or higher (OR=1.1). These results show the need for more health education to encourage early care-seeking in the event of fever, community-based interventions, and strengthening of the technical support centers for health facilities, as part of a national poverty reduction program.

  19. [Impact of the dynamics of human settlement on tsetse and trypanosomosis distribution in the Mouhoun river basin (Burkina Faso)].

    PubMed

    Rouamba, J; Jamonneau, V; Sidibé, I; Solano, P; Courtin, F

    2009-03-01

    In Burkina Faso, the Mouhoun river basin (formerly "Black Volta") constitutes a historical focus of Human (HAT) and Animal (AAT) African Trypanosomoses, both transmitted by tsetse flies. Nowadays, HAT seems to have disappeared from this area, while AAT still causes severe economic losses. In order to explain these different epidemiological situations, we undertook a geographical study based on the analysis of aerial pictures between 1952 and 2007, and field surveys to collect medical, entomological, and veterinary data on trypanosomoses. Our results suggest that in this area, landscapes have been dramatically modified as a consequence of population growth, and in turn have had an impact on the number and distribution of tsetse flies. Combined with the historical medical action on HAT which probably led to the disappearance of T. b. gambiense, this environmental degradation and the development of hydrological structures provide explanations for the local disappearance of HAT, and for the maintenance of AAT. It appears necessary to extrapolate these studies to other areas in order to identify the factors explaining the presence/absence of trypanosomoses in the context of human population growth and climatic changes, in order to help to target priority areas for the control of these diseases.

  20. Love, lifestyles and the risk of AIDS: the moral worlds of young people in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Samuelsen, Helle

    2006-01-01

    The HIV epidemic has had a profound impact on people's everyday life in most African societies. A large proportion of all new HIV infections involves young people between 15 and 25 years. The objective of this paper is to explore local moral worlds of young people in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso, and discuss how the HIVS epidemic affects their reflections on their everyday life and their perceptions of sexual relationships. Based on anthropological fieldwork, including focus-group discussions, in-depth interviews and participant observation, a total of 57 young people between 15 and 25 years were followed over a 3-month period. Using the notion of 'lifestyle', the paper shows how structural factors of unemployment and poverty paired with global discourse on AIDS present the young people with frustrations and quandaries in relation to their hopes and images of love, faithfulness and modern living. The data shows that the HIV epidemic contributes to and accelerates their feeling of living in a risk society and of being at risk. In order to cope with these uncertainties and contingencies, local discourses of trust and fidelity become extremely important and to most young people HIV prevention is synonymous with finding a faithful partner and/or using condoms.

  1. Fees-for-services, cost recovery, and equity in a district of Burkina Faso operating the Bamako Initiative.

    PubMed Central

    Ridde, Valéry

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To gauge the effects of operating the Bamako Initiative in Kongoussi district, Burkina Faso. METHODS: Qualitative and quasi-experimental quantitative methodologies were used. FINDINGS: Following the introduction of fees-for-services in July 1997, the number of consultations for curative care fell over a period of three years by an average of 15.4% at "case" health centres but increased by 30.5% at "control" health centres. Moreover, although the operational results for essential drugs depots were not known, expenditure increased on average 2.7 times more than income and did not keep pace with the decline in the utilization of services. Persons in charge of the management committees had difficulties in releasing funds to ensure access to care for the poor. CONCLUSION: The introduction of fees-for-services had an adverse effect on service utilization. The study district is in a position to bear the financial cost of taking care of the poor and the community is able to identify such people. Incentives must be introduced by the state and be swiftly applied so that the communities agree to a more equitable system and thereby allow access to care for those excluded from services because they are unable to pay. PMID:12973646

  2. Comparison of content in phenolic compounds, polyphenol oxidase, and peroxidase in grains of fifty sorghum varieties from burkina faso.

    PubMed

    Dicko, Mamoudou H; Hilhorst, Riet; Gruppen, Harry; Traore, Alfred S; Laane, Colja; van Berkel, Willem J H; Voragen, Alphons G J

    2002-06-19

    Analysis of fifty sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] varieties used in Burkina Faso showed that they have different contents of phenolic compounds, peroxidase (POX), and polyphenol oxidase (PPO). Most of the varieties (82%) had a tannin content less than 0.25% (w/w). POX specific activity was higher than the monophenolase and o-diphenolase specific activities of PPO. For POX, there was a diversity of isoforms among varieties. No clear correlation could be made between the quantitative composition of the grain in phenolics, PPO, and POX, and resistance of plant to pathogens. In general, varieties good for a thick porridge preparation ("tô") had low phenolic compounds content and a medium POX activity. From the red varieties, those used for local beer ("dolo") had a high content in phenolic compounds and PPO, and a low POX activity. The variety considered good for couscous had a low POX content. The characteristics might be useful as selection markers for breeding for specific applications.

  3. Experiences in Tick Control by Acaricide in the Traditional Cattle Sector in Zambia and Burkina Faso: Possible Environmental and Public Health Implications

    PubMed Central

    De Meneghi, Daniele; Stachurski, Frédéric; Adakal, Hassane

    2016-01-01

    Livestock, especially cattle, play a paramount role in agriculture production systems, particularly in poor countries throughout the world. Ticks and tick-borne diseases (TBDs) have an important impact on livestock and agriculture production in sub-Saharan Africa. The authors review the most common methods used for the control of ticks and TBDs. Special emphasis is given to the direct application of acaricides to the host animals. The possible environmental and public health adverse effects (i.e., risks for the workers, residues in the environment and in food products of animal origin) are mentioned. The authors present two case studies, describing different field experiences in controlling ticks in two African countries. In Zambia (Southern Africa), a strategic dipping regime was used to control Rhipicephalus appendiculatus ticks, vectors of theileriosis, a deadly disease affecting cattle in the traditional livestock sector in Southern Province. The dipping regime adopted allowed to reduce the tick challenge and cattle mortally rate and, at the same time, to employ less acaricide as compared to the intensive dipping used so far, without disrupting the building-up of enzootic stability. In Burkina Faso (West Africa), where dipping was never used for tick control, an acaricide footbath was employed as an alternative method to the traditional technique used locally (portable manual sprayers). This was developed from field observations on the invasion/attachment process of the Amblyomma variegatum ticks – vector of cowdriosis – on the animal hosts, leading to a control method aimed to kill ticks temporarily attached to the interdigital areas before their permanent attachment to the predilection sites. This innovative method has been overall accepted by the local farmers. It has the advantage of greatly reducing costs of treatments and has a minimal environmental impact, making footbath a sustainable and replicable method, adoptable also in other West African

  4. Insecticide-treated mosquito nets in rural Burkina Faso: assessment of coverage and equity in the wake of a universal distribution campaign.

    PubMed

    Zöllner, Caroline; De Allegri, Manuela; Louis, Valérie R; Yé, Maurice; Sié, Ali; Tiendrebéogo, Justin; Jahn, Albrecht; Müller, Olaf

    2015-03-01

    Insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITNs) are an essential tool of the Roll Back Malaria strategy. An increasing number of African countries have embarked on mass distribution campaigns of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) with the ultimate goal of universal coverage. Such a national campaign with the goal of one ITN for every two people has been conducted in Burkina Faso in 2010. Our aim was to assess the coverage and equity effect of the universal distribution campaign of LLINs in Burkina Faso and to identify determinants of ITN ownership across households after the campaign. We evaluated its effects through comparison of data from two household surveys conducted in early 2010 (before the campaign) and early 2011 (after the campaign) on a representative rural district in north-western Burkina Faso. Data were collected on household characteristics (including socio-economic status) and ITN ownership. We used concentration curves and indices to compare ITN coverage indicators before and after the campaign and multilevel multivariate logistic regression to estimate factors associated with achievement of the universal coverage target in 2011. The survey included 1106 households in 2010 and 1094 in 2011. We found that the proportion of households with at least one ITN increased from 59% before the campaign to 99% afterwards, whereas the concentration index dropped from 0.087 (standard error (SE): 0.014) to 0.002 (SE: 0.002). Fifty-two per cent of households reached the target of one ITN for every two people per household, with the relevant concentration index at -0.031 (SE: 0.016). Eighty-six per cent of households owned at least one ITN for every three people. The main characteristics significantly associated with the targeted intra-household coverage were family size and distance to the health centre but not socio-economic status. In conclusion, despite not having fully met its target, the national LLIN campaign achieved a high level of coverage and

  5. Motivation and incentives of rural maternal and neonatal health care providers: a comparison of qualitative findings from Burkina Faso, Ghana and Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In Burkina Faso, Ghana and Tanzania strong efforts are being made to improve the quality of maternal and neonatal health (MNH) care. However, progress is impeded by challenges, especially in the area of human resources. All three countries are striving not only to scale up the number of available health staff, but also to improve performance by raising skill levels and enhancing provider motivation. Methods In-depth interviews were used to explore MNH provider views about motivation and incentives at primary care level in rural Burkina Faso, Ghana and Tanzania. Interviews were held with 25 MNH providers, 8 facility and district managers, and 2 policy-makers in each country. Results Across the three countries some differences were found in the reasons why people became health workers. Commitment to remaining a health worker was generally high. The readiness to remain at a rural facility was far less, although in all settings there were some providers that were willing to stay. In Burkina Faso it appeared to be particularly difficult to recruit female MNH providers to rural areas. There were indications that MNH providers in all the settings sometimes failed to treat their patients well. This was shown to be interlinked with differences in how the term ‘motivation’ was understood, and in the views held about remuneration and the status of rural health work. Job satisfaction was shown to be quite high, and was particularly linked to community appreciation. With some important exceptions, there was a strong level of agreement regarding the financial and non-financial incentives that were suggested by these providers, but there were clear country preferences as to whether incentives should be for individuals or teams. Conclusions Understandings of the terms and concepts pertaining to motivation differed between the three countries. The findings from Burkina Faso underline the importance of gender-sensitive health workforce planning. The training that all

  6. User fee exemptions and excessive household spending for normal delivery in Burkina Faso: the need for careful implementation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In 2006, the Parliament of Burkina Faso passed a policy to reduce the direct costs of obstetric services and neonatal care in the country’s health centres, aiming to lower the country’s high national maternal mortality and morbidity rates. Implementation was via a “partial exemption” covering 80% of the costs. In 2008 the German NGO HELP launched a pilot project in two health districts to eliminate the remaining 20% of user fees. Regardless of any exemptions, women giving birth in Burkina Faso’s health centres face additional expenses that often represent an additional barrier to accessing health services. We compared the total cost of giving birth in health centres offering partial exemption versus those with full exemption to assess the impact on additional out-of-pocket fees. Methods A case–control study was performed to compare medical expenses. Case subjects were women who gave birth in 12 health centres located in the Dori and Sebba districts, where HELP provided full fee exemption for obstetric services and neonatal care. Controls were from six health centres in the neighbouring Djibo district where a partial fee exemption was in place. A random sample of approximately 50 women per health centre was selected for a total of 870 women. Results There was an implementation gap regarding the full exemption for obstetric services and neonatal care. Only 1.1% of the sample from Sebba but 17.5% of the group from Dori had excessive spending on birth related costs, indicating that women who delivered in Sebba were much less exposed to excessive medical expenses than women from Dori. Additional out-of-pocket fees in the full exemption health districts took into account household ability to pay, with poorer women generally paying less. Conclusions We found that the elimination of fees for facility-based births benefits especially the poorest households. The existence of excessive spending related to direct costs of giving birth is of concern

  7. High Resolution Mapping of Soil Properties Using Remote Sensing Variables in South-Western Burkina Faso: A Comparison of Machine Learning and Multiple Linear Regression Models

    PubMed Central

    Welp, Gerhard; Thiel, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Accurate and detailed spatial soil information is essential for environmental modelling, risk assessment and decision making. The use of Remote Sensing data as secondary sources of information in digital soil mapping has been found to be cost effective and less time consuming compared to traditional soil mapping approaches. But the potentials of Remote Sensing data in improving knowledge of local scale soil information in West Africa have not been fully explored. This study investigated the use of high spatial resolution satellite data (RapidEye and Landsat), terrain/climatic data and laboratory analysed soil samples to map the spatial distribution of six soil properties–sand, silt, clay, cation exchange capacity (CEC), soil organic carbon (SOC) and nitrogen–in a 580 km2 agricultural watershed in south-western Burkina Faso. Four statistical prediction models–multiple linear regression (MLR), random forest regression (RFR), support vector machine (SVM), stochastic gradient boosting (SGB)–were tested and compared. Internal validation was conducted by cross validation while the predictions were validated against an independent set of soil samples considering the modelling area and an extrapolation area. Model performance statistics revealed that the machine learning techniques performed marginally better than the MLR, with the RFR providing in most cases the highest accuracy. The inability of MLR to handle non-linear relationships between dependent and independent variables was found to be a limitation in accurately predicting soil properties at unsampled locations. Satellite data acquired during ploughing or early crop development stages (e.g. May, June) were found to be the most important spectral predictors while elevation, temperature and precipitation came up as prominent terrain/climatic variables in predicting soil properties. The results further showed that shortwave infrared and near infrared channels of Landsat8 as well as soil specific indices of

  8. High Resolution Mapping of Soil Properties Using Remote Sensing Variables in South-Western Burkina Faso: A Comparison of Machine Learning and Multiple Linear Regression Models.

    PubMed

    Forkuor, Gerald; Hounkpatin, Ozias K L; Welp, Gerhard; Thiel, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Accurate and detailed spatial soil information is essential for environmental modelling, risk assessment and decision making. The use of Remote Sensing data as secondary sources of information in digital soil mapping has been found to be cost effective and less time consuming compared to traditional soil mapping approaches. But the potentials of Remote Sensing data in improving knowledge of local scale soil information in West Africa have not been fully explored. This study investigated the use of high spatial resolution satellite data (RapidEye and Landsat), terrain/climatic data and laboratory analysed soil samples to map the spatial distribution of six soil properties-sand, silt, clay, cation exchange capacity (CEC), soil organic carbon (SOC) and nitrogen-in a 580 km2 agricultural watershed in south-western Burkina Faso. Four statistical prediction models-multiple linear regression (MLR), random forest regression (RFR), support vector machine (SVM), stochastic gradient boosting (SGB)-were tested and compared. Internal validation was conducted by cross validation while the predictions were validated against an independent set of soil samples considering the modelling area and an extrapolation area. Model performance statistics revealed that the machine learning techniques performed marginally better than the MLR, with the RFR providing in most cases the highest accuracy. The inability of MLR to handle non-linear relationships between dependent and independent variables was found to be a limitation in accurately predicting soil properties at unsampled locations. Satellite data acquired during ploughing or early crop development stages (e.g. May, June) were found to be the most important spectral predictors while elevation, temperature and precipitation came up as prominent terrain/climatic variables in predicting soil properties. The results further showed that shortwave infrared and near infrared channels of Landsat8 as well as soil specific indices of redness

  9. Biomass smoke in Burkina Faso: what is the relationship between particulate matter, carbon monoxide, and kitchen characteristics?

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, S S; Louis, V R; Sié, A; Sauerborn, R

    2014-02-01

    In Burkina Faso where cooking with biomass is very common, little information exists regarding kitchen characteristics and their impact on air pollutant levels. The measurement of air pollutants such as respirable particulate matter (PM10), an important component of biomass smoke that has been linked to adverse health outcomes, can also pose challenges in terms of cost and the type of equipment needed. Carbon monoxide could potentially be a more economical and simpler measure of air pollution. The focus of this study was to first assess the association of kitchen characteristics with measured PM10 and CO levels and second, the relationship of PM10 with CO concentrations, across these different kitchen characteristics in households in Nouna, Burkina Faso. Twenty-four-hour concentrations of PM10 (area) were measured with portable monitors and CO (area and personal) estimated using color dosimeter tubes. Data on kitchen characteristics were collected through surveys. Most households used both wood and charcoal burned in three-stone and charcoal stoves. Mean outdoor kitchen PM10 levels were relatively high (774 μg/m(3), 95 % CI 329-1,218 μg/m(3)), but lower than indoor concentrations (Satterthwaite t value, -6.14; p < 0.0001). In multivariable analyses, outdoor kitchens were negatively associated with PM10 (OR = 0.06, 95 % CI 0.02-0.16, p value <0.0001) and CO (OR = 0.03, 95 % CI 0.01-0.11, p value <0.0001) concentrations. Strong area PM10 and area CO correlations were found with indoor kitchens (Spearman's r = 0.82, p < 0.0001), indoor stove use (Spearman's r = 0.82, p < 0.0001), and the presence of a smoker in the household (Spearman's r = 0.83, p < 0.0001). Weak correlations between area PM10 and personal CO levels were observed with three-stone (Spearman's r = 0.23, p = 0.008) and improved stoves (Spearman's r = 0.34, p = 0.003). This indicates that the extensive use of biomass fuels and multiple stove types for

  10. Declining HIV Prevalence in Parallel With Safer Sex Behaviors in Burkina Faso: Evidence From Surveillance and Population-Based Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Kirakoya-Samadoulougou, Fati; Nagot, Nicolas; Samadoulougou, Sekou; Sokey, Mamadou; Guiré, Abdoulaye; Sombié, Issiaka; Meda, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate trends in HIV prevalence and changes in reported sexual behaviors between 1998 and 2014 in Burkina Faso. Methods: We obtained data on HIV prevalence from antenatal care (ANC) surveillance sites (N = 9) that were consistently included in surveillance between 1998 and 2014. We also analyzed data on HIV prevalence and reported sex behaviors from 3 population-based surveys from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), conducted in 1998–99, 2003, and 2010. Sex behavior indicators comprised never-married youth who have never had sex; sex with more than 1 partner; sex with a nonmarital, non-cohabiting partner; condom use at last sex with a nonmarital, non-cohabiting partner; and sex before age 15. We calculated survey-specific HIV prevalence with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and used the chi-square test or chi-square test for trend to compare HIV prevalence across survey years and to analyze trends in reported sex behaviors. Results: HIV prevalence among pregnant women ages 15–49 decreased by 72% in urban areas, from 7.1% in 1998 to 2.0% in 2014, and by 75% in rural areas, from 2.0% in 2003 to 0.5% in 2014. HIV declined most in younger age groups, which is a good reflection of recent incidence, with declines of 55% among 15–19-year-olds, 72% among 20–24-year-olds, 40% among 25–29-year-olds, and 7% among those ≥30 years old (considering urban and rural data combined). Data reported in the DHS corroborated these declines in HIV prevalence: between 2003 and 2010, HIV prevalence dropped significantly—by 89% among girls ages 15–19, from 0.9% (95% CI, 0.2 to 1.6) to 0.1% (95% CI, 0.0 to 0.4), and by 78% among young women ages 20–24, from 1.8% (95% CI, 1.6 to 3.0) to 0.4% (95% CI, 0.0 to 0.7). During the same time period, people reported safer sex behaviors. For example, significantly higher percentages of never-married youth reported they had never had sex, lower percentages of sexually active youth reported multiple

  11. Combining user fees exemption with training and supervision helps to maintain the quality of drug prescriptions in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Atchessi, Nicole; Ridde, Valéry; Haddad, Slim

    2013-09-01

    To improve access to health care services, an intervention was implemented in Burkina Faso granting full exemption from user fees. Two further components, staff training and supervision, were added to support the intervention. Our aim in this study was to examine how this tripartite intervention affected the quality of drug prescriptions. Using a mixed methodology, we first conducted an interrupted time series over 24 months. Nine health centres were studied that had previously undergone a process analysis. A total of 14 956 prescriptions for children 0-4 years old were selected by interval sampling from the visit registries from 1 year before to 1 year after the intervention's launch. We then interviewed 14 prescribers. We used three World Health Organization (WHO) indicators to assess drug prescription quality. Analysis was carried out using linear regression and logistic regression. The prescribers' statements underwent content analysis, to understand their perceptions and changes in their practice since the subsidy's introduction. One effect of the intervention was a reduced use of injections (odd ratio (OR) = 0.28 [0.17; 0.46]) in cases of acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRTI) without comorbidity. Another was a reduction in the inappropriate use of antibiotics in malaria without comorbidity (OR = 0.48 [0.33; 0.70]). The average number of drugs prescribed also decreased (coefficient = -0.14 [-0.20; -0.08]) in cases of ALRTI without comorbidity. The prescribers reported that their practices were either maintained or improved. The user fees exemption programme, combined with health staff training and supervision, did not lead to any deterioration in the quality of drug prescriptions.

  12. Caregiver perceptions and utilization of oral rehydration solution and other treatments for diarrhea among young children in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Digre, Peder; Simpson, Evan; Cali, Shannon; Lartey, Belinda; Moodley, Melissa; Diop, Ndack

    2016-01-01

    Background More than 500 000 young children die from dehydration caused by severe diarrhea each year, globally. Although routine use of oral rehydration solution (ORS) could prevent almost all of these deaths, ORS utilization remains low in many low–income countries. Previous research has suggested that misperceptions among caregivers may be an obstacle to wider use of ORS. Methods To better understand the extent of ORS utilization and the reasons for use or non–use in low–resource settings, the project team conducted a semi–structured, quantitative survey of 400 caregivers in Burkina Faso in 2014. All caregivers had a child below the age of five who had diarrhea lasting 2 days or more in the previous 2 months. Results Although more than 80% of caregivers were aware of ORS, less than half reported using it to treat their child’s diarrhea. Replacing fluids lost due to diarrhea was considered a low priority by most caregivers, and many said they considered antibiotics more effective for treating diarrhea. Users and non–users of ORS held substantially different perceptions of the product, though all caregivers tended to follow recommendations of health care workers. A significant proportion of users reported difficulty in getting a child to drink ORS. Costs and access to ORS were not found to be significant barriers to use. Conclusions Misperceptions among caregivers and health workers contribute to low utilization of ORS. Better caregiver understanding of diarrheal disease and the importance of rehydration, as well as increased recommendation by health workers, will help to increase ORS utilization. Improving product presentation and taste will also help to increase use. PMID:27699000

  13. Contextual factors as a key to understanding the heterogeneity of effects of a maternal health policy in Burkina Faso?

    PubMed Central

    Belaid, Loubna; Ridde, Valéry

    2015-01-01

    Burkina Faso implemented a national subsidy for emergency obstetric and neonatal care (EmONC) covering 80% of the cost of normal childbirth in public health facilities. The objective was to increase coverage of facility-based deliveries. After implementation of the EmONC policy, coverage increased across the country, but disparities were observed between districts and between primary healthcare centres (PHC). To understand the variation in coverage, we assessed the contextual factors and the implementation of EmONC in six PHCs in a district. We conducted a contrasted multiple case study. We interviewed women (n = 71), traditional birth attendants (n = 7), clinic management committees (n = 11), and health workers and district health managers (n = 26). Focus groups (n = 62) were conducted within communities. Observations were carried out in the six PHCs. Implementation was nearly homogeneous in the six PHCs but the contexts and human factors appeared to explain the variations observed on the coverage of facility-based deliveries. In the PHCs of Nogo and Tara, the immediate increase in coverage was attributed to health workers’ leadership in creatively promoting facility-based deliveries and strengthening relationships of trust with communities, users’ positive perceptions of quality of care and the arrival of female professional staff. The change of healthcare team at Iata’s PHC and a penalty fee imposed for home births in Belem may have caused the delayed effects there. Finally, the unchanged coverage in the PHCs of Fati and Mata was likely due to lack of promotion of facility-based deliveries, users’ negative perceptions of quality of care, and conflicts between health workers and users. Before implementation, decision-makers should perform pilot studies to adapt policies according to contexts and human factors. PMID:24633914

  14. Carbon monoxide concentrations in outdoor wood-fired kitchens in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso--implications for women's and children's health.

    PubMed

    Thorsson, Sofia; Holmer, Björn; Andjelic, Andreas; Lindén, Jenny; Cimerman, Sandra; Barregard, Lars

    2014-07-01

    A majority of households in developing countries rely on biomass fuel for cooking, typically burned in open fires or simple stoves. The incomplete combustion of these fuels causes adverse health effects such as respiratory diseases, especially among women and children. However, quantitative data on pollution levels and on associated diseases are limited. We examined cooking habits and self-reported health in 31 households with outdoor open wood fires in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, using structured interviews. In eight households, carbon monoxide (CO) was measured using passive sampling. In addition, meteorology and ambient CO concentrations were assessed. The average CO concentration during cooking was 4.3 ppm, with a maximum of 65.3 ppm and minimum of 0.3 ppm (1-min values). A clear daily pattern was observed, with relatively low concentrations during the day and high during the evening, occasionally exceeding the World Health Organization 1- and 8-h guidelines when the air stabilised. On average, CO concentrations were 43 % higher in kitchens located in closed yards than in those located in open yards, showing that fireplace location affected the levels. Eye irritation and coughing among women and children were reported by 30 % of the households. Based on previously reported relations between CO concentrations and fine particles (<2.5 μm), the exposure to biomass smoke appears to be high enough to pose a considerable health risk among women and children in households with outdoor open wood fires. The results suggest that burning should be limited between sunset and dawn and in areas with limited ventilation to reduce pollutions levels.

  15. [Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections in the pediatric teaching hospital Charles de Gaulle of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso].

    PubMed

    Ouédraogo Yugbaré, S O; Ouédraogo, R; Nenebi, A; Traoré, B; Congo, L; Yonli, F; Kima, D; Bonané, P; Yé, D; Plantier, J-C; Vabret, A; Marguet, C; Gueudin, M

    2016-02-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections are little known in Burkina Faso. The objective of our work is to study the epidemiological and clinical aspects of RSV infections in infants in the Pediatric Teaching Hospital Charles de Gaulle of Ouagadougou. Between July 1(st) 2010 and June 30(th) 2011, we analyzed by direct immunofluorescence and PCR nasopharyngeal swabs from children from 0 to 36 months old. All in all, 210 patients among whom 74 from the external consultation (35.2%) and 136 hospitalized (64.7%) benefited from a nasopharyngeal aspiration. The motives for consultation were cough (91.7%), rhinitis (79.2%), fever (79.2%) and respiratory distress syndrome (66.7%). The evoked diagnoses were predominantly the acute bronchiolitis in 14 cases (58.3%) followed by the acute pulmonary disease in 7 patients (26.2%) then flue in 1 patient (16.7%). We detected by direct immunofluorescence the antigens of the respiratory viruses in 21 nasopharyngeal aspirations with 10 cases of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections (47.6%). The PCR realized on 208 samples allowed to identify 153 positive samples (73.2%) with 24 RSV, i.e. a global prevalence of 16.1% with a peak of 18 cases (75%). In October, all the patients benefited from an often multiple antibiotic treatment of at least 10 days which was not still necessary. The evolution was favorable for all patients. This study confirms the important place of the viruses which are detected in 70% of the cases. The PCR multiplex, certainly expensive but effective and successful, deserves to be used in our developing countries to avoid the irrational prescription of antibiotic.

  16. The 2008 food price crisis negatively affected household food security and dietary diversity in urban Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Martin-Prevel, Yves; Becquey, Elodie; Tapsoba, Sylvestre; Castan, Florence; Coulibaly, Dramane; Fortin, Sonia; Zoungrana, Mahama; Lange, Matthias; Delpeuch, Francis; Savy, Mathilde

    2012-09-01

    Although the 2008 food price crisis presumably plunged millions of households into poverty and food insecurity, the real impact of the crisis has rarely been documented using field data. Our objective was to assess the consequences of this crisis for household food insecurity and dietary diversity in urban Burkina Faso. Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted among randomly selected households in Ouagadougou in July 2007 (n = 3017) and July 2008 (n = 3002). At each round, food insecurity assessed by the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS), the Dietary Diversity Score of an index-member of the household (IDDS = number of food groups consumed in the last 24 h), and food expenditure were collected. Food prices of the 17 most frequently consumed food items were recorded throughout the study area. Food prices at local markets increased considerably between 2007 and 2008, especially those of fish (113%), cereals (53%), and vegetable oil (44%), increasing the household monthly food expenditure by 18%. Thirty-three percent of households were food secure in 2007 and 22% in 2008 (P = 0.02). Individuals consumed fewer fruits and vegetables, dairy products, and meat/poultry in 2008 than in 2007 (mean IDDS = 5.7 ± 1.7 food groups in 2007 vs. 5.2 ± 1.5 in 2008; P < 0.0001). Differences in IDDS and HFIAS between the 2 y were even more marked after adjustment for confounding factors and food expenditure. Food security and dietary diversity significantly decreased between 2007 and 2008, whereas food prices increased. Households increased their food expenditure, but this was not sufficient to compensate the effects of the crisis.

  17. Modeling land use change impacts on water resources in a tropical West African catchment (Dano, Burkina Faso)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yira, Y.; Diekkrüger, B.; Steup, G.; Bossa, A. Y.

    2016-06-01

    This study investigates the impacts of land use change on water resources in the Dano catchment, Burkina Faso, using a physically based hydrological simulation model and land use scenarios. Land use dynamic in the catchment was assessed through the analysis of four land use maps corresponding to the land use status in 1990, 2000, 2007, and 2013. A reclassification procedure levels out differences between the classification schemes of the four maps. The land use maps were used to build five land use scenarios corresponding to different levels of land use change in the catchment. Water balance was simulated by applying the Water flow and balance Simulation Model (WaSiM) using observed discharge, soil moisture, and groundwater level for model calibration and validation. Model statistical quality measures (R2, NSE and KGE) achieved during calibration and validation ranged between 0.6 and 0.9 for total discharge, soil moisture, and groundwater level, indicating a good agreement between observed and simulated variables. After a successful multivariate validation the model was applied to the land use scenarios. The land use assessment exhibited a decrease of savannah at an annual rate of 2% since 1990. Conversely, cropland and urban areas have increased. Since urban areas occupy only 3% of the catchment it can be assumed that savannah was mainly converted to cropland. The conversion rate of savannah was lower than the annual population growth of 3%. A clear increase in total discharge (+17%) and decrease in evapotranspiration (-5%) was observed following land use change in the catchment. A strong relationship was established between savannah degradation, cropland expansion, discharge increase and reduction of evapotranspiration. The increase in total discharge is related to high peak flow, suggesting (i) an increase in water resources that are not available for plant growth and human consumption and (ii) an alteration of flood risk for both the population within and

  18. Gender differences in cognitive impairment and mobility disability in old age: a cross-sectional study in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Onadja, Yentéma; Atchessi, Nicole; Soura, Bassiahi Abdramane; Rossier, Clémentine; Zunzunegui, Maria-Victoria

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to examine differences in cognitive impairment and mobility disability between older men and women in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, and to assess the extent to which these differences could be attributable to gender inequalities in life course social and health conditions. Data were collected on 981 men and women aged 50 and older in a 2010 cross-sectional health survey conducted in the Ouagadougou Health and Demographic Surveillance System. Cognitive impairment was assessed using the Leganés cognitive test. Mobility disability was self-reported as having any difficulty walking 400 m without assistance. We used logistic regression to assess gender differences in cognitive impairment and mobility disability. Prevalence of cognitive impairment was 27.6% in women and 7.7% in men, and mobility disability was present in 51.7% of women and 26.5% of men. The women to men odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for cognitive impairment and mobility disability was 3.52 (1.98-6.28) and 3.79 (2.47-5.85), respectively, after adjusting for the observed life course social and health conditions. The female excess was only partially explained by gender inequalities in nutritional status, marital status and, to a lesser extent, education. Among men and women, age, childhood hunger, lack of education, absence of a partner and being underweight were independent risk factors for cognitive impairment, while age, childhood poor health, food insecurity and being overweight were risk factors for mobility disability. Enhancing nutritional status and education opportunities throughout life span could prevent cognitive impairment and mobility disability and partly reduce the female excess in these disabilities.

  19. Prenatal lipid-based nutrient supplements increase cord leptin concentration in pregnant women from rural Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Huybregts, Lieven; Roberfroid, Dominique; Lanou, Hermann; Meda, Nicolas; Taes, Youri; Valea, Innocent; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Kolsteren, Patrick; Van Camp, John

    2013-05-01

    In developing countries, prenatal lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNSs) were shown to increase birth size; however, the mechanism of this effect remains unknown. Cord blood hormone concentrations are strongly associated with birth size. Therefore, we hypothesize that LNSs increase birth size through a change in the endocrine regulation of fetal development. We compared the effect of daily prenatal LNSs with multiple micronutrient tablets on cord blood hormone concentrations using a randomized, controlled design including 197 pregnant women from rural Burkina Faso. Insulin-like growth factors (IGF) I and II, their binding proteins IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-3, leptin, cortisol, and insulin were quantified in cord sera using immunoassays. LNS was associated with higher cord blood leptin mainly in primigravidae (+57%; P = 0.02) and women from the highest tertile of BMI at study inclusion (+41%; P = 0.02). We did not find any significant LNS effects on other measured cord hormones. The observed increase in cord leptin was associated with a significantly higher birth weight. Cord sera from small-for-gestational age newborns had lower median IGF-I (-9 μg/L; P = 0.003), IGF-II (-79 μg/L; P = 0.003), IGFBP-3 (-0.7 μg/L; P = 0.007), and leptin (-1.0 μg/L; P = 0.016) concentrations but higher median cortisol (+18 μg/L; P = 0.037) concentrations compared with normally grown newborns. Prenatal LNS resulted in increased cord leptin concentrations in primigravidae and mothers with higher BMI at study inclusion. The elevated leptin concentrations could point toward a higher neonatal fat mass.

  20. The effect of trees on preferential flow and soil infiltrability in an agroforestry parkland in semiarid Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Bargués Tobella, A; Reese, H; Almaw, A; Bayala, J; Malmer, A; Laudon, H; Ilstedt, U

    2014-01-01

    Water scarcity constrains the livelihoods of millions of people in tropical drylands. Tree planting in these environments is generally discouraged due to the large water consumption by trees, but this view may neglect their potential positive impacts on water availability. The effect of trees on soil hydraulic properties linked to groundwater recharge is poorly understood. In this study, we performed 18 rainfall simulations and tracer experiments in an agroforestry parkland in Burkina Faso to investigate the effect of trees and associated termite mounds on soil infiltrability and preferential flow. The sampling points were distributed in transects each consisting of three positions: (i) under a single tree, (ii) in the middle of an open area, and (iii) under a tree associated with a termite mound. The degree of preferential flow was quantified through parameters based on the dye infiltration patterns, which were analyzed using image analysis of photographs. Our results show that the degree of preferential flow was highest under trees associated with termite mounds, intermediate under single trees, and minimal in the open areas. Tree density also had an influence on the degree of preferential flow, with small open areas having more preferential flow than large ones. Soil infiltrability was higher under single trees than in the open areas or under trees associated with a termite mound. The findings from this study demonstrate that trees have a positive impact on soil hydraulic properties influencing groundwater recharge, and thus such effects must be considered when evaluating the impact of trees on water resources in drylands. Key Points Trees in dryland landscapes increase soil infiltrability and preferential flow Termite mounds in association with trees further enhance preferential flow PMID:25641996

  1. Dynamics of tsetse natural infection rates in the Mouhoun river, Burkina Faso, in relation with environmental factors

    PubMed Central

    Bouyer, Jérémy; Koné, Naférima; Bengaly, Zakaria

    2013-01-01

    In Burkina Faso, the cyclical vectors of African animal trypanosomoses (AAT) are riverine tsetse species, namely Glossina palpalis gambiensis Vanderplank (G.p.g.) and Glossina tachinoides Westwood (G.t.) (Diptera: Glossinidae). Experimental work demonstrated that environmental stress can increase the sensitivity of tsetse to trypanosome infection. Seasonal variations of the tsetse infection rates were monitored monthly over 17 months (May 2006–September 2007) in two sites (Douroula and Kadomba). In total, 1423 flies were dissected and the infection of the proboscis, middle intestine and salivary glands was noted. All the positive organs were analyzed using monospecific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers. To investigate the role of different environmental factors, fly infection rates were analyzed using generalized linear mixed binomial models using the species, sex, and monthly averages of the maximum, minimum and mean daily temperatures, rainfalls, Land Surface Temperature day (LSTd) and night (LSTn) as fixed effects and the trap position as a random effect. The overall infection rate was 10% from which the predominant species was T. congolense (7.6% of the flies), followed by T. vivax (2.2% of the flies). The best model (lowest AICc) for the global infection rates was the one with the maximum daily temperature only as fixed effect (p < 0.001). For T. congolense, the best model was the one with the tsetse species, sex, maximum daily temperature and rainfalls as fixed effect, where the maximum daily temperature was the main effect (p < 0.001). The number of T. vivax infections was too low to allow the models to converge. The maturation rate of T. congolense was very high (94%), and G. t. harbored a higher maturation rate (p = 0.03). The results are discussed in view of former laboratory studies showing that temperature stress can increase the susceptibility of tsetse to trypanosomes, as well as the possibility to improve AAT risk mapping using satellite

  2. Decreasing incidence of cryptococcal meningitis in West Africa in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Bamba, Sanata; Lortholary, Olivier; Sawadogo, Adrien; Millogo, Athanase; Guiguemdé, Robert T; Bretagne, Stéphane

    2012-05-15

    Cryptococcosis remains a major opportunistic infection in AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa, but few data exist from its western part. We report data from Bobo Dioulasso University Hospital, Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso, with a steady decline from 14 to two cases per year from 2002 to 2010 which contrasts with the increase (from 147 to 3940) of patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Better ART availability decreases the incidence of cryptococcosis in Burkina Faso.

  3. Bridgehead invasion of a monomorphic plant pathogenic bacterium: Xanthomonas citri pv. citri, an emerging citrus pathogen in Mali and Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Leduc, A; Traoré, Y N; Boyer, K; Magne, M; Grygiel, P; Juhasz, C C; Boyer, C; Guerin, F; Wonni, I; Ouedraogo, L; Vernière, C; Ravigné, V; Pruvost, O

    2015-11-01

    Molecular epidemiology studies further our understanding of migrations of phytopathogenic bacteria, the major determining factor in their emergence. Asiatic citrus canker, caused by Xanthomonas citri pv. citri, was recently reported in Mali and Burkina Faso, a region remote from other contaminated areas. To identify the origin and pathways of these emergences, we used two sets of markers, minisatellites and microsatellites, for investigating different evolutionary scales. Minisatellite typing suggested the introduction of two groups of strains in Mali (DAPC 1 and DAPC 2), consistent with microsatellite typing. DAPC 2 was restricted to Bamako district, whereas DAPC 1 strains were found much more invasive. The latter strains formed a major clonal complex based on microsatellite data with the primary and secondary founders detected in commercial citrus nurseries and orchards. This suggests that human activities played a major role in the spread of DAPC 1 strains via the movement of contaminated propagative material, further supported by the frequent lack of differentiation between populations from geographically distant nurseries and orchards. Approximate Bayesian Computation analyses supported the hypothesis that strains from Burkina Faso resulted from a bridgehead invasion from Mali. Multi-locus variable number of tandem repeat analysis and Approximate Bayesian Computation are useful for understanding invasion routes and pathways of monomorphic bacterial pathogens.

  4. The two faces of enhancing utilization of health-care services: determinants of patient initiation and retention in rural Burkina Faso.

    PubMed Central

    Mugisha, Frederick; Bocar, Kouyate; Dong, Hengjin; Chepng'eno, Gloria; Sauerborn, Rainer

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore the factors that determine whether a patient will initiate treatment within a system of health-care services, and the factors that determine whether the patient will be retained in the chosen system, in Nouna, rural Burkina Faso. METHODS: The data used were pooled from four rounds of a household survey conducted in Nouna, rural Burkina Faso. The ongoing demographic surveillance system provided a sampling framework for this survey in which 800 households were sampled using a two-stage cluster sampling procedure. More than one treatment episode was observed for a single episode of illness per patient. The multinomial logit model was used to explore the determinants of patient initiation to systems of modern, traditional and home treatment, and a binary logit model was used to explore the determinants of patient retention within the chosen health-care provider system. FINDINGS: The results suggest that the determinants of patient initiation and their subsequent retention are different. Household income, education, urban residence and expected competency of the provider are positive predictors of initiation, but not of retention, for modern health-care services. Only perceived quality of care positively predicted retention in modern health-care services. CONCLUSION: Interventions focusing on patient initiation and patient retention are likely to be different. Policies directed at enhancing initiation for modern health-care services would primarily focus on reducing financial barriers, while those directed at increasing retention would primarily focus on attributes that improve the perceived quality of care. PMID:15375446

  5. Molecular characterization of hepatitis B virus in blood donors from Burkina Faso: Prevalence of quasi-subgenotype A3, genotype E, and mixed infections.

    PubMed

    Candotti, Daniel; Diarra, Birama; Bisseye, Cyrille; Tao, Issoufou; Pham Quang, Kei; Sanou, Mahamoudou; Laperche, Syria; Sanogo, Rokia; Allain, Jean-Pierre; Simpore, Jacques

    2016-12-01

    Burkina Faso is a highly endemic area for Hepatitis B virus (HBV) which remains a major challenge for blood safety with >13% of candidate blood donors being chronically infected. However, little is known about the molecular epidemiology of the viral strains currently circulating. In this study, 99 HBV strains from HBsAg positive candidate blood donors in Ougadougou were genetically characterized by sequencing the pre-S/S region of the viral genome. Phylogenetic analyses revealed a 25% prevalence of HBV quasi-subgenotype A3 (A3QS ) co-circulating with the confirmed dominant HBV genotype E (72%). HBV/A3QS sequences formed a sub-cluster closely related to West-African sequences previously characterized, and showed a low intra-group genetic diversity (0.75%) suggesting a relatively recent spreading of HBV/A3QS strains in Burkina Faso. Low genetic diversity of genotype E strains compared to A3QS was confirmed. Mixed infections with the two genotypes were identified in 3% of the donors tested and contributed to artifacts during PCR amplification of the viral genome leading to erroneous apparent intergenotype recombinant sequences. While the co-circulation of two HBV genotypes in a restricted area may favor the emergence of intergenotype recombinant variants, strictly controlled molecular experimental procedures should be used to accurately characterize HBV circulating recombinant forms. J. Med. Virol. 88:2145-2156, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. "Hey, Teacher, Speak Black Please": The Educational Effectiveness of Bilingual Education in Burkina Faso

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavoie, Constance

    2008-01-01

    Africa's educational systems are undergoing a quiet revolution. As these systems move away from working exclusively in the old colonial languages, usually English or French, bilingual schools which use local indigenous languages are springing up in many regions of Africa. This paper points out the historical processes driving the bilingual…

  7. Histoire d’un itinéraire épidémiologique entre le Burkina Faso et la Côte d’Ivoire : le cas des foyers de maladie du sommeil de Koudougou

    PubMed Central

    Kiendrébéogo, D.; Kambiré, R.; Jamonneau, V.; Lingué, K.; Solano, P.; Courtin, F.

    2012-01-01

    Dans la première moitié du XXème siècle, alors que la Haute-Volta (actuel Burkina Faso) subissait une terrible épidémie de maladie du sommeil, l’administration coloniale française a orchestré des déplacements massifs de populations de la Haute-Volta vers la Côte d’Ivoire, pour exploiter le territoire. Cela a conduit à la mise en place de villages de colonisation Mossi en zone forestière ivoirienne, comme ceux de Koudougou, issus de l’une des régions les plus peuplées de Haute-Volta, mais aussi l’une des plus touchées par la maladie du sommeil. Depuis 2000, au Burkina Faso, c’est dans le district sanitaire de Koudougou que sont dépistés passivement le plus grand nombre de trypanosomés en provenance de Côte d’Ivoire. Qui sont-ils ? Où habitent-ils au Burkina Faso ? D’où viennent-ils de Côte d’Ivoire ? Après avoir retracé l’histoire épidémiologique des villages de Koudougou au Burkina Faso et en Côte d’Ivoire, nous avons recherché les trypanosomés dépistés passivement depuis 2000 dans le district sanitaire de Koudougou au Burkina Faso. Au total, dix trypanosomés ont été enquêtés. Le processus de propagation de la maladie du sommeil dans l’espace ivoiro-burkinabé a été mis en évidence et des zones à risque de la maladie identifiées dans ce même espace. PMID:23193525

  8. Implementation of Home based management of malaria in children reduces the work load for peripheral health facilities in a rural district of Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Tiono, Alfred B; Kaboré, Youssouf; Traoré, Abdoulaye; Convelbo, Nathalie; Pagnoni, Franco; Sirima, Sodiomon B

    2008-01-01

    Background Home Management of Malaria (HMM) is one of the key strategies to reduce the burden of malaria for vulnerable population in endemic countries. It is based on the evidence that well-trained communities health workers can provide prompt and adequate care to patients close to their homes. The strategy has been shown to reduce malaria mortality and severe morbidity and has been adopted by the World Health Organization as a cornerstone of malaria control in Africa. However, the potential fall-out of this community-based strategy on the work burden at the peripheral health facilities level has never been investigated. Methods A two-arm interventional study was conducted in a rural health district of Burkina Faso. The HMM strategy has been implemented in seven community clinics catchment's area (intervention arm). For the other seven community clinics in the control arm, no HMM intervention was implemented. In each of the study arms, presumptive treatment was provided for episodes of fevers/malaria (defined operationally as malaria). The study drug was artemether-lumefantrine, which was sold at a subsidized price by community health workers/Key opinion leaders at the community level and by the pharmacists at the health facility level. The outcome measured was the proportion of malaria cases among all health facility attendance (all causes diseases) in both arms throughout the high transmission season. Results A total of 7,621 children were enrolled in the intervention arm and 7,605 in the control arm. During the study period, the proportions of malaria cases among all health facility attendance (all causes diseases) were 21.0%, (445/2,111, 95% CI [19.3%–22.7%]) and 70.7% (2,595/3,671, 95% CI 68.5%–71.5%), respectively in the intervention and control arms (p << 0.0001). The relative risk ratio for a fever/malaria episode to be treated at the HF level was 30% (0.30 < RR < 0.32). The number of malaria episodes treated in the intervention arm was much higher

  9. Characterizing the HIV risks and potential pathways to HIV infection among transgender women in Côte d'Ivoire, Togo and Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Stahlman, Shauna; Liestman, Benjamin; Ketende, Sosthenes; Kouanda, Seni; Ky-Zerbo, Odette; Lougue, Marcel; Diouf, Daouda; Anato, Simplice; Tchalla, Jules; Bamba, Amara; Drame, Fatou Maria; Ezouatchi, Rebecca; Kouamé, Abo; Baral, Stefan D

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Transgender women are at high risk for the acquisition and transmission of HIV. However, there are limited empiric data characterizing HIV-related risks among transgender women in sub-Saharan Africa. The objective of these analyses is to determine what factors, including sexual behaviour stigma, condom use and engagement in sex work, contribute to risk for HIV infection among transgender women across three West African nations. Methods Data were collected via respondent-driven sampling from men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women during three- to five-month intervals from December 2012 to October 2015 across a total of six study sites in Togo, Burkina Faso and Côte d'Ivoire. During the study visit, participants completed a questionnaire and were tested for HIV. Chi-square tests were used to compare the prevalence of variables of interest between transgender women and MSM. A multilevel generalized structural equation model (GSEM) was used to account for clustering of observations within study sites in the multivariable analysis, as well as to estimate mediated associations between sexual behaviour stigma and HIV infection among transgender women. Results In total, 2456 participants meeting eligibility criteria were recruited, of which 453 individuals identified as being female/transgender. Transgender women were more likely than MSM to report selling sex to a male partner within the past 12 months (p<0.01), to be living with HIV (p<0.01) and to report greater levels of sexual behaviour stigma as compared with MSM (p<0.05). In the GSEM, sexual behaviour stigma from broader social groups was positively associated with condomless anal sex (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=1.33, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.09, 1.62) and with selling sex (AOR=1.23, 95% CI=1.02, 1.50). Stigma from family/friends was also associated with selling sex (AOR=1.42, 95% CI=1.13, 1.79), although no significant associations were identified with prevalent HIV infection

  10. The role of climate change and erosion processes in desertification process in a sub-Saharan peri-urban area (Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iavazzo, Pietro; Terracciano, Stefano; Topa, Maria Elena; Adamo, Paola; Coly, Adrien; De Paola, Francesco; Giordano, Simonetta; Giugni, Maurizio; Traoré, Seydou Eric

    2013-04-01

    Desertification affects about two-thirds of the countries of the world, and one-third of the earth's surface, namely one-fifth of the world population. The seriousness of desertification depends on various factors, including climate (temperature, precipitation, wind, humidity), geomorphological and geological condition, vegetation cover, water and wind erosion, soil nutrient status and salinization, land use and land management, biodiversity, etc. Even the climate changes can contribute to the advance of desertification. Indeed hotter and drier conditions would extend the area prone to desertification to encompass areas currently not at risk. In addition, the rate of desertification would increase due to increases in erosion leading to an irreversible status of desertification process. This study was carried out within the FP7-ENV-2010 CLUVA project (CLimate change and Urban Vulnerability in Africa), and aimed to estimate the effects of climate change on sensitivity to desertification in the area of Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso) providing a prediction tool useful for optimization of land management. The approach was based on the implementation and adaptation to the local conditions of the Environmentally Sensitive Areas Index (ESAI), developed within the MEDALUS project (Mediterranean Desertification and Land Use). A noteworthy advantage of this methodology is the flexibility, that allows to take into account several indices (climate, soil, vegetation cover, land management) operationally defined through the inclusion or exclusion of parameters scored on the basis of their impact on sensitivity to desertification. Therefore, an upgrade of the original method was developed adding a further index (Erosion Quality Index) for the evaluation of the cumulative impact of water and wind erosion in desertification process, by the RUSLE equation and the WEQ method, respectively. Climate simulations over the time period 2010-2050 were provided by the CMCC (Centro Euro

  11. Health-Care-Seeking Patterns in the Emerging Private Sector in Burkina Faso: A Population-Based Study of Urban Adult Residents in Ouagadougou

    PubMed Central

    Beogo, Idrissa; Liu, Chieh-Yu; Chou, Yiing-Jenq; Chen, Chuan-Yu; Huang, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Background The private medical care sector is expanding in urban cities in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). However, people’s health-care-seeking behaviors in this new landscape remain poorly understood; furthermore, distinguishing between public and private providers and among various types of private providers is critical in this investigation. This study assessed, by type, the healthcare providers urban residents in Burkina Faso visit, and their choice determinants. Method We conducted a population-based survey of a representative sample of 1,600 households in Ouagadougou from July to November 2011, consisting of 5,820 adults. We assessed the types of providers people typically sought for severe and non-severe conditions. We applied generalized estimating equations in this study. Results Among those surveyed, 97.7% and 53.1% indicated that they seek a formal provider for treating severe and non-severe conditions, respectively. Among the formal provider seekers, 20.5% and 17.0% chose for-profit (FP) providers for treating severe and non-severe conditions, respectively. Insurance coverage was held by 2.0% of those surveyed. Possessing insurance was the strongest predictor for seeking FP, for both severe (odds ratio [OR] = 1.15, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.04–1.28), and non-severe conditions (OR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.07–1.39). Other predictors included being a formal jobholder and holding a higher level education. By contrast, we observed no significant difference in predisposing, enabling, or need characteristics between not-for-profit (NFP) provider seekers and public provider seekers. Proximity was the primary reason for choosing a provider. Conclusion The results suggested that FP providers play a crucial role in the urban healthcare market in SSA. Socioeconomic status and insurance status are significant predictors of provider choice. The findings can serve as a crucial reference for policymakers in response to the emergence of FP providers in

  12. A methodological approach to assess sensitivity to desertification in two sub-Saharan urban areas: Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso) and Saint Louis (Senegal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iavazzo, P.; Terracciano, S.; Topa, M. E.; Adamo, P.; Coly, A.; De Paola, F.; Giordano, S.; Giugni, M.; Touré, H.

    2012-04-01

    The United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) defines desertification as "land degradation in arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid areas resulting from various factors, including climatic variations and human activities". Desertification is regarded as one of the major global environmental problems of the 21st century and the African sub-Sahara is often quoted as the most seriously affected region with a significant loss of biological and economic productivity of the land. In this geographic area, desertification processes are usually generated by soil erosion due to climate characteristics and fluctuations, unsustainable land uses, overgrazing and inappropriate agricultural practices. Preventing desertification requires an improved understanding of its causes, impact, degree and association with climate, soil, water, land cover, socio-economic factors and their combined effects. The development of methodologies capable of managing large amounts of data in an integrated approach is needed because of the complexity and variety of forms of desertification processes. The study was carried out within the FP7-ENV-2010 CLUVA project (CLimate change and Urban Vulnerability in Africa), aimed to estimate the sensitivity to land degradation in the urban and peri-urban areas of both Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso) and Saint Louis (Senegal) cities. The approach was based on the implementation and adaptation of the modeling methodology developed within the MEDALUS project (MEditerranean Desertification and Land Use). The model is characterized by a multi-factor approach based on the assessment of both environmental quality indicators (climate, soil, vegetation) and anthropogenic factors (land management). The methodology is adaptable to the local conditions, considering that some key indicators can be operationally defined through the inclusion or exclusion of parameters and the scores assigned in order to match the specific relevance of the factors. All local data

  13. La manucure et la pédicure dans la ville de Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso): pratiques et risqué

    PubMed Central

    Korsaga-Somé, Nina; Andonaba, Jean Baptiste; Ouédraogo, Muriel Sidnoma; Tapsoba, Gilbert Patrice; Ilboudo, Léopold; Savadogo, Cérina; Barro-Traoré, Fatou; Niamba, Pascal; Traoré, Adama

    2016-01-01

    La manucure-pédicure est l'ensemble des soins esthétiques des mains, des pieds et des ongles. Au Burkina Faso, l'usage des produits de manucure-pédicure, les techniques utilisées ainsi que les risques encourus restent méconnus. L'objectif de notre étude était d’évaluer la pratique de la manucure-pédicure dans la ville de Ouagadougou. Nous avons mené une étude transversale descriptive de décembre 2010 à novembre 2012 incluant tout les praticiens ayant au moins six mois d'expérience dans l'activité et les clients présents sur les lieux au moment de l'enquête. Nous avons interrogé au total 313 praticiens et 313 clients. L’âge moyen des praticiens était de 19 ans et celui des clients de 32,2 ans. Les praticiens fixes étaient en majorité des femmes (96,87%), ceux mobiles surtout des hommes (68,37%), et 64,53% des clients étaient des femmes. Le pourcentage de praticiens n'ayant pas reçu de formation professionnelle était de 93,92%. 29,7% des praticiens faisaient tremper les instruments pendant au moins dix minutes dans de l'eau de javel; 75,71% savaient que l'utilisation de certains outils étaient dangereux et 26,51% étaient avaient présenté des effets secondaires. Parmi les clients, 40,25% savaient que le matériel utilisé comportait des risques et 30,35% avaient été victimes d'accidents. Les soins de manucure et de pédicure se font dans les salons de coiffure par des coiffeuses non formées à l'exercice de la profession La provenance et la composition des produits n'est pas connues. Des produits non recommandés sont utilisés (shampooing pour trempage des pieds, lame de rasoir et ciseaux pour raclage des pieds). Le recours à la manucure et/ou pédicure est parfois nécessaire mais cela ne doit pas faire perdre de vue les risques encourus. Une sensibilisation des clients et une formation des praticiens semblent nécessaires pour minimiser les risques. PMID:27642448

  14. Chemical Composition, Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Proliferative Activities of Essential Oils of Plants from Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Bayala, Bagora; Bassole, Imaël Henri Nestor; Gnoula, Charlemagne; Nebie, Roger; Yonli, Albert; Morel, Laurent; Figueredo, Gilles; Nikiema, Jean-Baptiste; Lobaccaro, Jean-Marc A.; Simpore, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    showed the highest activity on SF-763 cells. Altogether these results justify the use of these plants in traditional medicine in Burkina Faso and open a new field of investigation in the characterization of the molecules involved in anti-proliferative processes. PMID:24662935

  15. Does enrollment status in community-based insurance lead to poorer quality of care? Evidence from Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction In 2004, a community-based health insurance (CBI) scheme was introduced in Nouna health district, Burkina Faso, with the objective of improving financial access to high quality health services. We investigate the role of CBI enrollment in the quality of care provided at primary-care facilities in Nouna district, and measure differences in objective and perceived quality of care and patient satisfaction between enrolled and non-enrolled populations who visit the facilities. Methods We interviewed a systematic random sample of 398 patients after their visit to one of the thirteen primary-care facilities contracted with the scheme; 34% (n = 135) of the patients were currently enrolled in the CBI scheme. We assessed objective quality of care as consultation, diagnostic and counselling tasks performed by providers during outpatient visits, perceived quality of care as patient evaluations of the structures and processes of service delivery, and overall patient satisfaction. Two-sample t-tests were performed for group comparison and ordinal logistic regression (OLR) analysis was used to estimate the association between CBI enrollment and overall patient satisfaction. Results Objective quality of care evaluations show that CBI enrollees received substantially less comprehensive care for outpatient services than non-enrollees. In contrast, CBI enrollment was positively associated with overall patient satisfaction (aOR = 1.51, p = 0.014), controlling for potential confounders such as patient socio-economic status, illness symptoms, history of illness and characteristics of care received. Conclusions CBI patients perceived better quality of care, while objectively receiving worse quality of care, compared to patients who were not enrolled in CBI. Systematic differences in quality of care expectations between CBI enrollees and non-enrollees may explain this finding. One factor influencing quality of care may be the type of provider payment used by the CBI

  16. Modeling Land Use Change Impacts on Water Resources in a Tropical West African Catchment (dano, Burkina Faso)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yira, Y.; Diekkrüger, B.; Steup, G.; Bossa, A. Y.

    2015-12-01

    This study investigates the impacts of land use change on water resources in the Dano catchment, Burkina Faso, using a physically based hydrological simulation model and land use scenarios. Land use dynamic in the catchment was assessed through the analysis of four land use maps corresponding to the land use status in 1990, 2000, 2007 and 2013. A reclassification procedure of the maps permitted to assess the major land use changes in the catchment from 1990 to 2013. The land use maps were used to build five land use scenarios corresponding to different levels of land use change in the catchment. Water balance was simulated by applying the Water flow and balance Simulation Model (WaSiM) using observed discharge, soil moisture, and groundwater level for model calibration and validation. Model statistical quality measures (R2, NSE and KGE) achieved during the calibration and the validation ranged between 0.9 and 0.6 for total discharge, soil moisture, and groundwater level, indicating satisfying to good agreements between observed and simulated variables. After a successful multi-criteria validation the model was run with the land use scenarios. The land use assessment exhibited a decrease of savannah at an annual rate of 2% since 1990. Conversely, cropland and urban areas have increased. Since urban areas occupy only 3% of the catchment in 2013 it can be assumed that savannah was mainly converted to cropland. The increase in cropland area results from the population growth and the farming system in the catchment. A clear increase in total discharge (+17%) and decrease in evapotranspiration (-5%) was observed following land use change in the catchment. A strong relationship was established between savannah degradation, cropland expansion, discharge increase and reduction of evapotranspiration. The increase in total discharge is related to high discharge and peak flow, suggesting (i) an increase in water resources that is not available for plant growth and the

  17. Feasibility of Malaria Diagnosis and Management in Burkina Faso, Nigeria, and Uganda: A Community-Based Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Ajayi, IkeOluwapo O.; Nsungwa-Sabiiti, Jesca; Siribié, Mohamadou; Falade, Catherine O.; Sermé, Luc; Balyeku, Andrew; Afonne, Chinenye; Sanou, Armande K.; Kabarungi, Vanessa; Oshiname, Frederick O.; Gansane, Zakaria; Kyaligonza, Josephine; Jegede, Ayodele S.; Tiono, Alfred B.; Sirima, Sodiomon B.; Diarra, Amidou; Yusuf, Oyindamola B.; Fouque, Florence; Castellani, Joëlle; Petzold, Max; Singlovic, Jan; Gomes, Melba

    2016-01-01

    Background. Malaria-endemic countries are encouraged to increase, expedite, and standardize care based on parasite diagnosis and treat confirmed malaria using oral artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) or rectal artesunate plus referral when patients are unable to take oral medication. Methods. In 172 villages in 3 African countries, trained community health workers (CHWs) assessed and diagnosed children aged between 6 months and 6 years using rapid histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2)–based diagnostic tests (RDTs). Patients coming for care who could take oral medication were treated with ACTs, and those who could not were treated with rectal artesunate and referred to hospital. The full combined intervention package lasted 12 months. Changes in access and speed of care and clinical course were determined through 1746 random household interviews before and 3199 during the intervention. Results. A total of 15 932 children were assessed: 6394 in Burkina Faso, 2148 in Nigeria, and 7390 in Uganda. Most children assessed (97.3% [15 495/15 932]) were febrile and most febrile cases (82.1% [12 725/15 495]) tested were RDT positive. Almost half of afebrile episodes (47.6% [204/429]) were RDT positive. Children eligible for rectal artesunate contributed 1.1% of episodes. The odds of using CHWs as the first point of care doubled (odds ratio [OR], 2.15; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.9–2.4; P < .0001). RDT use changed from 3.2% to 72.9% (OR, 80.8; 95% CI, 51.2–127.3; P < .0001). The mean duration of uncomplicated episodes reduced from 3.69 ± 2.06 days to 3.47 ± 1.61 days, Degrees of freedom (df) = 2960, Student's t (t) = 3.2 (P = .0014), and mean duration of severe episodes reduced from 4.24 ± 2.26 days to 3.7 ± 1.57 days, df = 749, t = 3.8, P = .0001. There was a reduction in children with danger signs from 24.7% before to 18.1% during the intervention (OR, 0.68; 95% CI, .59–.78; P < .0001). Conclusions. Provision of diagnosis and treatment via trained

  18. Antiretroviral treatment and quality of life in Africans living with HIV: 12-month follow-up in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Jaquet, Antoine; Garanet, Franck; Balestre, Eric; Ekouevi, Didier K.; Azani, Jean Claude; Bognounou, René; Dah, Elias; Kondombo, Jean Charlemagne; Dabis, François; Drabo, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The scale-up of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has led to a significant improvement in survival of the HIV-positive patient but its effects on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) are less known and context-dependent. Our aim was to assess the temporal changes and factors associated with HRQOL among HIV-positive adults initiating HAART in Burkina Faso. Methods HIV-positive people initiating HAART were prospectively included and followed over a one-year period in three HIV clinics of Ouagadougou. HRQOL was assessed at baseline and at each follow-up visit using physical (PHS) and mental (MHS) summary scores derived from the Medical Outcome Study 36-Item short-form health survey (MOS SF-36) questionnaire. Toxicity related to HAART modification and self-reported symptoms were recorded during follow-up visits. Determinants associated with baseline and changes in both scores over a one-year period were assessed using a mixed linear model. Results A total of 344 patients were included. Their median age at baseline was 37 years [interquartile range (IQR) 30–44] and their median CD4 count was 181 cells/mm3 (IQR 97–269). The mean [standard deviation (SD)] PHS score increased from 45.4 (11.1) at baseline to 60.0 (3.1) at 12 months (p<10−4) and the mean (SD) MHS score from 42.2 (8.7) to 43.9 (3.4) (p<10−2). After one year of treatment, patients that experienced on average two symptoms during follow-up presented with significantly lower PHS (63.9) and MHS (43.8) scores compared to patients that presented no symptoms with PHS and MHS of 68.2 (p<10−4) and 45.3 (p<10−3), respectively. Discussion The use of HAART was associated with a significant increase in both physical and mental aspects of the HRQOL over a 12-month period in this urban African population. Perceived symptoms experienced during follow-up visits were associated with a significant impairment in HRQOL. The appropriate and timely management of reported symptoms during the

  19. Exploring the effects of task shifting for HIV through a systems thinking lens: the case of Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background While the impact of task shifting on quality of care and clinical outcomes has been demonstrated in several studies, evidence on its impact on the health system as a whole is limited. This study has two main objectives. The first is to conceptualize the wider range of effects of task shifting through a systems thinking lens. The second is to explore these effects using task shifting for HIV in Burkina Faso as a case study. Methods We used a case study approach, using qualitative research methods. Data sources included document reviews, reviews of available data and records, as well as interviews with key informants and health workers. Results In addition to the traditional measures of impact of task shifting on health outcomes, our study identified 20 possible effects of the strategy on the system as a whole. Moreover, our analysis highlighted the importance of differentiating between two types of health systems effects. The first are effects inherent to the task shifting strategy itself, such as job satisfaction or better access to health services. The second are effects due to health system barriers, for example the unavailability of medicines and supplies, generating a series of effects on the various components of the health system, e.g., staff frustration. Among the health systems effects that we found are positive, mostly unintended, effects and synergies such as increased health workers' sense of responsibility and worthiness, increased satisfaction due to using the newly acquired skills in other non-HIV tasks, as well as improved patient-provider relationships. Among the negative unintended effects are staff frustration due to lack of medicines and supplies or lack of the necessary infrastructure to be able to perform the new tasks. Conclusion Our analysis highlights the importance of adopting a systems thinking approach in designing, implementing and evaluating health policies to mitigate some of the design issues or system bottle-necks that may

  20. Challenges of scaling up and of knowledge transfer in an action research project in Burkina Faso to exempt the worst-off from health care user fees

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Systems to exempt the indigent from user fees have been put in place to prevent the worst-off from being excluded from health care services for lack of funds. Yet the implementation of these mechanisms is as rare as the operational research on this topic. This article analyzes an action research project aimed at finding an appropriate solution to make health care accessible to the indigent in a rural district of Burkina Faso. Research This action research project was initiated in 2007 to study the feasibility and effectiveness of a community-based, participative and financially sustainable process for exempting the indigent from user fees. A interdisciplinary team of researchers from Burkina Faso and Canada was mobilized to document this action research project. Results and knowledge sharing The action process was very well received. Indigent selection was effective and strengthened local solidarity, but coverage was reduced by the lack of local financial resources. Furthermore, the indigent have many other needs that cannot be addressed by exemption from user fees. Several knowledge transfer strategies were implemented to share research findings with residents and with local and national decision-makers. Partnership achievements and difficulties Using a mixed and interdisciplinary research approach was critical to grasping the complexity of this community-based process. The adoption of the process and the partnership with local decision-makers were very effective. Therefore, at the instigation of an NGO, four other districts in Burkina Faso and Niger reproduced this experiment. However, national decision-makers showed no interest in this action and still seem unconcerned about finding solutions that promote access to health care for the indigent. Lessons learned The lessons learned with regard to knowledge transfer and partnerships between researchers and associated decision-makers are: i) involve potential users of the research results from the

  1. Successful Control of Soil-Transmitted Helminthiasis in School Age Children in Burkina Faso and an Example of Community-Based Assessment via Lymphatic Filariasis Transmission Assessment Survey

    PubMed Central

    Drabo, François; Ouedraogo, Hamado; Bougma, Roland; Bougouma, Clarisse; Bamba, Issouf; Zongo, Dramane; Bagayan, Mohamed; Barrett, Laura; Yago-Wienne, Fanny; Palmer, Stephanie; Chu, Brian; Toubali, Emily; Zhang, Yaobi

    2016-01-01

    Background Burkina Faso is endemic with soil-transmitted helminth infections. Over a decade of preventive chemotherapy has been implemented through annual lymphatic filariasis (LF) mass drug administration (MDA) for population aged five years and over, biennial treatment of school age children with albendazole together with schistosomiasis MDA and biannual treatment of pre-school age children through Child Health Days. Assessments were conducted to evaluate the current situation and to determine the treatment strategy for the future. Methodology/Principal Findings A cross-sectional assessment was conducted in 22 sentinel sites across the country in 2013. In total, 3,514 school age children (1,748 boys and 1,766 girls) were examined by the Kato-Katz method. Overall, soil-transmitted helminth prevalence was 1.3% (95% CI: 1.0–1.8%) in children examined. Hookworm was the main species detected, with prevalence of 1.2% (95% CI: 0.9–1.6%) and mean egg counts of 2.1 epg (95% CI: 0–4.2 epg). Among regions, the Centre Ouest region had the highest hookworm prevalence of 3.4% (95% CI: 1.9–6.1%) and mean egg counts of 14.9 epg (95% CI: 3.3–26.6 epg). A separate assessment was conducted in the Centre Nord region in 2014 using community-based cluster survey design during an LF transmission assessment survey (TAS). In this assessment, 351 children aged 6–7 years and 345 children aged 10–14 years were examined, with two cases (0.6% (95% CI: 0.2–2.1%)) and seven cases (2.0% (95% CI: 1.0–4.1%)) of hookworm infection was identified respectively. The results using both age groups categorized the region to be 2% to <10% in STH prevalence according to the pre-defined cut-off values. Conclusions/Significance Through large-scale preventive chemotherapy, Burkina Faso has effectively controlled STH in school age children in the country. Research should be conducted on future strategies to consolidate the gain and to interrupt STH transmission in Burkina Faso. It is also

  2. Assessing the impact of climate change on water resources in a tropical West African catchment using an ensemble of CORDEX climate simulations (Dano, Burkina Faso)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yira, Yacouba; Diekkrüger, Bernd; Steup, Gero; Yaovi Bossa, Aymar

    2016-04-01

    This study assesses the potential impact of climate change on water resources in the Dano catchment (Burkina Faso, West Africa). There is now essential consensus on the importance of performing multi (climate)-model assessments in order to estimate the response of the West African climate to global change. Taking advantage of the results of the COordinated Regional climate Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX-Africa) project, this study evaluates climate change impacts on water resources using an ensemble of six Regional Climate Models (RCMs) in a catchment that is potentially vulnerable to climate change and presents a low adaptive capacity. The ensemble of RCMs was first evaluated to get an estimate of the historical simulated rainfall for the catchment by comparing RCM-based simulated historical rainfall to the observed rainfall data provided by the National Meteorological Service (DGM). In general, the simulated historical rainfall agrees within some degree of variability with the observed rainfall in regard to the mean annual cycle of precipitation. However, significant biases such as a double-peaked rainy season as well as the timing of the rainy season were exhibited by individual RCMs. A statistical bias correction (Quantile mapping) was then applied to the RCM-based simulated daily rainfall for the overlapping period of 1971-2000. The results confirm the effectiveness of the applied bias correction method for rainfall. Temperature and bias corrected rainfall data from the ensemble of RCMs was used as input for the Water flow and balance Simulation Model (WaSiM) to simulate river discharge, soil moisture, evapotranspiration and groundwater depth. To take into account the concern of the potential alteration of the climate change signal due to bias correction, uncorrected climate data for a single RCM was also applied to the hydrological model. The simulated hydrological variables show a similar behavior under observed and bias corrected climate data for the

  3. Genetic Structure of a Local Population of the Anopheles gambiae Complex in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Markianos, Kyriacos; Bischoff, Emmanuel; Mitri, Christian; Guelbeogo, Wamdaogo M.; Gneme, Awa; Eiglmeier, Karin; Holm, Inge; Sagnon, N’Fale; Vernick, Kenneth D.; Riehle, Michelle M.

    2016-01-01

    Members of the Anopheles gambiae species complex are primary vectors of human malaria in Africa. Population heterogeneities for ecological and behavioral attributes expand and stabilize malaria transmission over space and time, and populations may change in response to vector control, urbanization and other factors. There is a need for approaches to comprehensively describe the structure and characteristics of a sympatric local mosquito population, because incomplete knowledge of vector population composition may hinder control efforts. To this end, we used a genome-wide custom SNP typing array to analyze a population collection from a single geographic region in West Africa. The combination of sample depth (n = 456) and marker density (n = 1536) unambiguously resolved population subgroups, which were also compared for their relative susceptibility to natural genotypes of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. The population subgroups display fluctuating patterns of differentiation or sharing across the genome. Analysis of linkage disequilibrium identified 19 new candidate genes for association with underlying population divergence between sister taxa, A. coluzzii (M-form) and A. gambiae (S-form). PMID:26731649

  4. The chromosome complement of Acomys spp. (Rodentia, Muridae) from Oursi, Burkina Faso--the ancestral karyotype of the cahirinus-dimidiatus group?

    PubMed

    Volobouev, V; Gautun, J C; Sicard, B; Tranier, M

    1996-11-01

    We present here data on chromosome banding analysis (R- and C-bands) of Acomys sp. (Rodentia, Muridae) from Oursi, Burkina Faso, characterized by 2n = FN = 68 and comparison of its banding patterns with those of Acomys dimidiatus from Saudi Arabia (2n = 38, FN = 70), studied previously. The study revealed complete homology between acrocentric chromosomes of Acomys sp. and chromosome arms of 16 pairs of metacentric and two pairs of acrocentric chromosomes of A. dimidiatus. In addition to monobrachial homology, one tandem translocation accompanied by a centromeric shift was identified in the karyotype of the latter species. The data obtained show that karyotypes of all the species of the Acomys cahirinus-dimidiatus group studied previously may be derived from that of Acomys sp. from Oursl by means of numerous non-homologous Rb translocations and 1-2 tandem transiocations, and thus its karyotype may be considered as ancestral for the cahirinus-dimidiatus group.

  5. Study of floristic diversity and the structural dynamics of some species providers of non woody forest products in the vegetable formations of the Centre East of Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Ky, J M K; Gnoula, C; Zerbo, P; Simpore, J; Nikiema, J B; Canini, A; Millogo-Rasolodimby, J

    2009-07-15

    The goal of this study is to contribute to a better knowledge of certain species providing Non Woody Forest Products (NWFP) in the Centre East of Burkina Faso. This study aims to determine the state of the resources in Vitellaria paradoxa, Balanites aegyptiaca, Tamarindus indica and Lannea microcarpa. For this purpose, an inventory of the vegetation was carried out in circular pieces of land of 1250 m2, as a sample of the zone of work, based on the chart of occupation of the grounds. We are identified 158 species comprising 90 genera and 47 families. Those species represent more than 90% of the trees from which various parts are used in food, traditional pharmacopeia and the craft industry. We also showed that because of the strong anthropisation of the zone, the bad pedoclimatic conditions and the permanent bush fires, the regeneration and growth of Vitellaria paradoxa, Balanites aegyptiaca, Tamarindus indica and Lannea microcarpa are disturbed.

  6. High Nasal Carriage Rate of Staphylococcus aureus Containing Panton-Valentine leukocidin- and EDIN-Encoding Genes in Community and Hospital Settings in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Ouedraogo, Abdoul-Salam; Dunyach-Remy, Catherine; Kissou, Aimée; Sanou, Soufiane; Poda, Armel; Kyelem, Carole G.; Solassol, Jérôme; Bañuls, Anne-Laure; Van De Perre, Philippe; Ouédraogo, Rasmata; Jean-Pierre, Hélène; Lavigne, Jean-Philippe; Godreuil, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to investigate the rate of S.aureus nasal carriage and molecular characteristics in hospital and community settings in Bobo Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. Nasal samples (n = 219) were collected from 116 healthy volunteers and 103 hospitalized patients in July and August 2014. Samples were first screened using CHROMagar Staph aureus chromogenic agar plates, and S. aureus strains were identified by mass spectrometry. Antibiotic susceptibility was tested using the disk diffusion method on Müller-Hinton agar. All S. aureus isolates were genotyped using DNA microarray. Overall, the rate of S. aureus nasal carriage was 32.9% (72/219) with 29% in healthy volunteers and 37% in hospital patients. Among the S. aureus isolates, only four methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains were identified and all in hospital patients (3.9%). The 72 S. aureus isolates from nasal samples belonged to 16 different clonal complexes, particularly to CC 152-MSSA (22 clones) and CC1-MSSA (nine clones). Two clones were significantly associated with community settings: CC1-MSSA and CC45-MSSA. The MRSA strains belonged to the ST88-MRSA-IV or the CC8-MRSA-V complex. A very high prevalence of toxinogenic strains 52.2% (36/69), containing Panton-Valentine leucocidin- and EDIN-encoding genes, was identified among the S. aureus isolates in community and hospital settings. This study provides the first characterization of S. aureus clones and their genetic characteristics in Burkina Faso. Altogether, it highlights the low prevalence of antimicrobial resistance, high diversity of methicillin-sensitive S. aureus clones and high frequency of toxinogenic S. aureus strains. PMID:27679613

  7. Poor procedures and quality control among non-affiliated blood centers in Burkina Faso: an argument for expanding the reach of the national blood transfusion center

    PubMed Central

    Nébié, Koumpingnin; Ouattara, Siaka; Sanou, Mahamoudou; Kientega, Youssouphe; Dahourou, Honorine; Ky, Lassina; Kienou, Kisito; Diallo, Samba; Bigirimana, Françoise; Fretz, Catherine; Murphy, Edward L.; Lefrère, Jean-Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the creation of national blood transfusion services. Burkina Faso has a CNTS (Centre national de transfusion sanguine - National Blood Transfusion Center) but it currently covers only 53% of the national blood supply versus 47% produced by independent hospital blood banks. Study design To evaluate blood collection, testing, preparation and prescription practices in the regions of Burkina Faso that are not covered by the CNTS, we conducted a cross-sectional survey. Methodology Data were collected by trained professionals from May to June 2009, at 42 autonomous blood centers not covered by the CNTS. Results Blood collection was supervised in all sites by laboratory technicians without specific training. There was no marketing of community blood donation nor mobile collection. Donation was restricted to replacement (family) donors in 21.4% of sites. Pre-donation screening of donors was performed in 63.4% of sites, but some did not use written questionnaires. Testing for HIV, hepatitis B virus and syphilis was universal, although some sites did not screen for hepatitis C virus. In 83.3% of the sites blood typing was performed without reverse ABO typing. In 97.6% of the sites, nurses acted alone or in conjunction with a physician to order blood transfusions. Conclusion Shortcomings in non-CNTS blood centers argue for the development of a truly national CNTS. Such a national center should coordinate and supervise all blood transfusion activities, and is the essential first step for improving and institutionalizing blood transfusion safety and efficacy in a developing country. PMID:21736582

  8. Prevalence of the dhfr and dhps Mutations among Pregnant Women in Rural Burkina Faso Five Years after the Introduction of Intermittent Preventive Treatment with Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine

    PubMed Central

    Tahita, Marc C.; Tinto, Halidou; Erhart, Annette; Kazienga, Adama; Fitzhenry, Robert; VanOvermeir, Chantal; Rosanas-Urgell, Anna; Ouedraogo, Jean-Bosco; Guiguemde, Robert T.; Van geertruyden, Jean-Pierre; D’Alessandro, Umberto

    2015-01-01

    Background The emergence and spread of drug resistance represents one of the biggest challenges for malaria control in endemic regions. Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) is currently deployed as intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) to prevent the adverse effects of malaria on the mother and her offspring. Nevertheless, its efficacy is threatened by SP resistance which can be estimated by the prevalence of dihydropteroate synthase (dhps) and dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) mutations. This was measured among pregnant women in the health district of Nanoro, Burkina Faso. Methods From June to December 2010, two hundred and fifty six pregnant women in the second and third trimester, attending antenatal care with microscopically confirmed malaria infection were invited to participate, regardless of malaria symptoms. A blood sample was collected on filter paper and analyzed by PCR-RFLP for the alleles 51, 59, 108, 164 in the pfdhfr gene and 437, 540 in the pfdhps gene. Results The genes were successfully genotyped in all but one sample (99.6%; 255/256) for dhfr and in 90.2% (231/256) for dhps. The dhfr C59R and S108N mutations were the most common, with a prevalence of 61.2% (156/255) and 55.7% (142/255), respectively; 12.2% (31/255) samples had also the dhfr N51I mutation while the I164L mutation was absent. The dhps A437G mutation was found in 34.2% (79/231) isolates, but none of them carried the codon K540E. The prevalence of the dhfr double mutations NRNI and the triple mutations IRNI was 35.7% (91/255) and 11.4% (29/255), respectively. Conclusion Though the mutations in the pfdhfr and pfdhps genes were relatively common, the prevalence of the triple pfdhfr mutation was very low, indicating that SP as IPTp is still efficacious in Burkina Faso. PMID:26368675

  9. Risk factors for tuberculosis treatment failure among pulmonary tuberculosis patients in four health regions of Burkina Faso, 2009: case control study

    PubMed Central

    Sawadogo, Bernard; Tint, Khin San; Tshimanga, Mufuta; Kuonza, Lazarus; Ouedraogo, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In Burkina Faso, the tuberculosis (TB) treatment failure rate increased from 2.5% in 2000 to 8.3% in 2006. The risk factors for TB treatment failure in the country are not well known. The study aims to determine the risk factors for treatment failure among pulmonary tuberculosis patients in four health region of Burkina Faso and to recommend appropriate interventions. Methods A case control study was conducted among pulmonary TB patients who began TB treatment in 2009. A case was any patient who remained smear-positive at fifth month of TB treatment and a control was a patient who tested smear-negative at fifth month of treatment. A structured questionnaire was administered to one hundred cases and one hundred controls to collect information on exposure factors. Odds ratio were calculated using bivariate and multivariate analysis to determine the association between exposures and outcome. Results Multivariate analysis showed that independent risk factors for TB treatment failure were fail to take TB drugs for more than 14 consecutive days (OR = 18.53; 95% CI:4.56 - 75.22), sputum smear-positive at two months of treatment (OR = 11.52; 95%CI:5.18-25.60), existence of comorbidity (OR = 5.74; 95%CI:1.69-19.44), and use of traditional medicines or herbs (OR = 2.97; 95%CI:1.12-7.85). Conclusion Early identification of patients with the above risk factors for intense case management will improve TB treatment outcome. Patient with smear positive at 2ndnd month of treatment require more intense follow-up, and involving traditional healers who provide traditional medicines or herbs in the educational programme on TB are required. The national referral laboratory capacity needs to be strengthened to do drug susceptibility testing and routine drug monitoring on cases of non conversion at 2nd month of treatment. PMID:26327989

  10. Serodiagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni infections in an endemic area of Burkina Faso: performance of several immunological tests with different parasite antigens.

    PubMed

    Sorgho, Hermann; Bahgat, Mahmoud; Poda, Jean-Noel; Song, Wenjian; Kirsten, Christa; Doenhoff, Michael J; Zongo, Issaka; Ouédraogo, Jean-Bosco; Ruppel, Andreas

    2005-02-01

    The performance of indirect haemagglutination assays (IHA), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and indirect immunofluorescent antibody tests (IFAT) were compared with 450 sera from a Schistosoma mansoni-endemic area in Burkina Faso. All participants in this survey provided at least one sample each of stool, urine and serum. From those with an egg-negative Kato-Katz thick smear, a second stool sample was examined. IHA was based on either extracts of adult S. mansoni worms (SmIHA) or S. japonicum egg antigen (SjIHA). For ELISA, three antigen preparations were used, namely: (i) soluble S. mansoni adult worm antigens (SWAP); (ii) soluble S. mansoni egg antigens (SEA); and (iii) a cationic exchange fraction of S. mansoni eggs (CEF6). IFAT was performed with S. mansoni male worm sections. Among the egg-excretors, the sensitivity of ELISA was high and egg antigens performed slightly better (SEA, 96%; CEF6, 97%) than worm antigen (94%). Sensitivity of IHA was satisfactory with homologous (Sm, >85%), but not heterologous (Sj, 56%) parasite antigen. In IFAT, the parenchyma-associated fluorescence showed high sensitivity (95%), but gut-associated fluorescence, which is known to be a sensitive diagnostic marker for schistosome-infected European travelers, was observed only in 76% of a sub-sample of 100 of the endemic sera. Among sera from egg-negative individuals, many gave positive reactions in several or all of the tests employed. These reactions (formally "false positive") are considered to represent true infections, since chemotherapy had not yet been delivered to this population. For the purpose of further surveys in Burkina Faso or other resource-poor settings, we suggest IHA as an accurate diagnostic test and propose to further improve its performance by including egg rather than worm antigens.

  11. High Nasal Carriage Rate of Staphylococcus aureus Containing Panton-Valentine leukocidin- and EDIN-Encoding Genes in Community and Hospital Settings in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Ouedraogo, Abdoul-Salam; Dunyach-Remy, Catherine; Kissou, Aimée; Sanou, Soufiane; Poda, Armel; Kyelem, Carole G; Solassol, Jérôme; Bañuls, Anne-Laure; Van De Perre, Philippe; Ouédraogo, Rasmata; Jean-Pierre, Hélène; Lavigne, Jean-Philippe; Godreuil, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to investigate the rate of S.aureus nasal carriage and molecular characteristics in hospital and community settings in Bobo Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. Nasal samples (n = 219) were collected from 116 healthy volunteers and 103 hospitalized patients in July and August 2014. Samples were first screened using CHROMagar Staph aureus chromogenic agar plates, and S. aureus strains were identified by mass spectrometry. Antibiotic susceptibility was tested using the disk diffusion method on Müller-Hinton agar. All S. aureus isolates were genotyped using DNA microarray. Overall, the rate of S. aureus nasal carriage was 32.9% (72/219) with 29% in healthy volunteers and 37% in hospital patients. Among the S. aureus isolates, only four methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains were identified and all in hospital patients (3.9%). The 72 S. aureus isolates from nasal samples belonged to 16 different clonal complexes, particularly to CC 152-MSSA (22 clones) and CC1-MSSA (nine clones). Two clones were significantly associated with community settings: CC1-MSSA and CC45-MSSA. The MRSA strains belonged to the ST88-MRSA-IV or the CC8-MRSA-V complex. A very high prevalence of toxinogenic strains 52.2% (36/69), containing Panton-Valentine leucocidin- and EDIN-encoding genes, was identified among the S. aureus isolates in community and hospital settings. This study provides the first characterization of S. aureus clones and their genetic characteristics in Burkina Faso. Altogether, it highlights the low prevalence of antimicrobial resistance, high diversity of methicillin-sensitive S. aureus clones and high frequency of toxinogenic S. aureus strains.

  12. Ethical considerations related to participation and partnership: an investigation of stakeholders’ perceptions of an action-research project on user fee removal for the poorest in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Healthcare user fees present an important barrier for accessing services for the poorest (indigents) in Burkina Faso and selective removal of fees has been incorporated in national healthcare planning. However, establishing fair, effective and sustainable mechanisms for the removal of user fees presents important challenges. A participatory action-research project was conducted in Ouargaye, Burkina Faso, to test mechanisms for identifying those who are indigents, and funding and implementing user fee removal. In this paper, we explore stakeholder perceptions of ethical considerations relating to participation and partnership arising in the action-research. Methods We conducted 39 in-depth interviews to examine ethical issues associated with the action-research. Respondents included 14 individuals identified as indigent through the community selection process, seven members of village selection committees, six local healthcare professionals, five members of the management committees of local health clinics, five members of the research team, and four regional or national policy-makers. Using constant comparative techniques, we carried out an inductive thematic analysis of the collected data. Results The Ouargaye project involved a participatory model, included both implementation and research components, and focused on a vulnerable group within small, rural communities. Stakeholder perceptions and experiences relating to the participatory approach and reliance on multiple partnerships in the project were associated with a range of ethical considerations related to 1) seeking common ground through communication and collaboration, 2) community participation and risk of stigmatization, 3) impacts of local funding of the user fee removal, 4) efforts to promote fairness in the selection of the indigents, and 5) power relations and the development of partnerships. Conclusions This investigation of the Ouargaye project serves to illuminate the distinctive

  13. Towards reduction of maternal and perinatal mortality in rural Burkina Faso: communities are not empty vessels

    PubMed Central

    Hounton, Sennen; Byass, Peter; Brahima, Bassane

    2009-01-01

    Background Reducing maternal and perinatal mortality in sub Saharan Africa remains challenging and requires effective and context specific interventions. Objective The aims of this paper were to demonstrate the impact of the community mobilisation of the Skilled Care Initiative (SCI) in reducing maternal and perinatal mortality and to describe the concept and implementation in order to guide replication and scaling up. Designs A quasi experimental design was used to assess the extent to which the SCI was associated with increased institutional births, maternal and perinatal mortality reduction in an intervention (Ouargaye) versus a comparison (Diapaga) district. A geo-referenced census was conducted to retrospectively assess changes in outcomes and process measures. A detailed description of activities, rationale and timing of implementation were gathered from the SCI project officers and summarised. Data analyses included descriptive statistics and multivariate analyses. Results At macro level, the main significant difference between Ouargaye and Diapaga districts was the scope and intensity of the community-based interventions implemented in Ouargaye. There was a temporal association relationship before and after the implementation of the demand-driven interventions and a remarkable 30% increase in institutional births in the intervention district compared to 10% increase in comparison district. There was a significant reduction of perinatal mortality rates (OR =0.75, CI 0.70–0.80) in intervention district and a larger decrease in maternal mortality ratios in intervention district, although statistical significance was not reached. A comprehensive framework of community mobilisation strategy is proposed to improve maternal and child health in poorest communities. Conclusion Controlling for the availability and quality of health services, working in partnership and effectively with communities, and not for them – hence characterising communities as not being

  14. Evaluation of sensitivity to desertification by a modified ESAs method in two sub-Saharan peri-urban areas: Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso) and Saint Louis (Senegal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topa, Maria Elena; Iavazzo, Pietro; Terracciano, Stefano; Adamo, Paola; Coly, Adrien; De Paola, Francesco; Giordano, Simonetta; Giugni, Maurizio; Traoré, Seydou Eric

    2013-04-01

    Desertification is regarded as one of the major global environmental problems of the 21st century. The African sub-Sahara is often quoted as the most seriously affected region with a significant loss of biological and economic productivity of the land due to climate characteristics and fluctuations, unsustainable land uses, overgrazing and inappropriate agricultural practices. Due to its complexity, dynamism and extent, desertification is complicated to check and assess. The absence of an agreed methodology for the identification of affected areas is a critical point in desertification monitoring and assessment. An integrated approach which uses both qualitative and quantitative measures is crucial to reach the aim of sustainable resource use and has to be reflected in application of sets of indicators. The selection of appropriate indicators and their integration and interpretation should be conducted by the objectives to be achieved and the questions to be answered. This study, carried out within the FP7-ENV-2010 CLUVA project (Climate change and Urban Vulnerability in Africa), aimed to assess the sensitivity to desertification in peri-urban areas of both Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso) and Saint Louis (Senegal) cities. The approach was based on the implementation and adaptation to the local conditions of the modeling methodology developed within the MEDALUS project (Mediterranean Desertification And Land Use). The model is characterized by a multi-factor approach based on the assessment of both environmental quality indicators (vegetation, soil, climate) and anthropogenic factors (land management). All local data, arranged in a GIS environment, allowed the generation of maps identifying Environmentally Sensitive Areas (ESAs) and an Index of Environmentally Sensitive Areas (ESAI). Changes and integrations to the original methodology have been set taking into account the environmental and social features of the whole sub-Saharan west Africa in order to allow the use of

  15. New geological and tectonic map of Paleoproterozoic basement in western Burkina Faso: integrated interpretation of airborne geophysical and field data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metelka, Vaclav; Baratoux, Lenka; Jessell, Mark; Naba, Seta

    2010-05-01

    crustal structures were identified, some of them previously unreported. The western-most one runs through the eastern margin of the Banfora belt, continues eastwards through to Houndé belt and defines the northern limit of the Boromo belt. Regional stitches of airborne magnetic data at the craton scale show that this structure continues southeastwards to Liberia, attaining over 1000 km. Another shear zone, one of the newly discovered major structures, is NNW-SSE oriented and it affects granitoids between the Banfora and Houndé belts, joining the N-S trending shear zone limiting the Hounde belt in the west. Tarkwaian type metasediments occur as cca 400 km N-S oriented quasi-continuous unit located in the easterly part of the Houndé belt and they are limited on both eastern and western sides by regional scale shear zones. Finally, the Boromo belt is affected along all its length by a connected system of anastomosing subvertical shear zones, some of them representing the limit between the greenstone and granitoids. Additionally, tight isoclinal folds in the Houndé belt indicating E-W compression during the Eburnean orogeny are clearly visible on the PCA image. Interpreted structures are in a good accordance with the meso-scale structures measured in-situ. Castaing, C., Billa, M., Milési, J.P., Thiéblemont, D., Le Mentour, J., Egal, E., Donzeau, M. (BRGM) (coordonnateurs) et Guerrot, C., Cocherie, A., Chevremont, P., Tegyey, M., Itard, Y. (BRGM), Zida, B., Ouedraogo, I., Kote, S., Kabore, B.E., Ouedraogo, C. (BUMIGEB), Ki, J.C., Zunino (ANTEA), 2003. Notice explicative de la Carte géologique et miniére du Burkina Faso à 1/1 000 000.

  16. Les campagnes communautaires de promotion du depistage VIH en Afrique de l’Ouest : perceptions des usagers au Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Desclaux, Alice; Ky-Zerbo, Odette; Somé, Jean-François; Makhlouf-Obermeyer, Carla

    2014-01-01

    Résumé La politique actuelle de lutte contre le sida qui repose sur l’extension de l’accès aux traitements et à la prévention exige qu’une proportion élevée de la population connaisse son statut en matière de VIH. Pour cela, l’OMS a proposé le développement de stratégies communautaires délivrant le dépistage et le conseil au-delà des services de soins, comme le test à domicile ou les campagnes de sensibilisation et dépistage de grande envergure, appliqués en Afrique australe et de l’Est. Pour définir les stratégies pertinentes dans des régions de basse prévalence comme l’Afrique de l’Ouest, les expériences communautaires de promotion du dépistage doivent y être évaluées. Cet article présente une évaluation des campagnes au Burkina Faso du point de vue des usagers. Dans le cadre d’un projet sur les pratiques et l’éthique du dépistage dans quatre pays africains (MATCH), une enquête qualitative spécifique a été menée pendant la campagne de 2008, auprès de personnes ayant fait le test pendant la campagne, ayant fait le test hors campagne ou n’ayant pas fait le test. Les appréciations sont globalement très favorables aux campagnes, notamment à cause de l’information dispensée, l’accessibilité des sites, la gratuité du test, la qualité des services et l’effet d’entrainement. Les limites ou critiques sont essentiellement liées à l’affluence ou à la crainte de ne pas être soutenu en cas de résultat positif. La démarche de recours au test ne fait plus l’objet de suspicion, au moins pendant la campagne. Cette « normalisation » du recours au test et la mobilisation collective facilitent des pratiques en groupe, ce qui peut rendre difficile de garder son statut VIH secret. L’évaluation des campagnes par les usagers les présente comme une opportunité pour accéder facilement au test et pour communiquer à ce sujet dans divers espaces sociaux à partir des informations délivrées sur le VIH

  17. [Changes in vitamin A intake following the social marketing of red palm oil among children and women in Burkina Faso].

    PubMed

    Zagré, No l-Marie; Delisle, Hélène; Tarini, Ann; Delpeuch, Francis

    2002-01-01

    This paper focuses on changes in vitamin A (VA) intakes as part of the evaluation of a pilot project on social marketing of red palm oil (RPO) as a VA supplement for mothers and children in central-north Burkina Faso. The objectives of the 30-month project are to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of introducing RPO in non-consuming areas. RPO is collected from women in the South-West region and it is sold in project sites by village volunteers. RPO is promoted by community workers trained in persuasive communication and social marketing. The target population is free to buy and consume RPO. Evaluation design includes data collected at onset, then 12 and 24 months later, from the same sample of 210 mothers and their children randomly selected in seven project sites. Children were 1 to 3 years old at onset. Blood samples were collected at baseline from mothers and children for serum retinol determination by HPLC. VA intakes are estimated by a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire, using the conventional beta-carotene to retinol conversion factors and the newly revised lower factors. VA deficiency is a major public health problem in the area: 64% of mothers and 85% of children had serum retinol concentrations < 0,70 mumol/l at baseline. VA came mainly from plant foods, particularly fruits and dark green vegetables which provided more than 90% of the dietary VA at onset of the project. Mean vitamin A intakes are low. We found 138 106 mug ER for the children and 302 +/- 235 microg ER for the mothers with conventional factors and 64 +/- 58 microg ER and 133 +/- 162 microg ER, respectively, with the revised factors. One year later, one third of respondents had consumed RPO in the previous week, and it supplied around 56% of the VA intake of children and 67% of mothers (36% and 46% respectively for the whole group). VA intakes were significantly increased at 510 +/- 493 microg ER and 801 +/- 913 microg ER for the children and their mothers respectively

  18. The relative and absolute chronology of strato-tectonic events in the Gorom-Gorom granitoid terrane and Oudalan-Gorouol belt, northeast Burkina Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tshibubudze, Asinne; Hein, Kim A. A.; McCuaig, T. Campbell

    2015-12-01

    The integration of field mapping and analytical studies of magmatic units of the northeast of Burkina Faso has provided new information on the tectonic and magmatic evolution of the Oudalan-Gorouol belt and the Gorom-Gorom granitoid terrane. Structural, geochemical and geochronological analyses have helped to clarify the geological evolution of the region during the Tangaean Event (D1) and Eburnean Orogeny (D2) through to the Wabo Tampelse Event (D3). Further to this, zircon U-Pb geochronology data have demonstrated that the Oudalan-Gorouol belt and the Gorom-Gorom granitoid terrane represents some of the oldest outcropping geology in the Palaeoproterozoic Baoulé-Mossi domain recognised to date, with the oldest age at 2253 ± 9 Ma. The geochronology and geology suggests that the basement or a pre-Birimian crust to the Birimian Supergroup may be found in the northeast of Burkina Faso. The Eburnean Orogeny in the northeastern Burkina is preceded by the two phases of deformation (D1-x and D1), and two phases of magmatism. D1-x is associated with the emplacement of the Dori Batholith at the onset of D1 (2164-2141 Ma). D1 ductile-brittle deformation formed F1 folds and discrete high-strained mylonite zones that deformed the Oudalan-Gorouol belt and the Gorom-Gorom granitoid terrane during a southwest-directed palaeo-principal transport direction. The pre-Birimian to Birimian supracrustal rocks and intrusions were regionally metamorphosed during D1 to greenschist to amphibolite facies. The Eburnean Orogeny (2130-1980 Ma) is characterised by northwest-southeast shortening; it was followed by north-northwest to south-southeast shortening with development of sinistral strike-slip faults and shears. D2 brittle-(ductile) deformation is manifested by refolding of F1 by northeast-trending F2, and development of a pervasive northeast-trending S2 to S2-C foliation. Metamorphic grade attained greenschist facies during D2 with development of the mineral assemblage of quartz

  19. Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial Evaluating Mobile Text Messaging to Promote Retention and Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy for People Living With HIV in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Ouedraogo, Denis; Artavia-Mora, Luis; Bedi, Arjun; Thiombiano, Boundia Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Background Retention in care and adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) among people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV) is a critical challenge in many African countries including Burkina Faso. Delivering text messaging (short message service, SMS) interventions through mobile phones may help facilitate health service delivery and improve patient health. Despite this potential, no evaluations have been delivered for national scale settings to demonstrate the impact of mobile health (mHealth) for PLHIV. Objectives This study aims to test the impact of SMS text messaging reminders for PLHIV in Burkina Faso, who are under ART. The evaluation identifies whether patients who receive SMS text messages are more likely to (1) retain in care (measured as a dichotomous variable), (2) adhere to antiretroviral regimens (measured as the number of doses missed in the past 7 days), and (3) experience slower disease progression (measured with T-lymphocytes cells). The second objective is to assess its effects on the frequency of health center visits, physical and psychosocial health, nutrition and whether the type of message (text vs image) and frequency (weekly vs semiweekly) have differential impacts including the possibility of message fatigue over time. Methods This 24-month, wide-scale intervention implements a randomized controlled trial (RCT) to evaluate the impact of four variants of a mHealth intervention versus a control group. Our sample comprises adult patients (>15 years of age) undergoing antiretroviral therapy with access to mobile phone services. Multivariate regression analysis will be used to analyze the effect of the intervention on the study population. Data collection is done at baseline and three follow-up waves 6, 12, and 24 months after the intervention starts. Results The targeted 3800 patients were recruited between February 2015 and May 2015. But political uncertainty delayed the launch of the intervention until October 2015. Data

  20. Pilot study on the combination of an organophosphate-based insecticide paint and pyrethroid-treated long lasting nets against pyrethroid resistant malaria vectors in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Mosqueira, Beatriz; Soma, Dieudonné D; Namountougou, Moussa; Poda, Serge; Diabaté, Abdoulaye; Ali, Ouari; Fournet, Florence; Baldet, Thierry; Carnevale, Pierre; Dabiré, Roch K; Mas-Coma, Santiago

    2015-08-01

    A pilot study to test the efficacy of combining an organophosphate-based insecticide paint and pyrethroid-treated Long Lasting Insecticide Treated Nets (LLINs) against pyrethroid-resistant malaria vector mosquitoes was performed in a real village setting in Burkina Faso. Paint Inesfly 5A IGR™, comprised of two organophosphates (OPs) and an Insect Growth Regulator (IGR), was tested in combination with pyrethroid-treated LLINs. Efficacy was assessed in terms of mortality for 12 months using Early Morning Collections of malaria vectors and 30-minute WHO bioassays. Resistance to pyrethroids and OPs was assessed by detecting the frequency of L1014F and L1014S kdr mutations and Ace-1(R)G119S mutation, respectively. Blood meal origin was identified using a direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The combination of Inesfly 5A IGR™ and LLINs was effective in killing 99.9-100% of malaria vector populations for 6 months regardless of the dose and volume treated. After 12 months, mortality rates decreased to 69.5-82.2%. The highest mortality rates observed in houses treated with 2 layers of insecticide paint and a larger volume. WHO bioassays supported these results: mortalities were 98.8-100% for 6 months and decreased after 12 months to 81.7-97.0%. Mortality rates in control houses with LLINs were low. Collected malaria vectors consisted exclusively of Anopheles coluzzii and were resistant to pyrethroids, with a L1014 kdr mutation frequency ranging from 60 to 98% through the study. About 58% of An. coluzzii collected inside houses had bloodfed on non-human animals. Combining Inesfly 5A IGR™ and LLINs yielded a one year killing efficacy against An. coluzzii highly resistant to pyrethroids but susceptible to OPs that exhibited an anthropo-zoophilic behaviour in the study area. The results obtained in a real setting supported previous work performed in experimental huts and underscore the need to study the impact that this novel strategy may have on clinical

  1. Trends and Issues in Vocational Technical Education in Francophone West Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kogoe, Akrima

    Francophone West Africa has committed itself to the goal of universal formal education as the most effective method of insuring rapid economic and national development. (Francophone West Africa is composed of Senegal, Mauritania, Guinea, Mali, Ivory Coast, Togo, Benin, Niger, and Burkina-Faso.) The costly investments of limited fiscal resources in…

  2. Operational performance of the photovoltaic-powered grain mill and water pump at Tangaye, Burkina Faso (formerly Upper Volta). Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Martz, J.E.; Roberts, A.F.

    1985-03-01

    A photovoltaic (PV) system powering a grain mill and water pump was installed in the remote African village of Tangaye, Burkina Faso (formerly Upper Volta) under the sponsorship of the U.S. Agency for International Development (AID) and by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Lewis Research Center (LeRC) in early 1979. The presence reports covers the second two years of operation from April 1981 through June 1983. During this time, the grain mill and water pump were operational 96 and 88 percent of the time respectively, and the PV system generated sufficient electricity to enable the grinding of about 111 metric tons of finely ground flow and the pumping of over 5000 cm sq of water from the 10 m deep well. The report includes a description of the current configuration of the system, a review of system performance, a discussion of the socioeconomic impact of the system on the villagers and a summary of results and conclusions covering the entire four-year period.

  3. From Management to Negotiation: Technical and Institutional Innovations for Integrated Water Resource Management in the Upper Comoé River Basin, Burkina Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roncoli, Carla; Kirshen, Paul; Etkin, Derek; Sanon, Moussa; Somé, Léopold; Dembélé, Youssouf; Sanfo, Bienvenue J.; Zoungrana, Jacqueline; Hoogenboom, Gerrit

    2009-10-01

    This study focuses on the potential role of technical and institutional innovations for improving water management in a multi-user context in Burkina Faso. We focus on a system centered on three reservoirs that capture the waters of the Upper Comoé River Basin and servicing a diversity of users, including a sugar manufacturing company, a urban water supply utility, a farmer cooperative, and other downstream users. Due to variable and declining rainfall and expanding users’ needs, drastic fluctuations in water supply and demand occur during each dry season. A decision support tool was developed through participatory research to enable users to assess the impact of alternative release and diversion schedules on deficits faced by each user. The tool is meant to be applied in the context of consultative planning by a local user committee that has been created by a new national integrated water management policy. We contend that both solid science and good governance are instrumental in realizing efficient and equitable water management and adaptation to climate variability and change. But, while modeling tools and negotiation platforms may assist users in managing climate risk, they also introduce additional uncertainties into the deliberative process. It is therefore imperative to understand how these technological and institutional innovations frame water use issues and decisions to ensure that such framing is consistent with the goals of integrated water resource management.

  4. [Traditional healers in the fight against HIV/AIDS infection in the health district of Fada N'Gourma (Burkina Faso)].

    PubMed

    Faye, A; Traore, A T; Wone, I; Ndiaye, P; Tal-Dia, A

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate collaboration between traditional healers (TH) and registered nurses (RN) in the care of people living with HIV (PLHIV) in the health district N'Gourma Fada, Burkina Faso. A survey was conducted among 26 RN, 33 TH working in the health district and 96 PLHIV under treatment at the Fada N'Gourma Regional Hospital. Survey data showed that only 9.1% had sound knowledge about HIV/AIDS and 18.2% about prevention methods. Conversely 84.8% had a good knowledge about clinical manifestations. Among TH, 84.8% claimed to refer patients to health facilities that provided no support for HIV/AIDS, 51.1% called for establishment of a framework of cooperation and 21.2% asked for reciprocity. Among nurses, 85.2% did not consider TH as part of the health community fighting against HIV/AIDS. Proposals focused on association of TH, frameworks of cooperation, and coordination of TH activities in the fight against HIV/AIDS.

  5. Why do women pay more than they should? A mixed methods study of the implementation gap in a policy to subsidize the costs of deliveries in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Ridde, Valéry; Kouanda, Seni; Yameogo, Maurice; Kadio, Kadidiatou; Bado, Aristide

    2013-02-01

    In 2007, Burkina Faso launched a public policy to subsidize 80% of the cost of normal deliveries. Although women are required to pay only the remaining 20%, i.e., 900F CFA (1.4 Euros), some qualitative evidence suggests they actually pay more. The aim of this study is to test and then (if confirmed) to understand the hypothesis that the amounts paid by women are more than the official fee, i.e., their 20% portion. A mixed method sequential explanatory design giving equal priority to both quantitative (n=883) and qualitative (n=50) methods was used in a rural health district of Ouargaye. Half (50%, median) of the women reported paying more than the official fee for a delivery. Health workers questioned the methodology of the study and the veracity of the women's reports. The three most plausible explanations for this payment disparity are: (i) the payments were for products used that were not part of the delivery kit covered by the official fee; (ii) the implementers had difficulty in understanding the policy; and (iii) there was improper conduct on the part of some health workers. Institutional design and organizational practices, as well as weak rule enforcement and organizational capacity, need to be considered more carefully to avoid an implementation gap in this public policy.

  6. The type of fortificant and the leaf matrix both influence iron and zinc bioaccessibility in iron-fortified green leafy vegetable sauces from Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Icard-Vernière, C; Picq, C; Courbis, L; Mouquet-Rivier, C

    2016-02-01

    Leafy vegetable sauces from Burkina Faso were assessed as a potential vehicle for food fortification. First, iron and zinc bioaccessibility were measured by dialysability method in amaranth and Jew's mallow sauces and in traditional whole dishes consisting of maize paste plus leafy vegetable sauces. Iron dialysability and solubility were higher in amaranth than in Jew's mallow sauce, pointing to a marked effect of the matrix. Iron dialysability was hardly affected by the maize paste contrary to zinc dialysability, which was reduced. Second, iron and zinc bioaccessibility was assessed in the same sauces fortified with NaFeEDTA or iron sulfate. Added iron, i.e. iron supplied by fortification, represented 60% of total iron at the low fortification level and 80% at high level. In amaranth sauces with the high level of fortification using NaFeEDTA and iron sulfate, fractional dialysable iron reached respectively 66% and 26% compared to only 8.1% in the unfortified sauce. Similarly, in Jew's mallow sauces, fractional dialysable iron was 57% and 5% respectively with NaFeEDTA and iron sulfate and less than 1% in the unfortified sauce. Concomitantly, fractional dialysable zinc increased by respectively 20% and 40% in amaranth and Jew's mallow sauces fortified with NaFeEDTA whereas it remained unchanged with iron sulfate. Iron fortification could be an efficient way to greatly increase the available iron content of green leafy vegetable sauces and for this purpose NaFeEDTA is more effective than iron sulfate whatever the food matrix.

  7. An easy and low-cost method for preprocessing and matching small-scale amateur aerial photography for assessing agricultural land use in Burkina Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wellens, Joost; Midekor, Akoly; Traore, Farid; Tychon, Bernard

    2013-08-01

    In recent decades, the Kou watershed in south-western Burkina Faso has suffered from poor water management. Despite the abundance of water, most water users regularly face water shortages because of the increase in the amount of land under irrigation. To help them achieve a more equitable allocation of irrigated land, local stakeholders need an easily managed low-cost tool for monitoring and mapping these irrigated zones. The aim of this study was to develop a fast and low-cost procedure for mosaicing and geo referencing amateur small-scale aerial photographs for land-use surveys. Sets of tens (2009) and hundreds (2007) of low-altitude aerial photographs, with a resolution of 0.4 m and 0.8 m, respectively, were used to create a detailed land-cover map of typical African small-scale irrigated agriculture. A commercially available stitching tool and GIS allowed geo referenced ‘mono-images’ to be constructed; both mosaics were warped on a high-resolution SPOT image with a horizontal root mean square error (RMSE) of about 11 m. The RMSE between the two image datasets was 2 m. This approach is less sensitive to atmospheric conditions that are non-predictable in programming satellite imagery.

  8. Assessing Acceptability of a Diagnostic and Malaria Treatment Package Delivered by Community Health Workers in Malaria-Endemic Settings of Burkina Faso, Nigeria, and Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Jegede, Ayodele S.; Oshiname, Frederick O.; Sanou, Armande K.; Nsungwa-Sabiiti, Jesca; Ajayi, IkeOluwapo O.; Siribié, Mohamadou; Afonne, Chinenye; Sermé, Luc; Falade, Catherine O.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The efficacy of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) and rectal artesunate for severe malaria in children is proven. However, acceptability of a package of interventions that included use of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), ACTs, and rectal artesunate when provided by community health workers (CHWs) is uncertain. This study assessed acceptability of use of CHWs for case management of malaria using RDTs, ACTs, and rectal artesunate. Methods. The study was carried out in Burkina Faso, Nigeria, and Uganda in 2015 toward the end of an intervention using CHWs to provide diagnosis and treatment. Focus group discussions (FGDs) and key informant interviews (KIIs) were conducted with parents of sick children, community leaders, and health workers to understand whether they accepted the package for case management of malaria using CHWs. Transcripts from FGDs and KII recordings were analyzed using content analysis. The findings were described, interpreted, and reported in the form of narratives. Results. Treatment of malaria using the CHWs was acceptable to caregivers and communities. The CHWs were perceived to be accessible, diligent, and effective. There were no physical, social, or cultural barriers to accessing the CHWs’ services. Respondents were extremely positive about the intervention and were concerned that CHWs had limited financial and nonfinancial incentives that would reduce their motivation and willingness to continue. Conclusions. Treatment of malaria using CHWs was fully accepted. CHWs should be compensated, trained, and well supervised. Clinical Trials Registration. ISRCTN13858170. PMID:27941109

  9. Estimation of maternal and child mortality one year after user-fee elimination: an impact evaluation and modelling study in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Ridde, Valéry; Heinmüller, Rolf; Haddad, Slim

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To estimate the impact on maternal and child mortality after eliminating user fees for pregnant women and for children less than five years of age in Burkina Faso. Methods Two health districts in the Sahel region eliminated user fees for facility deliveries and curative consultations for children in September 2008. To compare health-care coverage before and after this change, we used interrupted time series, propensity scores and three independent data sources. Coverage changes were assessed for four variables: women giving birth at a health facility, and children aged 1 to 59 months receiving oral rehydration salts for diarrhoea, antibiotics for pneumonia and artemesinin for malaria. We modelled the mortality impact of coverage changes in the Lives Saved Tool using several scenarios. Findings Coverage increased for all variables, however, the increase was not statistically significant for antibiotics for pneumonia. For estimated mortality impact, the intervention saved approximately 593 (estimate range 168–1060) children’s lives in both districts during the first year. This lowered the estimated under-five mortality rate from 235 deaths per 1000 live births in 2008 to 210 (estimate range 189–228) in 2009. If a similar intervention were to be introduced nationwide, 14 000 to 19 000 (estimate range 4000–28 000) children's lives could be saved annually. Maternal mortality showed a modest decrease in all scenarios. Conclusion In this setting, eliminating user fees increased use of health services and may have contributed to reduced child mortality. PMID:25378724

  10. Educating for a Sustainable Future: Africa in Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barboza, Nathalie

    2000-01-01

    Examines population and environmental issues in sub-Saharan Africa and efforts to heighten awareness of the need for sustainable development and behavioral changes. Describes national initiatives in Kenya, Senegal, Nigeria, Benin, and Burkina Faso to incorporate education for sustainability into the schools, teacher education programs, and public…

  11. Potential of remote sensing data for improving water resources management in semi-arid regions: a case study in Burkina Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papa, M. N.; Ciervo, F.; Koussoube, y.; Di Martino, G.; Iodice, A.; Natale, A.; Riccio, D.; Ruello, G.; Zinno, I.

    2012-04-01

    In this work we present the rationale and the first results of a Cosmo-SkyMed AO project devoted to use high resolution synthetic aperture radar data for water resource management in semi-arid regions. A case study was developed in Burkina Faso, one of the poorest countries of the world, where almost 80% of the population lives in rural areas depending from agriculture and livestock. It is characterized by the alternation of a rainy (3 months) and a dry (9 months) season, with extreme climate conditions (drought and floods). The project was approved by the Italian Space Agency, that provided Cosmo SkyMed Stripmap (3m resolution) and Spotligth (1m resolution) SAR images. The study area is in the northern part of Burkina Faso around the village of Bidi. A first study is related on the identification of eroded areas, which are indicative of desertification processes. Eroded soils are no more able to absorb and drain water, so that their humidity and, as a consequence, their dielectric constant and conductivity are almost independent by the precipitation. By comparing SAR images acquired during the rainy and the dry seasons, the eroded soils do not change their reflectivity and they can be identified by change detection techniques. In this work we employ innovative fractal change detection techniques, based on the image spectrum evaluation and the comparison of the fractal dimension. As the precipitations occur only during three months, it is crucial to collect water in the rainy season, by the means of artificial basins, in order to irrigate the fields in the dry season. The construction of little artificial basins is usually carried out under the initiative of small associations of farmers. The location, design and management of the basins sometimes is not rational, for the lack of all the information needed for the design. The best location for the construction of a new artificial basin depends on the total volume of surface water that may be collected in one year

  12. La tuberculose cutanée: observation de six cas confirmés au CHU Souro SANOU (CHUSS) de Bobo-Dioulasso (Burkina Faso)

    PubMed Central

    Andonaba, Jean Baptiste; Barro-Traoré, Fatou; Yaméogo, Téné; Diallo, Boukary; Korsaga-Somé, Nina; Traoré, Adama

    2013-01-01

    La localisation cutanée de la maladie tuberculeuse demeure une forme rare et représente seulement 2,1% des localisations. L'objet de cette étude est de rapporter le profil épidémiologique, anatomoclinique et évolutif des cas de tuberculose ganglio-cutanée diagnostiqués dans un CHU au Burkina Faso. La fréquence de la tuberculose cutanée est très faible au CHUSS. Six cas ont été diagnostiqués entre 2004 et 2010, soit une fréquence de un cas par an. La durée d’évolution des cas allait de deux jusqu’à dix ans avant leur diagnostic. Les lésions observées étaient: trois scrofulodermes, trois gommes, une tuberculose testiculaire associée à un mal de Pott, un cas de polyadénopathies et des cicatrices atropho-rétractiles dans la plupart des cas. Sur le plan anatomopathologique, des granulomes tuberculoïdes ont été mis en évidence dans tous les cas avec une forte réaction tuberculinique à l'IDR. Sous antituberculeux pendant six mois, l’évolution a été bonne dans tous les cas mais au prix de séquelles cutanées cicatricielles inesthétiques. Son ampleur reste peut-être encore méconnue. Le renforcement du plateau technique du CHU et une bonne collaboration interdisciplinaire contribuerait à un meilleur diagnostic et prise en charge de cette affection. PMID:24648863

  13. Altered social cohesion and adverse psychological experiences with chronic food insecurity in the non-market economy and complex households of Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Nanama, Siméon; Frongillo, Edward A

    2012-02-01

    Food insecurity negatively impacts outcomes in adults and children including parenting practices, child development, educational achievement, school performance, diet, and nutritional status. Ethnographic and quantitative research suggests that food insecurity affects well-being not only through the lack food, poor diet, and hunger, but also through social and psychological consequences that are closely linked to it. These studies are limited in number, and have mostly been carried out in contexts with market economies where household access to food depends almost solely on income. This study considers the social and psychological experiences closely linked to food insecurity in northern Burkina Faso, a context marked by subsistence farming, chronic food insecurity with a strong seasonal pattern, and a complex social structure. A total of 33 men and women from ten households were interviewed in February 2001 using semi-structured interview guides. Data were analyzed following the principles of thematic analysis. Food insecurity is closely linked with consequences such as concern, worries, and anxiety that ultimately lead to weight and sleep loss. Food insecurity results in feelings of alienation (e.g., shame) and deprivation (e.g., guilt), and alters household cohesion leading to disputes and difficulties keeping children at home. Decisions made by household members to manage and cope with food insecurity are shaped by their fear of alienation and other cultural and social norms. These findings, although derived from data collected 10 years ago before the 2008 food and fuel crises, remain valid in the study context, and emphasize the importance of social and psychological consequences closely linked to food insecurity and their negative impact on the well-being at both individual and household levels in contexts of non-market economy and chronic food insecurity. Attention to these non-nutritional consequences will improve the design, implementation, and evaluation

  14. Capitals diminished, denied, mustered and deployed. A qualitative longitudinal study of women's four year trajectories after acute health crisis, Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Susan F.; Akoum, Mélanie S.; Storeng, Katerini T.

    2012-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that health crises can play a key role in precipitating or exacerbating poverty. For women of reproductive age in low-income countries, the complications of pregnancy are a common cause of acute health crisis, yet investigation of longer-term dynamics set in motion by such events, and their interactions with other aspects of social life, is rare. This article presents findings from longitudinal qualitative research conducted in Burkina Faso over 2004–2010. Guided by an analytic focus on patterns of continuity and change, and drawing on recent discussions on the notion of ‘resilience’, and the concepts of ‘social capital’ and ‘bodily capital’, we explore the trajectories of 16 women in the aftermath of costly acute healthcare episodes. The synthesis of case studies shows that, in conditions of structural inequity and great insecurity, an individual's social capital ebbs and flow over time, resulting in a trajectory of multiple adaptations. Women's capacity to harness or exploit bodily capital in its various forms (beauty, youthfulness, physical strength, fertility) to some extent determines their ability to confront and overcome adversities. With this, they are able to further mobilise social capital without incurring excessive debt, or to access and accumulate significant new social capital. Temporary self-displacement, often to the parental home, is also used as a weapon of negotiation in intra-household conflict and to remind others of the value of one's productive and domestic labour. Conversely, diminished bodily capital due to the physiological impact of an obstetric event or its complications can lead to reduced opportunities, and to further disadvantage. PMID:23063215

  15. Seroprevalence of Bactericidal, Specific IgG Antibodies and Incidence of Meningitis Due to Group A Neisseria meningitidis by Age in Burkina Faso 2008

    PubMed Central

    Trotter, Caroline L.; Yaro, Seydou; Njanpop-Lafourcade, Berthe-Marie; Drabo, Aly; Kroman, Sita S.; Idohou, Regina S.; Sanou, Oumarou; Bowen, Leah; Findlow, Helen; Diagbouga, Serge; Gessner, Bradford D.; Borrow, Ray; Mueller, Judith E.

    2013-01-01

    Background We investigated serological correlates of protection against Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A (NmA) in Burkina Faso before the introduction of NmA conjugate vaccine. Methodology/Principal Findings We collected blood from a representative sample (N = 1022) of Bobo-Dioulasso residents. Sera were evaluated for serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) activity against NmA strains of immunotype L11 (F8238) and L10 (3125) and NmA-specific IgG. Seroprevalence was compared to the age-specific NmA meningitis incidence in Bobo-Dioulasso during March 2007–February 2008. Meningococcal carriage was evaluated in a subset (N = 538). Geometric mean titres (GMT)/concentrations (GMC) of SBA and NmA-specific IgG increased with age, peaking around age 20 years. Overall, 70% of our sample had NmA-specific IgG ≥2 ug/mL. Meningitis incidence was highest in those aged <6 months and 5–19 years. No NmA carriers were found. Compared to the reference strain SBA, GMTs were higher against a locally isolated strain and around 40-fold lower against Dutch strain 3125. Conclusions/Significance This study provides estimates of natural immunity to NmA, according to a variety of antibody measures, which will be helpful in ascertaining antibody persistence after MenAfriVac™ introduction. Age-specific seroprevalence of reference strain SBA titres most likely reflects exposure to meningococci and consecutive reactive immunity. We could not define any serological correlate of protection. PMID:23457471

  16. Costing RTS,S introduction in Burkina Faso, Ghana, Kenya, Senegal, Tanzania, and Uganda: A generalizable approach drawing on publicly available data.

    PubMed

    Galactionova, Katya; Bertram, Melanie; Lauer, Jeremy; Tediosi, Fabrizio

    2015-11-27

    Recent results from the phase 3 trial of RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine show that the vaccine induced partial protection against clinical malaria in infants and children; given the high burden of the disease it is currently considered for use in malaria endemic countries. To inform adoption decisions the paper proposes a generalizable methodology to estimate the cost of vaccine introduction using routinely collected and publicly available data from the cMYP, UNICEF, and WHO-CHOICE. Costing is carried out around a set of generic activities, assumptions, and inputs for delivery of immunization services adapted to a given country and deployment modality to capture among other factors the structure of the EPI program, distribution model, geography, and demographics particular to the setting. The methodology is applied to estimate the cost of RTS,S introduction in Burkina Faso, Ghana, Kenya, Senegal, Tanzania, and Uganda. At an assumed vaccine price of $5 per dose and given our assumptions on coverage and deployment strategy, we estimate total economic program costs for a 6-9 months cohort within $23.11-$28.28 per fully vaccinated child across the 6 countries. Net of procurement, costs at country level are substantial; for instance in Tanzania these could add as much as $4.2 million per year or an additional $2.4 per infant depending on the level of spare capacity in the system. Differences in cost of vaccine introduction across countries are primarily driven by differences in cost of labour. Overall estimates generated with the methodology result in costs within the ranges reported for other new vaccines introduced in SSA and capture multiple sources of heterogeneity in costs across countries. Further validation with data from field trials will support use of the methodology while also serving as a validation for cMYP and WHO-CHOICE as resources for costing health interventions in the region.

  17. Niveau socioéconomique et processus du recours aux soins par les familles de patients souffrant de troubles psychiques au Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Yaogo, Ahmed; Sommer, Alain; Moulaï, Pierre; Chebili, Saïd; Abaoub-Germain, Agnès

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Le Burkina Faso a connu une amélioration constante depuis deux décennies de l'offre de soins en psychiatrie. De même, le taux d'alphabétisation sans cesse croissant s'accompagne d'une profonde modification des conceptions et des comportements. La présente étude visait à déterminer l′impact des déterminants socioéconomiques sur le processus du recours aux soins par les familles. Méthodes Il s'est agi d'une enquête transversale portant sur 200 familles, menée dans le service de psychiatrie du Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Yalgado Ouédraogo de Ouagadougou. Variable à expliquer: premier recours aux soins par les familles (guérisseur traditionnel ou prières religieuses vs. consultations psychiatrique ou médicale). Variable explicative: catégorie socioprofessionnelle classée en suivant la nomenclature des professions et catégories socioprofessionnelles; niveau d’études. L'analyse statistique a été effectuée à l'aide du logiciel SAS version 9.2. Le test du Khi deux a été utilisé. Résultats Il existait une association entre le choix du premier recours et la Profession et la catégorie socioprofessionnelledu « décideur » (p = 0.0006) ainsi que leniveau d’études du « décideur » (p = 0.0001). Conclusion La Profession et Catégorie Sociale et le niveau d'instruction scolaire pourraient être un marqueur important dans les politiques visant à optimiser les processus de recours aux soins des patients dans le circuit de soins. PMID:25161751

  18. Impact of untreated urban waste on the prevalence and antibiotic resistance profiles of human opportunistic pathogens in agricultural soils from Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Youenou, Benjamin; Hien, Edmond; Deredjian, Amélie; Brothier, Elisabeth; Favre-Bonté, Sabine; Nazaret, Sylvie

    2016-12-01

    This study examined the long-term effects of the landfill disposal of untreated urban waste for soil fertilization on the prevalence and antibiotic resistance profiles of various human opportunistic pathogens in soils from Burkina Faso. Samples were collected at three sites in the periphery of Ouagadougou during two campaigns in 2008 and 2011. At each site, amendment led to changes in physico-chemical characteristics as shown by the increase in pH, CEC, total C, total N, and metal contents. Similarly, the numbers of total heterotrophic bacteria were higher in the amended fields than in the control ones. No sanitation indicators, i.e., coliforms, Staphylococci, and Enterococci, were detected. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) were detected at a low level in one amended field. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia was detected from both campaigns at the three sites in the amended fields and only once in an unamended field. Diversity analysis showed some opportunistic pathogen isolates to be closely related to reference clinical strains responsible for nosocomial- or community-acquired infections in Northern countries. Antibiotic resistance tests showed that P. aeruginosa and Bcc isolates had a wild-type phenotype and that most S. maltophilia isolates had a multi-drug resistance profile with resistance to 7 to 15 antibiotics. Then we were able to show that amendment led to an increase of some human opportunistic pathogens including multi-drug resistant isolates. Although the application of untreated urban waste increases both soil organic matter content and therefore soil fertility, the consequences of this practice on human health should be considered.

  19. A Theoretical Analysis of the Geography of Schistosomiasis in Burkina Faso Highlights the Roles of Human Mobility and Water Resources Development in Disease Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Saez, Javier; Mari, Lorenzo; Bertuzzo, Enrico; Casagrandi, Renato; Sokolow, Susanne H.; De Leo, Giulio A.; Mande, Theophile; Ceperley, Natalie; Froehlich, Jean-Marc; Sou, Mariam; Karambiri, Harouna; Yacouba, Hamma; Maiga, Amadou; Gatto, Marino; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    We study the geography of schistosomiasis across Burkina Faso by means of a spatially explicit model of water-based disease dynamics. The model quantitatively addresses the geographic stratification of disease burden in a novel framework by explicitly accounting for drivers and controls of the disease, including spatial information on the distributions of population and infrastructure, jointly with a general description of human mobility and climatic/ecological drivers. Spatial patterns of disease are analysed by the extraction and the mapping of suitable eigenvectors of the Jacobian matrix subsuming the stability of the disease-free equilibrium. The relevance of the work lies in the novel mapping of disease burden, a byproduct of the parametrization induced by regional upscaling, by model-guided field validations and in the predictive scenarios allowed by exploiting the range of possible parameters and processes. Human mobility is found to be a primary control at regional scales both for pathogen invasion success and the overall distribution of disease burden. The effects of water resources development highlighted by systematic reviews are accounted for by the average distances of human settlements from water bodies that are habitats for the parasite’s intermediate host. Our results confirm the empirical findings about the role of water resources development on disease spread into regions previously nearly disease-free also by inspection of empirical prevalence patterns. We conclude that while the model still needs refinements based on field and epidemiological evidence, the proposed framework provides a powerful tool for large-scale public health planning and schistosomiasis management. PMID:26513655

  20. A Theoretical Analysis of the Geography of Schistosomiasis in Burkina Faso Highlights the Roles of Human Mobility and Water Resources Development in Disease Transmission.

    PubMed

    Perez-Saez, Javier; Mari, Lorenzo; Bertuzzo, Enrico; Casagrandi, Renato; Sokolow, Susanne H; De Leo, Giulio A; Mande, Theophile; Ceperley, Natalie; Froehlich, Jean-Marc; Sou, Mariam; Karambiri, Harouna; Yacouba, Hamma; Maiga, Amadou; Gatto, Marino; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    We study the geography of schistosomiasis across Burkina Faso by means of a spatially explicit model of water-based disease dynamics. The model quantitatively addresses the geographic stratification of disease burden in a novel framework by explicitly accounting for drivers and controls of the disease, including spatial information on the distributions of population and infrastructure, jointly with a general description of human mobility and climatic/ecological drivers. Spatial patterns of disease are analysed by the extraction and the mapping of suitable eigenvectors of the Jacobian matrix subsuming the stability of the disease-free equilibrium. The relevance of the work lies in the novel mapping of disease burden, a byproduct of the parametrization induced by regional upscaling, by model-guided field validations and in the predictive scenarios allowed by exploiting the range of possible parameters and processes. Human mobility is found to be a primary control at regional scales both for pathogen invasion success and the overall distribution of disease burden. The effects of water resources development highlighted by systematic reviews are accounted for by the average distances of human settlements from water bodies that are habitats for the parasite's intermediate host. Our results confirm the empirical findings about the role of water resources development on disease spread into regions previously nearly disease-free also by inspection of empirical prevalence patterns. We conclude that while the model still needs refinements based on field and epidemiological evidence, the proposed framework provides a powerful tool for large-scale public health planning and schistosomiasis management.

  1. L'accès des filles à l'enseignement supérieur au Burkina Faso: choix parentaux, parcours d'étudiantes et défis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wouango, Joséphine

    2017-01-01

    Girls' access to higher education in Burkina Faso: parental choices, student trajectories, challenges - What motivates parents from less well-off backgrounds to invest in extended schooling for their daughters? What drives the girls from these backgrounds to stay in the school system up to university level? Many studies on Burkina Faso's education system show that there are still disparities between girls and boys at all levels, with the gap widening as the level of studies gets higher. Under these conditions, the prospect of pursuing higher education is less certain for girls from less well-off families. Yet, girls from these backgrounds are relatively present at the University of Ouagadougou. Based on a qualitative survey of students and their parents, this article highlights the social rationale determining the specific educational trajectories of these girls. The level of schooling of the older siblings, the girl's positon in relation to her siblings, or concern for equity are factors in some parents' decision to enrol their daughters in school. Parents invoke several reasons to justify sending their daughters to university, one of the most frequent being the argument that their daughters faithfully help them in return. As for the students, they mention various motivations to explain why they have persisted with their schooling and university studies, often in difficult circumstances, notably the desire to help their parents. The article also highlights the importance of family support as a factor in girls attending school and university, as well as in the pursuit and success of their studies.

  2. Effectiveness of Alternative Extension Methods through Radio Broadcasting in West Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moussa, Bokar; Otoo, Miriam; Fulton, Joan; Lowenberg-DeBoer, James

    2011-01-01

    There is an urgent need to quantify which extension methods are most effective in Africa. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of alternative extension methods on adoption of the triple bagging cowpea storage technology in Niger and Burkina Faso. This study was designed as a quasi-experiment with two alternative extension…

  3. Africa: A Survey of Distance Education 1991. New Papers on Higher Education: Studies and Research 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John, Magnus

    Country profiles compiled through a survey of distance education in Africa form the contents of this document. International organizations and 35 countries were surveyed: Algeria; Benin; Botswana; Burkina Faso; Burundi; Cameroon; Central African Republic; Chad; Congo (Brazzaville); Djibouti; Ethiopia; Gambia; Ghana; Guinea; Ivory Coast; Kenya;…

  4. Diabète en milieu urbain de Ouagadougou au Burkina Faso: profil épidémiologique et niveau de perception de la population adulte

    PubMed Central

    Millogo, Georges Rosario Christian; Yaméogo, Clément; Samandoulougou, André; Yaméogo, Nobila Valentin; Kologo, Koudougou Jonas; Toguyeni, Jean Yves; Zabsonré, Patrice

    2015-01-01

    Introduction L'accroissement rapide de la prévalence du diabète sucré en Afrique subsaharienne constitue un problème de santé public. L'Organisation Mondiale de la Santé (OMS) estime qu’à l'horizon 2025, l'augmentation la plus significative de la prévalence du diabète sera enregistrée dans les pays en développement. Ceux-ci devraient abriter 75% des patients diabétiques du monde. Outre ses complications métaboliques, le diabète est un facteur de risque cardiovasculaire majeur. Le but de notre étude était de decrire le profil épidémiologique du diabète et d’évaluer le niveau de perception de la maladie par une population africaine en milieu urb qwqain de Ouagadougou. Méthodes Le diabète a été défini chez tout sujet ayant une glycémie casuelle supérieure à 2 g/L ou une glycémie à jeun supérieur ou égale à 1,26 g/L (≥ 7 mmol/L) à deux controles d'une semaine d'intervalle. Etaient considérés diabétique, les sujets déjà suivis et ceux nouvellement dépistés par l'etude. Résultats L’étude a inclus 1532 personnes, d’âge compris entre 25 et 64 ans dont 55,6% d'hommes et 44,4% de femmes. L’âge moyen était 36,10 ± 11,19 ans. La tranche d’âge de 25 à 34 ans était la plus représentée avec une proportion de 57,1%. La glycémie moyenne était de 1,04 g/L, la proportion des femmes ayant une hyperglycémie était statistiquement plus importante que celle des hommes (p< 0,05). Près de 81,3% de la population ignoraient que le diabète était un facteur de risque cardiovasculaire. Conclusion Il est urgent de mettre en place un programme national de lutte contre le diabète sucré et les autres maladies non transmissibles au Burkina Faso. PMID:26524982

  5. Behavior Change After 20 Months of a Radio Campaign Addressing Key Lifesaving Family Behaviors for Child Survival: Midline Results From a Cluster Randomized Trial in Rural Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Sarrassat, Sophie; Meda, Nicolas; Ouedraogo, Moctar; Some, Henri; Bambara, Robert; Head, Roy; Murray, Joanna; Remes, Pieter; Cousens, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Background: In Burkina Faso, a comprehensive 35-month radio campaign addressed key, multiple family behaviors for improving under-5 child survival and was evaluated using a repeated cross-sectional, cluster randomized design. The primary outcome of the trial was postneonatal under-5 child mortality. This paper reports on behavior change achieved at midline. Method: Fourteen community radio stations in 14 geographic areas were selected based on their high listenership. Seven areas were randomly allocated to receive the intervention while the other 7 areas served as controls. The campaign was launched in March 2012. Cross-sectional surveys of about 5,000 mothers of under-5 children, living in villages close to the radio stations, were conducted at baseline (from December 2011 to February 2012) and at midline (in November 2013), after 20 months of campaigning. Statistical analyses were based on cluster-level summaries using a difference-in-difference (DiD) approach and adjusted for imbalances between arms at baseline. In addition, routine health facility data were analyzed for evidence of changes in health facility utilization. Results: At midline, 75% of women in the intervention arm reported recognizing radio spots from the campaign. There was some evidence of the campaign having positive effects on care seeking for diarrhea (adjusted DiD, 17.5 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.5 to 32.5; P = .03), antibiotic treatment for fast/difficult breathing (adjusted DiD, 29.6 percentage points; 95% CI, 3.5 to 55.7; P = .03), and saving money during pregnancy (adjusted DiD, 12.8 percentage points; 95% CI, 1.4 to 24.2; P = .03). For other target behaviors, there was little or no evidence of an impact of the campaign after adjustment for baseline imbalances and confounding factors. There was weak evidence of a positive correlation between the intensity of broadcasting of messages and reported changes in target behaviors. Routine health facility data

  6. Assessment of factors associated with complete immunization coverage in children aged 12-23 months: a cross-sectional study in Nouna district, Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Sanou, Aboubakary; Simboro, Seraphin; Kouyaté, Bocar; Dugas, Marylène; Graham, Janice; Bibeau, Gilles

    2009-01-01

    Background The Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) is still in need of improvement. In Burkina Faso in 2003, for example, the Nouna health district had an immunization coverage rate of 31.5%, compared to the national rate of 52%. This study identifies specific factors associated with immunization status in Nouna health district in order to advance improved intervention strategies in this district and in those with similar environmental and social contexts. Methods A cross-sectional study was undertaken in 41 rural communities and one semi-urban area (urban in the text). Data on 476 children aged 12 to 23 months were analyzed from a representative sample of 489, drawn from the Nouna Health Research Centre's Demographic Surveillance System (DSS) database. The vaccination history of these children was examined. The relationships between their immunization status and social, economic and various contextual variables associated with their parents and households were assessed using Chi square test, Pearson correlation and logistic regression. Results The total immunization coverage was 50.2% (CI, 45.71; 54.69). Parental knowledge of the preventive value of immunization was positively related to complete immunization status (p = 0.03) in rural areas. Children of parents who reported a perception of communication problems surrounding immunization had a lower immunization coverage rate (p < 0.001). No distance related difference exists in terms of complete immunization coverage within villages and between villages outside the site of the health centres. Children of non-educated fathers in rural areas have higher rates of complete immunization coverage than those in the urban area (p = 0.028). Good communication about immunization and the importance of availability of immunization booklets, as well as economic and religious factors appear to positively affect children's immunization status. Conclusion Vaccination sites in remote areas are intended to provide a greater

  7. Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation And Agriculture, Trade-off Or Win-win Situation: Bioeconomic Farm Modelling In The Sudanian Area of Burkina Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Some, T. E.; Barbier, B.

    2015-12-01

    Climate changes talks regularly underline that developing countries' agriculture could play a stronger role in GHGs mitigation strategies and benefit from the Kyoto Protocol program of subsidies. Scientists explain that agriculture can contribute to carbon mitigation by storing more carbon in the soil through greener cropping systems. In this context, a growing number of research projects have started to investigate how developing countries agriculture can contribute to these objectives. The clean development mechanism (CDM) proposed in the Kyoto protocol is one particular policy instrument that can incite farmers to mitigate the GHG balance towards more sequestration and less emission. Some economists such as Michael Porter think that environmental regulation lead to a win-win outcome, in which case subsidies are not necessary. If it is a trade-off between incomes and the environment, subsidies are required. CDM can be mobilized to support the mitigation strategy. Agriculture implies the use of inputs. Reducing the emission implies the reduction of those inputs which will in turn imply a yield decrease. The study aims to assess whether this measure will imply a trade-off between environmental and economic objectives or a win-win situation. I apply this study to the case of small farmers in Burkina Faso through environmental instruments such as the emissions limits and agroforestry using a bioeconomic model, in which the farmers maximize their utility subject to constraints. The study finds that the limitation of emissions in annual crops production involves a trade-off. by impacting negatively their net cash come. By integrating perennial crops in the farming system, the farmers' utility increases. Around 6,118 kg are sequestrated individually. By computing the value on this carbon balance, farmers' net cash incomes go better. Then practicing agroforestry is a win-win situation, as they reach a higher level of income, and reduce emissions. Policymakers must

  8. Assessment of the health system to support tuberculosis and AIDS care. A study of three rural health districts of Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Drabo, Koine Maxime; Konfe, Salifou; Macq, Jean

    2010-01-01

    There is increasing evidence demonstrating the importance of healthcare systems for improvement of chronic illness care. The aims of this study were to develop a comprehensive assessment of the health services capacity to provide tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) care but also to enhance patient empowerment, social network and community support. A cross-sectional study was conducted from 1 to 31 of August 2007 in 3 districts of Burkina Faso. We used a step-by-step model and the assessment of chronic illness care (ACIC) scale to assess capacities of 24 first line health centres (FLHC) and 3 district hospitals (DH) for providing TB and HIV/AIDS care. Data for the step-by-step model were extracted from medical records of 75 TB and 66 HIV patients. The ACIC scale was completed by health professionals, 6 medical doctors and 18 nurses, working at the DH level and at the FLHC level, respectively. The biological test for confirmation was free of charge for all the TB patients but only for 10.6% (7/66) HIV cases. Up to the time of the survey, 5 TB (6.6%) and 18 HIV+ patients (27.3%) have been hospitalised for care at least once, 64 TB (85.3%) had been declared cured and 38 HIV (54.5%) were under antiretroviral treatment. Health care process organisation for TB and HIV care had distinct areas of weaknesses. From a maximum ACIC score of 11, the overall score for TB care ranged between 1.9 and 4.9 with a median of 3.7 and for HIV care between 2.1 and 6.7 with a median of 4.1. This study provides an illustration of assessing the HIV and TB care combining data from the routine information system and from the chronic illness care assessment tool, to encompass both disease control and patient health perspective. It provides to health managers arguments for clear conclusions and sufficient data for action. PMID:28299038

  9. La singularité du patient tuberculeux dans le système de santé: l'expérience du Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Zerbo, Roger

    2013-01-01

    La démarche pluridisciplinaire s'impose de plus en plus dans le secteur de la santé dans le contexte africain, où les parcours thérapeutiques sont pluriels et les rapports des usagers des centres de santé sont complexes et peu satisfaisants. La compréhension des représentations de la maladie est nécessaire pour offrir des soins appropriés certes, mais l'expérience individuelle des malades représente également une source de savoir. Les données ont été collectées à travers des entretiens semi-directifs, le recueil des récits de vie et des observations participantes. Cet article rend compte d'une expérience d'implication de socio-anthropologue dans la mise en œuvre d'un programme de santé publique au Burkina Faso en vue d'une amélioration de la prise en charge des malades tuberculeux. L'analyse des données à été conduite dans une visée réflexive. Les perspectives socio-anthropologiques ont révélé que l'expérience des anciens malades tuberculeux peut être mise à profit afin d'apporter des changements dans les relations thérapeutiques et l'intégration sociale des autres malades. Cette idée à été mise en application pour tenir lieu d'une traduction des analyses anthropologiques en actes pour un changement. L'article évoque la manière dont l'approche socio-anthropologique au sein d'un programme de santé, peut mettre en évidence le potentiel des malades à être des acteurs importants dans le fonctionnement des services de soins et leur propre bien-être. Dans cette situation, la démarche théorique implique la réflexivité de l'anthropologue, mais également un regard critique sur les modes d'intervention en santé publique. PMID:24009798

  10. HRP2 and pLDH-Based Rapid Diagnostic Tests, Expert Microscopy, and PCR for Detection of Malaria Infection during Pregnancy and at Delivery in Areas of Varied Transmission: A Prospective Cohort Study in Burkina Faso and Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Jane; Angutoko, Patrick; Ategeka, John; Compaoré, Yves-Daniel; Muehlenbachs, Atis; Somé, Fabrice A.; Ouattara, Aminata; Rouamba, Noél; Ouédraogo, Jean-Bosco; Hopkins, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    Background Intermittent screening and treatment (IST) of malaria during pregnancy has been proposed as an alternative to intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp), where IPTp is failing due to drug resistance. However, the antenatal parasitaemias are frequently very low, and the most appropriate screening test for IST has not been defined. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a multi-center prospective study of 990 HIV-uninfected women attending ANC in two different malaria transmission settings at Tororo District Hospital, eastern Uganda and Colsama Health Center in western Burkina Faso. Women were enrolled in the study in the second or third trimester of pregnancy and followed to delivery, generating 2,597 blood samples for analysis. Screening tests included rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) targeting histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2) and parasite lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) and microscopy, compared to nPCR as a reference standard. At enrolment, the proportion of pregnant women who were positive for P. falciparum by HRP2/pan pLDH RDT, Pf pLDH/pan pLDH RDT, microscopy and PCR was 38%, 29%, 36% and 44% in Uganda and 21%, 16%, 15% and 35% in Burkina Faso, respectively. All test positivity rates declined during follow-up. In comparison to PCR, the sensitivity of the HRP2/pan pLDH RDT, Pf pLDH/pan pLDH RDT and microscopy was 75.7%, 60.1% and 69.7% in Uganda, 55.8%, 42.6% and 55.8% in Burkina Faso respectively for all antenatal visits. Specificity was greater than 96% for all three tests. Comparison of accuracy using generalized estimating equation revealed that the HRP2- detecting RDT was the most accurate test in both settings. Conclusions/Significance The study suggests that HRP2-based RDTs are the most appropriate point-of-care test currently available for use during pregnancy especially for symptomatic women, but will still miss some PCR-positive women. The clinical significance of these very low density infections needs to be better defined. PMID

  11. Etiologic study of genitourinary infections in women of childbearing age in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso, 1992.

    PubMed

    Ledru, S; Meda, N; Fofana, M; Soula, G; Bazié, A J; Chiron, J P

    1996-01-01

    Genitourinary infections have a major impact upon public health, especially in Africa. This paper describes findings from a study conducted to describe the etiology of such infections in Bobo-Dioulasso, to establish the sensitivity of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to antibiotics, and to provide epidemiologic and biologic evidence to optimize the treatment of genitourinary infections. The findings are based upon clinical and biologic diagnoses among 223 women with genitourinary infections. Study found the following etiologies: trichomoniasis in 27.8%, chlamydia in 26.9%, bacterial vaginosis in 19.7%, candidiasis in 16.6%, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection in 10.9%. HIV antibodies were present in 42% of patients. The authors recommend spectinomycin or ceftriaxone for the treatment of gonorrhea in Bobo-Dioulasso. Moreover, that the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis is higher than that of Neisseria gonorrhoeae should be taken into account when managing STDs in this setting.

  12. Artesunate-Amodiaquine and Artemether-Lumefantrine Therapies and Selection of Pfcrt and Pfmdr1 Alleles in Nanoro, Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Sondo, Paul; Derra, Karim; Diallo Nakanabo, Seydou; Tarnagda, Zekiba; Kazienga, Adama; Zampa, Odile; Valéa, Innocent; Sorgho, Hermann; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis; Ouédraogo, Jean-Bosco; Guiguemdé, Tinga Robert; Tinto, Halidou

    2016-01-01

    The adoption of Artemisinin based combination therapies (ACT) constitutes a basic strategy for malaria control in sub-Saharan Africa. Moreover, since cases of ACT resistance have been reported in South-East Asia, the need to understand P. falciparum resistance mechanism to ACT has become a global research goal. The selective pressure of ACT and the possibility that some specific Pfcrt and Pfmdr1 alleles are associated with treatment failures was assessed in a clinical trial comparing ASAQ to AL in Nanoro. Dried blood spots collected on Day 0 and on the day of recurrent parasitaemia during the 28-day follow-up were analyzed using the restriction fragments length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Pfcrt (codon76) and Pfmdr1 (codons 86, 184, 1034, 1042, and 1246) genes. Multivariate analysis of the relationship between the presence of Pfcrt and Pfmdr1 alleles and treatment outcome was performed. AL and ASAQ exerted opposite trends in selecting Pfcrt K76T and Pfmdr1-N86Y alleles, raising the potential beneficial effect of using diverse ACT at the same time as first line treatments to reduce the selective pressure by each treatment regimen. No clear association between the presence of Pfcrt and Pfmdr1 alleles carried at baseline and treatment failure was observed. PMID:27031231

  13. Measuring turbidity, and indicator to evaluate drinkability of waters in Southern countries? Approaches from Burkina Faso, Sudan and Argentina case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavie, Emilie; Robert, Elodie

    2013-04-01

    The relationship between proportion of suspended solids, dissolved oxygen and bacteriology has long been proven (Brock, 1966; Lechevallier et al., 1985; Bustina and Levallois, 2003; Chang and Liao, 2012), bacteria need coarse elements to hang on and develop. However, water bacteriology analyses are difficult to implement in southern countries. They are expensive and require sterile equipment, transport in cold conditions and a nearby laboratory, which remains difficult in remote areas under these hot latitudes. Yet, simple measurement devices allow to know in a few minutes the water turbidity. Is turbidity an efficient tool to evaluate the drinkability of water when no bacteriological analyses are possible? The results proposed here are taken from three different studies whose purposes were to measure different physical, chemical and bacteriological parameters of water used for human and/or animal consumption. One of the finalities was to propose a method, at lower cost, to evaluate the drinkability of water for consumption. Four case studies were chosen: the basin of the Doubegue River in Burkina Faso is a rural area of a developing country, where drinking water is taken from the alluvial aquifer close to the surface. Furthermore, the laundry is washed and the children play in running streams. Major expansion of the cultivated lands since 1980s has brought important soils losses, thus a chronicle contamination of surface water with suspended solids (Robert, 2012). The Mendoza and Tunuyán Rivers Basins in Argentina, an emerging country, have snow-glaciar regimes with naturally turbid waters. They supply drinking water to two towns, Mendoza and Tunuyán cities, respectively 1 million and 40,000 inhabitants. However, these two streams -whose watersheds are common- do not present the same managements: the Mendoza River has been equipped with large hydraulic infrastructures, moving the turbid waters into clear and erosive ones (Lavie, 2009), while the Tunuyán River

  14. Traitement préventif intermittent à la sulfadoxine – pyriméthamine du paludisme chez les femmes enceintes: efficacité et observance dans deux hôpitaux urbains du Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Bamba, Sanata; Séré, Adama; Nikiéma, Rodrigues; Halidou, Tinto; Thiéba, Blandine; Dao, Blami; Guiguemdé, Robert Tinga

    2013-01-01

    Introduction La présente étude prospective se propose dévaluer l'efficacité thérapeutique du traitement préventif intermittent à la sulfadoxine - pyriméthamine et son observance chez la femme enceinte dans deux hôpitaux urbains au Burkina Faso. Méthodes Chaque femme répondant aux critères d'inclusion a été soumise à un questionnaire pour la collecte des données socio - démographiques et des renseignements sur la grossesse. A l'accouchement, une apposition placentaire a été réalisée systématiquement. La lecture a été faite au microscope à lobjectif 100 à immersion. Résultats Au total, 542 femmes ont été incluses avec un âge moyen de 26,0 ± 6,45 ans (extrêmes 13- 43 ans). Le taux de couverture du TPI à la sulfadoxine- pyriméthamine a été de 80%. Le taux d'infestation placentaire a été de 4,7%. Il a diminué avec le nombre de dose de traitement préventif intermittent. Il a augmenté cependant de juillet à octobre. De 42,9% en octobre, il a diminué significativement à 9,5% en novembre (p < 0,05). Le taux global de bonne d'observance a été de 55%. Il a augmenté avec l’âge (p < 0,05). Conclusion Le taux de couverture de la sulfadoxine - pyriméthamine a été de 80%. Ce résultat est en conformité avec les objectifs du plan stratégique 2006-2010 de lutte contre le paludisme au Burkina Faso, qui préconisait un taux de couverture en sulfadoxine - pyriméthamine de 80% pour 2010. L'augmentation de la fréquence d'infestation de juillet à octobre, serait liée à la recrudescence de la transmission palustre pendant la saison des pluies (mai-octobre). PMID:23717719

  15. PREFACE: 1st International Symposium on Electrical Arc and Thermal Plasmas in Africa (ISAPA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andre, Pascal; Koalaga, Zacharie

    2012-02-01

    Logos of the University of Ouagadougou, ISAPA and Universite Blaise Pascal Africa (especially Sub-Saharan Africa) is a continent where electrification is at a low level. However, the development of the electrical power sector is a prerequisite for the growth of other industrial activities, that is to say for the social and economic development of African countries. Consequently, a large number of electrification projects (rural electrification, interconnection of different country's grids) takes place in many countries. These projects need expertise and make Africa a continent of opportunity for companies in different domains for business and research: energy; energetic production, transmission, distribution and protection of electricity; the supply of cable; the construction, engineering and expertise in the field of solar and wind power. The first International Symposium on electrical Arc and thermal Plasma in Africa (ISAPA) was held for the first time in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso to progress and develop the research of new physical developments, technical breakthroughs, and ideas in the fields of electrical production and electrical applications. The ISAPA aims to encourage the advancement of the science and applications of electrical power transformation in Africa by bringing together specialists from many areas in Africa and the rest of the world. Such considerations have led us to define a Scientific Committee including representatives from many countries. This first meeting was an innovative opportunity for researchers and engineers from academic and industrial sectors to exchange views and knowledge. Both fundamental aspects such as thermal plasma, electrical arc, diagnostics and applied aspects as circuit breakers, ICP analyses, photovoltaic energy conversion and alternative energies, as well as space applications were covered. The Laboratory of Material and Environment (LAME) from Ouagadougou University and the Laboratory of Electric Arc and Thermal

  16. IgG1 and IgG4 Antibody Responses to the Anopheles gambiae Salivary Protein gSG6 in the Sympatric Ethnic Groups Mossi and Fulani in a Malaria Hyperhendemic Area of Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Lombardo, Fabrizio; Mangano, Valentina; Sirima, Sodiomon Bienvenu; Nèbiè, Issa; Fiorentino, Gabriella; Troye-Blomberg, Marita; Modiano, David; Arcà, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Human antibody response to the Anopheles gambiae salivary protein gSG6 has recently emerged as a potentially useful tool for malaria epidemiological studies and for the evaluation of vector control interventions. However, the current understanding of the host immune response to mosquito salivary proteins and of the possible crosstalk with early response to Plasmodium parasites is still very limited. We report here the analysis of IgG1 and IgG4 subclasses among anti-gSG6 IgG responders belonging to Mossi and Fulani from Burkina Faso, two ethnic groups which are known for their differential humoral response to parasite antigens and for their different susceptibility to malaria. The IgG1 antibody response against the gSG6 protein was comparable in the two groups. On the contrary, IgG4 titers were significantly higher in the Fulani where, in addition, anti-gSG6 IgG4 antibodies appeared in younger children and the ratio IgG4/IgG1 stayed relatively stable throughout adulthood. Both gSG6-specific IgG1 and IgG4 antibodies showed a tendency to decrease with age whereas, as expected, the IgG response to the Plasmodium circumsporozoite protein (CSP) exhibited an opposite trend in the same individuals. These observations are in line with the idea that the An. gambiae gSG6 salivary protein induces immune tolerance, especially after intense and prolonged exposure as is the case for the area under study, suggesting that gSG6 may trigger in exposed individuals a Th2-oriented immune response. PMID:24760038

  17. Morphological and molecular description of Tenuisentis niloticus (Meyer, 1932) (Acanthocephala: Tenuisentidae) from Heterotis niloticus (Cuvier) (Actinopterygii: Arapaimidae), in Burkina Faso, with emendation of the family diagnosis and notes on new features, cryptic genetic diversity and histopathology.

    PubMed

    Amin, Omar M; Evans, R Paul; Boungou, Magloire; Heckmann, Richard

    2016-02-01

    Specimens described as Rhadinorhynchus niloticus Meyer, 1932 (Rhadinorhynchidae) from two male specimens collected from Heterotis niloticus (Cuvier) in the Egyptian Nile were later redescribed in the genus Tenuisentis Van Cleave, 1936 (Tenuisentidae) based on 12 specimens collected from the same host species in the White Nile. That redescription basically distinguished the two genera based on five traits but did not actually provide a formal description. His account left out information about cerebral ganglion, lemnisci, some reproductive structures, eggs, proboscis hook dissymmetry and roots, size of trunk and a few other structures. We provide (i) the first complete description of this species enhanced by SEM, molecular, and histo-pathological studies; (ii) expand the existing descriptions; (iii) correct questionable accounts advanced by Van Cleave on the cement gland and the hypodermal giant nuclei; and (iv) add descriptions of new features such as the para-receptacle structure which we also report from Paratenuisentis Bullock & Samuel, 1975, the only other genus in Tenuisentidae Van Cleave, 1936. The subsequent description of a few more specimens from the same host collected in Mali was more informative yet incomplete and at variance with our specimens from Burkina Faso. Genetic divergence and phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial (cytochrome oxidase c subunit I; COI) and nuclear (18S ribosomal RNA) gene relationships uncovered a cryptic species complex containing two lineages. Based on our studies, the family diagnosis is emended. The acanthocephalan causes damage to the host intestine as depicted in histopathological sections. The invading worm can extend from the mucosal layer to the muscularis externa of the host with subsequent tissue necrosis, villi compression, haemorrhaging and blood loss.

  18. Effect of zinc added to a daily small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplement on diarrhoea, malaria, fever and respiratory infections in young children in rural Burkina Faso: a cluster-randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Somé, Jérôme W; Abbeddou, Souheila; Yakes Jimenez, Elizabeth; Hess, Sonja Y; Ouédraogo, Zinéwendé P; Guissou, Rosemonde M; Vosti, Stephen A; Ouédraogo, Jean-Bosco; Brown, Kenneth H

    2015-01-01

    Objective Preventive zinc supplementation in the form of tablets or syrup reduces the incidence of diarrhoea and acute lower respiratory tract infections (RTI), but its effect on malaria is inconsistent. When zinc is administered with other micronutrients or foods, its effect is also uncertain. We assessed the effects of different amounts and sources of zinc on the frequency of diarrhoea, malaria, fever and RTI in young children. Design, setting and populations This community-based, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cluster-randomised trial of 2435 children 9 months of age was carried out between April 2010 and July 2012 in rural southwestern Burkina Faso. Interventions Participants were randomly assigned at the concession level to receive daily 1 of 4 interventions for 9 months: (1) 20 g small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplement (SQ-LNS) without zinc and placebo tablet, (2) 20 g SQ-LNS with 5 mg zinc and placebo tablet, (3) 20 g SQ-LNS with 10 mg zinc and placebo tablet or (4) 20 g SQ-LNS without zinc and 5 mg zinc tablet. Participants were visited weekly in their homes for morbidity surveillance for 9 months, and those with uncomplicated diarrhoea and malaria received treatment from the study field workers in the community. Main outcomes Incidence and longitudinal prevalence of diarrhoea, malaria, fever, and lower and upper RTI by intervention group. Results The incidence of diarrhoea, malaria and fever was 1.10 (±1.03 SD), 0.61 (±0.66 SD) and 1.49 (±1.12 SD) episodes per 100 child-days at risk, respectively, and did not differ by intervention group (p=0.589, p=0.856 and p=0.830, respectively). The longitudinal prevalence of acute lower RTI (0.1%; 95% IC 0.1–0.2%) and of upper RTI (7.8%; 95% IC 7.1–8.4%) did not differ among groups (p=0.234 and p=0.501, respectively). Conclusions Inclusion of 5 or 10 mg zinc in SQ-LNS and provision of 5 mg zinc dispersible tablet along with SQ-LNS had no impact on the incidence of diarrhoea

  19. Comprendre l'influence des facteurs contextuels sur la participation communautaire à la santé : une étude de cas dans le district sanitaire de Tenkodogo, au Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Sombié, Issa; Ilboudo, David O S; Soubeiga, André Kamba; Samuelsen, Helle

    2015-08-07

    Le Burkina Faso met en œuvre depuis plusieurs années la stratégie de la participation communautaire. Des comités de gestion (CoGes) ont été mis en place dans les centres de santé de la première ligne et doivent participer aux prises de décisions. L'objectif principal de cette stratégie est de favoriser l'utilisation des services de santé et une adhésion massive des communautés aux activités de promotion de la santé. Seulement, on constate que les résultats escomptés par les autorités sanitaires tardent à se réaliser. Le présent article convoque les facteurs liés au contexte socioculturel du district sanitaire, pour analyser le phénomène de la participation communautaire.L'étude s'est déroulée dans le district sanitaire de Tenkodogo, situé dans la région administrative du Centre-est, à environ 190 km de la capitale. Cette étude exclusivement qualitative, a utilisé deux méthodes de collecte : les entretiens individuels et les focus groups. Les participants à l'étude sont les chefs de ménage (n = 48), les membres des CoGes (n = 10), les agents de santé (n = 8) et les agents de santé communautaire (n = 24). La méthode de l'analyse de contenu a été utilisée pour l'analyse des données.Les résultats de l'étude montrent que plusieurs facteurs socioculturels influencent la dynamique de la participation communautaire dans le district. Ce sont les conditions économiques, la perception négative des services de santé, les inégalités sociales de sexe et d'âge, le faible ancrage social des organisations communautaires, les rivalités inter-villages et les conflits coutumiers. L'étude relève également que les communautés ne perçoivent pas leur implication dans le processus décisionnel des services de santé comme une priorité. Leurs principales attentes s'orientent vers la disponibilité de soins de qualité et à coût réduit.

  20. Résultats de la chirurgie avancée de la cataracte par tunnélisation: à propos de 262 cas réalisés au CHR de Banfora (Burkina Faso)

    PubMed Central

    Djiguimdé, Pierre Windinmanégdé; Diomandé, Ibrahim Abib; Ahnoux-Zabsonré, Ahgbatouhabéba; Koffi, Konan Virgile; Meda, Tierinyê Armand; Diomandé, Gossé François; Sanou, Jerôme; Meda-Hien, Gertude; Sankara, Paté; Meda, Nonfounikoun

    2015-01-01

    La cataracte demeure la première cause de cécité dans les pays en voie de développement posant un problème de santé publique. Le but de cette étude est de faire le bilan d'une activité de chirurgie avancée de la cataracte par la technique dite de « phacoalternative » ou par tunnélisation. Il s'agissait d'une étude prospective de base réalisée au Burkina Faso portant sur la chirurgie de la cataracte par la technique de tunnélisation. L’âge moyen de nos patients atteints de cataracte était de 62,47 ± 12,77 ans avec un sex-ratio de 0,98. La majorité des patients opérés (82,82%) étaient des cultivateurs et des ménagères. L'acuité visuelle de loin était réduite à la perception lumineuse dans 68,70% des cas. La profondeur moyenne de la chambre antérieure était de 2,98 ± 0,53 mm. L’épaisseur moyenne du cristallin était de 3,55 ± 0,75 mm. La longueur axiale moyenne de l’œil de nos patients opérés de la cataracte était de 22,88 ± 0,90 mm. La puissance réfractive moyenne estimée de la cornée était de 43,21 ± 2,03 dioptries chez nos patients. La puissance moyenne estimée de l'implant intra oculaire (IOL) utilisé était de23,11 ± 2,35D. La majorité (79,6%) de nos patients avait une bonne acuité visuelle après la chirurgie de la cataracte par tunnélisation. La chirurgie de la cataracte par tunnélisation est une technique révolutionnaire adaptée aux pays pauvres d'Afrique. Elle permet une lutte efficace à moindre coût contre la cécité par cataracte dans nos régions. La tunnélisation est une technique chirurgicale adaptée pour lutter efficacement contre la cécité due à la cataracte en Afrique. PMID:27022426

  1. Morbidité et mortalité des nouveau-nés hospitalisés sur 10 années à la Clinique El Fateh-Suka (Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso)

    PubMed Central

    Nagalo, Kisito; Dao, Fousséni; Tall, François Housséini; Yé, Diarra

    2013-01-01

    Introduction La mortalité néonatale demeure un problème majeur de santé publique dans les pays en développement. Notre étude avait pour but de déterminer la morbidité et la mortalité des nouveau-nés à Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Méthodes Une étude rétrospective sur 10 années a permis d'inclure tous les nouveau-nés admis dans l'Unité de Néonatologie de la Clinique El Fateh-Suka. Résultats Au total, 697 nouveau-nés étaient hospitalisés sur la période d'étude. Les principaux diagnostics étaient les infections néonatales (23.5%), les anomalies liées à la durée de la gestation et à la croissance du fætus (17.9%) et le paludisme congénital (15.1%). Les 91 (13.1%) décès étaient dus aux anomalies liées à la durée de la grossesse et à la croissance du fætus (46.1%), à l'hypoxie intra-utérine et à l'asphyxie obstétricale (20,9%) et aux infections néonatales (17.6%). Ces décès survenaient dans 81.3% dans les 72 heures, dans 93.4% des cas dans la première semaine d'hospitalisation. Le facteur de risque associé à ces décès était la voie basse d'accouchement (p = 0.02). Conclusion Cette étude a identifié des pathologies évitables déjà décrites comme les principales causes d'hospitalisations et de décès néonatals. La voie basse d'accouchement était le facteur de risque associé à ces décès, ce qui n'avait pas encore été rapporté. Les efforts pour améliorer la qualité des services de soins périnatals doivent être intensifiés afin de réduire la mortalité néonatale dans les pays en développement. PMID:23785558

  2. Les campagnes de dépistage du VIH, une stratégie efficace pour l’accès universel à la prévention et au traitement ? L’expérience du Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Somé, J.F.; Desclaux, A.; Ky-Zerbo, O.; Lougué, M.; Kéré, S.; Obermeyer, C.; Simaga, F.

    2014-01-01

    Objectifs l’augmentation du taux de personnes qui connaissent leur statut VIH est un impératif, notamment en Afrique subsaharienne, ce qui impose d’évaluer les stratégies utilisées pour accroître la fréquentation des services de dépistage. Cet article vise à faire le bilan de la pertinence, de la faisabilité et de l’efficacité des campagnes nationales de dépistagemenées entre 2006 et 2010 au Burkina Faso. Méthodologie une analyse de toutes les données de fréquentation du conseil dépistage sur cette période a été faite, couplée à des entretiens avec les principaux acteurs intervenant dans le dépistage. Résultats les résultats montrent que les huit campagnes de dépistage organisées sur la période ont permis à 487 727 personnes de faire leur test VIH. Ce nombre représente 50 % du nombre total de personnes ayant fait leur test et contribue à hauteur de 24,6 % au dépistage des personnes séropositives identifiées au cours de cette période. Les campagnes ont touché des populations difficiles à atteindre (en particulier les jeunes), à un coût moindre. Conclusions cette stratégie est donc pertinente pour identifier les personnes VIH+. Son intérêt pour la prévention, important selon les soignants et au vu des populations jeunes qui y participent, devrait être mesuré par des études complémentaires. Les campagnes sont efficaces et coût-efficaces même dans un pays de niveau de prévalence faible. Ces résultats soulignent l’intérêt de la synergie entre les associations et les services de santé dans l’offre de services de conseil et dépistage. PMID:24681563

  3. Non-Communicable Disease Mortality and Risk Factors in Formal and Informal Neighborhoods, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso: Evidence from a Health and Demographic Surveillance System

    PubMed Central

    Rossier, Clémentine; Soura, Abdramane Bassiahi; Duthé, Géraldine; Findley, Sally

    2014-01-01

    The expected growth in NCDs in cities is one of the most important health challenges of the coming decades in Sub-Saharan countries. This paper aims to fill the gap in our understanding of socio-economic differentials in NCD mortality and risk in low and middle income neighborhoods in urban Africa. We use data collected in the Ouagadougou Health and Demographic Surveillance System. 409 deaths were recorded between 2009–2011 among 20,836 individuals aged 35 years and older; verbal autopsies and the InterVA program were used to determine the probable cause of death. A random survey asked in 2011 1,039 adults aged 35 and over about tobacco use, heavy alcohol consumption, lack of physical activity and measured their weight, height, and blood pressure. These data reveal a high level of premature mortality due to NCDs in all neighborhoods: NCD mortality increases substantially by age 50. NCD mortality is greater in formal neighborhoods, while adult communicable disease mortality remains high, especially in informal neighborhoods. There is a high prevalence of risk factors for NCDs in the studied neighborhoods, with over one-fourth of the adults being overweight and over one-fourth having hypertension. Better-off residents are more prone to physical inactivity and excessive weight, while vulnerable populations such as widows/divorced individuals and migrants suffer more from higher blood pressure. Females have a significantly lower risk of being smokers or heavy drinkers, while they are more likely to be physically inactive or overweight, especially when married. Muslim individuals are less likely to be smokers or heavy drinkers, but have a higher blood pressure. Everything else being constant, individuals living in formal neighborhoods are more often overweight. The data presented make clear the pressing need to develop effective programs to reduce NCD risk across all types of neighborhoods in African cities, and suggest several entry points for community

  4. West and Central Africa.

    PubMed

    Lydie, N; Robinson, N J

    1998-01-01

    This article reviews scientific and other literature during the 1990s that links migration and mobility with the spread of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including HIV/AIDS. The focus is on key population groups linked to the spread of HIV and STDs in West and Central Africa: migrant laborers, truck drivers, itinerant traders, commercial sex workers (CSWs), and refugees. Countries with high emigration and immigration tend to have high levels of HIV infection, with the exception of Senegal. The main destination of immigrants are Senegal, Nigeria, and Cote d'Ivoire in West Africa and Cameroon, Congo, Gabon, and Congo in Central Africa. The risk of infection and the spread of HIV is variable among migrants. There is little in the literature that substantiates hypotheses about the strong association between migration and HIV-positive status. Information is needed on the duration, frequency of return visits, living conditions, sexual activities with multiple partners, and information before departure, along the routes, at final destination, and at the time of returns. Action-based research in five West African countries (Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Mali, Niger, and Senegal) should produce results in late 1998. Comparable studies in Central Africa are unknown. Regional studies should be complemented by local studies. Prevention would benefit from studies on the relative size of these five population groups by geographic location.

  5. The UCAR Africa Initiative: Enabling African Solutions to African Needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandya, R.; Bruintjes, R.; Foote, B.; Heck, S.; Hermann, S.; Hoswell, L.; Konate, M.; Kucera, P.; Laing, A.; Lamptey, B.; Moncrieff, M.; Ramamurthy, M.; Roberts, R.; Spangler, T.; Traoré, A.; Yoksas, T.; Warner, T.

    2007-12-01

    The University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) Africa Initiative (AI) is a coordinated effort aimed at building sustainable partnerships between UCAR and African institutions in order to pursue research and applications for the benefit of the African people. The initiative is based on four fundamental operating principles, concisely summarized by the overall philosophy of enabling African solutions to African needs. The four principles are: • Collaborate with African institutions • Focus on institutional capacity building and research support • Explore science research themes critical to Africa and important for the world • Leverage the research infrastructure in UCAR to add value These principles are realized in a set of pilot activities, chosen for their high probability of short-term results and ability to set the stage for longer-term collaboration. The three pilot activities are listed below. 1. A modest radar network and data-distribution system in Mali and Burkina Faso, including a data-sharing MOU between the Mail and Burkina Faso Weather Services. 2. A partnership among UCAR, the Ghana Meteorological Agency, and the Ghana university community to develop an operational Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model for West Africa. The output is used by researchers and operational forecasters in Africa. Model output is also part of a demonstration project that aims to allow humanitarian agencies to share geo-referenced information in Africa via a web portal. 3. A workshop in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso from April 2-6, 2007, with the theme Improving Lives by Understanding Weather. The workshop, co-organized with Programme SAAGA and the Commité Permanent Inter-Etats de Lutte Contre la Sécheresse dans le Sahel (CILSS), included over 80 participants from 18 countries, and produced a set of recommendations for continued collaboration. Our presentation will provide an update of these pilot activities and point to future directions. Recognizing

  6. Assortative mating in mixed swarms of the mosquito Anopheles gambiae s.s. M and S molecular forms, in Burkina Faso, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Dabire, K R; Sawadodgo, S; Diabate, A; Toe, K H; Kengne, P; Ouari, A; Costantini, C; Gouagna, C; Simard, F; Baldet, T; Lehmann, T; Gibson, G

    2013-09-01

    The molecular form composition of Anopheles gambiae Giles s.s. (Diptera: Culicidae) mating swarms and the associated mating pairs (copulae) were investigated during two rainy seasons (July to October, 2005 and July to November, 2006) in the villages of Soumousso and Vallée du Kou (VK7). Although the habitats of these villages differ markedly, sympatric populations of M and S molecular forms of An. gambiae s.s. occur in both places periodically. The main aim was to assess the degree to which these molecular forms mate assortatively. In Soumousso, a wooded savannah habitat, the majority of swarm samples consisted of only S-form males (21/28), although a few M-form males were found in mixed M- and S-form swarms. In VK7, a rice growing area, the majority of swarm samples consisted of only M-form males (38/62), until October and November 2006, when there were nearly as many mixed-form as single-form swarms. Overall, ∼60% of M- and S-form swarms were temporally or spatially segregated; the two forms were effectively prevented from encountering each other. Of the remaining 40% of swarms, however, only about half were single-form and the rest were mixed-form. Of the 33 copulae collected from mixed-form swarms, only four were mixed-form pairs, significantly fewer than expected by random pairing between forms (χ(2) = 10.34, d.f. = 2, P < 0.01). Finally, all specimens of inseminated females were of the same form as the sperm contained within their spermatheca (n = 91), even for the four mixed-form copulae. These findings indicate that assortative mating occurs within mixed-form swarms, mediated most probably by close-range mate recognition cues.

  7. Assessment of sorghum germplasm from Burkina Faso and South Africa to identify new sources of resistance to grain mold and anthracnose

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum is an important worldwide crop whose yield can be significantly reduced by anthracnose (Colletotrichum sublineola) and grain mold diseases (multiple fungi). The identification of new genetic sources of resistance to both diseases is imperative for the development of new sorghum varieties. T...

  8. Analyse de la prise en charge du nouveau-né dans le cadre de la stratégie nationale de subvention des accouchements et des soins obstétricaux et néonatals d'urgence au Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Pédiatrique Charles de Gaulle, Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso)

    PubMed Central

    Ouédraogo, Solange Odile Yugbaré; Yougbaré, Nestor; Kouéta, Fla; Dao; Ouédraogo, Moussa; Lougué, Claudine; Ludovic, Kam; Traoré, Ramata Ouédraogo; Yé, Diarra

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Il s'agit d'analyser la prise en charge du nouveau-né dans le cadre de la stratégie na-tionale de subvention des accouchements et des soins obstétricaux et néonatals d'urgence mis en place par le gouvernement du Burkina Faso en 2006. Méthodes Nous avons menée une étude à visée descriptive et analytique comportant un volet ré-trospectif du 01 janvier 2006 au 31 décembre 2010 portant sur les paramètres épidémiologiques, cliniques des nouveau-nés hospitalisés et un volet prospectif du 3 octobre 2011 au 29 février 2012 par une entrevue des accompagnateurs des nouveau-nés et des prestataires des services de santé. Résultats Les hospitalisations ont augmenté de 43,65% entre 2006 à 2010 Le taux de mortalité néo-natale hospitalière qui était de 11,04% a connu une réduction moyenne annuelle de 3,95%. L'entrevue a porté sur 110 accompagnateurs et 76 prestataires. La majorité des prestataires (97,44%) et des ac-compagnateurs (88,18%) étaient informés de la stratégie mais n'avait pas une connaissance exacte de sa définition. Les prestataires (94,74%) ont signalé des ruptures de médicaments, consommables médicaux et des pannes d’ appareils de laboratoire et d'imagerie. Parmi les accompagnateurs (89%) disaient être satisfaits des services offerts et (72,89%) trouvaient les coûts abordables mais évoquaient les difficultés du transport. Conclusion: La subvention a amélioré la prise en charge du nou-veau-né mais son optimisation nécessiterait une meilleur information et implication de tous les acteurs. Conclusion La subvention a amélioré la prise en charge du nouveau-né mais son optimisation nécessiterait une meilleur information et implication de tous les acteurs. PMID:26161166

  9. Evaluation du traitement antirétroviral chez les femmes enceintes VIH-1 positif, sur la transmission de l'infection de la mère à l'enfant: cas du Centre Médical Saint Camille de Ouagadougou, au Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Soubeiga, Serge Theophile; Compaore, Rebecca; Djigma, Florencia; Zagre, Nicaise; Assengone, Elsa; Traore, Lassina; Diarra, Birama; Bisseye, Cyrille; Ouermi, Djeneba; Sagna, Tani; Karou, Simplice; Pietra, Virginio; Simpore, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Introduction L'infection au VIH chez les nouveau-nés par leur mère peut être réduite grâce à des programmes de prévention de transmission mère-enfant du VIH (PTME). L'objectif dans cette étude était d’évaluer le traitement antirétroviral chez les femmes enceintes VIH-1 positif sur la transmission mère-enfant de l'infection au Centre Médical Saint Camille de Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Méthodes Des échantillons de spot de sang total ont été collectés chez 160 enfants âgés de 6 semaines, nés de mères VIH-1 positif et chez 40 enfants âgés de 2 à 13 mois provenant d'orphelinats et dont les mères étaient inconnues. Ces échantillons ont été testés avec le kit Abbott Real Time HIV-1 Qualitative. Un questionnaire a permis de connaitre les âges et les fonctions des femmes enceintes. Résultats Les femmes enceintes avaient un âge moyen global de 29,50±5,19 ans. Au total, 50,5% (101/200) ont été mises sous combinaison AZT/3TC/NVP et 29,5% (59/200) étaient sous prophylaxie (AZT/3TC). Le taux de transmission verticale du VIH-1 était de 0,0% (0/160) (p < 0,001) chez les enfants dont les mères étaient sous combinaison AZT/3TC/NVP ou sous prophylaxie AZT/3TC et de 15,0% (6/40) chez les enfants orphelins qui n’étaient pas inclus dans le protocole de la PTME. Conclusion Selon les résultats, le protocole de la PTME est efficace et réduit très significativement le risque de transmission du VIH-1 de la mère à l'enfant. De plus, le dépistage par PCR, des enfants orphelins infectés verticalement par le VIH, permet leur prise en charge thérapeutique précoce. PMID:26301003

  10. Diagnostic moléculaire du Cytomégalovirus (CMV), de l’herpès virus humain de type 6 (HHV6) et d’Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) par PCR en temps réel chez les femmes enceintes VIH séropositives et séronégatives à Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Ouedraogo, Alice Rogomenoma; Kabre, Madeleine; Bisseye, Cyrille; Zohoncon, Théodora Mahoukèdè; Asshi, Maleki; Soubeiga, Serge Théophile; Diarra, Birama; Traore, Lassina; Djigma, Florencia Wendkuuni; Ouermi, Djénéba; Pietra, Virginio; Barro, Nicolas; Simpore, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Les herpès virus EBV, CMV et HHV-6 sont des virus qui évoluent sous le modèle pandémique et sont responsables d’infections congénitales pouvant provoquer des séquelles graves chez les nouveau-nés. L’objectif de cette étude était de déterminer les prévalences de CMV, EBV et HHV-6 chez les femmes enceintes VIH(+) et VIH(-) à Ouagadougou. Méthodes Dans cette étude 200 échantillons de plasma sanguin de femmes enceintes dont 100 femmes VIH(+) et 100 femmes VIH(-) ont été diagnostiqués par PCR multiplex en temps réel pour les trois infections (EBV, CMV et HHV-6). Résultats Sur l’ensemble des 200 échantillons analysés, 18 (9,0%) étaient positifs à au moins un des trois virus, 12 (6,0%) étaient positifs au EBV, 13 (6,5%) au CMV et 12 (6,0%) positifs au HHV-6. Parmi les 18 cas d’infections, nous avons trouvé 10 cas (55,6%) de coïnfections dont 90,0% (9/10) d’infection multiple EBV/CMV/HHV6 et 10,0% de coinfection EBV/HHV6. Le taux d’infection HHVs était plus élevé chez les femmes VIH(-) que celles VIH(+) (12,0% versus 6,0%). Parmi les VIH(+), la PCR a révélé 7,1% (soit 6/85) d’infection HHVs chez celles qui n’étaient pas sous ARV contre 0% chez celles sous ARV. Conclusion Les herpès virus sont fréquents chez les femmes enceintes au Burkina Faso et pourraient constituer une menace chez ces dernières à cause des complications et des risques d’infection pour le nouveau-né. PMID:27800078

  11. Knowledge, attitudes and practice (KAP) regarding newborn feeding modalities in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa: a multicentre study.

    PubMed

    Tomasoni, L R; Galli, M; Declich, S; Pietra, V; Croce, F; Pignatelli, S; Fabiani, M; Simporé, J; Mabilia, M; Ayella, E O; Caracciolo, C; Russo, G; Guaraldi, G; Gambirasio, M N; Vullo, V; Castelli, F

    2011-03-01

    Exclusive formula feeding, exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) with early weaning or the administration of antiretroviral therapy to lactating mothers and/or to breastfed newborns may lower postnatal HIV transmission. The aim of this study was to assess mothers' knowledge, attitudes and practice (KAP) on lactation in various real-life settings in sub-Saharan Africa. A questionnaire survey investigating KAP with regard to breastfeeding in pregnant women of unknown status (Questionnaire A, 16 items) or HIV-infected women (Questionnaire B, 37 items) was administered. Associations between newborn feeding KAP and demographic, socioeconomic, cultural and obstetric variables were investigated. From January 2007 to January 2008, 2112 pregnant women answered Questionnaire A in Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Chad, Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia. Most women (53.0%) declared EBF as the preferred feeding modality. The practice of strictly defined EBF in previous pregnancies was only 11.4%, which was inversely correlated with education and parity. Questionnaire B was answered by 225 HIV-infected pregnant women in Burkina Faso, Tanzania and Uganda. Knowledge about the lactation-associated risk was associated with previous dead children. Significant variability was observed among collaborating sites. The introduction of fluids other than maternal milk within 6 months of age is common practice in sub-Saharan Africa, requiring intensive health education efforts if strictly defined EBF is to be adopted to decrease HIV postnatal transmission. Significant variation in newborn feeding determinants was observed.

  12. Africa's inevitable walk to genetically modified (GM) crops: opportunities and challenges for commercialization.

    PubMed

    Okeno, James A; Wolt, Jeffrey D; Misra, Manjit K; Rodriguez, Lulu

    2013-01-25

    High relative poverty levels in Africa are attributed to the continent's under performing agriculture. Drought, low-yielding crop varieties, pests and diseases, poor soils, low fertilizer use, limited irrigation and lack of modern technologies are among the problems that plague African agriculture. Genetically modified (GM) crops may possess attributes that can help overcome some of these constraints, but have yet to be fully embraced in the mix of technology solutions for African agriculture. Cognizant of this, South Africa, Burkina Faso and Egypt are steadily growing GM crops on a commercial scale. Countries like Kenya, Nigeria, and Uganda are increasingly field-testing these crops with the view to commercialize them. These countries show strong government support for GM technology. Progress by these first adopter nations provides an insight as to how GM crops are increasingly being viewed as one of the ways in which the continent can invigorate the agriculture sector and achieve food security.

  13. [Mortality levels very elevated again. Seminar on dissemination of EMIS/Burkina findings].

    PubMed

    Mbacke, C; Bellal, M O

    1988-09-01

    A national seminar was held in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso, in August 1988 to disseminate the results of the Survey of Infant Mortality in the Sahel (EMIS). The seminar was organized by the National Institute of Statistics and Demography and funded by the Center for Studies and Research on Population (CERPOD). Various themes were discussed, including the development of surveys on infant and child mortality, maternal-child health policies, contraceptive knowledge and practice and its impact on child survival, and the principal causes of morbidity and mortality among children. The participants adopted a number of resolutions and requested assistance from CERPOD for a more detailed analysis of the survey data, a survey of health and demography covering the entire nation of Burkina Faso, and a regional seminar in Ouagadougou on analysis of the 2nd series of censuses in the Sahel. The EMIS surveys were conducted in 5 urban and 1 rural site in the Sahel. The rural survey was in the region of Thies, Senegal. 4 urban surveys were in Burkina Faso and 1 was in Bamako, Mali. Information was gathered through home visits in the 2 years following the child's birth on infant and early childhood mortality, the mother's use of the health system, and infant feeding practices. Despite numerous errors in data collection, the results show that infant mortality is still very high among children in the Sahel, even in urban areas. There were 13,421 births in the 4 urban areas of the Burkina Faso study. There were 88 deaths per 1000 births in the 1st year and 125 in the 2nd year. In Bamako, Mali, there were 12,114 births, 91 deaths per 1000 births in the 1st year and 122 in the 2nd year. In rural Senegal there were 4987 births, 113 deaths per 1000 births in the 1st year, and 172 in the 2nd year.

  14. [Rheumatologic diseases and haemoglobinopathies in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso)].

    PubMed

    Ouédraogo, D-D; Nacoulma, E W C; Kafando, E; Ouédraogo, A; Tiéno, H; Koulidiaty, J; Drabo, J Y

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study is the prevalence of the rheumatologic complications in the sickle cell disease and the associations between haemoglobinopathies and rheumatologic affections. It is a retrospective study from 29 February 2006 to 28 March 2008 conducted in the Internal Department of the University Hospital Yalgado-Ouédraogo. All patients received in the period of study and having an electrophoresis of haemoglobin realized in alkaline pH were included. These patients came from hematologic consultation. Two hundred and seventy-seven patients out of 1451 were included: 142 patients (51.30%) had haemoglobinopathies, including 21 (7.60%) with composite sickle cell disease SC and 17 patients (6.13%) had aseptic necrosis of the femoral head including 7 with haemoglobin SC. The other rheumatologic affections did not have a semiological particularity related to the type of haemoglobin. The prevalence of patients who have haemoglobinopathies is important in rheumatologic practice. The sickle cell disease is strongly associated to osteonecrosis.

  15. Determinants of elephant distribution at Nazinga Game Ranch, Burkina Faso

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenks, Jonathan A.; Klaver, Robert W.; Wicks, Zeno W.

    2007-01-01

    We used seasonal ground total counts and remote sensing and GIS technology to relate elephant (Loxodonta africana africana) distribution at Nazinga Game Ranch to environmental and anthropogenic factors. Variables used in analyses were normalized difference vegetation index, elevation, stream density, density of poaching and human illegal activities, distance to dams, distance to rivers, distance to roads, and distance to poaching risk. Contrary to our expectation, road traffic did not disturb elephants. Strong negative relationships were documented between elephant abundance and stream density, distance to dams, and poaching density. Density of poaching and other human illegal activities explained 81%, vegetation greenness 6%, and stream density 3% of the variation in elephant density. Elephant distribution represented a survival strategy affected by poaching, food quality and abundance, and water availability. 

  16. Increasing the potential of agricultural water harvesting in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irvine, Brian; Kirkby, Mike; Woldearegay, Kifle

    2014-05-01

    The WAHARA project aims to increase the potential of water harvesting in Africa. The WAHARA project draws on expertise and field data from four study sites in Ethiopia, Tunisia, Burkina Faso and Zambia. The project is transdisciplinary working closely with stakeholders to ensure that the water harvesting technologies selected and tested meet their needs. The effectiveness of WH technologies will be assessed under different environmental and socio-economic conditions. Each study site offers a number of WH technologies and aim to trial technologies from other study sites. The results from the study sites will inform the adaptation of the PESERA model and the potential of WH for the whole of Africa This presentation highlights the climate range in which the field trials are being carried out and the technologies being trialed in northern Ethiopia. Conceptual models for each technology are considered and incorporated into the PESERA model. The model is applied for the study site with both field based and catchment based technologies being assessed. The transferability and potential of individual and combined technologies will be considered across climate gradients and soil type for Africa. A quick assessment tool has been developed and offers an initial assessment of water harvesting potential. The tool can be used to quickly assess which kinds of WHT could be used in specific areas in Africa and is available to interested parties.

  17. Relief inversion in the geomorphological evolution of sub-Saharan West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butt, C. R. M.; Bristow, A. P. J.

    2013-03-01

    The geomorphology of much of sub-Saharan West Africa is dominated by the presence of plateaux and plains with ferruginous and, locally, aluminous (bauxitic) duricrusts. The plateaux occur at different elevations and have been correlated as two or more palaeosurfaces across much of the region. The duricrusts have generally been considered to be residual, formed by conformable erosion and chemical wasting of immediately underlying bedrock. This concept has been central to interpretations as diverse as the formation and evolution of the landscape and the development of geochemical exploration models. Recent regolith landform mapping, field observations and experience from mineral exploration in southern Mali and Burkina Faso, however, demonstrate that the duricrusts are mainly ferricretes, i.e., Fe oxide-cemented sediments. These observations require a re-interpretation of the geomorphological evolution of the region during the Cenozoic. The landscape has evolved by several cycles of weathering and erosion-deposition, triggered by climatic, tectonic or other environmental changes. It is proposed that an initial bauxitic/lateritic regolith was partly eroded following uplift and/or a change to a more arid climate, and that the detritus, rather than being removed, was deposited on slopes and valleys. During a subsequent humid period of lateritic weathering, Fe oxide cementation of this detritus formed ferricrete. Dehydration and hardening of the ferricrete after further uplift or aridity increased its resistance to erosion, resulting in relief inversion, with the detritus, in turn, being deposited downslope. This too has been weathered and cemented, to form a younger ferricrete. The occurrence of ferricrete landforms in adjacent countries, noted by field observation and inferred from satellite imagery, demonstrates that relief inversion is a very widespread and important phenomenon in southern Mali, Burkina Faso and adjacent countries in semi-arid West Africa.

  18. Assessing climate change impacts on sorghum and millet yields in the Sudanian and Sahelian savannas of West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sultan, B.; Roudier, P.; Quirion, P.; Alhassane, A.; Muller, B.; Dingkuhn, M.; Ciais, P.; Guimberteau, M.; Traore, S.; Baron, C.

    2013-03-01

    Sub-Saharan West Africa is a vulnerable region where a better quantification and understanding of the impact of climate change on crop yields is urgently needed. Here, we have applied the process-based crop model SARRA-H calibrated and validated over multi-year field trials and surveys at eight contrasting sites in terms of climate and agricultural practices in Senegal, Mali, Burkina Faso and Niger. The model gives a reasonable correlation with observed yields of sorghum and millet under a range of cultivars and traditional crop management practices. We applied the model to more than 7000 simulations of yields of sorghum and millet for 35 stations across West Africa and under very different future climate conditions. We took into account 35 possible climate scenarios by combining precipitation anomalies from -20% to 20% and temperature anomalies from +0 to +6 °C. We found that most of the 35 scenarios (31/35) showed a negative impact on yields, up to -41% for +6 °C/ - 20% rainfall. Moreover, the potential future climate impacts on yields are very different from those recorded in the recent past. This is because of the increasingly adverse role of higher temperatures in reducing crop yields, irrespective of rainfall changes. When warming exceeds +2 °C, negative impacts caused by temperature rise cannot be counteracted by any rainfall change. The probability of a yield reduction appears to be greater in the Sudanian region (southern Senegal, Mali, Burkina Faso, northern Togo and Benin), because of an exacerbated sensitivity to temperature changes compared to the Sahelian region (Niger, Mali, northern parts of Senegal and Burkina Faso), where crop yields are more sensitive to rainfall change. Finally, our simulations show that the photoperiod-sensitive traditional cultivars of millet and sorghum used by local farmers for centuries seem more resilient to future climate conditions than modern cultivars bred for their high yield potential (-28% versus -40% for

  19. Predicting the downstream impact of ensembles of small reservoirs with special reference to the Volta Basin, West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Giesen, N.; Andreini, M.; Liebe, J.; Steenhuis, T.; Huber-Lee, A.

    2005-12-01

    After a strong reduction in investments in water infrastructure in Sub-Saharan Africa, we now see a revival and increased interest to start water-related projects. The global political willingness to work towards the UN millennium goals are an important driver behind this recent development. Large scale irrigation projects, such as were constructed at tremendous costs in the 1970's and early 1980's, are no longer seen as the way forward. Instead, the construction of a large number of small, village-level irrigation schemes is thought to be a more effective way to improve food production. Such small schemes would fit better in existing and functioning governance structures. An important question now becomes what the cumulative (downstream) impact is of a large number of small irrigation projects, especially when they threaten to deplete transboundary water resources. The Volta Basin in West Africa is a transboundary river catchment, divided over six countries. Of these six countries, upstream Burkina Faso and downstream Ghana are the most important and cover 43% and 42% of the basin, respectively. In Burkina Faso (and also North Ghana), small reservoirs and associated irrigation schemes are already an important means to improve the livelihoods of the rural population. In fact, over two thousand such schemes have already been constructed in Burkina Faso and further construction is to be expected in the light of the UN millennium goals. The cumulative impact of these schemes would affect the Akosombo Reservoir, one of the largest manmade lakes in the world and an important motor behind the economic development in (South) Ghana. This presentation will put forward an analytical framework that allows for the impact assessment of (large) ensembles of small reservoirs. It will be shown that despite their relatively low water use efficiencies, the overall impact remains low compared to the impact of large dams. The tools developed can be used in similar settings elsewhere

  20. Sub-Saharan Africa Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    ZIMBABWE Export Promotion Agreement Signed With EEC (THE HERALD, 16 Jan 87) 64 Experiment on Technical Data Exchange Ready (THE HERALD, 29 Jan 87...Seychelles to An- gola, Zimbabwe, Tanzania, Uganda and Burkina Faso, more than 2 000 North Korean military men are endeavouring to promote their country...and discredit the government in its efforts to promote unity and development among its people." Commenting on the church’s allegations, the government

  1. Mapping and analyzing urban growth in West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, P.; de Beurs, K. M.

    2014-12-01

    Africa has experienced the highest urban growth (~3.5% per year) in the developing world. West Africa in particular has seen significant urban growth mainly driven by the high natural population growth rate and the increasing percentage of population moving to urban areas. Urban growth in West Africa is expected to continue in decades to come. This study uses Landsat data at five different time steps (1970, 1980, 1990, 2000, and 2010) to map four cities from four different eco-regions of West Africa since the early 1970s. The selected four cities, Kumasi in Ghana, Abuja in Nigeria, Tahoua in Niger and Ouagadoughou in Burkina Faso, are some of the fastest growing cities in the region. We selected the cities in the following ecoregions: Eastern Guinean Forest, Guinean Forest-Savanna Mosaic, Sahelian Acacia Savanna and West Sudanian Savanna. We hypothesize that urban growth in West Africa is different compared to the other parts of the world primarily due to the dependency of about 60 percent of active labor force on subsistence agriculture in the region. As agriculture productivity is dependent on favorable climatic conditions (i.e., good rainfall, suitable temperature), any variability in climate impends the livelihood of subsistence farmers triggering the movements of more people towards the cities. Therefore, studying urban growth based on ecoregions help to better explain the urban development in West Africa. After mapping the urban areas, this study makes a comparative analysis of the temporal and spatial pattern of the urban growths across the ecoregions in West Africa.

  2. Adoption potential of conservation agriculture practices in sub-Saharan Africa: results from five case studies.

    PubMed

    Ndah, Hycenth Tim; Schuler, Johannes; Uthes, Sandra; Zander, Peter; Traore, Karim; Gama, Mphatso-S; Nyagumbo, Isaiah; Triomphe, Bernard; Sieber, Stefan; Corbeels, Marc

    2014-03-01

    Despite the reported benefits of conservation agriculture (CA), its wider up-scaling in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has remained fairly limited. This paper shows how a newly developed qualitative expert assessment approach for CA adoption (QAToCA) was applied to determine its adoption potential in SSA. CA adoption potential is not a predictor of observed adoption rates. Instead, our aim was to systematically check relevant factors that may be influencing its adoption. QAToCA delivers an assessment of how suitable conditions "and thus the likelihood for CA adoption" are. Results show that the high CA adoption potentials exhibited by the Malawi and Zambia case relate mostly to positive institutional factors. On the other hand, the low adoption potential of the Zimbabwe case, in spite of observed higher estimates, is attributed mainly to unstable and less secured market conditions for CA. In the case of Southern Burkina Faso, the potential for CA adoption is determined to be high, and this assessment deviates from lower observed figures. This is attributed mainly to strong competition of CA and livestock for residues in this region. Lastly, the high adoption potential found in Northern Burkina Faso is explained mainly by the fact that farmers here have no alternative other than to adopt the locally adapted CA system-Zaï farming. Results of this assessment should help promoters of CA in the given regions to reflect on their activities and to eventually adjust or redesign them based on a more explicit understanding of where problems and opportunities are found.

  3. How model and input uncertainty impact maize yield simulations in West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waha, Katharina; Huth, Neil; Carberry, Peter; Wang, Enli

    2015-02-01

    Crop models are common tools for simulating crop yields and crop production in studies on food security and global change. Various uncertainties however exist, not only in the model design and model parameters, but also and maybe even more important in soil, climate and management input data. We analyze the performance of the point-scale crop model APSIM and the global scale crop model LPJmL with different climate and soil conditions under different agricultural management in the low-input maize-growing areas of Burkina Faso, West Africa. We test the models’ response to different levels of input information from little to detailed information on soil, climate (1961-2000) and agricultural management and compare the models’ ability to represent the observed spatial (between locations) and temporal variability (between years) in crop yields. We found that the resolution of different soil, climate and management information influences the simulated crop yields in both models. However, the difference between models is larger than between input data and larger between simulations with different climate and management information than between simulations with different soil information. The observed spatial variability can be represented well from both models even with little information on soils and management but APSIM simulates a higher variation between single locations than LPJmL. The agreement of simulated and observed temporal variability is lower due to non-climatic factors e.g. investment in agricultural research and development between 1987 and 1991 in Burkina Faso which resulted in a doubling of maize yields. The findings of our study highlight the importance of scale and model choice and show that the most detailed input data does not necessarily improve model performance.

  4. WHO's Mother-Baby Package launched in French-speaking Africa.

    PubMed

    1997-01-01

    This article identifies key features of a June 1997 seminar held among delegates from French-speaking African countries on the World Health Organization's Mother-Baby Package. This package aims to strengthen, integrate, and speed up national efforts to reduce maternal and neonatal mortality in developing countries. Multidisciplinary teams met in subregions. The first group met in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso; another group met a week later in Libreville, Gabon. WHO's Regional Office for Africa organized the meetings. Participants included representatives from UNDP, UNICEF, and UNFPA and representatives from Algeria, Angola, Benin, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Chad, Comoros, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Guinea Bissau, Madagascar, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Senegal, and Togo. The meetings were conducted in French. Some participants pointed out the needs of countries that recently emerged from periods of armed conflict. It was understood that a minimum level of political stability was required in order for health systems to function effectively and to reduce maternal deaths. Countries are trying to restore health services to be able to respond to obstetric emergencies at any time or place. Information was provided on country-specific experiences with initiatives and problems, such as lack of funding and human resources. Midwife skills are particularly deficient at the local level. Some participants viewed a reproductive health emphasis as slowing safe motherhood efforts, while some viewed reproductive health as the foundation for safe motherhood and a way to strengthen support. Participants agreed on methods of mobilizing resources, identifying appropriate indicators, and collaborating intersectorally. They were committed to using World Health Day 1998 as a way to focus national celebrations on safe motherhood.

  5. Adoption Potential of Conservation Agriculture Practices in Sub-Saharan Africa: Results from Five Case Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ndah, Hycenth Tim; Schuler, Johannes; Uthes, Sandra; Zander, Peter; Traore, Karim; Gama, Mphatso-S.; Nyagumbo, Isaiah; Triomphe, Bernard; Sieber, Stefan; Corbeels, Marc

    2014-03-01

    Despite the reported benefits of conservation agriculture (CA), its wider up-scaling in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has remained fairly limited. This paper shows how a newly developed qualitative expert assessment approach for CA adoption (QAToCA) was applied to determine its adoption potential in SSA. CA adoption potential is not a predictor of observed adoption rates. Instead, our aim was to systematically check relevant factors that may be influencing its adoption. QAToCA delivers an assessment of how suitable conditions "and thus the likelihood for CA adoption" are. Results show that the high CA adoption potentials exhibited by the Malawi and Zambia case relate mostly to positive institutional factors. On the other hand, the low adoption potential of the Zimbabwe case, in spite of observed higher estimates, is attributed mainly to unstable and less secured market conditions for CA. In the case of Southern Burkina Faso, the potential for CA adoption is determined to be high, and this assessment deviates from lower observed figures. This is attributed mainly to strong competition of CA and livestock for residues in this region. Lastly, the high adoption potential found in Northern Burkina Faso is explained mainly by the fact that farmers here have no alternative other than to adopt the locally adapted CA system—Zaï farming. Results of this assessment should help promoters of CA in the given regions to reflect on their activities and to eventually adjust or redesign them based on a more explicit understanding of where problems and opportunities are found.

  6. Trends and Projections of Climatic Extremes in the Black Volta Basin, West Africa: Towards Climate Change Adaptation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aziz, F.

    2015-12-01

    The water resources of the Black Volta Basin in West Africa constitute a major resource for the four countries (Burkina Faso, Ghana, Côte d'Ivoire, Mali) that share it. For Burkina Faso and Ghana, the river is the main natural resource around which the development of the diverse sectors of the two economies is built. Whereas Ghana relies heavily on the river for energy, land-locked Burkina Faso continuously develops the water for agricultural purposes. Such important role of the river makes it an element around which there are potential conflicts: either among riparian countries or within the individual countries themselves. This study documents the changes in temperature and precipitation extremes in the Black Volta Basin region for the past (1981-2010) and makes projections for the mid-late 21st century (2051-2080) under two emission scenarios; RCP 2.6 and RCP 8.5. The Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI) temperature- and precipitation-based indices are computed with the RClimdex software. Observed daily records and downscaled CORDEX data of precipitation and maximum and minimum temperatures are used for historical and future trend analysis respectively. In general low emission scenarios show increases in the cold extremes. The region shows a consistent pattern of trends in hot extremes for the 1990's. An increasing trend in hot extremes is expected in the future under RCP 8.5 while RCP 2.5 shows reductions in hot extremes. Regardless of the emission scenario, projections show more frequent hot nights in the 21st century. Generally, the region shows variability in trends for future extreme precipitation indices with only a few of the trends being statistically significant (5% level). Results obtained provide a basic and first step to understanding how climatic extremes have been changing in the Volta Basin region and gives an idea of what to expect in the future. Such studies will also help in making informed decisions on water management

  7. The highly neglected burden of resistant hypertension in Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nansseu, Jobert Richie N; Noubiap, Jean Jacques N; Mengnjo, Michel K; Aminde, Leopold Ndemnge; Essouma, Mickael; Jingi, Ahmadou M; Bigna, Jean Joel R

    2016-01-01

    Objective The hypertension epidemic in Africa collectively with very low rates of blood pressure control may predict an incremented prevalence of resistant hypertension (RH) across the continent. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of RH and associated risk factors in Africa. Data sources We conducted a comprehensive search of electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, Africa Wide Information and Africa Index Medicus) completed by manual search of articles, regardless of language or publication date. Methods We included studies which have reported the prevalence and/or risk factors for RH in Africa from inception to 19 May 2016. Forest plots were drawn to visualise the combined prevalence of RH and extent of statistical heterogeneity between studies. Results Out of 259 retrieved studies, only 5 from Cameroon, Nigeria, Burkina Faso, Lesotho and Algeria with a total population of 4 068 patients were finally included in this review. There was no study from the Eastern part of Africa. Though the definition of RH was not similar across studies, its prevalence was respectively 11.7%, 4.9%, 14.6%, 14.3% and 19.0%, with an overall pooled prevalence of 12.1% (95% CI 8.0% to 17.7%). Potential risk factors were: non-compliance to treatment, ageing, male sex, dyslipidaemia, metabolic syndrome, previous cardiovascular events, physical inactivity and stress, but not excessive salt intake, alcohol and coffee ingestions. Moreover, diabetes, smoking, obesity and renal insufficiency yielded discrepant results. Conclusions There is a huge dearth of research on the epidemiology of RH in Africa. Thereby, an extensive study of RH prevalence and risk factors is still largely warranted to curtail the high and continuously increasing burden of hypertension across Africa. PMID:27650760

  8. Phylogenomic Analysis Reveals an Asian Origin for African Burkholderia pseudomallei and Further Supports Melioidosis Endemicity in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Garin, Benoit; De Smet, Birgit; Kaestli, Mirjam; Mayo, Mark; Vandamme, Peter; Jacobs, Jan; Lompo, Palpouguini; Tahita, Marc C.; Tinto, Halidou; Djaomalaza, Innocente; Currie, Bart J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Burkholderia pseudomallei, an environmental bacterium that causes the deadly disease melioidosis, is endemic in northern Australia and Southeast Asia. An increasing number of melioidosis cases are being reported in other tropical regions, including Africa and the Indian Ocean islands. B. pseudomallei first emerged in Australia, with subsequent rare dissemination event(s) to Southeast Asia; however, its dispersal to other regions is not yet well understood. We used large-scale comparative genomics to investigate the origins of three B. pseudomallei isolates from Madagascar and two from Burkina Faso. Phylogenomic reconstruction demonstrates that these African B. pseudomallei isolates group into a single novel clade that resides within the more ancestral Asian clade. Intriguingly, South American strains reside within the African clade, suggesting more recent dissemination from West Africa to the Americas. Anthropogenic factors likely assisted in B. pseudomallei dissemination to Africa, possibly during migration of the Austronesian peoples from Indonesian Borneo to Madagascar ~2,000 years ago, with subsequent genetic diversity driven by mutation and recombination. Our study provides new insights into global patterns of B. pseudomallei dissemination and adds to the growing body of evidence of melioidosis endemicity in Africa. Our findings have important implications for melioidosis diagnosis and management in Africa. IMPORTANCE Sporadic melioidosis cases have been reported in the African mainland and Indian Ocean islands, but until recently, these regions were not considered areas where B. pseudomallei is endemic. Given the high mortality rate of melioidosis, it is crucial that this disease be recognized and suspected in all regions of endemicity. Previous work has shown that B. pseudomallei originated in Australia, with subsequent introduction into Asia; however, the precise origin of B. pseudomallei in other tropical regions remains poorly understood

  9. Biological and molecular characterization of a putative new sobemovirus infecting Imperata cylindrica and maize in Africa.

    PubMed

    Sérémé, Drissa; Lacombe, Séverine; Konaté, Moumouni; Pinel-Galzi, Agnès; Traoré, Valentin Stanislas Edgar; Hébrard, Eugénie; Traoré, Oumar; Brugidou, Christophe; Fargette, Denis; Konaté, Gnissa

    2008-01-01

    A new virus was isolated from both the grass Imperata cylindrica and maize plants that had yellow mottle symptoms in Burkina Faso, West Africa. The virus has isometric particles ca. 32 nm in diameter. The experimental host range was restricted to Rottboellia exaltata. Virions were isolated from leaves of systemically infected maize plants. Koch's postulates were completed by mechanically inoculating uninfected Imperata or maize with either purified virus or sap from infected Imperata plants. Virion preparations were used to produce a specific polyclonal antiserum, and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test was set up. The full genome of the virus was sequenced, and it comprised 4,547 nucleotides. Phylogenetic studies indicated that the virus is closely related to rice yellow mottle virus, a sobemovirus that infects monocotyledons in Africa, and is more distantly related to cocksfoot mottle virus, another sobemovirus that infects monocotyledons. Although the virus can infect R. exaltata experimentally, it differs from Rottboellia yellow mottle virus, a member of a tentative species of the genus Sobemovirus that also infects monocotyledons in Africa. Particle morphology, serological properties, genomic organization, and phylogenetic analysis are all consistent with assignment of the new virus to the genus Sobemovirus. The name Imperata yellow mottle virus is proposed.

  10. Tropical Africa: Land Use, Biomass, and Carbon Estimates for 1980 (NDP-055)

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, S.

    2002-04-16

    This document describes the contents of a digital database containing maximum potential aboveground biomass, land use, and estimated biomass and carbon data for 1980. The biomass data and carbon estimates are associated with woody vegetation in Tropical Africa. These data were collected to reduce the uncertainty associated with estimating historical releases of carbon from land use change. Tropical Africa is defined here as encompassing 22.7 x 10{sup 6} km{sup 2} of the earth's land surface and is comprised of countries that are located in tropical Africa (Angola, Botswana, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Benin, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Djibouti, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Guinea-Bissau, Zimbabwe (Rhodesia), Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Burkina Faso (Upper Volta), Zaire, and Zambia). The database was developed using the GRID module in the ARC/INFO{trademark} geographic information system. Source data were obtained from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the U.S. National Geophysical Data Center, and a limited number of biomass-carbon density case studies. These data were used to derive the maximum potential and actual (ca. 1980) aboveground biomass values at regional and country levels. The land-use data provided were derived from a vegetation map originally produced for the FAO by the International Institute of Vegetation Mapping, Toulouse, France.

  11. Housing Improvements and Malaria Risk in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Multi-Country Analysis of Survey Data

    PubMed Central

    Bottomley, Christian; Gibson, Harry; Kleinschmidt, Immo; Tatem, Andrew J.; Gething, Peter W.

    2017-01-01

    Background Improvements to housing may contribute to malaria control and elimination by reducing house entry by malaria vectors and thus exposure to biting. We tested the hypothesis that the odds of malaria infection are lower in modern, improved housing compared to traditional housing in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Methods and Findings We analysed 15 Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and 14 Malaria Indicator Surveys (MIS) conducted in 21 countries in SSA between 2008 and 2015 that measured malaria infection by microscopy or rapid diagnostic test (RDT). DHS/MIS surveys record whether houses are built with finished materials (e.g., metal) or rudimentary materials (e.g., thatch). This information was used to develop a binary housing quality variable where houses built using finished wall, roof, and floor materials were classified as “modern”, and all other houses were classified as “traditional”. Conditional logistic regression was used to determine the association between housing quality and prevalence of malaria infection in children aged 0–5 y, adjusting for age, gender, insecticide-treated net (ITN) use, indoor residual spraying, household wealth, and geographic cluster. Individual survey odds ratios (ORs) were combined to determine a summary OR using a random effects meta-analysis. Of 284,532 total children surveyed, 139,318 were tested for malaria infection using microscopy (n = 131,652) or RDT (n = 138,540). Within individual surveys, malaria prevalence measured by microscopy ranged from 0.4% (Madagascar 2011) to 45.5% (Burkina Faso 2010) among children living in modern houses and from 0.4% (The Gambia 2013) to 70.6% (Burkina Faso 2010) in traditional houses, and malaria prevalence measured by RDT ranged from 0.3% (Senegal 2013–2014) to 61.2% (Burkina Faso 2010) in modern houses and from 1.5% (The Gambia 2013) to 79.8% (Burkina Faso 2010) in traditional houses. Across all surveys, modern housing was associated with a 9% to 14% reduction in the

  12. Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martz, Carlton

    2001-01-01

    This publication explores issues related to Africa. It examines the U.S. response to the Barbary pirate states (Morocco, Algiers, Tunis, Tripoli) in the early 19th century; the current AIDS crisis in Africa; and 14th century Mali and other Islamic lands through the eyes of Ibn Battuta, who traveled throughout the Muslim world. Each article…

  13. Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Happel, Sue; Loeb, Joyce

    Although the activities in this unit are designed primarily for students in the intermediate grades, the document's text, illustrations, and bibliographic references are suitable for anyone interested in learning about Africa. Following a brief introduction and map work, the document is arranged into six sections. Section 1 traces Africa's history…

  14. Topical application of diethylcarbamazine to detect onchocerciasis recrudescence in west Africa.

    PubMed

    Toè, L; Adjami, A G; Boatin, B A; Back, C; Alley, E S; Dembélé, N; Brika, P G; Pearlman, E; Unnasch, T R

    2000-01-01

    The Onchocerciasis Control Programme in West Africa (OCP) has succeeded in eliminating blinding onchocerciasis as a public health problem throughout much of West Africa. The efforts of the OCP are now turning towards surveillance, with the goal of rapidly detecting and controlling outbreaks of infection in the onchocerciasis-free zone. With this goal in mind, cutaneous application of a solution of diethylcarbamazine (the DEC-patch test) was evaluated in 1996-99 as a method to detect patent Onchocerca volvulus infection in children and adolescents, a sentinel population for the detection of recrudescence. In an analysis of 1887 individuals in Côte d'Ivoire and Burkina Faso, the DEC-patch test produced prevalence estimates comparable to those obtained by skin snip. The sensitivity of the DEC-patch assay was marginally greater in children and adolescents than in adults, and was greater in individuals who had received prior Mectizan treatment. These data suggest that the DEC-patch test may be a useful tool for detecting recrudescence of O. volvulus infection in a sentinel population of children and young adults within the onchocerciasis-free zone created by the OCP.

  15. The Impacts of Water Quality and Food Availability on Children's Health in West Africa: A Spatial Analysis Using Remotely Sensed Data and Small-Scale Water Quality Data and Country-level Health Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frederick, L.; Grace, K.; Lloyd, B.

    2015-12-01

    As the global climate changes and the populations of many African countries grow, ensuring clean drinking water and food has become a pressing concern. Because of their vulnerability to malnutrition and food insecurity, children face the greatest risk for adverse health outcomes related to climate change. Vulnerability, however, is highly variable, with some children in food insecure communities showing healthy growth, while some children in food secure communities show signs of malnutrition. In West Africa, Burkina Faso faces high levels of child malnutrition, loses to farmland and a large share of the population have no access to clean water. Because the overwhelming majority of children rely on locally grown, rainfed agriculture and well/surface water, the combined impact of climate change and population growth decreases water availability and farmland per person. However, there is notable community and individual variation in malnutrition levels suggesting that there are important coping strategies that vulnerable families may use to secure their children's health. No spatially relevant analysis of water and food insecurity and children's health exists for Burkina Faso. The goal of this research is to identify and quantify the combined and inter-related impact of unsafe drinking water and community-level food availability on the physical health outcomes of Burkinabe children under five years of age. To accomplish this goal we rely on a publically available highly detailed, geo-referenced data set (Demographic and Health Survey (DHS)) to provide information on measures of childhood malnutrition and details on parental characteristics related to children's health. Information on water source (covered/uncovered well, piped water, etc.) and water quality (measures of arsenic and pollution) comes from DHS along with a recently collected geo-referenced US Agency for International Development (USAID) data set. Critical information on food production, environmental

  16. The Impacts of Water Quality and Food Availability on Children's Health in West Africa: A Spatial Analysis Using Remotely Sensed Data and Small-Scale Water Quality Data and Country-level Health Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frederick, L.; Grace, K.; Lloyd, B.

    2014-12-01

    As the global climate changes and the populations of many African countries grow, ensuring clean drinking water and food has become a pressing concern. Because of their vulnerability to malnutrition and food insecurity, children face the greatest risk for adverse health outcomes related to climate change. Vulnerability, however, is highly variable, with some children in food insecure communities showing healthy growth, while some children in food secure communities show signs of malnutrition. In West Africa, Burkina Faso faces high levels of child malnutrition, loses to farmland and a large share of the population have no access to clean water. Because the overwhelming majority of children rely on locally grown, rainfed agriculture and well/surface water, the combined impact of climate change and population growth decreases water availability and farmland per person. However, there is notable community and individual variation in malnutrition levels suggesting that there are important coping strategies that vulnerable families may use to secure their children's health. No spatially relevant analysis of water and food insecurity and children's health exists for Burkina Faso. The goal of this research is to identify and quantify the combined and inter-related impact of unsafe drinking water and community-level food availability on the physical health outcomes of Burkinabe children under five years of age. To accomplish this goal we rely on a publically available highly detailed, geo-referenced data set (Demographic and Health Survey (DHS)) to provide information on measures of childhood malnutrition and details on parental characteristics related to children's health. Information on water source (covered/uncovered well, piped water, etc.) and water quality (measures of arsenic and pollution) comes from DHS along with a recently collected geo-referenced US Agency for International Development (USAID) data set. Critical information on food production, environmental

  17. Response to issues on GM agriculture in Africa: Are transgenic crops safe?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The controversies surrounding transgenic crops, often called Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs), call for a need to raise the level of public awareness of Genetic Modification (GM) technology in Africa. This should be accomplished by educating the public about the potential benefits and risks that may be associated with this new technology. In the last 15 years, GM crop producing countries have benefited from adoption of this new technology in the form of improved crop productivity, food security, and quality of life. The increased income to resource-poor farmers is a key benefit at the individual level especially as most countries using this technology are in the developing world, including three African countries (South Africa, Burkina Faso and Egypt). Despite clear benefits to countries and farmers who grow GMOs, many people are concerned about suspected potential risks associated with GMOs. This sparks debate as to whether GM technology should be adopted or not. Given the concerns regarding the safety of GMO products, thorough scientific investigation of safe application of GMOs is required. The objective of this paper is to respond to the issues of GM agriculture in Africa and some of the issues surrounding the adoption of GM crops between developed and developing countries. In this article, I analyse relevant papers relating to the adoption of GM technology particularly in developing countries including the few African countries that have adopted GM crops. The issues discussed span a wide range including: safety; potential benefits and risks; disputes between the United States of America (USA) and the European Union (EU) over adoption of GM crops with a focus on Africa continent. This article is concluded by summarising the issues raised and how GM technology can be adopted for agricultural development in Africa. PMID:21981823

  18. Response to issues on GM agriculture in Africa: Are transgenic crops safe?

    PubMed

    Adenle, Ademola A

    2011-10-08

    The controversies surrounding transgenic crops, often called Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs), call for a need to raise the level of public awareness of Genetic Modification (GM) technology in Africa. This should be accomplished by educating the public about the potential benefits and risks that may be associated with this new technology. In the last 15 years, GM crop producing countries have benefited from adoption of this new technology in the form of improved crop productivity, food security, and quality of life. The increased income to resource-poor farmers is a key benefit at the individual level especially as most countries using this technology are in the developing world, including three African countries (South Africa, Burkina Faso and Egypt). Despite clear benefits to countries and farmers who grow GMOs, many people are concerned about suspected potential risks associated with GMOs. This sparks debate as to whether GM technology should be adopted or not. Given the concerns regarding the safety of GMO products, thorough scientific investigation of safe application of GMOs is required. The objective of this paper is to respond to the issues of GM agriculture in Africa and some of the issues surrounding the adoption of GM crops between developed and developing countries. In this article, I analyse relevant papers relating to the adoption of GM technology particularly in developing countries including the few African countries that have adopted GM crops. The issues discussed span a wide range including: safety; potential benefits and risks; disputes between the United States of America (USA) and the European Union (EU) over adoption of GM crops with a focus on Africa continent. This article is concluded by summarising the issues raised and how GM technology can be adopted for agricultural development in Africa.

  19. Rainfall measurements from cellular networks microwave links : an alternative ground reference for satellite validation and hydrology in Africa .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosset, Marielle; cazenave, frederic; Zougmore, françois; Doumounia, Ali; kacou, Modeste

    2015-04-01

    In many part of the Tropics the ground based gauge networks are sparse, often degrading and accessing this data for monitoring rainfall or for validating satellite products is sometime difficult. Here, an alternative rainfall measuring technique is proposed and tested in West Africa. It is based on using commercial microwave links from cellular telephone networks to detect and quantify rainfall. Rainfall monitoring based on commercial terrestrial microwave links has been tested for the first time in Burkina Faso, in Sahel. The rainfall regime is characterized by intense rainfall intensities brought by mesoscale Convective systems (MCS), generated by deep organized convection. The region is subjected to drought as well as dramatic floods associated with the intense rainfall provided by a few MCSs. The hydrometeorological risk is increasing and need to be monitored. In collaboration with the national cellular phone operator, Telecel Faso, the attenuation on 29 km long microwave links operating at 7 GHz was monitored at 1s time rate for the monsoon season 2012. The time series of attenuation is transformed into rain rates and compared with rain gauge data. The method is successful in quantifying rainfall: 95% of the rainy days are detected. The correlation with the daily raingauge series is 0.8 and the season bias is 5%. The correlation at the 5 min time step within each event is also high. We will present the quantitative results, discuss the uncertainties and compare the time series and the 2D maps with those derived from a polarimetric radar. The results demonstrate the potential interest of exploiting national and regional wireless telecommunication networks to provide rainfall maps for various applications : urban hydrology, agro-hydrological risk monitoring, satellite validation and development of combined rainfall products. We will also present the outcome of the first international Rain Cell Africa workshop held in Ouagadougou early 2015.

  20. Emigration dynamics in West Africa.

    PubMed

    Makinwa-adebusoye, P K

    1995-01-01

    This report on the emigration dynamics at work in Western Africa opens by noting that this region comprises an important migration system with large legal and illegal movements of people within the region and to industrialized countries. Migration has been fueled by high growth rates coupled with lower growth rates of per capital income. Migration takes the form of continuing inflow into receiving countries, such as the Ivory Coast, sudden changes in migration status (in Ghana and Nigeria) reflecting sudden economic changes, a brain drain to developed countries, and an influx of refugees. The second section of the report presents a brief look at historical migratory patterns, including those of nomads which continue today. Data limitations are addressed in section 3, and the drawbacks of census data for migration information are noted. The next section describes the economic and demographic factors in the region which contribute to migration. These include the long lasting effects of colonization in general, the exploitation of minerals, patterns of agricultural development, poverty, and population growth. A closer examination of these forces at work is provided in case studies of Ghana, Nigeria, and the migration stream from Burkina Faso to the Ivory Coast. Section 5 looks at the economic causes and effects of the brain drain. Social and cultural factors are covered in section 6, with an emphasis placed on family and migration networks. Section 7 covers political factors influencing migration, such as the efforts of people to retain contact with other members of their ethnic group who may live on the opposite side of an arbitrarily drawn (by colonizers) international border, the designation of administrative capital cities, and the ease in crossing borders without documentation. The next section describes the 1975 formation of the Economic Community for West Africa (ECOWAS) and its protocols regarding free movement of citizens within the states which comprise the

  1. Simulating and Tracking a Heavily Rainy Wave over West Africa Using a Modeling Strategy with WRF Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarr, A.

    2014-12-01

    The last decades, over Sahel, are characterized by a relative recovery in rainfall compared to the long drought, which affected this part of West Africa in the 70s, 80s and early 90s. It is also noted an increase of extreme events, mainly excess of rainfall causing damages to many parts of the Sahel area. In this study, we are focusing on an extreme case, which occurred during September 2009. A deep African Easterly Wave (AEW) crossed the region from Niger to Senegal giving heavy rains along its path with a maximum of more than 260mm in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. While continuing its trajectory other strong winds associated with the systems caused other kind of damages. A modeling strategy, based on a moving nest with the Weather Research and Forecast model (WRF-ARW), is used to simulate the system. The model is run at 27 and 9km respectively for the outer and inner domains. Key parameters are investigated in order to assess the ability of WRF model in simulating the even. The study has shown good performance of WRF in simulating tropical systems. Noted weaknesses are also highlighted in the study, which showed promising results in simulating extremes, hours to days head, in support to early warning systems (EWS) to mitigate the adverse effects of extremes. This is a key responsibility of National Meteorological Services lacking this capacity in developing countries of West Africa.

  2. Population, agriculture, and the environment in Africa.

    PubMed

    Cleaver, K; Schreiber, G

    1992-06-01

    An overview is provided of the World Bank study about the interaction between rapid population growth, poor agricultural performance, and environmental degradation. The links between these 3 phenomena are identified as traditional methods of crop and livestock production, land tenure systems, women's responsibilities, and methods of forest use. When land was abundant and capital limited, pastoralism, shifting cultivation, and setting aside fallow land was possible. Mobility and allowances for natural regeneration of vegetation could not continue with rapid population growth. Permanent settlements developed but cultivation methods remained the same; the result was deterioration of soil fertility, low yields, and erosion of soil as occurred in Rwanda, Burkina Faso, and parts of Nigeria. Technological innovation has been slow and poor roads have interfered with a market oriented economy. Inappropriate pricing, exchange rates, and fiscal policies also prevent productivity gains. A heavy demand is placed on women's time. Demand for children is high and is stimulated by environmental degradation, food insecurity, land tenure systems, and cultural traditions. Child labor is needed. The demand for contraception is 30-50% in North Africa, 36-55% in Asia, and 40-60% in South America. Land ownership problems have arisen under community ownership and between herders and settlers. Solutions have ranged from land nationalization and arbitrary designation of individual ownership. Open access situations have developed and lent themselves to exploitation. Fuelwood needs have exacerbated the destruction of forests. Commercial logging accounted for 10-20% of the forest loss. New approaches are needed to link cross-sectionally population, the environment, an agriculture. Emphasis should be on resource conservation, family planning, and environmentally benign intensive farming. Agricultural production needs to grow at 4%/year, fertility lowered by 50% over 30 years, and deforestation

  3. Boys are not exempt: Sexual exploitation of adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Adjei, Jones K; Saewyc, Elizabeth M

    2017-03-01

    Research on youth sexual exploitation in Africa has largely neglected the experiences of exploited boys. To date, much of the research in sub-Saharan Africa continues to consider boys mainly as exploiters but not as exploited. Using the only publicly available population-based surveys from the National Survey of Adolescents, conducted in four sub-Saharan African countries - Burkina Faso, Ghana, Malawi, and Uganda-we assessed factors associated with transactional sexual behaviour among never-married adolescent boys and girls. We also examined whether boys' reported sexual exploitation was linked to similar risky sexual behaviours as has been noted among girls in sub-Saharan Africa. Results from our analyses indicated that even though adolescent girls have a somewhat higher likelihood of reporting sexual abuse and exploitation, the odds of trading sex were significantly elevated for previously traumatized boys (that is those with a history of sexual and physical abuse) but not for their female counterparts. Just like adolescent girls, transactional sexual behaviour was associated with the risk of having concurrent multiple sexual partners for boys. These findings support the reality of boys' sexual exploitation within the African context, and further highlight the importance of including males in general and boys in particular in population-based studies on sexual health, risk, and protective factors in the sub-Saharan African region. Understanding the factors linked to sexual exploitation for both boys and girls will help in developing policies and programs that could improve the overall sexual and reproductive health outcomes among adolescents and youth in sub-Saharan Africa.

  4. Avoiding a new "tragedy". Child labour is growing in Africa.

    PubMed

    1998-02-01

    This article highlights the pervasive use of child labor in Africa, a pattern that is increasing. A recent conference in Kampala, Uganda, among 22 African countries and international agencies, urged the abolition of child labor. An estimated 80 million African children are obliged to work. The International Labor Organization (ILO) aims to pursue development of legal ways to abolish extreme forms of child labor and the issue is on the 1998 international conference agenda. Delegates were asked to adopt the 1990 Convention on the Rights of the Child and the ILO Minimum Age Convention. Children who must work should be protected from dangers to their health, safety, or morals, and be given the opportunity for education and social services. Although international standards prohibit children from work which is exploitative or abusive, children working in domestic service in the privacy of a home are subjected to physical, mental, and sexual abuse. Domestics are subjected to long hours of work, emotional deprivation, and servitude that leads to withdrawal, premature aging, depression, and low self-esteem. Benin, Egypt, Kenya, Senegal, and Tanzania were early participants in the 1992, ILO International Program for the Elimination of Child Labor (IPEC). Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, Guinea, Madagascar, Mali, South Africa, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe plan to join IPEC. Cameroon and Zimbabwe are developing national strategies to combat child labor. An ILO table provides 1995 statistics on the percentage of children aged 0-14 years engaged in work in 28 selected African countries. Percentages range from 54.5% in Mali to 3.0% in Mauritius.

  5. A meta-analysis of telemedicine success in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Wamala, Dan S.; Augustine, Kaddu

    2013-01-01

    The use of information and communication technologies (ICT) tools to improve the efficiency of professionalism at work is increasing every time under the dynamic digital environment. Tools such as telemedicine, tele-education, and health informatics have of late been incorporated in the health sector to enable easy access to essential services, for example, in medical areas from referral centers by the patients on one hand and enabling the doctor to doctor consultations for the benefit of patients. Unfortunately, observations indicate dearth efforts and commitment to optimize use of the tools in the majority of the countries south of the Sahara. Sub-Saharan Africa has been left almost behind the rest of the world in terms of development going through decades of economic exploitation by especially the west through its natural and human resources. These factors, ethnic conflicts and endless wars have continued to ruin sub-Saharan Africa’s socio-economic development. Information was obtained through a network of telemedicine practitioners in different African countries using internet communication, through E-mail and reviewing existing literature of their activities. This information was compiled from representative countries in each African region and the previous authors’experiences as telemedicine practioners. Most of these countries have inadequate ICT infrastructure, which yet creates sub-optimal application. Sub-Saharan Africa, made up of 33 of the 48 global poorest countries has to extend its ICT diffusion and policy to match the ever developing global economy. In some countries such as Ethiopia and South Africa there is significant progress in Telemedicine while in countries such as Burkina Faso and Nigeria the progress is slow because of lack of political support. Almost all reference to Africa is made in due respect to sub-Saharan Africa, one with big social, economic, and political problems with resultant high morbidity and mortality rates. This also

  6. High Genetic Differentiation between the M and S Molecular Forms of Anopheles gambiae in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Esnault, Caroline; Boulesteix, Matthieu; Duchemin, Jean Bernard; Koffi, Alphonsine A.; Chandre, Fabrice; Dabiré, Roch; Robert, Vincent; Simard, Frédéric; Tripet, Frédéric; Donnelly, Martin J.; Fontenille, Didier; Biémont, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Background Anopheles gambiae, a major vector of malaria, is widely distributed throughout sub-Saharan Africa. In an attempt to eliminate infective mosquitoes, researchers are trying to develop transgenic strains that are refractory to the Plasmodium parasite. Before any release of transgenic mosquitoes can be envisaged, we need an accurate picture of the differentiation between the two molecular forms of An. gambiae, termed M and S, which are of uncertain taxonomic status. Methodology/Principal Findings Insertion patterns of three transposable elements (TEs) were determined in populations from Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Ghana, Ivory Coast, Madagascar, Mali, Mozambique, Niger, and Tanzania, using Transposon Display, a TE-anchored strategy based on Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism. The results reveal a clear differentiation between the M and S forms, whatever their geographical origin, suggesting an incipient speciation process. Conclusions/Significance Any attempt to control the transmission of malaria by An. gambiae using either conventional or novel technologies must take the M/S genetic differentiation into account. In addition, we localized three TE insertion sites that were present either in every individual or at a high frequency in the M molecular form. These sites were found to be located outside the chromosomal regions that are suspected of involvement in the speciation event between the two forms. This suggests that these chromosomal regions are either larger than previously thought, or there are additional differentiated genomic regions interspersed with undifferentiated regions. PMID:18414665

  7. Climate variability and environmental stress in the Sudan-Sahel zone of West Africa.

    PubMed

    Mertz, Ole; D'haen, Sarah; Maiga, Abdou; Moussa, Ibrahim Bouzou; Barbier, Bruno; Diouf, Awa; Diallo, Drissa; Da, Evariste Dapola; Dabi, Daniel

    2012-06-01

    Environmental change in the Sudan-Sahel region of West Africa (SSWA) has been much debated since the droughts of the 1970s. In this article we assess climate variability and environmental stress in the region. Households in Senegal, Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger, and Nigeria were asked about climatic changes and their perceptions were compared across north-south and west-east rainfall gradients. More than 80% of all households found that rainfall had decreased, especially in the wettest areas. Increases in wind speeds and temperature were perceived by an overall 60-80% of households. Contrary to household perceptions, observed rainfall patterns showed an increasing trend over the past 20 years. However, August rainfall declined, and could therefore potentially explain the contrasting negative household perceptions of rainfall trends. Most households reported degradation of soils, water resources, vegetation, and fauna, but more so in the 500-900 mm zones. Adaptation measures to counter environmental degradation included use of manure, reforestation, soil and water conservation, and protection of fauna and vegetation. The results raise concerns for future environmental management in the region, especially in the 500-900 mm zones and the western part of SSWA.

  8. Public policies and health systems in Sahelian Africa: theoretical context and empirical specificity.

    PubMed

    Olivier de Sardan, Jean-Pierre; Ridde, Valéry

    2015-01-01

    This research on user fee removal in three African countries is located at the interface of public policy analysis and health systems research. Public policy analysis has gradually become a vast and multifaceted area of research consisting of a number of perspectives. But the context of public policies in Sahelian Africa has some specific characteristics. They are largely shaped by international institutions and development agencies, on the basis of very common 'one-size-fits-all' models; the practical norms that govern the actual behaviour of employees are far removed from official norms; public goods and services are co-delivered by a string of different actors and institutions, with little coordination between them; the State is widely regarded by the majority of citizens as untrustworthy. In such a context, setting up and implementing health user fee exemptions in Burkina Faso, Mali and Niger was beset by major problems, lack of coherence and bottlenecks that affect public policy-making and implementation in these countries.

  9. Changing Patterns of Access to Education in Anglophone and Francophone Countries in Sub Saharan Africa: Is Education for All Pro-Poor? CREATE Pathways to Access. Research Monograph No. 52

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewin, Keith M.; Sabates, Ricardo

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores patterns of growth in participation in six Anglophone and seven Francophone countries in SSA. The countries are Kenya, Malawi, Nigeria, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Madagascar, Mali, Niger and Senegal. These countries all have large scale Universal Primary Education programmes and all have…

  10. EDUCAFRICA, December 1986. Special Issue: Case Studies on Higher Education in Africa. Special Volume 1=EDUCAFRICA, Decembre 1986. Etudes de cas sur L'Enseignement Superieur en Afrique, Tome 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EDUCAFRICA, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Case studies of the development of higher education in 17 African countries are presented. Eleven of the case studies are written in French, and six are in English. The country reports that are in English are as follows: Cameroon, Ethiopia, Lesotho, Malawi, Sierra Leone, and Tanzania. The country reports in French are: Benin, Burkina Faso,…

  11. Increased incidence of cycloguanil resistance in malaria cases entering France from Africa, determined as point mutations in the parasites' dihydrofolate-reductase genes.

    PubMed

    Durand, R; di Piazza, J P; Longuet, C; Sécardin, Y; Clain, J; le Bras, J

    1999-01-01

    The incidence of cycloguanil resistance in 501 Plasmodium falciparum isolates from individuals entering France from Africa was estimated by a method based on PCR-restriction-fragment-length polymorphisms. None of the subjects had taken antifol prophylaxis. Annual incidence of the resistance, detected as a point mutation at codon 108 in the parasite's dihydrofolate-reductase gene, increased from 19.8% in 1995 to 43.6% in 1997 (P < 0.001). The proportion of isolates found to be susceptible (i.e. wild-type) among travellers returning from the African countries known as Group 2 in France (i.e. Burkina Faso, Côte d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia, Madagascar, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Tchad and Togo) was reasonably high (62.9%) and much higher than in the other subjects returning from other identifiable countries in Africa (35.3%). The antimalarial prophylaxis recommended in France to those travelling to Group-2 countries, chloroquine-proguanil, therefore still seems reasonable, although cycloguanil resistance may seriously undermine the efficacy of this drug combination in the future.

  12. West Africa - A Safe Haven for Frogs? A Sub-Continental Assessment of the Chytrid Fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis)

    PubMed Central

    Penner, Johannes; Adum, Gilbert B.; McElroy, Matthew T.; Doherty-Bone, Thomas; Hirschfeld, Mareike; Sandberger, Laura; Weldon, Ché; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Ohst, Torsten; Wombwell, Emma; Portik, Daniel M.; Reid, Duncan; Hillers, Annika; Ofori-Boateng, Caleb; Oduro, William; Plötner, Jörg; Ohler, Annemarie; Leaché, Adam D.; Rödel, Mark-Oliver

    2013-01-01

    A putative driver of global amphibian decline is the panzootic chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). While Bd has been documented across continental Africa, its distribution in West Africa remains ambiguous. We tested 793 West African amphibians (one caecilian and 61 anuran species) for the presence of Bd. The samples originated from seven West African countries - Bénin, Burkina Faso, Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone - and were collected from a variety of habitats, ranging from lowland rainforests to montane forests, montane grasslands to humid and dry lowland savannahs. The species investigated comprised various life-history strategies, but we focused particularly on aquatic and riparian species. We used diagnostic PCR to screen 656 specimen swabs and histology to analyse 137 specimen toe tips. All samples tested negative for Bd, including a widespread habitat generalist Hoplobatrachus occipitalis which is intensively traded on the West African food market and thus could be a potential dispersal agent for Bd. Continental fine-grained (30 arc seconds) environmental niche models suggest that Bd should have a broad distribution across West Africa that includes most of the regions and habitats that we surveyed. The surprising apparent absence of Bd in West Africa indicates that the Dahomey Gap may have acted as a natural barrier. Herein we highlight the importance of this Bd-free region of the African continent - especially for the long-term conservation of several threatened species depending on fast flowing forest streams (Conraua alleni (“Vulnerable”) and Petropedetes natator (“Near Threatened”)) as well as the “Critically Endangered” viviparous toad endemic to the montane grasslands of Mount Nimba (Nimbaphrynoides occidentalis). PMID:23426141

  13. Decomposing Wealth-Based Inequalities in Under-Five Mortality in West Africa

    PubMed Central

    BADO, Aristide Romaric; APPUNNI, Sathiya Susuman

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to analysis the inequalities of mortality of children under 5 years in West Africa by examining the determinants and contributing factors to the overall inequality concentration in these countries. Method: Data used came from the DHS surveys conducted in the six countries in West Africa: Burkina Faso (2010), Benin (2006), Cote d’Ivoire 2011), Ghana (2008), Mali (2006), Nigeria (2008) and Niger (2012). The concentration index (CI) and Generalized Linear Model (GLM) with logit link were used to access inequality. Results: The results show that in all countries, the poorest Q1 have the highest proportions of deaths: Nigeria (31.4%), Cote d’Ivoire (30.4%) and Ghana (36.4%), over 30% of deaths of children under 5 years are among the children of the poorest (Q1) and the absolute differences of proportions Q1–Q5 are more than 20 points (25.8 in Ghana and 23.6 in Nigeria). The contributing factors of inequalities of child mortality were birth order, maternal age, parity and household size. Our findings also showed that the intensity of inequality varies from one country to another. Conclusion: The most important conclusion of this study is to reduce mortality in children under 5 years, it is needed to reduce economic and social inequalities and improve the country’s economic and social condition. There is a need for monitoring and assessment inequalities by leading causes of death and morbidity among children in the region in order to advance in understanding the gaps and finding a way to reduce them in West Africa countries. PMID:26576370

  14. An update on distribution models for Rhipicephalus microplus in West Africa.

    PubMed

    De Clercq, Eva M; Estrada-Peña, Agustin; Adehan, S; Madder, Maxime; Vanwambeke, Sophie O

    2013-11-01

    The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, which reached the West African region approximately 8 years ago, has established viable populations in Côte d'Ivoire and Benin and spread rapidly from the assumed points of introduction. However, existing maps of its distribution range do not agree on the areas at risk, most probably due to suboptimal modelling approaches. Therefore, we undertook a re-investigation of the potential distribution range based on a high-quality dataset from West Africa that includes information on 104 farms located all over Benin. Focussing on climate suitability and applying advanced modelling, a subset of representative and uncorrelated climate variables was selected and fed into Maxent software to obtain an estimate of climate suitability for West Africa. The resulting map was validated using an independent dataset of 13 farms along the apparent distribution edge. The entire southern part of West Africa (covering southern Nigeria, Benin, Togo and Ghana) features high climate suitability for R. microplus. All of Côte d'Ivoire is inside the distribution range of this tick and the southern rim of Burkina Faso is expected to be suitable for the establishment of R. microplus populations. The validation of the distribution, dated one year after the initial field visit, confirmed the predicted distribution range, although a small number of individuals of R. microplus were found north of the predicted limit. These low numbers might indicate that the climate is not suitable for the establishment of a viable tick population. An alternative explanation is the recent introduction by nomadic cattle herds passing through this location. In this region of the world, it is quite common for cattle owners to lead their livestock over distances of more than 500 km in search of food and water.

  15. Potential Risk of Regional Disease Spread in West Africa through Cross-Border Cattle Trade

    PubMed Central

    Dean, Anna S.; Fournié, Guillaume; Kulo, Abalo E.; Boukaya, G. Aboudou; Schelling, Esther; Bonfoh, Bassirou

    2013-01-01

    Background Transboundary animal movements facilitate the spread of pathogens across large distances. Cross-border cattle trade is of economic and cultural importance in West Africa. This study explores the potential disease risk resulting from large-scale, cross-border cattle trade between Togo, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Benin, and Nigeria for the first time. Methods and Principal Findings A questionnaire-based survey of livestock movements of 226 cattle traders was conducted in the 9 biggest cattle markets of northern Togo in February-March 2012. More than half of the traders (53.5%) operated in at least one other country. Animal flows were stochastically simulated based on reported movements and the risk of regional disease spread assessed. More than three quarters (79.2%, range: 78.1–80.0%) of cattle flowing into the market system originated from other countries. Through the cattle market system of northern Togo, non-neighbouring countries were connected via potential routes for disease spread. Even for diseases with low transmissibility and low prevalence in a given country, there was a high risk of disease introduction into other countries. Conclusions By stochastically simulating data collected by interviewing cattle traders in northern Togo, this study identifies potential risks for regional disease spread in West Africa through cross-border cattle trade. The findings highlight that surveillance for emerging infectious diseases as well as control activities targeting endemic diseases in West Africa are likely to be ineffective if only conducted at a national level. A regional approach to disease surveillance, prevention and control is essential. PMID:24130721

  16. Coerced First Sex among Adolescent Girls in Sub-Saharan Africa: Prevalence and Context

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Ann M.; Awusabo-Asare, Kofi; Madise, Nyovani; John-Langba, Johannes; Kumi-Kyereme, Akwasi

    2008-01-01

    Coercive experiences at sexual debut have been shown to be associated with other sexual risks throughout the life course. Using nationally representative surveys from 12–19 year old girls in Burkina Faso, Ghana, Malawi, and Uganda collected in 2004, we examine the prevalence of sexual coercion at sexual debut among unmarried girls and its correlates. In Malawi, 38 percent of girls said that they were “not willing at all” at their first sexual experience followed by Ghana at 30 percent, Uganda at 23 percent and Burkina Faso at 15 percent. In-depth interviews collected in 2003 with the same demographic shows that there are four primary types of sexual coercion: forced sex; pressure through money or gifts; flattery, pestering, and threatening to have sex with other girls; and passive acceptance. The article concludes with the research and policy implications of these findings. PMID:18458747

  17. Microsatellite analysis supports clonal propagation and reduced divergence of Trypanosoma vivax from asymptomatic to fatally infected livestock in South America compared to West Africa

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mechanical transmission of the major livestock pathogen Trypanosoma vivax by other biting flies than tsetse allows its spread from Africa to the New World. Genetic studies are restricted to a small number of isolates and based on molecular markers that evolve too slowly to resolve the relationships between American and West African populations and, thus, unable us to uncover the recent history of T. vivax in the New World. Methods T. vivax genetic diversity, population structure and the source of outbreaks was investigated through the microsatellite multiloci (7 loci) genotype (MLGs) analysis in South America (47isolates from Brazil, Venezuela and French Guiana) and West Africa (12 isolates from The Gambia, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Benin and Nigeria). Relationships among MLGs were explored using phylogenetic, principal component and STRUCTURE analyses. Results Although closely phylogenetically related, for the first time, genetic differences were detected between T. vivax isolates from South America (11 genotypes/47 isolates) and West Africa (12 genotypes/12 isolates) with no MLGs in common. Diversity was far greater across West Africa than in South America, where genotypes from Brazil (MLG1-6), Venezuela (MLG7-10) and French Guiana (MLG11) shared similar but not identical allele composition. No MLG was exclusive to asymptomatic (endemic areas) or sick (outbreaks in non-endemic areas) animals, but only MLGs1, 2 and 3 were responsible for severe haematological and neurological disorders. Conclusions Our results revealed closely related genotypes of T. vivax in Brazil and Venezuela, regardless of endemicity and clinical conditions of the infected livestock. The MLGs analysis from T. vivax across SA and WA support clonal propagation, and is consistent with the hypothesis that the SA populations examined here derived from common ancestors recently introduced from West Africa. The molecular markers defined here are valuable to assess the genetic diversity, to

  18. Meningococcal meningitis in sub-Saharan Africa: the case for mass and routine vaccination with available polysaccharide vaccines.

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, John B.; Schneerson, Rachel; Gotschlich, Emil C.; Mohammed, Idris; Nasidi, Abdulsalami; Chippaux, Jean-Philippe; Bernardino, Luis; Maiga, Moussa A.

    2003-01-01

    Endemic and epidemic group A meningococcal meningitis remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa, despite the availability of the safe and inexpensive group A meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine, which is protective at all ages when administered as directed. Despite optimal therapy, meningococcal meningitis has a 10% fatality rate and at least 15% central nervous system damage. WHO's policy of epidemic containment prevents, at best, about 50% of cases and ignores endemic meningitis, which is estimated at 50,000 cases per year. The effectiveness of group A, C, W135, and Y capsular polysaccharides is the basis for recommending universal vaccination with group A meningococcal polysaccharide twice in infancy, followed by the four-valent vaccine in children aged two and six years. This could eliminate epidemic and endemic disease, prepare for the use of conjugates when they become available, and probably could have prevented the recent epidemics of groups A and W135 meningitis in Burkina Faso. PMID:14758435

  19. Towards control of schistosomiasis in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Southgate, V R; Rollinson, D; Tchuem Tchuenté, L A; Hagan, P

    2005-09-01

    Approximately 80% of the 200 million people infected with schistosomiasis inhabit sub-Saharan Africa, and the annual mortality is estimated to be 280,000. Praziquantel is the drug of choice in the treatment of schistosomiasis and pregnant women may now be treated. It was agreed at the World Health Assembly in 2001 that at least 75% of school-aged children in high burden areas should be treated for schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminth infections by 2010 to reduce morbidity. A grant from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation to the Schistosomiasis Control Initiative, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London has enabled control programmes to be initiated in Uganda, Tanzania, Zambia, Burkina Faso, Niger and Mali. Additional programmes have recently commenced in Zanzibar with a grant from the Health Foundation to The Natural History Museum, London and in Cameroon. Combination treatment for schistosomiasis, gastrointestinal helminths and filariasis reduces costs of control programmes. The EC Concerted Action Group on 'Praziquantel: its central role in the chemotherapy of schistosome infection' met in Yaoundé Cameroon in 2004 to discuss recent developments in laboratory and field studies. The use of standard operating procedures will enable data on drug action on schistosomes produced in different laboratories to be compared. With the ever increasing use of praziquantel there is a possibility of the development of resistance by schistosomes to the drug, hence the necessity to explore the activities of other compounds. Artemether, unlike praziquantel, is effective against immature schistosomes. The effectiveness of mirazid, an extract of myrrh, is controversial as data from different laboratories are equivocal. It is suggested that an independent body such as the World Health Organization should determine whether mirazid should be used in the treatment of schistosomiasis.

  20. Africa's Great Green Wall Initiative: a model for restoration success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berrahmouni, Nora; Sacande, Moctar

    2014-05-01

    The Great Green Wall for the Sahara and the Sahel Initiative was launched to address the increasing challenges of land degradation, desertification and drought, climate change, food insecurity and poverty in more than 20 countries. Restoration of agro-sylvo-pastoral landscapes and degraded lands is one of the priority interventions initiated, enabling the springing up of green nests of life. When complete, the Great Green Wall of Africa will reverse the seemingly unstoppable desertification and address the development of its drylands' inhabitant rural communities. Today's planting of modest seedlings will grow into vast mosaics of forest and agroforestry landscapes and grasslands, which will provide essential ecosystem goods and services, restore lost livelihoods and create new wealth. The ambition of reforestation efforts within this initiative - the like of which the world has never seen before - sounds like an impossible dream. However, learning from past mistakes and capitalising on current advancement in science and technology, it is a reality that is taking root. Following a successful restoration model that RBG Kew experts have devised, we are helping to mobilise, train and support communities in four border regions in Burkina Faso, Mali and Niger. In collaboration with FAO, the Millennium Seed Bank Partnership is using its unique expertise to ensure that seeds of environmentally well-adapted and economically useful local species are collected and planted in communal gardens and village agroforestry systems managed by the communities themselves. In our first year, an estimated total of 162,000 seedlings and 61 kg of seeds from 40 useful native species, including grasses for livestock, have been planted to cover 237 ha of farmer-managed land in 19 villages. The keen interest it has created has indicated that these figures will rise five-fold in the second year. These green bricks are the foundations of the living wall that will eventually reach across the

  1. Modes, tempo and spatial variability of Cenozoic cratonic denudation: morphoclimatic constraints from West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beauvais, Anicet; Chardon, Dominique

    2010-05-01

    After the onset of Gondwana break-up in the Early Mesozoic, the emerged part of the African plate underwent long Greenhouse effect climatic periods and epeirogeny. The last Greenhouse effect period in the Early Cenozoic and the alternation of wet and dry climatic periods since the Eocene enhanced episodes of rock chemical weathering and laterite production, forming bauxites and ferricretes, interrupted by drier periods of dominantly mechanical denudation, shaping glacis [1]. In Sub-Saharan West Africa, this evolution resulted in pulsate and essentially climatically-forced denudation that has shaped an ubiquitous sequence of five stepped lateritic paleosurfaces that synchronously developed over Cenozoic times. The modes, timing and spatial variability of continental denudation of the region are investigated by combining geomorphologic and geochronological data sets. The geomorphologic data set comprises the altitudinal distribution of the lateritic paleosurfaces relicts and their differential elevation from 42 locations in Sub-Saharan West Africa where the sequence (or part of it) has been documented. The geochronological data set consists in the age ranges of each paleosurface tackled by radiometric 39Ar-40Ar dating of the neoformed oxy-hydroxides (i.e., cryptomelane, K1-2Mn8O16, nH2O, [4]) carried by their laterites at the Tambao reference site, Burkina Faso [1, 3]. Five groups of 39Ar-40Ar ages, ~ 59 - 45 Ma, ~ 29 - 24 Ma, ~ 18 - 11.5 Ma, ~ 7.2 - 5.8 Ma, and ~ 3.4 - 2.9 Ma, characterize periods of chemical weathering whereas the time laps between these groups of ages correspond to episodes of mechanical denudation that reflect physical shaping of the paleosurfaces. For the last 45 Ma, the denudation rate estimates (3 to 8 m Ma-1) are comparable with those derived on shorter time scale (103 to 106 y.) in the same region by the cosmogenic radionuclide method [2]. Combined with the geomorphologic data set, these age ranges allow the visualization of the regional

  2. Linking Remote Sensing Data and Energy Balance Models for a Scalable Agriculture Insurance System for sub-Saharan Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, M. E.; Osgood, D. E.; McCarty, J. L.; Husak, G. J.; Hain, C.; Neigh, C. S. R.

    2014-12-01

    One of the most immediate and obvious impacts of climate change is on the weather-sensitive agriculture sector. Both local and global impacts on production of food will have a negative effect on the ability of humanity to meet its growing food demands. Agriculture has become more risky, particularly for farmers in the most vulnerable and food insecure regions of the world such as East Africa. Smallholders and low-income farmers need better financial tools to reduce the risk to food security while enabling productivity increases to meet the needs of a growing population. This paper will describe a recently funded project that brings together climate science, economics, and remote sensing expertise to focus on providing a scalable and sensor-independent remote sensing based product that can be used in developing regional rainfed agriculture insurance programs around the world. We will focus our efforts in Ethiopia and Kenya in East Africa and in Senegal and Burkina Faso in West Africa, where there are active index insurance pilots that can test the effectiveness of our remote sensing-based approach for use in the agriculture insurance industry. The paper will present the overall program, explain links to the insurance industry, and present comparisons of the four remote sensing datasets used to identify drought: the CHIRPS 30-year rainfall data product, the GIMMS 30-year vegetation data product from AVHRR, the ESA soil moisture ECV-30 year soil moisture data product, and a MODIS Evapotranspiration (ET) 15-year dataset. A summary of next year's plans for this project will be presented at the close of the presentation.

  3. [Hygienic quality of meat used in institutional food services: university cafeterias in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso)].

    PubMed

    Ilboudo, A J; Savadogo, A; Barro, N; Ouedraogo, M; Traore, A S

    2009-01-01

    This present study was conducted to assess the hygienic quality of meals served in three cafeterias at the national university in Ouagadougou and the compliance of kitchen staff with good hygiene practices. Microbiological analyses assessed the hygienic quality of the raw meat and of meat-based meals. The results showed poor hygiene practices by food handlers along the food chain. These observations were confirmed by the identification of salmonella, coliform and staphylococcal bacteria in raw meat and cooked meals. Overall, 60% of the raw meat samples were unsatisfactory for aerobic mesophilic flora and 6.6% for salmonella. For the cooked meat meals, on the other hand, 45% of the samples were satisfactory for aerobic mesophilic flora, 100% for salmonella, 93.3% for fecal thermotolerant coliforms and 96.6% for staphylococci. These results showed poor hygiene in the handling of raw meat, but a clear improvement in hygienic quality after cooking. Raising the awareness of cafeteria staff about compliance with hygiene rules appears primordial. Moreover improvement of the food environment, the kitchen equipment, and organization as well as the introduction of a cleaning-disinfection programme would make it possible to provide more hygienic meals in these institutional facilities.

  4. The Economic Impact of Peacekeeping in Burkina Faso: A Motivation to Contribute

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-10

    United Nations Police UNSCR United Nations Security Council Resolution US United States USA United States of America USD United States Dollar xii...National pour la Libération de l’Azawad (MNLA), supported by Islamic extremist groups, began attacking governmental forces in the North of Mali in January...6 in Bamako. Sanogo seized power, and dissolved all institutions. The coup worsened the situation in North Mali and MNLA, with other Islamic groups

  5. [The bacterial microflora of diabetic foot infection and factors determining its spectrum in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso)].

    PubMed

    Guira, O; Tiéno, H; Traoré, S; Diallo, I; Ouangré, E; Sagna, Y; Zabsonré, J; Yanogo, D; Traoré, S S; Drabo, Y J

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to describe the bacterial microflora of diabetic foot infection and to identify the factors which determine the bacterial spectrum in order to increase empiric antibiotic prescription in Ouagadougou. The study was a cross-sectional one, carried from July 1st, 2011 to June 30, 2012 in the departments of internal medicine and general and digestive surgery in Yalgado Ouédraogo teaching hospital. Samples for bacteriological tests consisted of aspiration of pus through the healthy skin, curettage and swab of the base of the ulceration or tissue biopsy from foot lesions. The bacteria's sensitivity to antibiotics has been tested by the qualitative method (Kirby-Bauer). The frequency of diabetic foot infection was 14.45% and the monthly incidence 5.33. The mean age of patients was 56 years and the sex ratio 1.37. Foot ulcerations were chronic in 33 (51.56%), necrotic in 51 (79.69%) and associated with osteitis in 40 (62.5%) patients. Infection was grade 3 in 70.3% cases. Thirty-nine patients had received antibiotics before hospital admission. Among the 71 samples, 62 (87.32%) cultures were positive: 53 (85.48%) monomicrobial and 9 (14.52%) bimicrobial. Aerobic Gram-positive cocci (76%) were the most frequent from ulcerations: Staphylococcus aureus (32.39%), Streptococcus sp (18.30%). Negative coagulase staphylococci have been found in 23.94% cases. Aerobic gram-negative bacilli have been isolated from 24% ulcerations. No factor was associated with the type of bacteria. Gram-positive pathogen cocci showed a high sensitivity to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and oxacillin. No methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or extended-spectrum beta lactamase Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL) have been isolated. A better design is necessary to a clarification of bacterial flora in diabetic foot infections. Prevention of bacterial resistance is also needed.

  6. [Obesity, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus among school children in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso)].

    PubMed

    Ye, D; Drabo, Y J; Ouedraogo, D; Samandoulougou, A; Sawadogo, A

    2001-01-01

    This paper deals with the findings of a survey conducted at the school environnement in Ouagadougou. Three factors of cardiovascular risks were identified: obesity, high blood pressure, and diabete millitus. The survey was based on a sample of 1470 students from primary and secondary schools consisted in taking their blood pressure, measuring they weight and height and glycaemia using dextrostix. Of the 1470 students targeted, 668 were girls and 782 were boys. Their age ranges between 4 and 25 years with average age of 13.8 years. 55 % of the students had an average socio-economic backgrounds. 58 students or 3.94% had high blood pressure including 50 cases of maximum high blood pressure and 8 cases of confirmed high blood pressure (HBP). A diastolic HBP predominance among 48 cases or 3.26% was also recorded. While 1 case showed systolic HBP, 6 were systolo-diastolic. The quetelet index used to determine obesity revealed 28 cases of excess in weight or 1.90% of the cases and 4 cases of obesity, or 0.28%. The predominance of excess in weight was statistically significant among girls. Only 1 case of obesity was associated with high blood pressure. No case of diabetes was identified. The factors of cardiovascular risk seem to be statistically important in school environnement in Ouagadougou. However, an muticentered study is recommended, as it will lead to an exhaustive knowledge of the prevalence of these factors of cardiovascular risk.

  7. Ostéogenèse imparfaite: à propos de quatre cas à Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso)

    PubMed Central

    Kaboré, Aïssata; Cissé, Aissata; Yonaba, Caroline; Savadogo, Hamidou; Ouédraogo, Sylvie Armelle; Dao, Lassina; Kaboret, Sonia; Nagalo, Kisito; Koueta, Fla; Bandré, Emile; Yé, Diarra; Kam, Ludovic

    2015-01-01

    L'ostéogenèse imparfaite (OI) regroupe un ensemble d'affections constitutionnelles de gravité variable dû à une anomalie de la production du collagène et de la matrice de l'os entraînant une fragilité osseuse. La présente étude rapporte quatre cas d'ostéogenèse imparfaite suivis aux Centres Hospitaliers Universitaires Charles de Gaulle et Yalgado Ouédraogo. Le but de ce travail était d'analyser les aspects cliniques, thérapeutiques et évolutifs de la maladie. Cette étude souligne la nécessité d'améliorer la prise en charge de cette maladie rare mais non exceptionnelle et handicapante. PMID:26834922

  8. Molecular Characterization of High-Risk Human Papillomavirus in Women in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Traore, Ina Marie Angèle; Dembele, Adama; Obiri-Yeboah, Dorcas; Traore, Germain; Bambara, Moussa; Ouedraogo, Charlemagne; Traore, Yves

    2016-01-01

    High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is found in over 99% of cervical cancers. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of HPV in a population of women in Bobo-Dioulasso and to identify the high-risk types present in these women. From May to June, 2015, 181 women who came for consultation at the Souro Sanou University Hospital of Bobo-Dioulasso have been included in this study. Uterine endocervical swabs have been taken in these women. DNA obtained by extraction from the samples thus collected was used to determine the prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus genotypes through real-time PCR. The age of the women ranged from 20 to 56 years with a mean of 35.3 ± 8.1 years. The prevalence of infection by high-risk HPV types was 25.4% (46/181). The most common high-risk HPV genotypes were HPV 39 (18.5%), HPV 52 (16.7%), HPV 18 (14.8%), and HPV 35 (13.0%). HPV 16 which is included in the HPV vaccines was not found in the population studied. This type of study which is the first one in Bobo-Dioulasso has showed a high prevalence of genotypes HPV 39, HPV 52, and HPV 35 which are not yet covered by a vaccine. PMID:27525275

  9. Applying research to AIDS programs in villages. Burkina Faso project learns from community survey.

    PubMed

    Tankoano, F

    1994-01-01

    In 1991, 34 cases of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were recorded for the province of Bam, which has a population of 4239. Since 1992, PLAN and the local Ministry of Health have been conducting an AIDS prevention program in the province. An initial baseline community survey to assess knowledge, attitude, and practices about the disease was conducted in order to tailor the program to the needs and characteristics of the target population. A questionnaire was administered to 300 randomly selected adults in 10 rural villages. The sexes were equally represented. 74% of the villagers were found to be illiterate and the major sources of health information were radio, health facilities, and friends and relatives; therefore, educational activities were carried out through non-written methods (traditional and modern) that employed these communication channels. Initially, 5 men and 5 women ("Village Communicators") were selected by their communities to be trained in information, education, and communication (IEC) techniques regarding AIDS prevention; under the supervision of their trainers, they organized and conducted 2 weekly sessions. An additional 62 women and 50 men were trained as Village Communicators to promote AIDS awareness among their own gender. A team of health personnel, artists, and a traditional music group conducted collective sessions to promote condom use and address problems relating to AIDS (polygamy, remarrying of spouses of AIDS victims, availability of testing during prenuptial visits). Although 90% of respondents had heard about AIDS, 30% did not understand the disease or its routes of transmission; so messages about the effects and the transmission of AIDS were emphasized. Because 56% of respondents admitted having had 2 or more sex partners, and a similar percentage admitted having had 2 or more sexual encounters per week, messages were disseminated on sexuality using community volunteers and the folkloric band. 42% of respondents were aware of the protective effect of condoms, but only 9% used them during their last sexual encounter; so village l