Science.gov

Sample records for africa central asia

  1. Diarrhea and respiratory symptoms among travelers to Asia, Africa, and South and Central America from Scotland.

    PubMed

    Redman, Christopher Allan; Maclennan, Alice; Wilson, Eleanor; Walker, Eric

    2006-01-01

    Surveillance using admissions to hospital, while being useful, is a poor indicator of the real incidence of disease encountered by travelers. An alternative is self-reported illness among those who attended at a pretravel clinic prior to their travels. Estimates of incidence and risk factors were determined for attendees at a travel clinic in Scotland using a questionnaire. Analysis for risk factors was carried out for those travelers visiting countries in Africa, Asia, or South and Central America, who had traveled for 1 week or more and had returned between 1997 and 2001 (N= 4,856). Multivariate logistic regression was used to test the hypotheses that time abroad and age-group would be significant for both respiratory and diarrheal symptoms regardless of which of the three geographical areas are visited. From 2006 returned questionnaires (response rate = 41.3%), diarrhea and respiratory symptoms were reported by 44.2 and 16.8% of respondents, respectively; the incidence was significantly greater among travelers to Asia for both diarrheal (55.5%) and respiratory (23.7%) symptoms than among travelers to Africa (36.6 and 12.2%, respectively) or South and Central America (39.5 and 16.2%, respectively). For diarrhea, age was a highly significant risk factor for travelers to Asia, South and Central America, and Africa. Being a self-organized tourist/backpacker, traveling to Asia was associated with increased risk, while for Africa and South and Central America visiting family or friends was associated with a lower risk. For travelers to Asia, traveling to the Indian subcontinent was significantly associated with increased risk. The majority of travelers had an adverse event while traveling abroad, with diarrhea and respiratory conditions being especially common despite attending a travel clinic for advice prior to departure. However, the limitations of this surveillance-based strategy have highlighted the requirement for more research to understand more fully the

  2. High level of molecular and phenotypic biodiversity in Jatropha curcas from Central America compared to Africa, Asia and South America

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The main bottleneck to elevate jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.) from a wild species to a profitable biodiesel crop is the low genetic and phenotypic variation found in different regions of the world, hampering efficient plant breeding for productivity traits. In this study, 182 accessions from Asia (91), Africa (35), South America (9) and Central America (47) were evaluated at genetic and phenotypic level to find genetic variation and important traits for oilseed production. Results Genetic variation was assessed with SSR (Simple Sequence Repeat), TRAP (Target Region Amplification Polymorphism) and AFLP (Amplified fragment length polymorphism) techniques. Phenotypic variation included seed morphological characteristics, seed oil content and fatty acid composition and early growth traits. Jaccard’s similarity and cluster analysis by UPGM (Unweighted Paired Group Method) with arithmetic mean and PCA (Principle Component Analysis) indicated higher variability in Central American accessions compared to Asian, African and South American accessions. Polymorphism Information Content (PIC) values ranged from 0 to 0.65. In the set of Central American accessions. PIC values were higher than in other regions. Accessions from the Central American population contain alleles that were not found in the accessions from other populations. Analysis of Molecular Variance (AMOVA; P < 0.0001) indicated high genetic variation within regions (81.7%) and low variation across regions (18.3%). A high level of genetic variation was found on early growth traits and on components of the relative growth rate (specific leaf area, leaf weight, leaf weight ratio and net assimilation rate) as indicated by significant differences between accessions and by the high heritability values (50–88%). The fatty acid composition of jatropha oil significantly differed (P < 0.05) between regions. Conclusions The pool of Central American accessions showed very large genetic variation as

  3. Multicultural Central Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, Eric D.

    This article addresses the multicultural aspect of Central Asia in response to the discussion on diversity in U.S. classrooms. Many areas of the world are more diverse than the U.S., and these areas experience successes and failures with many of the same issues the U.S. is currently struggling with. Comparing the U.S. diversity debate with similar…

  4. Short-term risk of anaemia following initiation of combination antiretroviral treatment in HIV-infected patients in countries in sub-Saharan Africa, Asia-Pacific, and central and South America

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The objective was to examine the short-term risk and predictors of anaemia following initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in HIV-infected patients from the Western Africa, Eastern Africa, Southern Africa, Central Africa, Asian-Pacific, and Caribbean and Central and South America regions of the International Epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) collaboration. Methods Anaemia was defined as haemoglobin of < 10 g/dL. Patients were included if they started cART with three or more drugs, had prior haemoglobin of > = 10 g/dL, and had one or more follow-up haemoglobin tests. Factors associated with anaemia up to 12 months were examined using Cox proportional hazards models and stratified by IeDEA region. Results Between 1998 and 2008, 19,947 patients initiated cART with baseline and follow-up haemoglobin tests (7358, 7289, 2853, 471, 1550 and 426 in the Western Africa, Eastern Africa, Southern Africa, Central Africa, Asian-Pacific, and Caribbean and Central and South America regions, respectively). At initiation, anaemia was found in 45% of Western Africa patients, 29% of Eastern Africa patients, 21% of Southern Africa patients, 36% of Central Africa patients, 15% of patients in Asian-Pacific and 14% of patients in Caribbean and Central and South America. Among patients with haemoglobin of > = 10 g/dL at baseline (13,445), the risks of anaemia were 18.2, 6.6, 9.7, 22.9, 11.8 and 19.5 per 100 person-years in the Western Africa, Eastern Africa, Southern Africa, Central Africa, Asian, and Caribbean and Central and South America regions, respectively. Factors associated with anaemia were female sex, low baseline haemoglobin level, low baseline CD4 count, more advanced disease stage, and initial cART containing zidovudine. Conclusions In data from 34 cohorts of HIV-infected patients from sub-Saharan Africa, Central and South America, and Asia, the risk of anaemia within 12 months of initiating cART was moderate. Routine haemoglobin

  5. Central Asia Active Fault Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohadjer, Solmaz; Ehlers, Todd A.; Kakar, Najibullah

    2014-05-01

    The ongoing collision of the Indian subcontinent with Asia controls active tectonics and seismicity in Central Asia. This motion is accommodated by faults that have historically caused devastating earthquakes and continue to pose serious threats to the population at risk. Despite international and regional efforts to assess seismic hazards in Central Asia, little attention has been given to development of a comprehensive database for active faults in the region. To address this issue and to better understand the distribution and level of seismic hazard in Central Asia, we are developing a publically available database for active faults of Central Asia (including but not limited to Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, northern Pakistan and western China) using ArcGIS. The database is designed to allow users to store, map and query important fault parameters such as fault location, displacement history, rate of movement, and other data relevant to seismic hazard studies including fault trench locations, geochronology constraints, and seismic studies. Data sources integrated into the database include previously published maps and scientific investigations as well as strain rate measurements and historic and recent seismicity. In addition, high resolution Quickbird, Spot, and Aster imagery are used for selected features to locate and measure offset of landforms associated with Quaternary faulting. These features are individually digitized and linked to attribute tables that provide a description for each feature. Preliminary observations include inconsistent and sometimes inaccurate information for faults documented in different studies. For example, the Darvaz-Karakul fault which roughly defines the western margin of the Pamir, has been mapped with differences in location of up to 12 kilometers. The sense of motion for this fault ranges from unknown to thrust and strike-slip in three different studies despite documented left-lateral displacements of Holocene and late

  6. Is Central Asia really exsiccating?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aizen, V. B.; Aizen, E. M.; Surazakov, A. B.

    2008-12-01

    At the end of 20th and the beginning of 21st century central Asia oases suffered from serious drought caused lack of water for agriculture, economy growth and population increase. However, people of this region always experienced lack of water for irrigation and fought a war over the rights to control river streams. The drying up of central Asian rivers is not a new phenomenon according to the ancient manuscripts. Thus, lets see about what has happened with the past century climate and water resources of central Asia using the long-term observational data. We analyzed data from more than 200 meteorological stations and stream gauges over the central Asia in elevation range from 25 m. b.s.l. to 4,000 m. a.s.l. to understand the last 100 years variability in climate and water resources, examining changes in the extreme and mean monthly air temperatures, precipitation and river runoff. The evaluation of seasonal snow and glacier's covered areas between 1970th and 2007th in central Asia derived from AVHRR, MODIS, Hexagon KH-9, Landsat ETM and ASTER data exhibit 15% reduction of the seasonal snow covered area and 10.1% of the glacier area. It has been found that during last twenty years the duration of snowmelt, from the date of maximum snow cover to date of its disappearance, reduced by 30 days and in 2007 was equal to 138 days in the central Asian mountains. The decrease of seasonal snow cover is not a linear process. The further decrease may be accelerated due to increase of rainfall instead of snowfall in early spring months at high elevations, and consequently a lesser heat expenditure for the snowmelt. The growth in summer air temperatures, especially observable since the 1970th, accompanied by increase of evapotranspiration and precipitation, notably in summer and autumn, and at high elevations over 3,000 m, and at the western peripheral mountain ridges. Average difference in the means of annual air temperatures for the two thirty-year periods before and after

  7. Tethyan evolution of central Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Sengor, A.M.C. )

    1990-05-01

    The study area extends from the eastern shores of the Caspian Sea in the west to the Helan Shan and Longmen Shan in the east and from about 40{degree}N parallel in the north to the neo-Tethyan sutures in the south, thus including what is called Middle Asia in the Soviet literature. In the region thus delineated lies the boundary between the largely late Paleozoic core of Asia (Altaids) and the Tethyside superorogenic complex. This boundary passes through continental objects that collided with nuclear Asia in the late Paleozoic to terminate its Altaid evolution. Subduction to the south of some of these had commenced before they collided (e.g., Tarim in the Kuen-Lun), in others later (e.g., South Ghissar area west of Pamirs). This subduction 1ed, in the late Paleozoic, to the opening of marginal basins, at least one of which may be partly extant (Tarim). Giant subduction accretion complexes of Paleozoic to earliest Triassic age dominate farther south in the basement of Turan (mainly in Turkmenian SSR) and in the Kuen-Lun/Nan Shan ranges. No discrete continental collisions or any continental basement in these regions could be unequivocally recognized contrary to most current interpretations. Magmatic arcs that developed along the southern margin of Asia in the late Paleozoic to early Mesozoic grew atop these subduction-accretion complexes and record a gradual southerly migration of magmatism through time. Subduction also dominated the northern margin of Gondwanaland between Iran and China in late Paleozoic time, although the record in Afghanistan and northwest Tibet is scrappy. It led to back-arc basin formation, which in Iran and Oman became neo-Tethys and, in at least parts of central Asia, the Waser-Mushan-Pshart/Banggong Co-Nu Jiang ocean. This ocean was probably connected with the Omani part of the neo-Tethys via the Sistan region.

  8. Central and southern Africa

    SciTech Connect

    McGrew, H.J.

    1981-10-01

    Exploration in central and southern Africa continued to expand during 1980. The greatest concentration of activity was in Nigeria. However, there was considerable increase in the level of exploratory work in Cameroon and Congo. Significant new finds have been made in Ivory Coast. Geological and geophysical activity was carried out in 18 of the countries, with those in the western part having the largest share. Seismic work involved 225 party months of operation. Most of this time was spent on land, but marine operations accounted for 73,389 km of new control. Gravity and magnetic data were recorded during the marine surveys, and several large aeromagnetic projects were undertaken to obtain a total of 164,498 line km of data. Exploratory and development drilling accounted for a total of 304 wells and 2,605,044 ft (794,212 m) of hole. The 92 exploratory wells that were drilled resulted in 47 oil and gas discoveries. In development drilling 89% of the 212 wells were successful. At the end of the year, 27 exploratory wells were underway, and 34 development wells were being drilled for a total of 61. Oil production from the countries that this review covers was 918,747,009 bbl in 1980, a drop of about 9% from the previous year. Countries showing a decline in production were Nigeria, Gabon, Cabinda, and Zaire. Increases were recorded in Cameroon, Congo, and Ghana. A new country was added to the list of producers when production from the Belier field in Ivory Coast came on stream. 33 figures, 15 tables.

  9. Traveling Policies: Hijacked in Central Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silova, Iveta

    2005-01-01

    Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, Central Asian education reform discourses have become increasingly similar to distinctive Western policy discourses traveling globally across national boundaries. Tracing the trajectory of "traveling policies" in Central Asia, this article discusses the way Western education discourses have been hybridized…

  10. Health challenges in Kazakhstan and Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Adambekov, Shalkar; Kaiyrlykyzy, Aiym; Igissinov, Nurbek; Linkov, Faina

    2016-01-01

    The Central Asian region, which encompasses Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Kyrgyzstan, is an interesting geographic region with a rich history dating back to the Silk Road, Mongol conquests and expansion of the Russian Empire. However, from a public health viewpoint, the Central Asian region is under-investigated, and many public health challenges exist, as countries of Central Asia inherited the centralised medical systems practiced in the Soviet Union, and are currently undergoing rapid transitions. A large number of low and middle-income countries around the world, including countries of Central Asia, face a double burden of chronic and infectious disease. This essay focuses on the exploration of the most important public health challenges in the Central Asian region, including limited scientific productivity, the double burden of chronic and infectious disease, the need for healthcare reform and the reduction in care variation. Central Asia has a large number of medical schools, medical centres, and emerging research institutes that can be used to foster a change in medical and public health practice in the region. PMID:26254293

  11. Estimating the burden of paratyphoid a in Asia and Africa.

    PubMed

    Arndt, Michael B; Mosites, Emily M; Tian, Mu; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H; Mokhdad, Ali H; Meller, Margaret; Ochiai, Rion L; Walson, Judd L

    2014-06-01

    Despite the increasing availability of typhoid vaccine in many regions, global estimates of mortality attributable to enteric fever appear stable. While both Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) and serovar Paratyphi (S. Paratyphi) cause enteric fever, limited data exist estimating the burden of S. Paratyphi, particularly in Asia and Africa. We performed a systematic review of both English and Chinese-language databases to estimate the regional burden of paratyphoid within Africa and Asia. Distinct from previous reviews of the topic, we have presented two separate measures of burden; both incidence and proportion of enteric fever attributable to paratyphoid. Included articles reported laboratory-confirmed Salmonella serovar classification, provided clear methods on sampling strategy, defined the age range of participants, and specified the time period of the study. A total of 64 full-text articles satisfied inclusion criteria and were included in the qualitative synthesis. Paratyphoid A was commonly identified as a cause of enteric fever throughout Asia. The highest incidence estimates in Asia came from China; four studies estimated incidence rates of over 150 cases/100,000 person-years. Paratyphoid A burden estimates from Africa were extremely limited and with the exception of Nigeria, few population or hospital-based studies from Africa reported significant Paratyphoid A burden. While significant gaps exist in the existing population-level estimates of paratyphoid burden in Asia and Africa, available data suggest that paratyphoid A is a significant cause of enteric fever in Asia. The high variability in documented incidence and proportion estimates of paratyphoid suggest considerable geospatial variability in the burden of paratyphoid fever. Additional efforts to monitor enteric fever at the population level will be necessary in order to accurately quantify the public health threat posed by S. Paratyphi A, and to improve the prevention and treatment of

  12. Estimating the Burden of Paratyphoid A in Asia and Africa

    PubMed Central

    Arndt, Michael B.; Mosites, Emily M.; Tian, Mu; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H.; Mokhdad, Ali H.; Meller, Margaret; Ochiai, Rion L.; Walson, Judd L.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the increasing availability of typhoid vaccine in many regions, global estimates of mortality attributable to enteric fever appear stable. While both Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) and serovar Paratyphi (S. Paratyphi) cause enteric fever, limited data exist estimating the burden of S. Paratyphi, particularly in Asia and Africa. We performed a systematic review of both English and Chinese-language databases to estimate the regional burden of paratyphoid within Africa and Asia. Distinct from previous reviews of the topic, we have presented two separate measures of burden; both incidence and proportion of enteric fever attributable to paratyphoid. Included articles reported laboratory-confirmed Salmonella serovar classification, provided clear methods on sampling strategy, defined the age range of participants, and specified the time period of the study. A total of 64 full-text articles satisfied inclusion criteria and were included in the qualitative synthesis. Paratyphoid A was commonly identified as a cause of enteric fever throughout Asia. The highest incidence estimates in Asia came from China; four studies estimated incidence rates of over 150 cases/100,000 person-years. Paratyphoid A burden estimates from Africa were extremely limited and with the exception of Nigeria, few population or hospital-based studies from Africa reported significant Paratyphoid A burden. While significant gaps exist in the existing population-level estimates of paratyphoid burden in Asia and Africa, available data suggest that paratyphoid A is a significant cause of enteric fever in Asia. The high variability in documented incidence and proportion estimates of paratyphoid suggest considerable geospatial variability in the burden of paratyphoid fever. Additional efforts to monitor enteric fever at the population level will be necessary in order to accurately quantify the public health threat posed by S. Paratyphi A, and to improve the prevention and treatment of

  13. Regulatory Regionalism and Education: The European Union in Central Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the purchase which Jayasuriya's regulatory regionalism approach offers for an analysis of the European Union's engagement in Central Asia. The European Union has a clearly articulated strategy through which to pursue what it sees as its interests in Central Asia and the development of a range of EU-Central Asia education…

  14. Directory of Engineering Education Institutions: Africa, Asia, Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    This directory presents data on 458 degree-awarding engineering education institutions in countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Data include the general educational pattern of the country and specific institutional information such as: structure, staff, enrollment, research, specializations offered, address, academic period, admissions…

  15. Africa, Asia, Europe, and Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loh, Eudora I.

    1992-01-01

    This annotated bibliography lists 30 government documents published between 1988 and 1991 by Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Burundi, Chile, China, Columbia, Denmark, France, Gambia, Guinea Bissau, Hong Kong, India, Italy, Luxembourg, Mexico, Nepal, Nigeria, Portugal, Rwanda, South Africa, and Thailand. Topics addressed include the environment,…

  16. Africa, Asia, Europe, and Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loh, Eudora I.

    1994-01-01

    Annotates 25 publications from 19 countries: Bolivia, Brazil, Cape Verde, Chile, Dominican Republic, Hungary, India, Ireland, Jamaica, Malaysia, Mexico, Morocco, Mozambique, Netherlands, Niger, Nigeria, Peru, South Africa, and Venezuela. Topics include the environment, women's role, and household consumption and expenditures. The publication of an…

  17. A Quaternary fault database for central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohadjer, Solmaz; Ehlers, Todd Alan; Bendick, Rebecca; Stübner, Konstanze; Strube, Timo

    2016-02-01

    Earthquakes represent the highest risk in terms of potential loss of lives and economic damage for central Asian countries. Knowledge of fault location and behavior is essential in calculating and mapping seismic hazard. Previous efforts in compiling fault information for central Asia have generated a large amount of data that are published in limited-access journals with no digital maps publicly available, or are limited in their description of important fault parameters such as slip rates. This study builds on previous work by improving access to fault information through a web-based interactive map and an online database with search capabilities that allow users to organize data by different fields. The data presented in this compilation include fault location, its geographic, seismic, and structural characteristics, short descriptions, narrative comments, and references to peer-reviewed publications. The interactive map displays 1196 fault traces and 34 000 earthquake locations on a shaded-relief map. The online database contains attributes for 123 faults mentioned in the literature, with Quaternary and geodetic slip rates reported for 38 and 26 faults respectively, and earthquake history reported for 39 faults. All data are accessible for viewing and download via http://www.geo.uni-tuebingen.de/faults/. This work has implications for seismic hazard studies in central Asia as it summarizes important fault parameters, and can reduce earthquake risk by enhancing public access to information. It also allows scientists and hazard assessment teams to identify structures and regions where data gaps exist and future investigations are needed.

  18. A Quaternary Fault Database for Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohadjer, S.; Ehlers, T. A.; Bendick, R.; Stübner, K.; Strube, T.

    2015-09-01

    Earthquakes represent the highest risk in terms of potential loss of lives and economic damage for Central Asian countries. Knowledge of fault location and behavior is essential in calculating and mapping seismic hazard. Previous efforts in compiling fault information for Central Asia have generated a large amount of data that are published in limited-access journals with no digital maps publicly available, or are limited in their description of important fault parameters such as slip rates. This study builds on previous work by improving access to fault information through a web-based interactive map and an online database with search capabilities that allow users to organize data by different fields. The data presented in this compilation include fault location, its geographic, seismic and structural characteristics, short descriptions, narrative comments and references to peer-reviewed publications. The interactive map displays 1196 fault segments and 34 000 earthquake locations on a shaded-relief map. The online database contains attributes for 122 faults mentioned in the literature, with Quaternary and geodetic slip rates reported for 38 and 26 faults respectively, and earthquake history reported for 39 faults. This work has implications for seismic hazard studies in Central Asia as it summarizes important fault parameters, and can reduce earthquake risk by enhancing public access to information. It also allows scientists and hazard assessment teams to identify structures and regions where data gaps exist and future investigations are needed.

  19. Geodynamics of Cenozoic deformation in central Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, H.-S.

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the tectonic stresses in central Asia based on an interpretation of satellite gravity data for mantle convection and supplemented with published fault plane solutions of earthquakes. Northwest-southeast to north-south compressional stresses exist in the Tien Shan region where reverse faulting dominates. The maximum compressive stress is oriented approximately northeast-southwest in the regions of Altai and southern Mongolia. Farther north, compressive stress gives way to tensional stress which causes normal faulting in the Baikal rift system. It is also shown that all of the tectonic stresses in the Tibetan plateau and Himalayan frontal thrust are related to the convection-generated stress patterns inferred from satellite gravity data. These results suggest that the complex crustal deformation in central Asia can be convincingly described by the deformation of the lithosphere on top of the up- and down-welling asthenospheric material beneath it. This observational fact may not only upset the simple view of the fluid crustal model of the Tibetan plateau, but also provide some useful constraints for the future development of deformation theory of continental crust.

  20. Prevalence and Social Determinants of Smoking in 15 Countries from North Africa, Central and Western Asia, Latin America and Caribbean: Secondary Data Analyses of Demographic and Health Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T.; Pradhan, Pranil Man Singh

    2015-01-01

    Background Article 20 of the World Health Organisation Framework Convention on Tobacco Control calls for a cross-country surveillance of tobacco use through population-based surveys. We aimed to provide country-level prevalence estimates for current smoking and current smokeless tobacco use and to assess social determinants of smoking. Methods Data from Demographic and Health Surveys done between 2005 and 2012, among men and women from nine North African, Central and West Asian countries and six Latin American and Caribbean countries were analyzed. Weighted country-level prevalence rates were estimated for ‘current smoking’ and ‘current use of smokeless tobacco (SLT) products’ among men and women. In each country, social determinants of smoking among men and women were assessed by binary logistic regression analyses by including men's and women's sampling weights to account for the complex survey design. Findings Prevalence of smoking among men was higher than 40% in Armenia (63.1%), Moldova (51.1%), Ukraine (52%), Azerbaijan (49.8 %), Kyrgyz Republic (44.3 %) and Albania (42.52%) but the prevalence of smoking among women was less than 10% in most countries except Ukraine (14.81%) and Jordan (17.96%). The prevalence of smokeless tobacco use among men and women was less than 5% in all countries except among men in the Kyrgyz Republic (10.6 %). Smoking was associated with older age, lower education and poverty among men and higher education and higher wealth among women. Smoking among both men and women was associated with unskilled work, living in urban areas and being single. Conclusion Smoking among men was very high in Central and West Asian countries. Social pattern of smoking among women that was different from men in education and wealth should be considered while formulating tobacco control policies in some Central and West Asian countries. PMID:26131888

  1. Radioactive Waste Management in Central Asia - 12034

    SciTech Connect

    Zhunussova, Tamara; Sneve, Malgorzata; Liland, Astrid

    2012-07-01

    After the collapse of the Soviet Union the newly independent states in Central Asia (CA) whose regulatory bodies were set up recently are facing problems with the proper management of radioactive waste and so called 'nuclear legacy' inherited from the past activities. During the former Soviet Union (SU) period, various aspects of nuclear energy use took place in CA republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. Activities range from peaceful use of energy to nuclear testing for example at the former Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS) in Kazakhstan, and uranium mining and milling industries in all four countries. Large amounts of radioactive waste (RW) have been accumulated in Central Asia and are waiting for its safe disposal. In 2008 the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA), with the support of the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, has developed bilateral projects that aim to assist the regulatory bodies in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan (from 2010) to identify and draft relevant regulatory requirements to ensure the protection of the personnel, population and environment during the planning and execution of remedial actions for past practices and radioactive waste management in the CA countries. The participating regulatory authorities included: Kazakhstan Atomic Energy Agency, Kyrgyzstan State Agency on Environmental Protection and Forestry, Nuclear Safety Agency of Tajikistan, and State Inspectorate on Safety in Industry and Mining of Uzbekistan. The scope of the projects is to ensure that activities related to radioactive waste management in both planned and existing exposure situations in CA will be carried out in accordance with the international guidance and recommendations, taking into account the relevant regulatory practice from other countries in this area. In order to understand the problems in the field of radioactive waste management we have analysed the existing regulations through the so

  2. Climate change and terrestrial carbon sequestration in Central Asia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The topic of terrestrial carbon sequestration in Central Asia is extremely relevant and timely due to the increasing problem of land degradation and desertification in this region. Serious problems of soil and environmental degradation in general and that in Central Asia in particular exacerbated b...

  3. Global warming threatens agricultural productivity in Africa and South Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sultan, Benjamin

    2012-12-01

    The Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC; Christensen et al 2007) has, with greater confidence than previous reports, warned the international community that the increase in anthropogenic greenhouse gases emissions will result in global climate change. One of the most direct and threatening impacts it may have on human societies is the potential consequences on global crop production. Indeed agriculture is considered as the most weather-dependent of all human activities (Hansen 2002) since climate is a primary determinant for agricultural productivity. The potential impact of climate change on crop productivity is an additional strain on the global food system which is already facing the difficult challenge of increasing food production to feed a projected 9 billion people by 2050 with changing consumption patterns and growing scarcity of water and land (Beddington 2010). In some regions such as Sub-Saharan Africa or South Asia that are already food insecure and where most of the population increase and economic development will take place, climate change could be the additional stress that pushes systems over the edge. A striking example, if needed, is the work from Collomb (1999) which estimates that by 2050 food needs will more than quintuple in Africa and more than double in Asia. Better knowledge of climate change impacts on crop productivity in those vulnerable regions is crucial to inform policies and to support adaptation strategies that may counteract the adverse effects. Although there is a growing literature on the impact of climate change on crop productivity in tropical regions, it is difficult to provide a consistent assessment of future yield changes because of large uncertainties in regional climate change projections, in the response of crops to environmental change (rainfall, temperature, CO2 concentration), in the coupling between climate models and crop productivity functions, and in the adaptation of

  4. Hepatitis B epidemiology in Asia, the Middle East and Africa.

    PubMed

    André, F

    2000-02-18

    Asia and Africa have previously been classified as areas of high endemicity for hepatitis B virus (HBV), but in some countries highly effective vaccination programmes have shifted this pattern towards intermediate or low endemicity. Thus, China is now the only country in Asia where HBV endemicity is high. Countries with intermediate endemicity include India, Korea, the Philippines, Taiwan and Thailand, and those with low endemicity include Japan, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Singapore, Sri Lanka and Malaysia. Most countries in Africa have high HBV endemicity, with the exceptions of Tunisia and Morocco, which have intermediate endemicity. Zambia has borderline intermediate/high endemicity. In the Middle East, Bahrain, Iran, Israel and Kuwait are areas of low endemicity, Cyprus, Iraq and the United Arab Emirates have intermediate endemicity, and Egypt, Jordan, Oman, Palestine, Yemen and Saudi Arabia have high endemicity. All of these Middle East countries reach a large proportion of their population with hepatitis B vaccination, which is reducing the infection rate, particularly in Saudi Arabia. The vaccination programme in Taiwan has also greatly reduced the HBV infection rate. Future vaccination programmes must take into account the mode of transmission of HBV, the healthcare infrastructure to deliver vaccination, and the socioeconomic and political factors in each individual country, to determine the most cost-effective way of infection control. PMID:10683538

  5. The Plasmodium vivax in China: decreased in local cases but increased imported cases from Southeast Asia and Africa

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Jun; Xiao, Huihui; Zhang, Li; Yan, He; Feng, Xinyu; Fang, Wen; Xia, Zhigui

    2015-01-01

    Currently the local P. vivax was sharply decreased while the imported vivax malaria increased in China. Despite Southeast Asia was still the main import source of vivax malaria, the trend of Africa become serious, especially for west and central Africa. Herein we have clarified the trend of P. vivax in China from 2004–2012, and made some analysis for the differences of imported vivax back from different regions. There are significantly different of P. vivax between Southeast Asia and Africa, also the difference was observed for different regions in Africa. Additionally, we have explored the possibility for the difference of the P. vivax between migrant workers back from west and central Africa and the prevalence of local population. This reminds us that surveillance and training should be strengthened by medical staffs on the imported P. vivax cases reported especially from west and central Africa, in order to reduce the risk of malaria reintroduction and, specific tools should be developed, as well as the epidemiological study to avoid the misdiagnosis such as P. ovale and P. vivax. PMID:25739365

  6. Contextual factors influencing HIV risk behavior in Central Asia

    PubMed Central

    Smolak, Alex

    2010-01-01

    Central Asia has experienced a rapid increase in HIV. HIV interventions and prevention programmes are needed that adequately appreciate and account for the ways that ongoing cultural, political, and economic changes in this region affect HIV risk reduction efforts. Drawing on relevant literature, this paper provides a contextual foundation to better understand the impact of context on HIV risk behaviour in the countries of Central Asia and to begin the conversation on the contextual factors of Islam and polygamy. PMID:20301020

  7. Meeting Asia's future gas import demand with stranded natural gas from central Asia, Russia, Southeast Asia, and Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Attanasi, E.D.; Freeman, P.A.

    2013-01-01

    This analysis shows the important contribution that stranded gas from central Asia, Russia, Southeast Asia, and Australia can make in meeting the projected demand for gas imports of China, India, Japan, and South Korea from 2020 to 2040. The estimated delivered costs of pipeline gas from stranded fields in Russia and central Asia at Shanghai, China, are generally less than delivered costs of liquefied natural gas (LNG). Australia and Malaysia are initially the lowest-cost LNG suppliers. In the concluding section, it is argued that Asian LNG demand is price sensitive, and that current Asian LNG pricing procedures are unlikely to be sustainable for gas import demand to attain maximum potential growth. Resource volumes in stranded fields evaluated can nearly meet projected import demands.

  8. Seismic hazard assessment in Central Asia using smoothed seismicity approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullah, Shahid; Bindi, Dino; Zuccolo, Elisa; Mikhailova, Natalia; Danciu, Laurentiu; Parolai, Stefano

    2014-05-01

    Central Asia has a long history of large to moderate frequent seismicity and is therefore considered one of the most seismically active regions with a high hazard level in the world. In the hazard map produced at global scale by GSHAP project in 1999( Giardini, 1999), Central Asia is characterized by peak ground accelerations with return period of 475 years as high as 4.8 m/s2. Therefore Central Asia was selected as a target area for EMCA project (Earthquake Model Central Asia), a regional project of GEM (Global Earthquake Model) for this area. In the framework of EMCA, a new generation of seismic hazard maps are foreseen in terms of macro-seismic intensity, in turn to be used to obtain seismic risk maps for the region. Therefore Intensity Prediction Equation (IPE) had been developed for the region based on the distribution of intensity data for different earthquakes occurred in Central Asia since the end of 19th century (Bindi et al. 2011). The same observed intensity distribution had been used to assess the seismic hazard following the site approach (Bindi et al. 2012). In this study, we present the probabilistic seismic hazard assessment of Central Asia in terms of MSK-64 based on two kernel estimation methods. We consider the smoothed seismicity approaches of Frankel (1995), modified for considering the adaptive kernel proposed by Stock and Smith (2002), and of Woo (1996), modified for considering a grid of sites and estimating a separate bandwidth for each site. The activity rate maps are shown from Frankel approach showing the effects of fixed and adaptive kernel. The hazard is estimated for rock site condition based on 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years. Maximum intensity of about 9 is observed in the Hindukush region.

  9. Challenges in Contemporary Higher Education in Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabzalieva, Emma

    2015-01-01

    Largely unknown to most of the world, Kyrgyzstan has a flourishing higher education (HE) sector, with more universities per head than other countries with similar populations. Kyrgyzstan is also a major regional importer of international students in Central Asia. This paper opens up this understudied country in three ways: first, through a brief…

  10. Environmental Aesthetics, Social Engagement and Aesthetic Experiences in Central Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breed, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    In this essay, I explore the Youth Theatre for Peace (YTP) project in relation to environmental aesthetics and engaged participatory practices towards tolerance building in Central Asia. My main argument is that cultural histories of storytelling, "manas" (an oral and now literary Kyrgyz epic) and trickster tales incorporate ideas and…

  11. The Cultural and Ecological "Worlds" of Central Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quigley, Cassie; Allspaw, Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    With a grant through Indiana University's Inner Asian & Uralic National Resource Center, the authors developed an online, five-week unit that discusses the cultural and ecological "worlds" of central Asia, specifically the countries of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Turkmenistan. There are two main ideas throughout this…

  12. PEOPLES OF CENTRAL ASIA. URALIC AND ALTAIC SERIES, VOLUME 26.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KRADER, LAWRENCE

    THE PRIMARY PURPOSE OF THIS VOLUME IS TO INTRODUCE THE READER TO THE INDIGENOUS PEOPLES AND CULTURES OF CENTRAL ASIA, WITH A SECONDARY FOCUS ON THE CHANGES WHICH TOOK PLACE DURING THE PERIODS OF TSARIST AND SOVIET RULE. CHAPTERS ARE ARRANGED IN THE FOLLOWING ORDER--(I) ECOLOGY AND ECONOMY, (II) LANGUAGES, WITH APPENDED INFORMATION ON TURKIC…

  13. The tectonic development of south-central Asia and the paleogeographic setting of its hydrocarbon resources

    SciTech Connect

    Scotese, C.R. ); Tyrell, W.W. Jr. ); Maher, K.A. )

    1990-05-01

    The countries of south-central Asia (Afghanistan to Thailand) are made up of fragments of Gondwana that collided with the southern margin of Eurasia during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic. The Cimmerian terranes (Turkey, Iran, Afghanistan, Qiang Tang, and Burma-Malaya) rifted away from Gondwana beginning in the Late Carboniferous and were accreted to Asia during the Late Triassic-Jurassic. The Lhasa terrane, presumably also derived from Gondwana, was accreted during the Late Jurassic. By the Early Cretaceous, India-Madagascar had separated from Africa and from Australia-Antarctica. In the middle Cretaceous, India rapidly rifted away from Madagascar, and during the early Eocene collided with Asia giving rise to the Tibetam Plateau and the mountain belts from Afghanistan through Burma. The sedimentary basins and petroleum provinces adjacent to and south of these collision zones are best understood when viewed in the context of their tectonic history and paleogeographic setting. About 7 billion bbl of oil and 50 tcf of gas have been discovered in south-central Asia, mostly in Cenozoic deltaic sandstones or marine carbonate reservoirs in rift (Cambay), passive margin (Bombay shelf), and foreland basins (Assam, Indux, Potwar, Bengal) in India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh, and in a fore-arc setting in Burma. Source rocks are mostly Paleogene shale, but some Paleozoic and Mesozoic sources be present in Pakistan. New exploration is underway or will begin soon in India, Bangladesh, Nepal, and Burma.

  14. Seismic monitoring of Central Asia territory in KNDC.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukambayev, Aidyn; Mikhailova, Natalia

    2015-04-01

    The Central Asia territory includes the territory of five post-Soviet countries: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. Every country has its own independent network of seismic observations and Data Processing Center aimed at every day seismic monitoring of one country territory. However, seismic hazard of Central Asia territory is stipulated by one geodynamic system that generates simultaneous large earthquakes on the territory of different countries. Thus, it is necessary to observe seismic situation for the whole region for emergency situations and for compilation of joint seismic bulletins of Central Asia region. A new contemporary network of seismic observations operated by the Institute of Geophysical Researches has been installed in Kazakhstan during last 15 years. Mainly, these are seismic arrays located throughout the country perimeter. The arrays were constructed under support of the CTBTO, and AFTAC. There are also IRIS and CAREMON stations. All data arrive to KNDC (Kazakhstan National Data Center) in real time mode. In addition, KNDC receives data in real time from stations Zalesovo (Russia), Alibek (Turkmenistan), Ala-Archa and Tokmak (Kyrgyzstan). Arrival times in the form of tables are received with 24-hours delay from almost 20 Kazakhstan stations belonging to SEME MES RK. This observation system allows monitoring the Central Asian seismicity by earthquakes with representative magnitude more than 3.5. In some regions, the events with magnitude 1.5 are recorded. As result, different products with different operativity are created for Central Asia territory: -bulletin of urgent alerts; -automatic seismic bulletin; -interactive seismic bulletin; -joint seismic operative bulletin by data arrived on-line and in table form. After that, in retrospective mode, the events nature is identified to discriminate mining explosions (up to 4000 per year) and natural earthquakes (up to 15000 per year). The results are available at KNDC web

  15. Space Radar Image of Tuva, Central Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This spaceborne radar image shows part of the remote central Asian region of Tuva, an autonomous republic of the Russian Federation. Tuva is a mostly mountainous region that lies between western Mongolia and southern Siberia. This image shows the area just south of the republic's capital of Kyzyl. Most of the red, pink and blue areas in the image are agricultural fields of a large collective farming complex that was developed during the era of the Soviet Union. Traditional agricultural activity in the region, still active in remote areas, revolves around practices of nomadic livestock herding. White areas on the image are north-facing hillsides, which develop denser forests than south-facing slopes. The river in the upper right is one of the two major branches of the Yenesey River. Tuva has received some notoriety in recent years due to the intense interest of the celebrated Caltech physicist Dr. Richard Feynman, chronicled in the book 'Tuva or Bust' by Ralph Leighton. The image was acquired by Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band SyntheticAperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour onOctober 1, 1994. The image is 56 kilometers by 74 kilometers (35 miles by 46 miles) and is centered at 51.5 degrees north latitude, 95.1 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper right. The colors are assigned to different radar fequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted andreceived; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted and verticallyreceived. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to PlanetEarth program.

  16. Fires and Smoke in Central Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This year's fire season in central Africa may have been the most severe ever. This true-color image also shows the location of fires (red dots) in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Angola, and Zambia. The image was taken by the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard NASA 's Terra spacecraft on August 23, 2000, and was produced using the MODIS Active Fire Detection product. NASA scientists studied these fires during the SAFARI 2000 field campaign. Image By Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Team

  17. China-Africa and China-Asia Collaboration on Schistosomiasis Control: A SWOT Analysis.

    PubMed

    Xu, J; Bergquist, R; Qian, Y-J; Wang, Q; Yu, Q; Peeling, R; Croft, S; Guo, J-G; Zhou, X-N

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomiasis, a disease caused by a trematode, parasitic worm, is a worldwide public health problem. In spite of great progress with regard to morbidity control, even elimination of this infection in recent decades, there are still challenges to overcome in sub-Saharan Africa and endemic areas in Southeast Asia. Regarded as one of the most successful countries with respect to schistosomiasis control, The People's Republic of China has accumulated considerable experience and learnt important lessons in various local settings that could benefit schistosomiasis control in other endemic countries. Based on an analysis of conceived strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) of potential collaborative activities with regard to schistosomiasis in Africa and Asia, this article addresses the importance of collaborative efforts and explores the priorities that would be expected to facilitate the transfer of Chinese experience to low- and middle-income countries in Africa and Asia. PMID:27137455

  18. Analyzing phenological changes with remote sensing data in Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, L.; Guo, H.; Kuenzer, C.; Klein, I.; Zhang, L.; Li, X.

    2014-03-01

    Based on NOAA/AVHRR NDVI biweekly time-series data, the start and end of the growing season of Central Asia from 1982 to 2006 were estimated. Trend analysis results indicate an earlier green-up and a later dormancy over the entire area during the study period. For seven main vegetation types, the largest advance of greenup onset (0.597 days/year) occurs in cropland and the longest delay of dormancy (1.109 days/year) in open shrubland. The smallest advance (0.164 days/year) occurs in evergreen needleleaf forest and delay (0.443 days/year) in crop/natural vegetation mosaic. These results imply enhanced vegetation activity in the Central Asia region over last decades.

  19. What Can We Learn from 15,000 Teachers in Central Europe and Central Asia?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temple, Charles

    2000-01-01

    Describes the "Reading and Writing for Critical Thinking Project" which has now sent more than 70 volunteer teacher educators into 20 countries across Central Europe and Central Asia to help teachers to try out methods that foster active learning and critical thinking. Discusses support for the project, teaching strategies introduced, and the…

  20. Lactase persistence in central Asia: phenotype, genotype, and evolution.

    PubMed

    Heyer, Evelyne; Brazier, Lionel; Ségurel, Laure; Hegay, Tatiana; Austerlitz, Frédéric; Quintana-Murci, Lluis; Georges, Myriam; Pasquet, Patrick; Veuille, Michel

    2011-06-01

    The aim of the present study is to document the evolution of the lactase persistence trait in Central Asia, a geographical area that is thought to have been a region of long-term pastoralism. Several ethnic groups co-exist in this area: Indo-Iranian speakers who are traditionally agriculturist (Tajik) and Turkic speakers who used to be nomadic herders (Kazakh, Karakalpak, Kyrgyz, Turkmen). It was recently demonstrated that horse milking practice existed in the Botai culture of Kazakhstan as early as 5,500 BP ( Outram et al. 2009 ). However, the frequency of the lactase persistence trait and its genetic basis in Central Asian populations remain largely unknown. We propose here the first genotype-phenotype study of lactase persistence in Central Asia based on 183 individuals, as well as the estimation of the time of expansion of the lactase-persistence associated polymorphism. Our results show a remarkable genetic-phenotypic correlation, with the causal polymorphism being the same than in Europe (-13.910C>T, rs4988235). The lactase persistence trait is at low frequency in these populations: between 25% and 32% in the Kazakh population (traditionally herders), according to phenotype used, and between 11% and 30% in the Tajiko-Uzbek population (agriculturalists). The difference in lactase persistence between populations, even if small, is significant when using individuals concordant for both excretion of breath hydrogen and the lactose tolerance blood glucose test phenotypes (P = 0.018, 25% for Kazakh vs. 11% for Tajiko-Uzbeks), and the difference in frequency of the -13.910*T allele is almost significant (P = 0.06, 30% for Kazakhs vs. 19% for Tajiko-Uzbeks). Using the surrounding haplotype, we estimate a date of expansion of the T allele around 6,000-12,000 yrs ago, which is consistent with archaeological records for the emergence of agropastoralism and pastoralism in Central Asia. PMID:21740154

  1. Hydrological trends in Congo basin (Central Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laraque, A.

    2015-12-01

    The last studies concerning some main Congo basin rivers allowed to subdivide their multi-annual flows into several homogeneous phases. As in West Africa, 1970 was the year of the major hydroclimatic event announcing a weaker flowing period. In the absence of long, reliable and available flow series in the whole Congo basin of 3,8 106km2 area, the present study concerns only the Congo River at Brazzaville/Kinshasa and two of the main tributaries of its right bank, Ubangui at Bangui and Sangha at Ouesso, with hydrologic data available from the first half of the 20th century. For Congo River, in comparison with its secular average, after an excess flow noted during the sixties, a significant drop of 10% occurs in the eighties. However, a return to normal conditions is recorded from 1995. For Ubangui and Sangha, the flows remain weaker since 1970. Within the bi-modal hydrological regimes of Sangha and Congo river, because they are equatorial, we also observe since many years a small decline of the secondary flood of april-june. This phenomenon was emphasized especially these last years and is founded in others rivers of Central Africa, where it reflects the variations of de rainfall patterns and the surfaces features. For the Congo basin, the situation is worrying because that affects the inland waterway transport. Moreover that wakes also the project of junction by a canal of the Congo and Chari basins for fighting against the hydrological decline of Lake Chad.

  2. Challenging Educational Injustice: "Grassroots" Privatisation in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tooley, James

    2013-01-01

    The phenomenon of low-cost private schools "mushrooming" in poor areas of sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, and elsewhere, is now well-documented. Findings from research by the author's teams and others show that these schools are serving a majority (urban and peri-urban) or significant minority (rural) of the poor, including…

  3. Perceived Professional Development Needs of English-Speaking Evangelical Academic Deans in Africa and Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Leslie J.

    2013-01-01

    This study identified the perceived professional development needs of English-speaking evangelical theological school deans in Africa and Asia, as a basis for evaluating or creating professional development programs for these regions. It answered the question: What are the perceptions of the need for professional development prior to and after…

  4. Monitoring the Quality of Medicines: Results from Africa, Asia, and South America

    PubMed Central

    Hajjou, Mustapha; Krech, Laura; Lane-Barlow, Christi; Roth, Lukas; Pribluda, Victor S.; Phanouvong, Souly; El-Hadri, Latifa; Evans, Lawrence; Raymond, Christopher; Yuan, Elaine; Siv, Lang; Vuong, Tuan-Anh; Boateng, Kwasi Poku; Okafor, Regina; Chibwe, Kennedy M.; Lukulay, Patrick H.

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring the quality of medicines plays a crucial role in an integrated medicines quality assurance system. In a publicly available medicines quality database (MQDB), the U.S. Pharmacopeial Convention (USP) reports results of data collected from medicines quality monitoring (MQM) activities spanning the period of 2003–2013 in 17 countries of Africa, Asia, and South America. The MQDB contains information on 15,063 samples collected and tested using Minilab® screening methods and/or pharmacopeial methods. Approximately 71% of the samples reported came from Asia, 23% from Africa, and 6% from South America. The samples collected and tested include mainly antibiotic, antimalarial, and antituberculosis medicines. A total of 848 samples, representing 5.6% of total samples, failed the quality test. The failure proportion per region was 11.5%, 10.4%, and 2.9% for South America, Africa, and Asia, respectively. Eighty-one counterfeit medicines were reported, 86.4% of which were found in Asia and 13.6% in Africa. Additional analysis of the data shows the distribution of poor-quality medicines per region and by therapeutic indication as well as possible trends of counterfeit medicines. PMID:25897073

  5. Expansion of industrial logging in Central Africa.

    PubMed

    Laporte, Nadine T; Stabach, Jared A; Grosch, Robert; Lin, Tiffany S; Goetz, Scott J

    2007-06-01

    Industrial logging has become the most extensive land use in Central Africa, with more than 600,000 square kilometers (30%) of forest currently under concession. With use of a time series of satellite imagery for the period from 1976 to 2003, we measured 51,916 kilometers of new logging roads. The density of roads across the forested region was 0.03 kilometer per square kilometer, but areas of Gabon and Equatorial Guinea had values over 0.09 kilometer per square kilometer. A new frontier of logging expansion was identified within the Democratic Republic of Congo, which contains 63% of the remaining forest of the region. Tree felling and skid trails increased disturbance in selectively logged areas. PMID:17556578

  6. A Drying Trend in Central Equatorial Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diem, J.; Hartter, J.; Ryan, S. J.; Palace, M. W.

    2013-12-01

    There has been considerable uncertainty about changes in rainfall over central equatorial Africa over the past three decades due to a lack of reliable rainfall data in the region. This region contains the northern portion of the Albertine Rift, which is one of the world's hotspots for biodiversity, and within this region there is an exploding human population dependent on rainfed agriculture. Both the human population and conservation/preservation areas are becoming increasingly sensitive to changes in rainfall. There now exists an accurate, high-resolution, satellite based precipitation dataset, African Rainfall Climatology version 2 (ARC2), for the region that provides daily rainfall estimates from 1983 to the present. Here we show significant declines in monthly and annual rainfall in west-central Uganda, which exists in the far northeastern portion of the Rift, from 1983-2012. The decrease in annual rainfall was 110 mm per decade. Therefore, the current annual rainfall of approximately 1,200 mm is less than 80% of the annual rainfall three decades ago. The drying trend most likely extended westward into the Congo Basin. There were significant increasing (decreasing) trends in light-rainfall (heavy-rainfall) days over the period. Using results from previous studies, Indian Ocean warming and increasing carbonaceous aerosols from biomass burning in tropical Africa, are explored as potential causes of the drying trend. The aim of the study is not to find the fingerprint of local and regional anthropogenic forcings on the drying trend, but our results suggest that those forcings could be a leading cause of the drying trend.

  7. Simulation of Drought in Central Asia during the Last Millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallah, Bijan; Polanski, Stefan; Prasad, Sushma; Cubasch, Ulrich

    2013-04-01

    Within the Central Asian Climate Dynamics project (CADY), we aim to apply multiproxy reconstructions and climate models to analyse and (semi)quantify the Last Millennium climate variability and regional hydrology in Central Asia. In this context, we have used simulations of the uncoupled atmosphere version of global COSMOS Model (ECHAM5) in T31L19 spatial resolution within the Last Millennium; Medieval Warm Period (MWP; 900-1100 AD), the Little Ice Age (LIA; 1515-1715 AD) and after industrialization (REC; 1800-2000 AD) to drive the COSMO-CLM regional climate model at its lateral boundaries for 30 year time-slices based on the definition of extreme spells in the past climate. The Palmer Drought Severity Index over Central Asia has been calculated for both global and regional simulations. The simulated PDSI from COSMO-CLM driven by ERA-INTERIM data shows very good agreements compared to observations (PDSI from Dai et al., 2004) in space-time-frequency. Based on the EOF analysis, the simulated drought patterns are well captured compared to the reconstructed PDSI from Cook et al., 2010 ( pattern correlation = 0.68 (0.83) for LIA(REC) at a 99% significance level). Further, historical droughts can be identified by the simulated PDSI (e.g. Ming Dynasty Drought and The Great Drought). The Principal Components of simulated PDSI also show significant correlations with SST anomalies for the period from 1856 to 2000.

  8. Opportunities for renewable energy sources in Central Asia countries

    SciTech Connect

    Obozov, A.J.; Loscutoff, W.V.

    1998-07-01

    This report presents an overview of the state of conventional energy sources and the potential for development of renewable energy sources in the Central Asia countries of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, and Tajikistan. The region has a population of about 50 million in an area of more than four million square kilometers. The per capita gross internal product is more than $2,500, although the economy has been declining the past five years. The area has substantial coal, oil, uranium, and natural gas reserves, although they are not distributed equally among the five countries. Energy production is such that the countries do not have to rely heavily on imports. One of the problems in Central Asia is that the energy prices are substantially below the world prices. This is a factor in development of renewable energy sources. The primary renewable energy resources available are wind in Kazakhstan, solar in the entire region, biomass in Kyrgyzstan, and micro-hydropower stations in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. All of these have the potential to provide a significant amount of the required energy for the region. However, all of the countries have an abundance of various renewable energy resources. To effectively use these resources, however, a number of barriers to their development and commercialization must be overcome. These include low prices of conventional energy sources, absence of legislative support, lack of financing for new technologies, and lack of awareness of renewable energy sources by the population. A number of specific actions are proposed to overcome these barriers. These include establishment of a Central Asia coordinating council for renewable energy, development of a regional renewable energy program, and setting up a number of large demonstration projects. 16 figs.

  9. Analysis of Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Sesame Accessions from Africa and Asia as Major Centers of Its Cultivation.

    PubMed

    Dossa, Komivi; Wei, Xin; Zhang, Yanxin; Fonceka, Daniel; Yang, Wenjuan; Diouf, Diaga; Liao, Boshou; Cissé, Ndiaga; Zhang, Xiurong

    2016-01-01

    Sesame is an important oil crop widely cultivated in Africa and Asia. Understanding the genetic diversity of accessions from these continents is critical to designing breeding methods and for additional collection of sesame germplasm. To determine the genetic diversity in relation to geographical regions, 96 sesame accessions collected from 22 countries distributed over six geographic regions in Africa and Asia were genotyped using 33 polymorphic SSR markers. Large genetic variability was found within the germplasm collection. The total number of alleles was 137, averaging 4.15 alleles per locus. The accessions from Asia displayed more diversity than those from Africa. Accessions from Southern Asia (SAs), Eastern Asia (EAs), and Western Africa (WAf) were highly diversified, while those from Western Asia (WAs), Northern Africa (NAf), and Southeastern Africa (SAf) had the lowest diversity. The analysis of molecular variance revealed that more than 44% of the genetic variance was due to diversity among geographic regions. Five subpopulations, including three in Asia and two in Africa, were cross-identified through phylogenetic, PCA, and STRUCTURE analyses. Most accessions clustered in the same population based on their geographical origins. Our results provide technical guidance for efficient management of sesame genetic resources in breeding programs and further collection of sesame germplasm from these different regions. PMID:27077887

  10. Analysis of Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Sesame Accessions from Africa and Asia as Major Centers of Its Cultivation

    PubMed Central

    Dossa, Komivi; Wei, Xin; Zhang, Yanxin; Fonceka, Daniel; Yang, Wenjuan; Diouf, Diaga; Liao, Boshou; Cissé, Ndiaga; Zhang, Xiurong

    2016-01-01

    Sesame is an important oil crop widely cultivated in Africa and Asia. Understanding the genetic diversity of accessions from these continents is critical to designing breeding methods and for additional collection of sesame germplasm. To determine the genetic diversity in relation to geographical regions, 96 sesame accessions collected from 22 countries distributed over six geographic regions in Africa and Asia were genotyped using 33 polymorphic SSR markers. Large genetic variability was found within the germplasm collection. The total number of alleles was 137, averaging 4.15 alleles per locus. The accessions from Asia displayed more diversity than those from Africa. Accessions from Southern Asia (SAs), Eastern Asia (EAs), and Western Africa (WAf) were highly diversified, while those from Western Asia (WAs), Northern Africa (NAf), and Southeastern Africa (SAf) had the lowest diversity. The analysis of molecular variance revealed that more than 44% of the genetic variance was due to diversity among geographic regions. Five subpopulations, including three in Asia and two in Africa, were cross-identified through phylogenetic, PCA, and STRUCTURE analyses. Most accessions clustered in the same population based on their geographical origins. Our results provide technical guidance for efficient management of sesame genetic resources in breeding programs and further collection of sesame germplasm from these different regions. PMID:27077887

  11. Science and Technology to Advance Regional Security in Central Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, N

    2002-07-05

    This morning I will describe a program that we refer to as STARS, for Science and Technology to Advance Regional Security, in Central Asia. It is a program that is based on cooperative, bilateral and multilateral, science and technology projects. It is our premise that such cooperative projects provide an opportunity for engagement while addressing real problems that could otherwise lead to destabilizing tensions in the region. The STARS program directly supports USCENTCOM's activities and objectives in environmental security. In fact, we think that STARS is a great vehicle for implementing and amplifying USCENTCOM's environmental security objectives and activities. We are very grateful and very pleased to have General DeLong's support in this matter. I am going to briefly describe the program. I want to stress again that it is a cooperative program. We would like to get input, suggestions, and feedback from the Central Asians here today so we can move forward together.

  12. Earthquake risk mitigation projects in central asia and india

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hausler, E.; Petal, M.; Tobin, T.; Tucker, B.; Gupta, M.; Sharma, A.; Shaw, R.

    2003-04-01

    In the fall of 2002, GeoHazards International (GHI), a California-based nonprofit organization, launched two 3-year projects, each funded by the U.S. Agency for International Development, to improve the earthquake risk management of 23 cities in Central Asia and India. The objectives of these projects are to: * Assess the earthquake risk of each city, * Identify the most effective risk mitigation options for each city, * Raise awareness of that risk and those mitigation options, and * Initiate mitigation activities in some of these cities. A critical characteristic of these projects is that leaders of each local community will be deeply involved in realizing all four objectives. GHI will work with, in addition to local authorities, national government, academic and non-governmental organizations. In India, GHI’s partners are the Disaster Management Planning Hyogo Office, United Nations Centre for Regional Development (UNCRD) of Kobe, Japan, and the Sustainable Environment and Ecological Development Society (SEEDS), of Delhi, India. In India, we will work in 20 cities that were chosen, in a February 1, 2002 workshop (sponsored by Munich Reinsurance Company) in Delhi; the cities were selected by Indian earthquake professionals on the basis of the cities’ population, hazard, and economic, cultural and political significance. In Central Asia, we will focus on Tashkent, Uzbekistan; Dushanbe, Tadzhikistan; and Almaty, Kazakstan. GHI and its partners are looking for other organizations that would like to collaborate on these projects.

  13. Geomorphology and Geodynamics at Crustal Boundaries within Asia and Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The release of SRTM images by NASA over the past two years year has been greeted by foreign Earth scientist's as "NASA's gift to the World". The goodwill that this has engendered in parts of Africa. India, Pakistan and Bangladesh, as scientists in those countries contemplated what many of them considered an unprovoked and unjustifiable US invasion of Iraq, cannot be underestimated. We have used SRTM images from Africa and India and elsewhere to examine aspects of tectonism, geodynamics and tsunami and earthquake hazards. Highlights of this research are itemized in this final report. One difficulty that has arisen is , of course, that the funding for the science lead the availability of the data by more than a year. and as a result many of the findings are as yet unpublished.

  14. Lidar Measurements of the Vertical Distribution of Aerosol Optical and Physical Properties over Central Asia

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Chen, Boris B.; Sverdlik, Leonid G.; Imashev, Sanjar A.; Solomon, Paul A.; Lantz, Jeffrey; Schauer, James J.; Shafer, Martin M.; Artamonova, Maria S.; Carmichael, Gregory R.

    2013-01-01

    The vertical structure of aerosol optical and physical properties was measured by Lidar in Eastern Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia, from June 2008 to May 2009. Lidar measurements were supplemented with surface-based measurements of PM 2.5 and PM 10 mass and chemical composition in both size fractions. Dust transported into the region is common, being detected 33% of the time. The maximum frequency occurred in the spring of 2009. Dust transported to Central Asia comes from regional sources, for example, Taklimakan desert and Aral Sea basin, and from long-range transport, for example, deserts of Arabia, Northeast Africa, Iran, and Pakistan. Regionalmore » sources are characterized by pollution transport with maximum values of coarse particles within the planetary boundary layer, aerosol optical thickness, extinction coefficient, integral coefficient of aerosol backscatter, and minimum values of the Ångström exponent. Pollution associated with air masses transported over long distances has different characteristics during autumn, winter, and spring. During winter, dust emissions were low resulting in high values of the Ångström exponent (about 0.51) and the fine particle mass fraction (64%). Dust storms were more frequent during spring with an increase in coarse dust particles in comparison to winter. The aerosol vertical profiles can be used to lower uncertainty in estimating radiative forcing.« less

  15. Quinoa for Marginal Environments: Toward Future Food and Nutritional Security in MENA and Central Asia Regions.

    PubMed

    Choukr-Allah, Redouane; Rao, Nanduri K; Hirich, Abdelaziz; Shahid, Mohammad; Alshankiti, Abdullah; Toderich, Kristina; Gill, Shagufta; Butt, Khalil Ur Rahman

    2016-01-01

    Quinoa is recognized as a crop of great value in terms of tolerance to abiotic stresses and there is growing interest to introduce it in marginal agricultural production systems worldwide. Also, quinoa is one of the most nutritious food crops currently known and the nutritive properties of the crop are seen as a mean to fight malnutrition globally. Various quinoa cultivars have been screened for tolerance to salinity, water-use efficiency and nutritional quality and the positive attributes found in them have created even wider global interest in its cultivation. This paper summarizes 15 years of studies on assessing the potential for introducing the crop in a few countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) and Central Asia regions and describes the key constraints for scaling-up the production under marginal growing conditions in the newly introduced countries. PMID:27066019

  16. Quinoa for Marginal Environments: Toward Future Food and Nutritional Security in MENA and Central Asia Regions

    PubMed Central

    Choukr-Allah, Redouane; Rao, Nanduri K.; Hirich, Abdelaziz; Shahid, Mohammad; Alshankiti, Abdullah; Toderich, Kristina; Gill, Shagufta; Butt, Khalil Ur Rahman

    2016-01-01

    Quinoa is recognized as a crop of great value in terms of tolerance to abiotic stresses and there is growing interest to introduce it in marginal agricultural production systems worldwide. Also, quinoa is one of the most nutritious food crops currently known and the nutritive properties of the crop are seen as a mean to fight malnutrition globally. Various quinoa cultivars have been screened for tolerance to salinity, water-use efficiency and nutritional quality and the positive attributes found in them have created even wider global interest in its cultivation. This paper summarizes 15 years of studies on assessing the potential for introducing the crop in a few countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) and Central Asia regions and describes the key constraints for scaling-up the production under marginal growing conditions in the newly introduced countries. PMID:27066019

  17. Bayesian Approach to Short Period Slowness Tomography in Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maceira, M.; Taylor, S. R.; Ammon, C. J.

    2003-12-01

    We are investigating the utility of short-period, high-resolution surface-wave slowness maps for lowering detection thresholds and allowing for discrimination of explosions and earthquakes at lower magnitudes (3.0-4.8). We focus on the region of central Asia between 69 and 108 degrees east longitude and 29 and 54 degrees north latitude. We retrieved broadband waveform data from more than 1,100 events that occurred between January 1997 and May 2002. Waveforms were obtained from four different networks comprising 13 individual stations. Using multiple-filter and phase-matched filter techniques, we measured the dispersion characteristics of the signals between 6 and 30 seconds. These Rayleigh-wave group velocity dispersion curves were used to compute high-resolution, half a degree cell size, slowness tomographic maps for each period. We adopted a Bayesian tomography method to solve the equation that relates travel-time data with the slowness structure. We used a declustering technique to minimize the effect of event clusters on the results. Our model is similar, to some extent, to the a priori model, but contains more structure and the cell size is smaller (0.5 compared to 1 degree cell size for the a priori model). The tomographic patterns correlate well with known geologic and tectonic features in the area. Accumulations of relatively young sediments across Eurasia are greater than on any other continent due to the continuing rapid uplift across much of central Asia. The short periods are primarily sensitive to upper crustal structures. The tomographic images display low velocities associated with the known sedimentary basins - Tarim, Junggar and Quaidam basins - in the area of central Asia under study. High velocities are associated with mountainous tectonic features such as the Tien Shan. We validated our maps using Rayleigh group-velocity dispersion curves for 640 events that occurred on the region of interest between January 1993 and December 1996. We analyzed

  18. Bacterial Communities of Three Saline Meromictic Lakes in Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Baatar, Bayanmunkh; Chiang, Pei-Wen; Rogozin, Denis Yu; Wu, Yu-Ting; Tseng, Ching-Hung; Yang, Cheng-Yu; Chiu, Hsiu-Hui; Oyuntsetseg, Bolormaa; Degermendzhy, Andrey G; Tang, Sen-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Meromictic lakes located in landlocked steppes of central Asia (~2500 km inland) have unique geophysiochemical characteristics compared to other meromictic lakes. To characterize their bacteria and elucidate relationships between those bacteria and surrounding environments, water samples were collected from three saline meromictic lakes (Lakes Shira, Shunet and Oigon) in the border between Siberia and the West Mongolia, near the center of Asia. Based on in-depth tag pyrosequencing, bacterial communities were highly variable and dissimilar among lakes and between oxic and anoxic layers within individual lakes. Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria, Actinobacteria and Firmicutes were the most abundant phyla, whereas three genera of purple sulfur bacteria (a novel genus, Thiocapsa and Halochromatium) were predominant bacterial components in the anoxic layer of Lake Shira (~20.6% of relative abundance), Lake Shunet (~27.1%) and Lake Oigon (~9.25%), respectively. However, few known green sulfur bacteria were detected. Notably, 3.94% of all sequencing reads were classified into 19 candidate divisions, which was especially high (23.12%) in the anoxic layer of Lake Shunet. Furthermore, several hydro-parameters (temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, H2S and salinity) were associated (P< 0.05) with variations in dominant bacterial groups. In conclusion, based on highly variable bacterial composition in water layers or lakes, we inferred that the meromictic ecosystem was characterized by high diversity and heterogenous niches. PMID:26934492

  19. Bacterial Communities of Three Saline Meromictic Lakes in Central Asia

    PubMed Central

    Baatar, Bayanmunkh; Chiang, Pei-Wen; Rogozin, Denis Yu; Wu, Yu-Ting; Tseng, Ching-Hung; Yang, Cheng-Yu; Chiu, Hsiu-Hui; Oyuntsetseg, Bolormaa; Degermendzhy, Andrey G.; Tang, Sen-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Meromictic lakes located in landlocked steppes of central Asia (~2500 km inland) have unique geophysiochemical characteristics compared to other meromictic lakes. To characterize their bacteria and elucidate relationships between those bacteria and surrounding environments, water samples were collected from three saline meromictic lakes (Lakes Shira, Shunet and Oigon) in the border between Siberia and the West Mongolia, near the center of Asia. Based on in-depth tag pyrosequencing, bacterial communities were highly variable and dissimilar among lakes and between oxic and anoxic layers within individual lakes. Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria, Actinobacteria and Firmicutes were the most abundant phyla, whereas three genera of purple sulfur bacteria (a novel genus, Thiocapsa and Halochromatium) were predominant bacterial components in the anoxic layer of Lake Shira (~20.6% of relative abundance), Lake Shunet (~27.1%) and Lake Oigon (~9.25%), respectively. However, few known green sulfur bacteria were detected. Notably, 3.94% of all sequencing reads were classified into 19 candidate divisions, which was especially high (23.12%) in the anoxic layer of Lake Shunet. Furthermore, several hydro-parameters (temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, H2S and salinity) were associated (P< 0.05) with variations in dominant bacterial groups. In conclusion, based on highly variable bacterial composition in water layers or lakes, we inferred that the meromictic ecosystem was characterized by high diversity and heterogenous niches. PMID:26934492

  20. Some aspects of integrated water resources management in central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaydarova, V.; Penkova, N.; Pak, E.; Poberejsky, L.; Beltrao, J.

    2003-04-01

    Two main tasks are to be implemented for elaboration of the governmental water distribution criteria in Central Asia: 1 -development of the common methodological basis for the intergovernmental water distribution; and 2 - to reopen and continue both theoretical and experimental researches of various aspects of the wastewater reuse. The prospects of socio economic development of all Central Asian countries are substantially defined by the water resources availability. The water resources of Central Asia belong, mainly, watersheds of the Syr-Darya and Amu Darya rivers. The basic flow of Amu Darya is formed in territory of Tajikistan. Then the Amu Darya river proceeds along border of Afghanistan with Uzbekistan, crosses Turkmenistan and again comes back to Uzbekistan and then runs into the Aral Sea. The Syr-Darya is second river on the water discharge and is first river on length in Central Asia. The basic flow of Syr Darya is formed in territory of Kyrgyzstan. Then the Syr-Darya river crosses of Uzbekistan and Tajikistan and runs into the Aral Sea in territory of Kazakhstan. During the Soviet Union the water resources of two river watersheds were divided among the Central Asian republics on the basis of the general plans developed by the center in Moscow. In the beginning of 90s years, after taking of sovereignty by the former Soviet republics, the unified control system of water resources management was abolished and the various approaches to its transformation caused by features of the national economy developing, elected models of transition from command to market mechanisms of economic activity, and also specificity of political and social processes in each of the states of region were planned. The distinctions of modern priorities of economic development of the states of region have generated the contradiction of interests in the intergovernmental water distribution that can in the long term become complicated even more in connection with the increasing of water

  1. Night Pass over Central Africa and the Middle East

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video over Central Africa and the Middle East was taken by the crew of Expedition 29 aboard the International Space Station. This sequence of shots was taken on Oct. 1, 2011, from 21:20:24 to ...

  2. A new crustal model for Central and Southern Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranov, A. A.

    2010-01-01

    We present a new regional three-layer crustal model for the Central and Southern Asia and surroundings (AsCRUST-08). The model provides Moho boundary, thickness of different layers of consolidated crust and P-velocity distribution in these layers. A large volume of new data on seismic reflections and refractions as well as on surface waves generated by earthquakes or blasts was analyzed. All these data were incorporated into a unified digital 3D integrated model with 1° × 1° resolution. Results are represented as seven numerical maps imaging the distributions of the Moho depth, the thickness of the upper, middle, and lower layers of the consolidated crust, and the P-wave velocities therein.

  3. Mountains of Central Asia in the warmer world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahgedanova, M.; Severskiy, I.; Zhumabayev, D.; Usmanova, Z.; Kapitsa, V.

    2015-12-01

    This paper investigates the observed and projected changes in temperature and precipitation in the mountains of Central Asia and attempts to quantify the impacts on runoff supporting irrigated farming in the foothills and adjacent plains. Since the mid-20th Century, mountains of Central Asia experienced significant climatic warming. Although there arefew continuous long-term records from high-altitude meteorological stations, those available indicate that climate has been warming at a rate of 0.02-0.03oC a-1 in summer when impacts of climatic warming are strongest as they affect melt of seasonal snow pack and glacier ice, availability of liquid precipitation and, therefore, runoff. Throughout the year, runoff generated by snow and glacier melt in the mountains, accounts for about 10-15% of the total in the foothills. However, in the summer growing season, it accounts for about 50% of the total and is crucial for irrigation. Assessments of glacier changes have shown that glaciers have lost between 5% and 40% of their area between the mid-20th Century and early 21st Century and in the areas generating runoff supporting agriculture, the recession was stronger at 15-40%. However, quantification of the impacts of glacier recession is complicated by changes in snow accumulation, dates of snow melt and availability of liquid precipitation because it is melting of seasonal snow pack and liquid precipitation in summer that dominates runoff from the mountains accounting for about 70% of its total. In this paper, we use both observational data and regional climate model PRECIS to evaluate the recent past and future climatic changes and their impacts.

  4. AgMIP: New Results from Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia Regional Integrated Assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenzweig, C.

    2014-12-01

    AgMIP conducted the first set of comprehensive regional integrated assessments of climate change impacts on smallholder farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia led by researchers from the regions themselves. The project developed new methods integrating climate, crop, livestock and economic models to conduct climate change impact assessments that characterize impacts on smallholder groups. AgMIP projections of climate change impacts on agriculture are more realistic than previous assessments because they take agricultural development into account. Using the best available data and models, the assessments directly evaluated yield, income, and poverty outcomes including the effects of adaptation packages and development pathways. Results show that even with agricultural development, climate change generally will exert negative pressure on yields of smallholder farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. Without adaptation, climate change leads to increased poverty in some locations in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia compared to a future in which climate change does not occur. Adaptation can significantly improve smallholder farmer responses to climate change. AgMIP expert teams identified improved varieties, sowing practices, fertilizer application, and irrigation applications as prioritized adaptation strategies. These targeted adaptation packages were able to overcome a portion of detrimental impacts but could not compensate completely in many locations. Even in cases where average impact is near zero, vulnerability (i.e., those at risk of loss) can be substantial even when mean impacts are positive.

  5. Climate change impacts on crop productivity in Africa and South Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knox, Jerry; Hess, Tim; Daccache, Andre; Wheeler, Tim

    2012-09-01

    Climate change is a serious threat to crop productivity in regions that are already food insecure. We assessed the projected impacts of climate change on the yield of eight major crops in Africa and South Asia using a systematic review and meta-analysis of data in 52 original publications from an initial screen of 1144 studies. Here we show that the projected mean change in yield of all crops is - 8% by the 2050s in both regions. Across Africa, mean yield changes of - 17% (wheat), - 5% (maize), - 15% (sorghum) and - 10% (millet) and across South Asia of - 16% (maize) and - 11% (sorghum) were estimated. No mean change in yield was detected for rice. The limited number of studies identified for cassava, sugarcane and yams precluded any opportunity to conduct a meta-analysis for these crops. Variation about the projected mean yield change for all crops was smaller in studies that used an ensemble of > 3 climate (GCM) models. Conversely, complex simulation studies that used biophysical crop models showed the greatest variation in mean yield changes. Evidence of crop yield impact in Africa and South Asia is robust for wheat, maize, sorghum and millet, and either inconclusive, absent or contradictory for rice, cassava and sugarcane.

  6. Mapping tropical deforestation in Central Africa.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Quanfa; Devers, Didier; Desch, Arthur; Justice, Christopher O; Townshend, John

    2005-02-01

    The NASA Landsat Pathfinder Humid Tropical Deforestation Project was to map deforestation activities in the humid tropics using datasets from both the Landsat TM (Thematic Mapper) and MSS (Multispectral Scanner System). In Central Africa, its effort had been constrained by the availability of cloud-free satellite coverage, especially for the 1970s Landsat MSS imagery. Here, we reported the deforestation rate and its spatial variability in the region using 18 pairs of co-registered Landsat TM imagery from the 1980s to 1990s. Of the total classified area of 416,000 km2, there were approximately 217,000 km2 of dense forest and 24,000 km2 of degraded forest in the 1980s. A total of 1012 km2 of forest, including 542 km2 of dense forest and 470 km2 of degraded forest, were cleared annually with an annual deforestation rate of 0.42%, varying among scenes ranging from 0.03 to 2.72%. Additionally, an average of 0.12% (ranging from 0.01 to 0.77% among scenes) or 257 km2 of dense forest was degraded annually. Regression analyses indicated that extensive deforestation occurred in areas with larger forest cover, including dense and degraded forests. Image interpretation also confirmed the hypothesized relationship between deforestation and forest accessibility. The annual clearance of the dense forest was significantly related to the rural population density, and there was a positive relationship between the dense forest degraded during the 1980s-1990s and the degraded forest area in the 1980s. PMID:15736876

  7. Central Africa: Global climate change and development. Overview. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The preliminary study focuses on the six countries of central Africa which contain the largest remaining contiguous block of closed forests in sub-Saharan Africa: Cameroon, Central African Republic, the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, and Zaire. The carbon in the vegetation and soils in these moist tropical forests and surrounding seasonal woodlands constitute the greatest potential source of future carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from sub-Saharan Africa. This study also considers the importance of savanna burning, although in less depth since the small savanna area in central Africa precludes this activity from being a large regional source of emissions. Analysis of biogeophysical and socioeconomic issues relevant to global climate change, and research containing both space-based and ground-based components, were undertaken.

  8. Quantitative Biostratigraphic Analysis of Central Asia with Implications for the Tien Shan of Kyrgyzstan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaughlin, W. N.; Hopkins, S. S.

    2013-12-01

    Central Asia lies at a nexus both in terms of geology and evolutionary biogeography. With the convergence of the Indian and Asian plates creating high rates of deformation over broad regions, shortening of the Paleozoic and Mesozoic basement rocks has created a rich history of late Cenozoic sedimentary basins. In fact, Kyrgyzstan is the most seismically active country in the world. Additionally, Central Asia is a biogeographic crossroads, facilitating the intercontinental migrations of distant faunas from North American, Europe, Africa, and Southern Asia. With such an active geologic and biological evolution, the usefulness of temporal constraints is apparent. However, the continental collision environment has provided few volcanic rocks suitable for radiometric dating. Therefore, while less precise, the biostratigraphic analysis of Central Asia I present is an ideal method for both establishing ages and correlating between disparate basins. The last several decades provided great advancements in quantitative biostratigraphic methods applied to marine microfossils from drill cores. While these newer methods such as RASC (ranking and scaling), its sister program CASC, and CONOP (constrained optimization) provide a clear improvement over older methods such as graphic correlation, they have yet to be applied to terrestrial vertebrate faunas. Graphic correlation only allows comparison between two stratigraphic columns at a time and is heavily weighted by the initial selection of a type section. Both RASC and CONOP compare all stratigraphic sections simultaneously, eliminating type section bias. Previous vertebrate biostratigraphy methods attempted to predict FADs and LADs with the assumption they are generally minimum estimates. RASC instead establishes average stratigraphic ranges for each taxon and with CASC actually provides confidence intervals for each prediction, reducing the potential error resulting from reworking. CONOP generates maximum stratigraphic ranges

  9. Some aspects of integrated water resources management in central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaydarova, V.; Penkova, N.; Pak, E.; Poberejsky, L.; Beltrao, J.

    2003-04-01

    Two main tasks are to be implemented for elaboration of the governmental water distribution criteria in Central Asia: 1 -development of the common methodological basis for the intergovernmental water distribution; and 2 - to reopen and continue both theoretical and experimental researches of various aspects of the wastewater reuse. The prospects of socio economic development of all Central Asian countries are substantially defined by the water resources availability. The water resources of Central Asia belong, mainly, watersheds of the Syr-Darya and Amu Darya rivers. The basic flow of Amu Darya is formed in territory of Tajikistan. Then the Amu Darya river proceeds along border of Afghanistan with Uzbekistan, crosses Turkmenistan and again comes back to Uzbekistan and then runs into the Aral Sea. The Syr-Darya is second river on the water discharge and is first river on length in Central Asia. The basic flow of Syr Darya is formed in territory of Kyrgyzstan. Then the Syr-Darya river crosses of Uzbekistan and Tajikistan and runs into the Aral Sea in territory of Kazakhstan. During the Soviet Union the water resources of two river watersheds were divided among the Central Asian republics on the basis of the general plans developed by the center in Moscow. In the beginning of 90s years, after taking of sovereignty by the former Soviet republics, the unified control system of water resources management was abolished and the various approaches to its transformation caused by features of the national economy developing, elected models of transition from command to market mechanisms of economic activity, and also specificity of political and social processes in each of the states of region were planned. The distinctions of modern priorities of economic development of the states of region have generated the contradiction of interests in the intergovernmental water distribution that can in the long term become complicated even more in connection with the increasing of water

  10. Sour gas distribution in the Amudaria Basin, Central Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Marina, D.; Ivlev, A.; Shkutnik, E.

    1995-08-01

    The Amudaria Basin is the main sour-gas bearing region in Central Asia. In this region, sour gases occur in Upper Jurassic carbonate-reservoir rocks as well as in terrigenous rocks of Cretareous age, but the Upper Jurassic sulfate-carbonate complex is the main sour-gas bearing and producing complex. The chemical and isotopic composition of fluids in Upper Jurassic rocks show that sulfate reduction is the main process responsible for sour gas formation in the central part of the basin, where Kimmeridgian-Tithonian evaporites occur. The H{sub 2}S content of gases varies widely (0 to 10 percent by volume), even within similar carbonate traps located close to one another in the same temperature zone. Analyses of sour-gas distribution and composition in fluids in these areas indicate the main factors which control the variation of H{sub 2}S content in Upper Jurassic hydrocarbon pools in the same temperature zones. These factors include (1) the carbonate sediment facies type (shelf, barrier reef, deep water facies), and (2) within the same facies, the characteristics of traps and pools (tight, gentle, structural, phase-type, etc). The most favorable conditions for H{sub 2}S accumulation occur in hydrocarbon pools confined to the barrier reef flat and the parts of the shelf closest to it. The least favorable conditions are in pools confined to local reefs or carbonate build-ups located within the deep-water facies zone. These results are important for the prediction of H{sub 2}S in hydrocarbon pools. In most cases, H{sub 2}S in the Cretaceous complex is epigenetic. With the exception of Central Karakum zone H{sub 2}S distribution in this complex depends on the distribution and composition of Upper Jurassic evaporites.

  11. Late Glacial and Late Holocene Paleohydrology of Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aichner, B.; Feakins, S. J.; Mischke, S.; Herzschuh, U.; Liu, X.; Rajabov, I.; Wang, Y.; Heinecke, L.

    2013-12-01

    The goal of this study is to deepen the understanding of past climatological, ecological and hydrological changes in Central Asia, by means of organic geochemical proxies and in close cooperation with other work groups providing biological and sedimentological data. We analysed an 8 m sediment core from Lake Karakuli, a small open freshwater lake situated at an altitude of 3,657 m between the massifs of Muztagh Ata (7,546 m) and Kongur Shan (7,719 m) in western China. Additional work is in progress on a 12 m core derived from Lake Karakul in Tajikistan, a large closed saline lake situated in a tectonic graben structure at an altitude of 3,928 m. The distance between the two lakes is 130 km and basal ages of the cores are ca. 4.7 ka BP (China) and ca. 27 ka BP (Tajikistan). The lake catchments may be classified as alpine steppe to alpine deserts with mean annual temperature of ca. 0 °C and mean annual precipitation of ca. 100 mm, respectively. Summer precipitation, associated with the Indian monsoon, accounts for <30% of the annual total, whereas most precipitation is supplied by mid-latitude Westerlies between March and May. In the small Chinese lake long-chain fatty acids (FAs) were mainly attributed to terrestrial sources by compound-specific carbon isotopic analyses. In contrast δ13C values up to -14‰ for abundant mid-chain FAs suggest aquatic origins in the large Lake Karakul. Hydrogen isotopic variability is ca. 15‰ in the mid-Holocene record and ca. 60‰ in the first data derived from the Late Glacial record. In the latter, the most pronounced change from higher to lower δD-values of aquatic biomarkers is tentatively interpreted as change from arid to more humid conditions at the Late Glacial to Holocene transition. Since in Central Asia isotopic variability of precipitation mainly correlates with temperature, we interpret high resolution δD data of terrestrial long-chain FAs in the younger core to mainly reflect mid-Holocene temperature variations

  12. Climate and soil salinity in the deserts of Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankova, E. I.; Konyushkova, M. V.

    2013-07-01

    A comparative analysis of climatic and soil salinity characteristics of the deserts of Central Asia, including deserts of the Turan Depression, the Gobi Desert, and deserts of the Dzungar and Tarim depressions was performed. The climatic characteristics—the degree of aridity, the degree of continentality, and the amount and regime of precipitation—are different in these deserts. No direct relationships between the areas occupied by the automorphic salt-affected soils and the aridity of the climate are observed in the studied regions. In the automorphic landscapes of Asian deserts, the degree and chemistry of the soil salinization and the distribution of salt-affected soils are controlled by the history of the particular territories rather than by their modern climatic conditions. The presence and properties of the salt-bearing rocks and the eolian migration of salts play the most significant role. The deficit of moisture in the modern climate favors the preservation of salt accumulations in places of their origin. The specific features of the climate, including the regime of precipitation, affect the redistribution of salts in the profiles of automorphic salt-affected soils. An increase in the degree of climatic continentality is accompanied by the decrease in the intensity of weathering and initial accumulation of salts. A different situation is observed in the soils of hydromorphic desert landscapes, in which the degree of salinity of the surface horizons and the area occupied by salt-affected soils are directly influenced by the modern climatic conditions.

  13. Characteristics of moisture flux convergence in Central Southwest Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, Khalid M.; Taylor, Peter A.; Szeto, Kit

    2015-05-01

    The National Centers for Environmental Prediction-National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP-NCAR) reanalysis data have been used to compute the moisture flux convergence (MFC) over Central Southwest Asia (CSWA) between 45°-75° E and 25°-40° N. The present study focuses on the 1969-2007 period, and both horizontal distributions and vertical profiles of MFC have been calculated and compared. Moisture is transported into the region from the west throughout the year. In this region, winter is the wettest season with the most precipitation. Areas of high moisture convergence are observed in the east and southwest. Moisture convergence in the east and southwest are associated with topographic effects. Our study also examined composites of moisture flux convergence that characterized the wettest and the driest years in this area. The magnitude of the monthly MFC differs considerably between these two extremes. The spatial distribution of moisture flux convergence during the recent drought period (1999-2001) was also examined in order to understand how moisture transport affects drought. Deficiency of precipitation during drought periods appears to be due to deviation of moisture transport away from the region.

  14. Climatic and hydrologic changes in the Tien Shan, central Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Aizen, V.B.; Aizen, E.M.; Melack, J.M.; Dozier, J.

    1997-06-01

    The authors analyze climatic hydrologic data from 110 sites collected from the middle of the twentieth century to the present in the Tien Shan, one of the largest mountain systems of central Asia. In spite of a few confounding interregional variations in the temporal changes of surface air temperature, precipitation, runoff, glacier mass, and snow thickness in the Tien Shan, it has been possible to establish statistically significant long-range, with slightly lower values below 2000-m elevation. The precipitation in the Tien Shan increased 1.2 mm yr{sup -1} over the past half-century. The precipitation increase is larger at low altitudes in the northern and western regions than at altitudes above 2000 m. A decrease in snow resources occurred almost everywhere in the Tien Shan; the maximum snow thickness an snow duration have decreased on average 10 cm and 9 days, respectively. The annual runoff is the type of precipitation (liquid or solid). Over the last few decades, periods of glacier decline have coincided with declining river runoff. 45 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Characterization of dust sources in Central Asia using Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobakht, M.; Shahgedanova, M.; White, K.

    2015-12-01

    Central Asian deserts are a significant source of wind-blown desert dust deposited on snow pack and glaciers of the Tian Shan Mountains, affecting both surface reflectance, and therefore melt and runoff, and geochemistry of snow pack and glacier ice. Detailed knowledge of sources of dust, atmospheric pathways, timing and geography of deposition is of crucial importance. This paper focuses on two aspects of desert dust over Central Asia: (i) seasonal and spatial patterns of aerosol optical depth (AOD) of desert dust and (ii) location and seasonal trends in activity of dust sources. Seasonal and spatial distribution of AOD is investigated using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Deep Blue AOD product, acquired over a period of 12 years from January 2003 to December 2014 at 10 km resolution. More detailed maps of dust sources are produced from higher resolution (1km) MODIS dust enhancement products (DEP) which have been modified by the use of additional bands and change in parameterization. The combined use of AOD and DEP enabled us to identify large scale dust emitting areas (through the use of AOD data) and within these areas, identify smaller-scale eroding points (using DEP) thus significantly improving the knowledge of both dust source location and dust entrainment mechanisms including rapid desertification (e.g. Aral Sea) and post-fire wind erosion (e.g. Lake Balkhash basin). Different seasonal patterns of dust emissions were observed in northern, western and southern deserts around the Tian Shan Mountains and their relation to climatological processes in these regions are explored.

  16. World Directory of Energy Information. Volume 2: Middle East, Africa and Asia/Pacific

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Volume 2 of the four-part Directory includes a detailed review of energy resource development of 64 countries, 15 of which are in the Middle East, 30 in Africa, and 19 in the Asia and Pacific area. The volume is divided into four parts: (1) International Framework; (2) Country Reviews; (3) Energy Organizations; and (4) Energy Publications. The organizations and publications information covers both international and by country. Three indices list publications alphabetically, by subject and country, and publishing bodies. 6 figures, 2 tables. (DCK)

  17. Hydroclimate Variations in Central and Monsoonal Asia over the Past 700 Years

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Keyan; Chen, Fahu; Sen, Asok K.; Davi, Nicole; Huang, Wei; Li, Jinbao; Seppä, Heikki

    2014-01-01

    Hydroclimate variations since 1300 in central and monsoonal Asia and their interplay on interannual and interdecadal timescales are investigated using the tree-ring based Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) reconstructions. Both the interannual and interdecadal variations in both regions are closely to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). On interannual timescale, the most robust correlations are observed between PDO and hydroclimate in central Asia. Interannual hydroclimate variations in central Asia are more significant during the warm periods with high solar irradiance, which is likely due to the enhanced variability of the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean, the high-frequency component of PDO, during the warm periods. We observe that the periods with significant interdecadal hydroclimate changes in central Asia often correspond to periods without significant interdecadal variability in monsoonal Asia, particularly before the 19th century. The PDO-hydroclimate relationships appear to be bridged by the atmospheric circulation between central North Pacific Ocean and Tibetan Plateau, a key area of PDO. While, in some periods the atmospheric circulation between central North Pacific Ocean and monsoonal Asia may lead to significant interdecadal hydroclimate variations in monsoonal Asia. PMID:25119567

  18. Loiasis in a Japanese Traveler Returning from Central Africa

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Tetsuro; Hayakawa, Kayoko; Mawatari, Momoko; Itoh, Makoto; Akao, Nobuaki; Yotsu, Rie R.; Sugihara, Jun; Takeshita, Nozomi; Kutsuna, Satoshi; Fujiya, Yoshihiro; Kanagawa, Shuzo; Ohmagari, Norio; Kato, Yasuyuki

    2015-01-01

    We encountered a probable case of loiasis in a returned traveler from Central Africa. A 52-year-old Japanese woman presented to our hospital complaining of discomfort in her eyes and skin. She reported having frequently visited Central Africa over many years and having been extensively exposed to the rainforest climate and ecosystem. Although no microfilariae were found in her blood, there was an elevated level of IgG antibodies against the crude antigens of Brugia pahangi, which have cross-reactivity with Loa loa. She was treated with albendazole for 21 days, after which the antigen-specific IgG level decreased and no relapse occurred. PMID:26161033

  19. Loiasis in a Japanese Traveler Returning from Central Africa.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Tetsuro; Hayakawa, Kayoko; Mawatari, Momoko; Itoh, Makoto; Akao, Nobuaki; Yotsu, Rie R; Sugihara, Jun; Takeshita, Nozomi; Kutsuna, Satoshi; Fujiya, Yoshihiro; Kanagawa, Shuzo; Ohmagari, Norio; Kato, Yasuyuki

    2015-06-01

    We encountered a probable case of loiasis in a returned traveler from Central Africa. A 52-year-old Japanese woman presented to our hospital complaining of discomfort in her eyes and skin. She reported having frequently visited Central Africa over many years and having been extensively exposed to the rainforest climate and ecosystem. Although no microfilariae were found in her blood, there was an elevated level of IgG antibodies against the crude antigens of Brugia pahangi, which have cross-reactivity with Loa loa. She was treated with albendazole for 21 days, after which the antigen-specific IgG level decreased and no relapse occurred. PMID:26161033

  20. Role of the westerlies in Central Asia climate over the Cenozoic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caves, Jeremy K.; Winnick, Matthew J.; Graham, Stephan A.; Sjostrom, Derek J.; Mulch, Andreas; Chamberlain, C. Page

    2015-10-01

    There remains substantial debate concerning the relative roles of tectonics and of global climate in pacing the evolution of aridity in Central Asia over the Cenozoic. Tibetan Plateau uplift, variable monsoonal strength, Paratethys retreat, and reduced moisture transport from the North Atlantic have all been hypothesized to drive aridity in Central Asia. Distinguishing between these mechanisms requires knowledge of moisture transport pathways to Central Asia through time. Presently, Central Asia receives recycled, high δ18 O moisture that has been transported across Eurasia by the westerlies, while southern Tibet receives low δ18 O moisture distilled by passage over the Himalaya. Here, we reconstruct the spatial distribution of oxygen isotopes in precipitation since the early Eocene, using a compilation of δ18 O data from 2750 sedimentary carbonate samples. Across Asia, the spatial distribution of paleo-precipitation δ18 O remains remarkably similar through time, with low δ18 O values in the lee of the Himalaya in southern Tibet, constant, high δ18 O values in Central Asia, and intermediate values on the central Plateau despite independent evidence for substantial changes in both topography and climate through time. These results suggest that a long-standing topographic feature has continuously blocked southerly moisture, and subsequent progressive uplift of the Tibetan Plateau has had little impact on Central Asian climate. In turn, southerly monsoonal moisture has never persistently extended northward of the central Plateau. As a result, the westerlies have remained the dominant moisture source in Central Asia since at least the early Eocene. Therefore, sedimentary aridity indicators in Central Asia, such as loess deposition, are controlled by the trans-Eurasian, westerly moisture flux rather than Tibetan Plateau uplift.

  1. Present situation of cystic echinococcosis in Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Torgerson, Paul R; Oguljahan, B; Muminov, Abdoullo E; Karaeva, Roza R; Kuttubaev, Omurbek T; Aminjanov, Mirabbas; Shaikenov, Blok

    2006-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) caused by Echinococcus granulosus has always been an endemic disease in central Asia. During the period of Soviet Administration up to 1991, human surgical incidence rates tended to be relatively low with perhaps at most 1-5 cases per 100,000 per year. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union and the emergence of the New Independent States there has been profound economic and social changes. Associated with this has been a serious epidemic of CE throughout the region. In many areas figures suggest the surgical incidence is now greater than 10 cases per 100,000. Furthermore, official government figures are believed to substantially under report the extent of the problem. For example, official figures in Uzbekistan reported 819 cases of CE surgically treated in 2001. However, a detailed analysis of hospital records suggests that the true figure was 4089, more than 4 fold higher. The latter figure represents an annual surgical incidence rate of nearly 25 cases/100,000 per year. Similarly high endemic areas are seen in southern Kazakhstan, Kyrgystan and Tadjikistan with incidence rates of up to 13 cases/100,000, 20 cases/100,000 and 27 cases/100,000 respectively. A disproportionate number of cases are in children and the unemployed. The rates of infection have also increased in major livestock species such as sheep with a doubling of reported prevalence in some areas. In the dog population, independent studies in Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan have demonstrated that the rural dog population, closely associated with the sheep industry, is highly infected, with prevalences approaching 25%. Village and urban dogs have a considerably lower prevalence. PMID:16361112

  2. Earthquake and Flood Risk Assessments for Europe and Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murnane, R. J.; Daniell, J. E.; Ward, P.; Winsemius, H.; Tijssen, A.; Toro, J.

    2015-12-01

    We report on a flood and earthquake risk assessment for 32 countries in Europe and Central Asia with a focus on how current flood and earthquake risk might evolve in the future due to changes in climate, population, and GDP. The future hazard and exposure conditions used for the risk assessment are consistent with selected IPCC AR5 Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) and Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs). Estimates of 2030 and 2080 population and GDP are derived using the IMAGE model forced by the socioeconomic conditions associated with the SSPs. Flood risk is modeled using the probabilistic GLOFRIS global flood risk modeling cascade which starts with meteorological fields derived from reanalysis data or climate models. For 2030 and 2080 climate conditions, the meteorological fields are generated from five climate models forced by the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios. Future flood risk is estimated using population and GDP exposures consistent with the SSP2 and SSP3 scenarios. Population and GDP are defined as being affected by a flood when a grid cell receives any depth of flood inundation. The earthquake hazard is quantified using a 10,000-year stochastic catalog of over 15.8 million synthetic earthquake events of at least magnitude 5. Ground motion prediction and estimates of local site conditions are used to determine PGA. Future earthquake risk is estimated using population and GDP exposures consistent with all five SSPs. Population and GDP are defined as being affected by an earthquake when a grid cell experiences ground motion equaling or exceeding MMI VI. For most countries, changes in exposure alter flood risk to a greater extent than changes in climate. For both flood and earthquake, the spread in risk grows over time. There are large uncertainties due to the methodology; however, the results are not meant to be definitive. Instead they will be used to initiate discussions with governments regarding efforts to manage disaster risk.

  3. Surge-type glaciers in the Tien Shan (Central Asia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Kriti; Bolch, Tobias

    2016-04-01

    Surge-type glaciers in High Mountain Asia are mostly observed in Karakoram and Pamir. However, few surge-type glaciers also exist in the Tien Shan, but have not comprehensively studied in detail in the recent literature. We identified surge-type glaciers in the Tien Shan either from available literature or by manual interpretation using available satellite images (such as Corona, Hexagon, Landsat, SPOT, IRS) for the period 1960 to 2014. We identified 39 possible surge-type glaciers, showing typical characteristics like looped moraines. Twenty-two of them rapidly advanced during different periods or a surge was clearly described in the literature. For the remaining possible surge-type glaciers either the advance, in terms of time and length, were not mentioned in detail in the literature, or the glaciers have remained either stable or retreated during the entire period of our study. Most of the surge-type glaciers cluster in the Inner Tien Shan (especially in the Ak-Shiirak rage) and the Central Tien Shan, are in size and are facing North, West or North West. Pronounced surge events were observed for North Inylchek and Samoilowitsch glaciers, both of which are located in the Central Tien Shan. Samoilowitsch Glacier retreated by more than 3 km between 1960 (length ~8.9 km) and 1992 (~5.8 km), advanced by almost 3 km until 2006 and slightly retreated thereafter. The most pronounced advance occurred between 2000 and 2002. DEM differencing (based on SRTM3 data and stereo Hexagon and Cartosat-1 data) revealed a significant thickening in the middle reaches (reservoir area) of the glacier between 1973 and 2000 while the surface significantly lowered in the middle and upper parts of the glacier between 2000 and 2006. Hence, the ice mass was transferred to the lower reaches (receiving area) and caused the advance with a maximum thickening of more than 80 m. The ~30 km long North Inylchek Glacier retreated since 1943 and showed a very rapid advance of ~3.5 km especially in

  4. Phylogenetic relationship of Hepatozoon blood parasites found in snakes from Africa, America and Asia.

    PubMed

    Haklová, B; Majláthová, V; Majláth, I; Harris, D J; Petrilla, V; Litschka-Koen, T; Oros, M; Peťko, B

    2014-03-01

    The blood parasites from the genus Hepatozoon Miller, 1908 (Apicomplexa: Adeleida: Hepatozoidae) represent the most common intracellular protozoan parasites found in snakes. In the present study, we examined 209 individuals of snakes, from different zoogeographical regions (Africa, America, Asia and Europe), for the occurrence of blood parasites using both molecular and microscopic examination methods, and assess phylogenetic relationships of all Hepatozoon parasites from snakes for the first time. In total, 178 blood smears obtained from 209 individuals, representing 40 species, were examined, from which Hepatozoon unicellular parasites were found in 26 samples (14·6% prevalence). Out of 180 samples tested by molecular method polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the presence of parasites was observed in 21 individuals (prevalence 11·6%): 14 snakes from Africa belonging to six genera (Dendroaspis, Dispholidus, Mehelya, Naja, Philothamnus and Python), five snakes from Asia from the genus Morelia and two snakes from America, from two genera (Coluber and Corallus). The intensity of infection varied from one to 1433 infected cells per 10 000 erythrocytes. Results of phylogenetic analyses (Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood) revealed the existence of five haplotypes divided into four main lineages. The present data also indicate neither geographical pattern of studied Hepatozoon sp., nor congruency in the host association. PMID:24553081

  5. Spatial drought reconstructions for central High Asia based on tree rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Keyan; Davi, Nicole; Gou, Xiaohua; Chen, Fahu; Cook, Edward; Li, Jinbao; D'Arrigo, Rosanne

    2010-11-01

    Spatial reconstructions of drought for central High Asia based on a tree-ring network are presented. Drought patterns for central High Asia are classified into western and eastern modes of variability. Tree-ring based reconstructions of the Palmer drought severity index (PDSI) are presented for both the western central High Asia drought mode (1587-2005), and for the eastern central High Asia mode (1660-2005). Both reconstructions, generated using a principal component regression method, show an increased variability in recent decades. The wettest epoch for both reconstructions occurred from the 1940s to the 1950s. The most extreme reconstructed drought for western central High Asia was from the 1640s to the 1650s, coinciding with the collapse of the Chinese Ming Dynasty. The eastern central High Asia reconstruction has shown a distinct tendency towards drier conditions since the 1980s. Our spatial reconstructions agree well with previous reconstructions that fall within each mode, while there is no significant correlation between the two spatial reconstructions.

  6. Music of Central Asia and of the Volga-Ural Peoples. Teaching Aids for the Study of Inner Asia No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slobin, Mark

    The music of the peoples who inhabit either Central Asia or the Volga-Ural region of Asia is explored in this document, which provides information that can be incorporated into secondary or higher education courses. The Central Asian music cultures of the Kirghiz, Kazakhs, Turkmens, Karakalpaks, Uighurs, Tajiks, and Uzbeks are described and…

  7. Abrupt post-glacial climate events in West Asia and North Africa monsoon domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasse, Françoise; Van Campo, Elise

    1994-09-01

    Regions beyond the present or past penetration of the Indian and African monsoons have experienced several large and abrupt climatic fluctuations over the past 13 14C kyr. Pollen and lake records from West Asia (Western Tibet and Rajasthan), East Africa (Ethiopia) and West Africa (Western Sahara, Sahel and subequatorial Africa) were selected on the basis of chronological control, sensitivity of both site and environmental indicators to climate change, the continuity of the record, and interdisciplinary control of the palaeoclimatic interpretation. Conditions wetter than those of today prevailed during the early-mid-Holocene period, but major dry spells are recorded at all sites during the intervals ˜ 11.0-9.5 kyr BP, ˜ 8-7 kyr BP and 3-4 kyr BP. Several records also suggest dry events of minor amplitude around 6 kyr BP. Potential boundary forcings of insolation and sea surface and tropical land surface conditions are discussed. The solar radiation accounts for the general envelop of the post-glacial monsoon fluctuations, but explains neither the timing nor the amplitude of the short-term changes. In spite of apparent covariation between fluctuations in sea surface conditions in the North Atlantic and the monsoon record, no direct mechanism could be found relating the intensity of the oceanic thermohaline conveyor belt to the monsoon strength. Changes in tropical land surface conditions (soil moisture negative feedback, and changes in CH 4 production from wetlands) provide a more satisfactory hypothesis for explaining abrupt reversal events.

  8. Orientalism(s), World Geography Textbooks, and Temporal Paradox: Questioning Representations of Southwest Asia and North Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zagumny, Lisa; Richey, Amanda B.

    2013-01-01

    In this critical discourse analysis of six high-school world geography textbooks, we explore how constructions and representations of North Africa and Southwest Asia have served to reinforce Orientalist discourse in formal curriculum. Visual and written representations in these textbooks were overwhelmingly confounded by a traditional/modern…

  9. Quality of vaccination services and social demand for vaccinations in Africa and Asia.

    PubMed Central

    Streefland, P. H.; Chowdhury, A. M.; Ramos-Jimenez, P.

    1999-01-01

    For immunization to be effective in the long run as a major global disease control intervention it is important to provide good quality vaccination services. Studies carried out in three countries in Asia (Bangladesh, India, and the Philippines) and two countries in Africa (Ethiopia and Malawi), and reported on in this article, document the fact that parents are willing to invest considerable effort in having their children vaccinated; however, there are a number of serious shortcomings in the quality of the routine vaccination services and strains are apparent at the interface between the vaccination providers and the users. These shortcomings are detracting from the sustainability of routine vaccination programmes and are promoting the growth of pools of nonimmunized and partially immunized children. To safeguard the continued operation and to enhance the coverage of routine vaccination programmes it is crucial that these difficulties be addressed. PMID:10534895

  10. Testing baseline stability of some neutron monitors in Europe, Africa, and Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahluwalia, H. S.; Ygbuhay, R. C.

    2013-06-01

    For six decades, the global network of neutron monitors (NMs) has provided a continuous stream of very valuable data to the heliophysics community, leading to many insights into the myriad modes of charged particle transport in the tangled magnetic fields that permeate the 3D heliosphere. Earlier, Ahluwalia and Ygbuhay (2012) reported on the drifts in some high latitude NM counting rates in the American zone. We continue our enquiry by testing the stability of the counting rate baselines of some NMs operating in Europe, Africa, and Asia. The data from these detectors have been extremely valuable for the short-term time variation studies, but caution is advised in using the data for long-term studies from NMs with baselines that are drifting for cause(s) unknown.

  11. Analysis of human infectious avian influenza virus: hemagglutinin genetic characteristics in Asia and Africa from 2004 to 2009.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jirong; Lei, Fumin

    2010-09-01

    In the present study, we used nucleotide and protein sequences of avian influenza virus H5N1, which were obtained in Asia and Africa, analyzed HA proteins using ClustalX1.83 and MEGA4.0, and built a genetic evolutionary tree of HA nucleotides. The analysis revealed that the receptor specificity amino acid of A/HK/213/2003, A/Turkey/65596/2006 and etc mutated into QNG, which could bind with á-2, 3 galactose and á-2, 6 galactose. A mutation might thus take place and lead to an outbreak of human infections of avian influenza virus. The mutations of HA protein amino acids from 2004 to 2009 coincided with human infections provided by the World Health Organization, indicating a "low-high-highest-high-low" pattern. We also found out that virus strains in Asia are from different origins: strains from Southeast Asia and East Asia are of the same origin, whereas those from West Asia, South Asia and Africa descend from one ancestor. The composition of the phylogenetic tree and mutations of key site amino acids in HA proteins reflected the fact that the majority of strains are regional and long term, and virus diffusions exist between China, Laos, Malaysia, Indonesia, Azerbaijan, Turkey and Iraq. We would advise that pertinent vaccines be developed and due attention be paid to the spread of viruses between neighboring countries and the dangers of virus mutation and evolution. PMID:21392344

  12. Cost-effectiveness of cervical cancer prevention in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Berkhof, Johannes; Bogaards, Johannes A; Demirel, Erhan; Diaz, Mireia; Sharma, Monisha; Kim, Jane J

    2013-12-31

    We studied the cost-effectiveness of cervical cancer prevention strategies in the Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia (CEECA) region. The cost-effectiveness of human papillomavirus (HPV)16/18 vaccination of 12 year-old girls was calculated for 28 countries, under the assumption that vaccination prevents 70% of all cervical cancer cases and that cervical cancer and all-cause mortality rates are stable without vaccination. At three-dose vaccination costs of I$ 100 per vaccinated girl (currency 2005 international dollars), HPV16/18 vaccination was very cost-effective in 25 out of 28 countries using the country's gross domestic product (GDP) per capita as cost-effectiveness threshold (criterion by World Health Organization). A three-dose vaccination cost of I$ 100 is within the current range of vaccine costs in European immunization programs, and therefore our results indicate that HPV vaccination may be good value for money. To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of cervical cancer screening combined with vaccination, we calibrated a published simulation model to HPV genotype data collected in Slovenia, Poland, and Georgia. The screening interval was varied at 3, 6, and 10 years starting at age 25 or 30 and ending at age 60. In Slovenia and Poland, combined vaccination and 10-yearly HPV (DNA) screening (vaccination coverage 70%, screening coverage per round 70%) was very cost-effective when the cost of three-dose vaccination was I$ 100 per vaccinated girl. More intensive screening was very cost-effective when the screening coverage per round was 30% or 50%. In Georgia, 10-yearly Pap screening was very cost-effective in unvaccinated women. Vaccination combined with 10-yearly HPV screening was likely to be cost-effective if the three-dose vaccination cost was I$ 50 per vaccinated girl. To conclude, cervical cancer prevention strategies utilizing both HPV16/18 vaccination and HPV screening are very cost-effective in countries with sufficient resources. In low

  13. Globalization on the Margins: Education and Post-Socialist Transformations in Central Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silova, Iveta

    2010-01-01

    The essays in "Globalization on the Margins" explore the continuities and changes in Central Asian education development since the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. Reflecting on two decades of post-socialist transformations, they reveal that education systems in Central Asia responded to the rapidly changing political, economic, and social…

  14. Central Africa: Global climate change and development. Synopsis

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Central Africa contains the largest remaining contiguous expanse of moist tropical forest on the African continent and the second largest in the world. However, deforestation rates are rising as the result of rapid population growth, inappropriate economic policies, economic downturns, and weak management capacities. If clearing rates continue to rise, a substantial amount of carbon dioxide will be released into the atmosphere, thus contributing to global climate change. The report summarizes a study designed as a first step in understanding the complex dynamics of the causes and effects of global climate change in Central Africa. The current state of the region's forests, greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation and biomass burning, and the potential impacts of global climate change are discussed.

  15. Ticks (Ixodidae) on birds migrating from Europe and Asia to Africa, 1959-61*

    PubMed Central

    Hoogstraal, Harry; Kaiser, Makram N.; Traylor, Melvin A.; Guindy, Ezzat; Gaber, Sobhy

    1963-01-01

    The need for imaginative thinking and research in the epidemiology of diseases transmitted by arthropods is made manifest by new views of the longevity and host ranges of arthropod-borne viruses, as well as by other biological and medical phenomena. Among these is the intercontinental transport of ticks by migrating birds. During the fall migration periods of 1959, 1960 and 1961, 32 086 birds (comprising 72 forms) were examined for ticks in Egypt while en route from Asia and eastern Europe to tropical Africa. Of these, 40 forms, represented by 31 434 birds, were tick-infested. The bird hosts, numbering 1040 (3.31% of the tick-infested bird forms examined), bore 1761 ticks, or 1.69 ticks per host. Common ticks taken were Hyalomma m. marginatum, Haemaphysalis punctata, and Ixodes ricinus. Ixodes frontalis and Hyalomma aegyptium were less common and Haemaphysalis sulcata, H. otophila, and H. pavlovskyi were rare. The common tick species are known to be reservoirs and vectors of pathogens causing a number of human and animal diseases in Europe and Asia. Several of the bird hosts have also been incriminated as reservoirs in their summer ranges. Over 20 strains of pathogenic viruses were isolated from these birds and their ticks in Egypt in the 1961 fall migration period. The most difficult problems in investigations such as this in many parts of the world are taxonomic ones: the correct identification of bird hosts, of immature stages of ticks and of viruses. PMID:13961632

  16. Early Cretaceous rifts of Western and Central Africa: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guiraud, René; Maurin, Jean-Christophe

    1992-10-01

    The structure and evolution of Early Cretaceous rift basins in Western and Central Africa are described. Two stages of rift development and fracturing have been identified: (1) from Neocomian to Early Aptian roughly E-W and NW trending troughs (Upper Benue, N Cameroon, S Chad, Sudan etc.) opened in response to a submeridian extensional regime in Central Africa while in Western Africa the N-S trending transsaharian fault zone acted as a sinistral wrench; (2) from Middle Aptian to Late Albian large northwest trending troughs (E Niger, Sudan, Sirte, etc.) opened in response to a northeast extensional regime while the Central African fault zone (from Benue to Sudan) exhibited strike-slip movements, generating pull-apart basins. These rift and fracture systems delimit three large blocks within the African plate: a Western block, an Arabian-Nubian block and an Austral block. The Arabian-Nubian block tends to separate from the two other blocks, migrating towards the north during the first stage of basin development and then towards the NE during the second stage. The opening of the Atlantic Ocean was the dominant driving force for the Western and Austral blocks while the Arabian-Nubian block probably moved in response to the opening of the Indian Ocean and to the evolution of the Tethyan margin.

  17. Oil and the geopolitics of Central Asia: A "new 'great game'"?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Sati, Saud M.

    The nineteenth century rivalry between the Russian Empire and Great Britain over Central Asia, known as the "great game," was triggered by the quest for power and dominance. This study revisits Sir Halford Mackinder's thesis, which viewed the "heartland," consisting of Russia and Central Asia, as being crucial for international politics. It also discusses the influence of Mackinder's ideas on twentieth century geopolitical thinking. The study also examines the common assumption that the new "great game" in Central Asia is evolving around the exploitation of energy resources, and analyzes the consequences of this new factor for the geopolitical significance of the region. The landlocked nature of the Central Asian countries makes it necessary for them to rely on their neighbors for the export of oil and gas to international markets. Thus, the political and economic interests of Russia, Iran, and Turkey motivate them to compete with each other for export routes through their territories. This study also shows that the estimates of Central Asian proven oil reserves are characterized by considerable ambiguity. Estimates vary from seven to twenty-two billion barrels. Despite the fact that these proven oil reserves are limited compared to those of other regions, such as the Middle East, continued exploration is compatible with the Western strategy of energy resource diversification. Another primary aim of American involvement is to prevent the reintegration of Central Asia into the Russian federation and to block Chinese influence in Central Asia. This study reveals that realities in today's Central Asia are different from those of the nineteenth century. Central Asia now consists of independent countries; the competing powers have changed, with the exception of Russia; and oil has emerged as a new factor. However, the perpetual quest for power and dominance that marked the historical "great game" is still at work in the last decade of the twentieth century. Finally, the

  18. Prevention of unsafe abortion in countries of Central Eastern Europe and Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Hodorogea, Stelian; Comendant, Rodica

    2010-07-01

    Despite permissive laws and a well-developed network of facilities, the incidence of unsafe abortion and the resulting maternal mortality is unacceptably high in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia, with one-quarter of all maternal deaths reported to occur as a consequence of abortion. Among the reasons that oblige women to submit themselves to risky procedures are new legislative barriers to accessing pregnancy termination, the unequal distribution of abortion services and healthcare providers, the increased costs of abortion services or unofficial payments, coupled with an increase in the number of impoverished and disadvantaged individuals. The quality of abortion services remains very poor. Safe abortion techniques, including manual vacuum aspiration under local anesthesia and medical abortion, are slowly being implemented. Less safe methods such as dilatation and curettage and general anesthesia are widely used. Unsafe techniques are also practiced extensively in the case of second trimester abortions. Many women from these regions of the world still rely on and accept abortion as a means of fertility control. Although abortions have fallen significantly in Eastern Europe over the last decade, both in absolute numbers and as rates, this region continues to have the highest abortion rates in the world. Concerted efforts by governments, professional associations, and international donors are needed to reduce the consequences of unsafe abortion. PMID:20471645

  19. Increasing summer rainfall in arid eastern-Central Asia over the past 8500 years

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Bing; Gasse, Françoise; Uchida, Masao; Hong, Yetang; Leng, Xuetian; Shibata, Yasuyuki; An, Ning; Zhu, Yongxuan; Wang, Yu

    2014-01-01

    A detailed and well-dated proxy record of summer rainfall variation in arid Central Asia is lacking. Here, we report a long-term, high resolution record of summer rainfall extracted from a peat bog in arid eastern-Central Asia (AECA). The record indicates a slowly but steadily increasing trend of summer rainfall in the AECA over the past 8500 years. On this long-term trend are superimposed several abrupt increases in rainfall on millennial timescales that correspond to rapid cooling events in the North Atlantic. During the last millennium, the hydrological climate pattern of the AECA underwent a major change. The rainfall in the past century has reached its highest level over the 8500-year history, highlighting the significant impact of the human-induced greenhouse effect on the hydrological climate in the AECA. Our results demonstrate that even in very dry eastern-Central Asia, the climate can become wetter under global warming. PMID:24923304

  20. Science and Technology in Support of U.S. Policy in Central Asia: Executive Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, N D; Kirk, E J; DeLaTorre, G

    2003-12-23

    On February 6, 2003, a workshop, was cosponsored by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and the Center for Global Security Research (CGSR) to explore both the linkage between U.S. policy in Central Asia and science and technology (S&T) and the role of S&T in achieving U.S. security and development objectives in the region. A major outcome of the workshop is the identification of potential S&T initiatives that support U.S. Central Asia policy goals. This document summarizes the proceedings, conclusions, and recommendations from this workshop; it is a companion document to the full proceedings entitled Science and Technology in Support of U.S. Policy in Central Asia. The proceedings are also published by AAAS and a copy can be obtained from either AAAS (www.aaas.org), Sheri Abbott (AAAS; 202 326-6655), or Richard Knapp (LLNL; 925 423-3328; knapp4@llnl.gov).

  1. P wave velocity of Proterozoic upper mantle beneath central and southern Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyblade, Andrew A.; Vogfjord, Kristin S.; Langston, Charles A.

    1996-05-01

    P wave velocity structure of Proterozoic upper mantle beneath central and southern Africa was investigated by forward modeling of Pnl waveforms from four moderate size earthquakes. The source-receiver path of one event crosses central Africa and lies outside the African superswell while the source-receiver paths for the other events cross Proterozoic lithosphere within southern Africa, inside the African superswell. Three observables (Pn waveshape, PL-Pn time, and Pn/PL amplitude ratio) from the Pnl waveform were used to constrain upper mantle velocity models in a grid search procedure. For central Africa, synthetic seismograms were computed for 5880 upper mantle models using the generalized ray method and wavenumber integration; synthetic seismograms for 216 models were computed for southern Africa. Successful models were taken as those whose synthetic seismograms had similar waveshapes to the observed waveforms, as well as PL-Pn times within 3 s of the observed times and Pn/PL amplitude ratios within 30% of the observed ratio. Successful models for central Africa yield a range of uppermost mantle velocity between 7.9 and 8.3 km s-1, velocities between 8.3 and 8.5 km s-1 at a depth of 200 km, and velocity gradients that are constant or slightly positive. For southern Africa, successful models yield uppermost mantle velocities between 8.1 and 8.3 km s-1, velocities between 7.9 and 8.4 km s-1 at a depth of 130 km, and velocity gradients between -0.001 and 0.001 s-1. Because velocity gradients are controlled strongly by structure at the bottoming depths for Pn waves, it is not easy to compare the velocity gradients obtained for central and southern Africa. For central Africa, Pn waves turn at depths of about 150-200 km, whereas for southern Africa they bottom at ˜100-150 km depth. With regard to the origin of the African superswell, our results do not have sufficient resolution to test hypotheses that invoke simple lithospheric reheating. However, our models are not

  2. Correlation slopes of GEM / CO, GEM / CO2, and GEM / CH4 and estimated mercury emissions in China, South Asia, the Indochinese Peninsula, and Central Asia derived from observations in northwestern and southwestern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, X. W.; Zhang, H.; Lin, C.-J.; Feng, X. B.; Zhou, L. X.; Fang, S. X.

    2015-01-01

    Correlation analyses between atmospheric mercury (Hg) and other trace gases are useful for identification of sources and constraining regional Hg emissions. Emissions of Hg in Asia contribute significantly to the global budget of atmospheric Hg. However, due to the lack of reliable data on the source strength, large uncertainties remain in the emission inventories of Hg in Asia. In the present study, we calculated the correlation slopes of GEM / CO, GEM / CO2, and GEM / CH4 for mainland China, South Asia, the Indochinese Peninsula, and Central Asia using the ground-based observations at three remote sites in northwestern and southwestern China, and applied these values to estimate GEM emissions in the four source regions. The geometric mean GEM / CO correlation slopes for mainland China, South Asia, the Indochinese Peninsula, and Central Asia were 7.3 ± 4.3, 7.8 ± 6.4, 7.8 ± 5.0, and 13.4 ± 9.5 pg m-3 ppb-1, respectively, and values in the same source regions were 33.3 ± 30.4, 27.4 ± 31.0, 23.5 ± 15.3, and 20.5 ± 10.0 pg m-3 ppb-1 for the GEM / CH4 correlation slopes, respectively. The geometric means of GEM / CO2 correlation slopes for mainland China, South Asia, and Central Asia were 240 ± 119, 278 ± 164, 315 ± 289 pg m-3 ppm-1, respectively. These values were the first reported correlation slopes of GEM / CO, GEM / CO2, and GEM / CH4 in four important source regions of Asia, not including the GEM / CO ratios in mainland China. The correlation slopes of GEM / CO, GEM / CO2, and GEM / CH4 in Asia were relatively higher than those observed in Europe, North America, and South Africa, which may highlight GEM emissions from non-ferrous smelting, large-scale and artisanal mercury and gold production, natural sources, and historically deposited mercury (re-emission) in Asia. Using the observed GEM / CO and GEM / CO2 slopes, and the recently reported emission inventories of CO and CO2, the annual GEM emissions in mainland China, South Asia, the Indochinese

  3. Ozone Variations over Central Tien-Shan in Central Asia and Implications for Regional Emissions Reduction Strategies

    EPA Science Inventory

    The variability of total column ozone (TCO) and tropospheric column ozone (TrCO) was examined in Central Asia. Measurements were conducted at the Lidar Station Teplokluchenka in eastern Kyrgyzstan for one year, July 2008–July 2009. TCO was obtained using a handheld Microtops II ...

  4. Lead levels in new enamel household paints from Asia, Africa and South America.

    PubMed

    Clark, C Scott; Rampal, Krishna G; Thuppil, Venkatesh; Roda, Sandy M; Succop, Paul; Menrath, William; Chen, Chin K; Adebamowo, Eugenious O; Agbede, Oluwole A; Sridhar, Mynepalli K C; Adebamowo, Clement A; Zakaria, Yehia; El-Safty, Amal; Shinde, Rana M; Yu, Jiefei

    2009-10-01

    In 2006 a report on the analysis for lead in 80 new residential paints from four countries in Asia revealed high levels in three of the countries (China, India and Malaysia) and low levels in a fourth country (Singapore) where a lead in paint regulation was enforced. The authors warned of the possible export of lead-painted consumer products to the United States and other countries and the dangers the lead paint represented to children in the countries where it was available for purchase. The need for a worldwide ban on the use of lead in paints was emphasized to prevent an increase in exposure and disease from this very preventable environmental source. Since the earlier paper almost 300 additional new paint samples have been collected from the four initial countries plus 8 additional countries, three from Asia, three from Africa and two from South America. During the intervening time period two million toys and other items imported into the United States were recalled because the lead content exceeded the United States standard. High lead paints were detected in all 12 countries. The average lead concentration by country ranged from 6988 (Singapore) to 31,960ppm (Ecuador). One multinational company sold high lead paint in one country through January 2007 but sold low lead paint later in 2007 indicating that a major change to cease adding lead to their paints had occurred. However, the finding that almost one-third of the samples would meet the new United States standard for new paint of 90ppm, suggests that the technology is already available in at least 11 of the 12 countries to produce low lead enamel paints for domestic use. The need remains urgent to establish effective worldwide controls to prevent the needless poisoning of millions of children from this preventable exposure. PMID:19656507

  5. The first cardioverter defibrillator implanted in Central Africa

    PubMed Central

    Cabral, Tantchou Tchoumi Jacques; Budzee, Appolonia; Butera, Gianfranco

    2016-01-01

    Sudden cardiac deaths, which account for approximately 350 000 deaths each year, is a major health care problem. Antiarrhythmic drugs have not been reliable in preventing sudden cardiac death. Although β-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and revascularization play a role in prevention of sudden cardiac death, the development and subsequent refinement of the implantable cardioverter-defibrillator has made the most important contribution to its management. We report the first documented implantation of a cardioverter defibrillator in central, eastern and western Africa. PMID:27279942

  6. Barriers to Coverage of Transborder Environmental Issues in the Ferghana Valley of Central Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Three former Soviet republics occupy Central Asia's Ferghana Valley, a region of serious transborder environmental problems, especially ones that involve water and energy. Most news organizations in Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan provide little in-depth coverage of these issues. Journalists in one country usually do not seek news…

  7. History Didactics in the Post Cold War World: Central Asia, the Middle East, and China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsyth, Louise; Gould, David; Lawrence, David

    2000-01-01

    Examines three key geographical regions, Central Asia, the Middle East, and China, discussing how the political changes resulting from the end of the Cold War have affected each area. Attempts to demonstrate how teachers can address these changes in their classrooms. (CMK)

  8. LIDAR Measurements of the Vertical Distribution of Aerosol Optical and Physical Properties over Central Asia

    EPA Science Inventory

    The vertical structure of aerosol optical and physical properties was measured by Lidar in Eastern Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia, from June 2008 to May 2009. Lidar measurements were supplemented with surface-based measurements of PM2.5 and PM10 mass and chemical ...

  9. Empirical Relationship between particulate matter and Aerosol Optical Depth over Northern Tien-Shan, Central Asia

    EPA Science Inventory

    Measurements were obtained at two sites in northern Tien-Shan in Central Asia during a 1-year period beginning July 2008 to examine the statistical relationship between aerosol optical depth (AOD) and of fine [PM2.5, particles less than 2.5 μm aerodynamic diameter (AD)] and coars...

  10. Private Tutoring in Eastern Europe and Central Asia: Policy Choices and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silova, Iveta

    2010-01-01

    Private tutoring has become increasingly visible in Eastern Europe and Central Asia since the collapse of the socialist bloc in the early 1990s. Yet, this unprecedented growth of private tutoring, in its varied forms and arrangements, has remained largely unnoticed by policymakers in the region. Based on the data from the cross-national studies of…

  11. The Crisis of the Post-Soviet Teaching Profession in the Caucasus and Central Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silova, Iveta

    2009-01-01

    Since the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the status of the teaching profession has begun to erode in the Caucasus and Central Asia as evidenced in such indicators as a teacher shortage, the feminization of the profession, an over-aged teaching force, a low transition rate from teacher education graduation to professional service, and a…

  12. GENETIC DIFFERENTIATION OF PUCCINIA TRITICINA POPULATIONS IN CENTRAL ASIA AND THE CAUCASUS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Isolates of Puccinia triticina collected from common wheat in the Central Asia countries of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, and the Caucasus countries of Azerbaijan, Georgia, and Armenia were tested for virulence to 20 isolines of Thatcher wheat with different leaf rust resistance ge...

  13. Education and the Crisis of Social Cohesion in Azerbaijan and Central Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silova, Iveta; Johnson, Mark S.; Heyneman, Stephen P.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors examine the role of education in the maintenance of social cohesion and the formation of new identities amid the economic decline and political volatility of six new nations: Azerbaijan, in the southern Caucasus, and Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan in Central Asia. The authors first…

  14. Characteristics of Fine Particulate Carbonaceous Aerosol at Two Remote Sites in Central Asia

    EPA Science Inventory

    Central Asia is a relatively understudied region of the world in terms of characterizing ambient particulate matter (PM) and quantifying source impacts of PM at receptor locations, although it is speculated to have an important role as a source region for long-range transport of ...

  15. Turkey's Educational Policies in Central Asia and Caucasia: Perceptions of Policy Makers and Experts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akcali, Pinar; Engin-Demir, Cennet

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the educational policies of Turkey in Central Asia and Caucasia in the post-Soviet era in terms of their successes and failures as perceived by some of the relevant professional policy makers in this field as well as experts from various think-tank institutions in Turkey who are interested in the region.…

  16. Source Sector and Region Contributions to BC and PM2.5 in Central Asia

    EPA Science Inventory

    Particulate matter (PM) mass concentrations, seasonal cycles, source sector and source region contributions in Central Asia (CA) are analyzed for the period April 2008-July 2009 using the STEM chemical transport model and modeled meteorology from the WRF model. Predicted AOD valu...

  17. Potential impacts of climate change on vegetation dynamics in Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhi; Chen, Yaning; Li, Weihong; Deng, Haijun; Fang, Gonghuan

    2015-12-01

    Observations indicate that although average temperatures in Central Asia showed almost no increases from 1997 to 2013, they have been in a state of high variability. Despite the lack of a clear increasing trend, this 15 year period is still the hottest in nearly half a century. Precipitation in Central Asia remained relatively stable from 1960 to 1986 and then showed a sharp increase in 1987. Since the beginning of the 21st century, however, the increasing rate of precipitation has diminished. Dramatic changes in meteorological conditions could potentially have a strong impact on the region's natural ecosystems, as some significant changes have already occurred. Specifically, the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) of natural vegetation in Central Asia during 1982-2013 exhibited an increasing trend at a rate of 0.004 per decade prior to 1998, after which the trends reversed, and the NDVI decreased at a rate of 0.003 per decade. Moreover, our results indicate that shrub cover and patch size exhibited a significant increase in 2000-2013 compared to the 1980s-1990s, including shrub encroachment on grasslands. Over the past 10 years, 8% of grassland has converted to shrubland. Precipitation increased in the 1990s, providing favorable conditions for vegetation growth, but precipitation slightly reduced at the end of the 2000s. Meanwhile, warming intensified 0.93°C since 1997 compared to the average value in 1960-1997, causing less moisture to be available for vegetation growth in Central Asia.

  18. POPULATION GENETICS OF THE WHEAT LEAF RUST FUNGUS, PUCCINIA TRITICINA IN CENTRAL ASIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat leaf rust, caused by Puccinia triticina, is a major disease of wheat in Central Asia. Single uredinial isolates from Armenia, Azerbaijan, Tajikistan, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, and Kyrgyzstan, 131 in total, were tested for virulence to 20 isolines of Thatcher wheat with single leaf rust resistan...

  19. West Meets East in Central Asia: Competing Discourses on Secondary Education Reform in the Kyrgyz Republic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Young, Alan J.

    The Kyrgyz Republic--a remote mountainous region--is one of five former Soviet states in central Asia. This case study begins with a brief overview of the political and economic situation of the Kyrgyz Republic and its relation to aims of Soviet schooling in the 20th century. A critique of the Soviet schooling model by foreign academics before and…

  20. Ideologies of Civic Participation in Central Asia: Liberal Arts in the Post-Soviet Democratic Ethos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Norma Jo; Thompson, Chad D.

    2010-01-01

    Higher educational practices in post-Soviet Central Asia remain predicated on an authoritarian conception of expertise rooted in an objective and universal science. While the substance of such education has changed since the Soviet era, the form of education remains rooted in Soviet-era discursive ideological practices, practices that encourage…

  1. POPULATION GENETICS OF THE WHEAT LEAF RUST FUNGUS, PUCCINIA TRITICINA IN CENTRAL ASIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat leaf rust, caused by Puccinia triticina, is a major disease of wheat in Central Asia. Single uredinial isolates from Armenia, Azerbaijan, Tajikistan, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, and Kyrgyzstan, 131 in total, were tested for virulence to 20 isolines of Thatcher wheat with single leaf rust resistanc...

  2. Phylogeographical Structure in Mitochondrial DNA of Legume Pod Borer (Maruca vitrata) Population in Tropical Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Periasamy, Malini; Schafleitner, Roland; Muthukalingan, Krishnan; Ramasamy, Srinivasan

    2015-01-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the genetic diversity and host plant races of M. vitrata population in South and Southeast Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. The cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene was used to understand the phylogenetic relationship of geographically different M. vitrata population, but previous studies did not include population from Southeast Asia, the probable center of origin for Maruca, and from east Africa. Extensive sampling was done from different host plant species in target countries. Reference populations from Oceania and Latin America were used. An amplicon of 658 bp was produced by polymerase chain reaction, and 64 haplotypes were identified in 686 M. vitrata individuals. Phylogenetic analysis showed no difference among the M. vitrata population from different host plants. However, the results suggested that M. vitrata has formed two putative subspecies (which cannot be differentiated based on morphological characters) in Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, as indicated by the high pairwise FST values (0.44–0.85). The extremely high FST values (≥0.93) of Maruca population in Latin America and Oceania compared to Asian and African population seem to indicate a different species. On the continental or larger geographical region basis, the genetic differentiation is significantly correlated with the geographical distance. In addition, two putative species of Maruca, including M. vitrata occur in Australia, Indonesia and Papua New Guinea. The negative Tajima’s D and Fu’s FS values showed the recent demographic expansion of Maruca population. The haplotype network and Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery analyses confirmed the results of phylogenetic analysis. Thus, this study confirmed the presence of three putative Maruca species, including one in Latin America, one in Oceania (including Indonesia) and M. vitrata in Asia, Africa and Oceania. Hence, the genetic differences in Maruca population should be carefully considered while

  3. Mortality from external causes in Africa and Asia: evidence from INDEPTH Health and Demographic Surveillance System Sites

    PubMed Central

    Streatfield, P. Kim; Khan, Wasif A.; Bhuiya, Abbas; Hanifi, Syed M.A.; Alam, Nurul; Diboulo, Eric; Niamba, Louis; Sié, Ali; Lankoandé, Bruno; Millogo, Roch; Soura, Abdramane B.; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Kone, Siaka; Ngoran, Eliezer K.; Utzinger, Juerg; Ashebir, Yemane; Melaku, Yohannes A.; Weldearegawi, Berhe; Gomez, Pierre; Jasseh, Momodou; Azongo, Daniel; Oduro, Abraham; Wak, George; Wontuo, Peter; Attaa-Pomaa, Mary; Gyapong, Margaret; Manyeh, Alfred K.; Kant, Shashi; Misra, Puneet; Rai, Sanjay K.; Juvekar, Sanjay; Patil, Rutuja; Wahab, Abdul; Wilopo, Siswanto; Bauni, Evasius; Mochamah, George; Ndila, Carolyne; Williams, Thomas N.; Khaggayi, Christine; Nyaguara, Amek; Obor, David; Odhiambo, Frank O.; Ezeh, Alex; Oti, Samuel; Wamukoya, Marylene; Chihana, Menard; Crampin, Amelia; Collinson, Mark A.; Kabudula, Chodziwadziwa W.; Wagner, Ryan; Herbst, Kobus; Mossong, Joël; Emina, Jacques B.O.; Sankoh, Osman A.; Byass, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Background Mortality from external causes, of all kinds, is an important component of overall mortality on a global basis. However, these deaths, like others in Africa and Asia, are often not counted or documented on an individual basis. Overviews of the state of external cause mortality in Africa and Asia are therefore based on uncertain information. The INDEPTH Network maintains longitudinal surveillance, including cause of death, at population sites across Africa and Asia, which offers important opportunities to document external cause mortality at the population level across a range of settings. Objective To describe patterns of mortality from external causes at INDEPTH Network sites across Africa and Asia, according to the WHO 2012 verbal autopsy (VA) cause categories. Design All deaths at INDEPTH sites are routinely registered and followed up with VA interviews. For this study, VA archives were transformed into the WHO 2012 VA standard format and processed using the InterVA-4 model to assign cause of death. Routine surveillance data also provide person-time denominators for mortality rates. Results A total of 5,884 deaths due to external causes were documented over 11,828,253 person-years. Approximately one-quarter of those deaths were to children younger than 15 years. Causes of death were dominated by childhood drowning in Bangladesh, and by transport-related deaths and intentional injuries elsewhere. Detailed mortality rates are presented by cause of death, age group, and sex. Conclusions The patterns of external cause mortality found here generally corresponded with expectations and other sources of information, but they fill some important gaps in population-based mortality data. They provide an important source of information to inform potentially preventive intervention designs. PMID:25377327

  4. Muslim oil and gas periphery; the future of hydrocarbons in Africa, southeast Asia and the Caspian. Master`s thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Crockett, B.D.

    1997-12-01

    This thesis is a study of the contemporary political, economic, and technical developments and future prospects of the Muslim hydrocarbon exporters of Africa, Southeast Asia, and the Caspian. The established Muslim oil and gas periphery of Africa and Southeast Asia has four members in the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) and is systemically increasing its production of natural gas. I analyze US government and corporate policies regarding the countries and the major dilemmas of the Muslim hydrocarbon periphery. The first chapter provides a selective overview of global energy source statistics; the policies, disposition and composition of the major hydrocarbon production and consumption players and communities; a selective background of OPEC and its impact on the globe; and a general portrait of how the Muslim periphery piece fits into the overall Muslim oil and gas puzzle. Chapter two analyzes the established Muslim oil and gas periphery of Africa and Southeast Asia asking the following questions: What are the major political, economic, and technical trends and dilemmas affecting these producer nations. And what are the United States` policies and relationships with these producers. Chapter three asks the same questions as chapter two, but with regard to the newly independent states of the Caspian Sea. I probe the regional petroleum exploration and transportation dilemmas in some detail.

  5. Rich nutrition from the poorest - cereal fermentations in Africa and Asia.

    PubMed

    Nout, M J Rob

    2009-10-01

    Cereal fermentations in Africa and Asia involve mainly the processing of maize, rice, sorghum and the millets. Lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus, Pediococcus), Enterobacter spp., yeasts (Candida, Debaryomyces, Endomycopsis, Hansenula, Pichia, Saccharomyces and Trichosporon spp.) and filamentous fungi (Amylomyces, Aspergillus, Mucor, and Rhizopus spp.) contribute to desirable modifications of taste, flavour, acidity, digestibility, and texture in non-alcoholic beverages (e.g., uji, and ben-saalga), porridges (e.g., mawè) and cooked gels (e.g., kenkey, idli, and mifen). In addition, alcoholic beverages (beers such as tchoukoutou and jnard; and spirits e.g. jiu) are obtained using malt, or using amylolytic mixed microbial starter cultures as generators of fermentable substrates. Wet processing, marketing of multi-purpose intermediate products, co-fermentation for texture and nutrition, and mixed culture fermentations as practiced in indigenous fermentation processes are of interest for industrial innovation and for better control of natural mixed culture fermentation systems. On the other hand, the nutritional properties of traditional cereal fermented products can be enhanced by increasing their nutrient and energy density, as well as by increasing their mineral status by combining mineral fortification and dephytinization. PMID:19747601

  6. Status analysis and strategic framework for sanitation management in Asia and Africa.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y K; Seo, I S; Jung, N C; Kim, J Y; Byun, J H

    2007-01-01

    Following rapid population increase and industrial development, the ever increasing environmental pollution and the associated sanitation-related problem are no longer regional or local but have become an issue requiring global-dimensional concern and the provision of problem-solving alternatives. Especially, since most problems result from inappropriate sewerage and the lack of sewage treatment system are in a serious state occurring in economically underdeveloped regions, and as such, their significance is enormous. The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) has been making efforts to establish the technology selection methodology applicable in developing countries, through the accurate status, investigation and analysis of the wastewater management state in Asian and African regions, and the sanitation management guideline utilisable by political leaders or decision-makers. As part of this effort, the Korea Institute of Water Environment (KIWE), together with the UNEP, selected China and Vietnam (in Asia) and Kenya and Ethiopia (in Africa) as subject countries to investigate and perform on-site sanitation management investigations and analysis in this research. Results obtained from the on-site investigation were analysed, and in order to be helpful in establishing a strategy for sanitation management in underdeveloped countries, the strategic framework (SF) has been made based on characterised results. PMID:17881834

  7. Integrated Pest Management for Sustainable Intensification of Agriculture in Asia and Africa

    PubMed Central

    Pretty, Jules; Pervez Bharucha, Zareen

    2015-01-01

    Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is a leading complement and alternative to synthetic pesticides and a form of sustainable intensification with particular importance for tropical smallholders. Global pesticide use has grown over the past 20 years to 3.5 billion kg/year, amounting to a global market worth $45 billion. The external costs of pesticides are $4–$19 (€3–15) per kg of active ingredient applied, suggesting that IPM approaches that result in lower pesticide use will benefit, not only farmers, but also wider environments and human health. Evidence for IPM’s impacts on pesticide use and yields remains patchy. We contribute an evaluation using data from 85 IPM projects from 24 countries of Asia and Africa implemented over the past twenty years. Analysing outcomes on productivity and reliance on pesticides, we find a mean yield increase across projects and crops of 40.9% (SD 72.3), combined with a decline in pesticide use to 30.7% (SD 34.9) compared with baseline. A total of 35 of 115 (30%) crop combinations resulted in a transition to zero pesticide use. We assess successes in four types of IPM projects, and find that at least 50% of pesticide use is not needed in most agroecosystems. Nonetheless, policy support for IPM is relatively rare, counter-interventions from pesticide industry common, and the IPM challenge never done as pests, diseases and weeds evolve and move. PMID:26463073

  8. Genetically Engineered Crops and Certified Organic Agriculture for Improving Nutrition Security in Africa and South Asia.

    PubMed

    Pray, Carl; Ledermann, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    In Africa and South Asia, where nutrition insecurity is severe, two of the most prominent production technologies are genetically modified (GM) crops and certified organic agriculture. We analyze the potential impact pathways from agricultural production to nutrition. Our review of data and the literature reveals increasing farm-level income from cash crop production as the main pathway by which organic agriculture and GM agriculture improve nutrition. Potential secondary pathways include reduced prices of important food crops like maize due to GM maize production and increased food production using organic technology. Potential tertiary pathways are improvements in health due to reduced insecticide use. Challenges to the technologies achieving their impact include the politics of GM agriculture and the certification costs of organic agriculture. Given the importance of agricultural production in addressing nutrition security, accentuated by the post-2015 sustainable development agenda, the chapter concludes by stressing the importance of private and public sector research in improving the productivity and adoption of both GM and organic crops. In addition, the chapter reminds readers that increased farm income and productivity require complementary investments in health, education, food access and women's empowerment to actually improve nutrition security. PMID:27197837

  9. Moving towards universal health coverage: health insurance reforms in nine developing countries in Africa and Asia.

    PubMed

    Lagomarsino, Gina; Garabrant, Alice; Adyas, Atikah; Muga, Richard; Otoo, Nathaniel

    2012-09-01

    We analyse nine low-income and lower-middle-income countries in Africa and Asia that have implemented national health insurance reforms designed to move towards universal health coverage. Using the functions-of-health-systems framework, we describe these countries' approaches to raising prepaid revenues, pooling risk, and purchasing services. Then, using the coverage-box framework, we assess their progress across three dimensions of coverage: who, what services, and what proportion of health costs are covered. We identify some patterns in the structure of these countries' reforms, such as use of tax revenues to subsidise target populations, steps towards broader risk pools, and emphasis on purchasing services through demand-side financing mechanisms. However, none of the reforms purely conform to common health-system archetypes, nor are they identical to each other. We report some trends in these countries' progress towards universal coverage, such as increasing enrolment in government health insurance, a movement towards expanded benefits packages, and decreasing out-of-pocket spending accompanied by increasing government share of spending on health. Common, comparable indicators of progress towards universal coverage are needed to enable countries undergoing reforms to assess outcomes and make midcourse corrections in policy and implementation. PMID:22959390

  10. The current family planning debate in Soviet Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Watters, K

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews the debate that occurred in the press of the Soviet Central Asian republics during 1988 and 1989 on the issue of family planning. The author identifies three basic opinion groups, those in favor of family planning, those in favor of family planning with certain reservations, and those opposed to family planning. The role this debate has played in bringing into the open a number of political, cultural, economic, and social issues, together with data to support the positions taken that are now possible with glasnost, is noted. PMID:12343037

  11. Agriculture and rural out-migration in Central Asia, 1960-91.

    PubMed

    Patnaik, A

    1995-01-01

    "This article seeks to analyse agrarian structure and policy in the Soviet period and discuss their effect on migration from rural to urban areas. In the case of [Soviet] Central Asia, neither the various steps to bring down labour intensity in the farm sector, nor the falling standard of living in rural areas, could bring about migration from rural to urban areas. This was because in traditional societies economic mechanisms are not effective unless they are complemented by appropriate social and cultural policies. All policies were oriented towards the state's goal of vertical integration of regions with the central economy. In Central Asia in particular this policy resulted in serious distortions in the social and economic spheres." PMID:12291767

  12. Correlation slopes of GEM / CO, GEM / CO2, and GEM / CH4 and estimated mercury emissions in China, South Asia, Indochinese Peninsula, and Central Asia derived from observations in northwest and southwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, X. W.; Zhang, H.; Lin, C.-J.; Feng, X.; Zhou, L. X.; Fang, S. X.

    2014-09-01

    Correlation analysis between atmospheric mercury (Hg) and other trace gases are useful for identification of sources and constraining regional estimated Hg emissions. Emissions of Hg in Asia contribute significantly to the global budget of atmospheric Hg. However, due to the lack of reliable data on the source strength, large uncertainties remain in the emission inventories of Hg in Asia. In the present study, we calculated the correlation slopes of GEM / CO, GEM / CO2, and GEM / CH4 for mainland China, South Asia, Indochinese Peninsula, and Central Asia using the ground-based observations at three remote sites in northwest and southwest China, and applied the values to estimate GEM emissions in the four source regions. The geometric mean of the GEM / CO correlation slopes for mainland China, South Asia, Indochinese Peninsula, and Central Asia were 7.3 ± 4.3, 7.8 ± 6.4, 7.8 ± 5.0, and 13.4 ± 9.5 pg m-3 ppb-1, respectively. The values in the same source regions were 240 ± 119, 278 ± 164, 315 ± 289 pg m-3 ppm-1 for the GEM / CO2 correlation slopes; and 33.3 ± 30.4, 27.4 ± 31.0, 23.5 ± 15.3, and 20.5 ± 10.0 pg m-3 ppb-1 for the GEM / CH4 correlation slopes, respectively. These values were the first reported correlation slopes of GEM / CO, GEM / CO2, and GEM / CH4 in four important source regions of Asia except the GEM / CO ratios in mainland China. The correlation slopes of GEM / CO, GEM / CO2 and GEM / CH4 in Asia were relatively higher than those observed in Europe, North America and South Africa, which may highlight GEM emissions from non-ferrous smelting, mercury mining, natural sources and historical deposited mercury (re-emission) in Asia. Using the observed GEM / CO and GEM / CO2 slopes, and the recently reported emission inventories of CO and CO2, the annual GEM emissions in mainland China, South Asia, Indochinese Peninsula, and Central Asia were estimated to be in the ranges of 1071-1187 t, 340-470 t, 125 t, and 54-90 t, respectively. The estimate

  13. Central Asia Water (CAWa) - A visualization platform for hydro-meteorological sensor data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stender, Vivien; Schroeder, Matthias; Wächter, Joachim

    2014-05-01

    Water is an indispensable necessity of life for people in the whole world. In central Asia, water is the key factor for economic development, but is already a narrow resource in this region. In fact of climate change, the water problem handling will be a big challenge for the future. The regional research Network "Central Asia Water" (CAWa) aims at providing a scientific basis for transnational water resources management for the five Central Asia States Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan. CAWa is part of the Central Asia Water Initiative (also known as the Berlin Process) which was launched by the Federal Foreign Office on 1 April 2008 at the "Water Unites" conference in Berlin. To produce future scenarios and strategies for sustainable water management, data on water reserves and the use of water in Central Asia must therefore be collected consistently across the region. Hydro-meteorological stations equipped with sophisticated sensors are installed in Central Asia and send their data via real-time satellite communication to the operation centre of the monitoring network and to the participating National Hydro-meteorological Services.[1] The challenge for CAWa is to integrate the whole aspects of data management, data workflows, data modeling and visualizations in a proper design of a monitoring infrastructure. The use of standardized interfaces to support data transfer and interoperability is essential in CAWa. An uniform treatment of sensor data can be realized by the OGC Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) , which makes a number of standards and interface definitions available: Observation & Measurement (O&M) model for the description of observations and measurements, Sensor Model Language (SensorML) for the description of sensor systems, Sensor Observation Service (SOS) for obtaining sensor observations, Sensor Planning Service (SPS) for tasking sensors, Web Notification Service (WNS) for asynchronous dialogues and Sensor Alert Service

  14. Kinematics and Dynamics of the Pamir, Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jay, C.; Flesch, L. M.; Bendick, R. O.

    2014-12-01

    The Pamir region of the India-Eurasia collision zone is the site of a rare geological phenomenon: ongoing subduction of continental crust. We investigate the surface expression of continental subduction in the region by modeling the distribution and magnitude of strain rates and quantifying the effects of body forces (gravitational potential energy) and boundary forces in driving surface deformation. We first construct kinematic strain rate and velocity fields on a 0.25° by 0.25° grid using continuous spline interpolations of observed strain rate data in a Eurasia-fixed reference frame. Strain rate observations include India plate motion, velocities at 506 GPS stations, estimated Quaternary fault slip rates, and fault slip styles. We then calculate gravitational potential energy (GPE) using the Crust1.0 crustal thickness model and assuming Airy isostasy. Following the methods of Flesch et al. (2001), we then solve the depth averaged 3-D force balance equations to determine the vertically averaged deviatoric stress field associated with GPE. We next solve for stress field boundary conditions by minimizing the differences between a) the directions of deviatoric stress principal axes and strain rate principal axes, and b) the style of deformation predicted by the stress field and the style of deformation predicted by the strain rate field. These stress field boundary conditions are assumed to represent effects of plate motions. Our best-fit strain rate field shows regions of high strain rate along the Chaman Fault, Darvaz Fault, Zebak-Munjab Fault, Main Boundary Thrust, Main Pamir Thrust, boundaries of the western Tarim Basin and across the western Tien Shan. GPS data indicate strain along the Main Frontal Thrust. Our results confirm north-south compression and east-west extension in the central Pamir, as reported in Mohadjer et al. 2010. Despite high GPE/topography in the central Pamir and low GPE/topography in the adjacent Tarim Basin, the Pamir Mountains do not

  15. Coexistence in a multispecies assemblage of eagles in central Asia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Katzner, Todd; Bragin, E.; Knick, Steven T.; Smith, Andrew T.

    2003-01-01

    We evaluated factors that permit species coexistence in an exceptional assemblage of similar raptor species at the Naurzum Zapovednik (a national nature reserve) in north-central Kazakhstan. White-tailed Sea-Eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla), Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca), Golden Eagle (A. chrysaetos), and Steppe Eagle (A. nipalensis) all breed at the Zapovednik. Steppe Eagle use of nesting resources was distinct from that of tree-nesting species. We evaluated differences in nest tree and nest habitat characteristics, nest dimensions and positions, and nest spacing among the three forest-dwelling eagle species to distinguish between the effects of inter- and intraspecific resource limitations on species coexistence. Although the different species bred in similar habitat and sometimes reused other species' nests, the dimensions, positions and locations of their nests often differed. These differences did not appear to result from interspecific competition. Nest spacing trends were also species specific; Imperial Eagles generally nested farther from other eagle nests than did Golden Eagles and White-tailed Sea-Eagles. Intraspecific variation in habitat, physical characteristics, and spacing patterns of Imperial Eagle nests was extensive throughout the nature reserve. Although interspecific partitioning of nesting habitat may allow coexistence of ground-nesting Steppe Eagles, interspecific competition did not appear to be a primary determinant of the use of nest habitat, space, or nests by tree-nesting species. Rather, interspecific effects appeared secondary to intraspecific effects in determining coexistence of tree-nesting eagles at this site.

  16. Pyogenic liver abscess: Differences in etiology and treatment in Southeast Asia and Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Cerwenka, Herwig

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of etiology and timely treatment of underlying causes, when possible, play an important role in the successful therapy of patients with pyogenic liver abscess (PLA). Recent publications from Central Europe and Southeast Asia hint at considerable differences in etiology. In this article, we aim to elaborate these differences and their therapeutic implications. Apart from some special types of PLA that are comparable in Southeast Asia and Central Europe (such as posttraumatic or postprocedural PLA), there are clear differences in the microbiological spectrum, which implies different risk factors and disease courses. Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) PLA is predominantly seen in Southeast Asia, whereas, in Central Europe, PLA is typically caused by Escherichia coli, Streptococcus or Staphylococcus, and these patients are more likely to be older and to have a biliary abnormality or malignancy. K. pneumoniae patients are more likely to have diabetes mellitus. Control of septic spread is crucial in K. pneumoniae patients, whereas treatment of the underlying diseases is decisive in many Central European PLA patients. PMID:20503444

  17. Remote sensing, paleoecology, and the archaeology of human migration during the Pleistocene in central Asia and western China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glantz, Michelle M.; Todd, Lawrence

    2003-07-01

    Remote sensing used in the context of global information systems has enormous applications within archaeology. This technology enables the discovery of new archaeological features and promotes an understanding of the relationship between ecosystem and cultural dynamics. Archaeologists are able to add a time dimension to 'creeping environmental changes' that other areas of scientific inquiry concerned with climate change often lack. Remote sensing and other aerial prospecting has been used successfully to model land use and population expansions during relatively recent archaeological eras, such as the Bronze and Iron Ages. Although satellite image databases exist for numerous areas of the New and Old World, very little research has been conducted in Central Asia or western China. This region is historically significant because of its position along the important trading route called the Silk Road. The purpose of the present research is to investigate another poorly understood period of human history that would benefit from the application of remote sensing and associated ground truthing techniques. The migration of hominids out of Africa during the late Pliocene/early Pleistocene and their subsequent colonization of north-central, east, and south-east Asia is relatively well documented in the archaeological record and marks the beginning of the long-term process of human impacts on the region. However, the trajectory of dispersal of Homo erectus, Neandertals, and early modern humans and the ways by which ecosystem vagaries affected this dispersal across Eurasia is unknown. Our purpose is to summarize what is currently known about the geological indicators of ecosystem changes that remote sensing techniques provide and how ecosystem variables may allow us to model human migration as that of an invasive species through this important geographic crossroads of the Old World.

  18. Fine Particulate Pollution and Source Apportionment in the Urban Centers for Africa, Asia and Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guttikunda, S. K.; Johnson, T. M.; Procee, P.

    2004-12-01

    Fossil fuel combustion for domestic cooking and heating, power generation, industrial processes, and motor vehicles are the primary sources of air pollution in the developing country cities. Over the past twenty years, major advances have been made in understanding the social and economic consequences of air pollution. In both industrialized and developing countries, it has been shown that air pollution from energy combustion has detrimental impacts on human health and the environment. Lack of information on the sectoral contributions to air pollution - especially fine particulates, is one of the typical constraints for an effective integrated urban air quality management program. Without such information, it is difficult, if not impossible, for decision makers to provide policy advice and make informed investment decisions related to air quality improvements in developing countries. This also raises the need for low-cost ways of determining the principal sources of fine PM for a proper planning and decision making. The project objective is to develop and verify a methodology to assess and monitor the sources of PM, using a combination of ground-based monitoring and source apportionment techniques. This presentation will focus on four general tasks: (1) Review of the science and current activities in the combined use of monitoring data and modeling for better understanding of PM pollution. (2) Review of recent advances in atmospheric source apportionment techniques (e.g., principal component analysis, organic markers, source-receptor modeling techniques). (3) Develop a general methodology to use integrated top-down and bottom-up datasets. (4) Review of a series of current case studies from Africa, Asia and Latin America and the methodologies applied to assess the air pollution and its sources.

  19. Positive approaches to education for sexual health with examples from Asia and Africa.

    PubMed

    Senanayake, P

    1992-07-01

    Some approaches to health education are presented based on experiences in Asia and Africa. Consideration in project design should be given to methodology, location, timing, and target group. There is no one correct approach. Qualitative evaluations are possible. Outreach to a larger population such as the out-of-school unemployed is an important goal, as well as directing Family Life Education (FLE) to the primary school level, when children are still in school. Sexual health is defined as state of physical and psychological well being including sexuality. FLE is a culturally sensitive approach to sexual health education. The avoidance of sexual terms promotes acceptance in countries such as Sri Lanka. The problem of sexuality and adolescence and the current protracted period is that adults view this period as an inconvenience rather than an inevitability. The needs of youth need to be recognized in spite of the resistance some cultures may feel about sex education encouraging promiscuity. The example is given of the government of Mali, which in conjunction with the International Planned Parenthood Federation, trained 150 workers to mobilize youth and introduce them to FLE. The prerequisite is mental preparation of the adult population through training programs. An example of an effective method of role play presentation by youth of major youth issues was used in creating a positive feeling for youth among World Health Assembly delegates, who are Ministers of Health and Senior Government Health Officials. The Youth Counseling Services and Family Education Project in Ethiopia is described. It was a youth-designed and youth-implemented project which took into consideration working hours, staff attitude, and hospitality toward youths. Other methods described are: 1) drama, 2) songs, 3) role play, 4) literature, 5) videos and film shows, 6) radio, and 7) telephone. Integration of FLE can be positive when it is combined with youth centers, income-generation projects

  20. Nitrogen emission and deposition budget in West and Central Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galy-Lacaux, C.; Delon, C.

    2014-12-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen depends on land surface exchanges of nitrogen compounds. In Sub Saharan Africa, deposition and emission fluxes of nitrogen compounds are poorly quantified, and are likely to increase in the near future due to land use change and anthropogenic pressure. This work proposes an estimate of atmospheric N compounds budget in West and Central Africa, along an ecosystem transect, from dry savanna to wet savanna and forest, for years 2000-2007. The budget may be considered as a one point in time budget, to be included in long term studies as one of the first reference point for Sub Saharan Africa. Gaseous dry deposition fluxes are estimated by considering N compounds concentrations measured in the frame of the IDAF network (IGAC/DEBITS/AFrica) at the monthly scale and modeling of deposition velocities at the IDAF sites, taking into account the bi directional exchange of ammonia. Particulate dry deposition fluxes are calculated using the same inferential method. Wet deposition fluxes are calculated from measurements of ammonium and nitrate chemical content in precipitations at the IDAF sites combined with the annual rainfall amount. In terms of emission, biogenic NO emissions are simulated at each IDAF site with a surface model coupled to an emission module elaborated from an artificial neural network equation. Ammonia emissions from volatilization are calculated from literature data on livestock quantity in each country and N content in manure. NOx and NH3 emission from biomass burning and domestic fires are estimated from satellite data and emission factors. The total budget shows that emission sources of nitrogen compounds are in equilibrium with deposition fluxes in dry and wet savannas, with respectively 7.40 (±1.90) deposited and 9.01 (±3.44) kgN ha-1 yr-1 emitted in dry savanna, 8.38 (±2.04) kgN ha-1 yr-1 deposited and 9.60 (±0.69) kgN ha-1 yr-1 emitted in wet savanna. In forested ecosystems, the total budget is dominated by wet plus dry

  1. Linkages of Biodiversity and Canopy Lidar Metrics in Central Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laporte, N. T.; Horning, N.; Morgan, D.

    2012-12-01

    Central Africa contains the second largest dense humid forest in the world, and one of the largest carbon and biodiversity reservoirs on Earth. With 60% of the forest currently under logging concessions, the Congo basin is poised to undergo extensive land use change. Increases in bushmeat trade, resulting from extensification of logging roads, have already been well documented. From a quantitative standpoint, little is known of the structure of these forests, how logging affects forest biomass or functioning, and how canopy habitat heterogeneity relates to animal species richness or diversity. Here we document, using random forest and MaxEnt, how information from GLAS lidar metrics, ALOS-PalSAR and Landsat imagery, combined with field observations of great ape nest locations ( figure 1) and vegetation types, can be merged to create a map of gorilla and chimpanzee habitat in a region spanning Cameroon, the Republic of Congo, and the Central African Republic. From an initial selection of 48 variables we found the most important for mapping habitat suitability were a combination of PalSAR backscatter, NDVI image texture. Landsat ETM+ top of the atmosphere reflectance and principle component images. While NDVI from ETM+bands was an important predictor of gorilla and chimpanzee nest presence, species-specific differences in habitat use were also identified. Tree canopy height from GLAS was the most important variable predicting chimpanzee nesting habitat, while Landsat ETM+ bands were most important for gorilla nesting habitat. These preliminary results indicate merging field observations with satellite imagery promises to significantly improve our understanding of ape habitat-use at the landscape scale.ombining GLAS lidar metrics, ALOS-PalSAR and Landsat imager with field observations of great ape nest locations for habitat mapping in C. Africa

  2. Contribution of recycled moisture to precipitation in oases of arid central Asia: A stable isotope approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shengjie; Zhang, Mingjun; Che, Yanjun; Chen, Fenli; Qiang, Fang

    2016-04-01

    Terrestrial moisture contributed by surface evaporation and transpiration, also known as recycled moisture, plays an important role in hydrological processes especially across arid central Asia. The stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopes can be used for water budget analysis to calculate the contribution of recycled moisture to precipitation between two locations along the moisture flow. Based on a three-component isotopic mixing model, the moisture recycling in oasis stations of arid central Asia during summer months is assessed. At large oases of Urumqi, the proportional contribution of recycled moisture to local precipitation is approximately 16.2%, and the mean proportions of surface evaporation and transpiration are 5.9% ± 1.5% and 10.3% ± 2.2%, respectively. At small oases like Shihezi and Caijiahu the contribution of recycled moisture is less than 5%, and the proportion of surface evaporation is much less than that of transpiration. The vegetative cover in arid central Asia is generally sparse, but the evapotranspiration contribution to precipitation cannot be ignored at the widely distributed oases. The oasis effect shows great variability depending on locations and water availability for evapotranspiration.

  3. Phanerozoic geological evolution of Northern and Central Africa: An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guiraud, R.; Bosworth, W.; Thierry, J.; Delplanque, A.

    2005-10-01

    The principal paleogeographic characteristics of North and Central Africa during the Paleozoic were the permanency of large exposed lands over central Africa, surrounded by northerly and northwesterly dipping pediplanes episodically flooded by epicontinental seas related to the Paleotethys Ocean. The intra-continental Congo-Zaire Basin was also a long-lived feature, as well as the Somali Basin from Late Carboniferous times, in conjunction with the development of the Karoo basins of southern Africa. This configuration, in combination with eustatic sea-level fluctuations, had a strong influence on facies distributions. Significant transgressions occurred during the Early Cambrian, Tremadocian, Llandovery, Middle to Late Devonian, Early Carboniferous, and Moscovian. The Paleozoic tectonic history shows an alternation of long periods of predominantly gentle basin subsidence and short periods of gentle folding and occasionally basin inversion. Some local rift basins developed episodically, located mainly along the northern African-Arabian plate margin and near the West African Craton/Pan-African Belt suture. Several arches or spurs, mainly N-S to NE-SW trending and inherited from late Pan-African fault swarms, played an important role. The Nubia Province was the site of numerous alkaline anorogenic intrusions, starting in Ordovician times, and subsequently formed a large swell. Paleozoic compressional events occurred in the latest Early Cambrian ("Iskelian"), Medial Ordovician to earliest Silurian ("pre-Caradoc" and "Taconian"), the end Silurian ("Early Acadian" or "Ardennian"), mid-Devonian ("Mid-Acadian"), the end Devonian ("Late Acadian" or "Bretonnian"), the earliest Serpukhovian ("Sudetic"), and the latest Carboniferous-earliest Permian ("Alleghanian" or "Asturian"). The strongest deformations, including folding, thrusting, and active strike-slip faulting, were registered in Northwestern Africa during the last stage of the Pan-African Belt development around the

  4. Migrations of European honey bee lineages into Africa, Asia, and North America during the Oligocene and Miocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotthoff, Ulrich; Wappler, Torsten; Engel, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Today honey bees, principally the western honey bee, Apis mellifera, represent a multi-billion dollar agricultural industry. Through the efforts of humans they have become established well outside of their modern native ranges, having been introduced multiple times into the Americas, Australia, New Zealand, New Caledonia, and many areas of Oceania. The native, i.e., non-human influenced, distribution and migration of honey bee species and populations has been a matter of serious and continued debate. Apicultural dogma informs us that the center of origin of honey bees (genus Apis) resides in Asia, with subsequent migration and diversification into Europe and Asia. Recent population genetic studies of the western honey bee, Apis mellifera, slightly modified this received wisdom by suggesting that this species originated in Africa and subsequently reinvaded Eurasia. Research into the historical biogeography of honey bees has ignored entirely the abundant fossil evidence distributed through a variety of Late Paleogene (Oligocene) and Early Neogene (Miocene) deposits, a diversity which is predominantly European in origin, particularly among the most basal species of the genus. We have examined the morphological disparity and affinities of the full living and fossil diversity of honey bees ranging from their earliest origins to the present day. This analysis indicates that honey bees exhibited a greater morphological disparity during the Oligocene and Miocene epochs, a time when the principal lineages were established, and that Apis apparently originated in Europe, spreading from there into Asia, Africa, and North America, with subsequent diversification in the former two regions and extinction in the latter. During the human migrations and colonization honey bees were once again introduced multiple times into the Americas, as well as into Australia and Asia.

  5. Civil war and the spread of AIDS in Central Africa.

    PubMed Central

    Smallman-Raynor, M. R.; Cliff, A. D.

    1991-01-01

    Using ordinary least squares regression techniques this paper demonstrates, for the first time, that the classic association of war and disease substantially accounts for the presently observed geographical distribution of reported clinical AIDS cases in Uganda. Both the spread of HIV 1 infection in the 1980s, and the subsequent development of AIDS to its 1990 spatial pattern, are shown to be significantly and positively correlated with ethnic patterns of recruitment into the Ugandan National Liberation Army (UNLA) after the overthrow of Idi Amin some 10 years earlier in 1979. This correlation reflects the estimated mean incubation period of 8-10 years for HIV 1 and underlines the need for cognizance of historical factors which may have influenced current patterns of AIDS seen in Central Africa. The findings may have important implications for AIDS forecasting and control in African countries which have recently experienced war. The results are compared with parallel analyses of other HIV hypotheses advanced to account for the reported geographical distribution of AIDS in Uganda. PMID:1879492

  6. Petroleum developments in central and southern Africa in 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Rachwal, C.A.; Destefano, E.R.

    1980-11-01

    This review presents developments in petroleum exploration and production during 1979 in 44 countries of central and southern Africa. Petroleum production from 7 countries increased 16.6% to a new record 1,006,846,691 bbl (2.758 million b/d). Nigeria increased production 21% to 845 million, Congo 11.5% to 19 million, and Cameroon 17.6% to 12.5 million bbl. Gabon continued to show a decline in production, off 7.6% at 70.5 million bbl. Surface exploration work decreased 17.5% to 174.9 party-months, though figures on Nigeria are incomplete. Exploration drilling yielded 43 oil and 10 gas wells out of 111 drilled, a 47.7% success rate. Cameroon had 21 and Congo 8 new-field discovery and appraisal wells, up from 11 and 1 respectively in 1978. Development wells numbered 137 of which 86% were successful completions; 45 rigs were operating at year end.

  7. Infertility in Central Africa: infection is the cause.

    PubMed

    Collet, M; Reniers, J; Frost, E; Gass, R; Yvert, F; Leclerc, A; Roth-Meyer, C; Ivanoff, B; Meheus, A

    1988-06-01

    Determinants of infertility were studied in 340 women in Eastern Gabon, an area situated in the "infertility belt" of Central Africa. Fallopian tube occlusion was diagnosed in 82.8% of cases, showing the importance of infection-related causes. Women with tubal occlusion did not differ significantly from women with normal tubes in obstetrical history or prevalence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae or Chlamydia trachomatis on endocervical culture. Antecedents of pelvic inflammatory disease or a pelvic mass were significantly more common in the group with tubal occlusion. This group also had a significantly higher prevalence of serum chlamydial antibodies at a titer of 1/64 or higher. Hormonal factors were found in 31.7% of women, a cervical factor in 29.0% and mechanical factors in 5.6%. No diagnosis could be made in 12.2% of cases. During the investigation, 4.4% of women became pregnant. The predominance of infectious related causes of infertility makes it imperative to focus resources on prevention programs of upper genital tract infections in women. PMID:2900173

  8. Videos Bridging Asia and Africa: Overcoming Cultural and Institutional Barriers in Technology-Mediated Rural Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Mele, Paul; Wanvoeke, Jonas; Akakpo, Cyriaque; Dacko, Rosaline Maiga; Ceesay, Mustapha; Beavogui, Louis; Soumah, Malick; Anyang, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Will African farmers watch and learn from videos featuring farmers in Bangladesh? Learning videos on rice seed management were made with rural women in Bangladesh. By using a new approach, called zooming-in, zooming-out, the videos were of regional relevance and locally appropriate. When the Africa Rice Center (AfricaRice) introduced them to…

  9. Central Asia Environmental Security Technical Workshop: Responding to the CENTCOM Vision

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, R

    2002-08-01

    Environmental security is not formally classified as a ''vital mission'' in the USCENTCOM ranking of priorities in its area of responsibility. Rather, it is ranked as an ''other/important'' mission in Central Asia, thereby supporting the war making efforts in the region by improving stability of the regimes in the region. Environmental security is, however, the USCENTCOM primary mechanism for engagement in the region. USCENTCOM sees environmental issues as among the most destabilizing issues in the region; anything that can be done to ameliorate them, works to enhance stability. By environmental issues, USCENTCOM includes: water access, quality, and control, transboundary resource competition, migration of pollutants, land use, public health/HIV/Famine, and industrial pollution. Objectives of USCENTCOM work in Central Asia are: improving resource use, disaster response, international cooperation, and civil-military cooperation, particularly with the local military and between the local civilians and the U.S. military. Activities to date include assistance, education, and military-to-military contacts, bilateral and multilateral conferences on the issues, and interagency coordination in the region. The Comprehensive Threat Reduction program has been the backbone of its Central Asian funding.

  10. High resolution mapping of dust sources in Central Asia using MODIS imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobakht, Mohamad; Shahgedanova, Maria; White, Kevin

    2015-04-01

    Dust impacts the energy balance of the Earth via absorption and scattering of radiation in the atmosphere and through the mechanism by which aerosols modify the optical properties of clouds and land surfaces. It is now established that the deposition of mineral dust significantly affects high-altitude environments, including both snow pack and glacier ice. Central Asia is a region where large deserts are located in close proximity to the mountains whose extensive glaciers and snow pack provide runoff supporting agriculture in the densely populated foothills. More than 75% of the territory in Central Asia is desert lowland varying from sandy to stony, salt, and clay deserts. Significant amounts of wind-blown desert dust, originating from these deserts, are deposited on glaciers of Tian Shan Mountains in Central Asia. Satellite remote sensing using optical imagery has provided us with a powerful tool for identification and characterization of dust emission sources. In this study we investigated the spatial distribution and seasonal pattern of dust emissions in surrounding lowlands of the Tian Shan Mountains using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) imagery. Seasonality of dust emission is studied by analyzing MODIS Deep Blue aerosol optical depth, acquired over a period of 12 years from January 2003 to December 2014. We analyzed the spatial distribution and frequency of occurrence of dust optical depth to identify the main dust sources in this region. In order to produce a detailed map of dust emission sources, we also employed a dust enhancement algorithm to obtain high resolution (1km) dust enhancement products from MODIS imageries. The high resolution of MODIS dust enhancement products enabled us to identify several small, eroding point sources within the dust source areas. Different seasonal patterns of dust emissions were observed in northern, western and southern deserts around the Tian Shan Mountains and their relation to climatological

  11. Tectono-climatic implications of Eocene Paratethys regression in the Tajik basin of central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrapa, Barbara; DeCelles, Peter G.; Wang, Xin; Clementz, Mark T.; Mancin, Nicoletta; Stoica, Marius; Kraatz, Brian; Meng, Jin; Abdulov, Sherzod; Chen, Fahu

    2015-08-01

    Plate tectonics and eustatic sea-level changes have fundamental effects on paleoenvironmental conditions and bio-ecological changes. The Paratethys Sea was a large marine seaway that connected the Mediterranean Neotethys Ocean with Central Asia during early Cenozoic time. Withdrawal of the Paratethys from central Asia impacted the distribution and composition of terrestrial faunas in the region and has been largely associated with changes in global sea level and climate such as cooling associated with the Eocene/Oligocene transition (EOT). Whereas the regression has been dated in the Tarim basin (China), the pattern and timing of regression in the Tajik basin, 400 km to the west, remain unresolved, precluding a test of current paleogeographic models. Here we date the Paratethys regression in Tajikistan at ca. 39 million years ago (Ma), which is several million years older than the EOT (at ca. 34 Ma) marking the greenhouse to icehouse climate transition of the Cenozoic. Our data also show a restricted, evaporitic marine environment since the middle-late Eocene and establishment of desert like environments after ca. 39 Ma. The overall stratigraphic record from the Tajik basin and southern Tien Shan points to deposition in a foreland basin setting by ca. 40 Ma in response to active tectonic growth of the Pamir-Tibet Mountains at the same time. Combined with the northwestward younging trend of the regression in the region, the Tajik basin record is consistent with northward growth of the Pamir and suggests significant tectonic control on Paratethys regression and paleoenvironmental changes in Central Asia.

  12. Science and Technology in Support of U.S. Policy in Central Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, R B

    2003-11-04

    The current war with Iraq, international interventions in Afghanistan, and the continuous and seemingly insolvable problems in the Middle East emphasize the importance of supporting stable, healthy countries throughout the Middle East and South and Central Asia. The political alliances and foreign aid promulgated by the Cold War have been seriously strained, creating a more uncertain and unstable international environment. We must stay engaged with this part of the world. New partnerships must be forged. Central Asia represents a mix of political systems - from totalitarian rule to nascent democracy; of economic resources from natural to human; and of cultures from ancient to modern - making it of strategic importance to U. S. national and economic security. The U.S. must remain committed and proactively engaged in the region to promote open and democratic societies attractive to outside investment and to prevent the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and extremist groups. The U.S is admired for its science and technology and its flexibility in innovation and applying S&T to solve problems. The inherent value that S&T can contribute to advancing U.S. policy goals is the underlying assumption of this report. Science and technology and their applications have much to contribute to social, economic, and environmental sustainability and, therefore, provide a strong foundation for helping the U.S. to implement its policies abroad. The application of concepts such as competition and peer review, open sharing of scientific information through the use of the internet and other information technologies, and the development of international scientific collaborations and networks, can make major contributions to healthy and stable societies in Central Asia. U.S. scientific and technical know-how has much to contribute to U.S. policy goals and easing regional tensions. Science and technology truly can build bridges between nations and cultures while serving the

  13. Early Pleistocene climate in western arid central Asia inferred from loess-palaeosol sequences.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Wei, Haitao; Taheri, Mehdi; Khormali, Farhad; Danukalova, Guzel; Chen, Fahu

    2016-01-01

    Arid central Asia (ACA) is one of the most arid regions in the mid-latitudes and one of the main potential dust sources for the northern hemisphere. The lack of in situ early Pleistocene loess/dust records from ACA hinders our comprehensive understanding of the spatio-temporal record of aeolian loess accumulation and long term climatic changes in Asia as a whole. Here, we report the results of sedimentological, chronological and climatic studies of early Pleistocene loess-palaeosol sequences (LPS) from the northeastern Iranian Golestan Province (NIGP) in the western part of ACA. Our results reveal that: 1) Accumulation of loess on the NIGP commenced at ~2.4-1.8 Ma, making it the oldest loess known so far in western ACA; 2) the climate during the early Pleistocene in the NIGP was semi-arid, but wetter, warmer, and less windy than during the late Pleistocene and present interglacial; 3) orbital-scale palaeoclimatic changes in ACA during the early Pleistoceneare in-phase with those of monsoonal Asia, a relationship which was probably related to the growth and decay of northern hemisphere ice sheets. PMID:26839045

  14. Early Pleistocene climate in western arid central Asia inferred from loess-palaeosol sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin; Wei, Haitao; Taheri, Mehdi; Khormali, Farhad; Danukalova, Guzel; Chen, Fahu

    2016-02-01

    Arid central Asia (ACA) is one of the most arid regions in the mid-latitudes and one of the main potential dust sources for the northern hemisphere. The lack of in situ early Pleistocene loess/dust records from ACA hinders our comprehensive understanding of the spatio-temporal record of aeolian loess accumulation and long term climatic changes in Asia as a whole. Here, we report the results of sedimentological, chronological and climatic studies of early Pleistocene loess-palaeosol sequences (LPS) from the northeastern Iranian Golestan Province (NIGP) in the western part of ACA. Our results reveal that: 1) Accumulation of loess on the NIGP commenced at ~2.4-1.8 Ma, making it the oldest loess known so far in western ACA; 2) the climate during the early Pleistocene in the NIGP was semi-arid, but wetter, warmer, and less windy than during the late Pleistocene and present interglacial; 3) orbital-scale palaeoclimatic changes in ACA during the early Pleistoceneare in-phase with those of monsoonal Asia, a relationship which was probably related to the growth and decay of northern hemisphere ice sheets.

  15. Early Pleistocene climate in western arid central Asia inferred from loess-palaeosol sequences

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin; Wei, Haitao; Taheri, Mehdi; Khormali, Farhad; Danukalova, Guzel; Chen, Fahu

    2016-01-01

    Arid central Asia (ACA) is one of the most arid regions in the mid-latitudes and one of the main potential dust sources for the northern hemisphere. The lack of in situ early Pleistocene loess/dust records from ACA hinders our comprehensive understanding of the spatio-temporal record of aeolian loess accumulation and long term climatic changes in Asia as a whole. Here, we report the results of sedimentological, chronological and climatic studies of early Pleistocene loess-palaeosol sequences (LPS) from the northeastern Iranian Golestan Province (NIGP) in the western part of ACA. Our results reveal that: 1) Accumulation of loess on the NIGP commenced at ~2.4–1.8 Ma, making it the oldest loess known so far in western ACA; 2) the climate during the early Pleistocene in the NIGP was semi-arid, but wetter, warmer, and less windy than during the late Pleistocene and present interglacial; 3) orbital-scale palaeoclimatic changes in ACA during the early Pleistoceneare in-phase with those of monsoonal Asia, a relationship which was probably related to the growth and decay of northern hemisphere ice sheets. PMID:26839045

  16. Rural Development in Africa: A Bibliography. (Part I: General, Central, East). Training & Methods Series Number 16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Teresa, Comp.; And Others

    Compiled in July, 1971, this bibliography lists approximately 1,950 books, journal articles, and unpublished manuscripts dealing with rural development in Africa generally and in central and east Africa specifically. General entries appear under the following headings: agriculture; economic affairs; bibliography; law; economic and technical…

  17. QTL for yield and associated traits in the Seri/Babax population grown across several environments in Mexico, in the West Asia, North Africa, and South Asia regions.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Marta S; Reynolds, Matthew P; McIntyre, C Lynne; Mathews, Ky L; Jalal Kamali, M R; Mossad, Moussa; Feltaous, Yousef; Tahir, Izzat S A; Chatrath, Ravish; Ogbonnaya, Francis; Baum, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Heat and drought adaptive quantitative trait loci (QTL) in a spring bread wheat population resulting from the Seri/Babax cross designed to minimize confounding agronomic traits have been identified previously in trials conducted in Mexico. The same population was grown across a wide range of environments where heat and drought stress are naturally experienced including environments in Mexico, West Asia, North Africa (WANA), and South Asia regions. A molecular genetic linkage map including 475 marker loci associated to 29 linkage groups was used for QTL analysis of yield, days to heading (DH) and to maturity (DM), grain number (GM2), thousand kernel weight (TKW), plant height (PH), canopy temperature at the vegetative and grain filling stages (CTvg and CTgf), and early ground cover. A QTL for yield on chromosome 4A was confirmed across several environments, in subsets of lines with uniform allelic expression of a major phenology QTL, but not independently from PH. With terminal stress, TKW QTL was linked or pleiotropic to DH and DM. The link between phenology and TKW suggested that early maturity would favor the post-anthesis grain growth periods resulting in increased grain size and yields under terminal stress. GM2 and TKW were partially associated with markers at different positions suggesting different genetic regulation and room for improvement of both traits. Prediction accuracy of yield was improved by 5 % when using marker scores of component traits (GM2 and DH) together with yield in multiple regression. This procedure may provide accumulation of more favorable alleles during selection. PMID:23269228

  18. Russians in Post-Soviet Central Asia: More "Cold" than the Others? Exploring (Ethnic) Identity under Different Sociopolitical Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosmarskaya, Natalya

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the identity and the social/political behaviour of Russians in post-Soviet Central Asia through a comparison with the Baltic countries via a "hot and cold ethnicity" paradigm. Central Asian Russians are more likely, ceteris paribus, to be found at the "cold" end of the spectrum of "ethnic…

  19. From the Party/State to Multiethnic Democracy: Education and Social Cohesion in Europe and Central Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyneman, Stephen P.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews anecdotal and field experience in Europe and Central Asia in meeting the challenges of social cohesion and draws some comparisons between the social cohesion of education systems in the European and Central Asian regions and that of the United States. Outlines ways in which public education has contributed to social cohesion in the West.…

  20. Public health in pre-colonial east-central Africa.

    PubMed

    Waite, G

    1987-01-01

    This study is the first of its kind to suggest that a rich public health tradition existed in east-central Africa before the twentieth century, and that the tradition can be reconstructed historically. It breaks with earlier studies of public health history for the region in that it does not define public health on the basis of western institutions and activities. The definition of public health that is used in this study makes a simple equation between politics and medicine. It includes all activities that ruling authorities undertake to promote the well-being of the societies over which they have charge. Thus rainmaking and sorcery control, the principal services in traditional African societies, are the focus of this study. Evidence is presented here of the control exercised by kings, chiefs, priests over these services in various societies located in southeastern Zaire, southern Tanzania, Zambia, Malawi, northern Mozambique, and Zimbabwe. The cases are all set in the pre-colonial period, before the twentieth century and the beginning of most written records. The evidence is derived primarily, though not exclusively, from non-written sources, such as archaeology, linguistic, and ethnographic records. The best data are those that come from cultural exchanges between people, for historical records are created in this way. Therefore, the cases discussed here all involve contacts between immigrant and autochthonous groups. The political histories of these contacts are already known. What this study does is link up those traditions with independently-acquired evidence of change in medical traditions. Political change often, but not always, led to change in public health institutions. The control of ruling elites over health services is thus made apparent by the manner in which new medical institutions were implanted when new political authorities arose. PMID:3547688

  1. A persistent northern boundary of Indian Summer Monsoon precipitation over Central Asia during the Holocene.

    PubMed

    Ramisch, Arne; Lockot, Gregori; Haberzettl, Torsten; Hartmann, Kai; Kuhn, Gerhard; Lehmkuhl, Frank; Schimpf, Stefan; Schulte, Philipp; Stauch, Georg; Wang, Rong; Wünnemann, Bernd; Yan, Dada; Zhang, Yongzhan; Diekmann, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Extra-tropical circulation systems impede poleward moisture advection by the Indian Summer Monsoon. In this context, the Himalayan range is believed to insulate the south Asian circulation from extra-tropical influences and to delineate the northern extent of the Indian Summer Monsoon in central Asia. Paleoclimatic evidence, however, suggests increased moisture availability in the Early Holocene north of the Himalayan range which is attributed to an intensification of the Indian Summer Monsoon. Nevertheless, mechanisms leading to a surpassing of the Himalayan range and the northern maximum extent of summer monsoonal influence remain unknown. Here we show that the Kunlun barrier on the northern Tibetan Plateau [~36°N] delimits Indian Summer Monsoon precipitation during the Holocene. The presence of the barrier relocates the insulation effect 1,000 km further north, allowing a continental low intensity branch of the Indian Summer Monsoon which is persistent throughout the Holocene. Precipitation intensities at its northern extent seem to be driven by differentiated solar heating of the Northern Hemisphere indicating dependency on energy-gradients rather than absolute radiation intensities. The identified spatial constraints of monsoonal precipitation will facilitate the prediction of future monsoonal precipitation patterns in Central Asia under varying climatic conditions. PMID:27173918

  2. A persistent northern boundary of Indian Summer Monsoon precipitation over Central Asia during the Holocene

    PubMed Central

    Ramisch, Arne; Lockot, Gregori; Haberzettl, Torsten; Hartmann, Kai; Kuhn, Gerhard; Lehmkuhl, Frank; Schimpf, Stefan; Schulte, Philipp; Stauch, Georg; Wang, Rong; Wünnemann, Bernd; Yan, Dada; Zhang, Yongzhan; Diekmann, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Extra-tropical circulation systems impede poleward moisture advection by the Indian Summer Monsoon. In this context, the Himalayan range is believed to insulate the south Asian circulation from extra-tropical influences and to delineate the northern extent of the Indian Summer Monsoon in central Asia. Paleoclimatic evidence, however, suggests increased moisture availability in the Early Holocene north of the Himalayan range which is attributed to an intensification of the Indian Summer Monsoon. Nevertheless, mechanisms leading to a surpassing of the Himalayan range and the northern maximum extent of summer monsoonal influence remain unknown. Here we show that the Kunlun barrier on the northern Tibetan Plateau [~36°N] delimits Indian Summer Monsoon precipitation during the Holocene. The presence of the barrier relocates the insulation effect 1,000 km further north, allowing a continental low intensity branch of the Indian Summer Monsoon which is persistent throughout the Holocene. Precipitation intensities at its northern extent seem to be driven by differentiated solar heating of the Northern Hemisphere indicating dependency on energy-gradients rather than absolute radiation intensities. The identified spatial constraints of monsoonal precipitation will facilitate the prediction of future monsoonal precipitation patterns in Central Asia under varying climatic conditions. PMID:27173918

  3. Regional seismic discrimination in central Asia with emphasis on western China

    SciTech Connect

    Hartse, H.E.; Taylor, S.R.; Phillips, W.S.; Randall, G.E.

    1996-09-01

    In support of an anticipated Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, the authors have started to evaluate regional seismic event discrimination capabilities for central Asia, emphasizing western China. The authors have measured noise and seismic phase amplitudes of over 250 earthquakes and 18 underground nuclear explosions recorded at the broadband, digital station WMQ in western China and over 100 earthquakes and 5 nuclear explosions at station AAK in Kyrgyzstan. The explosions are from the Kazakh Test Site (KTS) and Lop Nor, China. The earthquakes are mostly from northwest China. They have also evaluated a single suspected chemical explosion. Event magnitudes (m{sub b}) range between 2.5 and 6.5 and maximum event-station distance is about 1,700 km. Using these measurements the authors formed phase, spectral, cross-spectral, short-period/long-period, and long-period ratios to test many possible event discriminants. All ratios were corrected for distance effects before forming ratio-versus-magnitude discrimination plots. The authors found that all five classes of these discriminants are useful for separating earthquakes from explosions in central Asia, provided the right combinations of frequency bands and phases are selected. Results are described.

  4. Climate Change Increases Drought Stress of Juniper Trees in the Mountains of Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Seim, Andrea; Omurova, Gulzar; Azisov, Erlan; Musuraliev, Kanaat; Aliev, Kumar; Tulyaganov, Timur; Nikolyai, Lyutsian; Botman, Evgeniy; Helle, Gerd; Dorado Liñan, Isabel; Jivcov, Sandra; Linderholm, Hans W

    2016-01-01

    Assessments of climate change impacts on forests and their vitality are essential for semi-arid environments such as Central Asia, where the mountain regions belong to the globally important biodiversity hotspots. Alterations in species distribution or drought-induced tree mortality might not only result in a loss of biodiversity but also in a loss of other ecosystem services. Here, we evaluate spatial trends and patterns of the growth-climate relationship in a tree-ring network comprising 33 juniper sites from the northern Pamir-Alay and Tien Shan mountain ranges in eastern Uzbekistan and across Kyrgyzstan for the common period 1935-2011. Junipers growing at lower elevations are sensitive to summer drought, which has increased in intensity during the studied period. At higher elevations, juniper growth, previously favored by warm summer temperatures, has in the recent few decades become negatively affected by increasing summer aridity. Moreover, response shifts are observed during all seasons. Rising temperatures and alterations in precipitation patterns during the past eight decades can account for the observed increase in drought stress of junipers at all altitudes. The implications of our findings are vital for the application of adequate long-term measures of ecosystem conservation, but also for paleo-climatic approaches and coupled climate-vegetation model simulations for Central Asia. PMID:27100092

  5. Climate Change Increases Drought Stress of Juniper Trees in the Mountains of Central Asia

    PubMed Central

    Seim, Andrea; Omurova, Gulzar; Azisov, Erlan; Musuraliev, Kanaat; Aliev, Kumar; Tulyaganov, Timur; Nikolyai, Lyutsian; Botman, Evgeniy; Helle, Gerd; Dorado Liñan, Isabel; Jivcov, Sandra; Linderholm, Hans W.

    2016-01-01

    Assessments of climate change impacts on forests and their vitality are essential for semi-arid environments such as Central Asia, where the mountain regions belong to the globally important biodiversity hotspots. Alterations in species distribution or drought-induced tree mortality might not only result in a loss of biodiversity but also in a loss of other ecosystem services. Here, we evaluate spatial trends and patterns of the growth-climate relationship in a tree-ring network comprising 33 juniper sites from the northern Pamir-Alay and Tien Shan mountain ranges in eastern Uzbekistan and across Kyrgyzstan for the common period 1935–2011. Junipers growing at lower elevations are sensitive to summer drought, which has increased in intensity during the studied period. At higher elevations, juniper growth, previously favored by warm summer temperatures, has in the recent few decades become negatively affected by increasing summer aridity. Moreover, response shifts are observed during all seasons. Rising temperatures and alterations in precipitation patterns during the past eight decades can account for the observed increase in drought stress of junipers at all altitudes. The implications of our findings are vital for the application of adequate long-term measures of ecosystem conservation, but also for paleo-climatic approaches and coupled climate-vegetation model simulations for Central Asia. PMID:27100092

  6. Climate Change and Water Infrastructure in Central Asia: adaptation capacities and institutional challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullaev, Iskandar; Rakhmatullaev, Shavkat

    2014-05-01

    The paper discusses vulnerability areas of water sector in arid Central Asia due to climate change projections with particular focus on adaptation to sustainable operation of physical infrastructure capacities (from legal, institutional and technical aspects). Two types of technical installations are the main focus of this paper, i.e., electrical lift irrigation systems and water reservoirs. The first set of electrical lift infrastructure is strategic for delivering water to water users via pumps, diversion structures, vertical drainage facilities and groundwater boreholes; on the other hand, the primarily task of second set of structures is to accumulate the water resources for sectors of economy. In Central Asia, approximately, 20-50% of irrigation water is lifted, yet major of lift structures are in very poor technical conditions coupled with ever increasing of electricity tariffs. Furthermore, useful volumes capacities of water reservoirs are being severely diminished due to bio-physical geomorphologic processes, improper operational regimes and chronic financing for special in-house sedimentation surveys. Most importantly, the key argument is that irrigation sector should internalize its adaptation efforts, i.e., integrate renewable energy technologies, energy audit programs and lastly design comprehensive investment prioritization processes and programs. Otherwise, water sector will be at great risk for continued provision of fundamental services to the public, food security and industry

  7. A persistent northern boundary of Indian Summer Monsoon precipitation over Central Asia during the Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramisch, Arne; Lockot, Gregori; Haberzettl, Torsten; Hartmann, Kai; Kuhn, Gerhard; Lehmkuhl, Frank; Schimpf, Stefan; Schulte, Philipp; Stauch, Georg; Wang, Rong; Wünnemann, Bernd; Yan, Dada; Zhang, Yongzhan; Diekmann, Bernhard

    2016-05-01

    Extra-tropical circulation systems impede poleward moisture advection by the Indian Summer Monsoon. In this context, the Himalayan range is believed to insulate the south Asian circulation from extra-tropical influences and to delineate the northern extent of the Indian Summer Monsoon in central Asia. Paleoclimatic evidence, however, suggests increased moisture availability in the Early Holocene north of the Himalayan range which is attributed to an intensification of the Indian Summer Monsoon. Nevertheless, mechanisms leading to a surpassing of the Himalayan range and the northern maximum extent of summer monsoonal influence remain unknown. Here we show that the Kunlun barrier on the northern Tibetan Plateau [~36°N] delimits Indian Summer Monsoon precipitation during the Holocene. The presence of the barrier relocates the insulation effect 1,000 km further north, allowing a continental low intensity branch of the Indian Summer Monsoon which is persistent throughout the Holocene. Precipitation intensities at its northern extent seem to be driven by differentiated solar heating of the Northern Hemisphere indicating dependency on energy-gradients rather than absolute radiation intensities. The identified spatial constraints of monsoonal precipitation will facilitate the prediction of future monsoonal precipitation patterns in Central Asia under varying climatic conditions.

  8. IFLA General Conference, 1992. Division of Regional Activities: Section on Africa; Section on Asia/Oceania; Section on Latin America and the Caribbean. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions, London (England).

    Seven papers delivered at the 1992 International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions annual meeting relating to regional activities are presented. These papers deal with library issues in Africa, Asia and Oceania, Latin America, and the Caribbean. The papers are: (1) "Designing National Information Policies in African: Process and…

  9. Large-scale transcriptome analysis in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), an orphan legume crop of the semi-arid tropics of Asia and Africa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is an important legume crop in the semi-arid regions of Asia and Africa. Gains in crop productivity have been low however, particularly due to biotic and abiotic stresses. To help enhance crop productivity using molecular breeding techniques, next generation sequencing ...

  10. Perceptions of the Host Country's Food Culture among Female Immigrants from Africa and Asia: Aspects Relevant for Cultural Sensitivity in Nutrition Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garnweidner, Lisa Maria; Terragni, Laura; Pettersen, Kjell Sverre; Mosdol, Annhild

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore how female immigrants from Africa and Asia perceive the host country's food culture, to identify aspects of their original food culture they considered important to preserve, and to describe how they go about preserving them. Design: Qualitative in-depth interviews. Setting: Oslo, Norway. Participants: Twenty one female…

  11. Changes of Glaciation and Their Probable Impact on Water Resources in Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Severskiy, I.

    2009-04-01

    In the Central Asia the main limiting factor of sustainable development is increasing water shortage. Even now the overwhelming part of territory of Kazakhstan and the adjacent countries of Central Asia are characterized by a condition of the strongest water stress. Fresh water deficiency is, to this or that extent, observed practically on all the territory of Central Asia and transboundary character of the main rivers is one of the main risk factors for sustainable development of national economy of the countries in this region. For the last 20 years a great number of scientific publications appeared in which their authors express an increasingly serious fears about significant reduction of water resources in the arid regions of the world as a reaction to global warming. One of the arguments substantiating such forecasts is the indisputable fact of a continuous intensive degradation of glaciers. Predominating opinion about the inevitability of glaciers disappearance in Central Asia Mountains cannot be accepted as an axiom. Taking into account stability in the sum of precipitation and especially in the snow resources, one can suppose that glaciers in this region will not disappear during this century. Despite the reduction of glaciers, annual runoff volumes and runoff distribution within a year remained unchanged during the last decades. During the same period, norms of atmospheric precipitation and maximum snow-water storage in the zone of runoff formation remained stable. All these suggest the existence of a certain compensation mechanism. Research, based on data analysis of repeated photogrammetric surveys of a group of glaciers and temperature regime of permafrost in Zailiyskiy Alatau range (Northern Tien Shan), suggests that such mechanism can be more and more significant (with climate warming) participation of melting waters of underground ice (buried glaciers, rock glaciers, permafrost) in runoff formation. During last decade the Global Climate system

  12. 17 CFR Appendix E to Part 43 - Other Commodity Geographic Identification for Public Dissemination Pursuant to § 43.4(d)(4)(iii)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Russia) Russia Africa Northern Africa Western Africa Eastern Africa Central Africa Southern Africa Asia-Pacific Northern Asia (excluding Russia) Central Asia Eastern Asia Western Asia Southeast Asia...

  13. The contribution of the Global Change Observatory Central Asia to seismic hazard and risk assessment in the Central Asian region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parolai, S.; Bindi, D.; Haberland, C. A.; Pittore, M.; Pilz, M.; Rosenau, M.; Schurr, B.; Wieland, M.; Yuan, X.

    2012-12-01

    Central Asia has one of the world's highest levels of earthquake hazard, owing to its exceptionally high deformation rates. Moreover, vulnerability to natural disasters in general is increasing, due to rising populations and a growing dependence on complex lifelines and technology. Therefore, there is an urgent need to undertake seismic hazard and risk assessment in this region, while at the same time improving upon existing methodologies, including the consideration of temporal variability in the seismic hazard, and in structural and social vulnerability. Over the last few years, the German Research Center for Geosciences (GFZ), in collaboration with local partners, has initiated a number of scientific activities within the framework of the Global Change Observatory Central Asia (GCO-CA). The work is divided into projects with specific concerns: - The installation and maintenance of the Central-Asian Real-time Earthquake MOnitoring Network (CAREMON) and the setup of a permanent wireless mesh network for structural health monitoring in Bishkek. - The TIPAGE and TIPTIMON projects focus on the geodynamics of the Tien-Shan, Pamir and Hindu Kush region, the deepest and most active intra-continental subduction zone in the world. The work covers time scales from millions of years to short-term snapshots based on geophysical measurements of seismotectonic activity and of the physical properties of the crust and upper mantle, as well as their coupling with other surface processes (e.g., landslides). - Existing risk analysis methods assume time-independent earthquake hazard and risk, although temporal changes are likely to occur due to, for example, co- and post-seismic changes in the regional stress field. We therefore aim to develop systematic time-dependent hazard and risk analysis methods in order to undertake the temporal quantification of earthquake activity (PROGRESS). - To improve seismic hazard assessment for better loss estimation, detailed site effects studies

  14. Artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum clinical isolates can infect diverse mosquito vectors of Southeast Asia and Africa

    PubMed Central

    St. Laurent, Brandyce; Miller, Becky; Burton, Timothy A.; Amaratunga, Chanaki; Men, Sary; Sovannaroth, Siv; Fay, Michael P.; Miotto, Olivo; Gwadz, Robert W.; Anderson, Jennifer M.; Fairhurst, Rick M.

    2015-01-01

    Artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum parasites are rapidly spreading in Southeast Asia, yet nothing is known about their transmission. This knowledge gap and the possibility that these parasites will spread to Africa endanger global efforts to eliminate malaria. Here we produce gametocytes from parasite clinical isolates that displayed artemisinin resistance in patients and in vitro, and use them to infect native and non-native mosquito vectors. We show that contemporary artemisinin-resistant isolates from Cambodia develop and produce sporozoites in two Southeast Asian vectors, Anopheles dirus and Anopheles minimus, and the major African vector, Anopheles coluzzii (formerly Anopheles gambiae M). The ability of artemisinin-resistant parasites to infect such highly diverse Anopheles species, combined with their higher gametocyte prevalence in patients, may explain the rapid expansion of these parasites in Cambodia and neighbouring countries, and further compromise efforts to prevent their global spread. PMID:26485448

  15. Artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum clinical isolates can infect diverse mosquito vectors of Southeast Asia and Africa.

    PubMed

    St Laurent, Brandyce; Miller, Becky; Burton, Timothy A; Amaratunga, Chanaki; Men, Sary; Sovannaroth, Siv; Fay, Michael P; Miotto, Olivo; Gwadz, Robert W; Anderson, Jennifer M; Fairhurst, Rick M

    2015-01-01

    Artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum parasites are rapidly spreading in Southeast Asia, yet nothing is known about their transmission. This knowledge gap and the possibility that these parasites will spread to Africa endanger global efforts to eliminate malaria. Here we produce gametocytes from parasite clinical isolates that displayed artemisinin resistance in patients and in vitro, and use them to infect native and non-native mosquito vectors. We show that contemporary artemisinin-resistant isolates from Cambodia develop and produce sporozoites in two Southeast Asian vectors, Anopheles dirus and Anopheles minimus, and the major African vector, Anopheles coluzzii (formerly Anopheles gambiae M). The ability of artemisinin-resistant parasites to infect such highly diverse Anopheles species, combined with their higher gametocyte prevalence in patients, may explain the rapid expansion of these parasites in Cambodia and neighbouring countries, and further compromise efforts to prevent their global spread. PMID:26485448

  16. Alternative medicines for AIDS in resource-poor settings: insights from exploratory anthropological studies in Asia and Africa.

    PubMed

    Hardon, Anita; Desclaux, Alice; Egrot, Marc; Simon, Emmanuelle; Micollier, Evelyne; Kyakuwa, Margaret

    2008-01-01

    The emergence of alternative medicines for AIDS in Asia and Africa was discussed at a satellite symposium and the parallel session on alternative and traditional treatments of the AIDSImpact meeting, held in Marseille, in July 2007. These medicines are heterogeneous, both in their presentation and in their geographic and cultural origin. The sessions focused on the role of these medications in selected resource poor settings in Africa and Asia now that access to anti-retroviral therapy is increasing. The aims of the sessions were to (1) identify the actors involved in the diffusion of these alternative medicines for HIV/AIDS, (2) explore uses and forms, and the way these medicines are given legitimacy, (3) reflect on underlying processes of globalisation and cultural differentiation, and (4) define priority questions for future research in this area. This article presents the insights generated at the meeting, illustrated with some findings from the case studies (Uganda, Senegal, Benin, Burkina Faso, China and Indonesia) that were presented. These case studies reveal the wide range of actors who are involved in the marketing and supply of alternative medicines. Regulatory mechanisms are weak. The efficacy claims of alternative medicines often reinforce a biomedical paradigm for HIV/AIDS, and fit with a healthy living ideology promoted by AIDS care programs and support groups. The AIDSImpact session concluded that more interdisciplinary research is needed on the experience of people living with HIV/AIDS with these alternative medicines, and on the ways in which these products interact (or not) with anti-retroviral therapy at pharmacological as well as psychosocial levels. PMID:18616794

  17. Identifying important breast cancer control strategies in Asia, Latin America and the Middle East/North Africa

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is the most frequent cause of cancer death in women worldwide, but global disparities in breast cancer control persist, due to a lack of a comprehensive breast cancer control strategy in many countries. Objectives To identify and compare the need for breast cancer control strategies in Asia, Latin America and the Middle East/North Africa and to develop a common framework to guide the development of national breast cancer control strategies. Methods Data were derived from open-ended, semi-structured interviews conducted in 2007 with 221 clinicians, policy makers, and patient advocates; stratified across Asia (n = 97), Latin America (n = 46), the Middle East/North Africa (ME/NA) (n = 39) and Australia and Canada (n = 39). Respondents were identified using purposive and snowballing sampling. Interpretation of the data utilized interpretive phenomenological analysis where transcripts and field notes were coded and analyzed and common themes were identified. Analysis of regional variation was conducted based on the frequency of discussion and the writing of the manuscript followed the RATS guidelines. Results Analysis revealed four major themes that form the foundation for developing national breast cancer control strategies: 1) building capacity; 2) developing evidence; 3) removing barriers; and 4) promoting advocacy - each specified across five sub-ordinate dimensions. The propensity to discuss most dimensions was similar across regions, but managing advocacy was discussed more frequently (p = 0.004) and organized advocacy was discussed less frequently (p < 0.001) in Australia and Canada. Conclusions This unique research identified common themes for the development of breast cancer control strategies, grounded in the experience of local practitioners, policy makers and advocacy leaders across diverse regions. Future research should be aimed at gathering a wider array of experiences, including those of patients. PMID:21933435

  18. Pregnancy-related mortality in Africa and Asia: evidence from INDEPTH Health and Demographic Surveillance System sites

    PubMed Central

    Streatfield, P. Kim; Alam, Nurul; Compaoré, Yacouba; Rossier, Clementine; Soura, Abdramane B.; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Jaeger, Fabienne; Ngoran, Eliezer K.; Utzinger, Juerg; Gomez, Pierre; Jasseh, Momodou; Ansah, Akosua; Debpuur, Cornelius; Oduro, Abraham; Williams, John; Addei, Sheila; Gyapong, Margaret; Kukula, Vida A.; Bauni, Evasius; Mochamah, George; Ndila, Carolyne; Williams, Thomas N.; Desai, Meghna; Moige, Hellen; Odhiambo, Frank O.; Ogwang, Sheila; Beguy, Donatien; Ezeh, Alex; Oti, Samuel; Chihana, Menard; Crampin, Amelia; Price, Alison; Delaunay, Valérie; Diallo, Aldiouma; Douillot, Laetitia; Sokhna, Cheikh; Collinson, Mark A.; Kahn, Kathleen; Tollman, Stephen M.; Herbst, Kobus; Mossong, Joël; Emina, Jacques B.O.; Sankoh, Osman A.; Byass, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Background Women continue to die in unacceptably large numbers around the world as a result of pregnancy, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. Part of the problem is a lack of accurate, population-based information characterising the issues and informing solutions. Population surveillance sites, such as those operated within the INDEPTH Network, have the potential to contribute to bridging the information gaps. Objective To describe patterns of pregnancy-related mortality at INDEPTH Network Health and Demographic Surveillance System sites in sub-Saharan Africa and southeast Asia in terms of maternal mortality ratio (MMR) and cause-specific mortality rates. Design Data on individual deaths among women of reproductive age (WRA) (15–49) resident in INDEPTH sites were collated into a standardised database using the INDEPTH 2013 population standard, the WHO 2012 verbal autopsy (VA) standard, and the InterVA model for assigning cause of death. Results These analyses are based on reports from 14 INDEPTH sites, covering 14,198 deaths among WRA over 2,595,605 person-years observed. MMRs varied between 128 and 461 per 100,000 live births, while maternal mortality rates ranged from 0.11 to 0.74 per 1,000 person-years. Detailed rates per cause are tabulated, including analyses of direct maternal, indirect maternal, and incidental pregnancy-related deaths across the 14 sites. Conclusions As expected, these findings confirmed unacceptably high continuing levels of maternal mortality. However, they also demonstrate the effectiveness of INDEPTH sites and of the VA methods applied to arrive at measurements of maternal mortality that are essential for planning effective solutions and monitoring programmatic impacts. PMID:25377328

  19. Lake-levels, vegetation and climate in Central Asia during the Last Glacial Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amosov, Mikhail

    2014-05-01

    Central Asian region is bounded in the east corner of the Greater Khingan Range and the Loess Plateau, and to the west - the Caspian Sea. This representation of region boundaries is based on classical works of A.Humboldt and V.Obruchev. Three typical features of Central Asia nature are: climate aridity, extensive inland drainage basins with numerous lakes and mountain systems with developed glaciation. Nowadays the extensive data is accumulated about lake-levels during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in Central Asia. Data compilation on 20 depressions, where lakes exist now or where they existed during LGM, shows that most of them had usually higher lake-level than at present time. This regularity could be mentioned for the biggest lakes (the Aral Sea, the Balkhash, the Ysyk-Kol etc.) and for small ones that located in the mountains (Tien Shan, Pamir and Tibet). All of these lake basins get the precipitation due to westerlies. On the other hand lakes, which are located in region's east rimland (Lake Qinghai and lakes in Inner Mongolia) and get the precipitation due to summer East Asian monsoons, do not comply with the proposed regularity. During LGM these lake-levels were lower than nowadays. Another exception is Lake Manas, its lake-level was also lowered. Lake Manas is situated at the bottom of Junggar Basin. There are many small rivers, which come from the ranges and suffer the violent fluctuation in the position of its lower channel. It is possible to assume that some of its runoff did not get to Lake Manas during LGM. Mentioned facts suggest that levels of the most Central Asian lakes were higher during LGM comparing to their current situation. However, at that period vegetation was more xerophytic than now. Pollen data confirm this information for Tibet, Pamir and Tien Shan. Climate aridization of Central Asia can be proved by data about the intensity of loess accumulation during LGM. This evidence received for the east part of region (the Loess Plateau) and

  20. Systematics and biogeography of the Hylarana frog (Anura: Ranidae) radiation across tropical Australasia, Southeast Asia, and Africa.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Lauren A; Prendini, Elizabeth; Kraus, Fred; Raxworthy, Christopher J

    2015-09-01

    We present an inclusive molecular phylogeny for Hylarana across its global distribution, utilizing two mitochondrial and four nuclear gene regions for 69 of the 97 currently described species. We use phylogenetic methods to test monophyly of Hylarana, determine relationships among ten putative subgenera, identify major clades, reconstruct biogeographic history, and estimate continental dispersal dates. Results support Hylarana as a monophyletic group originating approximately 26.9MYA and comprising eight clades that partly correspond to currently described subgenera plus two new groups. The African and Australasian species each form clades embedded within a paraphyletic Southeast Asian group. We estimate that Africa and Australasia were colonized by Hylarana s.l. from SE Asia approximately 18.7 and 10.8MYA, respectively. Biogeographic reconstructions also support three separate colonization events in India from Southeast Asia. Examination of museum specimens identified morphological characters useful for delineating subgenera and species. We herein elevate all supported subgenera to genus rank and formally describe two new genera to produce a revised taxonomy congruent with our new phylogenetic and biogeographic findings. PMID:25987527

  1. Biothreat Reduction and Economic Development: The Case of Animal Husbandry in Central Asia

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Robert; Blackburn, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Improving human welfare is a critical global concern, but not always easy to achieve. Complications in this regard have been faced by the states of the Former Soviet Union, where socialist-style economic institutions have disappeared, and the transition to a market economy has been slow in coming. Lack of capital, ethnic conflict, and political instability have at times undermined the institutional reform that would be necessary to enable economic efficiency and development. Nowhere are such challenges more pronounced than in the new nation states of central Asia, including Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. Here, a severe climate limits agriculture, and industrialization has been inhibited by lack of infrastructure, low levels of human capital, and a scarcity of financial resources. These conditions are aggravated by the fact that the central Asian states are landlocked, far from centers of market demand and capital availability. Despite these daunting barriers, development potential does exist, and the goal of the paper is to consider central Asia’s pastoral economy, with a focus on Kazakhstan, which stands poised to become a regional growth pole. The article pursues its goal as follows. It first addresses the biothreat situation to central Asian livestock herds, the most significant existing impediment to realizing the full market potential of the region’s animal products. Next, it provides an outline of interventions that can reduce risk levels for key biothreats impacting central Asia, namely foot and mouth disease (FMD), which greatly impacts livestock and prohibits export, and Brucellosis, a bacterial zoonosis with high incidence in both humans and livestock in the region. Included is an important success story involving the FMD eradication programs in Brazil, which enabled an export boom in beef. After this comes a description of the epidemiological situation in Kazakhstan; here, the article considers the role of wildlife

  2. Characteristics and Composition of Atmospheric Aerosols in Phimai, Central Thailand During BASE-ASIA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Can; Tsay, Si-Chee; Hsu, N. Christina; Kim, Jin Young; Howell, Steven G.; Huebert, Barry J.; Ji, Qiang; Jeong, Myeong-Jae; Wang, Sheng-Hsiang; Hansell, Richard A.; Bell, Shaun W.

    2012-01-01

    Popular summary: Atmospheric aerosols play an important role in the Earth's climate system, and can also have adverse effects on air quality and human health. The environmental impacts of aerosols, on the other hand, are highly regional, since their temporal/spatial distribution is inhomogeneous and highly depends on the regional emission sources. To better understand the effects of aerosols, intensive field experiments are necessary to characterize the chemical and physical properties on a region-by-region basis. From late February to early May in 2006, NASA/GSFC's SMARTLabs facility was deployed at a rural site in central Thailand, Southeast Asia, to conduct a field experiment dubbed BASE-ASIA (Biomass-burning Aerosols in South East-Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment). The group was joined by scientists from the University of Hawaii and other regional institutes. Comprehensive measurements were made during the experiment, including aerosol chemical composition, optical and microphysical properties, as well as surface energetics and local . meteorology. This study analyzes part of the data from the BASE-ASIA experiment. It was found that, even for the relatively remote rural site, the aerosol loading was still substantial. Besides agricultural burning in the area, industrial pollution near the Bangkok metropolitan area, about 200 km southeast of the site, and even long-range transport from China, also contribute to the area's aerosol loading. The results indicate that aerosol pollution has developed into a regional problem for northern Indochina, and may become more severe as the region's population and economy continue to grow. Abstract: Comprehensive measurements of atmospheric aerosols were made in Phimai, central Thailand (15.l83 N, 102.565 E, elevation: 206 m) during the BASE-ASIA field experiment from late February to early May in 2006. The observed aerosol loading was sizable for this rural site (mean aerosol scattering: 108 +/- 64 Mm(exp -1); absorption: 15

  3. An Andean ice-core record of a Middle Holocene mega-drought in North Africa and Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Mary E.; Thompson, Lonnie G.

    An ice core from the Nevado Huascarán col in the Cordillera Blanca of northern Peru contains high-resolution time series of dust concentrations and size distributions since the end of the last glacial stage. A large dust peak, dated ˜4500 years ago, is contemporaneous with a widespread and prolonged drought that apparently extended from North Africa to eastern China, evidence of which occurs in historical, archeological and paleoclimatic records. This event may have been associated with several centuries of weak Asian/Indian/African monsoons, possibly linked with a protracted cooling in the North Atlantic. During the second half of the 20th century, high austral-summer dust concentrations in the Huascarán record are significantly correlated with atmospheric conditions, such as sea-level pressure and zonal wind velocities that are consistent with El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and positive North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) indices, and with aridity in North Africa, southwest Asia and the Middle East. Therefore, the dominant submicron fraction of the dust may have been transported by more intense northeasterly trade winds from the African dry regions across the tropical Atlantic during a period of frequent and/or intense ENSO activity. The proposed ENSO conditions that may have been linked with drought in the monsoon region may also have contributed to aridity in tropical South America, including the Cordillera Blanca.

  4. Estimating continental water storage variations in Central Asia area using GRACE data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dapeng, Mu; Zhongchang, Sun; Jinyun, Guo

    2014-03-01

    The goal of GRACE satellite is to determine time-variations of the Earth's gravity, and particularly the effects of fluid mass redistributions at the surface of the Earth. This paper uses GRACE Level-2 RL05 data provided by CSR to estimate water storage variations of four river basins in Asia area for the period from 2003 to 2011. We apply a two-step filtering method to reduce the errors in GRACE data, which combines Gaussian averaging function and empirical de-correlation method. We use GLDAS hydrology to validate the result from GRACE. Special averaging approach is preformed to reduce the errors in GLDAS. The results of former three basins from GRACE are consistent with GLDAS hydrology model. In the Tarim River basin, there is more discrepancy between GRACE and GLDAS. Precipitation data from weather station proves that the results of GRACE are more plausible. We use spectral analysis to obtain the main periods of GRACE and GLDAS time series and then use least squares adjustment to determine the amplitude and phase. The results show that water storage in Central Asia is decreasing.

  5. A GCM investigation of dust aerosol impact on the regional climate of North Africa and South/East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Y.; Xue, Y.; De Sales, F.; Liou, K. N.

    2016-04-01

    The climatic effects of dust aerosols in North Africa and South/East Asia have been investigated using an atmospheric general circulation model, NCEP/GCM/SSiB (Simplified Simple Biosphere Model) and the three-dimensional aerosol data simulated by the Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) model. GCM simulations show that due to the scattering and absorption of solar radiation by dust particles, surface temperature decreases over both regions, accompanied by a reduced sensible heat flux. However, precipitation responses are different in these two regions. Due to differences in dust location and the associated heating with respect to the rainfall band and circulation, the effect of dust could either enhance or suppress precipitation. Over the North Africa region where dust particles are mainly located to the north of rainfall band, heating of the air column by dust particles forces a stronger ascent motion over dust layers, which induces an anomalous subsidence (or a weakened upward motion) and suppressed cyclonic circulation to its south where precipitation reduces. Furthermore, both humidity and cloud decrease due to the heating in the middle troposphere (semi-direct effect). In South/East Asia, dust particles are located in the upper troposphere over the major rainfall band during the monsoon season, especially Southwest India and the coastal area of Bay of Bengal. Heating of the air column increases upward motion and strengthens cyclonic circulation. Humidity also increases due to the draw-in of the low level moist air. Therefore, cloud and precipitation increase over South/East Asia associated with dust effect. During the pre-monsoon season, when dust particles are located to the north of the monsoon rainfall band, the heating effect results in shifting precipitation northward. The heating of air column due to dust particles, not surface cooling, plays the major role in precipitation changes. The anomalous upward motion over dust regions will

  6. A long-term context (931-2005 C.E.) for rapid warming over central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davi, N. K.; D'Arrigo, R.; Cook, E. R.; Anchukaitis, K. J.; Nachin, B.; Rao, M. P.; Leland, C.; Oelkers, R.

    2015-12-01

    Our understanding of long-term temperature variability and its causes is extremely limited in remote Central Asia, due to short and sparse meteorological data, as well as a paucity of long-term, high-resolution, temperature-sensitive proxy records. Instrumental records, typically only reaching back to the 1940s or later, show that temperatures in central Asia have been increasing rapidly, particularly since the mid 1990's, and are currently warmer then at any other time in recorded history. We develop a millennium length (931-2005 C.E.) tree-ring width chronology from larch trees (Larix sibirica) growing at elevational treeline (2400 meters) sites in Mongolia, where the dominant limiting factor for growth is temperature. The chronology and reconstruction, from a site named Ondor Zuun Nuruu (OZN; meaning 'High East Ridge'), has a large sample depth (> 200 samples) and can be calibrated and validated using regionalized meteorological data from Mongolia and Russia. The reconstruction allows us to evaluate temperature variability and extremes over the past millennium in Central Asia, a region that is warming faster then many places on Earth. It also places recent warming trends into a long-term context, contributes to our understanding of spatial patterns of the Medieval Climate Anomaly and the Little Ice Age across Asia, and provides evidence of significant volcanic influence on Central Asia temperature. We also present preliminary results from novel Blue Light Intensity methods that demonstrate that blue intensity reflectance significantly improves the climate signal of temperature sensitive tree-ring width chronologies from Central Asia and will lead to additional millennial length reconstructions from several sites that were not previously possible using ring-width alone.

  7. Seasonal dynamics of threshold friction velocity and dust emission in Central Asia

    PubMed Central

    Xi, Xin; Sokolik, Irina N

    2015-01-01

    An improved model representation of mineral dust cycle is critical to reducing the uncertainty of dust-induced environmental and climatic impact. Here we present a mesoscale model study of the seasonal dust activity in the semiarid drylands of Central Asia, focusing on the effects of wind speed, soil moisture, surface roughness heterogeneity, and vegetation phenology on the threshold friction velocity (u*t) and dust emission during the dust season of 1 March to 31 October 2001. The dust model WRF-Chem-DuMo allows us to examine the uncertainties in seasonal dust emissions due to the selection of dust emission scheme and soil grain size distribution data. To account for the vegetation effects on the u*t, we use the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer monthly normalized difference vegetation index to derive the dynamic surface roughness parameters required by the physically based dust schemes of Marticorena and Bergametti (1995, hereinafter MB) and Shao et al. (1996, hereinafter Shao). We find the springtime u*t is strongly enhanced by the roughness effects of temperate steppe and desert ephemeral plants and, to less extent, the binding effects of increased soil moisture. The u*t decreases as the aboveground biomass dies back and soil moisture depletes during summer. The u*t dynamics determines the dust seasonality by causing more summer dust emission, despite a higher frequency of strong winds during spring. Due to the presence of more erodible materials in the saltation diameter range of 60–200 µm, the dry-sieved soil size distribution data lead to eight times more season-total dust emission than the soil texture data, but with minor differences in the temporal distribution. On the other hand, the Shao scheme produces almost the same amount of season-total dust emission as the MB scheme, but with a strong shift toward summer due to the strong sensitivity of the u*t to vegetation. By simply averaging the MB and Shao model experiments, we obtain a mean

  8. Water-related problems of central Asia: some results of the (GIWA) International Water Assessment Program.

    PubMed

    Severskiy, Igor Vasilievich

    2004-02-01

    This paper presents results of the research under the program Global International Waters Assessment (GIWA) for the Aral Sea basin (Subregion 24 of the GIWA program). These results show that the detemining factor for the region is freshwater shortage and the main issue is modification of stream flow. According to GIWA assessment estimations, freshwater shortage is responsible for about 70% of the developmental problems in the region. The current economy is developing under conditions of increasing water deficiency. In spite of increasing efforts by the governments of the countries in the region, and by the international community, the situation in regard to water supply and economic objectives in the countries of central Asia remains tense and shows clear tendencies towards aggravation and conflict. The main causes for this sharpening of ecological and socioeconomic conditions in the region are analyzed, and measures to mitigate stress in transboundary water-resources use are presented. PMID:15083650

  9. Understanding the "Russian mortality paradox" in Central Asia: evidence from Kyrgyzstan.

    PubMed

    Guillot, Michel; Gavrilova, Natalia; Pudrovska, Tetyana

    2011-08-01

    In the former Soviet republics of central Asia, ethnic Russians have exhibited higher adult mortality than native ethnic groups (e.g., Kazakh, Kyrgyz, Uzbek) in spite of the higher socioeconomic status of ethnic Russians. The mortality disadvantage of ethnic Russians at adult ages appears to have even increased since the breakup of the Soviet Union. The most common explanation for this "Russian mortality paradox," is that deaths are better reported among ethnic Russians. In this study, we use detailed mortality data from Kyrgyzstan between 1959 and 1999 to evaluate various explanations for the Russian mortality paradox: data artifacts, migration effects, and cultural effects. We find that the most plausible explanation is the cultural hypothesis because the personal behaviors that appear to generate a large part of the observed mortality differences (alcohol consumption, in particular) seem to be closely tied to cultural practices. We examine the implications of this finding for understanding the health crisis in post-Soviet states. PMID:21618068

  10. Science and Technology to Advance Regional Security in the Middle East and Central Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Tompson, A F B; Richardson, J H; Ragaini, R C; Knapp, R B; Rosenberg, N D; Smith, D K; Ball, D Y

    2002-10-09

    This paper is concerned with the promotion and advancement of regional security in the Middle East and Central Asia through the development of bilateral and multilateral cooperation on targeted scientific and technical projects. It is widely recognized that increasing tensions and instability in many parts of the world emphasize--or reemphasize--a need to seek and promote regional security in these areas. At the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), a national security research facility operated for the US Department of Energy, we are pursuing an effort to use science and technology as a ''low risk'' means of engagement in regions of strategic importance to the United States. In particular, we are developing collaborations and cooperative projects among (and between) national laboratory scientists in the US and our various counterparts in the countries of interest.

  11. New fossil Osmylopsychopidae (Neuroptera) from the Early/Middle Jurassic of Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Khramov, Alexander V; Makarkin, Vladimir N

    2015-01-01

    Four genera and four species of Osmylopsychopidae are described from the Jurassic of Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia: Oligophlebiopsis biramosa gen. et sp. nov. (Early Jurassic of Sogyuty); Osmylopsychoides anteromedialis gen. et sp. nov., Psychostoechotes undulatus gen. et sp. nov. and Osmylopsychostoechus sogulensis gen. et sp. nov. (all from the late Early to early Middle Jurassic of Sai-Sagul). By their poorly-developed outer gradate series of crossveins, these taxa (except O. anteromedialis gen. et sp. nov.) are more similar to Triassic genera than to the Middle/Late Jurassic Osmylopsychopidae (particularly from Daohugou, China). Two isolated hind wings from Sai-Sagul (i.e., Osmylopsychostoechus sp. and Osmylopsychopidae gen. et sp. indet.) are preliminarily assigned to this family. PMID:26701556

  12. Numerical simulation of tectonic plates motion and seismic process in Central Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Peryshkin, A. Yu.; Makarov, P. V. Eremin, M. O.

    2014-11-14

    An evolutionary approach proposed in [1, 2] combining the achievements of traditional macroscopic theory of solid mechanics and basic ideas of nonlinear dynamics is applied in a numerical simulation of present-day tectonic plates motion and seismic process in Central Asia. Relative values of strength parameters of rigid blocks with respect to the soft zones were characterized by the δ parameter that was varied in the numerical experiments within δ = 1.1–1.8 for different groups of the zonal-block divisibility. In general, the numerical simulations of tectonic block motion and accompanying seismic process in the model geomedium indicate that the numerical solutions of the solid mechanics equations characterize its deformation as a typical behavior of a nonlinear dynamic system under conditions of self-organized criticality.

  13. Deep India meets deep Asia: Lithospheric indentation, delamination and break-off under Pamir and Hindu Kush (Central Asia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kufner, Sofia-Katerina; Schurr, Bernd; Sippl, Christian; Yuan, Xiaohui; Ratschbacher, Lothar; Akbar, Arib s./of Mohammad; Ischuk, Anatoly; Murodkulov, Shohrukh; Schneider, Felix; Mechie, James; Tilmann, Frederik

    2016-02-01

    Subduction of buoyant continental lithosphere is one of the least understood plate-tectonic processes. Yet under the Pamir-Hindu Kush, at the northwestern margin of the India-Asia collision zone, unusual deep earthquakes and seismic velocity anomalies suggest subduction of Asian and Indian lithosphere. Here, we report new precise earthquake hypocenters, detailed tomographic images and earthquake source mechanisms, which allow distinguishing a narrow sliver of Indian lithosphere beneath the deepest Hindu Kush earthquakes and a broad, arcuate slab of Asian lithosphere beneath the Pamir. We suggest that this double subduction zone arises by contrasting modes of convergence under the Pamir and Hindu Kush, imposed by the different mechanical properties of the three types of lithosphere involved. While the buoyant northwestern salient of Cratonic India bulldozes into Cratonic Asia, forcing delamination and rollback of its lithosphere, India's thinned western continental margin separates from Cratonic India and subducts beneath Asia. This torn-off narrow plate sliver forms a prominent high-velocity anomaly down to the mantle transition zone. Our images show that its uppermost section is thinned or already severed and that intermediate depth earthquakes cluster at the neck connecting it to the deeper slab, providing a rare glimpse at the ephemeral process of slab break-off.

  14. The crustal and mantle velocity structure in central Asia from 3D traveltime tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Y.; Martin, R. V.; Toksoz, M. N.; Pei, S.

    2010-12-01

    The lithospheric structure in central Asia features large blocks such as the Indian plate, the Afghan block, the Turan plate, and the Tarim block. This geologically and tectonically complicated area is also one of the most seismically active regions in the world. We developed P- and S- wave velocity structures of the central Asia in the crust using the traveltime data from Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Kazakhstan, and Uzbek. We chose the events and stations between 32N65E and 45N85E and focused on the areas of Pamir and western Tianshan. In this data set, there are more than 6000 P and S arrivals received at 80 stations from about 300 events. The double difference tomography is applied to relocate events and to invert for seismic structures simultaneously. Our results provide accurate locations of earthquakes and high resolution crustal structure in this region. To extend the model deeper into the mantle through the upper mantle transition zone, ISC/EHB data for P and PP phases are combined with the ABCE data. To counteract the “smearing effect,” the crust and upper mantle velocity structure, derived from regional travel-times, is used. An adaptive grid method based on ray density is used in the inversion. A P-wave velocity model extending down to a depth of 2000 km is obtained. regional-teleseismic tomography provides a high-resolution, 3-D P-wave velocity model for the crust, upper mantle, and the transition zone. The crustal models correlate well with geologic and tectonic features. The upper mantle tomograms show the images of Tian Shan. The slab geometry is quite complex, reflecting the history of the changes in the plate motions and collision processes. Vp/Vs tomography was also determined in the study region, and an attenuation tomography was obtained as well.

  15. Fungal root endophyte associations of plants endemic to the Pamir Alay Mountains of Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Zubek, Szymon; Nobis, Marcin; Błaszkowski, Janusz; Mleczko, Piotr; Nowak, Arkadiusz

    2011-06-01

    The fungal root endophyte associations of 16 species from 12 families of plants endemic to the Pamir Alay Mountains of Central Asia are presented. The plants and soil samples were collected in Zeravshan and Hissar ranges within the central Pamir Alay mountain system. Colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) was found in 15 plant species; in 8 species it was of the Arum type and in 4 of the Paris type, while 3 taxa revealed intermediate arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) morphology. AMF colonization was found to be absent only in Matthiola integrifolia, the representative of the Brassicaceae family. The AM status and morphology are reported for the first time for all the species analyzed and for the genera Asyneuma, Clementsia, and Eremostachys. Mycelia of dark septate endophytes (DSE) accompanied the AMF colonization in ten plant species. The frequency of DSE occurrence in the roots was low in all the plants, with the exception of Spiraea baldschuanica. However, in the case of both low and higher occurrence, the percentage of DSE root colonization was low. Moreover, the sporangia of Olpidium spp. were sporadically found inside the root epidermal cells of three plant species. Seven AMF species (Glomeromycota) found in the trap cultures established with soils surrounding roots of the plants being studied were reported for the first time from this region of Asia. Our results provide information that might well be of use to the conservation and restoration programmes of these valuable plant species. The potential application of beneficial root-inhabiting fungi in active plant protection projects of rare, endemic and endangered plants is discussed. PMID:22207783

  16. Uncertainty Assessment of GLOBELAND30 Land Cover Data Set Over Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Bo; Chen, Xi; Zhou, Qiming

    2016-06-01

    GlobeLand30, the world's first 30m-resolution global land cover data set, has recently been issued for research on global change at a fine resolution. Given the accuracy of GlobeLand30 data may show significant variation in different parts of the world and data quality at continental scale has not been validated yet, this study aims to evaluate the uncertainty of the data over Central Asia. Since it is difficult to get long-term historical ground references, GlobeLand30 data at the most recent epoch (i.e., GlobeLand30-2010) was assessed. In the test, a large sample size was adopted, and more than 25 thousand samples were selected by a random sampling scheme and interpreted manually as ground references based on higher resolution imagery at the same epoch, such as images from ZY-3 (China Resources Series) satellite and Google earth. Cross validation of image interpretation by three well-trained interpreters was adopted to make the references more reliable. Error matrix and Kappa coefficient were utilized to quantify data accuracies in terms of classification accuracy. Results show that the GlobeLand30-2010 data presents an overall accuracy of 46% in the study area. As for specific land cover types, bare land illustrates a high user's accuracy but a lower producer's accuracy. At the same time, the accuracies of grassland and forest are significantly lower than other types. The majority of misclassification types come from bare land. It implies a difficulty of distinguishing grassland or forest from bare land in the study area. In addition, the confusion between shrub land and grassland also results in the misclassification. The results serve as a useful reference of data accuracy for further analysis of land cover change in Central Asia as well as the applications of GlobeLand30 data at a regional or continental scale.

  17. Tracing the origin of the east-west population admixture in the Altai region (Central Asia).

    PubMed

    González-Ruiz, Mercedes; Santos, Cristina; Jordana, Xavier; Simón, Marc; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Gigli, Elena; Aluja, Maria Pilar; Malgosa, Assumpció

    2012-01-01

    A recent discovery of Iron Age burials (Pazyryk culture) in the Altai Mountains of Mongolia may shed light on the mode and tempo of the generation of the current genetic east-west population admixture in Central Asia. Studies on ancient mitochondrial DNA of this region suggest that the Altai Mountains played the role of a geographical barrier between West and East Eurasian lineages until the beginning of the Iron Age. After the 7th century BC, coinciding with Scythian expansion across the Eurasian steppes, a gradual influx of East Eurasian sequences in Western steppes is detected. However, the underlying events behind the genetic admixture in Altai during the Iron Age are still unresolved: 1) whether it was a result of migratory events (eastward firstly, westward secondly), or 2) whether it was a result of a local demographic expansion in a 'contact zone' between European and East Asian people. In the present work, we analyzed the mitochondrial DNA lineages in human remains from Bronze and Iron Age burials of Mongolian Altai. Here we present support to the hypothesis that the gene pool of Iron Age inhabitants of Mongolian Altai was similar to that of western Iron Age Altaians (Russia and Kazakhstan). Thus, this people not only shared the same culture (Pazyryk), but also shared the same genetic east-west population admixture. In turn, Pazyryks appear to have a similar gene pool that current Altaians. Our results further show that Iron Age Altaians displayed mitochondrial lineages already present around Altai region before the Iron Age. This would provide support for a demographic expansion of local people of Altai instead of westward or eastward migratory events, as the demographic event behind the high population genetic admixture and diversity in Central Asia. PMID:23152818

  18. Tapping the Late Pleistocene-Holocene environmental change and alluvial geoarchaeology in Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macklin, Mark; Panyushkina, Irina; Toonen, Willem; Chang, Claudia; Seitkaliyev, Meyram; Voyakin, Dmitry

    2015-04-01

    We integrate the environmental history derived from spatial-temporal variability of multi proxies and the prehistory of arid lands from archaeological data in Central Asia in order to determine the relationship between the Holocene river dynamics, climate change and floodwater farming. This study addresses to developing fluvial achieves and geoarcheological records from the Talgar catchment, a south-bank tributary of the Ili River and the Talas catchment, a east-bank tributary of the Syr Darya River, in the southern Kazakhstan. The catchments of these steppe rivers flowing northwest had favorable habitats for farming from the Eneolithic to the medieval period as appears from human settlement histories documented with archaeological surveys and in some cases excavations. The river development has been reconstructed over the last 20,000 years and the key archaeological sites have been dated with radiocarbon. Periods of Holocene river aggradation and high water in downstream Lake Balkhash and Aral Sea correspond with cooler and wetter neoglacial episodes while river entrenchment and floodplain soil development are associated with warmer and drier conditions. Floodwater farming in the Talgar River reached its height in the late Iron Age (400-200 cal. BC) with more than 70 settlement sites and 700 burial mounds, and in the Talas River during the medieval period. This corresponds to a period of reduced flood flows, river stability and glacier retreat in the Tien Shan headwaters. A new hydroclimatic-based model for the spatial and temporal dynamics of floodwater farming is proposed, which explains settlement patterns since the first documented use of irrigation in the Iron Age and medieval times. The undertaken research highlights the Holocene human adaptations to the environmental change of floodplains in Central Asia.

  19. Tracing the Origin of the East-West Population Admixture in the Altai Region (Central Asia)

    PubMed Central

    González-Ruiz, Mercedes; Santos, Cristina; Jordana, Xavier; Simón, Marc; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Gigli, Elena; Aluja, Maria Pilar; Malgosa, Assumpció

    2012-01-01

    A recent discovery of Iron Age burials (Pazyryk culture) in the Altai Mountains of Mongolia may shed light on the mode and tempo of the generation of the current genetic east-west population admixture in Central Asia. Studies on ancient mitochondrial DNA of this region suggest that the Altai Mountains played the role of a geographical barrier between West and East Eurasian lineages until the beginning of the Iron Age. After the 7th century BC, coinciding with Scythian expansion across the Eurasian steppes, a gradual influx of East Eurasian sequences in Western steppes is detected. However, the underlying events behind the genetic admixture in Altai during the Iron Age are still unresolved: 1) whether it was a result of migratory events (eastward firstly, westward secondly), or 2) whether it was a result of a local demographic expansion in a ‘contact zone’ between European and East Asian people. In the present work, we analyzed the mitochondrial DNA lineages in human remains from Bronze and Iron Age burials of Mongolian Altai. Here we present support to the hypothesis that the gene pool of Iron Age inhabitants of Mongolian Altai was similar to that of western Iron Age Altaians (Russia and Kazakhstan). Thus, this people not only shared the same culture (Pazyryk), but also shared the same genetic east-west population admixture. In turn, Pazyryks appear to have a similar gene pool that current Altaians. Our results further show that Iron Age Altaians displayed mitochondrial lineages already present around Altai region before the Iron Age. This would provide support for a demographic expansion of local people of Altai instead of westward or eastward migratory events, as the demographic event behind the high population genetic admixture and diversity in Central Asia. PMID:23152818

  20. National independence and nonproliferation in the new states of Central Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Gleason, G.

    1993-12-01

    Five independent states emerged in Central Asia from the breakup of the USSR. One of these states, Kazakhstan, possesses nuclear weapons. The other four of these states, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan, are not known to possess nuclear weapons, however they occupy a geostrategic position which makes them important to non-proliferation efforts. The present report profiles the capabilities and intentions of these four Central Asian states. The analysis of capabilities suggests that none of these states has the capability to develop a usable nuclear weapon. However, all of these countries-- especially Uzbekistan--have components of the old Soviet nuclear weapons complex which are now orphans. They have no use for these facilities and must either re-profile them, destroy them, or transfer them. The analysis of intentions suggests that the dynamics of national independence have created a situation in which Uzbekistan has hegemonic designs in the region. Implications for retarding nuclear proliferation in the Central Asian region are examined. Opportunities for outside influence are assessed.

  1. Autosomal and mtDNA Markers Affirm the Distinctiveness of Lions in West and Central Africa

    PubMed Central

    Bertola, Laura D.; Tensen, Laura; van Hooft, Pim; White, Paula A.; Driscoll, Carlos A.; Henschel, Philipp; Caragiulo, Anthony; Dias-Freedman, Isabela; Sogbohossou, Etotépé A.; Tumenta, Pricelia N.; Jirmo, Tuqa H.; de Snoo, Geert R.

    2015-01-01

    The evolutionary history of a species is key for understanding the taxonomy and for the design of effective management strategies for species conservation. The knowledge about the phylogenetic position of the lion (Panthera leo) in West/Central Africa is largely based on mitochondrial markers. Previous studies using mtDNA only have shown this region to hold a distinct evolutionary lineage. In addition, anthropogenic factors have led to a strong decline in West/Central African lion numbers, thus, the conservation value of these populations is particularly high. Here, we investigate whether autosomal markers are concordant with previously described phylogeographic patterns, and confirm the unique position of the West/Central African lion. Analysis of 20 microsatellites and 1,454 bp of the mitochondrial DNA in 16 lion populations representing the entire geographic range of the species found congruence in both types of markers, identifying four clusters: 1) West/Central Africa, 2) East Africa, 3) Southern Africa and 4) India. This is not in line with the current taxonomy, as defined by the IUCN, which only recognizes an African and an Asiatic subspecies. There are no indications that genetic diversity in West/Central Africa lions is lower than in either East or Southern Africa, however, given this genetic distinction and the recent declines of lion numbers in this region, we strongly recommend prioritization of conservation projects in West/Central Africa. As the current taxonomic nomenclature does not reflect the evolutionary history of the lion, we suggest that a taxonomic revision of the lion is warranted. PMID:26466139

  2. Autosomal and mtDNA Markers Affirm the Distinctiveness of Lions in West and Central Africa.

    PubMed

    Bertola, Laura D; Tensen, Laura; van Hooft, Pim; White, Paula A; Driscoll, Carlos A; Henschel, Philipp; Caragiulo, Anthony; Dias-Freedman, Isabela; Sogbohossou, Etotépé A; Tumenta, Pricelia N; Jirmo, Tuqa H; de Snoo, Geert R; de Iongh, Hans H; Vrieling, Klaas

    2015-01-01

    The evolutionary history of a species is key for understanding the taxonomy and for the design of effective management strategies for species conservation. The knowledge about the phylogenetic position of the lion (Panthera leo) in West/Central Africa is largely based on mitochondrial markers. Previous studies using mtDNA only have shown this region to hold a distinct evolutionary lineage. In addition, anthropogenic factors have led to a strong decline in West/Central African lion numbers, thus, the conservation value of these populations is particularly high. Here, we investigate whether autosomal markers are concordant with previously described phylogeographic patterns, and confirm the unique position of the West/Central African lion. Analysis of 20 microsatellites and 1,454 bp of the mitochondrial DNA in 16 lion populations representing the entire geographic range of the species found congruence in both types of markers, identifying four clusters: 1) West/Central Africa, 2) East Africa, 3) Southern Africa and 4) India. This is not in line with the current taxonomy, as defined by the IUCN, which only recognizes an African and an Asiatic subspecies. There are no indications that genetic diversity in West/Central Africa lions is lower than in either East or Southern Africa, however, given this genetic distinction and the recent declines of lion numbers in this region, we strongly recommend prioritization of conservation projects in West/Central Africa. As the current taxonomic nomenclature does not reflect the evolutionary history of the lion, we suggest that a taxonomic revision of the lion is warranted. PMID:26466139

  3. Characteristics of water erosion and conservation practice in arid regions of Central Asia: Xinjiang Province, China as an example

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Located in the inland arid area of central Asia and northwest China, Xinjiang is recently getting more concerns on soil water erosion issues, which is highly related with the sustainable utilization of barren soil and limited water resources. Historical soil erosion data were analyzed to determine t...

  4. Seasonal Contribution of Mineral Dust and Otlher Major Components to Particulate Matter at Two Remote Sites in Central Asia

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dust storms are significant contributors to ambient levels of particulate matter (PM) in many areas of the world. Central Asia, an area that is relatively understudied in this regard, is anticipated to be affected by dust storms due to its proximity to several major deserts that ...

  5. Wound response and ROS production in blue mold resistant wild apple germplasm from Kazakhstan and central Asia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blue mold caused by Penicillium expansum is the most destructive pathogen of stored apples in the US and worldwide. It was recently shown that resistance to blue mold exists in wild apples, Malus sieversii, from Kazakhstan and central Asia maintained in a germplasm collection in Geneva, NY. We ini...

  6. The Search for Quality: A Five Country Study of National Strategies to Improve Educational Quality in Central Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, D.W.; Weidman, J.; Cohen, M.; Mercer, M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative analysis of the strategies employed over the last decade by governments of five Central Asia republics-Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan-to raise educational quality at the primary and secondary levels. Data are drawn from a 2002 cross-national study sponsored by the Asian…

  7. Overview of the Higher Education Systems in the Tempus Partner Countries: Central Asia. A Tempus Study. Issue 05

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruffio, Philippe; Heinamaki, Piia; Tchoukaline, Claire Chastang; Manthey, Anja; Reichboth, Veronika

    2011-01-01

    The main aim of the Tempus programme is to support the modernisation of higher education in Partner Countries outside the European Union. The targeted regions include Eastern Europe, Central Asia, Western Balkans and the Southern Mediterranean, with a total of 29 Partner Countries participating in the programme. In the field of cooperation in…

  8. CD4+ T cell recovery during suppression of HIV replication: an international comparison of the immunological efficacy of antiretroviral therapy in North America, Asia and Africa

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Elvin H; Neilands, Torsten B; Thièbaut, Rodolphe; Bosco Bwana, Mwebesa; Nash, Denis; Moore, Richard D; Wood, Robin; Marcel Zannou, Djimon; Althoff, Keri N; Lian Lim, Poh; Nachega, Jean B; Easterbrook, Philippa J; Kambugu, Andrew; Little, Francesca; Nakigozi, Gertrude; Nakanjako, Damalie; Kiggundu, Valerian; Chung Ki Li, Patrick; Bangsberg, David R; Fox, Matthew P; Prozesky, Hans W; Hunt, Peter W; Davies, Mary-Ann; Reynolds, Steven J; Egger, Matthias; Yiannoutsos, Constantin T; Vittinghoff, Eric V; Deeks, Steven G; Martin, Jeffrey N

    2015-01-01

    Background: Even among HIV-infected patients who fully suppress plasma HIV RNA replication on antiretroviral therapy, genetic (e.g. CCL3L1 copy number), viral (e.g. tropism) and environmental (e.g. chronic exposure to microbial antigens) factors influence CD4 recovery. These factors differ markedly around the world and therefore the expected CD4 recovery during HIV RNA suppression may differ globally. Methods: We evaluated HIV-infected adults from North America, West Africa, East Africa, Southern Africa and Asia starting non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based regimens containing efavirenz or nevirapine, who achieved at least one HIV RNA level <500/µl in the first year of therapy and observed CD4 changes during HIV RNA suppression. We used a piecewise linear regression to estimate the influence of region of residence on CD4 recovery, adjusting for socio-demographic and clinical characteristics. We observed 28 217 patients from 105 cohorts over 37 825 person-years. Results: After adjustment, patients from East Africa showed diminished CD4 recovery as compared with other regions. Three years after antiretroviral therapy initiation, the mean CD4 count for a prototypical patient with a pre-therapy CD4 count of 150/µl was 529/µl [95% confidence interval (CI): 517–541] in North America, 494/µl (95% CI: 429–559) in West Africa, 515/µl (95% CI: 508–522) in Southern Africa, 503/µl (95% CI: 478–528) in Asia and 437/µl (95% CI: 425–449) in East Africa. Conclusions: CD4 recovery during HIV RNA suppression is diminished in East Africa as compared with other regions of the world, and observed differences are large enough to potentially influence clinical outcomes. Epidemiological analyses on a global scale can identify macroscopic effects unobservable at the clinical, national or individual regional level. PMID:25859596

  9. Rural Development in Africa: A Bibliography. (Part I: General, Central, East). Training & Methods Series Number 16 (Supplement), March 1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Teresa, Comp.; Strey, Gerry, Comp.

    A supplement to the bibliography of materials dealing with Africa in the Land Tenure Center Library at the University of Wisconsin, this bibliography on rural development in Africa is divided into three major sections as follows: (1) General (400 entries); (2) Central Africa including a general section (2 entries); Cameroon (26 entries); Central…

  10. The Navruz Project: Transboundary Monitoring for Radionuclides and Metals in Central Asia Rivers

    SciTech Connect

    PASSELL, HOWARD D.; BARBER, DAVID S.; BETSILL, J. DAVID; LITTLEFIELD, ADRIANE C.; MOHAGHEGHI, AMIR H.; SHANKS, SONOYA T.; YULDASHEV, BEKHZAD; SALIKHBAEV, UMAR; RADYUK, RAISA; DJURAEV, AKRAM; DJURAEV, ANWAR; VASILIEV, IVAN; TOLONGUTOV,BAJGABYL; VALENTINA,ALEKHINA; SOLODUKHIN,VLADIMIR; POZNIAK,VICTOR

    2002-04-02

    The transboundary nature of water resources demands a transboundary approach to their monitoring and management. However, transboundary water projects raise a challenging set of problems related to communication issues, and standardization of sampling, analysis and data management methods. This manual addresses those challenges and provides the information and guidance needed to perform the Navruz Project, a cooperative, transboundary, river monitoring project involving rivers and institutions in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan facilitated by Sandia National Laboratories in the U.S. The Navruz Project focuses on waterborne radionuclides and metals because of their importance to public health and nuclear materials proliferation concerns in the region. This manual provides guidelines for participants on sample and data collection, field equipment operations and procedures, sample handling, laboratory analysis, and data management. Also included are descriptions of rivers, sampling sites and parameters on which data are collected. Data obtained in this project are shared among all participating countries and the public through an internet web site and are available for use in further studies and in regional transboundary water resource management efforts. Overall, the project addresses three main goals: to help increase capabilities in Central Asian nations for sustainable water resources management; to provide a scientific basis for supporting nuclear transparency and non-proliferation in the region; and to help reduce the threat of conflict in Central Asia over water resources, proliferation concerns, or other factors.

  11. Remote climate drivers as predictors of precipitation in data sparse regions, an example from Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, Samuel G.; Wilby, Robert L.

    2016-04-01

    It is widely understood that hydrologic variables, such as precipitation and stream flow can be significantly influenced by large scale atmospheric circulation patterns. Global scale analysis of teleconnection patterns between remote large scale climate drivers (e.g. ENSO) and hydrologic variables has highlighted the potential for forecasting precipitation anomalies (Dai and Wigley, 2000). Detailed analysis at smaller spatial scales is required to determine the strength of relationships at the catchment scale. These relationships have significant potential for regions with sparse ground based monitoring networks, such as Central Asia. However, sparse observations hinder the determination of relationships between remote climate drivers and patterns of precipitation. The area based nature of remotely sensed precipitation estimates can combat this problem allowing precipitation patterns to be understood at relatively high spatial and temporal scales. Using Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation estimates, correlation patterns are determined between several remote climate drivers (ENSO, NAO and South Asian Monsoon) and Central Asian precipitation. Preliminary analysis has shown statistically significant negative correlations between Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) and winter precipitation over the headwaters of the Amu Darya (Pamir Mountains, Tajikistan). Introducing a lag interval of up to six months increases correlations across Tajikistan, as well as introducing statistically significant correlations over the headwaters of the Syr Darya (Tien Shan Mountains, Kyrgyzstan). These findings open promising avenues for exploration, including the potential to use remote climate drivers as predictors for seasonal flow forecasting.

  12. Central obesity and risk of cardiovascular disease in the Asia Pacific Region.

    PubMed

    2006-01-01

    This paper compares body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist-hip ratio as risk factors for ischaemic heart disease and stroke in Asia Pacific populations. We undertook a pooled analysis involving six cohort studies (45 988 participants) and used Cox proportional hazards regression to assess the associations of the four anthropometric indices with stroke and ischaemic heart disease by age, sex and region. During a mean follow-up of six years, 346 stroke and 601 ischaemic heart disease events (fatal and non-fatal) were documented. Overall, a one-standard deviation increase in index was associated with an increase in risk of ischaemic heart disease of 17% (95% CI 7-27%) for body mass index, 27% (95% CI 14-40%) for waist circumference, 10% (95% CI 1-20%) for hip circumference, and 36% (95% CI 21-52%) for waist-hip ratio. There were no significant differences between age groups, sex, and region. None of the four anthropometric indices had a strong association with risk of stroke. These data indicate that measures of central obesity such as waist circumference and waist-hip ratio are strongly associated with risk of ischaemic heart disease in this region. Therefore, we suggest that, along with calculation of body mass index, measures of central obesity such as waist circumference and waist-hip ratio should be undertaken routinely. PMID:16837418

  13. Structural Mapping of Folded Sedimentary Environments from Satellite Images: an Example from Central Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leith, W.

    1985-01-01

    In the Tadjik Depression, in Soviet Central Asia, in the absence of existing geologic or topographic maps, an enhanced LANDSAT multispectral scanner image was used in combination with field data to produce a 1:250000 geologic map of the Vakhsh fold-and-thrust belt and adjacent autochthon. Several structural conclusions are reached as a result of this mapping. Deformation of the Cretaceous and Tertiary strata of the fold-and-thrust belt is, in the central Tadjik Depression, conspicuously absent north of a buried basement fault that marks the hinge-zone of the Late Mesozoic passive margin. But, in the eastern half of the depression, thrusting has moved coherent sheets northward, over the block fault, these sheets now lie flat atop the autochthon to the north. The crustal structure inherited from the Mesozoic extensional phase has strongly influenced the Late Cenozoic pattern of deformation, producing the fold-and-thrust belt that is markedly asymmetric. The development of the thrust system has included the progressive overlapping of thrust: the later thrusts apparently formed internal to the older thrusts, and subsequently overrode them.

  14. Capacity building and predictors of success for HIV-1 drug resistance testing in the Asia-Pacific region and Africa

    PubMed Central

    Land, Sally; Zhou, Julian; Cunningham, Philip; Sohn, Annette H; Singtoroj, Thida; Katzenstein, David; Mann, Marita; Sayer, David; Kantor, Rami

    2013-01-01

    Background The TREAT Asia Quality Assessment Scheme (TAQAS) was developed as a quality assessment programme through expert education and training, for laboratories in the Asia-Pacific and Africa that perform HIV drug-resistance (HIVDR) genotyping. We evaluated the programme performance and factors associated with high-quality HIVDR genotyping. Methods Laboratories used their standard protocols to test panels of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive plasma samples or electropherograms. Protocols were documented and performance was evaluated according to a newly developed scoring system, agreement with panel-specific consensus sequence, and detection of drug-resistance mutations (DRMs) and mixtures of wild-type and resistant virus (mixtures). High-quality performance was defined as detection of ≥95% DRMs. Results Over 4.5 years, 23 participating laboratories in 13 countries tested 45 samples (30 HIV-1 subtype B; 15 non-B subtypes) in nine panels. Median detection of DRMs was 88–98% in plasma panels and 90–97% in electropherogram panels. Laboratories were supported to amend and improve their test outcomes as appropriate. Three laboratories that detected <80% DRMs in early panels demonstrated subsequent improvement. Sample complexity factors – number of DRMs (p<0.001) and number of DRMs as mixtures (p<0.001); and laboratory performance factors – detection of mixtures (p<0.001) and agreement with consensus sequence (p<0.001), were associated with high performance; sample format (plasma or electropherogram), subtype and genotyping protocol were not. Conclusion High-quality HIVDR genotyping was achieved in the TAQAS collaborative laboratory network. Sample complexity and detection of mixtures were associated with performance quality. Laboratories conducting HIVDR genotyping are encouraged to participate in quality assessment programmes. PMID:23845227

  15. Central Africa Energy: Utilizing NASA Earth Observations to Explore Flared Gas as an Energy Source Alternative to Biomass in Central Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Amber; White, Charles; Castillo, Christopher; Hitimana, Emmanuel; Nguyen, Kenny; Mishra, Shikher; Clark, Walt

    2014-01-01

    Much of Central Africa's economy is centered on oil production. Oil deposits lie below vast amounts of compressed natural gas. The latter is often flared off during oil extraction due to a lack of the infrastructure needed to utilize it for productive energy generation. Though gas flaring is discouraged by many due to its contributions to greenhouse emissions, it represents a waste process and is rarely tracked or recorded in this region. In contrast to this energy waste, roughly 80% of Africa's population lacks access to electricity and in turn uses biomass such as wood for heat and light. In addition to the dangers incurred from collecting and using biomass, the practice commonly leads to ecological change through the acquisition of wood from forests surrounding urban areas. The objective of this project was to gain insight on domestic energy usage in Central Africa, specifically Angola, Gabon, and the Republic of Congo. This was done through an analysis of deforestation, an estimation of gas flared, and a suitability study for the infrastructure needed to realize the natural gas resources. The energy from potential natural gas production was compared to the energy equivalent of the biomass being harvested. A site suitability study for natural gas pipeline routes from flare sites to populous locations was conducted to assess the feasibility of utilizing natural gas for domestic energy needs. Analyses and results were shared with project partners, as well as this project's open source approach to assessing the energy sector. Ultimately, Africa's growth demands energy for its people, and natural gas is already being produced by the flourishing petroleum industry in numerous African countries. By utilizing this gas, Africa could reduce flaring, recuperate the financial and environmental loss that flaring accounts for, and unlock a plentiful domestic energy source for its people. II. Introduction Background Africa is home to numerous burgeoning economies; a

  16. Chlamydia trachomatis Infection in Pregnancy: The Global Challenge of Preventing Adverse Pregnancy and Infant Outcomes in Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Kristina; Nielsen-Saines, Karin; Klausner, Jeffrey D

    2016-01-01

    Screening and treatment of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in pregnancy represents an overlooked opportunity to improve the health outcomes of women and infants worldwide. Although Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common treatable bacterial STI, few countries have routine pregnancy screening and treatment programs. We reviewed the current literature surrounding Chlamydia trachomatis in pregnancy, particularly focusing on countries in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. We discuss possible chlamydial adverse pregnancy and infant health outcomes (miscarriage, stillbirth, ectopic pregnancy, preterm birth, neonatal conjunctivitis, neonatal pneumonia, and other potential effects including HIV perinatal transmission) and review studies of chlamydial screening and treatment in pregnancy, while simultaneously highlighting research from resource-limited countries in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. PMID:27144177

  17. Chlamydia trachomatis Infection in Pregnancy: The Global Challenge of Preventing Adverse Pregnancy and Infant Outcomes in Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia

    PubMed Central

    Adachi, Kristina; Nielsen-Saines, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Screening and treatment of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in pregnancy represents an overlooked opportunity to improve the health outcomes of women and infants worldwide. Although Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common treatable bacterial STI, few countries have routine pregnancy screening and treatment programs. We reviewed the current literature surrounding Chlamydia trachomatis in pregnancy, particularly focusing on countries in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. We discuss possible chlamydial adverse pregnancy and infant health outcomes (miscarriage, stillbirth, ectopic pregnancy, preterm birth, neonatal conjunctivitis, neonatal pneumonia, and other potential effects including HIV perinatal transmission) and review studies of chlamydial screening and treatment in pregnancy, while simultaneously highlighting research from resource-limited countries in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. PMID:27144177

  18. Aerosol optical depth over central north Asia based on MODIS-Aqua data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avgousta Foutsi, Athina; Korras Carraca, Marios Bruno; Matsoukas, Christos; Biskos, George

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric aerosols, both natural and anthropogenic, can affect the regional and global climate through their direct, indirect, and semi-direct effects on the radiative energy budget of the Earth-atmosphere system. To quantify these effects it is important to determine the aerosol load, and an effective way to do that is by measuring the aerosol optical depth (AOD). The central Asia region (mainly the Caspian and Aral sea basins), the arid and semi-arid regions of Western China as well as Siberia are of great interest due to the significant natural sources of mineral aerosols originating from local deserts and biomass burning from wildfires in boreal forests. What is of particular interest in the region is the phenomenal shrinking and desertification of the Aral Sea that drives an intense salt and dust transport from the exposed sea-bed to the surrounding regions with important implications in regional air quality. Anthropogenic particles are also observed due to fossil-fuel combustion occurring mainly at oil refineries in the Caspian Sea basin. Here we investigate the spatial and temporal variability of the AOD at 550 nm over central Asia, Siberia and western China, in the region located between 35° N - 65° N and 45° E - 110° E. For our analysis we use Level-3 daily MODIS - Aqua Dark Target - Deep Blue combined product, from the latest collection (006), available in a 1°×1° resolution (ca. 100 km × 100 km) over the period 2002-2014. Our results indicate a significant spatial variability of the aerosol load over the study region. The highest AODs are observed over the Aral Sea year-round, with extreme values reaching 2.1 during July. In the rest of our study region a clear seasonal cycle with highest AOD values (up to 1.2 over the Taklamakan Desert) during spring and summer is observed. The arid parts of central north Asia are characterized by larger aerosol loads during spring, lower but still high AOD in summer and much lower values in autumn and spring

  19. Isotopic evidences of groundwater circulation in the Kaidu River, South Tianshan Mountains, Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    FAN, Yuting; Métivier, François; Chen, Yaning; He, Qing; Wang, Yun

    2015-04-01

    Water demand always exceeds supply in many parts of the world, especially in the arid and semi-arid regions. Groundwater is the primary input to hydrological systems like surface water bodies in polar and high mountain regions. A reasonable application of water isotopes requires a good understanding of the isotopic fractionation in processes controlling the isotopic composition of surface water and groundwater. Through the review of published papers, we find there is still scope for improving the understanding of groundwater isotopes: (1) quite few studies on groundwater circulation via kinetic fractionation of stable isotopes in the arid region of Central Asia; (2) several shortcomings on the quantitative assessment of water recycling for mountain-plain area. Tianshan Mountains, located in Xinjiang Province, is always called water tower in Central Asia and play an important role in the water cycle. In this paper, we implemented hydro-chemical index and Stable isotope mass balance method to study transformation of groundwater with surface water and to quantify recharge proportion between water bodies of typical regions. As a first step towards quantifying the contribution of groundwater, three-component mixing model of Kaidu River Basin into its constituent components has been done. Chemistry type of headstreams in this basin is mainly Ca-Mg-HCO3, while major ions and salinity of surface water show an increasing trend with the water rising time, which could be attributable to significant features of surface water evaporation and concentration. After that chemistry type of oasis-plain area in the basin is mainly Ca-HCO3-CO4. Groundwater recharge ratio was processed via spatial scale, it is only about 15% in upstream areas, while it accounted for 45% or more in the middle and lower reaches. Two groundwater recharge districts were divided according to the distribution characteristics of surface water. The first recharge district is from mountain area with spring

  20. Seasonal dynamics of threshold friction velocity and dust emission in Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, Xin; Sokolik, Irina N.

    2015-02-01

    An improved model representation of mineral dust cycle is critical to reducing the uncertainty of dust-induced environmental and climatic impact. Here we present a mesoscale model study of the seasonal dust activity in the semiarid drylands of Central Asia, focusing on the effects of wind speed, soil moisture, surface roughness heterogeneity, and vegetation phenology on the threshold friction velocity (u*t) and dust emission during the dust season of 1 March to 31 October 2001. The dust model WRF-Chem-DuMo allows us to examine the uncertainties in seasonal dust emissions due to the selection of dust emission scheme and soil grain size distribution data. To account for the vegetation effects on the u*t, we use the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer monthly normalized difference vegetation index to derive the dynamic surface roughness parameters required by the physically based dust schemes of Marticorena and Bergametti (1995, hereinafter MB) and Shao et al. (1996, hereinafter Shao). We find the springtime u*t is strongly enhanced by the roughness effects of temperate steppe and desert ephemeral plants and, to less extent, the binding effects of increased soil moisture. The u*t decreases as the aboveground biomass dies back and soil moisture depletes during summer. The u*t dynamics determines the dust seasonality by causing more summer dust emission, despite a higher frequency of strong winds during spring. Due to the presence of more erodible materials in the saltation diameter range of 60-200 µm, the dry-sieved soil size distribution data lead to eight times more season-total dust emission than the soil texture data, but with minor differences in the temporal distribution. On the other hand, the Shao scheme produces almost the same amount of season-total dust emission as the MB scheme, but with a strong shift toward summer due to the strong sensitivity of the u*t to vegetation. By simply averaging the MB and Shao model experiments, we obtain a mean

  1. Mass spectrometric U-series dating of Huanglong Cave in Hubei Province, Central China: evidence for early presence of modern humans in Eastern Asia.

    PubMed

    Shen, Guanjun; Wu, Xianzhu; Wang, Qian; Tu, Hua; Feng, Yue-xing; Zhao, Jian-xin

    2013-08-01

    Most researchers believe that anatomically modern humans (AMH) first appeared in Africa 160-190 ka ago, and would not have reached eastern Asia until ∼50 ka ago. However, the credibility of these scenarios might have been compromised by a largely inaccurate and compressed chronological framework previously established for hominin fossils found in China. Recently there has been a growing body of evidence indicating the possible presence of AMH in eastern Asia ca. 100 ka ago or even earlier. Here we report high-precision mass spectrometric U-series dating of intercalated flowstone samples from Huanglong Cave, a recently discovered Late Pleistocene hominin site in northern Hubei Province, central China. Systematic excavations there have led to the in situ discovery of seven hominin teeth and dozens of stone and bone artifacts. The U-series dates on localized thin flowstone formations bracket the hominin specimens between 81 and 101 ka, currently the most narrow time span for all AMH beyond 45 ka in China, if the assignment of the hominin teeth to modern Homo sapiens holds. Alternatively this study provides further evidence for the early presence of an AMH morphology in China, through either independent evolution of local archaic populations or their assimilation with incoming AMH. Along with recent dating results for hominin samples from Homo erectus to AMH, a new extended and continuous timeline for Chinese hominin fossils is taking shape, which warrants a reconstruction of human evolution, especially the origins of modern humans in eastern Asia. PMID:23870460

  2. Evolutionary history and dynamics of dog rabies virus in western and central Africa.

    PubMed

    Talbi, Chiraz; Holmes, Edward C; de Benedictis, Paola; Faye, Ousmane; Nakouné, Emmanuel; Gamatié, Djibo; Diarra, Abass; Elmamy, Bezeid Ould; Sow, Adama; Adjogoua, Edgard Valery; Sangare, Oumou; Dundon, William G; Capua, Ilaria; Sall, Amadou A; Bourhy, Hervé

    2009-04-01

    The burden of rabies in Africa is estimated at 24,000 human deaths year(-1), almost all of which result from infection with dog rabies viruses (RABV). To investigate the evolutionary dynamics of RABV in western and central Africa, 92 isolates sampled from 27 African countries over 29 years were collected and sequenced. This revealed that RABV currently circulating in dogs in this region fell into a single lineage designated 'Africa 2'. A detailed analysis of the phylogeographical structure of this Africa 2 lineage revealed strong population subdivision at the country level, with only limited movement of virus among localities, including a possible east-to-west spread across Africa. In addition, Bayesian coalescent analysis suggested that the Africa 2 lineage was introduced into this region of Africa only recently (probably <200 years ago), in accordance with the timescale of expanding European colonial influence and urbanization, and then spread relatively slowly, perhaps occupying the entire region in a 100 year period. PMID:19264663

  3. Regional fire monitoring and characterization using global NASA MODIS fire products in dry lands of Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loboda, Tatiana V.; Giglio, Louis; Boschetti, Luigi; Justice, Christopher O.

    2012-06-01

    Central Asian dry lands are grass- and desert shrub-dominated ecosystems stretching across Northern Eurasia. This region supports a population of more than 100 million which continues to grow at an average rate of 1.5% annually. Dry steppes are the primary grain and cattle growing zone within Central Asia. Degradation of this ecosystem through burning and overgrazing directly impacts economic growth and food supply in the region. Fire is a recurrent disturbance agent in dry lands contributing to soil erosion and air pollution. Here we provide an overview of inter-annual and seasonal fire dynamics in Central Asia obtained from remotely sensed data. We evaluate the accuracy of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) global fire products within Central Asian dry lands and use these products to characterize fire occurrence between 2001 and 2009. The results show that on average ˜15 million ha of land burns annually across Central Asia with the majority of the area burned in August and September in grasslands. Fire is used as a common crop residue management practice across the region. Nearly 89% of all burning occurs in Kazakhstan, where 5% and 3% of croplands and grasslands, respectively, are burned annually.

  4. Characteristics of fine particle carbonaceous aerosol at two remote sites in Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller-Schulze, Justin P.; Shafer, Martin M.; Schauer, James J.; Solomon, Paul A.; Lantz, Jeffrey; Artamonova, Maria; Chen, Boris; Imashev, Sanjar; Sverdlik, Leonid; Carmichael, Greg R.; Deminter, Jeff T.

    2011-12-01

    Central Asia is a relatively understudied region of the world in terms of characterizing ambient particulate matter (PM) and quantifying source impacts of PM at receptor locations, although it is speculated to have an important role as a source region for long-range transport of PM to Eastern Asia, the Pacific Ocean, and the Western United States. PM is of significant interest not only because of its adverse effect on public health but also due to its more recently realized role in climate change. To investigate the sources and characteristics of PM in the region, a series of PM 2.5 and PM 10 samples were collected on an every-other-day basis at two sites (termed "Bishkek" and "Teploklyuchenka") in the Central Asian nation of the Kyrgyz Republic (also known as Kyrgyzstan) for a full year from July 2008 to July 2009. These samples were analyzed using standard methods for mass, organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), water-insoluble organic carbon by difference (OC minus WSOC) and a variety of molecular marker chemical species to be used in a chemical mass balance (CMB) model to apportion the sources of OC. These analyses indicate that approximately 19 ± 6.4% of the PM 2.5 mass at both sites throughout the year consists of OC. The carbonaceous component of PM 2.5 is dominated by OC, with OC/Total Carbon (TC) ratios being around 0.8 in the winter to almost 0.95 in the summer months. The CMB analysis indicated that mobile sources, i.e., gasoline and diesel engine exhaust, biomass combustion, and biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from isoprene and α-pinene precursors in the summer months were the dominant sources of OC. A strong positive correlation was observed between non-biomass burning WSOC and the un-apportioned OC from the CMB analysis, indicating that some of this un-apportioned OC is WSOC and likely the result of SOA-forming atmospheric processes that were not estimated by the CMB analysis performed. In

  5. Mountain building processes in intracontinental oblique deformation belts: Lessons from the Gobi Corridor, Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Dickson

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the Quaternary-Recent deformation field and mountain building processes within the Gobi Corridor region of Central Asia, which includes the North Tibetan foreland, Beishan, Gobi Altai and easternmost Tien Shan. The region can be considered the ‘soft core' of Central Asia which has been reactivated due to the continuing Indo-Eurasia collision to the south. Favourable preconditions for reactivation of Gobi Corridor basement include a mechanically weak Palaeozoic terrane collage sandwiched between rigid Precambrian basement blocks to the north and south, thermally weakened crust due to Jurassic-Miocene volcanism and widespread Palaeozoic-Mesozoic granitic magmatism with associated high radiogenic heat production, and crustal thinning due to widespread Cretaceous rift basin development. The network of Quaternary-Recent faults within the entire region defines a diffuse sinistral transpressional deformation field that has generated a transpressional basin and range physiographic province. Typically, thrust and oblique-slip thrust faults are WNW-striking and reactivate basement faults and fabrics, whereas left-lateral strike-slip faults are ENE-striking and cut across basement trends. The angular relationship between SHmax and pre-existing basement structural trends is the fundamental control on the kinematics of Late Cenozoic deformation. Along-strike and across-strike growth and coalescence of restraining bends, other transpressional ranges and thrust ridges is an important mountain building process. Thrust faults throughout the region are both NNE and SSW directed and thus there is no common structural vergence, nor orogenic foreland or hinterland. Root structures appear to be vertical faults, not low-angle decollements and flower structure fault geometries within individual ranges are common. Published earthquake and geodetic data are consistent with a diffusely deforming continental interior region with tectonic loading shared

  6. Will Climate Change Exacerbate or Mitigate Water Stress in Central Asia?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegfried, T. U.; Bernauer, T.; Guiennet, R.; Sellars, S. L.; Robertson, A. W.; Mankin, J.; Bauer-Gottwein, P.

    2010-12-01

    Millions of people in Central Asia depend on water from the region's snow and glacier melt driven rivers, most of all the Syr Darya and Amu Darya. Their riparian countries are involved in intense conflicts over scarce transboundary water ever since the Soviet Union collapsed. We report results from a new coupled climate-land ice-hydrological model for the Syr Darya to assess how water availability in Central Asia could be affected by a warming climate. The basin area is approximately 400'000 km^2 with an annual precipitation average of 320 mm and pronounced differences between the mountainous Tien Shan region (500 - 1500 mm), where the Syr Darya originates, and the low land steppes (100 - 200 mm). Annual runoff averages 39 km^3, approximately, with 80 percent occurring between March and September because of combined snow and glacier melt. The model is driven by two climate scenarios: a baseline scenario and a pronounced warming scenario based on the IPCC SRES A2 scenario. 50 year precipitation simulations were created using a Non-Homogeneous Hidden Markov model. For each of the subcatchments, the NHMM was trained on 10 years of daily Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission precipitation data from January 1st, 2000 to December 31st, 2009. Because of the large seasonal changes in precipitation within the Tien Shan region (winter/spring time rainy season versus summer time dry season), the NHMM relies on a predictor for generating a realistic seasonal distribution of precipitation. As for the low-frequency variation at decadal to multi-decadal scales, the idea was to develop stochastic scenarios via long-term proxies for regional climate (80 year runoff measurements in undisturbed catchments) that include low-frequency variations. A precipitation matching 50 years temperature time series was generated by statistical modeling. A Monte Carlo approach for creating 100 climate scenarios was utilized to account forcing uncertainty. Results suggest that under the likely warming

  7. Comparison of resistance to third-generation cephalosporins in Shigella between Europe-America and Asia-Africa from 1998 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Gu, B; Zhou, M; Ke, X; Pan, S; Cao, Y; Huang, Y; Zhuang, L; Liu, G; Tong, M

    2015-10-01

    We conducted a systematic review to compare resistance to third-generation cephalosporins (TGCs) in Shigella strains between Europe-America and Asia-Africa from 1998 to 2012 based on a literature search of computerized databases. In Asia-Africa, the prevalence of resistance of total and different subtypes to ceftriaxone, cefotaxime and ceftazidime increased markedly, with a total prevalence of resistance up to 14·2% [95% confidence interval (CI) 3·9-29·4], 22·6% (95% CI 4·8-48·6) and 6·2% (95% CI 3·8-9·1) during 2010-2012, respectively. By contrast, resistance rates to these TGCs in Europe-America remained relatively low--less than 1·0% during the 15 years. A noticeable finding was that certain countries both in Europe-America and Asia-Africa, had a rapid rising trend in the prevalence of resistance of S. sonnei, which even outnumbered S. flexneri in some periods. Moreover, comparison between countries showed that currently the most serious problem concerning resistance to these TGCs appeared in Vietnam, especially for ceftriaxone, China, especially for cefotaxime and Iran, especially for ceftazidime. These data suggest that monitoring of the drug resistance of Shigella strains should be strengthened and that rational use of antibiotics is required. PMID:25553947

  8. Forest refugia in Western and Central Africa as ‘museums’ of Mesozoic biodiversity

    PubMed Central

    Murienne, Jérôme; Benavides, Ligia R.; Prendini, Lorenzo; Hormiga, Gustavo; Giribet, Gonzalo

    2013-01-01

    The refugial speciation model, or ‘species pump’, is widely accepted in the context of tropical biogeography and has been advocated as an explanation for present species distributions in tropical Western and Central Africa. In order to test this hypothesis, a phylogeny of the cryptic arachnid order Ricinulei, based on four nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers, was inferred. This ancient clade of litter-dwelling arthropods, endemic to the primary forests of Western and Central Africa and the Neotropics, might provide insights into the mode and tempo of evolution in Africa. Twenty-six African ricinuleid specimens were sampled from eight countries spanning the distribution of Ricinulei on the continent, and analysed together with Neotropical samples plus other arachnid outgroups. The phylogenetic and molecular dating results suggest that Ricinulei diversified in association with the fragmentation of Gondwana. The early diversification of Ricinoides in Western and Central Africa around 88 (±33) Ma fits old palaeogeographical events better than recent climatic fluctuations. Unlike most recent molecular studies, these results agree with fossil evidence, suggesting that refugia may have acted as ‘museums’ conserving ancient diversity rather than as engines generating diversity during successive episodes of climatic fluctuation in Africa. PMID:23193047

  9. Population frequencies of the Triallelic 5HTTLPR in six Ethnicially diverse samples from North America, Southeast Asia, and Africa.

    PubMed

    Haberstick, Brett C; Smolen, Andrew; Williams, Redford B; Bishop, George D; Foshee, Vangie A; Thornberry, Terence P; Conger, Rand; Siegler, Ilene C; Zhang, Xiaodong; Boardman, Jason D; Frajzyngier, Zygmunt; Stallings, Michael C; Brent Donnellan, M; Halpern, Carolyn T; Harris, Kathleen Mullan

    2015-03-01

    Genetic differences between populations are potentially an important contributor to health disparities around the globe. As differences in gene frequencies influence study design, it is important to have a thorough understanding of the natural variation of the genetic variant(s) of interest. Along these lines, we characterized the variation of the 5HTTLPR and rs25531 polymorphisms in six samples from North America, Southeast Asia, and Africa (Cameroon) that differ in their racial and ethnic composition. Allele and genotype frequencies were determined for 24,066 participants. Results indicated higher frequencies of the rs25531 G-allele among Black and African populations as compared with White, Hispanic and Asian populations. Further, we observed a greater number of 'extra-long' ('XL') 5HTTLPR alleles than have previously been reported. Extra-long alleles occurred almost entirely among Asian, Black and Non-White Hispanic populations as compared with White and Native American populations where they were completely absent. Lastly, when considered jointly, we observed between sample differences in the genotype frequencies within racial and ethnic populations. Taken together, these data underscore the importance of characterizing the L-G allele to avoid misclassification of participants by genotype and for further studies of the impact XL alleles may have on the transcriptional efficiency of SLC6A4. PMID:25564228

  10. Comparisons of anemia, thrombocytopenia, and neutropenia at initiation of HIV antiretroviral therapy in Africa, Asia, and the Americas

    PubMed Central

    Firnhaber, Cynthia; Smeaton, Laura; Saukila, Nasinuku; Flanigan, Timothy; Gangakhedkar, Raman; Kumwenda, Johnstone; La Rosa, Alberto; Kumarasamy, Nagalingeswaran; De Gruttola, Victor; Hakim, James Gita; Campbell, Thomas B.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Background Hematological abnormalities are common manifestations of advanced HIV-1 infection that could affect the outcomes of highly-active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Although most HIV-1-infected individuals live in resource-constrained countries, there is little information about the frequency of hematological abnormalities such as anemia, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia among individuals with advanced HIV-1 disease. Methods This study compared the prevalence of pre-antiretroviral therapy hematological abnormalities among 1571 participants in a randomized trial of antiretroviral efficacy in Africa, Asia, South America, the Caribbean, and the USA. Potential covariates for anemia, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia were identified in univariate analyses and evaluated in separate multivariable models for each hematological condition. Results The frequencies of neutropenia (absolute neutrophil count ≤ 1.3 × 109/l), anemia (hemoglobin ≤ 10 g/dl), and thrombocytopenia (platelets ≤ 125 × 109/l) at initiation of antiretroviral therapy were 14%, 12%, and 7%, respectively, and varied by country (p < 0.0001 for each). In multivariable models, anemia was associated with gender, platelet count, and country; neutropenia was associated with CD4+ lymphocyte and platelet counts; and thrombocytopenia was associated with country, gender, and chronic hepatitis B infection. Conclusions Differences in the frequency of pretreatment hematological abnormalities could have important implications for the choice of antiretroviral regimen in resource-constrained settings. PMID:20961784

  11. Network analyses of Y-chromosomal types in Europe, northern Africa, and western Asia reveal specific patterns of geographic distribution.

    PubMed

    Malaspina, P; Cruciani, F; Ciminelli, B M; Terrenato, L; Santolamazza, P; Alonso, A; Banyko, J; Brdicka, R; García, O; Gaudiano, C; Guanti, G; Kidd, K K; Lavinha, J; Avila, M; Mandich, P; Moral, P; Qamar, R; Mehdi, S Q; Ragusa, A; Stefanescu, G; Caraghin, M; Tyler-Smith, C; Scozzari, R; Novelletto, A

    1998-09-01

    In a study of 908 males from Europe, northern Africa, and western Asia, the variation of four Y-linked dinucleotide microsatellites was analyzed within three "frames" that are defined by mutations that are nonrecurrent, or nearly so. The rapid generation and extinction of new dinucleotide length variants causes the haplotypes within each lineage to diverge from one another. We constructed networks of "adjacent" haplotypes within each frame, by assuming changes of a single dinucleotide unit. Two small and six large networks were obtained, the latter including 94.9% of the sampled Y chromosomes. We show that the phenetic relationships among haplotypes, represented as a network, result largely from common descent and subsequent molecular radiation. The grouping of haplotypes of the same network thus fits an evolutionarily relevant criterion. Notably, this method allows the total diversity within a sample to be partitioned. Networks can be considered optimal markers for population studies, because reliable frequency estimates can be obtained in small samples. We present synthetic maps describing the incidence of different Y-chromosomal lineages in the extant human populations of the surveyed areas. Dinucleotide diversity also was used to infer time intervals for the coalescence of each network. PMID:9718330

  12. Network analyses of Y-chromosomal types in Europe, northern Africa, and western Asia reveal specific patterns of geographic distribution.

    PubMed Central

    Malaspina, P; Cruciani, F; Ciminelli, B M; Terrenato, L; Santolamazza, P; Alonso, A; Banyko, J; Brdicka, R; García, O; Gaudiano, C; Guanti, G; Kidd, K K; Lavinha, J; Avila, M; Mandich, P; Moral, P; Qamar, R; Mehdi, S Q; Ragusa, A; Stefanescu, G; Caraghin, M; Tyler-Smith, C; Scozzari, R; Novelletto, A

    1998-01-01

    In a study of 908 males from Europe, northern Africa, and western Asia, the variation of four Y-linked dinucleotide microsatellites was analyzed within three "frames" that are defined by mutations that are nonrecurrent, or nearly so. The rapid generation and extinction of new dinucleotide length variants causes the haplotypes within each lineage to diverge from one another. We constructed networks of "adjacent" haplotypes within each frame, by assuming changes of a single dinucleotide unit. Two small and six large networks were obtained, the latter including 94.9% of the sampled Y chromosomes. We show that the phenetic relationships among haplotypes, represented as a network, result largely from common descent and subsequent molecular radiation. The grouping of haplotypes of the same network thus fits an evolutionarily relevant criterion. Notably, this method allows the total diversity within a sample to be partitioned. Networks can be considered optimal markers for population studies, because reliable frequency estimates can be obtained in small samples. We present synthetic maps describing the incidence of different Y-chromosomal lineages in the extant human populations of the surveyed areas. Dinucleotide diversity also was used to infer time intervals for the coalescence of each network. PMID:9718330

  13. Hepatitis B Virus and Hepatitis C Virus Infections in United States-Bound Refugees from Asia and Africa

    PubMed Central

    Mixson-Hayden, Tonya; Lee, Deborah; Ganova-Raeva, Lilia; Drobeniuc, Jan; Stauffer, William M.; Teshale, Eyasu; Kamili, Saleem

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of active hepatitis B and C virus infections among refugees from various countries in Africa and Asia. Pre-admission serum samples collected during 2002–2007 from refugees originating from Bhutan (N = 755), Myanmar (N = 1076), Iraq (N = 1137), Laos (N = 593), Thailand (N = 622), and Somalia (N = 707) were tested for hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA and hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA. The HBV DNA (genotypes A, B, C, and G) was detected in 12.1% of samples negative for anti-HBs. Highest HBV prevalence was found among Hmong; lowest among Bhutanese. The HCV RNA (genotypes 1a, 1b, 1c, 3b, 6n, and 6m) was detected in 1.3% of the samples. Highest HCV prevalence was found among Hmong from Thailand; lowest among Iraqis. Screening specific refugee groups at high risk for viral hepatitis infections will identify infected individuals who could benefit from referral to care and treatment and prevent further transmissions. PMID:24732462

  14. Hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infections in United States-bound refugees from Asia and Africa.

    PubMed

    Mixson-Hayden, Tonya; Lee, Deborah; Ganova-Raeva, Lilia; Drobeniuc, Jan; Stauffer, William M; Teshale, Eyasu; Kamili, Saleem

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of active hepatitis B and C virus infections among refugees from various countries in Africa and Asia. Pre-admission serum samples collected during 2002-2007 from refugees originating from Bhutan (N = 755), Myanmar (N = 1076), Iraq (N = 1137), Laos (N = 593), Thailand (N = 622), and Somalia (N = 707) were tested for hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA and hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA. The HBV DNA (genotypes A, B, C, and G) was detected in 12.1% of samples negative for anti-HBs. Highest HBV prevalence was found among Hmong; lowest among Bhutanese. The HCV RNA (genotypes 1a, 1b, 1c, 3b, 6n, and 6m) was detected in 1.3% of the samples. Highest HCV prevalence was found among Hmong from Thailand; lowest among Iraqis. Screening specific refugee groups at high risk for viral hepatitis infections will identify infected individuals who could benefit from referral to care and treatment and prevent further transmissions. PMID:24732462

  15. Correlates of and barriers to the utilization of health services for delivery in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Tey, Nai-Peng; Lai, Siow-li

    2013-01-01

    The high maternal and neonatal mortality rates in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa can be attributed to the lack of access and utilization of health services for delivery. Data from the Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Kenya, Nigeria, and Tanzania show that more than half of the births in these countries were delivered outside a health facility. Institutional delivery was closely associated with educational level, family wealth, place of residence, and women's media exposure status, but it was not influenced by women's work status and their roles in decision-making (with the exception of Nigeria). Controlling for other variables, higher parity and younger women were less likely to use a health facility for delivery. Within each country, the poorer, less educated and rural women had higher unmet need for maternal care services. Service related factors (accessibility in terms of cost and distance) and sociocultural factors (e.g., did not perceive the need for the services and objections from husband and family) also posed as barriers to institutional delivery. The paper concludes with some suggestions to increase institutional delivery. PMID:24288482

  16. Tidal loading along a profile Europe-East Africa-South Asia-Australia and the Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melchior, P.; Moens, M.; Ducarme, B.; van Ruymbeke, M.

    1981-04-01

    Precision measurements of earth tides along a profile stretching from Europe to Polynesia through East Africa, Asia and Australia are used to characterize ocean tides in different basins and thus provide a check on proposed cotidal maps. Ocean tide information was extracted from tidal gravity profiles made with correctly intercalibrated gravimeters at 91 tidal gravity stations by the subtraction of electric earth tide model vectors from the observed tidal vector. Analysis of possible instrumental errors due to calibration, thermal, barometric and power supply interruption effects indicates the data observed at a level of 0.5 microgal cannot be ascribed to computational or instrumental errors. Calculations of the ocean load and attraction signal obtained from the earth tide measurements are observed to be in very good agreement with those obtained from the cotidal maps of Schwiderski (1979, 1980) for satellite altimetry reductions for the diurnal components of the tides, however, less satisfactory agreement is observed in some large areas for the semi-diurnal components. The maps of Hendershott (1973) and Parke (1979) are also found to provide good results in several large areas, but not everywhere. Regions where a more detailed investigation is required are indicated, including Iran-Pakistan, Malaysia, the South China Sea and the South Pacific.

  17. POPULATION FREQUENCIES OF THE TRIALLELIC 5HTTLPR IN SIX ETHNICIALLY DIVERSE SAMPLES FROM NORTH AMERICA, SOUTHEAST ASIA, AND AFRICA

    PubMed Central

    Haberstick, Brett C.; Smolen, Andrew; Williams, Redford B.; Bishop, George D.; Foshee, Vangie A.; Thornberry, Terence P; Conger, Rand; Siegler, Ilene C.; Zhang, Xiaodong; Boardman, Jason D; Frajzyngier, Zygmunt; Stallings, Michael C.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Halpern, Carolyn T.; Harris, Kathleen Mullan

    2015-01-01

    Genetic differences between populations are a potentially an important contributor to health disparities around the globe. As differences in gene frequencies influence study design, it is important to have a thorough understanding of the natural variation of the genetic variant(s) of interest. Along these lines, we characterized the variation of the 5HTTLPR and rs25531 polymorphisms in six samples from North America, Southeast Asia, and Africa (Cameroon) that differ in their racial and ethnic composition. Allele and genotype frequencies were determined for 24,066 participants. Results indicated higher frequencies of the rs25531 G-allele among Black and African populations as compared with White, Hispanic and Asian populations. Further, we observed a greater number of ‘extra-long’ (‘XL’) 5HTTLPR alleles than have previously been reported. Extra-long alleles occurred almost entirely among Asian, Black and Non-White Hispanic populations as compared with White and Native American populations where they were completely absent. Lastly, when considered jointly, we observed between sample differences in the genotype frequencies within racial and ethnic populations. Taken together, these data underscore the importance of characterizing the L-G allele to avoid misclassification of participants by genotype and for further studies of the impact XL alleles may have on the transcriptional efficiency of SLC6A4. PMID:25564228

  18. Plio-Pleistocene changes in the vegetation of central North Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castaneda, I. S.; Phu, V.; Urann, B.

    2013-12-01

    The area of central North Africa (including the Sahara and the Sahel) is sensitive to migrations of the intertropical rainbelt and has experienced dramatic, and possibly abrupt, shifts between wet and arid conditions in the past. For example, during the humid period of the early Holocene, the region that is presently the Sahara desert was vegetated and contained permanent lakes, and was occupied by human populations (e.g. Kuper and Kröpelin, 2006). In this study, we investigate the hydrology of central North Africa during the Plio-Pleistocene (4-0.5 Ma), a period during which a number of key steps in hominin evolution occurred. ODP site 660 is located in the tropical NE Atlantic Ocean (offshore West Africa) and receives dust from central North Africa, which is transported offshore by the African Easterly Jet. Plant leaf waxes (n-alkanes) contained in this dust provide information on the type of vegetation present , which in turn, can be used to examine hydrological variability because in tropical Africa the large scale distribution of vegetation utilizing the C3 (mainly trees) vs. C4 (grasses and warm season sedges) photosynthetic pathways mainly depends on aridity (precipitation) (e.g. Schefuss et al., 2003). Here, we examine the carbon (δ13C) and deuterium (δD) isotopic composition of plant leaf waxes, proxies for vegetation type (C3 vs. C4 plants) and precipitation amount, respectively. We also examine sea surface temperature variability using the alkenone Uk'37 Index as several studies have demonstrated close ties between sea surface temperature variability and hydrological conditions in N Africa during the late Pleistocene and Holocene. Results of this study further support a close link between SST and hydrological conditions in the Sahel during the past 4 Ma while also highlighting regional differences in aridity between Plio-Pleistocene records of western, eastern and southern Africa.

  19. Preaxial polydactyly of the foot: variable expression of trisomy 13 in a case from central Africa.

    PubMed

    Mbuyi-Musanzayi, Sébastien; Lumaka, Aimé; Yogolelo Asani, Bienvenu; Lubala Kasole, Toni; Lukusa Tshilobo, Prosper; Kalenga Muenze, Prosper; Tshilombo Katombe, François; Devriendt, Koenraad

    2014-01-01

    Trisomy 13 is a chromosomal disorder characterized by a severe clinical picture of multiple congenital anomalies. We here describe the clinical and genetic features and prognosis observed in a newborn with trisomy 13 from Central Africa. He presented the rare feature of preaxial polydactyly of the feet. PMID:25254124

  20. Overcoming data scarcity: Seasonal forecasting of reservoir inflows using public domain resources in Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, Samuel G.; Wilby, Robert L.

    2016-04-01

    Management of large hydropower reservoirs can be politically and strategically problematic. Traditional flow forecasting techniques rely on accurate ground based observations, a requirement not met in many areas of the globe (Artan et al., 2007). In particular, access to real-time observational data in transnational river basins is often not possible. In these regions, novel techniques are required to combat the challenges of flow forecasting for efficient reservoir management. Near real time remotely sensed information regarding flow predictors (e.g. satellite precipitation estimates) could combat data availability issues, improving the utility of seasonal reservoir inflow forecasts. This study investigates the potential for river flow forecasting using public domain resources, including satellite and re-analysis precipitation as well as climate indices for several strategically important reservoirs throughout Central Asia (including Toktogul, Andijan, Kayrakkum and Nurek). Using reservoir inflows from 2001-2010, parsimonious numerical models were created for each study site using selected significant predictors for lead times of 1-3 months as well half year averages. Preliminary investigation has shown that parsimonious statistical models can explain over 80% of the variance in monthly inflows with three month lead to the Toktogul reservoir, Kyrgyzstan (Dixon and Wilby, 2015). Such findings show promise for improving the safety and efficiency of reservoir operations as well as reducing risks emerging from climate change.

  1. eHealth for Remote Regions: Findings from Central Asia Health Systems Strengthening Project.

    PubMed

    Sajwani, Afroz; Qureshi, Kiran; Shaikh, Tehniat; Sayani, Saleem

    2015-01-01

    Isolated communities in remote regions of Afghanistan, Kyrgyz Republic, Pakistan and Tajikistan lack access to high-quality, low-cost health care services, forcing them to travel to distant parts of the country, bearing an unnecessary financial burden. The eHealth Programme under Central Asia Health Systems Strengthening (CAHSS) Project, a joint initiative between the Aga Khan Foundation, Canada and the Government of Canada, was initiated in 2013 with the aim to utilize Information and Communication Technologies to link health care institutions and providers with rural communities to provide comprehensive and coordinated care, helping minimize the barriers of distance and time. Under the CAHSS Project, access to low-cost, quality health care is provided through a regional hub and spoke teleconsultation network of government and non-government health facilities. In addition, capacity building initiatives are offered to health professionals. By 2017, the network is expected to connect seven Tier 1 tertiary care facilities with 14 Tier 2 secondary care facilities for teleconsultation and eLearning. From April 2013 to September 2014, 6140 teleconsultations have been provided across the project sites. Additionally, 52 new eLearning sessions have been developed and 2020 staff members have benefitted from eLearning sessions. Ethics and patient rights are respected during project implementation. PMID:25980715

  2. Review of subtribe Singilina Jeannel, 1949, of the Middle East and Central Asia (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Lebiini)

    PubMed Central

    Anichtchenko, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Species of the genus Singilis Rambur, 1837 (Phloeozeteus Peyron, 1856, syn. n., Agatus Motschulsky, 1845, syn. n.), occurring in the Middle East and Central Asia are reviewed, with 24 species now recognized in the region, including ten species described as new: Singilis makarovi sp. n. (Tajikistan), Singilis jedlickai sp. n. (Afghanistan), Singilis kolesnichenkoi sp. n. (Iran), Singilis kabakovi sp. n. (Afghanistan, Iran), Singilis timuri sp. n. (Uzbekistan), Singilis klimenkoi sp. n. (Iran), Singilis saeedi sp. n. (Iran), Singilis felixi sp. n. (UAE), Singilis kryzhanovskii sp. n. (Iran, Turkmenistan), and Singilis timidus sp. n. (Iran); Singilis libani (Sahlberg, 1913) is recognized as a valid species; and Singilis solskyi nom. n. is proposed as a replacement name for Agatus bicolor (Solsky, 1874, not Rambur 1837), now placed in Singilis as junior homonym. New synonymies include: Singilis cingulatus (Gebler, 1843) = Singilis jakeschi Jedlička, 1967, syn. n.; Singilis mesopotamicus Pic, 1901 = Singilis apicalis Jedlička, 1956, syn. n. A key to species is provided. Habitus and aedeagal illustrations are provided for all species. Distributional data include many new country records. PMID:22291510

  3. Understanding the “Russian Mortality Paradox” in Central Asia: Evidence from Kyrgyzstan

    PubMed Central

    Gavrilova, Natalia; Pudrovska, Tetyana

    2011-01-01

    In the former Soviet republics of central Asia, ethnic Russians have exhibited higher adult mortality than native ethnic groups (e.g., Kazakh, Kyrgyz, Uzbek) in spite of the higher socioeconomic status of ethnic Russians. The mortality disadvantage of ethnic Russians at adult ages appears to have even increased since the breakup of the Soviet Union. The most common explanation for this “Russian mortality paradox,” is that deaths are better reported among ethnic Russians. In this study, we use detailed mortality data from Kyrgyzstan between 1959 and 1999 to evaluate various explanations for the Russian mortality paradox: data artifacts, migration effects, and cultural effects. We find that the most plausible explanation is the cultural hypothesis because the personal behaviors that appear to generate a large part of the observed mortality differences (alcohol consumption, in particular) seem to be closely tied to cultural practices. We examine the implications of this finding for understanding the health crisis in post-Soviet states. PMID:21618068

  4. Porphyry copper assessment of western Central Asia: Chapter N in Global mineral resource assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berger, Byron R.; Mars, John L.; Denning, Paul D.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Zientek, Michael L.; Dicken, Connie L.; Drew, Lawrence J.; with contributions from Alexeiev, Dmitriy; Seltmann, Reimar; Herrington, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    The assessment includes a discussion of the tectonic and geologic setting of porphyry copper deposits in western Central Asia (chapter 1), an application of remote sensing data for hydrothermal alteration mapping as a tool for porphyry copper assessment in the region (chapter 2), and a probabilistic assessment of undiscovered porphyry copper resources in four areas that represent Ordovician and Late Paleozoic (Carboniferous-Permian) magmatic arcs (chapter 3). The principal litho-tectonic terrane concept used to delineate permissive tracts was that of a magmatic arc that formed in the subduction boundary zone above a subducting plate. Eight permissive tracts are delineated on the basis of mapped and inferred subsurface distributions of igneous rocks assigned to magmatic arcs of specified age ranges that define areas where the occurrence of porphyry copper deposits within 1 kilometer of the Earth’s surface is possible. These tracts range in area from about 8,000 to 200,000 square kilometers and host 18 known porphyry copper deposits that contain about 54 million metric tons of copper. Available data included geologic maps, the distribution of significant porphyry copper occurrences and potentially related deposit types, the distribution of hydrothermal alteration patterns that are consistent with porphyry copper mineralization, and information on possible subsurface extensions of permissive rocks. On the basis of analyses of these data, the assessment team estimated a mean of 25 undis

  5. Health risks from large-scale water pollution: trends in Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Törnqvist, Rebecka; Jarsjö, Jerker; Karimov, Bakhtiyor

    2011-02-01

    Limited data on the pollution status of spatially extensive water systems constrain health-risk assessments at basin-scales. Using a recipient measurement approach in a terminal water body, we show that agricultural and industrial pollutants in groundwater-surface water systems of the Aral Sea Drainage Basin (covering the main part of Central Asia) yield cumulative health hazards above guideline values in downstream surface waters, due to high concentrations of copper, arsenic, nitrite, and to certain extent dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT). Considering these high-impact contaminants, we furthermore perform trend analyses of their upstream spatial-temporal distribution, investigating dominant large-scale spreading mechanisms. The ratio between parent DDT and its degradation products showed that discharges into or depositions onto surface waters are likely to be recent or ongoing. In river water, copper concentrations peak during the spring season, after thawing and snow melt. High spatial variability of arsenic concentrations in river water could reflect its local presence in the top soil of nearby agricultural fields. Overall, groundwaters were associated with much higher health risks than surface waters. Health risks can therefore increase considerably, if the downstream population must switch to groundwater-based drinking water supplies during surface water shortage. Arid regions are generally vulnerable to this problem due to ongoing irrigation expansion and climate changes. PMID:21131050

  6. Improving semi-automated glacier mapping with a multi-method approach: applications in central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, T.; Bookhagen, B.; Cannon, F.

    2015-09-01

    Studies of glaciers generally require precise glacier outlines. Where these are not available, extensive manual digitization in a geographic information system (GIS) must be performed, as current algorithms struggle to delineate glacier areas with debris cover or other irregular spectral profiles. Although several approaches have improved upon spectral band ratio delineation of glacier areas, none have entered wide use due to complexity or computational intensity. In this study, we present and apply a glacier mapping algorithm in Central Asia which delineates both clean glacier ice and debris-covered glacier tongues. The algorithm is built around the unique velocity and topographic characteristics of glaciers and further leverages spectral and spatial relationship data. We found that the algorithm misclassifies between 2 and 10 % of glacier areas, as compared to a ~ 750 glacier control data set, and can reliably classify a given Landsat scene in 3-5 min. The algorithm does not completely solve the difficulties inherent in classifying glacier areas from remotely sensed imagery but does represent a significant improvement over purely spectral-based classification schemes, such as the band ratio of Landsat 7 bands three and five or the normalized difference snow index. The main caveats of the algorithm are (1) classification errors at an individual glacier level, (2) reliance on manual intervention to separate connected glacier areas, and (3) dependence on fidelity of the input Landsat data.

  7. Origin and genome evolution of polyploid green toads in Central Asia: evidence from microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Betto-Colliard, C; Sermier, R; Litvinchuk, S; Perrin, N; Stöck, M

    2015-03-01

    Polyploidization, which is expected to trigger major genomic reorganizations, occurs much less commonly in animals than in plants, possibly because of constraints imposed by sex-determination systems. We investigated the origins and consequences of allopolyploidization in Palearctic green toads (Bufo viridis subgroup) from Central Asia, with three ploidy levels and different modes of genome transmission (sexual versus clonal), to (i) establish a topology for the reticulate phylogeny in a species-rich radiation involving several closely related lineages and (ii) explore processes of genomic reorganization that may follow polyploidization. Sibship analyses based on 30 cross-amplifying microsatellite markers substantiated the maternal origins and revealed the paternal origins and relationships of subgenomes in allopolyploids. Analyses of the synteny of linkage groups identified three markers affected by translocation events, which occurred only within the paternally inherited subgenomes of allopolyploid toads and exclusively affected the linkage group that determines sex in several diploid species of the green toad radiation. Recombination rates did not differ between diploid and polyploid toad species, and were overall much reduced in males, independent of linkage group and ploidy levels. Clonally transmitted subgenomes in allotriploid toads provided support for strong genetic drift, presumably resulting from recombination arrest. The Palearctic green toad radiation seems to offer unique opportunities to investigate the consequences of polyploidization and clonal transmission on the dynamics of genomes in vertebrates. PMID:25370211

  8. Threshold effects in the vegetation response to Holocene climate changes in central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the response of ecosystems to past climate is critical for evaluating the impacts of future climate changes. A relatively abrupt vegetation shift in response to the late Holocene gradual climate changes has been well documented for the Sahara-Sahel ecosystem. However, whether such threshold shift is of universal significance remains to be further addressed. Here, we examine the vegetation-climate relationships in central Asia based on four newly recovered Holocene pollen records and a synthesis on previously published pollen data. The results show that the orbital-induced gradual climate trend during the Holocene led to two major abrupt vegetation shifts, and that the timings of these shifts are highly dependent of the local rainfall conditions. Instead, the mid-Holocene vegetation remained rather stable despite of the changing climate. These new findings demonstrate generally significant threshold and truncation effects of climate changes on vegetation, as are strongly supported by surface pollen data and LPJ-GUESS modeling. The results also imply that using pollen data to reconstruct past climate changes is not always straightforward. Our findings have important implication for understanding the potential effects of global warming on dryland ecosystem change.

  9. Towards Cross-Border Landslide Hazard and Risk Assessment in Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saponaro, A.; Pilz, M.; Wieland, M.; Pittore, M.; Bindi, D.; Parolai, S.

    2014-12-01

    The countries of Central Asia are known to be among the most exposed in the world to landslide hazard and risk. In the past, several devastating slope failures have caused intense economic and human losses across the entire region. The large variability of local geological materials, difficulties in forecasting heavy precipitation locally, and problems in quantifying the level of ground shaking, call for harmonized procedures to better quantify landslide hazard. Moreover, due to uncontrolled urban expansion in mountainous areas, a growth in vulnerability of exposed population as well as overall risk has to be expected. In order to mitigate landslide risk, novel and strategic approaches are required mainly for enhanced understanding of causal factors, for reducing exposure to hazards, and for controlling land-use practices in a harmonized transnational way. We have already presented a regional landslide susceptibility assessment for Kyrgyzstan. First results allow for the identification of most potential landslide areas all over the country, with sufficient degree of accuracy. Based on this, we hereby propose a procedure for obtaining cross-border risk map of earthquake-induced landslides among central Asian countries, by employing statistical tools and updated input information in such remote and data-scarce regions. The method is initially applied to Kyrgyzstan where the majority of input parameters is available, and subsequently extended to Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. At first, the influence of diverse potential parameters (topography, geology, tectonic lineaments) as well as seismic triggering to landslide activation is evaluated. Elements at risk are then analyzed in relation to landslide hazard, and their vulnerability is hence established. A sensitivity analysis is carried out, and results are validated to an independent dataset.

  10. Vitamin D status in recently arrived immigrants from Africa and Asia: a cross-sectional study from Norway of children, adolescents and adults

    PubMed Central

    Eggemoen, Åse R; Knutsen, Kirsten V; Dalen, Ingvild; Jenum, Anne K

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D) <50 nmol/L among recently arrived immigrants from Africa and Asia in Oslo, and to explore 25(OH)D levels according to origin, gender and age. Design A cross-sectional study. Setting Primary healthcare unit in Oslo, Norway, offering family immigrants, asylum seekers, United Nations (UN) refugees or individuals granted asylum a free medical examination on arrival. Participants All individuals from African and Asian countries (n=591) referred to the Centre of Migrant Health, Health Agency, Oslo, Norway in 2010, estimated to cover 60% of the targeted population. Results 25(OH)D <50 nmol/L was very prevalent in immigrants from the Middle East (81% (95% CI 75.4% to 86.6%)), South Sahara Africa (73% (CI 67.5% to 78.5%)) and South Asia (75% (CI 64.0% to 86.0%)), in contrast to East Asians (24% (CI 12.6% to 35.4%)), p<0.001 for differences. The prevalence of 25(OH)D<25 nmol/L was lower but followed the same pattern (Middle East: 38% (CI 31.1% to 45.0%), South Sahara Africa: 24% (CI 18.7% to 29.3%) and South Asia: 35% (CI 22.9% to 47.1%), although it was not observed in East Asians (p<0.001 for differences)). The ethnic differences persisted after adjusting for the duration of residence, seasonality and residence status in multiple linear regression analyses. Female adolescents from South Asia, the Middle East and South Sahara Africa had the lowest levels of 25(OH)D. Further, country-specific median levels of 25(OH)D were low (24–38 nmol/L) among groups from Somalia, Eritrea, Afghanistan and Iraq, the countries with the largest number of immigrants in our study. Conclusions The majority of recently settled immigrant groups from the Middle East, South Asia and Africa had 25(OH)D <50 nmol/L, in contrast to East Asians. Female adolescents from these regions had the lowest levels of 25(OH)D. PMID:24157818

  11. Inferring human history in East Asia from Y chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    East Asia harbors substantial genetic, physical, cultural and linguistic diversity, but the detailed structures and interrelationships of those aspects remain enigmatic. This question has begun to be addressed by a rapid accumulation of molecular anthropological studies of the populations in and around East Asia, especially by Y chromosome studies. The current Y chromosome evidence suggests multiple early migrations of modern humans from Africa via Southeast Asia to East Asia. After the initial settlements, the northward migrations during the Paleolithic Age shaped the genetic structure in East Asia. Subsequently, recent admixtures between Central Asian immigrants and northern East Asians enlarged the genetic divergence between southern and northern East Asia populations. Cultural practices, such as languages, agriculture, military affairs and social prestige, also have impacts on the genetic patterns in East Asia. Furthermore, application of Y chromosome analyses in the family genealogy studies offers successful showcases of the utility of genetics in studying the ancient history. PMID:23731529

  12. Asia Lakes

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Central Asia - Mongolia, China and Russia     View Larger ... Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) image of Mongolia, China and Russia covers an area of about 317 kilometers x 412 kilometers, and ...

  13. Site-specific high-resolution models of the monsoon for Africa and Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryson, R. A.; Bryson, R. U.

    2000-11-01

    Using the macrophysical climate model of Bryson [Bryson, R.A., 1992. A macrophysical model of the Holocene intertropical convergence and jetstream positions and rainfall for the Saharan region. Meteorol. Atmos. Phys., 47, pp. 247-258], it is possible to calculate the monthly latitude of the jetstream and the latitude of the subtropical anticyclones. From these and modern climatic data, it is possible to model the two-century mean latitude of the intertropical convergence (ITC) month by month and estimate the monthly monsoon rainfall using the ITC-Rainfall model of Ilesanmi [Ilesanmi, O.O., 1971. An empirical formulation of an ITD rainfall model for the tropics — a case study of Nigeria. J. Appl. Meteorol., 10, pp. 882-891] and similar relationships. Input to this model is only calculated radiation and atmospheric optical depth estimated from a database of global volcanicity. Recent work has shown that it is possible to extend these estimates to both precipitation and temperature at specific sites, even in mountainous terrain. Testing of the model against archaeological records and climatic proxies is now underway, as well as refining the fundamental model. Preliminary indications are that the timing of fluctuations in the local climate is very well modeled. Especially well matched are the modeled Nile flood based on calculated rainfall on the Blue and White Nile watersheds and the level of Lake Moeris [Hassan, F., 1985. Holocene lakes and prehistoric settlements of the Western Faiyum, Egypt. J. Archaeol. Res., 13, pp. 483-501]. Modeled precipitation histories for specific sites in China, Thailand, the Arabian Peninsula, and North Africa will be presented and contrasted with the simulated rainfall history of Mesopotamia.

  14. Achieving Population-Level Immunity to Rabies in Free-Roaming Dogs in Africa and Asia

    PubMed Central

    Morters, Michelle K.; McKinley, Trevelyan J.; Horton, Daniel L.; Cleaveland, Sarah; Schoeman, Johan P.; Restif, Olivier; Whay, Helen R.; Goddard, Amelia; Fooks, Anthony R.; Damriyasa, I. Made; Wood, James L. N.

    2014-01-01

    Canine rabies can be effectively controlled by vaccination with readily available, high-quality vaccines. These vaccines should provide protection from challenge in healthy dogs, for the claimed period, for duration of immunity, which is often two or three years. It has been suggested that, in free-roaming dog populations where rabies is endemic, vaccine-induced protection may be compromised by immuno-suppression through malnutrition, infection and other stressors. This may reduce the proportion of dogs that seroconvert to the vaccine during vaccination campaigns and the duration of immunity of those dogs that seroconvert. Vaccination coverage may also be limited through insufficient vaccine delivery during vaccination campaigns and the loss of vaccinated individuals from populations through demographic processes. This is the first longitudinal study to evaluate temporal variations in rabies vaccine-induced serological responses, and factors associated with these variations, at the individual level in previously unvaccinated free-roaming dog populations. Individual-level serological and health-based data were collected from three cohorts of dogs in regions where rabies is endemic, one in South Africa and two in Indonesia. We found that the vast majority of dogs seroconverted to the vaccine; however, there was considerable variation in titres, partly attributable to illness and lactation at the time of vaccination. Furthermore, >70% of the dogs were vaccinated through community engagement and door-to-door vaccine delivery, even in Indonesia where the majority of the dogs needed to be caught by net on successive occasions for repeat blood sampling and vaccination. This demonstrates the feasibility of achieving population-level immunity in free-roaming dog populations in rabies-endemic regions. However, attrition of immune individuals through demographic processes and waning immunity necessitates repeat vaccination of populations within at least two years to ensure

  15. Biosurveillance in Central Asia: Successes and Challenges of Tick-Borne Disease Research in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

    PubMed

    Hay, John; Yeh, Kenneth B; Dasgupta, Debanjana; Shapieva, Zhanna; Omasheva, Gulnara; Deryabin, Pavel; Nurmakhanov, Talgat; Ayazbayev, Timur; Andryushchenko, Alexei; Zhunushov, Asankadyr; Hewson, Roger; Farris, Christina M; Richards, Allen L

    2016-01-01

    Central Asia is a vast geographic region that includes five former Soviet Union republics: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. The region has a unique infectious disease burden, and a history that includes Silk Road trade routes and networks that were part of the anti-plague and biowarfare programs in the former Soviet Union. Post-Soviet Union biosurveillance research in this unique area of the world has met with several challenges, including lack of funding and resources to independently conduct hypothesis driven, peer-review quality research. Strides have been made, however, to increase scientific engagement and capability. Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan are examples of countries where biosurveillance research has been successfully conducted, particularly with respect to especially dangerous pathogens. In this review, we describe in detail the successes, challenges, and opportunities of conducting biosurveillance in Central Asia as exemplified by our recent research activities on ticks and tick-borne diseases in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. PMID:26870722

  16. Biosurveillance in Central Asia: Successes and Challenges of Tick-Borne Disease Research in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan

    PubMed Central

    Hay, John; Yeh, Kenneth B.; Dasgupta, Debanjana; Shapieva, Zhanna; Omasheva, Gulnara; Deryabin, Pavel; Nurmakhanov, Talgat; Ayazbayev, Timur; Andryushchenko, Alexei; Zhunushov, Asankadyr; Hewson, Roger; Farris, Christina M.; Richards, Allen L.

    2016-01-01

    Central Asia is a vast geographic region that includes five former Soviet Union republics: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. The region has a unique infectious disease burden, and a history that includes Silk Road trade routes and networks that were part of the anti-plague and biowarfare programs in the former Soviet Union. Post-Soviet Union biosurveillance research in this unique area of the world has met with several challenges, including lack of funding and resources to independently conduct hypothesis driven, peer-review quality research. Strides have been made, however, to increase scientific engagement and capability. Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan are examples of countries where biosurveillance research has been successfully conducted, particularly with respect to especially dangerous pathogens. In this review, we describe in detail the successes, challenges, and opportunities of conducting biosurveillance in Central Asia as exemplified by our recent research activities on ticks and tick-borne diseases in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. PMID:26870722

  17. Arctic-Asian Mobile Belt - Global Structure in the North, Central, and East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shokalsky, Sergey; Petrov, Oleg; Pospelov, Igor; Kashubin, Sergey; Sobolev, Nikolay; Petrov, Evgeny

    2014-05-01

    Over the last decade under the international project of five countries, the geological surveys of Russia, China, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, and the Republic of Korea, with the participation of national academies of sciences in these countries compiled a set of digital maps at 1:2.5 M scale. It includes geological, tectonic, metallogenic maps and map of energy resources with databases for North, Central, and East Asia, area of more than 30 million km2. Map compilation was supervised by the Subcommission for Northern Eurasia and Subcommission for Tectonic Maps of the Commission for the Geological Map of the World under the auspices of UNESCO (CGMW). The set of maps was displayed at the 33rd IGC (Oslo, 2008) and 34th IGC (Brisbane, 2012). One of the largest accretion collages of orogenic belts of different ages on the planet (from the Neoproterozoic to Early Mesozoic) is clearly shown in the tectonic map compiled under the joint project. Extended polychronous mobile belt is bounded in the west by the East European Craton, in the east, by the Siberian Craton, in the south, by a chain of Gondwana cratonic blocks - North China, Tarim, Tajik. In the north it can be traced as a broad band within the Circumpolar Region, where it is limited by the North American Craton. The central part of the accretionary belt is hidden under the Meso-Cenozoic sediments of Western Siberia. Analysis of vast geological material shows that the Arctic-Asian mobile belt was formed on place of an extensive paleo-ocean, which closed with a successive rejuvenation of suture ophiolite zones from the marginal to axial zone and along strike to the north and east of the South Siberian segment towards Paleopacific. Arctic-Asian mobile belt is characterized by a complex combination of accretionary and riftogenic tectonic-magmatic processes. At its early stages, accretionary tectonics with a wide development of volcanic belts dominated; at the late ones (in the Late Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic

  18. Genotyping and Phylogenetic Analysis of Yersinia pestis by MLVA: Insights into the Worldwide Expansion of Central Asia Plague Foci

    PubMed Central

    Hauck, Yolande; Platonov, Mikhail E.; Dai, Erhei; Song, Yajun; Guo, Zhaobiao; Pourcel, Christine; Dentovskaya, Svetlana V.; Anisimov, Andrey P.; Yang, Ruifu; Vergnaud, Gilles

    2009-01-01

    Background The species Yersinia pestis is commonly divided into three classical biovars, Antiqua, Medievalis, and Orientalis, belonging to subspecies pestis pathogenic for human and the (atypical) non-human pathogenic biovar Microtus (alias Pestoides) including several non-pestis subspecies. Recent progress in molecular typing methods enables large-scale investigations in the population structure of this species. It is now possible to test hypotheses about its evolution which were proposed decades ago. For instance the three classical biovars of different geographical distributions were suggested to originate from Central Asia. Most investigations so far have focused on the typical pestis subspecies representatives found outside of China, whereas the understanding of the emergence of this human pathogen requires the investigation of strains belonging to subspecies pestis from China and to the Microtus biovar. Methodology/Principal Findings Multi-locus VNTR analysis (MLVA) with 25 loci was performed on a collection of Y. pestis isolates originating from the majority of the known foci worldwide and including typical rhamnose-negative subspecies pestis as well as rhamnose-positive subspecies pestis and biovar Microtus. More than 500 isolates from China, the Former Soviet Union (FSU), Mongolia and a number of other foci around the world were characterized and resolved into 350 different genotypes. The data revealed very close relationships existing between some isolates from widely separated foci as well as very high diversity which can conversely be observed between nearby foci. Conclusions/Significance The results obtained are in full agreement with the view that the Y. pestis subsp. pestis pathogenic for humans emerged in the Central Asia region between China, Kazakhstan, Russia and Mongolia, only three clones of which spread out of Central Asia. The relationships among the strains in China, Central Asia and the rest of the world based on the MLVA25 assay provide an

  19. Changes in the area of inland lakes in arid regions of central Asia during the past 30 years.

    PubMed

    Bai, Jie; Chen, Xi; Li, Junli; Yang, Liao; Fang, Hui

    2011-07-01

    Inland lakes are major surface water resource in arid regions of Central Asia. The area changes in these lakes have been proved to be the results of regional climate changes and recent human activities. This study aimed at investigating the area variations of the nine major lakes in Central Asia over the last 30 years. Firstly, multi-temporal Landsat imagery in 1975, 1990, 1999, and 2007 were used to delineate lake extents automatically based on Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) threshold segmentation, then lake area variations were detailed in three decades and the mechanism of these changes was analyzed with meteorological data and hydrological data. The results indicated that the total surface areas of these nine lakes had decreased from 91,402.06 km(2) to 46,049.23 km(2) during 1975-2007, accounting for 49.62% of their original area of 1975. Tail-end lakes in flat areas had shrunk dramatically as they were induced by both climate changes and human impacts, while alpine lakes remained relatively stable due to the small precipitation variations. With different water usage of river outlets, the variations of open lakes were more flexible than those of other two types. According to comprehensive analyses, different types of inland lakes presented different trends of area changes under the background of global warming effects in Central Asia, which showed that the increased human activities had broken the balance of water cycles in this region. PMID:20830516

  20. Shifts in Mycobacterial Populations and Emerging Drug-Resistance in West and Central Africa

    PubMed Central

    Fissette, Kristina; de Rijk, Pim; Uwizeye, Cécile; Nduwamahoro, Elie; Goovaerts, Odin; Affolabi, Dissou; Gninafon, Martin; Lingoupou, Fanny M.; Barry, Mamadou Dian; Sow, Oumou; Merle, Corinne; Olliaro, Piero; Ba, Fatoumata; Sarr, Marie; Piubello, Alberto; Noeske, Juergen; Antonio, Martin; Rigouts, Leen; de Jong, Bouke C

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we retrospectively analysed a total of 605 clinical isolates from six West or Central African countries (Benin, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Guinea-Conakry, Niger and Senegal). Besides spoligotyping to assign isolates to ancient and modern mycobacterial lineages, we conducted phenotypic drug-susceptibility-testing for each isolate for the four first-line drugs. We showed that phylogenetically modern Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains are more likely associated with drug resistance than ancient strains and predict that the currently ongoing replacement of the endemic ancient by a modern mycobacterial population in West/Central Africa might result in increased drug resistance in the sub-region. PMID:25493429

  1. Dust interannual variability and trend in Central Asia from 2000 to 2014 and their climatic linkages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, Xin; Sokolik, Irina N.

    2015-12-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of the interannual variability and trend of dust aerosol in Central Asia (37°-55°N, 50°-80°E) from 2000 to 2014, based on a set of dust emission simulations using the WRF-Chem-DuMo modeling system, observations of dust frequency derived from surface station synoptic weather records, and dust optical depth (DOD) derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) aerosol optical depth (AOD) products. Model simulations reveal that the soil grain size distribution has little impact on the interannual variability of dust fluxes but strongly affects their magnitude. The two physically based dust schemes based on Marticorena and Bergametti (1995) (MB) and Shao et al. (1996) (Shao) produce large differences in the dust flux magnitude and spatiotemporal distributions, largely due to different sensitivities of the threshold friction velocity to vegetation-induced surface roughness. By using a fixed threshold velocity, the dust scheme of Tegen and Fung (1995) (TF) relies on the dynamic dust source function to capture the dust variability associated with vegetation changes. Through a correlation analysis, the simulated dust fluxes show good consistency with the observed dust frequency, whereas only the Shao and TF dust fluxes are consistent with the MODIS Collection 5.1 and SeaWiFS DOD. The dust fluxes, dust frequency, and DOD (except MODIS Collection 6) are highly correlated with the frequency of strong surface winds but show different sensitivities to drought and soil erodibility factors (i.e., precipitation, soil moisture, and vegetation) which are influenced by El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). In general, La Niña years are associated with reduced precipitation, drier soils, less vegetation, and, consequently, more severe drought and enhanced dust activity in Central Asia. The averaged dust flux of the MB and Shao experiments shows a significant negative trend

  2. Central Asia cryosphere dynamics: retrospective analysis, contemporary status, and prediction (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aizen, V. B.; Aizen, E.; Surazakov, A.; Takeuchi, N.; Fujita, K.; Mayewski, P. A.; Grigholm, B. O.

    2010-12-01

    Central Asia (CA) mountain system is a giant highland in the center of Eurasia accumulates a huge amount of snow and ice similar to the Arctic and Antarctic. Existing ensembles of GCM predict warming for CA at a large scale. Increase in air temperature since 19th century, after the “Little Ice Age”, has induced seasonal snow shrinkage and glaciers recession globally with acceleration particularly at the end of 20th century. However, the change in seasonal snow and glacier melt is not a liner process and different even in one mountain system. Since the 1970s the reduction of snow covered area in Tien Shan (TS) amounted 15% (120,000km2) while in Pamir (PA) didn’t significantly change and increased in Karakorum (KA). The Altai (AL), TS and Tibet (TI) glaciers lost approximately 8% of their area while Pamir only 5%. The largest TS and PA glacierized massifs lost 2-4% their area whereas dispersed small glaciers (<2.0km2) lost up to 25%. The PA and KA glacierized massifs are more stable to the modern climate change due to high elevated accumulation areas and increased precipitation in the last two decades. The geothermal observations in TS, AL and TI indicated permafrost warming up to 0.6°C since 1970s. The average active-layer thickness has increased up to 25% (Marchenko et al., 2008). The river runoff in large glacierized basins increased up to 8% but decreased in snow-fed basins on 2% in average. The present extents of glaciers in CA are generally believed to be remnants of the last deglaciation (Grosswald, et al., 1994, Kuhle, 2004) however our recent ice-cores recovered from AL and TS demonstrated that glaciers did not exist during Bolling/Allerod interstadial period and were formed between 12,500 and 11,500 BP in CA at elevations below 5000 masl. The climate conditions during the late Pleistocene were considerably warmer then present. Most likely AL and TS glaciers have been formed during early Holocene in response to changes in atmospheric circulation

  3. Statistical prediction of seasonal discharge in the Naryn basin for water resources planning in Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apel, Heiko; Gafurov, Abror; Gerlitz, Lars; Unger-Shayesteh, Katy; Vorogushyn, Sergiy; Merkushkin, Aleksandr; Merz, Bruno

    2016-04-01

    The semi-arid regions of Central Asia crucially depend on the water resources supplied by the mountainous areas of the Tien-Shan and Pamirs. During the summer months the snow and glacier melt water of the rivers originating in the mountains provides the only water resource available for agricultural production but also for water collection in reservoirs for energy production in winter months. Thus a reliable seasonal forecast of the water resources is crucial for a sustainable management and planning of water resources.. In fact, seasonal forecasts are mandatory tasks of national hydro-meteorological services in the region. Thus this study aims at a statistical forecast of the seasonal water availability, whereas the focus is put on the usage of freely available data in order to facilitate an operational use without data access limitations. The study takes the Naryn basin as a test case, at which outlet the Toktogul reservoir stores the discharge of the Naryn River. As most of the water originates form snow and glacier melt, a statistical forecast model should use data sets that can serve as proxy data for the snow masses and snow water equivalent in late spring, which essentially determines the bulk of the seasonal discharge. CRU climate data describing the precipitation and temperature in the basin during winter and spring was used as base information, which was complemented by MODIS snow cover data processed through ModSnow tool, discharge during the spring and also GRACE gravimetry anomalies. For the construction of linear forecast models monthly as well as multi-monthly means over the period January to April were used to predict the seasonal mean discharge of May-September at the station Uchterek. An automatic model selection was performed in multiple steps, whereas the best models were selected according to several performance measures and their robustness in a leave-one-out cross validation. It could be shown that the seasonal discharge can be predicted with

  4. Rock avalanche deposits in Alai Valley, Central Asia: misinterpretation of glacial record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reznichenko, Natalya; Davies, Tim; Robinson, Tom; De Pascale, Gregory

    2013-04-01

    The reconstruction of Quaternary glaciations has been restricted by conventional approaches with resulting contradictions in interpretation of the regional glacial record, that recently have been subjected to critical re-evaluation. Along with uncertainties in dating techniques and their applicability to particular landforms (Kirkbride and Winkler, 2012), it has recently been demonstrated that the presence of rock avalanche debris in a landform can be unequivocally detected; this allows for the first time definitive identification of and distinction between glacial moraines and landslide deposits. It also identifies moraines that have formed due to rock avalanche deposition on glaciers, possibly with no associated climatic signal (Reznichenko et al., 2012). Confusion between landslide deposits and moraines is evident for ranges in Central Asia (e.g., Hewitt, 1999) where the least-studied glacial record is selectively correlated with established glacial chronologies in Alpine ranges, which in turn masks the actual glacial extent and their responses to climate change, tectonics and landsliding activity. We describe examples in the glaciated Alai Valley, large intermountain depression between the Zaalay Range of the Northern Pamir and the Alay Range of the Southern Tien-Shan, showing that some large Quaternary deposits classically interpreted as moraines are of rock avalanche origin. Sediment from these deposits has been tested for the presence of agglomerates that are only produced under high stress conditions during rock avalanche motion, and are absent from glacial sediments (Reznichenko et al., 2012). This reveals that morphologically-similar deposits have radically different geneses: rock avalanche origin for a deposit in the Komansu river catchment and glacial origin for deposits in the Ashiktash and Kyzylart catchments. The enormous Komansu rock avalanche deposit, probably triggered by a rupture of the Main Pamir thrust, currently covers about 100 km2 with a

  5. Source sector and region contributions to BC and PM2.5 in Central Asia

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kulkarni, S.; Sobhani, N.; Miller-Schulze, J. P.; Shafer, M. M.; Schauer, J. J.; Solomon, P. A.; Saide, P. E.; Spak, S. N.; Cheng, Y. F.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.; et al

    2015-02-18

    Particulate matter (PM) mass concentrations, seasonal cycles, source sector, and source region contributions in Central Asia (CA) are analyzed for the period April 2008–July 2009 using the Sulfur Transport and dEposition Model (STEM) chemical transport model and modeled meteorology from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Predicted aerosol optical depth (AOD) values (annual mean value ~0.2) in CA vary seasonally, with lowest values in the winter. Surface PM2.5 concentrations (annual mean value ~10 μg m-3) also exhibit a seasonal cycle, with peak values and largest variability in the spring/summer, and lowest values and variability in the winter (hourly valuesmore » from 2 to 90 μg m-3). Surface concentrations of black carbon (BC) (mean value ~0.1 μg m-3) show peak values in the winter. The simulated values are compared to surface measurements of AOD as well as PM2.5, PM10, BC, and organic carbon (OC) mass concentrations at two regional sites in Kyrgyzstan (Lidar Station Teplokluchenka (LST) and Bishkek). The predicted values of AOD and PM mass concentrations and their seasonal cycles are fairly well captured. The carbonaceous aerosols are underpredicted in winter, and analysis suggests that the winter heating emissions are underestimated in the current inventory. Dust, from sources within and outside CA, is a significant component of the PM mass and drives the seasonal cycles of PM and AOD. On an annual basis, the power and industrial sectors are found to be the most important contributors to the anthropogenic portion of PM2.5. Residential combustion and transportation are shown to be the most important sectors for BC. Biomass burning within and outside the region also contributes to elevated PM and BC concentrations. The analysis of the transport pathways and the variations in particulate matter mass and composition in CA demonstrates that this region is strategically located to characterize regional and intercontinental transport of

  6. The regime of aerosol optical depth over Central Asia based on MODIS Aqua Deep Blue data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floutsi, Athina; KorrasCarraca, Marios; Matsoukas, Christos; Biskos, George

    2015-04-01

    Atmospheric aerosols, both natural and anthropogenic, can affect the regional and global climate through their direct, indirect, and semi-direct effects on the radiative energy budget of the Earth-atmosphere system. To quantify these effects it is therefore important to determine the aerosol load, and an effective way to do that is by measuring the aerosol optical depth (AOD). In this study we investigate the spatial and temporal variability of the AOD over the climatically sensitive region of Central Asia (36° N - 50° N, 46° E - 75° E), which has significant sources of both natural and anthropogenic particles. The primary source of anthropogenic particles is fossil fuel combustion occurring mainly at oil refineries in the Caspian Sea basin. Natural particles originate mostly from the two deserts in the region (namely Kara-Kum and Kyzyl-Kum), where persistent dust activity is observed. Another source is the Aral Sea region, which due to its phenomenal desertification also drives an intense salt and dust transport from the exposed sea-bed to the surrounding regions. This transport is of particular interest because of health-hazardous materials contained in the Aral Sea sea-bed. For our analysis we use Level-3 daily MODIS - Aqua Dark Target - Deep Blue combined product, from the latest MODIS collection (006), available in 1° x 1° resolution (about 100 km x 100 km) over the period 2002-2014.Our first results indicate a significant spatial variability of the aerosol load over the study region. The data also show a clear seasonal cycle, with large aerosol load being associated with strong dust activity during spring and summer (AOD up to 0.5), and low during autumn and winter (AOD up to 0.4). In spring and summer significant aerosol load is observed in the Garabogazköl basin, Northeast and South-southeast Caspian Sea (offshore North Iran and Azerbaijan), as well as southwest of the Aral Sea. In the later region, the high AOD values can be explained by export of

  7. Jurassic tectonostratigraphic evolution of the Junggar basin, NW China: A record of Mesozoic intraplate deformation in Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yong-Tai; Song, Chuan-Chun; He, Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Mesozoic basins in northwest China provide important records for investigating relationships between intraplate deformation in Central Asia and tectonic processes at Asian boundaries. The present study, using well, seismic, outcrop, and thermochronology data in the Junggar Basin and neighboring areas, describes the main features of Jurassic strata in the basin, analyzes the Jurassic evolution of the basin and neighboring mountain belts, and discusses possible mechanisms of Jurassic intraplate deformation in Central Asia. During the Early-Middle Jurassic, episodic uplift of surrounding mountain belts kept the Junggar Basin a contractional closed basin, and alluvial fan, fluvial, delta, and lacustrine depositional environments successively developed from surrounding ranges to the central basin. During the Late Jurassic, the western and central parts of the basin were folded and uplifted, and deposition migrated mainly to the eastern basin. During the latest Jurassic-earliest Cretaceous, pre-Cretaceous strata in the eastern and northeastern Junggar Basin were folded and uplifted, and coarse-grained sediments were transported from surrounding uplifts to the central basin. We suggest that Jurassic episodic deformation events in the Junggar Basin and other areas of Central Asia are related to the Qiangtang collision during the Late Triassic-Early Jurassic, the closure of the western Mongol-Okhotsk Ocean at the Early/Middle Jurassic boundary, a collision of a microcontinent in the Pamir with the southern Asian margin during the late Middle Jurassic-early Late Jurassic, the collision of the Kolyma-Omolon Block with Siberia at the end of the Jurassic, and the subsequent closure of the eastern Mongol-Okhotsk Ocean during the latest Jurassic-earliest Cretaceous.

  8. On the Origin and Spread of the Scab Disease of Apple: Out of Central Asia

    PubMed Central

    Gladieux, Pierre; Zhang, Xiu-Guo; Afoufa-Bastien, Damien; Valdebenito Sanhueza, Rosa-Maria; Sbaghi, Mohamed; Le Cam, Bruno

    2008-01-01

    Background Venturia inaequalis is an ascomycete fungus responsible for apple scab, a disease that has invaded almost all apple growing regions worldwide, with the corresponding adverse effects on apple production. Monitoring and predicting the effectiveness of intervention strategies require knowledge of the origin, introduction pathways, and population biology of pathogen populations. Analysis of the variation of genetic markers using the inferential framework of population genetics offers the potential to retrieve this information. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we present a population genetic analysis of microsatellite variation in 1,273 strains of V. inaequalis representing 28 orchard samples from seven regions in five continents. Analysis of molecular variance revealed that most of the variation (88%) was distributed within localities, which is consistent with extensive historical migrations of the fungus among and within regions. Despite this shallow population structure, clustering analyses partitioned the data set into separate groups corresponding roughly to geography, indicating that each region hosts a distinct population of the fungus. Comparison of the levels of variability among populations, along with coalescent analyses of migration models and estimates of genetic distances, was consistent with a scenario in which the fungus emerged in Central Asia, where apple was domesticated, before its introduction into Europe and, more recently, into other continents with the expansion of apple growing. Across the novel range, levels of variability pointed to multiple introductions and all populations displayed signatures of significant post-introduction increases in population size. Most populations exhibited high genotypic diversity and random association of alleles across loci, indicating recombination both in native and introduced areas. Conclusions/Significance Venturia inaequalis is a model of invasive phytopathogenic fungus that has now reached the

  9. Variation of Soil Organic Carbon and Its Major Constraints in East Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Xinqing; Huang, Yimin; Huang, Daikuan; Hu, Lu; Feng, Zhaodong; Cheng, Jianzhong; Wang, Bing; Ni, Jian; Shurkhuu, Tserenpil

    2016-01-01

    Variation of soil organic carbon (SOC) and its major constraints in large spatial scale are critical for estimating global SOC inventory and projecting its future at environmental changes. By analyzing SOC and its environment at 210 sites in uncultivated land along a 3020km latitudinal transect in East Central Asia, we examined the effect of environmental factors on the dynamics of SOC. We found that SOC changes dramatically with the difference as high as 5 times in north China and 17 times in Mongolia. Regardless, C:N remains consistent about 12. Path analysis indicated that temperature is the dominant factor in the variation of SOC with a direct effect much higher than the indirect one, the former breaks SOC down the year round while the latter results in its growth mainly via precipitation in the winter half year. Precipitation helps accumulate SOC, a large part of the effect, however, is taken via temperature. NH4+-N and topography also affect SOC, their roles are played primarily via climatic factors. pH correlates significantly with SOC, the effect, however, is taken only in the winter months, contributing to the decay of SOC primarily via temperature. These factors explained as much as 79% of SOC variations, especially in the summer months, representing the major constraints on the SOC stock. Soil texture gets increasingly fine southward, it does not, however, constitute an apparent factor. Our results suggested that recent global warming should have been adversely affecting SOC stock in the mid-latitude as temperature dominates other factors as the constraint. PMID:26934707

  10. Assessment of OMI near-UV aerosol optical depth over Central and East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wenhao; Gu, Xingfa; Xu, Hui; Yu, Tao; Zheng, Fengjie

    2016-01-01

    Several essential improvements have been made in recent Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) near-ultraviolet (UV) aerosol retrieval algorithm version (OMAERUV version 1.4.2), but few regional validations for its aerosol optical depth (AOD) product are conducted. This paper assessed the OMAERUV AOD product over Central and East Asia. The OMAERUV Level 2.0 AOD product was compared with Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) Level 2.0 direct Sun AOD measurement over 10 years (2005-2014) at 27 selected AERONET sites. A combined comparison of OMAERUV-AERONET AOD at 25 (2) sites was carried out and yielded correlation coefficient (ρ) of 0.63 (0.77), slope of 0.53 (0.57), y intercept of 0.18 (0.13), and 50.71% (57.24%) OMAERUV AOD fall within the expected uncertainty boundary (larger by 0.1 or ±30%) at 380 nm (440 nm). The more accurate (ρ > 0.70) OMAERUV retrievals are reported over eastern and northern China and South Korea. The two primary reasons for the underestimation of OMAERUV AOD over China are as follows: (1) the use of single-channel (388 nm) retrieval method retrieves scattering AOD and not total AOD, and (2) the spectral dependence of the imaginary part of the refractive index in the near-UV region assumed in the algorithm may not be representative of aerosols found over China. The comparisons for three predominant aerosol types indicate that smoke aerosol exhibits the best performance, followed by dust and nonabsorbing aerosol. It is consistent with the characteristic of near-UV wavelength that it is more sensitive to absorbent particles. The comprehensive yearly (2005-2014) comparison at 25 sites and comparison between two periods (2005-2006 and 2009-2014) at selected four sites show no discernible decrease of temporal trend, which indicates that the OMAERUV algorithm successfully maintains its quality of aerosol product despite post-2008 row anomaly instrument problem.

  11. Assessments of the contribution of land use change to the dust emission in Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, X.; Sokolik, I. N.

    2015-12-01

    While the dust emission from arid and semi-arid regions is known as a natural process induced by wind erosion, human may affect the dust emission directly through land use disturbances and indirectly by climate change. There has been much debate on the relative importance of climate change and land use to the global dust budget, as past estimates on the proportion of dust contributed by land use, in particular agricultural practices, remains very uncertain. This to the large extent stems from the way how human-made dust sources are identified and how they are treated in models. This study attempts to assess the land use contribution to the dust emission in Central Asia during 2000-2014 by conducting multiple experiments on the total emission in the WRF-Chem-DuMo model, and applying two methods to separate the natural and anthropogenic sources. The model experiments include realistic treatments of agriculture (e.g., expansion and abandonment) and water body changes (e.g., Aral Sea desiccation) in the land cover map of WRF-Chem-DuMo, but impose no arbitrary labeling of dust source type or adjustment to the erosion threshold. Intercomparison of the model experiments will be focused on the magnitude, interannual variability, and climate sensitivity of dust fluxes resulting from the selections of surface input data and dust flux parameterizations. Based on annual land use intensity maps, the sensitivity of the anthropogenic dust proportion to selection of the threshold value will be evaluated. In conjunction with the empirical method, satellite-derived annual land classifications will be used to track the land cover dynamics, and separate potential human-made source areas.

  12. Globalization of the cashmere market and the decline of large mammals in central Asia.

    PubMed

    Berger, Joel; Buuveibaatar, Bayarbaatar; Mishra, Charudutt

    2013-08-01

    As drivers of terrestrial ecosystems, humans have replaced large carnivores in most areas, and human influence not only exerts striking ecological pressures on biodiversity at local scales but also has indirect effects in distant corners of the world. We suggest that the multibillion dollar cashmere industry creates economic motivations that link western fashion preferences for cashmere to land use in Central Asia. This penchant for stylish clothing, in turn, encourages herders to increase livestock production which affects persistence of over 6 endangered large mammals in these remote, arid ecosystems. We hypothesized that global trade in cashmere has strong negative effects on native large mammals of deserts and grassland where cashmere-producing goats are raised. We used time series data, ecological snapshots of the biomass of native and domestic ungulates, and ecologically and behaviorally based fieldwork to test our hypothesis. In Mongolia increases in domestic goat production were associated with a 3-fold increase in local profits for herders coexisting with endangered saiga (Saiga tatarica).That increasing domestic grazing pressure carries fitness consequences was inferred on the basis of an approximately 4-fold difference in juvenile recruitment among blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur)in trans-Himalayan India. Across 7 study areas in Mongolia, India, and China's Tibetan Plateau, native ungulate biomass is now <5% that of domestic species. Such trends suggest ecosystem degradation and decreased capacity for the persistence of native species, including at least 8 Asian endemic species: saiga, chiru (Pantholops hodgsoni), Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus), snow leopard(Panthera uncia), khulan(Equus hemionus), kiang (E. kiang), takhi (E. przewalski), and wild yak (Bos mutus). Our results suggest striking yet indirect and unintended actions that link trophic-level effects to markets induced by the trade for cashmere. PMID:23866036

  13. A Model Based Attribution of Streamflow Trends in Headwater Catchments of the Tarim River, Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duethmann, D.; Bolch, T.; Pieczonka, T.; Farinotti, D.; Tong, J.; Guntner, A.

    2014-12-01

    Over the last decades, increasing streamflow has been observed in glacierized headwater catchments of the Tarim River, Central Asia. We investigated to what extent these streamflow increases can be attributed to increasing precipitation, or increasing air temperature and resulting glacier mass loss, using a data-driven approach based on multiple linear regression, and a simulation-driven approach with a hydrological model. The hydrological model was calibrated in a multi-objective way using criteria for discharge and glacier mass balances. This is crucial in such catchments with high uncertainties in precipitation, as a deficient streamflow simulation due to inadequate precipitation input may be compensated by erroneous simulation of glacier melt, if both variables are not jointly considered for model calibration. Temporal variations in glacier changes were calibrated against an observed glacier mass balance time series, whilst geodetic glacier mass balance estimates were used for constraining the absolute mass balance loss. The model considers the effects of changes in glacier area and in the elevation of the glacier surface over the course of the 48-years study period. Simulations with detrended time series indicate that changes in the less glacierized Kokshaal catchment are caused by increases in precipitation and glacier melt to a comparable extent. In contrast, for the more highly glacierized Sary-Djaz catchment, increasing glacier melt plays a dominant role. Results from the data-based approach were generally comparable, but pointed to a higher influence of temperature also in the Kokshaal catchment. Overall, the hydrological modeling approach was considered as advantageous because it allows to (1) directly investigate cause-effect relations, (2) analyze the impact of changes in variables that are not measured (e.g., changes in the fraction of glacier melt), and (3) integrate different kinds of data (like glacier mass balances or snow cover data). In this way

  14. Variation of Soil Organic Carbon and Its Major Constraints in East Central Asia

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Xinqing; Huang, Yimin; Huang, Daikuan; Hu, Lu; Feng, Zhaodong; Cheng, Jianzhong; Wang, Bing; Ni, Jian; Shurkhuu, Tserenpil

    2016-01-01

    Variation of soil organic carbon (SOC) and its major constraints in large spatial scale are critical for estimating global SOC inventory and projecting its future at environmental changes. By analyzing SOC and its environment at 210 sites in uncultivated land along a 3020km latitudinal transect in East Central Asia, we examined the effect of environmental factors on the dynamics of SOC. We found that SOC changes dramatically with the difference as high as 5 times in north China and 17 times in Mongolia. Regardless, C:N remains consistent about 12. Path analysis indicated that temperature is the dominant factor in the variation of SOC with a direct effect much higher than the indirect one, the former breaks SOC down the year round while the latter results in its growth mainly via precipitation in the winter half year. Precipitation helps accumulate SOC, a large part of the effect, however, is taken via temperature. NH4+-N and topography also affect SOC, their roles are played primarily via climatic factors. pH correlates significantly with SOC, the effect, however, is taken only in the winter months, contributing to the decay of SOC primarily via temperature. These factors explained as much as 79% of SOC variations, especially in the summer months, representing the major constraints on the SOC stock. Soil texture gets increasingly fine southward, it does not, however, constitute an apparent factor. Our results suggested that recent global warming should have been adversely affecting SOC stock in the mid-latitude as temperature dominates other factors as the constraint. PMID:26934707

  15. Uncertainties in hydrological modelling and its consequences for water management in Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malsy, Marcus; aus der Beek, Tim; Flörke, Martina

    2013-04-01

    Central Asia features an extreme continental climate with mostly arid to semi-arid conditions. Due to low precipitation and therefore low water availability, water is a scarce resource and often the limiting factor in terms of socio-economic development. The aim of this model study is to compare the uncertainties of hydrological modelling induced by global and regional climate datasets and to calculate the impacts on estimates of local water resources. Within this integrated model study the hydrological and water use model WaterGAP 3 (Global Assessment and Prognosis) is being applied to all river basins located in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Mongolia in five arc minutes spatial resolution (~ 6 x 9 km per grid cell). First of all, water abstractions for the sectors households, irrigation, livestock, manufacturing industries, and electricity production are being computed and fed into the hydrological module of WaterGAP. Then, water fluxes of the terrestrial water cycle are being modelled. The performance of the model is then being evaluated by comparing modelled and observed river discharge for the time period 1971 to 2000. As WaterGAP input, various global and regional climate datasets are available for the study region. In detail, these are the global TS dataset of the Climate Research Unit (CRU), the WATCH forcing data (WFD) developed within the EU-FP6 Project WATer and global CHange (WATCH) and the regional Aphrodités Water Resources dataset. Finally, the uncertainties in modelled water availability induced by the different datasets are quantified to point out the consequences for a sustainable water management. The results show that the datasets differ in both aspects, temporal and spatial goodness. At this, not only differences between the regional and the global datasets, but also among the global datasets are evident.

  16. Instrumental magnitude constraints for the 1889 Chilik and the 1887 Verny earthquake, Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krueger, Frank; Kulikova, Galina; Landgraf, Angela

    2016-04-01

    A series of four large earthquakes hit the continental collision region north of Lake Issyk Kul in the years 1885, 1887, 1889 and 1911 with magnitudes above 6.9. The largest event was the Chilik earthquake on July 11, 1889 with M 8.3 based on macroseismic intensities, recently confirmed by Bindi et al. (2013). Despite the existence of several juvenile fault scarps in the epicentral region no on scale through-going surface rupture has been located. Rupture length of ~200 km and slip of ~10 m are expected for M 8.3 (Blaser et al., 2010). The lack of high concentrated epicentral intensities require a hypocenter depth of 40 km located in the lower crust. Late coda envelope amplitude comparison of modern events in Central Asia recorded at stations in Northern Germany with the reproduction of a Rebeur-Paschwitz pendulum seismogram recorded at Wilhelmshaven results in a magnitude estimate of Mw 8.0-8.5. Amplitude comparison of longperiod surface waves measured on magnetograms at two british geomagnetic observatories favors a magnitude of Mw 8.0. Both can be made consistent if a station site factor of 2-4 for the Wilhelmshaven station is applied (for which indications exist). A truly deep centroid depth (h>40 km) is unlikely (from coda amplitude scaling), a shallow rupture of appropriate length is till now not discovered. Both arguments point to a possible lower crust contribution to the seismic moment. Magnetogram amplitudes for the Jun 8, 1887, Verny earthquake point to a magnitude of M ~7.5-7.6 (preliminary).

  17. Characteristics and composition of atmospheric aerosols in Phimai, central Thailand during BASE-ASIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Can; Tsay, Si-Chee; Hsu, N. Christina; Kim, Jin Young; Howell, Steven G.; Huebert, Barry J.; Ji, Qiang; Jeong, Myeong-Jae; Wang, Sheng-Hsiang; Hansell, Richard A.; Bell, Shaun W.

    2013-10-01

    Comprehensive measurements of atmospheric aerosols were made in Phimai, central Thailand (15.183°N, 102.565°E, elevation: 206 m) during the BASE-ASIA field experiment from late February to early May in 2006. The observed aerosol loading was sizable for this rural site (mean aerosol scattering: 108 ± 64 Mm-1; absorption: 15 ± 8 Mm-1; PM10 concentration: 33 ± 17 μg m-3), and dominated by submicron particles. Major aerosol compounds included carbonaceous (OC: 9.5 ± 3.6 μg m-3; EC: 2.0 ± 2.3 μg m-3) and secondary species (SO42-: 6.4 ± 3.7 μg m-3, NH4+: 2.2 ± 1.3 μg m-3). While the site was seldom under the direct influence of large forest fires to its north, agricultural fires were ubiquitous during the experiment, as suggested by the substantial concentration of K+ (0.56 ± 0.33 μg m-3). Besides biomass burning, aerosols in Phimai during the experiment were also strongly influenced by industrial and vehicular emissions from the Bangkok metropolitan region and long-range transport from southern China. High humidity played an important role in determining the aerosol composition and properties in the region. Sulfate was primarily formed via aqueous phase reactions, and hygroscopic growth could enhance the aerosol light scattering by up to 60%, at the typical morning RH level of 85%. The aerosol single scattering albedo demonstrated distinct diurnal variation, ranging from 0.86 ± 0.04 in the evening to 0.92 ± 0.02 in the morning. This experiment marks the first time such comprehensive characterization of aerosols was made for rural central Thailand. Our results indicate that aerosol pollution has developed into a regional problem for northern Indochina, and may become more severe as the region's population and economy continue to grow.

  18. Central system of psychosocial support to the Czech victims affected by the tsunami in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Vymetal, Stepan

    2006-01-01

    The tsunami disaster affected several countries in Southeast Asia in December 2004 and killed or affected many tourists, most of them from Europe. Eight Czech citizens died, and about 500 Czechs were seriously mentally traumatized. The psychosocial needs of tourists included: (1) protection; (2) treatment; (3) safety; (4) relief; (5) psychological first aid; (6) connecting with family members; (7) transportation home; (8) information about possible mental reactions to trauma; (9) information about the normality of their reaction; (10) procedural and environmental orientation; (11) reinforcement of personal competencies; and (12) psycho-trauma therapy. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Czech Republic was in charge of general emergency management. General coordination of psychosocial support was coordinated under the Ministry of Interior of the Czech Republic, which is connected to the Central Crisis Staff of the Czech Government. The major cooperative partners were: the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of Defence, the Ministry of Health, Czech Airlines, psychosocial intervention teams of the Czech Republic, and the Czech Association of Clinical Psychologists. The main goals of relief workers were: (1) to bring back home the maximum number of Czech citizens; (2) to provide relevant information to the maximum number of affected Czech citizens; (3) to provide relevant information to rescue workers and professionals; and (4) to prepare working psychosocial support regional network. Major activities of the Ministry of Interior (psychology section) included: (1) establishing a psychological helpline; (2) running a team of psychological assistance (assistance in the Czech airports, psychological monitoring of tourists, crisis intervention, psychological first aid, assistance in the collection of DNA material from relatives); (3) drafting and distributing specific information materials (brochures, leaflets, address lists, printed and electronic instructions

  19. Central System of Psychosocial Support to the Czech Victims Affected by the Tsunami in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Vymetal, Stepan

    2006-02-01

    The Tsunami disaster affected several countries in Southeast Asia in December 2004 and killed or affected many tourists, most of them from Europe. Eight Czech citizens died, and about 500 Czechs were seriously mentally traumatized. The psychosocial needs of tourists included: (1) protection; (2) treatment; (3) safety; (4) relief; (5) psychological first aid; (6) connecting with family members; (7) transportation home; (8) information about possible mental reactions to trauma; (9) information about the normality of their reaction; (10) procedural and environmental orientation; (11) reinforcement of personal competencies; and (12) psycho-trauma therapy. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Czech Republic was in charge of general emergency management. General coordination of psychosocial support was coordinated under the Ministry of Interior of the Czech Republic, which is connected to the Central Crisis Staff of the Czech Government. The major cooperative partners were: the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of Defence, the Ministry of Health, Czech Airlines, psychosocial intervention teams of the Czech Republic, and the Czech Association of Clinical Psychologists. The main goals of relief workers were: (1) to bring back home the maximum number of Czech citizens; (2) to provide relevant information to the maximum number of affected Czech citizens; (3) to provide relevant information to rescue workers and professionals; and (4) to prepare working psychosocial support regional network. Major activities of the Ministry of Interior (psychology section) included: (1) establishing a psychological helpline; (2) running a team of psychological assistance (assistance in the Czech airports, psychological monitoring of tourists, crisis intervention, psychological first aid, assistance in the collection of DNA material from relatives); (3) drafting and distributing specific information materials (brochures, leaflets, address lists, printed and electronic instructions

  20. Satellite monitoring the rangeland degradation under the impacts of climatic and socio-economic changes over central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, K.; Zhang, L.; Dai, L.; Yan, D.

    2012-12-01

    Central Asia, encompassing the republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan and China's western Sinkiang, is a typical arid and semi-arid area. The climate in Central Asia is extreme arid, where summer is hot, cloudless and dry, and winter is moist and relatively warm in the south and cold and dry in the north. Rangeland, accounting for 46% of the entire area, is the main vegetation type in this area. Recent findings showed that climate change had caused unprecedented rangeland degradation in Central Asia over the past 30 years. Socio-economical change and environmental change due to the collapse of Soviet Union also accelerated rangeland degradation. Rangeland degradation adversely further deteriorated the environment. With the development of high resolution remote sensing images, an increasing attention has paid to study rangeland degradation in this area. However, previous investigations based on either Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, has not integrate multi-resolution satellite data for investigating vegetation change and its response to climatic and socio-economic change . In this paper, we employed 30 years' remote sensing data, including both AVHRR ( 1982-2006) and MODIS (2000-2011) satellite data, and in-situ meteorological and social data (e.g. population, economic, and land use change data), to investigate rangeland degradation in the central Asia. We 1) analyzed the spatial-temporal variations of vegetation changes during the past 30 years, and 2) evaluated the roles of climatic and socio-economic factors as potential causes of observed vegetation changes. The results showed extensive area had statistically significant degradation trends (p<0.05). Precipitation was the main driver of rangeland degradation, while there were relatively weaker relationships between temperature and NDVI, indicating that water deficit largely limited vegetation activity

  1. Asthenospheric counterflows beneath the moving lithosphere of Central and East Asia in the past 90 Ma: volcanic and tomographic evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasskazov, Sergei; Chuvashova, Irina; Kozhevnikov, Vladimir

    2015-04-01

    Asthenospheric counterflows, accompanied motions of the lithosphere in Central and East Asia, are defined on basis of spatial-temporal activity of mantle sources [Rasskazov et al., 2012; Rasskazov, Chuvashova, 2013; Chuvashova, Rasskazov, 2014] and the tomographic model of the Rayleigh wave group velocities [Kozhevnikov et al., 2014]. The opposite fluxes are defined relative to centers of convective instability (low-velocity anomalies), expressed by thinning of the mantle transition layer under Southwestern Gobi (44 °N, 95 °E) and Northern Baikal (52 °N, 108 °E). Cretaceous-Paleogene volcanic fields in Southern Gobi are shifted eastwards relative to the former anomaly over 600 km with the opposite sub-lithospheric flux at depths of 150-300 km. Likewise, the Late Tertiary Vitim volcanic field is shifted relative to the latter anomaly over 100-200 km. We suggest that the Gobi and Baikal asthenospheric counterflows contributed to the rollback mechanism of downgoing slab material from the Pacific under the eastern margin of Asia in the Cretaceous-Paleogene and Early-Middle Miocene. The east-west Gobi reverse flux, caused by differential block motions in front of the Indo-Asian convergence, resulted in the oblique Honshu-Korean flexure of the Pacific slab that propagated beneath the continental margin, while the Japan Sea was quickly opening at about 15 Ma. The Baikal N60°W reverse flux, originated due to oncoming traffic between Eurasia and the Pacific plate, entailed the formation of the Baikal Rift Zone and direct Hokkaido Amur slab flexure [Rasskazov et al., 2004]. The study is supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (Grant 14-05-31328). References Chuvashova I.S., Rasskazov S.V. Magmatic sources in the mantle of the evolving Earth. Irkutsk: Publishing House of the Irkutsk State University, 2014. 310 p. (in Russian) Kozhevnikov V.M., Seredkina A.I., Solovei O.A. 3D mantle structure of Central Asia from Rayleigh wave group velocity dispersion

  2. Bulk particle size distribution and magnetic properties of particle-sized fractions from loess and paleosol samples in Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zan, Jinbo; Fang, Xiaomin; Yang, Shengli; Yan, Maodu

    2015-01-01

    studies demonstrate that particle size separation based on gravitational settling and detailed rock magnetic measurements of the resulting fractionated samples constitutes an effective approach to evaluating the relative contributions of pedogenic and detrital components in the loess and paleosol sequences on the Chinese Loess Plateau. So far, however, similar work has not been undertaken on the loess deposits in Central Asia. In this paper, 17 loess and paleosol samples from three representative loess sections in Central Asia were separated into four grain size fractions, and then systematic rock magnetic measurements were made on the fractions. Our results demonstrate that the content of the <4 μm fraction in the Central Asian loess deposits is relatively low and that the samples generally have a unimodal particle distribution with a peak in the medium-coarse silt range. We find no significant difference between the particle size distributions obtained by the laser diffraction and the pipette and wet sieving methods. Rock magnetic studies further demonstrate that the medium-coarse silt fraction (e.g., the 20-75 μm fraction) provides the main control on the magnetic properties of the loess and paleosol samples in Central Asia. The contribution of pedogenically produced superparamagnetic (SP) and stable single-domain (SD) magnetic particles to the bulk magnetic properties is very limited. In addition, the coarsest fraction (>75 μm) exhibits the minimum values of χ, χARM, and SIRM, demonstrating that the concentrations of ferrimagnetic grains are not positively correlated with the bulk particle size in the Central Asian loess deposits.

  3. Origin and evolution of mountainous regions north of Tibet, Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, D.; Zhang, J.

    2013-12-01

    The huge deformation field associated with the Indo-Eurasia collision provides an unrivalled opportunity to investigate the origin and evolution of anomalously high topography in an intraplate, continental interior setting. Mountainous regions north of Tibet and south of the Hangay Dome are hyper-arid with internally drained basins and very low erosion rates. Consequently, the tectonic signal is very strongly expressed in the landscape. Directly north of Tibet, the Beishan is an anomalous plateau region whose first-order topography cannot be explained by Tertiary-Quaternary faulting, although second-order topographic culminations within the plateau are due to Quaternary-Recent transpressional fault displacements. The Beishan appears to be a peripheral bulge due to significant underthrusting of the Tarim-Dunhuang Block beneath the northern margin of Tibet. North of the Beishan region, the Eastern Tien Shan and Gobi Altai are essentially a transpressional basin and range province whose origin is due to thrust and oblique-slip thrust reactivation of older basement structures and diffuse sinistral strike-slip faulting. The angular relationship between SHmax and older structural trends is the first-order control on the kinematics of Quaternary faulting in the region and the style of mountain building. Restraining bends, thrust blocks and diverse transpressional fault arrays generate a complex 3D orogenic architecture that differs significantly from a contractional fold and thrust belt. Late Cenozoic uplift of the Gobi Altai, eastern Tien Shan and Altai orogens is due to diffuse transpressional reactivation of a mechanically weak Paleozoic terrane collage sandwiched between more rigid Precambrian basement blocks, representing the ';soft' core of Central Asia. Southeast of Mongolia and northeast of Tibet, the Lang Shan, Yabrai Shan and Helan Shan mountainous regions comprise footwall block uplifts associated with Ordos Basin extension and the left-lateral strike

  4. A modeling study of the role of deforestation on the climate of central and eastern Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Semazzi, F.H.M.; Sun, Liqiang; Giorgi, F.

    1997-11-01

    This study assessed the effects of deforestation on the physical climate system of eastern and central Africa. The model used was the regional climate model (RegCM2) developed at the National Center for Atmospheric Research, and customized for the region under study. In the anomaly simulation, the land cover was systematically altered to replace the tropical forest with grass and Savannah cover. The RegCM2 realistically simulated the main features of the climate over eastern and central Africas. It was found that: (1) the rainfall dramatically decreased in 2 subregions, decreased in two subregions, increased in 1 subregion, and remained the same in 1 subregion; (2) rainfall deficit mainly happened during night time over the TF subregion and daytime over the LV subregion; and (3) mean surface air temperature increased over 5 subregions and decreased in 1 subregions. Deforestation also increased the diurnal variation of surface air temperature over one subregion. 12 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Atmospheric Transport and Photochemistry of Ozone Over Central Southern Africa During the Southern Africa Fire-Atmosphere Research Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tyson, P. D.; Garstang, M.; Thompson, A. M.; DAbreton, P.; Diab, R. D.; Browell, E. V.

    1997-01-01

    Vertically integrated back and forward trajectories for the 300-200, 700-500 and surface-800 hPa levels are calculated using Pretoria as point of origin for the Southern Africa Fire-Atmosphere Research Initiative (SAFARI) period September-October 1992. The transport fields are then combined to show both horizontal and vertical transport of air to and from Pretoria at the different levels. Air transport patterns in the vertical are linked to the occurrence of absolutely stable layers which are also evident in the 16 ozonesonde profiles recorded at Pretoria during SAFARI. The coherence of the stratification based on dynamical and ozone analysis permits the use of mean ozone profiles with air volume fluxes to interpret the ozone in terms of photochemistry and transport within stable layers. Extensive recirculation across the meridional plane at Pretoria implies that advection of ozone is slow and that photochemistry is responsible for the observed vertical structure over central southern Africa in September and October 1992. Requisite ozone formation rates are supported by model analysis of ozone and ozone precursors measured from SAFARI and Transport and Atmospheric Research Chemistry near the Equator-Atlantic aircraft.

  6. Use of anchoring vignettes to evaluate health reporting behavior amongst adults aged 50 years and above in Africa and Asia – testing assumptions

    PubMed Central

    Hirve, Siddhivinayak; Gómez-Olivé, Xavier; Oti, Samuel; Debpuur, Cornelius; Juvekar, Sanjay; Tollman, Stephen; Blomstedt, Yulia; Wall, Stig; Ng, Nawi

    2013-01-01

    Background Comparing self-rating health responses across individuals and cultures is misleading due to different reporting behaviors. Anchoring vignettes is a technique that allows identifying and adjusting self-rating responses for reporting heterogeneity (RH). Objective This article aims to test two crucial assumptions of vignette equivalence (VE) and response consistency (RC) that are required to be met before vignettes can be used to adjust self-rating responses for RH. Design We used self-ratings, vignettes, and objective measures covering domains of mobility and cognition from the WHO study on global AGEing and adult health, administered to older adults aged 50 years and above from eight low- and middle-income countries in Africa and Asia. For VE, we specified a hierarchical ordered probit (HOPIT) model to test for equality of perceived vignette locations. For RC, we tested for equality of thresholds that are used to rate vignettes with thresholds derived from objective measures and used to rate their own health function. Results There was evidence of RH in self-rating responses for difficulty in mobility and cognition. Assumptions of VE and RC between countries were violated driven by age, sex, and education. However, within a country context, assumption of VE was met in some countries (mainly in Africa, except Tanzania) and violated in others (mainly in Asia, except India). Conclusion We conclude that violation of assumptions of RC and VE precluded the use of anchoring vignettes to adjust self-rated responses for RH across countries in Asia and Africa. PMID:24011254

  7. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Sud Province, north-central Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brownfield, M.E.; Klett, T.R.; Schenk, C.J.; Charpentier, R.R.; Cook, T.A.; Pollastro, R.M.; Tennyson, M.E.

    2011-01-01

    The Sud Province located in north-central Africa recently was assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids resources as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) World Oil and Gas Assessment. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the USGS estimated mean volumes of 7.31 billion barrels of oil, 13.42 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 353 million barrels of natural gas liquids.

  8. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Chad Basin Province, North-Central Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Cook, Troy A.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2010-01-01

    The Chad Basin Province located in north-central Africa recently was assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids resources as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) World Oil and Gas Assessment. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the USGS estimated mean volumes of 2.32 billion barrels of oil, 14.65 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 391 million barrels of natural gas liquids.

  9. Lower Palaeozoic of North-Western and West-Central Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, C.H.

    1985-01-01

    The first compilation in English of the stratigraphy, palaeontology, sedimentology, palaeogeography, and palaeoclimatology of the Lower Palaeozoic found in this area. The fourth volume in the Lower Palaeozoic Rocks of the World Series discusses geological formations such as the lower Cambrian tribolite-bearing sequences of Morocco, those showing evidence of late Ordovician glaciation in West-Central Africa, and the Silurian-Devonian sequences of Morocco and Algeria.

  10. Comment on "Intensifying weathering and land use in Iron Age Central Africa".

    PubMed

    Maley, Jean; Giresse, Pierre; Doumenge, Charles; Favier, Charly

    2012-08-31

    Bayon et al. (Reports, 9 March 2012, p. 1219) claim that the "rainforest crisis" in Central Africa centered around 2500 years before the present "was not triggered by natural climatic factors" and that it was caused by widespread deforestation resulting from the arrival of the Bantu colonists. However, there is a consensus among palaeoecologists that this landscape change and the related physical erosion it caused was due mainly to a shift to more seasonal rainfall regime. PMID:22936759

  11. NASA LCLUC Program: An Integrated Forest Monitoring System for Central Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laporte, Nadine; LeMoigne, Jacqueline; Elkan, Paul; Desmet, Olivier; Paget, Dominique; Pumptre, Andrew; Gouala, Patrice; Honzack, Miro; Maisels, Fiona

    2004-01-01

    Central Africa has the second largest unfragmented block of tropical rain forest in the world; it is also one of the largest carbon and biodiversity reservoirs. With nearly one-third of the forest currently allocated for logging, the region is poised to undergo extensive land-use change. Through the mapping of the forests, our Integrated Forest Monitoring System for Central Africa (INFORMS) project aims to monitor habitat alteration, support biodiversity conservation, and promote better land-use planning and forest management. Designed as an interdisciplinary project, its goal is to integrate data acquired from satellites with field observations from forest inventories, wildlife surveys, and socio-economic studies to map and monitor forest resources. This project also emphasizes on collaboration and coordination with international, regional, national, and local partners-including non-profit, governmental, and commercial sectors. This project has been focused on developing remote sensing products for the needs of forest conservation and management, insuring that research findings are incorporated in forest management plans at the national level. The societal impact of INFORMS can be also appreciated through the development of a regional remote sensing network in central Africa. With a regional office in Kinshasa, (www.OSFAC.org), the contribution to the development of forest management plans for 1.5 million hectares of forests in northern Republic of Congo (www.tt-timber.com), and the monitoring of park encroachments in the Albertine region (Uganda and DRC) (www.albertinerift.org).

  12. Avian influenza surveillance in Central and West Africa, 2010-2014.

    PubMed

    Fuller, T L; Ducatez, M F; Njabo, K Y; Couacy-Hymann, E; Chasar, A; Aplogan, G L; Lao, S; Awoume, F; Téhou, A; Langeois, Q; Krauss, S; Smith, T B

    2015-07-01

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) is an important zoonotic pathogen, resulting in global human morbidity and mortality and substantial economic losses to the poultry industry. Poultry and wild birds have transmitted AIV to humans, most frequently subtypes H5 and H7, but also different strains and subtypes of H6, H9, and H10. Determining which birds are AIV reservoirs can help identify human populations that have a high risk of infection with these viruses due to occupational or recreational exposure to the reservoir species. To assess the prevalence of AIV in tropical birds, from 2010 to 2014, we sampled 40 099 birds at 32 sites in Central Africa (Cameroon, Central African Republic, Congo-Brazzaville, Gabon) and West Africa (Benin, Côte d'Ivoire, Togo). In Central Africa, detection rates by real-time RT-PCR were 16·6% in songbirds (eight passerine families, n = 1257), 16·4% in kingfishers (family Alcedinidae, n = 73), 8·2% in ducks (family Anatidae, n = 564), and 3·65% in chickens (family Phasianidae, n = 1042). Public health authorities should educate human cohorts that have high exposure to these bird populations about AIV and assess their adherence to biosecurity practices, including Cameroonian farmers who raise small backyard flocks. PMID:25530320

  13. Interference of lithospheric folding in Central Asia by simultaneous Indian and Arabian plate indentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smit, J. H. W.; Cloetingh, S. A. P. L.; Burov, E.; Sokoutis, D.; Kaban, M.; Tesauro, M.; Burg, J.-P.

    2012-04-01

    Although large-scale folding of the crust and the lithosphere in Central Asia as a result of the indentation of India has been extensively documented, the impact of continental collision between Arabia and Eurasia has been largely overlooked. The resulting Neogene shortening and uplift of the Zagros, Albors, Kopet Dagh and Kaukasus mountain belts in Iran and surrounding areas is characterised by a simultaneous onset of major topography growth at ca. 5 Ma. At the same time, the adjacent Caspian, Turan and Amu Darya basins underwent an acceleration in subsidence. It is common knowledge that waves with different orientations will interfere with each other. Folding, by its nature similar to a standing wave, is not likely to be an exception. We demonstrate that collision of the Eurasian plate with the Arabian and Indian plates generates folding of the Eurasian lithosphere in two different directions and that interaction between both generates characteristic interference patterns that can be recognised from the regional gravity signal. We present evidence for interference of lithospheric folding patterns induced by Arabian and Indian collision with Eurasia. Wavelengths (from 50 to 250 km) and spatial patterns are inferred from satellite-derived topography and gravity models and attest for rheologically stratified lithosphere with relatively strong mantle rheology (thickness of strong mechanical core on the order of 40-50 km) and less competent crust (thickness of the mechanical core on the order of 10-15 km). The observations are compared with inferences from numerical and analogue tectonic experiments for a quantitative assessment of factors such as lithosphere rheology and stratification, lateral variations in lithosphere strength, thermo-mechanical age and distance to the plate boundary on the activity of folding as a mechanism of intra-plate deformation in this area. The observed interference of the patterns of folding appears to be primarily the result of spatial

  14. A high resolution record of chlorine-36 nuclear-weapons-tests fallout from Central Asia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Green, J.R.; Cecil, L.D.; Synal, H.-A.; Santos, J.; Kreutz, K.J.; Wake, C.P.

    2004-01-01

    The Inilchek Glacier, located in the Tien Shan Mountains, central Asia, is unique among mid-latitude glaciers because of its relatively large average annual accumulation. In July 2000, two ice cores of 162 and 167 meters (m) in length were collected from the Inilchek Glacier for (chlorine-36) 36Cl analysis a part of a collaborative international effort to study the environmental changes archived in mid-latitude glaciers worldwide. The average annual precipitation at the collection site was calculated to be 1.6 m. In contrast, the reported average annual accumulations at the high-latitude Dye-3 glacial site, Greenland, the mid-latitude Guliya Ice Cap, China, and the mid-latitude Upper Fremont Glacier, Wyoming, USA, were 0.52, 0.16 and 0.76 m, respectively. The resolution of the 36Cl record in one of the Inilchek ice cores was from 2 to 10 times higher than the resolution of the records at these other sites and could provide an opportunity for detailed study of environmental changes that have occurred over the past 150 years. Despite the differences in accumulation among these various glacial sites, the 36Cl profile and peak concentrations for the Inilchek ice core were remarkably similar in shape and magnitude to those for ice cores from these other sites. The 36Cl peak concentration from 1958, the year during the mid-1900s nuclear-weapons-tests period when 36Cl fallout was largest, was preserved in the Inilchek core at a depth of 90.56 m below the surface of the glacier (74.14-m-depth water equivalent) at a concentration of 7.7 ?? 105 atoms of 36Cl/gram (g) of ice. Peak 36Cl concentrations from Dye-3, Guliya and the Upper Fremont glacial sites were 7.1 ?? 105, 5.4 ?? 105 and 0.7 ?? 105 atoms of 36Cl/g of ice, respectively. Measurements of 36Cl preserved in ice cores improve estimates of historical worldwide atmospheric deposition of this isotope and allow the sources of 36Cl in ground water to be better identified. ?? 2004 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. [Ethnic conflicts and environmental degradation in Central Asia. The Ferghana valley and northern Kazakhstan].

    PubMed

    De Cordier, B

    1996-01-01

    This work seeks to demonstrate that the combination of ecological degradation, demographic pressure, and ethnic heterogeneity in Central Asia constitute a serious threat to the future stability of the region. The predominantly rural Ferghana Valley and Northern Kazakhstan suffer from shortages of water and land and from unemployment that leads to extensive out-migration to cities suffering from decline in their Soviet-era industries. The problem in the Ferghana Valley began with Tsarist conquest of the valley in 1876 and the subsequent imposition of cotton cultivation, which was greatly expanded by the Soviet Union. The Ferghana Valley, despite being a natural unit, was divided between Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and Kyrgyzstan in the 1920s and 1930s, and remains divided between the independent states. The current population of 11 million is ethnically diverse, with Uzbeks in the majority and increasing most rapidly. Immigration from the Caucasus since 1950 added to the tension. Future peace will depend on such factors as whether the neo-Communist political regime chooses to incite ethnic hostilities, the manner in which land is redistributed, and the outcome of struggles for control of the flourishing narcotics trade. The northern Kazakhstan region was designated a pioneer wheat-growing region by Soviet planners in 1954. Russian and Ukrainian migrants established between 1954 and 1956 are today the predominant population sector, but feel their privileged position threatened by nationalist policies making Kazakh the official language and giving preference in employment to Kazakhs. Resettlement of Kazakhs from Mongolia, China, and Afghanistan in the region and the high Kazakh birth rate increase tensions. Grain production initially grew rapidly, but the mediocre soil and erosion-inducing constant dry winds have caused production to stagnate or decline. Regional disputes within Kazakhstan complicate the situation. Northern Kazakhstan, with its industrial development, is

  16. Adult non-communicable disease mortality in Africa and Asia: evidence from INDEPTH Health and Demographic Surveillance System sites

    PubMed Central

    Streatfield, P. Kim; Khan, Wasif A.; Bhuiya, Abbas; Hanifi, Syed M.A.; Alam, Nurul; Bagagnan, Cheik H.; Sié, Ali; Zabré, Pascal; Lankoandé, Bruno; Rossier, Clementine; Soura, Abdramane B.; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Kone, Siaka; Ngoran, Eliezer K.; Utzinger, Juerg; Haile, Fisaha; Melaku, Yohannes A.; Weldearegawi, Berhe; Gomez, Pierre; Jasseh, Momodou; Ansah, Patrick; Debpuur, Cornelius; Oduro, Abraham; Wak, George; Adjei, Alexander; Gyapong, Margaret; Sarpong, Doris; Kant, Shashi; Misra, Puneet; Rai, Sanjay K.; Juvekar, Sanjay; Lele, Pallavi; Bauni, Evasius; Mochamah, George; Ndila, Carolyne; Williams, Thomas N.; Laserson, Kayla F.; Nyaguara, Amek; Odhiambo, Frank O.; Phillips-Howard, Penelope; Ezeh, Alex; Kyobutungi, Catherine; Oti, Samuel; Crampin, Amelia; Nyirenda, Moffat; Price, Alison; Delaunay, Valérie; Diallo, Aldiouma; Douillot, Laetitia; Sokhna, Cheikh; Gómez-Olivé, F. Xavier; Kahn, Kathleen; Tollman, Stephen M.; Herbst, Kobus; Mossong, Joël; Chuc, Nguyen T.K.; Bangha, Martin; Sankoh, Osman A.; Byass, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Background Mortality from non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is a major global issue, as other categories of mortality have diminished and life expectancy has increased. The World Health Organization's Member States have called for a 25% reduction in premature NCD mortality by 2025, which can only be achieved by substantial reductions in risk factors and improvements in the management of chronic conditions. A high burden of NCD mortality among much older people, who have survived other hazards, is inevitable. The INDEPTH Network collects detailed individual data within defined Health and Demographic Surveillance sites. By registering deaths and carrying out verbal autopsies to determine cause of death across many such sites, using standardised methods, the Network seeks to generate population-based mortality statistics that are not otherwise available. Objective To describe patterns of adult NCD mortality from INDEPTH Network sites across Africa and Asia, according to the WHO 2012 verbal autopsy (VA) cause categories, with separate consideration of premature (15–64 years) and older (65+ years) NCD mortality. Design All adult deaths at INDEPTH sites are routinely registered and followed up with VA interviews. For this study, VA archives were transformed into the WHO 2012 VA standard format and processed using the InterVA-4 model to assign cause of death. Routine surveillance data also provide person-time denominators for mortality rates. Results A total of 80,726 adult (over 15 years) deaths were documented over 7,423,497 person-years of observation. NCDs were attributed as the cause for 35.6% of these deaths. Slightly less than half of adult NCD deaths occurred in the 15–64 age group. Detailed results are presented by age and sex for leading causes of NCD mortality. Per-site rates of NCD mortality were significantly correlated with rates of HIV/AIDS-related mortality. Conclusions These findings present important evidence on the distribution of NCD mortality

  17. Neonatal severe bacterial infection impairment estimates in South Asia, sub-Saharan Africa, and Latin America for 2010

    PubMed Central

    Seale, Anna C.; Blencowe, Hannah; Zaidi, Anita; Ganatra, Hammad; Syed, Sana; Engmann, Cyril; Newton, Charles R.; Vergnano, Stefania; Stoll, Barbara J.; Cousens, Simon N.; Lawn, Joy E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Survivors of neonatal infections are at risk of neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI), a burden not previously systematically quantified and yet important for program priority setting. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses were undertaken and applied in a three-step compartmental model to estimate NDI cases after severe neonatal bacterial infection in South Asia, sub-Saharan Africa, and Latin America in neonates of >32 wk gestation (or >1,500 g). Methods: We estimated cases of sepsis, meningitis, pneumonia, or no severe bacterial infection from among estimated cases of possible severe bacterial infection ((pSBI) step 1). We applied respective case fatality risks ((CFRs) step 2) and the NDI risk among survivors (step 3). For neonatal tetanus, incidence estimates were based on the estimated deaths, CFRs, and risk of subsequent NDI. Results: For 2010, we estimated 1.7 million (uncertainty range: 1.1–2.4 million) cases of neonatal sepsis, 200,000 (21,000–350,000) cases of meningitis, 510,000 cases (150,000–930,000) of pneumonia, and 79,000 cases (70,000–930,000) of tetanus in neonates >32 wk gestation (or >1,500 g). Among the survivors, we estimated moderate to severe NDI after neonatal meningitis in 23% (95% confidence interval: 19–26%) of survivors, 18,000 (2,700–35,000) cases, and after neonatal tetanus in 16% (6–27%), 4,700 cases (1,700–8,900). Conclusion: Data are lacking for impairment after neonatal sepsis and pneumonia, especially among those of >32 wk gestation. Improved recognition and treatment of pSBI will reduce neonatal mortality. Lack of follow-up data for survivors of severe bacterial infections, particularly sepsis, was striking. Given the high incidence of sepsis, even minor NDI would be of major public health importance. Prevention of neonatal infection, improved case management, and support for children with NDI are all important strategies, currently receiving limited policy attention. PMID:24366464

  18. Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Happel, Sue; Loeb, Joyce

    Although the activities in this unit are designed primarily for students in the intermediate grades, the document's text, illustrations, and bibliographic references are suitable for anyone interested in learning about Africa. Following a brief introduction and map work, the document is arranged into six sections. Section 1 traces Africa's history…

  19. Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martz, Carlton

    2001-01-01

    This publication explores issues related to Africa. It examines the U.S. response to the Barbary pirate states (Morocco, Algiers, Tunis, Tripoli) in the early 19th century; the current AIDS crisis in Africa; and 14th century Mali and other Islamic lands through the eyes of Ibn Battuta, who traveled throughout the Muslim world. Each article…

  20. Local Technical Resources for Development of Seismic Monitoring in Caucasus and Central Asia - GMSys2009 Data Acquisition System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chkhaidze, D.; Basilaia, G.; Elashvili, M.; Shishlov, D.; Bidzinashvili, G.

    2012-12-01

    Caucasus and Central Asia represents regions of high seismic activity, composing a significant part of Alpine-Himalayan continental collision zone. Natural catastrophic events cause significant damage to the infrastructure worldwide, among these approximately ninety percent of the annual loss is due to earthquakes. Monitoring of Seismic Activity in these regions and adequate assessment of Seismic Hazards represents indispensible condition for safe and stable development. Existence of critical engineering constructions in the Caucasus and Central Asia such as oil and gas pipelines, high dams and nuclear power plants dramatically raises risks associated with natural hazards and eliminates necessity of proper monitoring systems. Our initial efforts were focused on areas that we are most familiar; the geophysical community in the greater Caucuses and Central Asia experiencing many of the same problems with the monitoring equipment. As a result, during the past years GMSys2009 was develop at the Institute of Earth Sciences of Ilia State University. Equipment represents a cost-effective, multifunctional Geophysical Data Acquisition System (DAS) to monitor seismic waves propagating in the earth and related geophysical parameters. Equipment best fits local requirements concerning power management, environmental protection and functionality, the same time competing commercial units available on the market. During past several years more than 30 units were assembled and what is most important installed in Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan and Tajikistan. GMSys2009 utilizes standard MiniSEED data format and data transmission protocols, making it possible online waveform data sharing between the neighboring Countries in the region and international community. All the mentioned installations were technically supported by the group of engineers from the Institute of Earth Sciences, on site trainings for local personnel in Armenia, Azerbaijan and Tajikistan was provided creating a

  1. Future glaciation and river flow in the Vakhsh and Panj drainage basins, Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoelzle, Martin; Hagg, Wilfried; Wagner, Stephan

    2010-05-01

    Central Asia is well known as an area of substantial water problems mainly caused by climate change and careless consumption of water resources. As in other parts of the globe where high mountains are surrounded by arid and semi-arid zones, snow and glacier melt are major contributors to runoff and important resources for agriculture in the lowlands. The FAO-UNESCO has started a "Climate Impact Study on Streamflow" to estimate future discharge in the catchments of the rivers Vakhsh (39,100 km2) and Panj(114,000 km2), the two tributaries of Amu Darya river. According to the World Glacier Inventory (WGI) prepared in the mid 20th century, the Panj and Vakhsh catchments have glacier covers of 3,913 km2 and 3,675 km2, respectively. A new inventory was conducted in 2003 within the frame of the GLIMS project. We used a simple parametrization scheme based on steady state conditions to infer the ice volumes for the two different time periods in the past and to extrapolate future changes. The resulting volumes for the WGI are 170-200 km3 for the Panj catchment and 200-240 km3 for the Vakhsh catchment. From the mid of the 20th century to 2003, an area (volume) decrease of 8.2% (10.5%) for the Panj and 7.5% (4.1%) for the Vakhsh catchment was determined. A comparison of two digital elevation models (SRTM of 2001 and Aster 2008) show for the glacier areas a mean mass change of -0.61 m a-1 for the Vakhsh and -0.81 m a-1 for the Panj. Regional climate simulations project a warming of 1.8°C-2.9°C until 2050, while it remains unclear if and in what direction precipitation will change. Assuming a temperature increase of 2°C until 2050 and no change in precipitation, the ice reserves in the two catchments will decline at an accelerated rate in comparison to the past with total volume reduction of 75.5% for the Panj basin and of 53% for the Vakhsh basin. To simulate present-day and future runoff, the HBV-ETH hydrological model was set up in the two sub-basins of Abramov (56 km

  2. Challenges in understanding, modelling, and mitigating Lake Outburst Flood Hazard: experiences from Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mergili, Martin; Schneider, Demian; Andres, Norina; Worni, Raphael; Gruber, Fabian; Schneider, Jean F.

    2010-05-01

    Lake Outburst Floods can evolve from complex process chains like avalanches of rock or ice that produce flood waves in a lake which may overtop and eventually breach glacial, morainic, landslide, or artificial dams. Rising lake levels can lead to progressive incision and destabilization of a dam, to enhanced ground water flow (piping), or even to hydrostatic failure of ice dams which can cause sudden outflow of accumulated water. These events often have a highly destructive potential because a large amount of water is released in a short time, with a high capacity to erode loose debris, leading to a powerful debris flow with a long travel distance. The best-known example of a lake outburst flood is the Vajont event (Northern Italy, 1963), where a landslide rushed into an artificial lake which spilled over and caused a flood leading to almost 2000 fatalities. Hazards from the failure of landslide dams are often (not always) fairly manageable: most breaches occur in the first few days or weeks after the landslide event and the rapid construction of a spillway - though problematic - has solved some hazardous situations (e.g. in the case of Hattian landslide in 2005 in Pakistan). Older dams, like Usoi dam (Lake Sarez) in Tajikistan, are usually fairly stable, though landsildes into the lakes may create floodwaves overtopping and eventually weakening the dams. The analysis and the mitigation of glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) hazard remains a challenge. A number of GLOFs resulting in fatalities and severe damage have occurred during the previous decades, particularly in the Himalayas and in the mountains of Central Asia (Pamir, Tien Shan). The source area is usually far away from the area of impact and events occur at very long intervals or as singularities, so that the population at risk is usually not prepared. Even though potentially hazardous lakes can be identified relatively easily with remote sensing and field work, modeling and predicting of GLOFs (and also

  3. Dynamics of the Seismogenic Layer for Deforming Zones in Central and East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, E. C.; Flesch, L. M.; Holt, W. E.

    2010-12-01

    at over 2500 GPS locations. Preliminary models defined with fault friction values of μ = 0.025 for the Burma region, μ = 0.10 - 0.25 for the Tibetan Plateau region, and μ > 0.6 for the megathrust system as well as for north central and far east Asia achieve optimal fit to Quaternary deformation indicators. Successful models indicate that deviatoric stresses associated with internal crustal buoyancies dominate over deviatoric stresses associated with velocity boundary conditions within Burma and parts of the Tibetan Plateau. The dynamic stress and strain rate tensor fields and the dynamic velocity field each are acutely sensitive to the intrinsic mechanical properties of the faults, the density of available fault fabric, and perhaps to contributions from horizontal basal tractions. We test our models of the seismogenic layer, which do not account for contributions from basal tractions, to the effect of deeper lithospheric loads. Initial results indicate that such loads are generally smaller than the stresses associated with our models of the seismogenic layer. Stresses associated from deeper sources together with stresses from the seismogenic layer yield dynamical model output that may enhance the fit to deformation indicators.

  4. Aeolian dust deposition during the Eocene-Oligocene in central to eastern Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandenberghe, Jef; Abels, Hemmo; van Cappelle, Marijn

    2015-04-01

    Aeolian dust deposition during the Eocene-Oligocene in central to eastern Asia Jef Vandenberghe1, Hemmo Abels2 and Marijn van Cappelle3 1Dept. of Earth Sciences, Vrije Universiteit, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands 2Dept. of Earth Sciences, Universiteit Utrecht, 3584 CD, Utrecht, The Netherlands 3Dept. of Earth Science and Engineering, Imperial College London, London, SW7 2AZ, U.K. The deposition of loess is generally attributed to a monsoonal climate system. Recently it has been shown that such a system existed already at the end of the Eocene on the northeastern Tibetan Plateau (Licht et al., 2014). One of the main arguments to prove the supply of loess by monsoonal winds is the use of grain size properties. The lower part of the Shuiwan section (Eocene) consists of metre-scale alternations of mudstone and gypsum beds; the upper part (Oligocene) is mainly mudstone (Dupont-Nivet et al., 2007; Abels et al., 2010). Sediments are categorized in six grain-size types based on the grain-size distribution and the mode of the silt grain sizes as measured using laser diffraction. Sediments of type 1, the only type with a unimodal grain-size distribution, consist exclusively of clay-sized particles (modal value of 2-2.5 µm). Types 2-6 have a multimodal composition. They contain an additional silt-sized fraction with a modal size of c. 16 µm in type 2; c. 26 µm in type 3 and c. 31 µm in type 4. Type 5 is a mixture of previous types, and type 6 contains in addition a slight amount of sand. Similar bimodal grain-size distributions occur in the Neogene Red Clay and in the Pleistocene loess of the Chinese Loess Plateau. All three silt fractions (with modal sizes 16, 26 and 31 µm) represent typical loess sediments, transported by dust storms in suspension at different altitudes. Their exact grain size depends on wind velocity, source material and transport distance. The 'clay component' may have settled from high suspension clouds in the air down to dry ground or to

  5. Climate change impacts on glaciers and runoff in Tien Shan (Central Asia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorg, A. F.; Bolch, T.; Stoffel, M.; Solomina, O.; Beniston, M.

    2012-12-01

    Climate-driven changes in glacier-fed streamflow regimes have direct implications on freshwater supply, irrigation and hydropower potential. Reliable information about current and future glaciation and runoff is crucial for water allocation and, hence, for social and ecological stability. Although the impacts of climate change on glaciation and runoff have been addressed in previous work undertaken in the Tien Shan (known as the 'water tower of Central Asia'), a coherent, regional perspective of these findings has not been presented until now. In our study, we explore the range of changes in glaciation in different climatic regions of the Tien Shan based on existing data. We show that the majority of Tien Shan glaciers experienced accelerated glacier wasting since the mid-1970s and that glacier shrinkage is most pronounced in peripheral, lower-elevation ranges near the densely populated forelands, where summers are dry and where snow and glacial meltwater is essential for water availability. The annual glacier area shrinkage rates since the middle of the twentieth century are 0.38-0.76% per year in the outer ranges, 0.15-0.40% per year in the inner ranges and 0.05-0.31% per year in the eastern ranges. This regionally non-uniform response to climate change implies that glacier shrinkage is less severe in the continental inner ranges than in the more humid outer ranges. Glaciers in the inner ranges react with larger time lags to climate change, because accumulation and thus mass turnover of the mainly cold glaciers are relatively small. Moreover, shrinkage is especially pronounced on small or fragmented glaciers, which are widely represented in the outer regions. The relative insensitivity of glaciers in the inner ranges is further accentuated by the higher average altitude, as the equilibrium line altitude ranges from 3'500 to 3'600 masl in the outer ranges to 4'400 masl in the inner ranges. For our study, we used glacier change assessments based both on direct data

  6. Oil and gas developments in central and southern Africa in 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Petracca, A.N.

    1986-10-01

    Oil industry activity in central and southern Africa appears to have stabilized in the last few years, but some activities (such as field development and exploration acreage acquisition) are still declining. Several countries have advertised open concessions and invited bids. Only in a very few cases have the offers stimulated the interest of oil companies. An exceptional increase in exploration concession acquisition took place in the East Africa rift area. Land seismic acquisition increased mostly in Nigeria, but 1985 marine seismic activity was half the 1984 activity. Exploration drilling was higher than in 1984, but development drilling was considerably lower. Significant discoveries were made in Gabon and Angola. Production increased 8%, with the largest and most significant increase in Angola, followed by Gabon. The production share of non-OPEC versus OPEC countries remained stable at 33%. 33 figures, 6 tables.

  7. HIV/AIDS in Central Africa: pathogenesis, immunological and medical issues.

    PubMed

    Sibanda, Elopy Nimele; Stanczuk, Grazyna; Kasolo, Francis

    2003-11-01

    The estimated worldwide prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections topped 52.5 million in June 2003, a mere 20 years after the aetiological agent was shown to be a sexually transmissible virus with a predilection for CD4+ T lymphocytes. More than 22 million people have died of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and the condition has in one generation become the most devastating and persistent epidemics in recorded history. More than two thirds of the world total of HIV-infected people live in Sub-Saharan Africa. In Central and Southern Africa at least 20% of the adult population is infected. As these adults die, they leave increasing numbers of orphans. Life expectancy at birth declined by 10 years per decade since the late 1980s to 50 years in the late 1990s, and in Botswana it is estimated to be as low as 33 years by 2010. The epidemic is increasing unabated and prospects for a curative or protective vaccine remain remote. The impact on HIV in Africa has been so profound that it influences political, economic, agriculture/food security, social, education, defence, science and health considerations. The medical and in particular immunology communities in Central Africa have the invidious challenge of on the one hand diagnosing the condition, monitoring its impact and contributing to treatment and management efforts. The science and clinical practice of immunology is challenged to find answers to the epidemic, perhaps including a vaccine. In this review we address the peculiarities of the HIV epidemic in Africa, its epidemiology and immunopathogenesis. We address the effect of the epidemic on individual patients, in their homes, workplaces and the knock-on effects on families and friends of the infected. Respective specialists discuss special groups (women, children) that are predominantly seen in Africa. We also discuss the impact of the epidemic on the clinical practice of medicine in general and challenges faced in the introduction of

  8. HIV among people who inject drugs in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia: a systematic review with implications for policy

    PubMed Central

    Jolley, Emma; Rhodes, Tim; Platt, Lucy; Hope, Vivian; Latypov, Alisher; Donoghoe, Martin; Wilson, David

    2012-01-01

    Background and objectives HIV among people who inject drugs (PWID) is a major public health concern in Eastern and Central Europe and Central Asia. HIV transmission in this group is growing and over 27 000 HIV cases were diagnosed among PWID in 2010 alone. The objective of this systematic review was to examine risk factors associated with HIV prevalence among PWID in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia and to describe the response to HIV in this population and the policy environments in which they live. Design A systematic review of peer-reviewed and grey literature addressing HIV prevalence and risk factors for HIV prevalence among PWID and a synthesis of key resources describing the response to HIV in this population. We used a comprehensive search strategy across multiple electronic databases to collect original research papers addressing HIV prevalence and risk factors among PWID since 2005. We summarised the extent of key harm reduction interventions, and using a simple index of ‘enabling’ environment described the policy environments in which they are implemented. Studies reviewed Of the 5644 research papers identified from electronic databases and 40 documents collected from our grey literature search, 70 documents provided unique estimates of HIV and 14 provided multivariate risk factors for HIV among PWID. Results HIV prevalence varies widely, with generally low or medium (<5%) prevalence in Central Europe and high (>10%) prevalence in Eastern Europe. We found evidence for a number of structural factors associated with HIV including gender, socio-economic position and contact with law enforcement agencies. Conclusions The HIV epidemic among PWID in the region is varied, with the greatest burden generally in Eastern Europe. Data suggest that the current response to HIV among PWID is insufficient, and hindered by multiple environmental barriers including restricted access to services and unsupportive policy or social environments. PMID:23087014

  9. Mongolian plateau: Evidence for a late Cenozoic mantle plume under central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Windley, Brian F.; Allen, Mark B.

    1993-04-01

    The 2500 x 700 km Mongolian plateau (average elevation 2000 m) is situated between the Altai orogen and the Siberian craton and occupies much of Mongolia and Transbaikalia in Russia. The plateau is characterized by (1) basin and range topography and two major domes(Hentai, 600 x 300 km, and Hangai, 800 x 550 km), where altitudes reach 3905 m; (2) lithosphere that is thinner than adjacent areas (minimum ˜50 km); (3) elevated heat flow (up to 120 mW/m2); (4) dominantly alkaline basaltic volcanism in the form of cones, lava fields, and volcanic plateaus mostly of Miocene-Quaternary age, and (5) rifts, including Baikal (main evolution in the Pliocene-Quaternary), Tunka (Oligocene-early Miocene), and Hobsogol (Pliocene-Quaternary). Existing models explain these features in terms of diapiric upwelling of a mantle asthenolith below the main rifts and/or as a long-distance effect of the India-Asia collision. We propose that the late Cenozoic uplift of the whole Mongolian plateau and associated rifting, magmatism, high heat flow, and lithospherec thinning are not externally driven by the India-Asia collision, but are the expression of the interaction of a mantle plume with overlying lithosphere. Some rifts link and interact with major strike-slip faults, such as the Bolnai. Such faults may be the major expression of the India-Asia collision in this region.

  10. A long-term context (931-2005 C.E.) for rapid warming over Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davi, N. K.; D'Arrigo, R.; Jacoby, G. C.; Cook, E. R.; Anchukaitis, K.; Nachin, B.; Rao, M. P.; Leland, C.

    2015-08-01

    Warming over Mongolia and Central Asia has been unusually rapid over the past few decades, particularly in the summer, with surface temperature anomalies higher than for much of the globe. With few temperature station records available in this remote region prior to the 1950s, paleoclimatic data must be used to understand annual-to-centennial scale climate variability, local response to large-scale forcing mechanisms, and the significance of major features of the past millennium such as the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) and Little Ice Age (LIA) both of which can vary globally. Here we use an extensive collection of living and subfossil wood samples from temperature-sensitive trees to produce a millennial-length, validated reconstruction of summer temperatures for Mongolia and Central Asia from 931 to 2005 CE. This tree-ring reconstruction shows general agreement with the MCA (warming) and LIA (cooling) trends, a significant volcanic signature, and warming in the 20th and 21st Century. Recent warming (2000-2005) exceeds that from any other time and is concurrent with, and likely exacerbated, the impact of extreme drought (1999-2002) that resulted in massive livestock loss across Mongolia.

  11. Central southern Africa at the time of the African Humid Period: A new analysis of Holocene palaeoenvironmental and palaeoclimate data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burrough, Sallie; Thomas, David

    2014-05-01

    The Holocene African Humid Period (c 14.8-5.5 ka) is now recognised in high-resolution records from western Africa as well as in tropical Africa north of the equator. Establishing a clear picture of Holocene environmental changes from palaeodata in central southern Africa is, however, proving both difficult and contentious. This is because in dryland systems in particular it can be difficult to distinguish the effects of sub-millennial scale regional climatic variability from those of major externally-forced global climate changes. We analyse and review existing records for central southern Africa, and neighbouring areas affected by the same climate systems, to attempt to build a clearer spatial picture of regional hydrological system responses during the Holocene. We suggest palaeodata, including new data from Makgadikgadi basin barchan dunes indicate mid-late Holocene aridity following a period of marked hydrological dynamism extending from the early Holocene. We propose that present-day conditions in central southern Africa are relatively stable compared to the early and mid-Holocene and infer that this period of relative stability in the landscape has occurred since ca. 2 ka. We explain Holocene hydrological changes through analysis of changing zonal climatic influences linked to Congo Air Boundary (CAB) and Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) dynamics, the effects of which filter into the region via complex drainage basin dynamics. It is proposed that, sensu stricto, the AHP was not a spatially uniform feature of early Holocene central southern Africa.

  12. First early hominin from central Africa (Ishango, Democratic Republic of Congo).

    PubMed

    Crevecoeur, Isabelle; Skinner, Matthew M; Bailey, Shara E; Gunz, Philipp; Bortoluzzi, Silvia; Brooks, Alison S; Burlet, Christian; Cornelissen, Els; De Clerck, Nora; Maureille, Bruno; Semal, Patrick; Vanbrabant, Yves; Wood, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Despite uncontested evidence for fossils belonging to the early hominin genus Australopithecus in East Africa from at least 4.2 million years ago (Ma), and from Chad by 3.5 Ma, thus far there has been no convincing evidence of Australopithecus, Paranthropus or early Homo from the western (Albertine) branch of the Rift Valley. Here we report the discovery of an isolated upper molar (#Ish25) from the Western Rift Valley site of Ishango in Central Africa in a derived context, overlying beds dated to between ca. 2.6 to 2.0 Ma. We used µCT imaging to compare its external and internal macro-morphology to upper molars of australopiths, and fossil and recent Homo. We show that the size and shape of the enamel-dentine junction (EDJ) surface discriminate between Plio-Pleistocene and post-Lower Pleistocene hominins, and that the Ishango molar clusters with australopiths and early Homo from East and southern Africa. A reassessment of the archaeological context of the specimen is consistent with the morphological evidence and suggest that early hominins were occupying this region by at least 2 Ma. PMID:24427292

  13. First Early Hominin from Central Africa (Ishango, Democratic Republic of Congo)

    PubMed Central

    Crevecoeur, Isabelle; Skinner, Matthew M.; Bailey, Shara E.; Gunz, Philipp; Bortoluzzi, Silvia; Brooks, Alison S.; Burlet, Christian; Cornelissen, Els; De Clerck, Nora; Maureille, Bruno; Semal, Patrick; Vanbrabant, Yves; Wood, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Despite uncontested evidence for fossils belonging to the early hominin genus Australopithecus in East Africa from at least 4.2 million years ago (Ma), and from Chad by 3.5 Ma, thus far there has been no convincing evidence of Australopithecus, Paranthropus or early Homo from the western (Albertine) branch of the Rift Valley. Here we report the discovery of an isolated upper molar (#Ish25) from the Western Rift Valley site of Ishango in Central Africa in a derived context, overlying beds dated to between ca. 2.6 to 2.0 Ma. We used µCT imaging to compare its external and internal macro-morphology to upper molars of australopiths, and fossil and recent Homo. We show that the size and shape of the enamel-dentine junction (EDJ) surface discriminate between Plio-Pleistocene and post-Lower Pleistocene hominins, and that the Ishango molar clusters with australopiths and early Homo from East and southern Africa. A reassessment of the archaeological context of the specimen is consistent with the morphological evidence and suggest that early hominins were occupying this region by at least 2 Ma. PMID:24427292

  14. Estimates of possible severe bacterial infection in neonates in sub-Saharan Africa, south Asia, and Latin America for 2012: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Seale, Anna C; Blencowe, Hannah; Manu, Alexander A; Nair, Harish; Bahl, Rajiv; Qazi, Shamim A; Zaidi, Anita K; Berkley, James A; Cousens, Simon N; Lawn, Joy E

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Bacterial infections are a leading cause of the 2·9 million annual neonatal deaths. Treatment is usually based on clinical diagnosis of possible severe bacterial infection (pSBI). To guide programme planning, we have undertaken the first estimates of neonatal pSBI, by sex and by region, for sub-Saharan Africa, south Asia, and Latin America. Methods We included data for pSBI incidence in neonates of 32 weeks' gestation or more (or birthweight ≥1500 g) with livebirth denominator data, undertaking a systematic review and forming an investigator group to obtain unpublished data. We calculated pooled risk estimates for neonatal pSBI and case fatality risk, by sex and by region. We then applied these risk estimates to estimates of livebirths in sub-Saharan Africa, south Asia, and Latin America to estimate cases and associated deaths in 2012. Findings We included data from 22 studies, for 259 944 neonates and 20 196 pSBI cases, with most of the data (18 of the 22 studies) coming from the investigator group. The pooled estimate of pSBI incidence risk was 7·6% (95% CI 6·1–9·2%) and the case-fatality risk associated with pSBI was 9·8% (7·4–12·2). We estimated that in 2012 there were 6·9 million cases (uncertainty range 5·5 million–8·3 million) of pSBI in neonates needing treatment: 3·5 million (2·8 million–4·2 million) in south Asia, 2·6 million (2·1 million–3·1 million) in sub-Saharan Africa, and 0·8 million (0·7 million–1·0 million) in Latin America. The risk of pSBI was greater in boys (risk ratio 1·12, 95% CI 1·06–1·18) than girls. We estimated that there were 0·68 million (0·46 million–0·92 million) neonatal deaths associated with pSBI in 2012. Interpretation The need-to-treat population for pSBI in these three regions is high, with ten cases of pSBI diagnosed for each associated neonatal death. Deaths and disability can be reduced through improved prevention, detection, and case management. Funding The

  15. Contemporary changes of water resources, water and land use in Central Asia based on observations and modeling.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiklomanov, A. I.; Prousevitch, A.; Sokolik, I. N.; Lammers, R. B.

    2015-12-01

    Water is a key agent in Central Asia ultimately determining human well-being, food security, and economic development. There are complex interplays among the natural and anthropogenic drivers effecting the regional hydrological processes and water availability. Analysis of the data combined from regional censuses and remote sensing shows a decline in areas of arable and irrigated lands and a significant decrease in availability of arable and irrigated lands per capita across all Central Asian countries since the middle of 1990thas the result of post-Soviet transformation processes. This change could lead to considerable deterioration in food security and human system sustainability. The change of political situation in the region has also resulted in the escalated problems of water demand between countries in international river basins. We applied the University of New Hampshire - Water Balance Model - Transport from Anthropogenic and Natural Systems (WBM-TrANS) to understand the consequences of changes in climate, water and land use on regional hydrological processes and water availability. The model accounts for sub-pixel land cover types, glacier and snow-pack accumulation/melt across sub-pixel elevation bands, anthropogenic water use (e.g. domestic and industrial consumption, and irrigation for most of existing crop types), hydro-infrastructure for inter-basin water transfer and reservoir/dam regulations. A suite of historical climate re-analysis and temporal extrapolation of MIRCA-2000 crop structure datasets has been used in WBM-TrANS for this project. A preliminary analysis of the model simulations over the last 30 years has shown significant spatial and temporal changes in hydrology and water availability for crops and human across the region due to climatic and anthropogenic causes. We found that regional water availability is mostly impacted by changes in extents and efficiency of crop filed irrigation, especially in highly arid areas of Central Asia

  16. Oil and gas developments in central and southern Africa in 1981

    SciTech Connect

    McGrew, H.J.

    1982-11-01

    Exploratory activity in central and southern Africa continued to grow during 1981. Geophysical operations reached nearly record levels and the number of wells increased markedly. Oil production suffered from the adverse conditions that existed throughout the world and dropped by a significant amount. New Concession acquisitions occurred in several of the countries in northeast Africa. Elsewhere, the operating companies negotiated new concessions and renewed those that were expiring. In several countries where production has been proven, the operators were assigned exploitation concessions. Seismic crews and marine geophysical vessels were active throughout the countries in this area. A total of 365 party-months of work was done to yield 98,035 km of new lines. A moderate amount of 3-D recording was carried out in connection with field development. Some aeromagnetic work was done, principally in northeast Africa and in Mozambique. Forty-four new fields or pools were discovered by drilling 115 new-field wildcat and exploratory wells. These wells accounted for 1,060,254 ft (323,248 m) of hole. Appraisal and development drilling resulted in 321 wells with a total of 2,533,305 ft (772,349 m) of hole drilled. At year end, 25 exploratory wells were under way or resting, and 49 rigs were active in development drilling. Oil production for the year was 691,995,939 bbl, a decrease of nearly 25% from 1980. Nigeria suffered the greatest drop in production; however, increases were achieved in Cameroon, Congo, and Zaire. The cumulative production from this part of Africa passed the 10 billion bbl mark.

  17. Ocean climate data for user community in West and Central Africa: Needs, opportunities, and challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ojo, S. O.

    1992-01-01

    The urgent need to improve data delivery systems needed by scientists studying ocean role in climate and climate characteristics has been manifested in recent years because of the unprecedented climatic events experienced in many parts of the world. Indeed, there has been a striking and growing realization by governments and the general public indicating that national economies and human welfare depend on climate and its variability. In West and Central Africa, for instance climatic events, which have resulted in floods and droughts, have caused a lot of concern to both governments and people of the region. In particular, the droughts have been so widespread that greater awareness and concern have become generated for the need to find solutions to the problems created by the consequences of the climatic events. Particularly in the southern border regions of the Sahara Desert as well as in the Sahel region, the drought episodes considerably reduced food production and led to series of socioeconomic problems, not only in the areas affected by the droughts, but also in the other parts of West Africa. The various climatic variabilities which have caused the climatic events are no doubt related to the ocean-atmosphere interactions. Unfortunately, not much has been done on the understanding of these interactions, particularly as they affect developing countries. Indeed, not much has been done to develop programs which will reflect the general concerns and needs for researching into the ocean-atmosphere systems and their implications on man-environmental systems in many developing countries. This is for example, true of West and Central Africa, where compared with the middle latitude countries, much less is known about the characteristics of the ocean-atmosphere systems and their significance on man-environmental systems of the area.

  18. Seasonal contribution of mineral dust and other major components to particulate matter at two remote sites in Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller-Schulze, Justin P.; Shafer, Martin; Schauer, James J.; Heo, Jongbae; Solomon, Paul A.; Lantz, Jeffrey; Artamonova, Maria; Chen, Boris; Imashev, Sanjar; Sverdlik, Leonid; Carmichael, Greg; DeMinter, Jeff

    2015-10-01

    Dust storms are significant contributors to ambient levels of particulate matter (PM) in many areas of the world. Central Asia, an area that is relatively understudied in this regard, is anticipated to be affected by dust storms due to its proximity to several major deserts that are in and generally surround Central Asia (e.g., the Aral Sea region, the Taklimakan desert in Western China). To investigate the relative importance of mineral dust (dust specifically composed of soil related minerals and oxides) in Central Asia, PM10 and PM2.5, and by difference, coarse particles (particles with diameters between 2.5 and 10 μm) were measured at two sites, Bishkek and Lidar Station Teplokluchenka (Lidar), in the Kyrgyz Republic. Samples were collected every other day from July 2008 to July 2009. Daily samples were analyzed for mass and organic and elemental carbon. Samples were also composited on a bi-weekly basis and analyzed for elemental constituents and ionic components. In addition, samples collected on days with relatively high and low PM concentrations were analyzed before, and separately, from the biweekly composites to investigate the chemical differences between the episodic events. Data from the episodic samples were averaged into the composited averages. Using the elemental component data, several observational models were examined to estimate the contribution of mineral dust to ambient PM levels. A mass balance was also conducted. Results indicate that at both sites, mineral dust (as approximated by the "dust oxide" model) and organic matter (OM) were the dominant contributors to PM10 and PM2.5. Mineral dust was a more significant contributor to the coarse PM (PM10-2.5) during high event samples at both sites, although the relative contribution is greater at the Lidar site (average ± standard deviation = 42 ± 29%) as compared with the Bishkek site (26 ± 16%). Principal Components Analysis (PCA) was performed using data from both sites, and PCA indicated

  19. Towards climatological study on the characteristics of aerosols in Central Africa and Mediterranean sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benkhalifa, Jamel; Chaabane, Mabrouk

    2016-02-01

    The atmosphere contains molecules, clouds and aerosols that are sub-millimeter particles having a large variability in size, shape, chemical composition, lifetime and contents. The aerosols concentration depends greatly on the geographical situation, meteorological and environmental conditions, which makes aerosol climatology difficult to assess. Setting up a solar photometer (automatic, autonomous and portable instrument) on a given site allows carrying out the necessary measurements for aerosol characterization. The particle microphysical and optical properties are obtained from photometric measurements. The objective of this study is to analyze the spatial variability of aerosol optical thickness (AOT) in several Mediterranean regions and Central Africa, we considered a set of simultaneous data in the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) from six sites, two of which are located in Central Africa (Banizoumbou and Zinder Airport) and the rest are Mediterranean sites (Barcelona, Malaga, Lampedusa, and Forth Crete). The results have shown that the physical properties of aerosols are closely linked to the climate nature of the studied site. The optical thickness, single scattering albedo and aerosols size distribution can be due to the aging of the dust aerosol as they are transported over the Mediterranean basin.

  20. [The characteristics of the macro- and trace element composition of the hair in the peoples of Asia, Africa and Latin America].

    PubMed

    Pavlov, Iu V; Alisievich, V I

    1999-01-01

    Macro- and trace element composition of hairs on the head, chest, in the armpits, and on the pubis in the population of Asia, Africa, and Latin America adapted and not to the climate, geographic and ecological conditions of the Russian Federation (Moscow) is studied by spectrography (DPS-13 spectrograph). Element composition of residents of 16 countries is analyzed by variation statistics methods using PC: Lebanon, Syria, Yemen, Bahrain, India, Sierra Leone, Côte d'Ivoire, Rwanda, Kenya, Sudan, Mexico, Ecuador, Bolivia, Brasilia, Columbia, and Chile. Hairs from residents of East Europe (Russians, Byelorussians, Ukrainians) living in Moscow for 6-8 years (adapted) were the reference for comparison. A total of 371 specimens of hairs were examined. Hairs from adapted and not adapted residents of the above-listed countries and continents differ significantly from each other and from the hairs of Russians, Byelorussians, and Ukrainians living in Moscow. PMID:10224921

  1. Mental health and migration: depression, alcohol abuse, and access to health care among migrants in Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Ismayilova, Leyla; Lee, Hae Nim; Shaw, Stacey; El-Bassel, Nabila; Gilbert, Louisa; Terlikbayeva, Assel; Rozental, Yelena

    2014-12-01

    One-fifth of Kazakhstan's population is labor migrants working in poor conditions with limited legal rights. This paper examines self-rated health, mental health and access to health care among migrant workers. Using geo-mapping, a random sample of internal and external migrant market workers was selected in Almaty (N = 450). We used survey logistic regression adjusted for clustering of workers within stalls. Almost half of participants described their health as fair or poor and reported not seeing a doctor when needed, 6.2% had clinical depression and 8.7% met criteria for alcohol abuse. Female external migrants were at higher risk for poor health and underutilization of health services. High mobility was associated with depression among internal migrants and with alcohol abuse among female migrant workers. This study demonstrates the urgent need to address health and mental health needs and improve access to health care among labor migrants in Central Asia. PMID:24186359

  2. Seroepidemiologic Survey for Coxiella burnetii Among US Military Personnel Deployed to Southwest and Central Asia in 2005

    PubMed Central

    Royal, Joseph; Riddle, Mark S.; Mohareb, Emad; Monteville, Marshall R.; Porter, Chad K.; Faix, Dennis J.

    2013-01-01

    We used a seroepidemiologic study to estimate Q fever (Coxiella burnetii) seroprevalence, seroincidence, and risk factors for seroconversion in two deployed military populations in 2005. The first study group resided in an area with a known Q fever outbreak history (Al Asad, Iraq). Of this population, 7.2% seroconverted for an incidence rate of 10.6 seroconversions per 1,000 person-months. The second population included personnel transiting through Qatar on mid-deployment leave from southwest/central Asia. In this group, we found 2.1% prevalence with 0.92 seroconversions per 1,000 person-months. However, no significant risk factors for Q fever seroconversion were found in either population. PMID:24043692

  3. Simulations of Future Drought Conditions in Central Asia CORDEX Region 8 by Using RegCM4.3.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turp, M. T.; Ozturk, T.; An, N.; Türkeş, M.; Kurnaz, L.

    2014-12-01

    In this work, projected future changes in mean surface air temperature and precipitation climatology, inter-annual and seasonal variability and climatic aridity/humidity conditions for the period of 2071-2100 over the large Central Asia region with respect to present climate (1971 to 2000) were simulated based on the RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 emission scenarios. Regional Climate Model (RegCM4.3.5) of the International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) was used for projections of future and present climate conditions. HadGEM2 global climate model of the Met Office Hadley Centre and MPI-ESM-MR global climate model of the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology were downscaled to 50 km for the CORDEX Region 8. We investigated the seasonal time-scale performance of RegCM4.3.5 in reproducing observed climatology over the domain of Central Asia by using two different global climate model outputs. For the future climatology of the domain, the regional model predicts relatively high warming in the warm season and northern part of the domain at cold season with a decrease in precipitation almost all part of the domain. The results of our study show that surface temperatures in the region will increase from 3°C up to more than 7°C on average according to the emission scenarios for the period of 2070-2100 with respect to past period of 1970-2000. Therefore, the projected warming and decrease in precipitation and also resultant or associated increased aridity and more frequent and severe drought events very likely adversely affect the ecological and socio-economic systems of this region, which is already characterised with mostly arid and semi-arid climate and ecosystems.

  4. Simulations of Future Drought Conditions in Central Asia CORDEX Region 8 by Using RegCM4.3.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozturk, Tugba; Turp, M. Tufan; Türkeş, Murat; Kurnaz, M. Levent; An, Nazan

    2015-04-01

    In this work, projected future changes in mean surface air temperature and precipitation climatology, inter-annual and seasonal variability and climatic aridity/humidity conditions for the period 2070-2100 over the large Central Asia region with respect to present climate (from 1970 to 2000) were simulated based on the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 emission scenarios. Regional Climate Model (RegCM4.3.5) of the International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) was used for projections of future and present climate conditions. HadGEM2 global climate model of the Met Office Hadley Centre and MPI-ESM-MR global climate model of the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology were downscaled to 50 km for the CORDEX Region 8. We investigated the seasonal time-scale performance of RegCM4.3.5 in reproducing observed climatology over the domain of Central Asia by using 2 different global climate model outputs. For the future climatology of the domain, the regional model predicts relatively high warming in the warm season and northern part of the domain at cold season with a decrease in precipitation almost all part of the domain. The results of our study show that surface temperatures in the region will increase from 3 °C up to more than 7 °C on average according to the emission scenarios for the period 2070-2100 with respect to past period 1970-2000. Therefore, the projected warming and decrease in precipitation and also resultant or associated increased aridity and more frequent and severe drought events very likely adversely affect the ecological and socio-economic systems of this region, which is already characterised with mostly arid and semi-arid climate and ecosystems.

  5. Retreating or Standing: Responses of Forest Species and Steppe Species to Climate Change in Arid Eastern Central Asia

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hong-Xiang; Zhang, Ming-Li; Sanderson, Stewart C.

    2013-01-01

    Background The temperature in arid Eastern Central Asia is projected to increase in the future, accompanied by increased variability of precipitation. To investigate the impacts of climate change on plant species in this area, we selected two widespread species as candidates, Clematis sibirica and C. songorica, from montane coniferous forest and arid steppe habitats respectively. Methodology/Principal Findings We employed a combined approach of molecular phylogeography and species distribution modelling (SDM) to predict the future responses of these two species to climate change, utilizing evidence of responses from the past. Genetic data for C. sibirica shows a significant phylogeographical signal (NST > FST, P<0.05) and demographic contraction during the glacial-interglacial cycles in the Pleistocene. This forest species would likely experience range reduction, though without genetic loss, in the face of future climate change. In contrast, SDMs predict that C. songorica, a steppe species, should maintain a consistently stable potential distribution under the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and the future climatic conditions referring to its existing potential distribution. Molecular results indicate that the presence of significant phylogeographical signal in this steppe species is rejected and this species contains a high level of genetic differentiation among populations in cpDNA, likely benefiting from stable habitats over a lengthy time period. Conclusions/Significance Evidence from the molecular phylogeography of these two species, the forest species is more sensitive to past climate changes than the steppe species. SDMs predict that the forest species will face the challenge of potential range contraction in the future more than the steppe species. This provides a perspective on ecological management in arid Eastern Central Asia, indicating that increased attention should be paid to montane forest species, due to their high sensitivity to disturbance. PMID

  6. Using Small-Aperture Arrays to Characterize the Far-Regional P-Wavefield in Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferris, A.; Reiter, D.

    2007-12-01

    Accurate knowledge of waveform characteristics observed at far-regional and near-teleseismic distances is critically important for nuclear monitoring in regions in which observations are sparse. However, seismograms of far-regional earthquakes are often difficult to interpret because of complex wave interactions with upper mantle structure. At these distances (14-22°), seismic discontinuities near 220, 410 and 660 km depth, as well as other mantle heterogeneity, produce interference phenomena that result in phase triplication, amplitude modulations and travel-time anomalies. For example, in central Asia, travel-time bulletins exhibit large residuals (1 - 8 sec) for the direct P arrival from far-regional events. These residuals are likely caused by complicated multi-pathing along the upper mantle propagation path and frequent phase misidentification due to the complexity of the seismograms. To improve the usefulness of far-regional arrivals in seismic event location and discrimination, we have modified some well-known array-processing techniques to increase the accuracy of primary and early coda phase identification recorded by small aperture (2 - 3 km) borehole arrays. To date the high fidelity recordings provided by these small aperture arrays have been primarily utilized for accurate picks of primary phase onset times and local earthquake studies. However, we have found that adequate determinations of other arrival characteristics are possible by modifying two well- known τ-p filtering (or velocity spectra analysis) methods: Nth-root and phase-weighted stacking. We have applied our modified methods to vertical-component data recorded at distances between 14- 18° by 9-element small-aperture arrays in central Asia. Our results indicate that in many cases we can identify closely-spaced arrivals by their slowness values in a time window that includes the direct P arrival, depth phases and arrivals from upper- mantle discontinuities.

  7. Modeling forest lines and forest distribution patterns with remote-sensing data in a mountainous region of semiarid central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klinge, M.; Bohner, J.; Erasmi, S.

    2015-05-01

    Satellite images and digital elevation models provide an excellent database to analyze forest distribution patterns and forest limits in the mountain regions of semiarid central Asia on the regional scale. For the investigation area in the northern Tien Shan, a strong relationship between forest distribution and climate conditions could be found. Additionally areas of potential human impact on forested areas are identified at lower elevations near the edge of the mountains based on an analysis of the differences in climatic preconditions and the present occurrence of forest stands. The distribution of spruce (Picea schrenkiana) forests is hydrologically limited by a minimum annual precipitation of 250 mm and thermally by a minimum monthly mean temperature of 5 °C during the growing season. While the actual lower forest limit increases from 1600 m a.s.l. (above sea level) in the northwest to 2600 m a.s.l. in the southeast, the upper forest limit rises in the same direction from 1800 m a.s.l. to 2900 m a.s.l.. In accordance with the main wind directions, the steepest gradient of both forest lines and the greatest local vertical extent of the forest belt of 500 to 600 m to a maximum of 900 m occur at the northern and western mountain fronts. The forests in the investigation area are strongly restricted to north-facing slopes, which is a common feature in semiarid central Asia. Based on the presumption that variations in local climate conditions are a function of topography, the potential forest extent was analyzed with regard to the parameters slope, aspect, solar radiation input and elevation. All four parameters showed a strong relationship to forest distribution, yielding a total potential forest area that is 3.5 times larger than the present forest remains of 502 km2.

  8. Strategies to improve follow-up of children after surgery for cataract: findings from Child Eye Health Tertiary Facilities in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia.

    PubMed

    Kishiki, E; van Dijk, K; Courtright, P

    2016-09-01

    PurposeWe sought to conduct a systematic literature review on follow-up of children with ocular surgical management (primarily childhood cataract) in developing countries. Second, we sought to determine the current practices regarding follow-up for clinical, optical, low vision, rehabilitation, and educational placement among children receiving surgical services at Child Eye Health Tertiary Facilities (CEHTF) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and South Asia.MethodsA systematic literature review was conducted. Separately, we conducted a cross-sectional study among CEHTF in SSA and South Asia (India, Nepal, and Bangladesh) to assess current capacities and practices related to follow-up and educational placement.ResultsThe articles that met the systematic review eligibility criteria could be grouped into two areas: factors and strategies to improve post-operative follow-up and educational placement of children after surgery. Among the 106 CEHTF in SSA and South Asia, responses were provided by 75 CEHTF. Only 59% of CEHTF reported having a Childhood Blindness and Low Vision Coordinator; having a coordinator was associated with having appropriate follow-up mechanisms in place. Educational referral practices were associated with having a low-vision technician, having low-vision devices, and having donor support for these services.ConclusionsThe systematic literature review revealed evidence of poor follow-up after surgical interventions for cataract and other conditions, but also showed that follow-up could be improved significantly if specific strategies were adopted. Approaches to follow-up are generally inadequate at most facilities and there is little external support for follow-up. Findings suggest that funding and supporting a coordinator would assist in ensuring that good practices for follow-up (cell phone reminders, patient tracking, and reimbursement of transport) were followed. PMID:27472213

  9. Characteristics and comprehensiveness of adult HIV care and treatment programmes in Asia-Pacific, sub-Saharan Africa and the Americas: results of a site assessment conducted by the International epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) Collaboration

    PubMed Central

    Duda, Stephany N; Farr, Amanda M; Lindegren, Mary Lou; Blevins, Meridith; Wester, C William; Wools-Kaloustian, Kara; Ekouevi, Didier K; Egger, Matthias; Hemingway-Foday, Jennifer; Cooper, David A; Moore, Richard D; McGowan, Catherine C; Nash, Denis

    2014-01-01

    Introduction HIV care and treatment programmes worldwide are transforming as they push to deliver universal access to essential prevention, care and treatment services to persons living with HIV and their communities. The characteristics and capacity of these HIV programmes affect patient outcomes and quality of care. Despite the importance of ensuring optimal outcomes, few studies have addressed the capacity of HIV programmes to deliver comprehensive care. We sought to describe such capacity in HIV programmes in seven regions worldwide. Methods Staff from 128 sites in 41 countries participating in the International epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS completed a site survey from 2009 to 2010, including sites in the Asia-Pacific region (n=20), Latin America and the Caribbean (n=7), North America (n=7), Central Africa (n=12), East Africa (n=51), Southern Africa (n=16) and West Africa (n=15). We computed a measure of the comprehensiveness of care based on seven World Health Organization-recommended essential HIV services. Results Most sites reported serving urban (61%; region range (rr): 33–100%) and both adult and paediatric populations (77%; rr: 29–96%). Only 45% of HIV clinics that reported treating children had paediatricians on staff. As for the seven essential services, survey respondents reported that CD4+ cell count testing was available to all but one site, while tuberculosis (TB) screening and community outreach services were available in 80 and 72%, respectively. The remaining four essential services – nutritional support (82%), combination antiretroviral therapy adherence support (88%), prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) (94%) and other prevention and clinical management services (97%) – were uniformly available. Approximately half (46%) of sites reported offering all seven services. Newer sites and sites in settings with low rankings on the UN Human Development Index (HDI), especially those in the President's Emergency Plan

  10. From the Party/State to Multi-Ethnic Democracy: Education and Its Influence on Social Cohesion in the Europe and Central Asia Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Charles S.

    In the last 6 years, 27 countries have emerged anew in Europe and Central Asia (ECA). Many countries have moved away from having a single political party manage the state and its economic apparatus. This paper aims to answer whether educational mechanisms can lower social tension and help achieve social cohesion in these countries, and how these…

  11. Discovery of new Ohbayashinema spp. (nematoda: heligomosomoidea) in Ochotona princeps and O. cansus (lagomorpha: ochotonidae) from western North America and central Asia, with considerations of historical biogeography

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three new species of Ohbayashinema (Nematoda, Heligmosomoidea) are described from localities in western North America and central Asia. Two of these species, Ohbayashinema nearctica n. sp and O. aspeira n. sp. are parasitic in American pika, Ochotona princeps. Ohbayashinema nearctica is differentiat...

  12. Mapping lake level changes using ICESat/GLAS satellite laser altimetry data: a case study in arid regions of central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, JunLi; Fang, Hui; Yang, Liao

    2011-12-01

    Lakes in arid regions of Central Asia act as essential components of regional water cycles, providing sparse but valuable water resource for the fragile ecological environments and human lives. Lakes in Central Asia are sensitive to climate change and human activities, and great changes have been found since 1960s. Mapping and monitoring these inland lakes would improve our understanding of mechanism of lake dynamics and climatic impacts. ICESat/GLAS satellite laser altimetry provides an efficient tool of continuously measuring lake levels in these poorly surveyed remote areas. An automated mapping scheme of lake level changes is developed based on GLAS altimetry products, and the spatial and temporal characteristics of 9 typical lakes in Central Asia are analyzed to validate the level accuracies. The results show that ICESat/GLAS has a good performance of lake level monitoring, whose patterns of level changes are the same as those of field observation, and the max differences between GLAS and field data is 3cm. Based on the results, it is obvious that alpine lakes are increasing greatly in lake levels during 2003-2009 due to climate change, while open lakes with dams and plain endorheic lakes decrease dramatically in water levels due to human activities, which reveals the overexploitation of water resource in Central Asia.

  13. Central Asia Since 1991: The Experience of the New Independent States. OECD Development Centre Working Paper, No. 212 (Formerly Technical Paper, No. 212)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pomfret, Richard

    2003-01-01

    The five former Soviet republics of Central Asia (Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, Tajikistan, and Turkmenistan) have become separate states, developing at different rates and in different directions, and with different political and economic regimes. As a result, the cohesion of the region has broken down and economic development is…

  14. Access to Education for the Poor in Europe and Central Asia: Preliminary Evidence and Policy Implications. World Bank Technical Paper No. 511.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandycke, Nancy

    In Europe and Central Asia, the poor face three problems: (1) the education system as a whole does not work well, and hence fails to meet their needs; (2) the private cost of education has risen, so that "education," as a commodity, competes with other consumption goods in shrinking household budgets; and (3) the perceived benefits of education…

  15. A 12-Month Prospective, Observational Study of Treatment Regimen and Quality of Life Associated with ADHD in Central and Eastern Europe and Eastern Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetz, Michal; Yeh, Chin-Bin; Ondrejka, Igor; Akay, Aynur; Herczeg, Ilona; Dobrescu, Iuliana; Kim, Boong Nyun; Jin, Xingming; Riley, Anne W.; Martenyi, Ferenc; Harrison, Gavan; Treuer, Tamas

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This prospective, observational, non-randomized study aimed to describe the relationship between treatment regimen prescribed and the quality of life (QoL) of ADHD patients in countries of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and Eastern Asia over 12 months. Methods: 977 Male and female patients aged 6-17 years seeking treatment for…

  16. New evidence for hybrid zones of forest and savanna elephants in Central and West Africa.

    PubMed

    Mondol, Samrat; Moltke, Ida; Hart, John; Keigwin, Michael; Brown, Lisa; Stephens, Matthew; Wasser, Samuel K

    2015-12-01

    The African elephant consists of forest and savanna subspecies. Both subspecies are highly endangered due to severe poaching and habitat loss, and knowledge of their population structure is vital to their conservation. Previous studies have demonstrated marked genetic and morphological differences between forest and savanna elephants, and despite extensive sampling, genetic evidence of hybridization between them has been restricted largely to a few hybrids in the Garamba region of northeastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Here, we present new genetic data on hybridization from previously unsampled areas of Africa. Novel statistical methods applied to these data identify 46 hybrid samples--many more than have been previously identified--only two of which are from the Garamba region. The remaining 44 are from three other geographically distinct locations: a major hybrid zone along the border of the DRC and Uganda, a second potential hybrid zone in Central African Republic and a smaller fraction of hybrids in the Pendjari-Arli complex of West Africa. Most of the hybrids show evidence of interbreeding over more than one generation, demonstrating that hybrids are fertile. Mitochondrial and Y chromosome data demonstrate that the hybridization is bidirectional, involving males and females from both subspecies. We hypothesize that the hybrid zones may have been facilitated by poaching and habitat modification. The localized geography and rarity of hybrid zones, their possible facilitation from human pressures, and the high divergence and genetic distinctness of forest and savanna elephants throughout their ranges, are consistent with calls for separate species classification. PMID:26577954

  17. Oil and gas developments in central and southern Africa in 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, J.B.; Walker, T.L.

    1988-10-01

    Significant rightholding changes took place in central and southern Africa during 1987. Angola, Benin, Congo, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Mauritania, Seychelles, Somali Republic, Tanzania, Zaire, and Zambia announced awards or acreage open for bidding. Decreases in exploratory rightholdings occurred in Cameroon, Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Kenya, Namibia, South Africa, and Tanzania. More wells and greater footage were drilled in 1987 than in 1986. Total wells increased by 18% as 254 wells were completed compared to 217 in 1986. Footage drilled during the year increased by 46% as about 1.9 million ft were drilled compared to about 1.3 million ft in 1986. The success rate for exploration wells in 1987 improved slightly to 36% compared to 34% in 1986. Significant discoveries were made in Nigeria, Angola, Congo, and Gabon. Seismic acquisition in 1987 was the major geophysical activity during the year. Total oil production in 1987 was 773 million bbl (about 2.1 million b/d), a decrease of 7%. The decrease is mostly due to a 14% drop in Nigerian production, which comprises 60% of total regional production. The production share of OPEC countries (Nigeria and Gabon) versus non-OPEC countries of 67% remained unchanged from 1986. 24 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Post-rift unroofing of the NW Africa passive continental margin during the Central Atlantic opening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghorbal, B.; Bertotti, G.; Andriessen, P. A. M.

    2009-04-01

    Many passive margins considered as being stable for long times, show however late uplift and exhumation at regional scale as assessed by low temperature geochronometry. A large amount of Lower Cretaceous terrigeneous sediments laid down in most of basins along the NW Africa continental margins indicate that a major episode of erosion occurred during early post-rift period in the Central Atlantic. AFT and (U-Th)/He dating performed, along a roughly >500 km N-S transect, on pre-Mesozoic basement rocks from Western Meseta to the Anti-Atlas (Morocco, NW Africa) document a fully unexpected widespread unroofing during the Middle-Late Jurassic to early Late Cretaceous, with AFT and (U-Th)/He ages ranging respectively between 120-170Ma and 115-165Ma. A well documented age cluster of 140±20Ma measured for the Moroccan Meseta, Atlas domains and Anti-Atlas belt designates those domains as potentially being the source areas of the detritic sediments considering the proximity of the depositional basins. Absence of major fault separating the Anti-Atlas from the rest of the Western African Craton during the Mesozoic suggests the unroofing region to extend further in Morocco, as far south as the Reguibat (Mauritania) or even New Guinea, documented by our investigation, and perhaps even further when confirmed by additional AFT and AHe data.

  19. Origins and genetic diversity of pygmy hunter-gatherers from Western Central Africa.

    PubMed

    Verdu, Paul; Austerlitz, Frederic; Estoup, Arnaud; Vitalis, Renaud; Georges, Myriam; Théry, Sylvain; Froment, Alain; Le Bomin, Sylvie; Gessain, Antoine; Hombert, Jean-Marie; Van der Veen, Lolke; Quintana-Murci, Lluis; Bahuchet, Serge; Heyer, Evelyne

    2009-02-24

    Central Africa is currently peopled by numerous sedentary agriculturalist populations neighboring the largest group of mobile hunter-gatherers, the Pygmies [1-3]. Although archeological remains attest to Homo sapiens' presence in the Congo Basin for at least 30,000 years, the demographic history of these groups, including divergence and admixture, remains widely unknown [4-6]. Moreover, it is still debated whether common history or convergent adaptation to a forest environment resulted in the short stature characterizing the pygmies [2, 7]. We genotyped 604 individuals at 28 autosomal tetranucleotide microsatellite loci in 12 nonpygmy and 9 neighboring pygmy populations. We found a high level of genetic heterogeneity among Western Central African pygmies, as well as evidence of heterogeneous levels of asymmetrical gene flow from nonpygmies to pygmies, consistent with the variable sociocultural barriers against intermarriages. Using approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) methods [8], we compared several historical scenarios. The most likely points toward a unique ancestral pygmy population that diversified approximately 2800 years ago, contemporarily with the Neolithic expansion of nonpygmy agriculturalists [9, 10]. Our results show that recent isolation, genetic drift, and heterogeneous admixture enabled a rapid and substantial genetic differentiation among Western Central African pygmies. Such an admixture pattern is consistent with the various sociocultural behaviors related to intermariages between pygmies and nonpygmies. PMID:19200724

  20. Properties and origin of small particles in the atmosphere of Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adushkin, V. V.; Chen, B. B.; Popel, S. I.; Weidler, P. G.; Friedrich, F.; Izvekova, Yu. N.

    2016-02-01

    The properties and originof small C-bearing and mineral particles are thoroughly studied above the Central Asian Region. It is shown that the Aral Sea soils play a significant role in accumulation of the higher concentrations of the metals of the crustal origin and rare-earth elements in small mineral particles of samples

  1. The Participatory Research Approach in Non-Western Countries: Practical Experiences from Central Asia and Zambia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsui, Hisayo; Koistinen, Mari

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on the application of the participatory research approach in non-Western contexts. The aim is to provide critical insights into the participatory research discourse through an examination of its theory and practice based on our own experiences of using this approach in our doctoral research in five Central Asian countries and…

  2. [Monitoring human African trypanosomiasis in Central Africa in 2001 and cartography: results and perspectives].

    PubMed

    Lucas, P; Fanchey, G; Mouton, C; Jannin, J

    2001-01-01

    Cases of human African trypanosomiasis are distributed in changing geographical "outbreak areas" that can be visualized over time and space. Because of these variations in distribution, cartography and spatial analysis provide powerful tools for planning surveillance and control strategies. In 1996, the WHO in collaboration with the 15 most endemic countries in Central Africa undertook a program to develop a standardized inter-regional map of trypanosomiasis. This article provides a brief overview of the value of geomatic tools in public health followed by a description of the WHO program and its preliminary results. Also presented in this article is the Trypinfo site being development on the internet to increase the surveillance response-time and improve the feedback system. PMID:11803827

  3. Hydrological changes in western Central Asia (Kyrgyzstan) during the Holocene as inferred from a palaeolimnological study in lake Son Kul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xiangtong; Oberhänsli, Hedi; von Suchodoletz, Hans; Prasad, Sushma; Sorrel, Philippe; Plessen, Birgit; Mathis, Marie; Usubaliev, Raskul

    2014-11-01

    The hydrology of western Central Asia is highly sensitive to climatic perturbations. In order to understand its long-term variability and to infer linkages between precipitation and atmospheric and oceanic systems, we conducted a thorough sedimentary and geochemical study on a composite core retrieved in lake Son Kul (central Kyrgyzstan). A multi-proxy approach was conducted on lake sediments based on grain size analyses, magnetic susceptibility, total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN) and carbon and oxygen isotope analyses on bulk and biogenic materials (ostracoda and molluscs shells) at a resolution equivalent to ca 40 years, aiming to characterise the sequence of palaeolimnological changes in Son Kul. As indicated by δ18O record of bulk carbonates, mainly consisting of aragonite, the Holocene hydrological balance was negative during most of time, suggesting an excess of evaporation (E) over precipitation (P). Limnological conditions fluctuated rapidly before 5000 cal yr BP indicating significant changes in regional hydrology and climate. In particular, the long-term negative hydrological balance was impeded by several short stages with marked increase of precipitation, lasting several decades to a few centuries (e.g., 8300-8200, 6900-6700, 6300-6100, 5500-5400, 5300-5200 and 3100-3000 cal yr BP). Precipitation changes as inferred from δ18O data are also documented by increased minerogenic detritus and higher TOC. We propose that the seasonal pattern of precipitation varied transiently in western Central Asia during the Holocene, although evaporation changes may also account for the rapid changes observed in δ18O data. When the annual water balance was less critical (P ≤ E), the excess of water might be ascribed to increased precipitation during cold seasons mainly because winter precipitation has more negative δ18O than its summer equivalent. Conversely, when the annual water balance is negative (P ≪ E), the moisture was mainly delivered during

  4. Geology and petroleum resources of north-central and northeast Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, J.A.

    1986-05-01

    In north-central and northeast Africa, important petroleum accumulations exist in the Sirte basin of Libya, the western Sahara region of Algeria, the Pelagian platform offshore from eastern Tunisia, and in the Western Desert basin, Suez graben, and Nile delta in Egypt. Approximately 55 major fields (> 100 million BOE), of which 15 are giants (> 1 billion BOE), have been found in these provinces. Total estimated ultimate production from existing fields in 60 billion bbl of oil and 100 tcf of gas; estimated undiscovered petroleum resources are 26 billion bbl of oil and 93 tcf of gas. The post-Precambrian sedimentary basins of north Africa are related to the development of the Sahara platform during at least four main tectonic episodes (the Caledonian, Hercynian, Laramide, and Alpine cycles). The sedimentary cover of the platform, which includes rocks of all geologic systems, ranges from less than 1000 m (3300 ft) in the south to more than 9000 m (30,000 ft) along the Mediterranean coast. Paleozoic rocks are primarily continental and nearshore marine sandstone and shale, which are important reservoir and source rocks for petroleum in the central and western parts of the Sahara platform. Lower Mesozoic rocks were deposited in a continental and restricted marine environment, and contain thick beds of red beds and evaporites, including salt, which are important seals for oil and gas fields. Upper Mesozoic and Tertiary rocks are related to the development of the Mediterranean Tethys geosyncline and are characterized by numerous transgressive-regressive cycles of the Tethyan seaway. Marine carbonate and shale facies are dominant in the Upper Jurassic, Cretaceous, and lower Tertiary section of northern Libya, eastern Tunisia-Pelagian platform, and northern Egypt. Upper Tertiary beds are continental clastics on most of the platform, except near the Mediterranean.

  5. Westerly jet stream and past millennium climate change in Arid Central Asia simulated by COSMO-CLM model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallah, Bijan; Sodoudi, Sahar; Cubasch, Ulrich

    2016-05-01

    This study tackles one of the most debated questions around the evolution of Central Asian climate: the "Puzzle" of moisture changes in Arid Central Asia (ACA) throughout the past millennium. A state-of-the-art Regional Climate Model (RCM) is subsequently employed to investigate four different 31-year time slices of extreme dry and wet spells, chosen according to changes in the driving data, in order to analyse the spatio-temporal evolution of the moisture variability in two different climatological epochs: Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) and Little Ice Age (LIA). There is a clear regime behavior and bimodality in the westerly Jet phase space throughout the past millennium in ACA. The results indicate that the regime changes during LIA show a moist ACA and a dry East China. During the MCA, the Kazakhstan region shows a stronger response to the westerly jet equatorward shift than during the LIA. The out-of-phase pattern of moisture changes between India and ACA exists during both the LIA and the MCA. However, the pattern is more pronounced during the LIA.

  6. The Nuvruz Project: Monitoring for Radionuclides and Metals in Central Asia Transboundary Rivers End of Year One Reports

    SciTech Connect

    YULDASHEV, BEKHZAD; SALIKHBAEV, UMAR; RADYUK, RAISA; DJURAEV, AKRAM; DJURAEV, ANWAR; VASILIEV, IVAN; TOLONGUTOV, BAJGABYL; VALENTINA, ALEKHINA; SOLODUKHIN, VLADIMIR; POZNIAK, VICTOR; LITTLEFIELD, ADRIANE C.

    2002-09-01

    The Navruz Project is a cooperative, transboundary, river monitoring project involving rivers and institutions in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan facilitated by Sandia National Laboratories in the U.S. The Navruz Project focuses on waterborne radionuclides and metals because of their importance to public health and nuclear materials proliferation concerns in the region. Data obtained in this project are shared among all participating countries and the public through an internet web site and are available for use in further studies and in regional transboundary water resource management efforts. Overall, the project addresses three main goals: to help increase capabilities in Central Asian nations for sustainable water resources management; to provide a scientific basis for supporting nuclear transparency and non-proliferation in the region; and to help reduce the threat of conflict in Central Asia over water resources, proliferation concerns, or other factors. The Navruz project has a duration of three years. This document contains the reports from each of the participating institutions following the first year of data collection. While a majority of samples from the Navruz project are within normal limits, a preliminary analysis does indicate a high concentration of selenium in the Kazakhstan samples. Uzbekistan samples contain high uranium and thorium concentrations, as well as elevated levels of chromium, antimony and cesium. Additionally, elevated concentrations of radioactive isotopes have been detected at one Tajikistan sampling location. Further analysis will be published in a subsequent report.

  7. Redressing the Epidemics of Opioid Overdose and HIV among People who Inject Drugs in Central Asia: The Need for a Syndemic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Louisa; Primbetova, Sholpan; Nikitin, Danil; Hunt, Timothy; Terlikbayeva, Assel; Momenghalibaf, Azzi; Ruziev, Murodali; El-Bassel, Nabila

    2013-01-01

    Background Accumulating evidence suggests that opioid overdose and HIV infection are burgeoning intertwined epidemics among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Central Asia. To date, however, research on overdose and its associations with HIV risks among PWID in Central Asia remains virtually absent. This paper aims to provide a regional overview of the hidden epidemic of overdose and how it is linked to HIV among PWID in Central Asia, using a syndemic framework that is guided by risk environment research. Methods We conducted a comprehensive literature search of peer-reviewed publications and grey literature on opioid overdose and its associations with HIV in five countries of Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan) as well as on policies and programs that address these co-occurring epidemics. Results Regional data indicate high rates of fatal and non-fatal overdose among PWID. Evidence suggests mortality rates from overdose exceed HIV/AIDS as the leading cause of death among PWID. The syndemic framework suggests multiple macro-level and micro-level environmental risk factors that drive the co-occurring epidemics of HIV and overdose. This framework identifies several interacting biological and behavioral risks that result in additive effects for HIV and overdose. Conclusion The high rates of overdose and its associations with HIV underscore the need for a syndemic approach that considers overdose on parity with HIV. Such an approach should focus on the biological, behavioral and structural interactions between these epidemics to reduce social suffering, morbidity and mortality among PWID in Central Asia. PMID:23954070

  8. Comparison of GPS and Quaternary slip rates: Insights from a new Quaternary fault database for Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohadjer, Solmaz; Ehlers, Todd; Bendick, Rebecca; Mutz, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    Previous studies related to the kinematics of deformation within the India-Asia collision zone have relied on slip rate data for major active faults to test kinematic models that explain the deformation of the region. The slip rate data, however, are generally disputed for many of the first-order faults in the region (e.g., Altyn Tagh and Karakorum faults). Several studies have also challenged the common assumption that geodetic slip rates are representative of Quaternary slip rates. What has received little attention is the degree to which geodetic slip rates relate to Quaternary slip rates for active faults in the India-Asia collision zone. In this study, we utilize slip rate data from a new Quaternary fault database for Central Asia to determine the overall relationship between Quaternary and GPS-derived slip rates for 18 faults. The preliminary analysis investigating this relationship uses weighted least squares and a re-sampling analysis to test the sensitivity of this relationship to different data point attributes (e.g., faults associated with data points and dating methods used for estimating Quaternary slip rates). The resulting sample subsets of data points yield a maximum possible Pearson correlation coefficient of ~0.6, suggesting moderate correlation between Quaternary and GPS-derived slip rates for some faults (e.g., Kunlun and Longmen Shan faults). Faults with poorly correlated Quaternary and GPS-derived slip rates were identified and dating methods used for the Quaternary slip rates were examined. Results indicate that a poor correlation between Quaternary and GPS-derived slip rates exist for the Karakorum and Chaman faults. Large differences between Quaternary and GPS slip rates for these faults appear to be connected to qualitative dating of landforms used in the estimation of the Quaternary slip rates and errors in the geomorphic and structural reconstruction of offset landforms (e.g., offset terrace riser reconstructions for Altyn Tagh fault

  9. The Siberian loess record and its significance for reconstruction of Pleistocene climate change in north-central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chlachula, Jiří

    2003-09-01

    The Siberian loess represents the most significant terrestrial proxy record of Quaternary climatic history in northern Asia. Loess is extensive in southern Siberia, between the Irtysh Basin in the west and the Angara Basin in the east. Palaeoenvironmental multi-proxy data (magnetic susceptibility (MS), grain size, % CaCO 3, % TOC, pollen, etc.) from high-resolution loess-palaeosol sections provide evidence for a strongly fluctuating climatic sequence in north-central Asia during the Late Quaternary, displaying the globally diagnostic sequences found in the deep-sea oxygen isotope records. MS provides the most continuous and detailed record (encompassing the last two interglacial-glacial cycles) in loess sections in the Minusinsk Basin (Yenisei area) and on the northern Altai Plains. Evidence for periodic atmospheric shifts is provided by gradual changes in the main vegetation zones, with parkland-steppe and mixed taiga during warm interglacial/interstadial stages being replaced by boreal tundra-forest and arid periglacial tundra-steppe during stadials. Climatic pulses from warm intervals to cold are recorded by incipient (forest/steppe)-tundra gleysols. The occurrence of the highest sediment accumulation rates in glacial stages (OIS 4 and OIS 2) in the southern plains and depressions indicates that the most intensive aeolian dust deposition followed the glacial maxima, with the most recent interval dated to ca. 19-15 ka BP. Because of its zonal distribution and pronounced climatic continentality, the Siberian loess region represents an important data source for reconstructing past climates in the Northern Hemisphere. It provides a key to the correlation of other loess regions within the West-East Eurasian continental zone.

  10. Trends in Land Surface Phenologies Across Central Asia and the Central Eurasian Grain Belt as Viewed From MODIS Collection 5 NBAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, C. R.; Henebry, G. M.; Kovalskyy, V.; de Beurs, K. M.

    2008-12-01

    The disintegration of the Soviet Union in 1991 precipitated a multitude of institutional changes, including the disestablishment of a centrally-planned agricultural sector. Our previous work with AVHRR data has shown that among the environmental consequences were significant shifts in land surface phenologies (LSPs) across Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, and Turkmenistan. Here we explored trends in LSPs across Central Asia and the central Eurasian Grain Belt that stretches westward across northern Kazakhstan and southern Russia into eastern Ukraine. We used the recently released of MODIS Collection 5 Nadir BRDF Adjusted Reflectance (NBAR) product and the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) Full Data Reanalysis v4, a monthly 0.5 degree product. We characterized trends from 2000-2007 using the nonparametric seasonal Mann- Kendall trend test on a per-pixel basis, thereby generating surfaces of per-pixel trend estimates with corresponding estimates of model uncertainty at each pixel. In the Pontic Steppe ecoregion of northwestern Kazakhstan, a region characterized by temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands, we found spatially coherent, highly significant (p<0.01) negative trends in MODIS NDVI. This appears to be driven by regional drought, and visual inspection of Landsat TM imagery from the study area indicates drying of relatively abundant depressional wetlands accompanied by a number of large fires over the period of interest. In the neighboring Kazakh Steppe ecoregion, a landscape dominated by small-grain production, we find similar, but noisier negative trends (typically p<0.05), likely reflecting a combination of drought and highly heterogeneous land use practices. By contrast, in the Central Asian Southern Desert ecoregion of Uzbekistan, we find highly significant (p<0.01) positive trends in NDVI from 2000-2007. These xeric shrublands are nearly entirely dependent on winter and spring precipitation for water inputs. GPCC trends indicate in some regions

  11. Central southern Africa at the time of the African Humid Period: a new analysis of Holocene palaeoenvironmental and palaeoclimate data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burrough, S. L.; Thomas, D. S. G.

    2013-11-01

    The Holocene African Humid Period (c 14.8-5.5 ka) is now recognised in high-resolution records from western Africa as well as in tropical Africa north of the equator. Establishing a clear picture of Late Quaternary, including Holocene, environmental changes in central southern Africa is proving both difficult and contentious. This is because in dryland systems in particular it can be difficult to distinguish the effects of sub-millennial scale regional climatic variability from those of major externally-forced global climate changes, and because it is essential to distinguish records of environmental drivers from those of environmental responses. We analyse and review existing records for central southern Africa, and neighbouring areas affected by the same climate systems, to understand the primary controls of regional hydrological systems during the Holocene. We then present new data from Makgadikgadi basin barchan dunes that indicate mid-late Holocene aridity following a period of marked hydrological dynamism extending from the early Holocene. We suggest that present-day conditions in central southern Africa are relatively stable compared to the early and mid-Holocene and infer that this period of relative stability in the landscape has occurred since ca 2 ka. We explain Holocene hydrological changes through analysis of changing zonal climatic influences linked to Congo Air Boundary (CAB) and Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) dynamics, the effects of which filter into the region via complex drainage basin dynamics. It is proposed that, sensu stricto, the AHP was not a spatially uniform feature of early Holocene central southern Africa.

  12. Migratory movements of waterfowl in Central Asia and avian influenza emergence: sporadic transmission of H5N1 from east to west

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iverson, Samuel A.; Gavrilov, Andrei; Katzner, Todd E.; Takekawa, John Y.; Miller, Tricia A.; Hagemeijer, Ward; Mundkur, Taej; Sivananinthaperumal, Balachandran; DeMattos, Carlos C.; Ahmed, Lu'ay S.; Newman, Scott H.

    2011-01-01

    Waterfowl in the genera Anas and Tadorna are suspected as vectors in the long-distance transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1. The former Soviet Republics of Central Asia are situated at an important migratory crossroads for these and other species of birds that bridges regions where the disease is prevalent. However, waterfowl movements through Central Asia are poorly quantified. In this study, historical data derived from over 80 years of bird ringing are combined with recent satellite tracking data to delineate migration routes, movement chronology and habitat use patterns of waterfowl in relation to H5N1 outbreak locations. Results confirm migratory linkage between breeding and moulting areas in northern Kazakhstan and southern Siberia, with nonbreeding areas in the Caspian, Black and eastern Mediterranean Sea basins, as well as with South Asia. However, unlike the situation in neighbouring regions, most notably western China, H5N1 outbreaks have not been recurrent in Central Asia after they were first reported during summer 2005 and spring 2006. These findings have implications in relation to potential sampling biases, species-specific variation in migratory behaviour and continuing regional H5N1 transmission risks.

  13. The Karakul depression in Pamirs: The first impact structure in Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurov, E. P.; Gurova, H. P.; Rakitskaya, R. B.; Yamnichenko, A. Yu.

    1993-03-01

    The Karakul depression was picked out as the possible impact structure by the study of space images of Tadjikistan. Its striking similarity with some complex impact craters such as Dellen and Gosses Bluff is evident. Our investigations of the Karakul depression in 1987 and 1989-1991 years allowed to determine it as the impact crater with the central uplift. The target of the crater is presented by slightly metamorphosed sedimentary rocks of Paleozoic, intensively folded and intruded with granites during the Gercynian orogeny. The modern structure of north-eastern Pamirs was formed by Alpinian orogeny; the raise of the area in Neogene was about 4000-7000 m.

  14. The Karakul depression in Pamirs: The first impact structure in Central Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurov, E. P.; Gurova, H. P.; Rakitskaya, R. B.; Yamnichenko, A. YU.

    1993-01-01

    The Karakul depression was picked out as the possible impact structure by the study of space images of Tadjikistan. Its striking similarity with some complex impact craters such as Dellen and Gosses Bluff is evident. Our investigations of the Karakul depression in 1987 and 1989-1991 years allowed to determine it as the impact crater with the central uplift. The target of the crater is presented by slightly metamorphosed sedimentary rocks of Paleozoic, intensively folded and intruded with granites during the Gercynian orogeny. The modern structure of north-eastern Pamirs was formed by Alpinian orogeny; the raise of the area in Neogene was about 4000-7000 m.

  15. High-resolution leaf wax carbon and hydrogen isotopic record of the late Holocene paleoclimate in arid Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aichner, B.; Feakins, S. J.; Lee, J. E.; Herzschuh, U.; Liu, X.

    2015-04-01

    Central Asia is located at the confluence of large-scale atmospheric circulation systems. It is thus likely to be highly susceptible to changes in the dynamics of those systems; however, little is still known about the regional paleoclimate history. Here we present carbon and hydrogen isotopic compositions of n-alkanoic acids from a late Holocene sediment core from Lake Karakuli (eastern Pamir, Xinjiang Province, China). Instrumental evidence and isotope-enabled climate model experiments with the Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique Zoom model version 4 (LMDZ4) demonstrate that δ D values of precipitation in the region are influenced by both temperature and precipitation amount. We find that these parameters are inversely correlated on an annual scale, i.e., the climate has varied between relatively cool and wet and more warm and dry over the last 50 years. Since the isotopic signals of these changes are in the same direction and therefore additive, isotopes in precipitation are sensitive recorders of climatic changes in the region. Additionally, we infer that plants use year-round precipitation (including snowmelt), and thus leaf wax δ D values must also respond to shifts in the proportion of moisture derived from westerly storms during late winter and early spring. Downcore results give evidence for a gradual shift to cooler and wetter climates between 3.5 and 2.5 cal kyr BP, interrupted by a warm and dry episode between 3.0 and 2.7 kyr BP. Further cool and wet episodes occur between 1.9 and 1.5 and between 0.6 and 0.1 kyr BP, the latter coeval with the Little Ice Age. Warm and dry episodes from 2.5 to 1.9 and 1.5 to 0.6 kyr BP coincide with the Roman Warm Period and Medieval Climate Anomaly, respectively. Finally, we find a drying tend in recent decades. Regional comparisons lead us to infer that the strength and position of the westerlies, and wider northern hemispheric climate dynamics, control climatic shifts in arid Central Asia, leading to complex

  16. Geology and total petroleum systems of the West-Central Coastal province (7203), West Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.

    2006-01-01

    The West-Central Coastal Province of the Sub-Saharan Africa Region consists of the coastal and offshore areas of Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Angola (including the disputed Cabinda Province), and Namibia. The area stretches from the east edge of the Niger Delta south to the Walvis Ridge. The West-Central Coastal Province includes the Douala, Kribi-Campo, Rio Muni, Gabon, Congo, Kwanza, Benguela, and Namibe Basins, which together form the Aptian salt basin of equatorial west Africa. The area has had significant exploration for petroleum; more than 295 oil fields have been discovered since 1954. Since 1995, several giant oil fields have been discovered, especially in the deep-water area of the Congo Basin. Although many total petroleum systems may exist in the West-Central Coastal Province, only four major total petroleum systems have been defined. The area of the province north of the Congo Basin contains two total petroleum systems: the Melania-Gamba Total Petroleum System, consisting of Lower Cretaceous source and reservoir rocks, and the Azile-Senonian Total Petroleum System, consisting of Albian to Turonian source rocks and Cretaceous reservoir rocks. Two assessment units are defined in the West-Central Coastal Province north of the Congo Basin: the Gabon Subsalt and the Gabon Suprasalt Assessment Units. The Congo Basin contains the Congo Delta Composite Total Petroleum System, consisting of Lower Cretaceous to Tertiary source and reservoir rocks. The Central Congo Delta and Carbonate Platform and the Central Congo Turbidites Assessment Units are defined in the Congo Delta Composite Total Petroleum System. The area south of the Congo Basin contains the Cuanza Composite Total Petroleum System, consisting of Lower Cretaceous to Tertiary source and reservoir rocks. The Cuanza-Namibe Assessment Unit is defined in the Cuanza Composite Total Petroleum System. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessed the

  17. [JSPS Asia and Africa scientific platform program development for the medicinal chemistry based on biologically active natural products in the subtropical zone].

    PubMed

    Saito, Naoki; Morita, Takashi

    2009-04-01

    In 2005, the independent administrative institution the "Japan Society for the Promotion of Sciences (JSPS)" initiated the "Asia and Africa Science Platform Program", which is a new project aimed to create high potential research hubs in selected fields within the Asian and African region, while fostering the next generation of leading researchers. Another goal is to establish sustainable collaborative relationships among universities and research institutes in Japan and other Asian and African countries. In this project, we consider natural sources existing in partner countries to be the most important factor in the production of medicine. We will search for target compounds and analyze their structures by screening biologically active natural products. Additionally, we will design functional molecules and create process for retrieving a large supply of target compounds based on a bioprospecting strategy. Thailand, Indonesia, and India share the vision of enhancing collaborative efforts. By conducting this researche, we will focus on academic research that is necessary for the development of the pharmaceutical and medical products industry in partner countries. There are four selected research topics as followeds: 1) Development of New Antitumor Agents based on Marine Natural Products; 2) Development of New Anticoagulants and Anti-VEGF; 3) Molecular Epidemiological Investigation of Emerging Infectious Diseases and Development of Novel Diagnosis and Therapeutic Agents; and 4) Medicinal Chemistry on Biologically Active Natural Products from the Traditional Condiments and Medicines. The exchanges might take the form of joint research seminars. The first Medicinal Chemistry Seminar of the AA Scientific Platform Program was co-organized with the 23th Annual Research Conference on Pharmaceutical Sciences, Thailand at Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, on December 14-15, 2006. The 2nd JSPS seminar was co-organized with the 1st Bioactive Natural Products from Marine

  18. Syncollisional extension along the India-Asia suture zone, south-central Tibet: Implications for crustal deformation of Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, M. A.; Sanchez, V.; Taylor, M. H.

    2010-02-01

    Crustal deformation models of the Tibetan plateau are assessed by investigating the nature of Neogene deformation along the India-Asia suture zone through geologic mapping in south-central Tibet (84°30'E). Our mapping shows that the suture zone is dominated by a system of 3 to 4 ENE-striking, south-dipping thrust faults, rather than strike-slip faults as predicted by models calling upon eastward extrusion of the Tibetan plateau. Faults along the suture zone are not active, as they are cut by a system of NNW-striking oblique slip normal faults, referred to herein as the Lopukangri fault system. Fault-slip data from the Lopukangri fault system shows that the mean slip direction of its hanging wall is N36W. We estimate the net slip on the Lopukangri fault by restoring components of the thrust system. We estimate that the fault has accommodated ˜ 7 km of right-slip and ˜ 8 km of normal dip-slip, yielding a net slip of ˜ 10.5 km, and 6 km of horizontal east-west extension. The Lopukangri fault system is active and geomorphic offsets indicate right separations and westside-down dip-separation. The mapview curviplanar geometry and geomorphic expression of the Lopukangri fault system is similar to faults and rift basins to its east and west. These extensional faults are en echelon in map view and encompass a region that is 200 km long (east-west) and 95 km wide (north-south). Assuming our results for the Lopukangri fault are applicable to the entire system, we estimate a maximum of 18% extension across the zone. All active faults in the system terminate southward adjacent to the India-Asia suture zone. Because the individual rift geometries are similar and suggest a common kinematic relationship, we propose that the extensional system formed as a trailing extensional imbricate fan at the southern termination of the central Tibet conjugate fault zone. Alternatively, the extensional system may terminate to the north and represent a group of isolated crustal tears. Both

  19. A Holocene lacustrine record of Lake Sonkul: hydro-climatic changes in central Asia and possible interactions between westerlies and Asian monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, X.; Oberhänsli, H.; Mathis, M.; Prasad, S.; von Suchodoletz, H.

    2012-04-01

    As evidenced by a number of lake sediment records, the climate in central Asia has experienced a significant change from wet to dry during the Holocene. However, it is still highly debated on which component of atmospheric circulation, either mid-latitude westerlies or Asian monsoon, should be responsible for the climate change in central Asia. By a detailed investigation on a 133-cm length of paleolimnological record of Lake Sonkul in Kyrgyzstan and comparison with previously published records, we attempt to understand hydro-climatic changes in central Asia and discuss the possible interactions between westerlies and Asian monsoon. The age-depth model of this record was established based on six AMS 14C dates. We examined the geochemical and isotopic signatures of the record at a depth interval of 1 cm (equivalent to ~40 year), including total nitrogen (TN), total carbon (TC), total organic carbon (TOC), organic carbon isotopes as well as oxygen and carbon isotopes of bulk carbonates. To thoroughly understand and explain the above indicators, microfacies and X-ray diffraction analyses of selected samples and three thin sections were also conducted. As shown by the results, there were two significant changes of the lake environment centered at ~5, 300 cal yr BP and at ~3,400 cal yr BP. Accordingly, the lake hydrological history could be defined into three units. Unit III (133-88cm; 7, 600- 5, 300 cal yr BP) is characterized by rapid fluctuations in the lake level as indicated by pronounced changes in TN, TOC, CaCO3, carbon and oxygen isotopes of carbonates. In contrast, variations of these proxies in Unit II (88 - 44.5 cm; 5, 300 - 3, 400 cal yr BP) and Unit I (44.5 - 0 cm; 3, 400 -1, 900 cal yr BP) are less significant, suggesting relatively stable hydrological environment. We conclude that the hydrological changes of Lake Sonkul are generally consistent with the climate trend from wet to dry in central Asia during the early and mid Holocene. The changes are

  20. Transplanting a Western-Style Journalism Education to the Central Asian Republics of the Former Soviet Union: Experiences and Challenges at the American University of Central Asia in Kyrgyzstan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skochilo, Elena; Toralieva, Gulnura; Freedman, Eric; Shafer, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Western standards of journalism education, as well as western professional journalistic practices, have had difficulty taking root in the five independent countries of formerly Soviet Central Asia. This essay examines the experience of one university's Department of Journalism and Mass Communication since 1997 and the challenges it faces,…

  1. Mental Health and Migration: Depression, Alcohol Abuse, and Access to Health Care among Migrants in Central Asia

    PubMed Central

    Ismayilova, Leyla; Lee, Hae Nim; Shaw, Stacey; El-Bassel, Nabila; Gilbert, Louisa; Terlikbayeva, Assel; Rozental, Yelena

    2014-01-01

    Background One fifth of Kazakhstan’s population is labor migrants working in poor conditions with limited legal rights. This paper examines self-rated health, mental health and access to health care among migrant workers. Methods Using geo-mapping, a random sample of internal and external migrant market workers was selected in Almaty (N=450). We used survey logistic regression adjusted for clustering of workers within stalls. Results Almost half of participants described their health as fair or poor and reported not seeing a doctor when needed, 6.2% had clinical depression and 8.7% met criteria for alcohol abuse. Female external migrants were at higher risk for poor health and underutilization of health services. High mobility was associated with depression among internal migrants and with alcohol abuse among female migrant workers. Conclusions This study demonstrates the urgent need to address health and mental health needs and improve access to health care among labor migrants in Central Asia. PMID:24186359

  2. GRACE Data-based Estimation of Spatial Variations in Water Storage over the Central Asia during 2003-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Q.; Tashpolat, T.; Ding, J. L.; Zhang, F.; Mamat, S.

    2014-11-01

    We used the GRACE (Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment) satellite gravity data obtained from January 2003 to January 2013, with supports of other data, including the TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) and CMAP (Climate Prediction Center's Merged Analysis of Precipitation) precipitation data, the NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) data, and the DEM (Digital Elevation Model) data, to analyze the annual variations in water storage over central Asia. Following conclusions can be drawn from this study. (1) The amplitudes of the annual variations in the water storage exhibit a general E-W increasing trend. (2) The water storage has an increasing trend in the following areas: the Balkhash Basin, the Ob River Basin, and the middle and lower reaches of the Yenisei River Basin. This is caused by the global warming, the melting of permafrost, and the vegetation coverage continued to increase, as well as the improved industrial technologies to reduce water usage, and the other natural and human factors. (3) The water storage has a decreasing trend in the following areas: the Syr Darya River Basin, the Amu Darya River Basin, and the conjunction area between the Euphrates-Tigris Basin and the southwestern shore of the Caspian Sea. (4) The water storage is primarily influenced by the precipitation, the evaporation, the vegetation coverage, and the topography. (5) The water storage maximum normally responds to the precipitation maximum with certain time lags.

  3. Western Central Asia - Uzbekistan:new insights into the basin architecture and lithosphere structures from geophysical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorova, Irina

    2014-05-01

    This report was prepared as one part of joint Uzbekistan's Working Group results by DARIUS programme, provided in Uzbekistan during the 2009-2013 years. The special attention is devoted to potential geophysical fields and results of interpretation of seismic profiles, which was the base for conclusions about deep lithosphere structure of the DARIUS domains in Uzbekistan.For four last years 12 field expeditions in Uzbekistan were organized by the DARIUS projects - were studied new geological sections and now the new ideas developing about geodynamical evolution in Western Central Asia. The state of art reveals a very heterogeneous set of data. These data commonly deal either with particular basins or mountain belts, or specific basin investigations. Our aim was to combine all available seismic, magnetic and geothermal data with the revealed of the tectonically objects, geological structures, and to show their interrelated temporal and spatial development for general understanding of the inner structure of lithosphere and upper layers of Earth's crust. In link of this, the detailed studying structure of Paleozoic crystal basement on representative basic sites and the crossing faults, accompained by drawing up of level-by-level and summary sections, large-scale geological and geophysical mapping was conducted. Our study elucidated the lithosphere-scale processes driving forces for kinematic of blocks between southern Tien Shan and Pamir. All our data were integrated in the DARIUS database GEOLIS.

  4. Asynchronous evolution of the Indian and East Asian Summer Monsoon indicated by Holocene moisture patterns in monsoonal central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yongbo; Liu, Xingqi; Herzschuh, Ulrike

    2010-12-01

    The numerical meta-analysis of 92 proxy records (72 sites) of moisture and/or temperature change confirms earlier findings that the dominant trends of climatic evolution in monsoonal central Asia since the Last Glacial roughly parallel changes in Northern Hemisphere summer insolation, i.e. the period following the Last Glacial Maximum was characterized by dry and cold conditions until 15 cal. kyr BP, followed by a warm, wet period coincident with the Bølling/Allerød warm period and terminated by a cold, dry reversal during the Younger Dryas period. After an abrupt increase at the start of the Holocene, warm and wet conditions prevailed until ca. 4 cal. kyr BP when moisture levels and temperatures started to decrease. Ordination of moisture records reveals strong spatial heterogeneity in moisture evolution during the last 10 cal. kyr. The Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) areas (northern India, Tibetan Plateau and southwest China) exhibit maximum wet conditions during the early Holocene, while many records from the area of the East Asian Summer Monsoon indicate relatively dry conditions, especially in north-central China where the maximum moisture levels occurred during the mid-Holocene. We assign such phenomena to strengthened Hadley Circulation centered over the Tibetan Plateau during the early Holocene which resulted in subsidence in the East Asian monsoonal regions leading to relatively dry conditions. Our observations of the asynchronous nature of the two Asian monsoon subsystems on millennial time scales have also been observed on annual time-scales as well as implied through the spatial analysis of vertical air motion patterns after strong ascending airflows over the Tibetan Plateau area that were calculated from NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data for the last 30 years. Analogous with the early Holocene, the enhancement of the ISM in a 'future warming world' will result in an increase in the asynchronous nature of the monsoon subsystems; this trend is already observed in

  5. Modeling the epidemiological history of plague in Central Asia: Palaeoclimatic forcing on a disease system over the past millennium

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Human cases of plague (Yersinia pestis) infection originate, ultimately, in the bacterium's wildlife host populations. The epidemiological dynamics of the wildlife reservoir therefore determine the abundance, distribution and evolution of the pathogen, which in turn shape the frequency, distribution and virulence of human cases. Earlier studies have shown clear evidence of climatic forcing on contemporary plague abundance in rodents and humans. Results We find that high-resolution palaeoclimatic indices correlate with plague prevalence and population density in a major plague host species, the great gerbil (Rhombomys opimus), over 1949-1995. Climate-driven models trained on these data predict independent data on human plague cases in early 20th-century Kazakhstan from 1904-1948, suggesting a consistent impact of climate on large-scale wildlife reservoir dynamics influencing human epidemics. Extending the models further back in time, we also find correspondence between their predictions and qualitative records of plague epidemics over the past 1500 years. Conclusions Central Asian climate fluctuations appear to have had significant influences on regional human plague frequency in the first part of the 20th century, and probably over the past 1500 years. This first attempt at ecoepidemiological reconstruction of historical disease activity may shed some light on how long-term plague epidemiology interacts with human activity. As plague activity in Central Asia seems to have followed climate fluctuations over the past centuries, we may expect global warming to have an impact upon future plague epidemiology, probably sustaining or increasing plague activity in the region, at least in the rodent reservoirs, in the coming decades. See commentary: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/8/108 PMID:20799946

  6. Access to HIV counseling and testing among people who inject drugs in Central Asia: Strategies for improving access and linkages to treatment and care

    PubMed Central

    Terlikbayeva, Assel; Zhussupov, Baurzhan; Primbetova, Sholpan; Gilbert, Louisa; Atabekov, Nurmat; Giyasova, Gusal; Ruziev, Murodali; Soliev, Alijon; Saliev, Daniiar; El-Bassel, Nabila

    2013-01-01

    Introduction As a population profoundly affected by the HIV epidemic and in critical need of linkages to HIV treatment and care, PWID in Central Asia remain largely underserved. This paper provides an overview of the current state of HIV testing and counseling in Central Asia for PWID, identifies main barriers leading to gaps in service delivery, and discusses implications for improving strategies that promote HIV testing for PWID. Methods We reviewed a number of sources for this paper including unpublished government reports, published papers, and Ministries of Health of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan country progress reports to the UN General Assembly Special Session on HIV/AIDS (UNGASS) for 2012. Results Between 29 to 65% of PLWH in some Central Asian countries have been tested for HIV in the last 12 months. The rates have been increasing in the recent years but still are relatively low. Stigma, discrimination, human rights violations, and repressive legislation are barriers to HTC for people who inject drugs (PWID). Conclusion The use of innovative evidence-based HTC models, such as community mobile-vans, self-testing at home, and rapid HIV testing among PWID in Central Asia are discussed and recommendations given regarding amendments in legislation and scaling up of existing community-based pilot projects to support HIV testing among PWID in CA. PMID:23916319

  7. An innovative tool for landslide susceptibility mapping in Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saponaro, Annamaria; Pilz, Marco; Wieland, Marc; Bindi, Dino; Parolai, Stefano

    2013-04-01

    at regional level; furthermore, it can be used as a starting point for further constraining the analysis which might also consider meteorological influences and for carrying out an extension to all Central Asian countries in the framework of cross-border activities.

  8. Remediation of former uranium mining and milling activities in Central Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Waggitt, Peter

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Several of the Central Asian countries of the former Soviet Union were involved in the uranium mining and milling industry from about 1945 for varying periods until the break up of the Soviet Union in 1991 and beyond. Some facilities are still producing in Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan. However, before the break up, many facilities had been abandoned and in only a few cases had any remediation been undertaken. Since 1991 the newly independent states of the region have been seeking assistance for the remediation of the multitude of tailings piles, waste rock stockpiles and abandoned, and often semi dismantled, production facilities that may be found throughout the region. Many of these sites are close to settlements that were established as service towns for the mines. Most towns still have populations, although the mining industry has departed. In some instances there are cases of pollution and contamination and in many locations there is a significant level of public concern. The IAEA has been undertaking a number of Technical Cooperation (TC) projects throughout the region for some time to strengthen the institutions in the relevant states and assist them to establish monitoring and surveillance programs as an integral part of the long term remediation process. The IAEA is liaising with other agencies and donors who are also working on these problems to optimise the remediation effort. The paper describes the objectives and operation of the main TC regional program, liaison efforts with other agencies, the achievements so far and the long term issues for remediation of these legacies of the 'cold war' era. (authors)

  9. Global Health Donor Presence, Variations in HIV/AIDS Prevalence, and External Resources for Health in Developing Countries in Africa and Asia

    PubMed Central

    Azuine, Romuladus Emeka; Singh, Gopal K.; Ekejiuba, Sussan E.; Ashu, Eta; Azuine, Magnus A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The presence of multiple global health aid organizations in donor recipient countries at any point in time has led to arguments for and against aid coordination and aid pluralism. Little data, however, exist to empirically demonstrate the relationship between donor presence and longitudinal disease outcomes in donor-recipient countries. We examined the association between global health donor presence and changes in HIV/AIDS prevalence in 14 developing countries: 12 in Africa (Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi, Zimbabwe, Mozambique, Rwanda, South Africa, Uganda, Zambia, Burkina Faso and Mali) and compared them with two developing countries in Asia (India and Vietnam). Methods: To conduct our analyses, we conceptualized a framework for examining global health donor presence and disease outcomes. Donor presence data were derived from Mapping the Donor Landscape in Global Health: HIV/AIDS, a report published by the Kaiser Family Foundation, Washington, DC, USA. HIV/AIDS prevalence data were obtained and analyzed from the World Health Statistics and the Demographic and Health Surveys. Percent changes in national HIV/AIDS prevalence between 2009 and 2011 in the 14 developing countries were computed and correlation coefficients between donor presence and prevalence changes were calculated. Results: Between 2009 and 2011, HIV/AIDS prevalence decreased in all but one of the 14 developing countries with the presence of 21 or more global health donors. There was about 40% overall reduction in HIV/AIDS prevalence across the 14 countries in our analyses. South Africa recorded the most reduction in HIV/AIDS prevalence (-6.7%) followed by Zambia (-6.3, %), and Mozambique (-5.7%). Ethiopia was the only country without a reduction in HIV/AIDS prevalence (+0.1%). A correlation coefficient of 0.43 implied greater reductions in HIV/AIDS prevalence associated with increased donor presence. Conclusions and Public Health Implications: Our study shows a correlation between

  10. Reaching the poor with health interventions: programme-incidence analysis of seven randomised trials of women's groups to reduce newborn mortality in Asia and Africa

    PubMed Central

    Houweling, Tanja A J; Morrison, Joanna; Alcock, Glyn; Azad, Kishwar; Das, Sushmita; Hossen, Munir; Kuddus, Abdul; Lewycka, Sonia; Looman, Caspar W; Magar, Bharat Budhathoki; Manandhar, Dharma S; Akter, Mahfuza; Dube, Albert Lazarous Nkhata; Rath, Shibanand; Saville, Naomi; Sen, Aman; Tripathy, Prasanta; Costello, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Background Efforts to end preventable newborn deaths will fail if the poor are not reached with effective interventions. To understand what works to reach vulnerable groups, we describe and explain the uptake of a highly effective community-based newborn health intervention across social strata in Asia and Africa. Methods We conducted a secondary analysis of seven randomised trials of participatory women's groups to reduce newborn mortality in India, Bangladesh, Nepal and Malawi. We analysed data on 70 574 pregnancies. Socioeconomic and sociodemographic differences in group attendance were tested using logistic regression. Qualitative data were collected at each trial site (225 focus groups, 20 interviews) to understand our results. Results Socioeconomic differences in women's group attendance were small, except for occasional lower attendance by elites. Sociodemographic differences were large, with lower attendance by young primigravid women in African as well as in South Asian sites. The intervention was considered relevant and interesting to all socioeconomic groups. Local facilitators ensured inclusion of poorer women. Embarrassment and family constraints on movement outside the home restricted attendance among primigravid women. Reproductive health discussions were perceived as inappropriate for them. Conclusions Community-based women's groups can help to reach every newborn with effective interventions. Equitable intervention uptake is enhanced when facilitators actively encourage all women to attend, organise meetings at the participants’ convenience and use approaches that are easily understandable for the less educated. Focused efforts to include primigravid women are necessary, working with families and communities to decrease social taboos. PMID:26246540

  11. Towards a Multi-Resolution Model of Seismic Risk in Central Asia. Challenge and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pittore, M.; Wieland, M.; Bindi, D.; Parolai, S.

    2011-12-01

    Assessing seismic risk, defined as the probability of occurrence of economical and social losses as consequence of an earthquake, both at regional and at local scale is a challenging, multi-disciplinary task. In order to provide a reliable estimate, diverse information must be gathered by seismologists, geologists, engineers and civil authorities, and carefully integrated keeping into account the different levels of uncertainty. The research towards an integrated methodology, able to seamlessly describe seismic risk at different spatial scales is challenging, but discloses new application perspectives, particularly in those countries which suffer from a relevant seismic hazard but do not have resources for a standard assessment. Central Asian countries in particular, which exhibit one of the highest seismic hazard in the world, are experiencing a steady demographic growth, often accompanied by informal settlement and urban sprawling. A reliable evaluation of how these factors affect the seismic risk, together with a realistic assessment of the assets exposed to seismic hazard and their structural vulnerability is of particular importance, in order to undertake proper mitigation actions and to promptly and efficiently react to a catastrophic event. New strategies are needed to efficiently cope with systematic lack of information and uncertainties. An original approach is presented to assess seismic risk based on integration of information coming from remote-sensing and ground-based panoramic imaging, in situ measurements, expert knowledge and already available data. Efficient sampling strategies based on freely available medium-resolution multi-spectral satellite images are adopted to optimize data collection and validation, in a multi-scale approach. Panoramic imaging is also considered as a valuable ground-based visual data collection technique, suitable both for manual and automatic analysis. A full-probabilistic framework based on Bayes Network is proposed to

  12. Legume Diversity Patterns in West Central Africa: Influence of Species Biology on Distribution Models

    PubMed Central

    de la Estrella, Manuel; Mateo, Rubén G.; Wieringa, Jan J.; Mackinder, Barbara; Muñoz, Jesús

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Species Distribution Models (SDMs) are used to produce predictions of potential Leguminosae diversity in West Central Africa. Those predictions are evaluated subsequently using expert opinion. The established methodology of combining all SDMs is refined to assess species diversity within five defined vegetation types. Potential species diversity is thus predicted for each vegetation type respectively. The primary aim of the new methodology is to define, in more detail, areas of species richness for conservation planning. Methodology Using Maxent, SDMs based on a suite of 14 environmental predictors were generated for 185 West Central African Leguminosae species, each categorised according to one of five vegetation types: Afromontane, coastal, non-flooded forest, open formations, or riverine forest. The relative contribution of each environmental variable was compared between different vegetation types using a nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis analysis followed by a post-hoc Kruskal-Wallis Paired Comparison contrast. Legume species diversity patterns were explored initially using the typical method of stacking all SDMs. Subsequently, five different ensemble models were generated by partitioning SDMs according to vegetation category. Ecological modelers worked with legume specialists to improve data integrity and integrate expert opinion in the interpretation of individual species models and potential species richness predictions for different vegetation types. Results/Conclusions Of the 14 environmental predictors used, five showed no difference in their relative contribution to the different vegetation models. Of the nine discriminating variables, the majority were related to temperature variation. The set of variables that played a major role in the Afromontane species diversity model differed significantly from the sets of variables of greatest relative important in other vegetation categories. The traditional approach of stacking all SDMs indicated overall

  13. Polyphase Neoproterozoic orogenesis within the east Africa- Antarctica orogenic belt in central and northern Madagascar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Key, R.M.; Pitfield, P.E.J.; Thomas, Ronald J.; Goodenough, K.M.; Waele, D.; Schofield, D.I.; Bauer, W.; Horstwood, M.S.A.; Styles, M.T.; Conrad, J.; Encarnacion, J.; Lidke, D.J.; O'connor, E. A.; Potter, C.; Smith, R.A.; Walsh, G.J.; Ralison, A.V.; Randriamananjara, T.; Rafahatelo, J.-M.; Rabarimanana, M.

    2011-01-01

    Our recent geological survey of the basement of central and northern Madagascar allowed us to re-evaluate the evolution of this part of the East Africa-Antarctica Orogen (EAAO). Five crustal domains are recognized, characterized by distinctive lithologies and histories of sedimentation, magmatism, deformation and metamorphism, and separated by tectonic and/or unconformable contacts. Four consist largely of Archaean metamorphic rocks (Antongil, Masora and Antananarivo Cratons, Tsaratanana Complex). The fifth (Bemarivo Belt) comprises Proterozoic meta-igneous rocks. The older rocks were intruded by plutonic suites at c. 1000 Ma, 820-760 Ma, 630-595 Ma and 560-520 Ma. The evolution of the four Archaean domains and their boundaries remains contentious, with two end-member interpretations evaluated: (1) all five crustal domains are separate tectonic elements, juxtaposed along Neoproterozoic sutures and (2) the four Archaean domains are segments of an older Archaean craton, which was sutured against the Bemarivo Belt in the Neoproterozoic. Rodinia fragmented during the early Neoproterozoic with intracratonic rifts that sometimes developed into oceanic basins. Subsequent Mid- Neoproterozoic collision of smaller cratonic blocks was followed by renewed extension and magmatism. The global 'Terminal Pan-African' event (560-490 Ma) finally stitched together the Mid-Neoproterozoic cratons to form Gondwana. ?? The Geological Society of London 2011.

  14. Intra-seasonal variability and predictability over West and Central Africa in northern spring (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janicot, S.; Kamsu-Tamo, P.; Lenouo, A.; Monkam, D.

    2013-12-01

    The main objective of this study is to characterize the intra-seasonal variability of precipitation and convection over the Guinean coast and Central Africa during the spring season March-June. The data used cover the period 1998-2010 and are derived from satellite products for rainfall (TRMM 3B42) and convection (NOAA OLR, CLAUS Brightness Temperature), and ERA-Interim reanalyses to characterize the associated atmospheric patterns. Three main periodicities have been detected at 3-8-day, 8-22-day and 20-90-day, by a Singular Spectral Analysis applied to an OLR index averaged over the Guinean Coast. Both three indices represent a homogeneous convective activity propagating eastward over the Guinean Coast from the western equatorial Atlantic to the equatorial Indian basin. Space-time spectral decompositions show that these modes are significantly controlled by convectively-coupled Kelvin wave dynamics. In this presentation the 8-22-day mode will be detailed. Their medium-range predictability (at 5, 10 and 15-day range) will be evaluated in the TIGGE (THORPEX Interactive Grand Global Ensemble) dataset over the period 2008-2012.

  15. Disentangling the relative effects of bushmeat availability on human nutrition in central Africa.

    PubMed

    Fa, John E; Olivero, Jesús; Real, Raimundo; Farfán, Miguel A; Márquez, Ana L; Vargas, J Mario; Ziegler, Stefan; Wegmann, Martin; Brown, David; Margetts, Barrie; Nasi, Robert

    2015-01-01

    We studied links between human malnutrition and wild meat availability within the Rainforest Biotic Zone in central Africa. We distinguished two distinct hunted mammalian diversity distributions, one in the rainforest areas (Deep Rainforest Diversity, DRD) containing taxa of lower hunting sustainability, the other in the northern rainforest-savanna mosaic, with species of greater hunting potential (Marginal Rainforest Diversity, MRD). Wild meat availability, assessed by standing crop mammalian biomass, was greater in MRD than in DRD areas. Predicted bushmeat extraction was also higher in MRD areas. Despite this, stunting of children, a measure of human malnutrition, was greater in MRD areas. Structural equation modeling identified that, in MRD areas, mammal diversity fell away from urban areas, but proximity to these positively influenced higher stunting incidence. In DRD areas, remoteness and distance from dense human settlements and infrastructures explained lower stunting levels. Moreover, stunting was higher away from protected areas. Our results suggest that in MRD areas, forest wildlife rational use for better human nutrition is possible. By contrast, the relatively low human populations in DRD areas currently offer abundant opportunities for the continued protection of more vulnerable mammals and allow dietary needs of local populations to be met. PMID:25639588

  16. Y chromosome STR allelic and haplotype diversity in a Rwanda population from East Central Africa.

    PubMed

    Balamurugan, Kuppareddi; Duncan, George

    2012-03-01

    We have analyzed 17 Y-chromosomal STR loci in a population sample of 69 unrelated male individuals of the Rwanda-Hutu population from East Central Africa using an AmpFlSTR® Yfiler™ PCR amplification kit. A total of 62 unique haplotypes were identified among the 69 individuals studied. The haplotype diversity was found to be 0.9970 for this population. The gene diversity ranged from 0.1130 (DYS392) to 0.7722 (DYS385). Comparison of populations in this study with twenty-five other national and global populations using Principal Co-ordinate Analysis (PCA) and phylogenetic molecular analysis using a genetic distance matrix indicates a delineation of all the African populations from other unrelated populations. The results of population pair-wise Fst p values indicate statistically significant differentiation of the Rwandan population when compared with 25 other global populations including four African populations (p=0.0000). Analysis of Molecular Variance (AMOVA) of the Rwanda population with four other African populations indicated a 93% variance within populations and 7% variance among the five populations. A data base search of the 62 haplotypes yielded only one non-African haplotype match, suggesting these haplotypes are unique to the African continent. PMID:22285642

  17. Azimuthal anisotropy beneath north central Africa from shear wave splitting analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemnifi, Awad A.; Liu, Kelly H.; Gao, Stephen S.; Reed, Cory A.; Elsheikh, Ahmed A.; Yu, Youqiang; Elmelade, Abdala A.

    2015-04-01

    This study represents the first multistation investigation of azimuthal anisotropy beneath the interior of north central Africa, including Libya and adjacent regions, using shear wave splitting (SWS) analysis. Data used in the study include recently available broadband seismic data obtained from 15 stations managed by the Libyan Center for Remote Sensing and Space Science, and those from five other stations at which data are publicly accessible. A total of 583 pairs of high-quality SWS measurements utilizing the PKS, SKKS, and SKS phases demonstrate primarily N-S fast orientations with an average splitting delay time of approximately 1.2 s. An absence of periodic azimuthal variation of the observed splitting parameters indicates the presence of simple anisotropy, and lack of correlation between surficial features and the splitting parameters suggests that the origin of the observed anisotropy is primarily asthenospheric. This conclusion is enhanced by nonperiodic azimuthal variation of the splitting parameters observed at one of the stations located near the boundary of areas with different anisotropic properties. We interpret the observed anisotropy to be the consequence of northward movement of the African plate relative to the asthenosphere toward the Hellenic and Calabrian subduction zones. Local variance in fast orientations may be attributable to flow deflection by the northern edge of the African continental root. The observations provide critical and previously lacking constraints on mantle dynamic models in the vicinity of the convergent boundary between the African and Eurasian plates.

  18. Oil and gas developments in central and southern Africa in 1982

    SciTech Connect

    McGrew, H.J.

    1983-10-01

    Exploratory activity in central and southern Africa continued to be strong during 1982. Seismic operations decreased, but there was a marked increase in the amount of aeromagnetic control obtained. Oil production continued the drop which began in 1981 due to the world oversupply. There were few new concessions taken by the international oil companies. Several small projects required the acquisition of relatively small amounts of land. A notable exception was in Gabon where Tenneco and Amoco have gained strong land positions. The east African countries are preparing for increased land acquisition. Seismic activity declined from 365 party-months in 1981 to 296 party-months in 1982. The amount of control obtained, however, increased substantially to 127,518 km. The acquisition of 3-D control increased by about 50% during the year as this technique was being used more commonly to delineate structures prior to development drilling. Forty-eight new-field wildcats resulted in discoveries, compared with 44 the previous year. There were 281 development wells. In all, 464 wells were drilled to account for 3.6 million ft of hole. Oil production was 662,871,768 bbl, a decrease of 5.8% from 1981. Cumulative production has now exceeded 11 billion bbl.

  19. Atmospheric water vapor transport and recycling in Equatorial Central Africa through NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokam, Wilfried M.; Djiotang, Lucie A. Tchotchou; Mkankam, François K.

    2012-05-01

    The characteristics of the main components of the water cycle over Equatorial Central Africa (ECA) were analysed using the 32-year period, spanning from 1968 to 2000, of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction-National Censearch (NCEP-) reanalysis project database. A special emphasis was given to identifying the causes of annual and interannual variability of water vapor flux and precipitation recycling. The results suggest that the first maximum of moisture convergence, during the rainy season MAM, comes from upper level moisture flux, related to the north component of the African Easterly Jet (AEJ-N). The second, and greatest, maximum in SON is found to be a consequence of low level moisture advection from the Atlantic Ocean. AEJ-N also drive the seasonal spatial pattern of moisture flux. The interannual variability of moisture flux is contributed mainly by the low level moisture advected from the Atlantic Ocean, underlying its crucial role for the regional climate. Studying the recycling ratio in ECA as a whole shows a low annual cycle whereas subregional scale analysis reveals high amplitude of the seasonal variation. Seasonal variability of the spatial gradient of precipitation recycling is regulated by both moisture flux direction and strength. The annual cycles of recycling ratio in the North and the South of ECA are regulated by both moisture transport and evapotranspiration.

  20. The role of Pleistocene refugia and rivers in shaping gorilla genetic diversity in central Africa

    PubMed Central

    Anthony, Nicola M.; Johnson-Bawe, Mireille; Jeffery, Kathryn; Clifford, Stephen L.; Abernethy, Kate A.; Tutin, Caroline E.; Lahm, Sally A.; White, Lee J. T.; Utley, John F.; Wickings, E. Jean; Bruford, Michael W.

    2007-01-01

    The role of Pleistocene forest refugia and rivers in the evolutionary diversification of tropical biota has been the subject of considerable debate. A range-wide analysis of gorilla mitochondrial and nuclear variation was used to test the potential role of both refugia and rivers in shaping genetic diversity in current populations. Results reveal strong patterns of regional differentiation that are consistent with refugial hypotheses for central Africa. Four major mitochondrial haplogroups are evident with the greatest divergence between eastern (A, B) and western (C, D) gorillas. Coalescent simulations reject a model of recent east–west separation during the last glacial maximum but are consistent with a divergence time within the Pleistocene. Microsatellite data also support a similar regional pattern of population genetic structure. Signatures of demographic expansion were detected in eastern lowland (B) and Gabon/Congo (D3) mitochondrial haplogroups and are consistent with a history of postglacial expansion from formerly isolated refugia. Although most mitochondrial haplogroups are regionally defined, limited admixture is evident between neighboring haplogroups. Mantel tests reveal a significant isolation-by-distance effect among western lowland gorilla populations. However, mitochondrial genetic distances also correlate with the distance required to circumnavigate intervening rivers, indicating a possible role for rivers in partitioning gorilla genetic diversity. Comparative data are needed to evaluate the importance of both mechanisms of vicariance in other African rainforest taxa. PMID:18077351

  1. Disentangling the relative effects of bushmeat availability on human nutrition in central Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fa, John E.; Olivero, Jesús; Real, Raimundo; Farfán, Miguel A.; Márquez, Ana L.; Vargas, J. Mario; Ziegler, Stefan; Wegmann, Martin; Brown, David; Margetts, Barrie; Nasi, Robert

    2015-02-01

    We studied links between human malnutrition and wild meat availability within the Rainforest Biotic Zone in central Africa. We distinguished two distinct hunted mammalian diversity distributions, one in the rainforest areas (Deep Rainforest Diversity, DRD) containing taxa of lower hunting sustainability, the other in the northern rainforest-savanna mosaic, with species of greater hunting potential (Marginal Rainforest Diversity, MRD). Wild meat availability, assessed by standing crop mammalian biomass, was greater in MRD than in DRD areas. Predicted bushmeat extraction was also higher in MRD areas. Despite this, stunting of children, a measure of human malnutrition, was greater in MRD areas. Structural equation modeling identified that, in MRD areas, mammal diversity fell away from urban areas, but proximity to these positively influenced higher stunting incidence. In DRD areas, remoteness and distance from dense human settlements and infrastructures explained lower stunting levels. Moreover, stunting was higher away from protected areas. Our results suggest that in MRD areas, forest wildlife rational use for better human nutrition is possible. By contrast, the relatively low human populations in DRD areas currently offer abundant opportunities for the continued protection of more vulnerable mammals and allow dietary needs of local populations to be met.

  2. Disentangling the relative effects of bushmeat availability on human nutrition in central Africa

    PubMed Central

    Fa, John E.; Olivero, Jesús; Real, Raimundo; Farfán, Miguel A.; Márquez, Ana L.; Vargas, J. Mario; Ziegler, Stefan; Wegmann, Martin; Brown, David; Margetts, Barrie; Nasi, Robert

    2015-01-01

    We studied links between human malnutrition and wild meat availability within the Rainforest Biotic Zone in central Africa. We distinguished two distinct hunted mammalian diversity distributions, one in the rainforest areas (Deep Rainforest Diversity, DRD) containing taxa of lower hunting sustainability, the other in the northern rainforest-savanna mosaic, with species of greater hunting potential (Marginal Rainforest Diversity, MRD). Wild meat availability, assessed by standing crop mammalian biomass, was greater in MRD than in DRD areas. Predicted bushmeat extraction was also higher in MRD areas. Despite this, stunting of children, a measure of human malnutrition, was greater in MRD areas. Structural equation modeling identified that, in MRD areas, mammal diversity fell away from urban areas, but proximity to these positively influenced higher stunting incidence. In DRD areas, remoteness and distance from dense human settlements and infrastructures explained lower stunting levels. Moreover, stunting was higher away from protected areas. Our results suggest that in MRD areas, forest wildlife rational use for better human nutrition is possible. By contrast, the relatively low human populations in DRD areas currently offer abundant opportunities for the continued protection of more vulnerable mammals and allow dietary needs of local populations to be met. PMID:25639588

  3. Haemosporidian Parasites of Antelopes and Other Vertebrates from Gabon, Central Africa.

    PubMed

    Boundenga, Larson; Makanga, Boris; Ollomo, Benjamin; Gilabert, Aude; Rougeron, Virginie; Mve-Ondo, Bertrand; Arnathau, Céline; Durand, Patrick; Moukodoum, Nancy Diamella; Okouga, Alain-Prince; Delicat-Loembet, Lucresse; Yacka-Mouele, Lauriane; Rahola, Nil; Leroy, Eric; Ba, Cheikh Tidiane; Renaud, Francois; Prugnolle, Franck; Paupy, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Re-examination, using molecular tools, of the diversity of haemosporidian parasites (among which the agents of human malaria are the best known) has generally led to rearrangements of traditional classifications. In this study, we explored the diversity of haemosporidian parasites infecting vertebrate species (particularly mammals, birds and reptiles) living in the forests of Gabon (Central Africa), by analyzing a collection of 492 bushmeat samples. We found that samples from five mammalian species (four duiker and one pangolin species), one bird and one turtle species were infected by haemosporidian parasites. In duikers (from which most of the infected specimens were obtained), we demonstrated the existence of at least two distinct parasite lineages related to Polychromophilus species (i.e., bat haemosporidian parasites) and to sauropsid Plasmodium (from birds and lizards). Molecular screening of sylvatic mosquitoes captured during a longitudinal survey revealed the presence of these haemosporidian parasite lineages also in several Anopheles species, suggesting a potential role in their transmission. Our results show that, differently from what was previously thought, several independent clades of haemosporidian parasites (family Plasmodiidae) infect mammals and are transmitted by anopheline mosquitoes. PMID:26863304

  4. Haemosporidian Parasites of Antelopes and Other Vertebrates from Gabon, Central Africa

    PubMed Central

    Ollomo, Benjamin; Gilabert, Aude; Rougeron, Virginie; Mve-Ondo, Bertrand; Arnathau, Céline; Durand, Patrick; Moukodoum, Nancy Diamella; Okouga, Alain-Prince; Delicat-Loembet, Lucresse; Yacka-Mouele, Lauriane; Rahola, Nil; Leroy, Eric; BA, Cheikh Tidiane; Renaud, Francois; Prugnolle, Franck; Paupy, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Re-examination, using molecular tools, of the diversity of haemosporidian parasites (among which the agents of human malaria are the best known) has generally led to rearrangements of traditional classifications. In this study, we explored the diversity of haemosporidian parasites infecting vertebrate species (particularly mammals, birds and reptiles) living in the forests of Gabon (Central Africa), by analyzing a collection of 492 bushmeat samples. We found that samples from five mammalian species (four duiker and one pangolin species), one bird and one turtle species were infected by haemosporidian parasites. In duikers (from which most of the infected specimens were obtained), we demonstrated the existence of at least two distinct parasite lineages related to Polychromophilus species (i.e., bat haemosporidian parasites) and to sauropsid Plasmodium (from birds and lizards). Molecular screening of sylvatic mosquitoes captured during a longitudinal survey revealed the presence of these haemosporidian parasite lineages also in several Anopheles species, suggesting a potential role in their transmission. Our results show that, differently from what was previously thought, several independent clades of haemosporidian parasites (family Plasmodiidae) infect mammals and are transmitted by anopheline mosquitoes. PMID:26863304

  5. 60,000 years of interactions between Central and Eastern Africa documented by major African mitochondrial haplogroup L2

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Marina; Alshamali, Farida; Silva, Paula; Carrilho, Carla; Mandlate, Flávio; Jesus Trovoada, Maria; Černý, Viktor; Pereira, Luísa; Soares, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup L2 originated in Western Africa but is nowadays spread across the entire continent. L2 movements were previously postulated to be related to the Bantu expansion, but L2 expansions eastwards probably occurred much earlier. By reconstructing the phylogeny of L2 (44 new complete sequences) we provide insights on the complex net of within-African migrations in the last 60 thousand years (ka). Results show that lineages in Southern Africa cluster with Western/Central African lineages at a recent time scale, whereas, eastern lineages seem to be substantially more ancient. Three moments of expansion from a Central African source are associated to L2: (1) one migration at 70–50 ka into Eastern or Southern Africa, (2) postglacial movements (15–10 ka) into Eastern Africa; and (3) the southward Bantu Expansion in the last 5 ka. The complementary population and L0a phylogeography analyses indicate no strong evidence of mtDNA gene flow between eastern and southern populations during the later movement, suggesting low admixture between Eastern African populations and the Bantu migrants. This implies that, at least in the early stages, the Bantu expansion was mainly a demic diffusion with little incorporation of local populations. PMID:26211407

  6. 60,000 years of interactions between Central and Eastern Africa documented by major African mitochondrial haplogroup L2.

    PubMed

    Silva, Marina; Alshamali, Farida; Silva, Paula; Carrilho, Carla; Mandlate, Flávio; Jesus Trovoada, Maria; Černý, Viktor; Pereira, Luísa; Soares, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup L2 originated in Western Africa but is nowadays spread across the entire continent. L2 movements were previously postulated to be related to the Bantu expansion, but L2 expansions eastwards probably occurred much earlier. By reconstructing the phylogeny of L2 (44 new complete sequences) we provide insights on the complex net of within-African migrations in the last 60 thousand years (ka). Results show that lineages in Southern Africa cluster with Western/Central African lineages at a recent time scale, whereas, eastern lineages seem to be substantially more ancient. Three moments of expansion from a Central African source are associated to L2: (1) one migration at 70-50 ka into Eastern or Southern Africa, (2) postglacial movements (15-10 ka) into Eastern Africa; and (3) the southward Bantu Expansion in the last 5 ka. The complementary population and L0a phylogeography analyses indicate no strong evidence of mtDNA gene flow between eastern and southern populations during the later movement, suggesting low admixture between Eastern African populations and the Bantu migrants. This implies that, at least in the early stages, the Bantu expansion was mainly a demic diffusion with little incorporation of local populations. PMID:26211407

  7. Establishing an Online Continuing and Professional Development Library for Nurses and Midwives in East, Central, and Southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Hosey, Kristen N; Kalula, Alphonce; Voss, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Over the past 4 years, the African Health Profession Regulatory Collaborative for nurses and midwives has supported 12 countries establish national continuing and professional development frameworks and programs, linking continuing education to nursing and midwifery re-licensure through technical assistance and improvement grants. However, lack of electronic media and rural practice sites, differences in priority content, and varying legal frameworks make providing accessible, certifiable, and up-to-date online continuing education content for the more than 300,000 nurses and midwives in the 17 member countries of the East, Central, and Southern Africa College of Nursing a major challenge. We report here on how the East, Central, and Southern Africa College of Nursing, with technical assistance from an Afya Bora Fellow, developed an online continuing professional development library hosted on their Web site using data collected in a survey of nursing and midwifery leaders in the region. PMID:27086190

  8. Source sector and region contributions to BC and PM2.5 in Central Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Kulkarni, S.; Sobhani, N.; Miller-Schulze, J. P.; Shafer, M. M.; Schauer, J. J.; Solomon, P. A.; Saide, P. E.; Spak, S. N.; Cheng, Y. F.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.; Lu, Z.; Streets, D. G.; Janssens-Maenhout, G.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Lantz, J.; Artamonova, M.; Chen, B.; Imashev, S.; Sverdlik, L.; Deminter, J. T.; Adhikary, B.; D'Allura, A.; Wei, C.; Carmichael, G. R.

    2015-02-18

    Particulate matter (PM) mass concentrations, seasonal cycles, source sector, and source region contributions in Central Asia (CA) are analyzed for the period April 2008–July 2009 using the Sulfur Transport and dEposition Model (STEM) chemical transport model and modeled meteorology from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Predicted aerosol optical depth (AOD) values (annual mean value ~0.2) in CA vary seasonally, with lowest values in the winter. Surface PM2.5 concentrations (annual mean value ~10 μg m-3) also exhibit a seasonal cycle, with peak values and largest variability in the spring/summer, and lowest values and variability in the winter (hourly values from 2 to 90 μg m-3). Surface concentrations of black carbon (BC) (mean value ~0.1 μg m-3) show peak values in the winter. The simulated values are compared to surface measurements of AOD as well as PM2.5, PM10, BC, and organic carbon (OC) mass concentrations at two regional sites in Kyrgyzstan (Lidar Station Teplokluchenka (LST) and Bishkek). The predicted values of AOD and PM mass concentrations and their seasonal cycles are fairly well captured. The carbonaceous aerosols are underpredicted in winter, and analysis suggests that the winter heating emissions are underestimated in the current inventory. Dust, from sources within and outside CA, is a significant component of the PM mass and drives the seasonal cycles of PM and AOD. On an annual basis, the power and industrial sectors are found to be the most important contributors to the anthropogenic portion of PM2.5. Residential combustion and transportation are shown to be the most important sectors for BC. Biomass burning within and outside the region also contributes to elevated PM and BC concentrations. The analysis of the transport pathways and the variations in particulate matter mass and composition in CA demonstrates that this region is strategically located

  9. Using Mg/Ca on oyster shells as paleoclimatic proxy, example from the Paleogene of Central Asia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bougeois, Laurie; de Rafélis, Marc; Reichart, Gert-Jan; de Nooijer, Lennart; Dupont-Nivet, Guillaume

    2015-04-01

    Due to their large occurrence in sedimentary records from Triassic to Quaternary, their strong resistance to post-mortem alteration, and the incremental nature of their shell growth, oysters are recognized to be a highly powerful tool to infer infra-annual paleoclimate variations. However, the common use of δ18O in biomineralisation to infer paleotemperatures is hindered by the difficulties in valuating δ18O of sea water (δ18Osw). If the δ18Osw values can be fairly well estimated when orking at the million-year time scale, the estimation of the infra-annual variation of the δ18Osw constitutes a considerable barrier for high-resolution paleo-reconstitutions. This issue can be resolved using the Mg/Ca ratio as a suitable and valuable independent high-resolution paleothermometer in oyster shells. However, if numerous studies provided new paleothermometer using Mg/Ca ratio in calcitic bivalve shells, their application to paleo-studies remains to be established. In this study, we combine incremental δ18O analyses with Mg/Ca ratio on Paleogene oyster shells from the Proto-Paratethys (Central Asia) that is characterized by high seasonal variability. We analysed various species growing in different depositional environments throughout late Paleocene to late Eocene times. Results from both proxies show consistent values from oysters of the same age and of the same species, attesting for the consistent Mg incorporation into shells. However, the Mg/Ca-T calibrations tested in this study reveals the importance of specie-specific effect for the incorporation of Mg, as well as the environment. This enables discarding results inappropriate for existing Mg/Ca calibrations and identifying those yielding meaningful paleo-temperatures. In particular, the consistency of the Mg/Ca temperature proxies yielded by the species Ostrea (T.) strictiplicata and Sokolowia buhsii shows that, with careful data selection, Mg/Ca provides a reliable infra-annual paleotemperature proxy.

  10. On the Annual Cycle of Central South-West Asia precipitation in GCMs: an Analysis of AMIP Simulation Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, K. M.; Taylor, P.; Szeto, K.

    2009-12-01

    This study evaluates simulations of precipitation patterns over the Central South-West Asia region (25-40N and 45-75E) by using results from the Atmospheric Model Inter-comparison Project (AMIP). Annual and monthly spatial precipitation fields produced by a subset of 13 currently available AMIP model experiments are evaluated for the region and compared with GPCC (Global Precipitation Climatology Centre) monthly precipitation data for the period of 1979-2001. GPCC precipitation data are available with 0.5 degree resolution and correlate with observational precipitation data with a correlation factor of 0.953. The models show large variations in their ability to capture the seasonal precipitation, although spatial correlations indicate that some of the models simulate the pattern of GPCC precipitation fields fairly well. Some models cannot capture the convective precipitation in the region that occurs during spring (March-April) and fall (Sept-Oct). Relative to the GPCC data most of the models predicted well in winter whereas some models cannot adequately capture the summer (monsoon) precipitation which enters the domain from east. On the spatial scales of the selected region, there is little consistent evidence that points to any specific feature as an indicator of model performance. None of the obvious candidates such as horizontal resolution, convective closure schemes, or land surface schemes are reliable discriminators of a models ability to simulate precipitation accurately. Horizontal resolution effects are apparent in the inter-mountain region, where high resolution models do better that low resolution models. However, there is not enough evidence to produce reliable simulation on this basis. Correlation coefficients of observed precipitation with model output can be improved by using ensemble averaged precipitation from several models.

  11. Petrogenesis of Early-Permian sanukitoids from West Junggar, Northwest China: Implications for Late Paleozoic crustal growth in Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Jiyuan; Chen, Wen; Xiao, Wenjiao; Yuan, Chao; Sun, Min; Tang, Gongjian; Yu, Shun; Long, Xiaoping; Cai, Keda; Geng, Hongyan; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Xinyu

    2015-11-01

    Sanukitoids and their equivalents are rare subduction-related rock types that have been found in modern arc settings and in Late Archean sequences. The investigation of sanukitoids is of particular importance to a better understanding of crust-forming processes and continental growth. In this paper we report zircon U-Pb and Ar-Ar ages and major element, trace element, and Sr-Nd-Hf isotope data for the Bieluagaxi dioritic pluton and dikes from the southern part of the West Junggar, NW China. These rocks formed in the Early Permian and show a remarkable geochemical affinity with Cenozoic sanukitoids of the Setouchi Volcanic Belt of SW Japan with high Mg# (48-73) values, Cr (54-539 ppm), Ni (21-197 ppm) contents and Th/La (0.15-0.37) ratios and low Sr/Y ratios (16-27) and Sr (263-442 ppm) contents. They may be generated by the partial melting of subducting sediments, and subsequent melt-mantle interaction. Additionally, the sanukitoids are also widespread in the Karamay-Baogutu area of West Junggar accompanied by high Sr (average 713 ppm) contents and Sr/Y (50-130) ratios, and low Y (6.9-12.6 ppm) contents. The difference in petrochemical characteristics between the Baogutu-Karamay and Bieluagaxi sanukitoids can be explained by the difference in depth of initial melting, origin composition and fractional crystallization. The Baogutu-Karamay sanukitoids were probably formed under eclogitic conditions, while the Bieluagaxi sanukitoids were at a shallower depth. Moreover, the compositional similarity between continental-crust forming rocks and the Bieluagaxi sanukitoids suggests that the sanukitoids genesis could be closely related to the process of continental crust formation. The Late Carboniferous-Early Permian sanukitoids in the West Junggar may be an indicator of anomalous thermal activity. Ridge subduction may play a crucial role in the evolution and growth of the continental crust in Central Asia.

  12. Climate change impact on future water resources availability for a semi-arid area (Ferghana Valley, Central Asia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radchenko, Iuliia; Breuer, Lutz; Mannig, Birgit; Frede, Hans-Georg

    2014-05-01

    Considering increasing temperatures and glacier recession during the last decades, it is of high interest to study the climate change impact on water resources availability in semi-arid regions of Central Asia. The Ferghana Valley is surrounded by the Tien-Shan and Pamiro-Alay mountain systems that store big amounts of water in snowpacks and glaciers. In the valley the agricultural activity of local people strongly depends on available water from the Syrdarya River. The river is formed by the confluence of the Naryn and Karadarya Rivers, which are mainly fed by the glacier and snow melt from the Akshiirak and Ferghana ridges of the aforementioned mountain systems. The small upper river basins of the valley also contribute with runoff (~34 %) to the Syrdarya River. These small rivers are mainly fed by precipitation and seasonal snow melt. Thus, because of climate change and glacier decline, it is necessary to investigate the comparative contribution of the small catchments versus two big river basins to the Syrdarya River system, as these small upper catchments could become more important for future water consumption. In this study the conceptual hydrological HBV-light model has been calibrated and validated for the period 1980-1985 over 18 upper catchments that feed the Syrdarya River from the surrounding mountain ridges. Dynamically downscaled climate change scenarios were then applied up to the year 2100 for these basins. The scenarios were generated by means of Global Circulation Model (ECHAM5) and Regional Climate Model (REMO) with a baseline period from 1971 till 2000. We will present modelling results of water resources, the contribution of small rivers to the Syrdarya River and to what extent this contribution is likely to change in the future. Moreover, the results of simulated potential runoff will be used to develop future climate change adaptation strategies regarding socio-economic and environmental sustainable water use.

  13. PM₁₀ concentration in urban atmosphere around the eastern Tien Shan, Central Asia during 2007-2013.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shengjie; Zhang, Mingjun; Minguillón, María Cruz; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Feng, Fang; Qiu, Xue

    2015-05-01

    Based on the daily records from 16 cities around the eastern Tien Shan (Tianshan Mountains), central Asia from 2007 to 2013, the spatial pattern and seasonal/interannual variation of urban particulate matter up to 10 μm in size (PM10) concentrations and influencing factors were analyzed. Annual mean PM10 concentrations (±standard deviation) in most cities on the northern slope mainly range from 55 ± 28 μg/m(3) to 92 ± 75 μg/m(3), and those on the southern slope range between 96 ± 65 and 195 ± 144 μg/m(3). PM10 concentrations are maxima in winter on the northern slope, while they maximize in springtime on the southern slope. There is an increasing trend in annual mean concentrations during the period 2007-2013, which is not statistically significant at the 0.05 level. Urban PM10 concentration in the study region is jointly influenced by anthropogenic emission and regional natural processes, especially dust events and precipitation. The northern slope usually has heavy anthropogenic air pollution (mostly in winter) and relatively rich precipitation especially in summer, and the southern slope always suffers more frequent dust events (mostly in spring) and less precipitation. Modeled back-trajectory indicated that the Taklimakan desert source can greatly increase the PM10 concentration on the southern slope, and the mountain ranges may hinder the transport of dust to the northern slope. PMID:25471722

  14. Statistical study to identify the key factors governing ground water recharge in the watersheds of the arid Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Binq-Qi; Wang, Yue-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the source and recharge of ground waters is of great significance to our knowledge in hydrological cycles in arid environments over the world. Northern Xinjiang in northwestern China is a significant repository of information relating to the hydrological evolution and climatic changes in central Asia. In this study, two multivariate statistical techniques, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA), were used to assess the ground water recharge and its governing factors, with the principal idea of exploring the above techniques to utilize all available hydrogeochemical variables in the quality assessment, which are not considered in the conventional techniques like Stiff and Piper diagrams. Q-mode HCA and R-mode PCA were combined to partition the water samples into seven major water clusters (C1-C7) and three principal components (PC1-PC3, PC1 salinity, PC2 hydroclimate, PC3 contaminant). The water samples C1 + C4 were classified as recharge area waters (Ca-HCO3 water), C2 + C3 as transitional zone waters (Ca-Mg-HCO3-SO4 water), and C5 + C6 + C7 as discharge area waters (Na-SO4 water). Based on the Q-mode PCA scores, three groups of geochemical processes influencing recharge regimes were identified: geogenic (i.e., caused by natural geochemical processes), geomorphoclimatic (caused by topography and climate), and anthropogenic (caused by ground water contamination). It is proposed that differences in recharge mechanism and ground water evolution, and possible bedrock composition difference, are responsible for the chemical genesis of these waters. These will continue to influence the geochemistry of the northern Xinjiang drainage system for a long time due to its steady tectonics and arid climate. This study proved that the chemistry differentiation of ground water can effectively support the identification of ground water recharge and evolution patterns. PMID:26718947

  15. Impacts of SST Warming in tropical Indian Ocean on CMIP5 model-projected summer rainfall changes over Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yong; Zhang, Huqiang

    2016-05-01

    Based on the historical and RCP8.5 experiments from 25 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) models, the impacts of sea surface temperature (SST) warming in the tropical Indian Ocean (IO) on the projected change in summer rainfall over Central Asia (CA) are investigated. The analysis is designed to answer three questions: (1) Can CMIP5 models reproduce the observed influence of the IO sea surface temperatures (SSTs) on the CA rainfall variations and the associated dynamical processes? (2) How well do the models agree on their projected rainfall changes over CA under warmed climate? (3) How much of the uncertainty in such rainfall projections is due to different impacts of IO SSTs in these models? The historical experiments show that in most models summer rainfall over CA are positively correlated to the SSTs in the IO. Furthermore, for models with higher rainfall-SSTs correlations, the dynamical processes accountable for such impacts are much closer to what have been revealed in observational data: warmer SSTs tend to favor the development of anti-cyclonic circulation patterns at low troposphere over north and northwest of the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. These anomalous circulation patterns correspond to significantly enhanced southerly flow which carries warm and moisture air mass from the IO region up to the northeast. At the same time, there is a cyclonic flow over the central and eastern part of the CA which further brings the tropical moisture into the CA and provides essential moist conditions for its rainfall generation. In the second half of twenty-first century, although all the 25 models simulate warmed SSTs, significant uncertainty exists in their projected rainfall changes over CA: half of them suggest summer rainfall increases, but the other half project rainfall decreases. However, when we select seven models out of the 25 based on their skills in capturing the dynamical processes as observed, then the model projected changes

  16. A New Species of Nyanzachoerus (Cetartiodactyla: Suidae) from the Late Miocene Toros-Ménalla, Chad, Central Africa

    PubMed Central

    Boisserie, Jean-Renaud; Souron, Antoine; Mackaye, Hassane Taïsso; Likius, Andossa; Vignaud, Patrick; Brunet, Michel

    2014-01-01

    During the latest Miocene and the early Pliocene, tetraconodontine suids were the most predominant large omnivorous mammals in Africa. Yet, new species were often identified on the grounds of limited evidence, a situation impacting their value for biochronological correlations as well as for environmental and biogeographical reconstructions. The description of the most abundant known collection of craniodental remains attributed to the tetraconodontine Nyanzachoerus helps to improve this situation. These specimens were collected in the upper Miocene deposits at Toros-Ménalla, northern Chad, central Africa, by the Mission Paléoanthropologique Franco-Tchadienne. We compared them with Nyanzachoerus from eastern and southern Africa, using extant species as a reference for patterns of morphological variation. Thanks to a large sample of observations, our work focused as much on craniomandibular morphology as on dental morphology and metrics (improved by an index scoring for the complexity of distal third molars and a detailed investigation of premolar-molar ratios). We recognized two taxa at Toros-Ménalla: Nyanzachoerus khinzir nov. sp. and Ny. cf. australis. We also revised the taxonomic status for other species, including: the restriction of Ny. syrticus to its holotype specimen from Sahabi (Libya), the resurrection of the nomen Ny. tulotos, and the synonymy of Ny. kuseralensis with Ny. waylandi. At Toros-Ménalla, Ny. khinzir was the only suid coexisting with the anthracotheriid Libycosaurus and the hominid Sahelanthropus, whereas Ny. cf. australis was associated with a different, probably younger faunal context. Nyanzachoerus. khinzir, which probably had a diversified diet, supports a latest Miocene biogeographical distinction between central Africa and eastern Africa. PMID:25162699

  17. Seismicity in Central North Africa at low magnitudes: A first look at the TAM event detected data base

    SciTech Connect

    Harben, P.E.,

    1997-01-01

    Teleseismic observations of seismicity in the central North Africa region show that the region is aseismic. This is true for earthquakes with a body wave magnitude greater than about 4 or so. For earthquakes with body wave magnitudes substantially below about 4, the teleseismic observations of seismicity in the central Sahara are incomplete since smaller earthquakes would probably not be detected and located by the current teleseismic monitoring networks. Only one known open seismic station has been operating in the central Sahara. This is the Tamanrasset (TAM) seismic station in southern Algeria. A simple analysis of data records from this station can be used to determine if the central Sahara is also relatively aseismic at magnitudes substantially below 4. That is the primary purpose of this study.

  18. Patterns in volatile organic compound emissions along a savanna-rainforest gradient in central Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klinger, L. F.; Greenburg, J.; Guenther, A.; Tyndall, G.; Zimmerman, P.; M'bangui, M.; Moutsamboté, J.-M.; Kenfack, D.

    1998-01-01

    In temperate regions the chemistry of the lower troposphere is known to be significantly affected by biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by plants. The chemistry of the lower troposphere over the tropics, however, is poorly understood, in part because of the considerable uncertainties in VOC emissions from tropical ecosystems. Present global VOC models predict that base emissions of isoprene from tropical rainforests are considerably higher than from savannas. These global models of VOC emissions which rely mainly on species inventories are useful, but significant improvement might be made with more ecologically based models of VOC emissions by plants. Ecosystems along a successional transect from woodland savanna to primary rainforest in central Africa were characterized for species composition and vegetation abundance using ground surveys and remotely sensed data. A total of 336 species (mostly trees) at 13 sites were recorded, and 208 of these were measured for VOC emissions at near-optimal light and temperature conditions using a leaf cuvette and hand-held photoionization detector (PID). A subset of 59 species was also sampled using conventional VOC emission techniques in order to validate the PID technique. Results of ecological and VOC emission surveys indicate both phylogenetic and successional patterns along the savanna-rainforest transect. Genera and families of trees which tend to emit isoprene include Lophira, Irvingia, Albizia, Artocarpus, Ficus, Pterocarpus, Caesalpiniaceae, Arecaceae, and Moraceae. Other taxa tend to contain stored VOCs (Annonaceae and Asteraceae). Successional patterns suggest that isoprene emissions are highest in the relatively early successional Isoberlinia forest communities and progressively decrease in the later successional secondary and primary rainforest communities. Stored VOCs appear to increase along the savanna-rainforest succession, but these data are more tentative. These findings are consistent with

  19. Integrating Sustainable Hunting in Biodiversity Protection in Central Africa: Hot Spots, Weak Spots, and Strong Spots

    PubMed Central

    Fa, John E.; Olivero, Jesús; Farfán, Miguel Ángel; Márquez, Ana Luz; Vargas, Juan Mario; Real, Raimundo; Nasi, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Wild animals are a primary source of protein (bushmeat) for people living in or near tropical forests. Ideally, the effect of bushmeat harvests should be monitored closely by making regular estimates of offtake rate and size of stock available for exploitation. However, in practice, this is possible in very few situations because it requires both of these aspects to be readily measurable, and even in the best case, entails very considerable time and effort. As alternative, in this study, we use high-resolution, environmental favorability models for terrestrial mammals (N = 165) in Central Africa to map areas of high species richness (hot spots) and hunting susceptibility. Favorability models distinguish localities with environmental conditions that favor the species' existence from those with detrimental characteristics for its presence. We develop an index for assessing Potential Hunting Sustainability (PHS) of each species based on their ecological characteristics (population density, habitat breadth, rarity and vulnerability), weighted according to restrictive and permissive assumptions of how species' characteristics are combined. Species are classified into five main hunting sustainability classes using fuzzy logic. Using the accumulated favorability values of all species, and their PHS values, we finally identify weak spots, defined as high diversity regions of especial hunting vulnerability for wildlife, as well as strong spots, defined as high diversity areas of high hunting sustainability potential. Our study uses relatively simple models that employ easily obtainable data of a species' ecological characteristics to assess the impacts of hunting in tropical regions. It provides information for management by charting the geography of where species are more or less likely to be at risk of extinction from hunting. PMID:25372705

  20. Integrating sustainable hunting in biodiversity protection in Central Africa: hot spots, weak spots, and strong spots.

    PubMed

    Fa, John E; Olivero, Jesús; Farfán, Miguel Ángel; Márquez, Ana Luz; Vargas, Juan Mario; Real, Raimundo; Nasi, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Wild animals are a primary source of protein (bushmeat) for people living in or near tropical forests. Ideally, the effect of bushmeat harvests should be monitored closely by making regular estimates of offtake rate and size of stock available for exploitation. However, in practice, this is possible in very few situations because it requires both of these aspects to be readily measurable, and even in the best case, entails very considerable time and effort. As alternative, in this study, we use high-resolution, environmental favorability models for terrestrial mammals (N = 165) in Central Africa to map areas of high species richness (hot spots) and hunting susceptibility. Favorability models distinguish localities with environmental conditions that favor the species' existence from those with detrimental characteristics for its presence. We develop an index for assessing Potential Hunting Sustainability (PHS) of each species based on their ecological characteristics (population density, habitat breadth, rarity and vulnerability), weighted according to restrictive and permissive assumptions of how species' characteristics are combined. Species are classified into five main hunting sustainability classes using fuzzy logic. Using the accumulated favorability values of all species, and their PHS values, we finally identify weak spots, defined as high diversity regions of especial hunting vulnerability for wildlife, as well as strong spots, defined as high diversity areas of high hunting sustainability potential. Our study uses relatively simple models that employ easily obtainable data of a species' ecological characteristics to assess the impacts of hunting in tropical regions. It provides information for management by charting the geography of where species are more or less likely to be at risk of extinction from hunting. PMID:25372705

  1. Oil and gas developments in central and southern Africa in 1983

    SciTech Connect

    McGrew, H.J.

    1984-10-01

    All exploratory activity in central and southern Africa decreased in 1983, reflecting world economic conditions and excess productive capacity. Seismic activity has declined sharply from its peak year of 1981. Land operations suffered the greatest drop in 1983, whereas party-months of marine work increased slightly. 3-D recording continued to be used but at a reduced rate compared with 1982. Large aeromagnetic surveys were made in several countries; however, the coverage was less than in 1982. Gravity continues to be used to supplement other geophysical work, but other exploratory techniques are being used infrequently. Total wells drilled dropped from 464 in 1982 to 387 in 1983. Most of the decline was in exploratory drilling, which dropped from 132 to 86 wells. This was reflected in the number of discoveries, which decreased from 48 to 27 while the success rate continued about the same. Development drilling continued at a high level in Cameroon and Congo, whereas in Nigeria the emphasis shifted to the drilling of appraisal wells. In all, 2,937,708 ft (895,643 m) of hole was drilled, a decrease of about 20% from 1982. Oil production of 673,075,667 bbl in 1983 was an increase of 1.7% over 1982's production, bringing cumulative production to over 12 billion bbl. Marked increases in production were recorded in Cabinda, Ivory Coast, and Congo. Production from Nigerian fields continued to dominate this part of the world as they contributed about 67% of the annual production and 75% of the cumulative production. 44 figures, 15 tables.

  2. Human-associated Staphylococcus aureus strains within great ape populations in Central Africa (Gabon).

    PubMed

    Nagel, M; Dischinger, J; Türck, M; Verrier, D; Oedenkoven, M; Ngoubangoye, B; Le Flohic, G; Drexler, J F; Bierbaum, G; Gonzalez, J-P

    2013-11-01

    The risk of serious infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus is well-known. However, most studies regarding the distribution of (clinically relevant) S. aureus among humans and animals took place in the western hemisphere and only limited data are available from (Central) Africa. In this context, recent studies focused on S. aureus strains in humans and primates, but the question of whether humans and monkeys share related S. aureus strains or may interchange strains remained largely unsolved. In this study we aimed to evaluate the distribution and spread of human-like S. aureus strains among great apes living in captivity. Therefore, a primate facility at the International Centre for Medical Research of Franceville (Gabon) was screened. We detected among the primates a common human S. aureus strain, belonging to the spa-type t148. It was isolated from three different individuals of the western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla), of which one individual showed a large necrotizing wound. This animal died, most probably of a staphylococcal sepsis. Additionally, we discovered the t148 type among chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) that were settled in the immediate neighbourhood of the infected gorillas. A detailed analysis by pulsed field gel electrophoresis showed that the gorilla and chimpanzee isolates represented two closely related strains. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a human-associated S. aureus strain causing disease in great apes. The simultaneous detection in gorillas and chimpanzees indicated an interspecies transmission of this S. aureus strain. Our results recommend that protection of wild animals must not only be based on habitat conservation, but also on the assessment of the risk of contact with human pathogens. PMID:23398468

  3. Structural and geochronological record of India-Asia suturing in the Lopu Kangri Range, south-central Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laskowski, A. K.; Kapp, P. A.

    2013-12-01

    Better constraining the geological evolution of the India-Asia suture zone is vital to our comprehension of the Himalayan-Tibetan orogen. This study presents new mapping, igneous U-Pb geochronology, and detrital zircon geochronology from suture zone rocks exposed in the Lopu Kangri Range. Located ~50 km NW of Saga in south-central Tibet, this range exposes a >1.5 km thick panel of suture zone architecture that was exhumed by late Cenozoic orogen-parallel extension across two N-S, moderate-angle normal faults. The Lopu Kangri Range and its surroundings expose all of the major suture-zone assemblages. In the north, Cretaceous--Eocene Gangdese arc granitoids are unconformably overlain by nonmarine, conglomerate-bearing strata of the Eocene (?)--Miocene Kailas Fm. Metaconglomerate exposed in the same structural position within the Range contains garnet porphyroblasts. Gangdese arc and metaconglomerate rocks are confined to the footwall of the north-directed Great Counter Thrust system, which carried Cretaceous-Early Eocene Xigaze forearc, suture zone mélange, and Indian passive margin (Tethyan) strata northwards across three major NE-SW fault strands during the Miocene. Tethyan strata in the Range consist of locally garnet- and sillimanite-bearing calc-gneiss and schist that display N-S stretching lineations and top-N s-c fabrics. These rocks are exposed in the southern half of the range beneath suture zone mélange in the footwall of a moderately N-dipping, normal-sense shear zone. Six detrital zircon samples from the Xigaze forearc, metaconglomerate and meta-Tethyan strata were analyzed to confirm our lithologic correlations and provenance interpretations made in the field. 12 igneous U-Pb samples were analyzed to characterize granitoids that intrude the Range. They reveal a suite of 50-40 Ma granitoids that display a general younging trend from north to south across the suture. Five samples of 35-10 Ma leucogranites contain inherited zircon cores whose age spectra

  4. [The population and economic problems of South Asia].

    PubMed

    Gu, J

    1983-07-29

    South Asia, which includes Central South Asia, Southeast Asia, and Southwest Asia, had a comparatively higher population growth rate during the 30-year postwar period because of the overall backward economy and strong religious tradition. From the viewpoint of economics, the high population growth in South Asia has slowed down economic growth, increased the foreign trade imblance, and worsened poverty. Secondly, the rapid population growth has overburdened the area's educational system. The illiteracy rate has been going up continuously because of inadequate funds available for education. Thirdly, young labor is lacking in skills, training, and work experience, and related productivity has declined. Consequently, profits, the investment capability, and wages are also declining. The problems of the oversupply of labor, unemployment, and poverty have also become increasingly serious. In addition, the rapid population growth has intensified the pressure on the food supply and worsened the average nutrition of the general public. In recent years, countries in South Asia have been trying to deal with various problems caused by the rapid population growth. Measures have been taken to control the population growth, with a redistribution of the population to places outside cities, and export labor to oil-producing nations of the Middle East and Africa in order to solve the problem of the domestic labor surplus and earn more income for the foreign exchange. Countries in South Asia need more time and effort to achieve a balance between the population growth and economic development. PMID:12313019

  5. Rapid and cyclic dust accumulation during MIS 2 in Central Asia inferred from loess OSL dating and grain-size analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yun; Song, Yougui; Lai, Zhongping; Han, Li; An, Zhisheng

    2016-01-01

    Due to lack of reliable proxies from the Westerlies-dominant region, the strength change of Northern Hemisphere Westerlies remains poorly understood. The aim of this study is to provide a reliable paleoclimatic proxy about the Northern Hemisphere Westerlies change. Here we report a 30.7 m thick loess section from the Ili basin directly controlled by the Westerlies. Based on optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and high resolution grain-size records, we reconstruct the change history of the Westerlies strength during the last glacial period (mainly Marine Isotope Stages 2, MIS2), being similar with the Westerlies index recorded in the Qinghai Lake sediments. Within error limits, all ages are in stratigraphic order. We further compare the climatic records among the Ili loess, Qinghai Lake and the NGRIP, their similarity shows a good climatic coupling relationship among the Central Asia, East Asia and the North Atlantic, and the Westerlies plays a critical influence in transporting the North Atlantic signal to Central and East Asia. PMID:27586593

  6. Rapid and cyclic dust accumulation during MIS 2 in Central Asia inferred from loess OSL dating and grain-size analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Yun; Song, Yougui; Lai, Zhongping; Han, Li; An, Zhisheng

    2016-01-01

    Due to lack of reliable proxies from the Westerlies-dominant region, the strength change of Northern Hemisphere Westerlies remains poorly understood. The aim of this study is to provide a reliable paleoclimatic proxy about the Northern Hemisphere Westerlies change. Here we report a 30.7 m thick loess section from the Ili basin directly controlled by the Westerlies. Based on optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and high resolution grain-size records, we reconstruct the change history of the Westerlies strength during the last glacial period (mainly Marine Isotope Stages 2, MIS2), being similar with the Westerlies index recorded in the Qinghai Lake sediments. Within error limits, all ages are in stratigraphic order. We further compare the climatic records among the Ili loess, Qinghai Lake and the NGRIP, their similarity shows a good climatic coupling relationship among the Central Asia, East Asia and the North Atlantic, and the Westerlies plays a critical influence in transporting the North Atlantic signal to Central and East Asia. PMID:27586593

  7. Prioritizing action on health inequities in cities: An evaluation of Urban Health Equity Assessment and Response Tool (Urban HEART) in 15 cities from Asia and Africa.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Amit; Kano, Megumi; Dagg, Kendra Ann-Masako; Mori, Hanako; Senkoro, Hawa Hamisi; Ardakani, Mohammad Assai; Elfeky, Samar; Good, Suvajee; Engelhardt, Katrin; Ross, Alex; Armada, Francisco

    2015-11-01

    Following the recommendations of the Commission on Social Determinants of Health (2008), the World Health Organization (WHO) developed the Urban Health Equity Assessment and Response Tool (HEART) to support local stakeholders in identifying and planning action on health inequities. The objective of this report is to analyze the experiences of cities in implementing Urban HEART in order to inform how the future development of the tool could support local stakeholders better in addressing health inequities. The study method is documentary analysis from independent evaluations and city implementation reports submitted to WHO. Independent evaluations were conducted in 2011-12 on Urban HEART piloting in 15 cities from seven countries in Asia and Africa: Indonesia, Iran, Kenya, Mongolia, Philippines, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam. Local or national health departments led Urban HEART piloting in 12 of the 15 cities. Other stakeholders commonly engaged included the city council, budget and planning departments, education sector, urban planning department, and the Mayor's office. Ten of the 12 core indicators recommended in Urban HEART were collected by at least 10 of the 15 cities. Improving access to safe water and sanitation was a priority equity-oriented intervention in 12 of the 15 cities, while unemployment was addressed in seven cities. Cities who piloted Urban HEART displayed confidence in its potential by sustaining or scaling up its use within their countries. Engagement of a wider group of stakeholders was more likely to lead to actions for improving health equity. Indicators that were collected were more likely to be acted upon. Quality of data for neighbourhoods within cities was one of the major issues. As local governments and stakeholders around the world gain greater control of decisions regarding their health, Urban HEART could prove to be a valuable tool in helping them pursue the goal of health equity. PMID:26456133

  8. Molecular epidemiology and type-specific detection of echovirus 11 isolates from the Americas, Europe, Africa, Australia, southern Asia and the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Oberste, M Steven; Nix, William A; Kilpatrick, David R; Flemister, Mary R; Pallansch, Mark A

    2003-02-01

    Echovirus 11 (E11) is among the most commonly isolated human enteroviruses. To examine the range of genetic variation within the E11 serotype, we determined the complete VP1 sequences for 53 geographically dispersed E11 strains isolated in 16 countries from 1953 to 2001. E11 sequences were monophyletic with respect to all other enterovirus serotypes. The sequences clustered into four monophyletic genogroups, A-D; members of each genogroup differed from one another by <20%. Isolates in different genogroups differed from one another by 19-28%. The E11 prototype strain, USA/CA53-Gregory, was the sole member of genogroup B. All recent US isolates were members of one of two discrete lineages within genogroup D. The well-characterized E11 antigenic variant, USA/CA63-Silva, was also a member of genogroup D. Members of genogroups A and C were antigenically similar to USA/CA53-Gregory, as measured by neutralization with anti-Gregory and anti-Silva antisera. Only USA/CA63-Silva was neutralized more efficiently by the anti-Silva antiserum; other genogroup D viruses were Gregory-like or intermediate in their neutralization phenotype. Recent non-US isolates were distributed in genogroups A, C and D. Sequence similarities among genogroup D isolates from North America, Europe, Asia, Australia and North Africa demonstrate that an E11 strain can spread rapidly over a wide geographic area. The aligned sequences were used to develop an E11-specific RT-PCR assay, using degenerate, inosine-containing primers, to amplify all members of all genogroups. PMID:12573503

  9. Gradients in precipitation and seasonality between Central and Eastern Asia (Mongolia, Northern Vietnam) during the Oligocene with implication for earlier monsoonal circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehme, Madelaine; Krings, Michael; Prieto, Jérome; Schneider, Simon

    2010-05-01

    Today Central and Eastern Asia are characterized by strong contrast in the amount and the annual distribution of rainfall as well as the seasonality in temperature, which is attributed to the uplifted Tibetian Plateau generating monsoonal circulation. Whereas Central Asia is characterized by strong continentality with cold winters and little rainfall concentrated in a short rainy season, the southern part of East Asia exhibit a paratropical climate with high amounts in precipitation distributed relatively even through the year. Palaeontological data (vertebrates and plant remains) from the Eocene and Oligocene of Mongolia and Northern Vietnam indicate that a strong gradient in precipitation and seasonality between Central Asia and East Asia was already established during the Oligocene, which emphasise the establishment of substantial monsoonal circulation at that time. Fossil amphibians and reptiles from Mongolia (45° N, 101° E; Böhme 2007) indicate a strong and abrupt drying and winter cooling at the Eocene-Oligocene boundary consistent with previous results (Dupont-Nivet et al. 2007). Late Eocene assemblages are characterized by crocodiles, salamanders and diverse aquatic turtles, whereas Early Oligocene faunas constitutes of pelobatid frogs, agamid and anguid squamates, diverse species of lizards, and an erycine boide snake. The environmental preferences of both contrasting assemblages point to a severe climate event around 34 myr ago, resulting in the lost of permanent freshwater bodies under humid and winter mild climate and the spread of open landscapes without permanent freshwater bodies under a dry arid to semi-arid climate with only a short rainy season. Oligocene reptiles, macro- and micro-botanical remains, as well as palaeosols from Northern Vietnam (22° N, 107° E; Böhme et al. subm.) suggest warm-humid, (para-) tropical climates with low seasonality in temperature and precipitation. Besides a high diversity in semi-aquatic turtles and the

  10. Evaluating the potential for catastrophic fault-rupture-related hazards affecting a key hydroelectric and irrigation region in central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rust, D.; Korjenkov, A.; Tibaldi, A.; Usmanova, M.

    2009-04-01

    The Toktogul hydroelectric and irrigation scheme is the largest in central Asia, with a reservoir containing almost 20 km3 of water behind a 230 m-high dam. Annually, the scheme generates 1200 MW of electricity that is distributed over Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kazakhstan and Russia. The scheme is vital for the economic, social and agricultural stability and development of the emerging central Asian republics it serves and, since it is no longer administered centrally as it was in Soviet times, is increasingly the focus of cross-border tensions involving competing needs for irrigation water and power supplies. Our work aims to identify and evaluate potential geo-environmental threats to this region for the benefit of stakeholders; with recommendations for measures to mitigate a range of threat scenarios, presented in a user-friendly GIS format. Most notably these scenarios involve the potential for very large magnitude earthquakes, with associated widespread slope instability, occurring on the little known Talas - Fergana fault. This structure, some 700 km long, bisects the Toktogul region within the actively (~20 mm a-1) contracting Tien Shan mountain range and exhibits geological characteristics similar to large strike-slip faults such as the San Andreas. Historical records are limited in this inaccessible mountainous region that, until Soviet times, was occupied by mainly nomadic peoples, but do not indicate recent fault rupture. This highlights the role of geological investigations in assembling a record of past catastrophic events to serve as a guide for what may be expected in the future, as well as the inherent difficulties in attempting geological forecasts to a precision that is useful on human timescales. Such forecasts in this region must also include the presence of some 23 uranium mining waste dumps within the mountain valleys, a legacy from Soviet times, as well as arsenic-rich waste dumps remaining from an earlier era of gold mining. Many

  11. Late Mesozoic-Cenozoic intraplate magmatism in Central Asia and its relation with mantle diapirism: Evidence from the South Khangai volcanic region, Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yarmolyuk, Vladimir V.; Kudryashova, Ekaterina A.; Kozlovsky, Alexander M.; Lebedev, Vladimir A.; Savatenkov, Valery M.

    2015-11-01

    The South Khangai volcanic region (SKVR) comprises fields of Late Mesozoic-Cenozoic volcanic rocks scattered over southern and central Mongolia. Evolution of the region from the Late Jurassic to the Late Cenozoic includes 13 successive igneous episodes that are more or less evenly distributed in time. Major patterns in the distribution of different-aged volcanic complexes were controlled by a systematic temporal migration of volcanic centers over the region. The total length of their trajectory exceeds 1600 km. Principle characteristics of local magmatism are determined. The composition of igneous rocks varies from basanites to rhyolites (predominantly, high-K rocks), with geochemistry close to that of OIB. The rock composition, however, underwent transformations in the Mesozoic-Cenozoic. Rejuvenation of mafic rocks is accompanied by decrease in the contents of HREE and increase of Nb and Ta. According to isotope data, the SKVR magmatic melts were derived from three isotope sources that differed in the Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopic compositions and successively alternated in time. In the Early Cretaceous, the predominant source composition was controlled by interaction of the EMII- and PREMA-type mantle materials. The PREMA-type mantle material dominated quantitatively in the Late Cretaceous and initial Early Cenozoic. From the latest Early Cenozoic to Late Cenozoic, the magma source also contained the EMI-type material along with the PREMA-type. The structural fabric, rock composition, major evolutionary pattern, and inner structure of SKVR generally comply with the criteria used to distinguish the mantle plume-related regions. Analogous features can be seen in other regions of recent volcanism in Central Asia (South Baikal, Udokan, Vitim, and Tok Stanovik). The structural autonomy of these regions suggests that distribution of the Late Mesozoic-Cenozoic volcanism in Central Asia was controlled by a group of relatively small hot finger-type mantle plumes associated with

  12. Inorganic nitrogen leaching from organic and conventional rice production on a newly claimed calciustoll in Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Meng, Fanqiao; Olesen, Jørgen E; Sun, Xiangping; Wu, Wenliang

    2014-01-01

    Characterizing the dynamics of nitrogen (N) leaching from organic and conventional paddy fields is necessary to optimize fertilization and to evaluate the impact of these contrasting farming systems on water bodies. We assessed N leaching in organic versus conventional rice production systems of the Ili River Valley, a representative aquatic ecosystem of Central Asia. The N leaching and overall performance of these systems were measured during 2009, using a randomized block experiment with five treatments. PVC pipes were installed at soil depths of 50 and 180 cm to collect percolation water from flooded organic and conventional paddies, and inorganic N (NH4-N+NO3-N) was analyzed. Two high-concentration peaks of NH4-N were observed in all treatments: one during early tillering and a second during flowering. A third peak at the mid-tillering stage was observed only under conventional fertilization. NO3-N concentrations were highest at transplant and then declined until harvest. At the 50 cm soil depth, NO3-N concentration was 21-42% higher than NH4-N in percolation water from organic paddies, while NH4-N and NO3-N concentrations were similar for the conventional and control treatments. At the depth of 180 cm, NH4-N and NO3-N were the predominant inorganic N for organic and conventional paddies, respectively. Inorganic N concentrations decreased with soil depth, but this attenuation was more marked in organic than in conventional paddies. Conventional paddies leached a higher percentage of applied N (0.78%) than did organic treatments (0.32-0.60%), but the two farming systems leached a similar amount of inorganic N per unit yield (0.21-0.34 kg N Mg(-1) rice grains). Conventional production showed higher N utilization efficiency compared to fertilized organic treatments. These results suggest that organic rice production in the Ili River Valley is unlikely to reduce inorganic N leaching, if high crop yields similar to conventional rice production are to be maintained

  13. Assessing the Use of Remote Sensing and a Crop Growth Model to Improve Modeled Streamflow in Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richey, A. S.; Richey, J. E.; Tan, A.; Liu, M.; Adam, J. C.; Sokolov, V.

    2015-12-01

    Central Asia presents a perfect case study to understand the dynamic, and often conflicting, linkages between food, energy, and water in natural systems. The destruction of the Aral Sea is a well-known environmental disaster, largely driven by increased irrigation demand on the rivers that feed the endorheic sea. Continued reliance on these rivers, the Amu Darya and Syr Darya, often place available water resources at odds between hydropower demands upstream and irrigation requirements downstream. A combination of tools is required to understand these linkages and how they may change in the future as a function of climate change and population growth. In addition, the region is geopolitically complex as the former Soviet basin states develop management strategies to sustainably manage shared resources. This complexity increases the importance of relying upon publically available information sources and tools. Preliminary work has shown potential for the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model to recreate the natural water balance in the Amu Darya and Syr Darya basins by comparing results to total terrestrial water storage changes observed from NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission. Modeled streamflow is well correlated to observed streamflow at upstream gauges prior to the large-scale expansion of irrigation and hydropower. However, current modeled results are unable to capture the human influence of water use on downstream flow. This study examines the utility of a crop simulation model, CropSyst, to represent irrigation demand and GRACE to improve modeled streamflow estimates in the Amu Darya and Syr Darya basins. Specifically we determine crop water demand with CropSyst utilizing available data on irrigation schemes and cropping patterns. We determine how this demand can be met either by surface water, modeled by VIC with a reservoir operation scheme, and/or by groundwater derived from GRACE. Finally, we assess how the

  14. Mid-Holocene stabilization of the Karakum and Kyzylkum sand seas, central Asia - evidence from OSL ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maman, Shimrit; Tsoar, Haim; Blumberg, Dan G.; Porat, Naomi

    2013-04-01

    Sand seas (ergs) are large areas of deserts covered by wind-swept sand with varying degrees of vegetation cover. The Kyzylkum and Karakum ergs have accumulated in the Turan basin, northwest of the Hindu Kush range, and span from south Turkmenistan to the Syrdarya River in Kazakhstan. These ergs are dissected by the Amudarya River; To the north lies the Kyzylkum (red sands) and to the south the Karakum (black sands). This area is understudied, and little information has been published regarding the sands stabilization processes and deposition ages. This research focuses on identifying and mapping the ergs of Central Asia and analyzing the climate factors that set the dunes into motion and that stabilized them. A variety of spaceborne imagery with varying spectral and spatial resolutions was used. These images provide the basis for mapping sand distribution, dune forms, and vegetation cover. Wilson (1973) defined these ergs as active based on precipitation. Our results show that they are mostly stabilized, with an estimated area of ~260,000 sq. Km for Kara-Kum , and ~195,500 sq. Km for the Kyzyl-Kum . Meteorological analysis of wind and precipitation data indicate a low wind energy environment (DP<200) and sufficient rainfall (>100 mm) to which is essential for vegetation cover. We present the first optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages from the upper meter of 14 exposed sections from both ergs. The age of the sand samples was determined as ~Mid-Holocene by OSL, which provides an insight into past climate characteristics. These ages indicate extensive sand and dune stabilization during the Mid-Holocene. GIS analysis was performed in parallel with field work to validate and verify the results. The OSL ages, coupled with a compilation of regional palaeoclimatic data, corroborate and reinforce the previously proposed Mid-Holocene Liavliakan phase, known to reflect a warmer, wetter, less windy climate than persists today and that resulted in dune stabilization

  15. Future of water resources in the Aral Sea Region, Central Asia - Reality-checked climate model projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asokan, Shilpa M.; Destouni, Georgia

    2014-05-01

    The future of water resources in a region invariably depends on its historic as well as present water use management policy. In order to understand the past hydro-climatic conditions and changes, one needs to analyze observation data and their implications for climate and hydrology, such as Temperature, Precipitation, Runoff and Evapotranspiration in the region. In addition to the changes in climate, human re-distribution of water through land- and water­use changes is found to significantly alter the water transfer from land to atmosphere through an increase or decrease in evapotranspiration. The Aral region in Central Asia, comprising the Aral Sea Drainage Basin and the Aral Sea, is an example case where the human induced changes in water-use have led to one of the worst environmental disasters of our time, the desiccation of the Aral Sea. Identification of the historical hydro-climatic changes that have happened in this region and their drivers is required before one can project future changes to water and its availability in the landscape. Knowledge of the future of water resources in the Aral region is needed for planning to meet increasing water and food demands of the growing population in conjunction with ecosystem sustainability. In order to project future scenarios of water on land, the Global Climate Model (GCM) ensemble of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, Phase 5 (CMIP5) was analyzed for their performance against hydrologically important, basin-scale observational climate and hydrological datasets. We found that the ensemble mean of 22 GCMs over-estimated the observed temperature by about 1°C for the historic period of 1961-1990. For the future extreme climate scenario RCP8.5 the increase in temperature was projected to be about 5°C by 2070-2099, the accuracy of which is questionable from identified biases of GCMs and their ensemble results compared with observations for the period 1961-1990. In particular, the water balance components

  16. Water Productivity Mapping (WPM) Using Landsat ETM+ Data for the Irrigated Croplands of the Syrdarya River Basin in Central Asia

    PubMed Central

    Platonov, Alexander; Thenkabail, Prasad S.; Biradar, Chandrashekhar M.; Cai, Xueliang; Gumma, Muralikrishna; Dheeravath, Venkateswarlu; Cohen, Yafit; Alchanatis, Victor; Goldshlager, Naftali; Ben-Dor, Eyal; Vithanage, Jagath; Manthrithilake, Herath; Kendjabaev, Shavkat; Isaev, Sabirjan

    2008-01-01

    The overarching goal of this paper was to espouse methods and protocols for water productivity mapping (WPM) using high spatial resolution Landsat remote sensing data. In a world where land and water for agriculture are becoming increasingly scarce, growing “more crop per drop” (increasing water productivity) becomes crucial for food security of future generations. The study used time-series Landsat ETM+ data to produce WPMs of irrigated crops, with emphasis on cotton in the Galaba study area in the Syrdarya river basin of Central Asia. The WPM methods and protocols using remote sensing data consisted of: (1) crop productivity (ton/ha) maps (CPMs) involving crop type classification, crop yield and biophysical modeling, and extrapolating yield models to larger areas using remotely sensed data; (2) crop water use (m3/ha) maps (WUMs) (or actual seasonal evapotranspiration or actual ET) developed through Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEB) model; and (3) water productivity (kg/m3) maps (WPMs) produced by dividing raster layers of CPMs by WUMs. The SSEB model calculated WUMs (actual ET) by multiplying the ET fraction by reference ET. The ET fraction was determined using Landsat thermal imagery by selecting the “hot” pixels (zero ET) and “cold” pixels (maximum ET). The grass reference ET was calculated by FAO Penman-Monteith method using meteorological data. The WPMs for the Galaba study area demonstrated a wide variations (0-0.54 kg/m3) in water productivity of cotton fields with overwhelming proportion (87%) of the area having WP less than 0.30 kg/m3, 11% of the area having WP in range of 0.30-0.36 kg/m3, and only 2% of the area with WP greater than 0.36 kg/m3. These results clearly imply that there are opportunities for significant WP increases in overwhelming proportion of the existing croplands. The areas of low WP are spatially pin-pointed and can be used as focus for WP improvements through better land and water management practices.

  17. Preparing for Future Water Resources Conflicts through Climate Change Adaptation Planning: A Case Study in Eastern Europe and Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehlert, B. B.; Neumann, J. E.; Strzepek, K.; Sutton, W.; Srivastava, J.

    2011-12-01

    Uncertainties posed by climate change and rapidly rising global water demand suggest that existing conflicts over water resources are likely to be exacerbated and new conflicts will appear where little or no conflict occurs today. Successfully planning for and preventing conflicts first requires a sound scientific understanding of the timing, location, and magnitude of water resource shortfalls, identification of the most appropriate climate adaptation options based on multiple criteria, and development of broad, multi-level consensus within the affected community. We recently applied this approach in a World Bank-funded adaptation assessment for the agricultural sectors of four countries in Eastern Europe and Central Asia-Albania, Macedonia, Moldova, and Uzbekistan. For each major basin, we first used a hydrological model to project changes in water availability through 2050 under country-specific high, medium, and low climate impact scenarios. Next, under the three climate scenarios, we projected changes in agricultural water demand using a crop model (i.e., AquaCrop and DSSAT), and changes in water demand in other sectors based on population projections and sectoral forecasts of changes in per capita use. We incorporated these water availability and demand projections-along with other characteristics of the water system such as water supply priorities, environmental and transboundary flow requirements, irrigation efficiency, and reservoir locations and volumes-into a monthly integrated water resource planning tool (the Water Evaluation And Planning tool, or WEAP) to generate projected unmet water demand under each climate scenario and to each sector through 2050. The findings suggest that the agricultural sector in each country (except the relatively water-rich Albania) would experience significant unmet water demands, up to 52 percent in the Syr Darya and Amu Darya River basins of Uzbekistan. Potential adaptation responses to address unmet water demands-such as

  18. Genetic diversity, inter-gene pool introgression and nutritional quality of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) from Central Africa.

    PubMed

    Blair, Matthew W; González, Laura F; Kimani, Paul M; Butare, Louis

    2010-07-01

    The Great Lakes region of Central Africa is a major producer of common beans in Africa. The region is known for high population density and small average farm size. The common bean represents the most important legume crop of the region, grown on over a third of the cultivated land area, and the per capita consumption is among the highest in the world for the food crop. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic diversity in a collection of 365 genotypes from the Great Lakes region of Central Africa, including a large group of landraces from Rwanda as well as varieties from primary centers of diversity and from neighboring countries of Central Africa, such as the Democratic Republic of Congo and Uganda, using 30 fluorescently labeled microsatellite markers and automated allele detection. In addition, the landraces were evaluated for their seed iron and zinc concentration to determine if genetic diversity influenced nutritional quality. Principal coordinate and neighbor-joining analyses allowed the separation of the landraces into 132 Andean and 195 Mesoamerican (or Middle American) genotypes with 32 landraces and 6 varieties intermediate between the gene pools and representing inter-gene pool introgression in terms of seed characteristics and alleles. Genetic diversity and the number of alleles were high for the collection, reflecting the preference for a wide range of seed types in the region and no strong commercial class preference, although red, red mottled and brown seeded beans were common. Observed heterozygosity was also high and may be explained by the common practice of maintaining seed and plant mixtures, a coping strategy practiced by Central African farmers to reduce the effects of abiotic and biotic stresses. Finally, nutritional quality differed between the gene pools with respect to seed iron and zinc concentration, while genotypes from the intermediate group were notably high in both minerals. In conclusion, this study has shown that

  19. Geo-risk in Central Africa: integrating multi-hazards and vulnerability to support risk management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kervyn, Francois; Nicolas, d'Oreye; Haventith, Hans-Balder; Kervyn, Matthieu; Caroline, Michellier; Trefon, Theodore; Wolff, Eleonore

    2013-04-01

    In some places, geo-hazards are a major concern for population, the assets, and the economy. This is especially the case in the East African Rift (EAR), where high volcanic and tectonic activities are sometimes coupled with geopolitical issues and dense population as in the Kivu rift area. That area is one of the most densely populated regions of Central Africa and is affected by decades of political instability and subsequent humanitarian crisis. In that region, geo-hazards are poorly assessed despite the numerous recent and historical events. Moreover, the relief of the rift also corresponds in this area to the main political boundaries, which complicates the coordination and the management of geo-hazards monitoring networks and related mitigation measures. Based on the experience acquired through several projects focused on hazard assessment and reinforcement of local monitoring capacity, the GeoRisCA project is addressing the assessment of the global risk related to the major geohazards that affect the region. Taking into account the identified factors, GeoRisCA's objective is to assess the risk from multi geohazards in a region which is subject to many (possibly combined) disasters every year and which could undergo a large impact disaster in the coming years. At regional scale, the high seismicity and the volcanic activity are the most important concerns. Possible eruptions of lethal gas in certain area around Goma, and the large number of reported and likely future mass movements as well as site-specific seismic amplification effects increase the danger at local scale. As both human lives and specific ecosystems are under threat, comprehensive methodologies are required to reliably assess multi geohazards over both short and long terms and to clearly outline and map related risk. These tools are needed by local and regional authorities as well as local and international stakeholders in management and mitigation processes. Developed methodologies in Geo

  20. Phylogeography of a widespread terrestrial vertebrate in a barely-studied Palearctic region: green toads (Bufo viridis subgroup) indicate glacial refugia in Eastern Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi-Jun; Stöck, Matthias; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Xiu-Ling; Zhou, Hui; Qu, Liang-Hu

    2008-11-01

    The phylogeography of western Palearctic species is relatively well studied, but data on Eastern Central Asia are scarce. We present one of the first data sets from a widespread terrestrial vertebrate (Bufo pewzowi) inhabiting Eastern Central Asian mountains and deserts to gain knowledge on its phylogeography in this region. We applied combined phylogenetic and demographic analyses to understand the evolutionary history using mitochondrial DNA D-loop variation of toads from 37 locations. Genetic structure of Bufo pewzowi is strongly affected by landscape: we found three haplotype groups in eastern Kazakhstan, Dzungaria and Tarim Basin, divided by the Tian Shan and Dzungarian Alatau ranges. A vicariant hypothesis may explain divergence among groups. The divergence time of the three major clades was estimated about 0.9 million years ago (confidence interval 0.5-1.4), and is discussed with respect to Quaternary uplifting and glaciation in the Tian Shan. Demographic analyses provided evidence for both historical bottlenecks and population expansions and suggested Pleistocene signatures. Glacial refugia were inferred in the Tarim Basin (around the Turpan depression), in southern Dzungaria (Urumqui region), at the northern foot of the Tian Shan (Gongnaisi) and perhaps at the Altai range (Terekti). Regional Post-Last Glacial Maximum dispersal patterns are proposed. A taxonomic hypothesis is presented. This study provides a detailed history of how a widespread terrestrial vertebrate responded to geological change and Quaternary glacial events in Eastern Central Asia and may have significance for future phylogeographic research in this understudied region. PMID:18301990

  1. Potentials of RapidEye time series for improved classification of crop rotations in heterogeneous agricultural landscapes: experiences from irrigation systems in Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrad, Christopher; Machwitz, Miriam; Schorcht, Gunther; Löw, Fabian; Fritsch, Sebastian; Dech, Stefan

    2011-11-01

    In Central Asia, more than eight Million ha of agricultural land are under irrigation. But severe degradation problems and unreliable water distribution have caused declining yields during the past decades. Reliable and area-wide information about crops can be seen as important step to elaborate options for sustainable land and water management. Experiences from RapidEye classifications of crop in Central Asia are exemplarily shown during a classification of eight crop classes including three rotations with winter wheat, cotton, rice, and fallow land in the Khorezm region of Uzbekistan covering 230,000 ha of irrigated land. A random forest generated by using 1215 field samples was applied to multitemporal RapidEye data acquired during the vegetation period 2010. But RapidEye coverage varied and did not allow for generating temporally consistent mosaics covering the entire region. To classify all 55,188 agricultural parcels in the region three classification zones were classified separately. The zoning allowed for including at least three observation periods into classification. Overall accuracy exceeded 85 % for all classification zones. Highest accuracies of 87.4 % were achieved by including five spatiotemporal composites of RapidEye. Class-wise accuracy assessments showed the usefulness of selecting time steps which represent relevant phenological phases of the vegetation period. The presented approach can support regional crop inventory. Accurate classification results in early stages of the cropping season permit recalculation of crop water demands and reallocation of irrigation water. The high temporal and spatial resolution of RapidEye can be concluded highly beneficial for agricultural land use classifications in entire Central Asia.

  2. Human Population Admixture in Asia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Genetic admixture in human, the result of inter-marriage among people from different well-differentiated populations, has been extensively studied in the New World, where European colonization brought contact between peoples of Europe, Africa, and Asia and the Amerindian populations. In Asia, genetic admixing has been also prevalent among previously separated human populations. However, studies on admixed populations in Asia have been largely underrepresented in similar efforts in the New World. Here, I will provide an overview of population genomic studies that have been published to date on human admixture in Asia, focusing on population structure and population history. PMID:23166524

  3. A new Triassic shortening-extrusion tectonic model for Central-Eastern Asia: Structural, geochronological and paleomagnetic investigations in the Xilamulun Fault (North China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Pan; Faure, Michel; Chen, Yan; Shi, Guanzhong; Xu, Bei

    2015-09-01

    At the northern margin of the North China Block (NCB), the Xilamulun Fault (XMF) is a key belt to decipher the tectonic evolution of Central-Eastern Asia, as it records the Paleozoic final closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean, and localizes a Late Triassic intracontinental deformation. In this study, structural analysis, 40Ar-39Ar dating, and paleomagnetic studies were performed to investigate the kinematics of the XMF and to further discuss its Triassic geodynamic significance in the Central-Eastern Asia framework after the Paleozoic Central Asian Orogenic evolution. The structural analyses reveal two phases of ductile deformation. The first one (D1), which displays N-verging and E-W trending folds, is related to the Early Paleozoic collisional event between the NCB and the Songliao-Hunshandake Block (SHB). The second phase (D2) displays a high-angle foliation and a pervasive sub-horizontal E-W stretching lineation with kinematic criteria indicative of dextral strike-slip shearing. The 40Ar-39Ar dating on mylonitic granite places the main shearing event around 227-209 Ma. This D2 shearing is coeval with that of the dextral strike-slip Bayan Obo-Chifeng Fault (BCF) and the Chicheng-Fengning-Longhua Fault to the south, which together constitute a dextral shearing fault system on the northern margin of the NCB during the Late Triassic. The paleomagnetic study performed on the Middle Permian Guangxingyuan pluton, located between the XMF and BCF, documents a local clockwise rotation of this pluton with respect to the NCB and SHB. Our multidisciplinary study suggests an NNW-SSE shortening and strike-slip shearing dominated tectonic setting on the northern margin of the NCB during the Late Triassic. Combining the contemporaneous dextral strike-slip movements of the XMF and BCF in northern China and the sinistral strike-slip movement of East Gobi Fault (EGF) in southeastern Mongolia with the large-scale tectonic framework, a Late Triassic NNW-SSE shortening-eastward extrusion

  4. Epidemiology and integrated management of persistently transmitted aphid-borne viruses of legume and cereal crops in West Asia and North Africa.

    PubMed

    Makkouk, Khaled M; Kumari, Safaa G

    2009-05-01

    Cool-season food legumes (faba bean, lentil, chickpea and pea) and cereals (bread and durum wheat and barley) are the most important and widely cultivated crops in West Asia and North Africa (WANA), where they are the main source of carbohydrates and protein for the majority of the population. Persistently transmitted aphid-borne viruses pose a significant limitation to legume and cereal production worldwide. Surveys conducted in many countries in WANA during the last three decades established that the most important of these viruses are: Faba bean necrotic yellows virus (FBNYV: genus Nanovirus; family Nanoviridae), Bean leafroll virus (BLRV: genus Luteovirus; family Luteoviridae), Beet western yellows virus (BWYV: genus Polerovirus; family Luteoviridae), Soybean dwarf virus (SbDV: genus Luteovirus; family Luteoviridae) and Chickpea chlorotic stunt virus (CpCSV: genus Polerovirus; family Luteoviridae) which affect legume crops, and Barley yellow dwarf virus-PAV (BYDV-PAV: genus Luteovirus; family Luteoviridae), Barley yellow dwarf virus-MAV (BYDV-MAV: genus Luteovirus; family Luteoviridae) and Cereal yellow dwarf virus-RPV (CYDV-RPV: genus Polerovirus; family Luteoviridae) which affect cereal crops. Loss in yield caused by these viruses is usually high when infection occurs early in the growing season. Many aphid vector species for the above-mentioned viruses are reported to be prevalent in the WANA region. In addition, in this region many wild species (annual or perennial) were found infected with these viruses and may play an important role in their ecology and spread. Fast spread of these diseases was always associated with high aphid vector populations and activity. Although virus disease management can be achieved by combining several control measures, development of resistant genotypes is undoubtedly one of the most appropriate control methods. Over the last three decades barley and wheat genotypes resistant to BYDV, faba bean genotypes resistant to BLRV, and

  5. Transitioning toward Sustainable Development Goals: The Role of Household Environment in Influencing Child Health in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia Using Recent Demographic Health Surveys.

    PubMed

    Anand, Ankit; Roy, Nobhojit

    2016-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals are now replaced by 17 sustainable development goals. The emphasis of old goals was on improving water, sanitation, and child mortality conditions in developing countries. The study explored the major question about the association between different household environment conditions with child survival and health in Sub-Saharan African and South Asian countries in the current scenario. This paper estimated the risk of death, morbidity, and undernutrition among children living in households with the improved sources of water, sanitation, and non-solid cooking fuel. Two sources of information are explored in this study. First, data from World Health Statistics (WHS)-2014 for all of the Sub-Saharan African and South Asian countries were used. Second, available standard Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) performed in the countries of Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia after 2010 was included in the study. It resulted in the inclusion of 15 countries which were Bangladesh (2011), Congo Republic (2013-2014), Cote d'Ivoire (2011-2012), Ethiopia (2011), Gambia (2013), Mali (2012-2013), Mozambique (2011), Namibia (2013), Nepal (2011), Niger (2012), Nigeria (2013), Pakistan (2012-2013), Sierra Leone (2013), Uganda (2011), and Zambia (2013). The scatter plot diagram was plotted, and the curve was fitted using the WHS-2014. Cox regression and logistic regression were used to estimate adjusted risks (odds ratio) of child mortality and health outcomes using DHSs. The use of non-solid cooking fuel was very high in most of the Sub-Saharan African and South Asian countries. There was a positive correlation between improving access to safe drinking water and sanitation. The exponential curve fitted well with child mortality and household environmental indicators. The use of improved source of water and sanitation significantly related with the lower odds ratio of death, morbidity, and undernutrition among children aged 12-59 months. The risks were

  6. Comparing verbal autopsy cause of death findings as determined by physician coding and probabilistic modelling: a public health analysis of 54 000 deaths in Africa and Asia

    PubMed Central

    Byass, Peter; Herbst, Kobus; Fottrell, Edward; Ali, Mohamed M.; Odhiambo, Frank; Amek, Nyaguara; Hamel, Mary J.; Laserson, Kayla F.; Kahn, Kathleen; Kabudula, Chodziwadziwa; Mee, Paul; Bird, Jon; Jakob, Robert; Sankoh, Osman; Tollman, Stephen M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Coverage of civil registration and vital statistics varies globally, with most deaths in Africa and Asia remaining either unregistered or registered without cause of death. One important constraint has been a lack of fit–for–purpose tools for registering deaths and assigning causes in situations where no doctor is involved. Verbal autopsy (interviewing care–givers and witnesses to deaths and interpreting their information into causes of death) is the only available solution. Automated interpretation of verbal autopsy data into cause of death information is essential for rapid, consistent and affordable processing. Methods Verbal autopsy archives covering 54 182 deaths from five African and Asian countries were sourced on the basis of their geographical, epidemiological and methodological diversity, with existing physician–coded causes of death attributed. These data were unified into the WHO 2012 verbal autopsy standard format, and processed using the InterVA–4 model. Cause–specific mortality fractions from InterVA–4 and physician codes were calculated for each of 60 WHO 2012 cause categories, by age group, sex and source. Results from the two approaches were assessed for concordance and ratios of fractions by cause category. As an alternative metric, the Wilcoxon matched–pairs signed ranks test with two one–sided tests for stochastic equivalence was used. Findings The overall concordance correlation coefficient between InterVA–4 and physician codes was 0.83 (95% CI 0.75 to 0.91) and this increased to 0.97 (95% CI 0.96 to 0.99) when HIV/AIDS and pulmonary TB deaths were combined into a single category. Over half (53%) of the cause category ratios between InterVA–4 and physician codes by source were not significantly different from unity at the 99% level, increasing to 62% by age group. Wilcoxon tests for stochastic equivalence also demonstrated equivalence. Conclusions These findings show strong concordance between InterVA–4 and

  7. Transitioning toward Sustainable Development Goals: The Role of Household Environment in Influencing Child Health in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia Using Recent Demographic Health Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Ankit; Roy, Nobhojit

    2016-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals are now replaced by 17 sustainable development goals. The emphasis of old goals was on improving water, sanitation, and child mortality conditions in developing countries. The study explored the major question about the association between different household environment conditions with child survival and health in Sub-Saharan African and South Asian countries in the current scenario. This paper estimated the risk of death, morbidity, and undernutrition among children living in households with the improved sources of water, sanitation, and non-solid cooking fuel. Two sources of information are explored in this study. First, data from World Health Statistics (WHS)-2014 for all of the Sub-Saharan African and South Asian countries were used. Second, available standard Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) performed in the countries of Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia after 2010 was included in the study. It resulted in the inclusion of 15 countries which were Bangladesh (2011), Congo Republic (2013–2014), Cote d’Ivoire (2011–2012), Ethiopia (2011), Gambia (2013), Mali (2012–2013), Mozambique (2011), Namibia (2013), Nepal (2011), Niger (2012), Nigeria (2013), Pakistan (2012–2013), Sierra Leone (2013), Uganda (2011), and Zambia (2013). The scatter plot diagram was plotted, and the curve was fitted using the WHS-2014. Cox regression and logistic regression were used to estimate adjusted risks (odds ratio) of child mortality and health outcomes using DHSs. The use of non-solid cooking fuel was very high in most of the Sub-Saharan African and South Asian countries. There was a positive correlation between improving access to safe drinking water and sanitation. The exponential curve fitted well with child mortality and household environmental indicators. The use of improved source of water and sanitation significantly related with the lower odds ratio of death, morbidity, and undernutrition among children aged 12–59 months. The

  8. Universal Definition of Loss to Follow-Up in HIV Treatment Programs: A Statistical Analysis of 111 Facilities in Africa, Asia, and Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Benjamin H.; Yiannoutsos, Constantin T.; Westfall, Andrew O.; Newman, Jamie E.; Zhou, Jialun; Cesar, Carina; Brinkhof, Martin W. G.; Mwango, Albert; Balestre, Eric; Carriquiry, Gabriela; Sirisanthana, Thira; Mukumbi, Henri; Martin, Jeffrey N.; Grimsrud, Anna; Bacon, Melanie; Thiebaut, Rodolphe

    2011-01-01

    Background Although patient attrition is recognized as a threat to the long-term success of antiretroviral therapy programs worldwide, there is no universal definition for classifying patients as lost to follow-up (LTFU). We analyzed data from health facilities across Africa, Asia, and Latin America to empirically determine a standard LTFU definition. Methods and Findings At a set “status classification” date, patients were categorized as either “active” or “LTFU” according to different intervals from time of last clinic encounter. For each threshold, we looked forward 365 d to assess the performance and accuracy of this initial classification. The best-performing definition for LTFU had the lowest proportion of patients misclassified as active or LTFU. Observational data from 111 health facilities—representing 180,718 patients from 19 countries—were included in this study. In the primary analysis, for which data from all facilities were pooled, an interval of 180 d (95% confidence interval [CI]: 173–181 d) since last patient encounter resulted in the fewest misclassifications (7.7%, 95% CI: 7.6%–7.8%). A secondary analysis that gave equal weight to cohorts and to regions generated a similar result (175 d); however, an alternate approach that used inverse weighting for cohorts based on variance and equal weighting for regions produced a slightly lower summary measure (150 d). When examined at the facility level, the best-performing definition varied from 58 to 383 d (mean = 150 d), but when a standard definition of 180 d was applied to each facility, only slight increases in misclassification (mean = 1.2%, 95% CI: 1.0%–1.5%) were observed. Using this definition, the proportion of patients classified as LTFU by facility ranged from 3.1% to 45.1% (mean = 19.9%, 95% CI: 19.1%–21.7%). Conclusions Based on this evaluation, we recommend the adoption of ≥180 d since the last clinic visit as a standard LTFU definition. Such

  9. Validation of an improved energy balance model to estimate actual evapotranspiration in irrigated cotton ecosystems of Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knoefel, Patrick; Conrad, Christopher; Falk, Ulrike; Bauer-Marschallinger, Bernhard

    2014-05-01

    The understanding of the hydrological and the energy cycles are essential in order to describe the complex interactions within the climate system of the earth. Being recognized as an essential component of both the water and the energy cycle, reliable estimation of actual evapotranspiration and its spatial distribution is one outstanding challenge in this context. For instance, in irrigation systems of arid regions, artificial locations of evapotranspiration have been created. An in-depth process understanding is of paramount importance, as irrigated agriculture consumes about 70 % of the available freshwater resources worldwide, with a significant but unsatisfyingly quantified impact on the water cycle, especially on regional scale. Moreover, an exact quantification of ET inside these artificial ecosystems enables assessments of crop water consumptions and hence about water use efficiency (WUE). The withdrawal of water for agricultural use in the countries of Central Asia is more than 90%. Khorezm region in Uzbekistan is a case study region for the problems of irrigated agriculture in CA. For Khorezm the seasonal actual ET was calculated for the years 2003 - 2010 using the partly modified surface energy balance algorithm for land (SEBAL). SEBAL was implemented based on MODIS time series to calculate the energy balance components like net radiation (Rn), sensible heat (H), latent heat (LE), and soil heat flux (G). Whilst SEBAL is using an empirical equation for estimating G, a more physically based method was introduced in this study. This method uses microwave soil moisture products (ASAR-SSM and ASCAT-SSM) as additional input information. The modelled energy balance components were intensively validated by field measurements with an eddy covariance system and soil sensors. For turbulent heat fluxes the RMSE is about 40 W/m² for H and 80 W/m² for LE with a coefficient of determination (r²) of 0.64 for H and 0.52 for LE. Soil heat flux estimation could be

  10. Phylogeographic Patterns in Africa and High Resolution Delineation of Genetic Clades in the Lion (Panthera leo)

    PubMed Central

    Bertola, L. D.; Jongbloed, H.; van der Gaag, K. J.; de Knijff, P.; Yamaguchi, N.; Hooghiemstra, H.; Bauer, H.; Henschel, P.; White, P. A.; Driscoll, C. A.; Tende, T.; Ottosson, U.; Saidu, Y.; Vrieling, K.; de Iongh, H. H.

    2016-01-01

    Comparative phylogeography of African savannah mammals shows a congruent pattern in which populations in West/Central Africa are distinct from populations in East/Southern Africa. However, for the lion, all African populations are currently classified as a single subspecies (Panthera leo leo), while the only remaining population in Asia is considered to be distinct (Panthera leo persica). This distinction is disputed both by morphological and genetic data. In this study we introduce the lion as a model for African phylogeography. Analyses of mtDNA sequences reveal six supported clades and a strongly supported ancestral dichotomy with northern populations (West Africa, Central Africa, North Africa/Asia) on one branch, and southern populations (North East Africa, East/Southern Africa and South West Africa) on the other. We review taxonomies and phylogenies of other large savannah mammals, illustrating that similar clades are found in other species. The described phylogeographic pattern is considered in relation to large scale environmental changes in Africa over the past 300,000 years, attributable to climate. Refugial areas, predicted by climate envelope models, further confirm the observed pattern. We support the revision of current lion taxonomy, as recognition of a northern and a southern subspecies is more parsimonious with the evolutionary history of the lion. PMID:27488946

  11. Phylogeographic Patterns in Africa and High Resolution Delineation of Genetic Clades in the Lion (Panthera leo).

    PubMed

    Bertola, L D; Jongbloed, H; van der Gaag, K J; de Knijff, P; Yamaguchi, N; Hooghiemstra, H; Bauer, H; Henschel, P; White, P A; Driscoll, C A; Tende, T; Ottosson, U; Saidu, Y; Vrieling, K; de Iongh, H H

    2016-01-01

    Comparative phylogeography of African savannah mammals shows a congruent pattern in which populations in West/Central Africa are distinct from populations in East/Southern Africa. However, for the lion, all African populations are currently classified as a single subspecies (Panthera leo leo), while the only remaining population in Asia is considered to be distinct (Panthera leo persica). This distinction is disputed both by morphological and genetic data. In this study we introduce the lion as a model for African phylogeography. Analyses of mtDNA sequences reveal six supported clades and a strongly supported ancestral dichotomy with northern populations (West Africa, Central Africa, North Africa/Asia) on one branch, and southern populations (North East Africa, East/Southern Africa and South West Africa) on the other. We review taxonomies and phylogenies of other large savannah mammals, illustrating that similar clades are found in other species. The described phylogeographic pattern is considered in relation to large scale environmental changes in Africa over the past 300,000 years, attributable to climate. Refugial areas, predicted by climate envelope models, further confirm the observed pattern. We support the revision of current lion taxonomy, as recognition of a northern and a southern subspecies is more parsimonious with the evolutionary history of the lion. PMID:27488946

  12. Elucidating the Linkage Between Changes in Land Use, Atmospheric Mineral Dust Loading, and Precipitation in Central Asia During the Past 50-years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolik, I. N.; Tatarskii, V. V.; Razuvaev, V. N.; Knight, R. W.; Enloe, J. G.

    2004-12-01

    It is believed that both land-use/land cover changes and atmospheric mineral dust are among the main factors controlling the precipitation and hydrological cycle. Over the past 50-years Central Asia has been undergoing major human-induced land-use changes that altered the geographical area and intensity of dust sources. Desiccation of the Aral Sea and conversion of the steppe in Kazakhstan to the agriculture fields are just a few examples of occurred land-use changes. Interactions of precipitation with land use changes and atmospheric dust can occur at a variety of scales through a poorly understood series of feedback mechanisms. This study addresses this issue by performing a detailed analysis of empirical data at a variety of spatial and temporal scales. The 50-year daily precipitation observations reported from ground-based stations in Central Asia were analyzed to 1) determine the changes in the precipitation distribution and trends and 2) elucidate the potential linkages between precipitation trends and land use and dust loading changes. Utilizing several statistical techniques, we analyzed the precipitation time series for the individual stations as well as for a subset of the stations considering different time-averaging. Several criteria were used to group the stations to separate those affected by dust transport and/or by same types of land-use changes. The consistency between observed precipitation trends and those predicted by the models will be discussed.

  13. Alteration in the etiology of penile fracture in the Middle East and Central Asia regions in the last decade; a literature review.

    PubMed

    Majzoub, Ahmad A; Canguven, Onder; Raidh, Talib A

    2015-01-01

    Penile fracture is a well-recognized, relatively uncommon medical condition and its etiology differs according to geographic area. In this review article, we evaluated literature reported in the past decade, aiming to verify whether there has been any change in the etiology of this condition. A literature review was done for studies published in the past 10 years and focusing on the etiology of penile fracture. Inclusion criteria comprised articles in English language, of sample size more than 10 patients and originating from the Middle East and Central Asia. Data relating to the studied population, etiology of penile fracture, clinical presentation, investigations, management, and outcome was analyzed. One thousand six hundred and twenty-nine patients from 21 original articles were included in the study. The mean age ± standard deviation of the patients was 33.3 ± 3.23 years. Etiologies of penile fracture were vigorous sexual intercourse, manual bending of erect penis, vigorous masturbation, rolling over in bed and blunt trauma in 41%, 29%, 10%, 14% and 6% patients, respectively. Treatment choices were surgery and conservative, in 1580 (95%), 83 (5%) patients, respectively. A higher incidence of complications was found in conservatively treated patients. As a conclusion, in the last 10 years, vigorous sexual intercourse was the commonest etiology of penile fracture in the Middle East and Central Asia regions. Surgery remains the preferred treatment option for patients diagnosed with penile fracture. PMID:26229311

  14. Alteration in the etiology of penile fracture in the Middle East and Central Asia regions in the last decade; a literature review

    PubMed Central

    Majzoub, Ahmad A.; Canguven, Onder; Raidh, Talib A.

    2015-01-01

    Penile fracture is a well-recognized, relatively uncommon medical condition and its etiology differs according to geographic area. In this review article, we evaluated literature reported in the past decade, aiming to verify whether there has been any change in the etiology of this condition. A literature review was done for studies published in the past 10 years and focusing on the etiology of penile fracture. Inclusion criteria comprised articles in English language, of sample size more than 10 patients and originating from the Middle East and Central Asia. Data relating to the studied population, etiology of penile fracture, clinical presentation, investigations, management, and outcome was analyzed. One thousand six hundred and twenty-nine patients from 21 original articles were included in the study. The mean age ± standard deviation of the patients was 33.3 ± 3.23 years. Etiologies of penile fracture were vigorous sexual intercourse, manual bending of erect penis, vigorous masturbation, rolling over in bed and blunt trauma in 41%, 29%, 10%, 14% and 6% patients, respectively. Treatment choices were surgery and conservative, in 1580 (95%), 83 (5%) patients, respectively. A higher incidence of complications was found in conservatively treated patients. As a conclusion, in the last 10 years, vigorous sexual intercourse was the commonest etiology of penile fracture in the Middle East and Central Asia regions. Surgery remains the preferred treatment option for patients diagnosed with penile fracture. PMID:26229311

  15. Public health significance of zoonotic bacterial pathogens from bushmeat sold in urban markets of Gabon, Central Africa.

    PubMed

    Bachand, Nicholas; Ravel, André; Onanga, Richard; Arsenault, Julie; Gonzalez, Jean-Paul

    2012-07-01

    Wild animal meat represents an important source of protein for many people in central Africa. Also known as bushmeat, this meat commodity is derived from wild animals hunted under uncontrolled conditions, transported to distant markets under rudimentary or no hygienic methods, and often eviscerated >24 hr after death. Considering the plausible role of wildlife as a reservoir for bacterial zoonotic pathogens, bushmeat may be an important public health risk in Central Africa. This cross-sectional survey served to evaluate the presence of Campylobacter, Salmonella, and Shigella in the muscle tissue of 128 wild animal carcasses from several hunted wildlife species (guenons [Cercopithecus spp.], collared mangabeys [Cercocebus torquatus], gray-cheeked mangabeys [Lophocebus albigena], African crested porcupines [Atherurus africanus], duikers [Cephalophus spp.], and red river hogs [Potamocherus porcus]) sold in two markets of Port-Gentil, Gabon, in July and August 2010. Salmonella was detected from one carcass; no Campylobacter or Shigella was detected. If Campylobacter and Shigella were present, the maximum expected prevalence was estimated at 6% and 1%, respectively. In light of such very low apparent muscle contamination levels, bushmeat likely does not represent a health risk per se with respect to Campylobacter, Salmonella, or Shigella. However, because carcass evisceration and skinning can take place within households prior to consumption, consumers should follow strict hygiene and food safety practices to avoid potential health hazards associated with the handling, preparation, or consumption of bushmeat. PMID:22740547

  16. Construction of intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) curves for precipitation with annual maxima data in Rwanda, Central Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demarée, G. R.; Van de Vyver, H.

    2013-06-01

    Detailed probabilistic information on the intensity of precipitation in Central Africa is highly needed in order to cope with the risk analysis of natural hazards. In the mountainous areas of Rwanda land slides frequently occur and might cause a heavy toll in human lives. The establishment of Intensity-Duration-Frequency curves for precipitation in Central Africa remains a difficult task as adequate long-term data sets for short aggregation times are usually not available. In 1962 recording raingauges were installed at several stations in Rwanda. According to the climatological procedures in use at that time in Congo, Rwanda and Burundi, maximum monthly and annual precipitation depths for fixed-time durations of 15, 30, 45, 60 and 120 min were determined from the rainfall charts. The data set is completed by the monthly and annual daily precipitation extremes from the non-recording raingauge at the stations. The authors used the dataset to establish the IDF-curves for precipitation at 3 stations in Rwanda having more than 20 yr of operation. The fixed-hour intervals of multiple 15 min require the use of a technique converting data from fixed-time intervals into data of arbitrary starting intervals. Therefore, the van Montfort technique was used.

  17. Influence of the Westerlies in arid Central Asia during the Holocene recorded in sediments from lakes Son Kol and Chatyr Kol, Kyrgyzstan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witt, R.; Lauterbach, S.; Plessen, B.; Prasad, S.; Maeusbacher, R.; Gleixner, G.

    2013-12-01

    Knowledge about past Asian climate variability and particularly teleconnections between the Westerlies in arid Central Asia and the Monsoon on the Tibetan Plateau is still limited. To reconstruct the Westerlies intensity during the Holocene in arid Central Asia and its effect on vegetation dynamics, we compared the sediment records from alpine lakes Son Kol (273 km2; 13 m depth) and Chatyr Kol (170 km2; 20 m depth), located in the central Tien Shan mountain range (Kyrgyzstan). Both sites differ in the mean annual amount of precipitation received (Son Kol: 550 mm; Chatyr Kol: 260 mm), but show identical recent catchment vegetation (montane grassland). To find out, whether the precipitation primarily causes differences in sedimentary organic matter accumulation, we investigated the distribution of n-alkanes in recent surface sediments from both lakes. The distribution of these biomarkers in Lake Son Kol is dominated by higher input of terrestrial plant material, whereas the one of Lake Chatyr Kol is characterized by mixed input of terrestrial and aquatic material. Additionally, we investigated the n-alkane distributions and compound-specific δD values of radiocarbon-dated sediment cores from Son Kol (core length: 154 cm), dating back to 6000 years BP, and from Chatyr Kol (core length: 625 cm), which dates back to the early Holocene. The combination of terrestrial and aquatic alkane-specific δD values can be used to determine changes of relative humidity. A generally stable n-alkane composition and relatively high amounts of terrestrial biomarkers within the sediments of Lake Son Kol display relatively stable climatic conditions for organic matter production during the mid-to late Holocene. Throughout the record, depleted δD values (-180 ‰) of terrestrial n-alkanes prevail, only periodically interrupted by phases with enriched values (-140 ‰). This suggests a predominance of generally wet conditions due to the influence of the Westerlies with only short

  18. An updated Bouguer anomaly map of south-central West Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hastings, David A.

    1983-01-01

    A new Bouguer gravity anomaly map compiled for western Africa adds data for Ghana, Guinea, and Liberia.The new data add detail to a key part of the Eburnean shield and assist in the development of a model of rifting at the time of the Eburnean orogeny, 2000 million years ago. This model includes a framework for the deposition of the region's mineral deposits. The model and existing field data can be used to guide future minerals exploration in the region.

  19. Atmosphere aerosol/dust composition over central Asia and western Siberia derived from snow/ice core records and calibrated with NASA remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aizen, V. B.; Aizen, E. M.; Joswiak, D. R.; Surazakov, A. B.; Takeuchi, N.

    2007-12-01

    The vast arid and semi-arid regions of central Asia, Mongolia, and Northern China are the world's second largest source of atmospheric mineral dust. In recent years, severe dust storms in Asia have intensified in frequency, duration, and areal coverage. However, limited spatial and temporal extent of aerosol measurements precludes definitive statements to be made regarding relationship between the Asian aerosol generation and climate. It has been well known that glaciers are the natural archives of environmental records related to past climate and aerosol generation. In our research, we utilized central Asian and western Siberia shallow ice-core records recovered from Altai, Tien Shan and Pamir mountain glaciers. Despite the fact that ice-core data may extend climate/aerosol records back in time, their sparse coverage is inadequate to document aerosol spatial distribution. The NASA products from Aura, Terra and Aqua satellite missions address this gap identifying aerosol sources, transport pathways, and area of deposition. The main objective of our research is to evaluate an affect of climate variability on dynamics of Asian aerosol loading to atmosphere and changes in aerosol transport pathways. Dust particle, major and rare earth element analysis from dust aerosols deposited and accumulated in Altai, Tien Shan and Pamir glaciers suggests that loess from Tajikistan, Afghanistan and north-western China are main sources of aerosol loading into the upper troposphere over the central Asia and western Siberia. At the same time, the soluble ionic component of the ice-cores, related to aerosol generated from evaporate deposits, demonstrated both anthropogenic and natural impacts on atmospheric chemistry over these regions. Large perturbations of Ca2+ derived from CaCO3- rich dust transported from Goby Desert to Altai and Tien Shan. Origin and pathway of the ice-core aerosol depositions for the last 10-years were identified through calibrating ice-core records with dust

  20. An overview of the geology and major ore deposits of Central Africa: Explanatory note for the 1:4,000,000 map “Geology and major ore deposits of Central Africa”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milesi, J. P.; Toteu, S. F.; Deschamps, Y.; Feybesse, J. L.; Lerouge, C.; Cocherie, A.; Penaye, J.; Tchameni, R.; Moloto-A-Kenguemba, G.; Kampunzu, H. A. B.; Nicol, N.; Duguey, E.; Leistel, J. M.; Saint-Martin, M.; Ralay, F.; Heinry, C.; Bouchot, V.; Doumnang Mbaigane, J. C.; Kanda Kula, V.; Chene, F.; Monthel, J.; Boutin, P.; Cailteux, J.

    2006-04-01

    This paper is prepared within the frameworks of IGCP Project 470 and the associated BRGM scientific project "Africa 1999-2004" to accompany the 1:4,000,000 scale map "Geology and major ore deposits of Central Africa, presented at the 20th Colloquium of African Geology in Orleans in June 2004. It incorporates geological and metallogenic data from eight countries in Central Africa (Angola, Cameroon, Chad, Central African Republic, Congo Brazzaville, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Equatorial Guinea and Zambia). The map is a harmonised and geo-referenced preliminary map, based on a GIS at 1:2,000,000 scale, and focusses on the spatial and temporal distribution of selected major deposits.

  1. Large-scale phytogeographical patterns in East Asia in relation to latitudinal and climatic gradients

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Qian, H.; Song, J.-S.; Krestov, P.; Guo, Q.; Wu, Z.; Shen, X.; Guo, X.

    2003-01-01

    Aim: This paper aims at determining how different floristic elements (e.g. cosmopolitan, tropical, and temperate) change with latitude and major climate factors, and how latitude affects the floristic relationships between East Asia and the other parts of the world. Location: East Asia from the Arctic to tropical regions, an area crossing over 50?? of latitudes and covering the eastern part of China, Korea, Japan and the eastern part of Russia. Methods: East Asia is divided into forty-five geographical regions. Based on the similarity of their world-wide distributional patterns, a total of 2808 indigenous genera of seed plants found in East Asia were grouped into fourteen geographical elements, belonging to three major categories (cosmopolitan, tropical and temperate). The 50??-long latitudinal gradient of East Asia was divided into five latitudinal zones, each of c. 10??. Phytogeographical relationships of East Asia to latitude and climatic variables were examined based on the forty-five regional floras. Results: Among all geographical and climatic variables considered, latitude showed the strongest relationship to phytogeographical composition. Tropical genera (with pantropical, amphi-Pacific tropical, palaeotropical, tropical Asia-tropical Australia, tropical Asia-tropical Africa and tropical Asia geographical elements combined) accounted for c. 80% of the total genera at latitude 20??N and for c. 0% at latitude 55-60??N. In contrast, temperate genera (including holarctic, eastern Asia-North America, temperate Eurasia, temperate Asia, Mediterranean, western Asia to central Asia, central Asia and eastern Asia geographical elements) accounted for 15.5% in the southernmost latitude and for 80% at 55-60??N, from where northward the percentage tended to level off. The proportion of cosmopolitan genera increased gradually with latitude from 5% at the southernmost latitude to 21% at 55-60??N, where it levelled off northward. In general, the genera present in a more

  2. Three new species of Pararhabdepyris Gorbatovsky (Hymenoptera, Bethylidae) from Central Africa and the Arabian Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Juan M; Azevedo, Celso O

    2016-01-01

    Three new species of Pararhabdepyris are described and illustrated: P. arabo sp. nov. (United Arabian Emirates and Yemen), P. wafrika sp. nov. (Central African Republic), P. ngangu sp. nov. (Central African Republic). The genus is recorded for the first time from the Saharo-Arabian region. A key for all species of the genus is presented. PMID:27395185

  3. Effects of input discretization, model complexity, and calibration strategy on model performance in a data-scarce glacierized catchment in Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasova, L.; Knoche, M.; Dietrich, J.; Merz, R.

    2016-06-01

    Glacierized high-mountainous catchments are often the water towers for downstream region, and modeling these remote areas are often the only available tool for the assessment of water resources availability. Nevertheless, data scarcity affects different aspects of hydrological modeling in such mountainous glacierized basins. On the example of poorly gauged glacierized catchment in Central Asia, we examined the effects of input discretization, model complexity, and calibration strategy on model performance. The study was conducted with the GSM-Socont model driven with climatic input from the corrected High Asia Reanalysis data set of two different discretizations. We analyze the effects of the use of long-term glacier volume loss, snow cover images, and interior runoff as an additional calibration data. In glacierized catchments with winter accumulation type, where the transformation of precipitation into runoff is mainly controlled by snow and glacier melt processes, the spatial discretization of precipitation tends to have less impact on simulated runoff than a correct prediction of the integral precipitation volume. Increasing model complexity by using spatially distributed input or semidistributed parameters values does not increase model performance in the Gunt catchment, as the more complex model tends to be more sensitive to errors in the input data set. In our case, better model performance and quantification of the flow components can be achieved by additional calibration data, rather than by using a more distributed model parameters. However, a semidistributed model better predicts the spatial patterns of snow accumulation and provides more plausible runoff predictions at the interior sites.

  4. Cryptomyrus: a new genus of Mormyridae (Teleostei, Osteoglossomorpha) with two new species from Gabon, West-Central Africa.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, John P; Lavoué, Sébastien; Hopkins, Carl D

    2016-01-01

    We use mitochondrial and nuclear sequence data to show that three weakly electric mormyrid fish specimens collected at three widely separated localities in Gabon, Africa over a 13-year period represent an unrecognized lineage within the subfamily Mormyrinae and determine its phylogenetic position with respect to other taxa. We describe these three specimens as a new genus containing two new species. Cryptomyrus, new genus, is readily distinguished from all other mormyrid genera by a combination of features of squamation, morphometrics, and dental attributes. Cryptomyrus ogoouensis, new species, is differentiated from its single congener, Cryptomyrus ona, new species, by the possession of an anal-fin origin located well in advance of the dorsal fin, a narrow caudal peduncle and caudal-fin lobes nearly as long as the peduncle. In Cryptomyrus ona, the anal-fin origin is located only slightly in advance of the dorsal fin, the caudal peduncle is deep and the caudal-fin lobes considerably shorter than the peduncle. Continued discovery of new taxa within the "Lower Guinea Clade" of Mormyridae highlights the incompleteness of our knowledge of fish diversity in West-Central Africa. We present a revised key to the mormyrid genera of Lower Guinea. PMID:27006619

  5. A new analysis of variability and predictability of seasonal rainfall of central southern Africa for 1950-94

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mwale, Davison; Yew Gan, Thian; Shen, Samuel S. P.

    2004-10-01

    Using wavelet analysis and wavelet-based empirical orthogonal function analysis on scale-averaged-wavelet power and individual scale power, we identified the non-stationary sea-surface temperature (SST) fields of the South Atlantic and Indian Oceans that are associated with coherent regions of rainfall variability in central southern Africa (CSA). The dominant mode of CSA rainfall is out of phase between the coastal areas and the centre of CSA and has been decreasing consistently since 1970. The frequencies associated with this mode are between 2-2.4 and 5.6-8 years. The Benguela ocean current SSTs form the dominant spatial pattern of the South Atlantic Ocean, and the Brazil and Guinea ocean current SSTs form the second leading mode. The Benguela spatial patterns were found to migrate seasonally between Africa's west coast and South America's east coast. The northern Indian Ocean SST forms the leading mode of variability, followed by the south Indian Ocean SST. Using predictor fields identified from both oceans, we achieved encouraging results of predicted CSA rainfall using a non-linear statistical teleconnection artificial neural network-genetic algorithm model. At 3 month lead time, correlations of between 0.8 and 0.9, root-mean-square errors of between 0.4 and 0.9 and Hansen Kuipers skill scores of between 0.4 and 0.8 were obtained between observed and predicted CSA rainfall.

  6. Cryptomyrus: a new genus of Mormyridae (Teleostei, Osteoglossomorpha) with two new species from Gabon, West-Central Africa

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, John P.; Lavoué, Sébastien; Hopkins, Carl D.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We use mitochondrial and nuclear sequence data to show that three weakly electric mormyrid fish specimens collected at three widely separated localities in Gabon, Africa over a 13-year period represent an unrecognized lineage within the subfamily Mormyrinae and determine its phylogenetic position with respect to other taxa. We describe these three specimens as a new genus containing two new species. Cryptomyrus, new genus, is readily distinguished from all other mormyrid genera by a combination of features of squamation, morphometrics, and dental attributes. Cryptomyrus ogoouensis, new species, is differentiated from its single congener, Cryptomyrus ona, new species, by the possession of an anal-fin origin located well in advance of the dorsal fin, a narrow caudal peduncle and caudal-fin lobes nearly as long as the peduncle. In Cryptomyrus ona, the anal-fin origin is located only slightly in advance of the dorsal fin, the caudal peduncle is deep and the caudal-fin lobes considerably shorter than the peduncle. Continued discovery of new taxa within the “Lower Guinea Clade” of Mormyridae highlights the incompleteness of our knowledge of fish diversity in West-Central Africa. We present a revised key to the mormyrid genera of Lower Guinea. PMID:27006619

  7. Comparison of Complete Genome Sequences of Usutu Virus Strains Detected in Spain, Central Europe, and Africa

    PubMed Central

    Busquets, Núria; Nowotny, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The complete genomic sequence of Usutu virus (USUV, genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae) strain MB119/06, detected in a pool of Culex pipiens mosquitoes in northeastern Spain (Viladecans, Catalonia) in 2006, was determined and analyzed. The phylogenetic relationship with all other available complete USUV genome sequences was established. The Spanish sequence investigated showed the closest relationship to the USUV prototype strain SA AR 1776 isolated in South Africa in 1959 (96.9% nucleotide and 98.8% amino acid identities). Conserved structural elements and enzyme motifs of the putative polyprotein precursor were identified. Unique amino acid substitutions were recognized; however, their potential roles as virulence markers could not be verified. Comparisons of the polyprotein precursor sequences of USUV strains detected in mosquitoes, birds, and humans could not confirm the predicted role of unique amino acid substitutions in relation to virulence in humans. Phylogenetic analysis of a partial coding section of the NS5 protein gene region indicated that USUV strains circulating in Europe form three different genetic clusters. Broad and targeted surveys for USUV in mosquitoes could reveal further details of the geographic distribution and genetic diversity of the virus in Europe and in Africa. PMID:24746182

  8. Depositional sequence evolution, Paleozoic and early Mesozoic of the central Saharan platform, North Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Sprague, A.R.G. )

    1991-08-01

    Over 30 depositional sequences have been identified in the Paleozoic and lower Mesozoic of the Ghadames basin of eastern Algeria, southern Tunisia, and western Libya. Well logs and lithologic information from more than 500 wells were used to correlate the 30 sequences throughout the basin (total area more than 1 million km{sup 2}). Based on systematic change in the log response of strata in successively younger sequences, five groups of sequences with distinctive characteristics have been identified: Cambro-Ordivician, Upper Silurian-Middle Devonian, Upper Devonian, Carboniferous, and Middle Triassic-Middle Jurassic. Each sequence group is terminated by a major, tectonically enhanced sequence boundary that is immediately overlain (except for the Carboniferous) by a shale-prone interval deposited in response to basin-wide flooding. The four Paleozoic sequence groups were deposited on the Saharan platform, a north facing, clastic-dominated shelf that covered most of North Africa during the Paleozoic. The sequence boundary at the top of the Carboniferous sequence group is one of several Permian-Carboniferous angular unconformities in North Africa related to the Hercynian orogeny. The youngest sequence group (Middle Triassic to Middle Jurassic) is a clastic-evaporite package that onlaps southward onto the top of Paleozoic sequence boundary. The progressive changes from the Cambrian to the Jurassic, in the nature of the Ghadames basin sequences is a reflection of the interplay between basin morphology and tectonics, vegetation, eustasy, climate, and sediment supply.

  9. AIDS and food production in East and Central Africa: a research outline.

    PubMed

    Barnett, T; Blaikie, P

    1989-02-01

    AIDS has penetrated at least 42 countries in Africa. Death of Africans usually occurs within 3 years of diagnosis. Not much is currently known about the demographics of the disease or about its impact on economic and social behavior, farming, and food production. There is currently a food crisis in Africa, so it is appropriate to study how much of an impact this disease has on future food production. In order to study the problem, one must predict the spread of AIDS. 2nd, one must infer how labor loss effects current rural production. Labor loss will cause changes in organization of production, technology, and types of crops grown. As a crisis increases, certain groups will be cut out of the food distribution. Characterizations such as these allow the mapping of areas vulnerable to labor loss. Field analysis and modeling must substantiate the theories and predictions. This paper describes the research design which will be used by 2 researchers from the Overseas Development Group of the University of East Anglia to measure the impact of AIDS on food production, working initially in a high HIV - prevalent area in Uganda. PMID:12281937

  10. A Novel Rhabdovirus Associated with Acute Hemorrhagic Fever in Central Africa

    PubMed Central

    Slikas, Elizabeth; Steffen, Imke; Muyembe, Jean-Jacques; Sittler, Taylor; Veeraraghavan, Narayanan; Ruby, J. Graham; Wang, Chunlin; Makuwa, Maria; Mulembakani, Prime; Tesh, Robert B.; Mazet, Jonna; Rimoin, Anne W.; Taylor, Travis; Schneider, Bradley S.; Simmons, Graham; Delwart, Eric; Wolfe, Nathan D.; Chiu, Charles Y.; Leroy, Eric M.

    2012-01-01

    Deep sequencing was used to discover a novel rhabdovirus (Bas-Congo virus, or BASV) associated with a 2009 outbreak of 3 human cases of acute hemorrhagic fever in Mangala village, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Africa. The cases, presenting over a 3-week period, were characterized by abrupt disease onset, high fever, mucosal hemorrhage, and, in two patients, death within 3 days. BASV was detected in an acute serum sample from the lone survivor at a concentration of 1.09×106 RNA copies/mL, and 98.2% of the genome was subsequently de novo assembled from ∼140 million sequence reads. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that BASV is highly divergent and shares less than 34% amino acid identity with any other rhabdovirus. High convalescent neutralizing antibody titers of >1∶1000 were detected in the survivor and an asymptomatic nurse directly caring for him, both of whom were health care workers, suggesting the potential for human-to-human transmission of BASV. The natural animal reservoir host or arthropod vector and precise mode of transmission for the virus remain unclear. BASV is an emerging human pathogen associated with acute hemorrhagic fever in Africa. PMID:23028323

  11. Legislative and policy analysis of HIV prevention, treatment and care for people who use drugs and incarcerated people in Central Asia and Azerbaijan.

    PubMed

    Cozac, David; Elliott, Richard

    2011-04-01

    In January 2011, the Regional Office for Central Asia of the UN Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and the Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network released an extensive report assessing the legislative and policy environment affecting the response to HIV in six countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). The report, which draws in part upon the work of a national expert group in each country, puts forward dozens of recommendations for legislative and policy reform, including recommendations for specific reform tailored to the situation in each of the participating countries, with a particular focus on addressing the fast-growing HIV epidemic linked to injection drug use and in prisons. PMID:21688698

  12. Convection activity over the Guinean coast and Central Africa during northern spring from synoptic to intra-seasonal timescales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamsu-Tamo, P. H.; Janicot, S.; Monkam, D.; Lenouo, A.

    2014-12-01

    This study proposes an overview of the main synoptic, medium-range and intraseasonal modes of convection and precipitation in northern spring (March-June 1979-2010) over West and Central Africa, and to understand their atmospheric dynamics. It is based on daily National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration outgoing longwave radiation and Cloud Archive User Service Tb convection data, daily TRMM and Global Precipitation Climatology Project rainfall products and daily ERA-Interim reanalysis atmospheric fields. It is first shown that mesoscale convective systems can be modulated in terms of occurrences number and intensity at such time scales. Based on empirical orthogonal function analyses on the 2-90-day filtered data it is shown that the main mode of convective and rainfall variability is located along the Guinean coast with a moderate to weak extension over Central Africa. Corresponding regressed deseasonalised atmospheric fields highlight an eastward propagation of patterns consistent with convectively coupled equatorial Kelvin wave dynamics. Then a singular spectrum analysis combined with a Hierarchical Ascendant Classification enable to define objectively the main spectral bands of variability within the 2-90-day band, and highlight three main bands, 2-8-, 8-22- and 20-90-day. Within these three bands, space-time spectral decomposition is used to identify the relative impacts of convectively coupled equatorial Kelvin, Rossby and inertia-gravity waves, as well as Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) signal. It confirms that eastward propagating signals (convectively coupled equatorial Kelvin wave and MJO) are highly dominant in these convection and precipitation variability modes over the Guinean coast during northern spring. So, while rain-producing individual systems are moving westward, their activity are highly modulated by sub-regional and regional scales envelops moving to the east. This is a burning issue for operational forecasting centers to be able to

  13. Assessment of simulated rainfall and temperature from the regional climate model REMO and future changes over Central Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fotso-Nguemo, Thierry C.; Vondou, Derbetini A.; Tchawoua, Clément; Haensler, Andreas

    2016-07-01

    This work investigates spatial and temporal changes in rainfall and temperature over Central Africa, using historical and representative concentration pathways (RCP2.6, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) of the regional climate model REMO forced by two general climate models: the Europe-wide Consortium Earth System Model (EC-Earth) and the Max Planck Institute-Earth System Model (MPI-ESM). We found that in the present period (1980-2005), the spatial distribution of rainfall is simulated with an annual spatial pattern correlation coefficient (PCC) of 0.76 for REMO driven by EC-Earth and 0.74 for REMO driven by MPI-ESM respectively when compared to CRU data. In terms of temperature, the annual PCC is 0.93 for the two REMO outputs. According to the climatology of Central Africa, we subdivided the study area into five sub-regions, we also noticed that the annual and seasonal PCC depend on the considered sub-region. For the future period (2070-2095), temperature is projected to increase following all the three scenarios. The rainfall amount is projected to decrease by up to 5 mm/day towards the end of the twenty first century under RCP8.5 scenario, and by 1-2 mm/day under RCP4.5 and RCP2.6 scenarios over Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Congo, north-western Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and the Lake Victoria. Significant decrease is predicted to occur mostly in the northern part of the domain under RCP8.5 scenario. However, future rainfall over High Lands of Cameroon, Adamawa Plateau, north-eastern DRC and Atlantic Ocean is projected to increase.

  14. Modelling forest lines and forest distribution patterns with remote sensing data in a mountainous region of semi-arid Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klinge, M.; Böhner, J.; Erasmi, S.

    2014-10-01

    Satellite images and digital elevation models provide an excellent database to analyse forest distribution patterns and forest limits in the mountain regions of semi-arid Central Asia at the regional scale. For the investigation area in the northern Tien Shan a strong relation between forest distribution and climate conditions could be found. Additionally areas of potential human impact on forested areas are identified at lower elevations near the mountain border based on an analysis of the differences of climatic preconditions and present occurrence of forest stands. The distribution of spruce (Picea schrenkiana) forests is hydrologically limited by a minimum annual precipitation of 250 mm and thermally by a minimum monthly mean temperature of 5 °C during the growing season. While the actual lower forest limit increases from 1600 m a.s.l. in the northwest to 2600 m a.s.l. in the southeast, the upper forest limit takes the same course from 1800 to 2900 m a.s.l. In accordance with the main wind directions, the steepest gradient of both forest lines and the greatest local vertical extent of the forest belt of 500 to 600 m and maximum 900 m occur at the northern and western mountain fronts. The forests in the investigation area are strongly restricted to north facing-slopes, which is a common feature in semi-arid Central Asia. Based on the presumption that variations in local climate conditions are a function of topography, the potential forest extent was analysed with regard to the parameters slope, aspect, solar radiation input and elevation. All four parameters showed a strong relationship to forest distribution, yielding a total potential forest area that is 3.5 times larger than the present forest remains of 502 km2.

  15. Southeast Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Home to beautiful jungles, booming industry, and age-old temples, Southeast Asia has become a confluence of ancient and modern life. This true-color image of mainland Southeast Asia was acquired on November 30, 2001, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The body of water in the upper righthand corner of the image is the Gulf of Tonkin. East and southeast of the gulf are the dark green jungles of Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia. The light brown Mekong River winds its way through the center of the Cambodian jungle and into southern Vietnam. The dark blue patch to the left of the river at the bottom of the image is the Tonle Sap. Literally translated to mean 'Great Lake,' the Tonle Sap is the largest freshwater lake in Southeast Asia. During the rainy season from May to October, the lake will more than double in size growing from its wintertime extent of 3,000 square kilometers to over 7,500 square kilometers. North of the lake, approximately in the center of the image, is a saucer-shaped patch of reddish brown land known as the Khorat Plateau. Situated 90 to 200 meters above sea level in eastern Thailand, the dry plateau is mostly covered with farmland and savanna-type grasses and shrubs. Moving south again, the large body of light blue water at the bottom central portion of the image is the Gulf of Thailand. By switching to the full resolution image (250 meters per pixel) and following the Gulf of Thailand to its northernmost extent, one can see a pinkish beige patch of terrain covered by a faint latticework of fine lines. These are likely to be the network of roads that crisscross Bangkok and its surrounding suburbs and fertile farmland. The narrow strip of land to the east of the Gulf of Thailand is the Malay Peninsula. The body of water to the left of the peninsula is the Gulf of Martaban, which borders Myanmar (Burma). At the far upper lefthand corner of the image, the water has turned light brown from

  16. The influence of Late Pleistocene geomorphological inheritance and Holocene hydromorphic regimes on floodwater farming in the Talgar catchment, southeast Kazakhstan, Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macklin, Mark G.; Panyushkina, Irina P.; Toonen, Willem H. J.; Chang, Claudia; Tourtellotte, Perry A.; Duller, Geoff A. T.; Wang, Hong; Prins, Maarten A.

    2015-12-01

    In comparison to Southwest Asia and the Indian subcontinent, the relationship between Holocene river dynamics, climate change and floodwater farming in Central Asia is significantly under researched. To address this, a multi-disciplinary research project was begun in 2011 centred on the Talgar catchment, a south-bank tributary of the Ili River, southeast Kazakhstan. Building on archaeological excavations and surveys conducted over the past 20 years, we have undertaken investigations of Holocene human adaptations to changing hydromorphic regimes in the Tien Shan piedmont region, Central Asia. Fluvial geochronologies have been reconstructed over the last 20,000 years using Optically Stimulated Luminescence and 14C dating, and are compared with human settlement histories from the Eneolithic to the medieval period. Phases of Late Pleistocene and Holocene river aggradation at c. 17,400-6420, 4130-2880 and 910-500 cal. BC and between the mid-18th and early 20th centuries were coeval with cooler and wetter neoglacial episodes. Entrenchment and floodplain soil development (c. 2880-2490 cal. BC and cal. AD 1300-1640) coincided with warmer and drier conditions. Prior to the modern period, floodwater farming in the Talgar River reached its height in the late Iron Age (400 cal. BC - cal. AD 1) with more than 70 settlement sites and 700 burial mounds. This period of agricultural expansion corresponds to a phase of reduced flooding, river stability and glacier retreat in the Tien Shan Mountains. Late Iron age agriculturists appear to have been opportunistic by exploiting a phase of moderate flows within an alluvial fan environment, which contained a series of partially entrenched distributary channels that could be easily 'engineered' to facilitate floodwater farming. Holocene climate change was therefore not a proximate cause for the development and demise of this relatively short-lived (c. 200 years) period of Iron Age farming. River dynamics in the Tien Shan piedmont are

  17. Conference on Resource Sharing in Southern and Central Africa (Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania, December 16-19, 1985). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). General Information Programme.

    This document summarizes the activities of a conference held at the Institute of Finance Management in Tanzania on information resource sharing in Southern and Central Africa. Delegates and observers from Lesotho, Swaziland, Mozambique, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Malawi, Zambia, and Tanzania attended the conference. The 15 participants, 8 sponsored by…

  18. High Genetic Diversity of Newcastle Disease Virus in Poultry in West and Ce