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Sample records for africa collection sa05-070

  1. Collection Development: Sporty South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamont, Loraine; Pulver, A. Issac

    2010-01-01

    This summer, sports-crazy South Africa, recently named by the "New York Times" as one of the "31 Places To Go in 2010," will become the first African nation to host the FIFA World Cup. Soccer fans making the trip will be rewarded with world-class facilities, modern infrastructure, and a nation of startling contrasts and spectacular beauty. For the…

  2. The Africa Collection: An Annotated Historical Resource Bibliography for the Student of Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynn, Karen

    This annotated bibliographic collection of resources on Africa including non-fiction, fiction, texts, poetry, draft papers, addresses, periodicals, film, records, and travel agencies is designed to aid secondary students and their teachers interested in research on Africa. An instructional approach is taken, drawing upon examples to demonstrate…

  3. Stem Rust Resistance in a Geographically Diverse Collection of Spring Wheat Lines Collected from Across Africa.

    PubMed

    Prins, Renée; Dreisigacker, Susanne; Pretorius, Zakkie; van Schalkwyk, Hester; Wessels, Elsabet; Smit, Corneli; Bender, Cornel; Singh, Davinder; Boyd, Lesley A

    2016-01-01

    Following the emergence of the Ug99 lineage of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici (Pgt) a collective international effort has been undertaken to identify new sources of wheat stem rust resistance effective against these races. Analyses were undertaken in a collection of wheat genotypes gathered from across Africa to identify stem rust resistance effective against the Pgt races found in Eastern and Southern Africa. The African wheat collection consisted of historic genotypes collected in Kenya, South Africa, Ethiopia, Sudan, Zambia, Morocco, and Tunisia, and current South African breeding lines. Both Bayesian cluster and principal coordinate analyses placed the wheat lines from Sudan in a distinct group, but indicated a degree of genetic relatedness among the other wheat lines despite originating from countries across Africa. Seedling screens with Pgt race PTKST, pedigree information and marker haplotype analysis confirmed the presence of Sr2, Sr36, Sr24, Sr31, and Lr34/Yr18/Sr57 in a number of the lines. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) undertaken with Diversiry Arrays Technology (DArT) and stem rust (Sr) gene associated markers and Stem Area Infected (SAI) and Reaction Type (RT) field phenotypes, collected from trials carried out across two seasons in Kenya in 2009 and in South Africa in 2011, identified 29 marker-trait associations (MTA). Three MTA were in common between SAI and RT, with the biggest effect MTA being found on chromosome 6AS. Two wheat lines, W1406 and W6979 that exhibited high levels of adult plant stem rust resistance were selected to generate bi-parental mapping populations. Only the MTA on chromosomes 6AS and 3BS, and the locus Lr34/Yr18/Sr57 were confirmed following QTL mapping. Additional stem rust resistance QTL, not detected by the GWAS, were found on chromosomes 2BS, 2DL, 3DL, and 4D.

  4. Stem Rust Resistance in a Geographically Diverse Collection of Spring Wheat Lines Collected from Across Africa.

    PubMed

    Prins, Renée; Dreisigacker, Susanne; Pretorius, Zakkie; van Schalkwyk, Hester; Wessels, Elsabet; Smit, Corneli; Bender, Cornel; Singh, Davinder; Boyd, Lesley A

    2016-01-01

    Following the emergence of the Ug99 lineage of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici (Pgt) a collective international effort has been undertaken to identify new sources of wheat stem rust resistance effective against these races. Analyses were undertaken in a collection of wheat genotypes gathered from across Africa to identify stem rust resistance effective against the Pgt races found in Eastern and Southern Africa. The African wheat collection consisted of historic genotypes collected in Kenya, South Africa, Ethiopia, Sudan, Zambia, Morocco, and Tunisia, and current South African breeding lines. Both Bayesian cluster and principal coordinate analyses placed the wheat lines from Sudan in a distinct group, but indicated a degree of genetic relatedness among the other wheat lines despite originating from countries across Africa. Seedling screens with Pgt race PTKST, pedigree information and marker haplotype analysis confirmed the presence of Sr2, Sr36, Sr24, Sr31, and Lr34/Yr18/Sr57 in a number of the lines. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) undertaken with Diversiry Arrays Technology (DArT) and stem rust (Sr) gene associated markers and Stem Area Infected (SAI) and Reaction Type (RT) field phenotypes, collected from trials carried out across two seasons in Kenya in 2009 and in South Africa in 2011, identified 29 marker-trait associations (MTA). Three MTA were in common between SAI and RT, with the biggest effect MTA being found on chromosome 6AS. Two wheat lines, W1406 and W6979 that exhibited high levels of adult plant stem rust resistance were selected to generate bi-parental mapping populations. Only the MTA on chromosomes 6AS and 3BS, and the locus Lr34/Yr18/Sr57 were confirmed following QTL mapping. Additional stem rust resistance QTL, not detected by the GWAS, were found on chromosomes 2BS, 2DL, 3DL, and 4D. PMID:27462322

  5. Stem Rust Resistance in a Geographically Diverse Collection of Spring Wheat Lines Collected from Across Africa

    PubMed Central

    Prins, Renée; Dreisigacker, Susanne; Pretorius, Zakkie; van Schalkwyk, Hester; Wessels, Elsabet; Smit, Corneli; Bender, Cornel; Singh, Davinder; Boyd, Lesley A.

    2016-01-01

    Following the emergence of the Ug99 lineage of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici (Pgt) a collective international effort has been undertaken to identify new sources of wheat stem rust resistance effective against these races. Analyses were undertaken in a collection of wheat genotypes gathered from across Africa to identify stem rust resistance effective against the Pgt races found in Eastern and Southern Africa. The African wheat collection consisted of historic genotypes collected in Kenya, South Africa, Ethiopia, Sudan, Zambia, Morocco, and Tunisia, and current South African breeding lines. Both Bayesian cluster and principal coordinate analyses placed the wheat lines from Sudan in a distinct group, but indicated a degree of genetic relatedness among the other wheat lines despite originating from countries across Africa. Seedling screens with Pgt race PTKST, pedigree information and marker haplotype analysis confirmed the presence of Sr2, Sr36, Sr24, Sr31, and Lr34/Yr18/Sr57 in a number of the lines. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) undertaken with Diversiry Arrays Technology (DArT) and stem rust (Sr) gene associated markers and Stem Area Infected (SAI) and Reaction Type (RT) field phenotypes, collected from trials carried out across two seasons in Kenya in 2009 and in South Africa in 2011, identified 29 marker-trait associations (MTA). Three MTA were in common between SAI and RT, with the biggest effect MTA being found on chromosome 6AS. Two wheat lines, W1406 and W6979 that exhibited high levels of adult plant stem rust resistance were selected to generate bi-parental mapping populations. Only the MTA on chromosomes 6AS and 3BS, and the locus Lr34/Yr18/Sr57 were confirmed following QTL mapping. Additional stem rust resistance QTL, not detected by the GWAS, were found on chromosomes 2BS, 2DL, 3DL, and 4D. PMID:27462322

  6. Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martz, Carlton

    2001-01-01

    This publication explores issues related to Africa. It examines the U.S. response to the Barbary pirate states (Morocco, Algiers, Tunis, Tripoli) in the early 19th century; the current AIDS crisis in Africa; and 14th century Mali and other Islamic lands through the eyes of Ibn Battuta, who traveled throughout the Muslim world. Each article…

  7. Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Happel, Sue; Loeb, Joyce

    Although the activities in this unit are designed primarily for students in the intermediate grades, the document's text, illustrations, and bibliographic references are suitable for anyone interested in learning about Africa. Following a brief introduction and map work, the document is arranged into six sections. Section 1 traces Africa's history…

  8. Collective Efficacy, Alcohol Outlet Density, and Young Men's Alcohol Use in Rural South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Leslie, Hannah H; Ahern, Jennifer; Pettifor, Audrey E.; Twine, Rhian; Kahn, Kathleen; Gómez-Olivé, F. Xavier; Lippman, Sheri A.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol use contributes to morbidity and mortality in developing countries by increasing the risk of trauma and disease, including alcohol dependence. Limited research addresses determinants of alcohol use beyond the individual level in sub-Saharan Africa. We test the association of community collective efficacy and alcohol outlet density with young men's drinking in a cross-sectional, locally representative survey conducted in rural northeast South Africa. Informal social control and cohesion show protective associations with men's heavy drinking, while alcohol outlet density is associated with more potential problem drinking. These findings provide initial support for intervening at the community level to promote alcohol reduction. PMID:26071651

  9. Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crofts, Marylee

    1986-01-01

    Reviews myths, misconceptions, and unintentional biases about Africa in United States K-12 social studies textbooks. Summarizes common topics and recommends additions. Provides the names, addresses and phone numbers of 10 university-based African Studies centers. Concludes that improvements to textbooks must continue. (JDH)

  10. Type specimens in the Port Elizabeth Museum, South Africa, including the historically important Albany Museum collection. Part 1: Amphibians.

    PubMed

    Conradie, Werner; Branch, William R; Watson, Gillian

    2015-01-01

    The Port Elizabeth Museum houses the consolidated herpetological collections of three provincial museums of the Eastern Cape, South Africa: the Port Elizabeth Museum (Port Elizabeth), the Amatole (previously Kaffarian) Museum (King Williams Town), and the Albany Museum (Grahamstown). Under John Hewitt, Albany Museum was the main centre of herpetological research in South Africa from 1910-1940, and he described numerous new species, many based on material in the museum collection. The types and other material from the Albany Museum are now incorporated into the Port Elizabeth Museum Herpetology collection (PEM). Due to the vague typification of much of Hewitt's material, the loss of the original catalogues in a fire and the subsequent deterioration of specimen labels, the identification of this type material is often troublesome. Significant herpetological research has been undertaken at the PEM in the last 35 years, and the collection has grown to be the third largest in Africa. During this period, numerous additional types have been deposited in the PEM collection, generated by active taxonomic research in the museum. As a consequence, 43 different amphibian taxa are represented by 37 primary and 151 secondary type specimens in the collection. This catalogue provides the first documentation of these types. It provides the original name, the original publication date, journal number and pagination, reference to illustrations, current name, museum collection number, type locality, notes on the type status, and photographs of all holotypes and lectotypes. Where necessary to maintain nomenclatural stability, and where confused type series are housed in the PEM collection, lectotypes and paralectotypes are nominated. PMID:25947420

  11. Type specimens in the Port Elizabeth Museum, South Africa, including the historically important Albany Museum collection. Part 1: Amphibians.

    PubMed

    Conradie, Werner; Branch, William R; Watson, Gillian

    2015-03-18

    The Port Elizabeth Museum houses the consolidated herpetological collections of three provincial museums of the Eastern Cape, South Africa: the Port Elizabeth Museum (Port Elizabeth), the Amatole (previously Kaffarian) Museum (King Williams Town), and the Albany Museum (Grahamstown). Under John Hewitt, Albany Museum was the main centre of herpetological research in South Africa from 1910-1940, and he described numerous new species, many based on material in the museum collection. The types and other material from the Albany Museum are now incorporated into the Port Elizabeth Museum Herpetology collection (PEM). Due to the vague typification of much of Hewitt's material, the loss of the original catalogues in a fire and the subsequent deterioration of specimen labels, the identification of this type material is often troublesome. Significant herpetological research has been undertaken at the PEM in the last 35 years, and the collection has grown to be the third largest in Africa. During this period, numerous additional types have been deposited in the PEM collection, generated by active taxonomic research in the museum. As a consequence, 43 different amphibian taxa are represented by 37 primary and 151 secondary type specimens in the collection. This catalogue provides the first documentation of these types. It provides the original name, the original publication date, journal number and pagination, reference to illustrations, current name, museum collection number, type locality, notes on the type status, and photographs of all holotypes and lectotypes. Where necessary to maintain nomenclatural stability, and where confused type series are housed in the PEM collection, lectotypes and paralectotypes are nominated.

  12. Cortical bone histomorphology of known‐age skeletons from the Kirsten collection, Stellenbosch university, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Heinrich, Jarred; Beresheim, Amy; Alblas, Mandi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives Normal human bone tissue changes predictably as adults get older, but substantial variability in pattern and pace remains unexplained. Information is needed regarding the characteristics of histological variables across diverse human populations. Methods Undecalcified thin sections from mid‐thoracic ribs of 213 skeletons (138 M, 75 F, 17–82 years, mean age 48 years), are used to explore the efficacy of an established age‐at‐death estimation method and methodological approach (Cho et al.: J Forensic Sci 47 (2002) 12‐18) and expand on it. The ribs are an age‐balanced sample taken from skeletonized cadavers collected from 1967 to 1999 in South Africa, each with recorded sex, age, cause of death and government‐defined population group (129 “Colored,” 49 “Black,” 35 “White”). Results The Ethnicity Unknown equation performs better than those developed for European‐Americans and African‐Americans, in terms of accuracy and bias. A new equation based solely on the study sample does not improve accuracy. Osteon population densities (OPD) show predicted values, yet secondary osteon areas (On.Ar) are smaller than expected for non‐Black subgroups. Relative cortical area (Ct.Ar/Tt.Ar) is low among non‐Whites. Conclusions Results from this highly diverse sample show that population‐specific equations do not increase estimate precision. While within the published range of error for the method (±24.44 years), results demonstrate a systematic under‐aging of young adults and over‐aging of older adults. The regression approach is inappropriate. The field needs fresh approaches to statistical treatment and to factors behind cortical bone remodeling. Am J Phys Anthropol 160:137–147, 2016. © 2016 The Authors American Journal of Physical Anthropology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26865244

  13. Fusarium species isolated from Pennisetum clandestinum collected during outbreaks of kikuyu poisoning in cattle in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Botha, Christo J; Truter, Mariëtte; Jacobs, Adriaana

    2014-11-20

    Kikuyu poisoning occurs sporadically in South Africa. It is of major economic importance, as valuable dairy cows are often poisoned by it, and once affected, the mortality rate is high. Pennisetum clandestinum samples were collected during eight outbreaks of kikuyu poisoning in cattle in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa from 2008 to 2010. The kikuyu grass samples were submitted specifically for the isolation and molecular identification of Fusarium species, as it was recently suggested that mycotoxins synthesised by Fusarium torulosum could be the cause of this intoxication. Ninety-four Fusarium isolates were retrieved from the grass samples, of which 72 were members of the Fusarium incarnatum/Fusarium equiseti species complex based on morphology and phylogenetic analyses of the translation elongation factor 1α sequence data. The South African isolates from kikuyu identified as members of the F. incarnatum/F. equiseti species complex grouped together in six separate clades. The other isolates were Fusarium culmorum (n = 3), Fusarium redolens (n = 4) and Fusarium oxysporum (n = 15). Although F. torulosum could not be isolated from P. clandestinum collected during kikuyu poisoning outbreaks in South Africa, the mycotoxicosis theory is still highly plausible.

  14. "The Toughest of Chores": Policy and Practice in Children Collecting Water in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemson, David

    2007-01-01

    The child has an elevated position within national policy in South Africa. This concern for children has been translated in varying degrees into policy, particularly in relation to child labour. Internationally there is concern that forms of child work should not impede the development of the child, particularly in health and education. Research…

  15. 'Deadly gonorrhoea': history, collective memory and early HIV epidemiology in East Central Africa.

    PubMed

    Kuhanen, Jan

    2015-01-01

    This article combines local oral reminiscences with recent epidemiological literature to sketch a historical context around the onset and expansion of the HIV-1 epidemic in southern Uganda and north-western Tanzania. The local historical imagination has associated the appearance of AIDS in two ways. First, with specific socio-economic structures and circumstances common in the region since the 1960s and their enhancement during the 1970s due to economic changes at national and global levels. Second, the epidemic is associated with changes in the epidemiological situation. Local perspectives are supported by recent phylogenetic research and circumstantial historical evidence, on the basis of which a hypothesis on the expansion of HIV-1 in East Central Africa (southern Uganda, north-western Tanzania, Rwanda) is presented.

  16. The history and composition of the Raymond A. Dart Collection of Human Skeletons at the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Dayal, Manisha R; Kegley, Anthony D T; Strkalj, Goran; Bidmos, Mubarak A; Kuykendall, Kevin L

    2009-10-01

    The Raymond A. Dart Collection of Human Skeletons (Dart Collection) is housed in the School of Anatomical Sciences at the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa, and comprises one of the largest documented cadaver-derived human skeletal assemblages in the world. This collection originated in the early 1920s as a result of the efforts of Raymond Dart and continues to grow. The skeletons included represent varied indigenous and immigrant populations from southern Africa, Europe and Asia. This contribution documents the history of the collection and provides an updated inventory and demographic assessment of this valuable research collection. According to a recent inventory the Dart Collection currently comprises 2,605 skeletons representing individuals from regional SA African (76%), White (15%), Coloured (4%) and Indian (0.3%) populations. A large proportion of the skeletons (71%) represent males. The recorded ages at death range from the first year to over 100 years of age, but the majority of individuals died between the ages of 20 and 70. The Dart Collection has been affected by collection procedures based on availability. All of the cadavers collected before 1958, and large proportions subsequently, were derived from unclaimed bodies in regional South African hospitals. Some details of documentation (age at death, population group) are estimates and some aspects of the collection demographics (sex ratios) do not closely reflect any living South African population. Our inventory and analysis of the Dart Collection is aimed to assist researchers planning research on the materials from this collection.

  17. The river basin game as a tool for collective water management at community level in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magombeyi, M. S.; Rollin, D.; Lankford, B.

    Water scarcity in semi-arid catchments presents challenges on achieving equitable sharing of available water resources and avoiding social tensions among small-holder farmers. This paper explores the implementation of a river basin game as a tool to facilitate negotiations and rules of equal access among upstream and downstream irrigation water users in Ga-Sekororo, Olifants river basin in South Africa. The various stages of the game playing methodology are presented in a progressive manner and the outcomes are discussed. Through the application of this game, farmers were able to better relate to their catchment and accepted the board’s schematic representation of their reality. They were able to understand top-tail inequities of water supply and to appreciate that solutions lie in the community. The coming together of the small-holder farmers to share knowledge and set agreements on equitable water sharing results in higher benefits such as community harmony, transparency, acceptance of operating rules and improved knowledge to the community as a whole. The collective negotiation exercise produces more acceptable water allocation rules, thereby improving the security of water supply to the irrigation schemes. The paper concludes that local level management of tensions and conflicts through participation as facilitated by the river basin games can be sustainable provided there is proactive support from higher level institutions such as water committees, government and research.

  18. Acceptability and Accuracy of Cervical Cancer Screening Using a Self-Collected Tampon for HPV Messenger-RNA Testing among HIV-Infected Women in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Adamson, Paul C.; Huchko, Megan J.; Moss, Alison M.; Kinkel, Hans F.; Medina-Marino, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Background HIV increases women’s risk for high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) infection and invasive cervical cancer. South Africa has a high HIV prevalence but low cervical cancer screening coverage. Self-collection of cervical specimens and hrHPV testing, including hrHPV messenger-RNA (mRNA) testing, are methods aimed at increasing screening rates. However, data are limited on the acceptability and accuracy of tampon-based self-collection for hrHPV mRNA testing in HIV-infected women. Methods We recruited 325 HIV-infected women seeking care at a government HIV clinic in Pretoria, South Africa. A clinician performed a pelvic examination and obtained an endocervical specimen. Study participants performed self-collection using a tampon. Both clinician- and self-collected specimens were tested for hrHPV mRNA. Acceptability of both collection methods was assessed, the prevalence of hrHPV mRNA in our study population was estimated, test positivity of the two collection methods were compared, and test agreement was assessed by calculating the κ-statistic, sensitivity, and specificity. Results Over 90% of women reported no difficulties self-collecting specimens and 82% were willing to perform the tampon-collection at home. Based on clinician-collection specimens, the prevalence of hrHPV mRNA in our study population was 36.7% (95% CI: 31.4%– 42.0%). There was no difference in test positivity between clinician-collection, 36.7%, and tampon-collection, 43.5% (p-value = 0.08). Using clinician-collection as the reference test, the sensitivity and specificity for hrHPV mRNA of tampon-collection were 77.4% (95% CI: 69.8–85.0%) and 77.8% (95% CI: 71.9–83.6%), respectively. Conclusions Tampon-based self-collection is acceptable to women and has similar hrHPV mRNA positivity rates as clinician-collection, but has reduced sensitivity and specificity compared to clinician-collection. The hrHPV mRNA prevalence in our study population is high, but similar to other high

  19. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) collected from animals in three western, semi-arid nature reserves in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Golezardy, H; Horak, I G

    2007-03-01

    The objective of this study was to make an inventory of the ixodid tick species infesting wild animals in three western, semi-arid nature reserves in South Africa. To this end 22 animals in the Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park, 10 in the West Coast National Park and 16 in the Karoo National Park were examined. Fourteen tick species were recovered, of which Hyalomma truncatum, Rhipicephalus exophthalmos and Rhipicephalus glabroscutatum were each present in two reserves and the remainder only in one. The distributions of two of the 14 tick species recovered, namely Rhipicephalus capensis and Rhipicephalus neumanni, are virtually confined to the western semi-arid regions of southern Africa. Hyalomma truncatum, R. capensis and R. glabroscutatum were the most numerous of the ticks recovered, and eland, Taurotragus oryx, were the most heavily infested with the former two species and gemsbok, Oryx gazella, and mountain reedbuck, Redunca fulvorufula, with R. glabroscutatum. PMID:17708155

  20. Agreement between self- and clinician-collected specimen results for detection and typing of high-risk human papillomavirus in specimens from women in Gugulethu, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Jones, Heidi E; Allan, Bruce R; van de Wijgert, Janneke H H M; Altini, Lydia; Taylor, Sylvia M; de Kock, Alana; Coetzee, Nicol; Williamson, Anna-Lise

    2007-06-01

    We assessed the agreement in detection of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV), as well as specific HPV types, between self- and clinician-obtained specimens for 450 women over 18 years of age attending a community health center in Gugulethu, South Africa. Both self-collected swabs and tampons had high agreement with clinician-obtained brushes when the Roche Reverse Line Blot Assay (RLBA) was used (for swabs, 86% concordance, with a kappa statistic [kappa] of 0.71; for tampons, 89% concordance, with kappa of 0.75). Agreement was lower, although still fair, with the Digene Hybrid Capture 2 test (HC2), with kappa higher for swabs than for tampons (for swabs, 81% concordance, with kappa of 0.61; for tampons, 82% concordance, with kappa of 0.55). Low-risk HPV types were nearly two times more common in self-collected specimens than in clinician-collected specimens tested by RLBA. All 15 women diagnosed with high-grade lesions by cytology tested positive for high-risk HPV with clinician-collected specimens tested by RLBA and HC2, while 11 out of 15 tested positive with self-collected specimens by HC2 and 5 out of 6 tested positive by RLBA. Self-collected specimens can provide valid specimens for HPV testing using nucleic acid amplification tests, although a few cytological abnormalities may be missed.

  1. Biomedical Research Ethics Committees in sub-Saharan Africa: a collective review of their structure, functioning, and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Silaigwana, Blessing; Wassenaar, Douglas

    2015-04-01

    Research Ethics Committees (RECs) are mandated to protect human participants by conducting ethical reviews of biomedical research. To date, there is a dearth of information on the structure, functioning, and outcomes of RECs in Africa. This article reviews empirical studies investigating African RECs, with the aim of providing an overview of what is known and identifying gaps in our knowledge. We conducted a literature search of the EBSCO, PubMed, and Google Scholar electronic databases. Twenty-three empirical studies reporting on the structure, functions, and outcomes of African RECs were included in our analysis. The review yielded limited systematic data on RECs in Africa. Available empirical evidence suggests that challenges hampering the effective functioning of RECs included lack of membership diversity, scarcity of resources, insufficient training of members, inadequate capacity to review and monitor studies, and lack of national ethics guidelines and accreditation. Relatively little data on the review outcomes of African RECs were described. There is an ongoing need for concerted efforts from various stakeholders to support capacity development and enhancement of African RECs.

  2. Language in South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mesthrie, Rajend, Ed.

    This collection of 24 papers focuses on language and society in South Africa. Part 1, "The Main Language Groupings," includes (1) "South Africa: A Sociolinguistic Overview" (R. Mesthrie); (2) "The Khoesan Languages" (A. Traill); (3) "The Bantu Languages: Sociohistorical Perspectives" (Robert K. Herbert and Richard Bailey); (4) "Afrikaans:…

  3. On some sea cucumbers (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea) from off the south and west coasts of South Africa collected by the South African Environmental and Observation Network (SAEON).

    PubMed

    Thandar, Ahmed S; Rambaran, Ryan

    2015-08-07

    Twenty four specimens of holothuroids recently received from the South African Environmental and Observation Network (SAEON), collected from off the south and west coasts of South Africa, are herein recorded and/or described. The specimens comprise eight nominal and one indeterminate species and represent both shallow-water and deep-sea forms, distributed from Plettenberg Bay to just north of Lambert's Bay in the Western Cape Province. There are no new species but two new records for the South African region and extensions of horizontal and bathymetric distributions of the other species. Additions to the South African fauna are Zygothuria lactea (Théel, 1886) and Synallactes cf. challengeri (Théel, 1886). The paper also contains the first definite record of Thyone venusta Selenka, 1868, originally described from the Red Sea. Distribution ranges of the following species have been altered Synallactes viridilimus Cherbonnier, 1952; S. mollis Cherbonnier, 1952 and Psuedostichopus langeae Thandar, 2009.

  4. Collecting Maternal Health Information From HIV-Positive Pregnant Women Using Mobile Phone-Assisted Face-to-Face Interviews in Southern Africa

    PubMed Central

    Norris, Shane; Tollman, Stephen; Richter, Linda; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane

    2013-01-01

    Background Most of the world’s women living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) reside in sub-Saharan Africa. Although efforts to reduce mother-to-child transmission are underway, obtaining complete and accurate data from rural clinical sites to track progress presents a major challenge. Objective To describe the acceptability and feasibility of mobile phones as a tool for clinic-based face-to-face data collection with pregnant women living with HIV in South Africa. Methods As part of a larger clinic-based trial, 16 interviewers were trained to conduct mobile phone–assisted personal interviews (MPAPI). These interviewers (participant group 1) completed the same short questionnaire based on items from the Technology Acceptance Model at 3 different time points. Questions were asked before training, after training, and 3 months after deployment to clinic facilities. In addition, before the start of the primary intervention trial in which this substudy was undertaken, 12 mothers living with HIV (MLH) took part in a focus group discussion exploring the acceptability of MPAPI (participant group 2). Finally, a sample of MLH (n=512) enrolled in the primary trial were asked to assess their experience of being interviewed by MPAPI (participant group 3). Results Acceptability of the method was found to be high among the 16 interviewers in group 1. Perceived usefulness was reported to be slightly higher than perceived ease of use across the 3 time points. After 3 months of field use, interviewer perceptions of both perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness were found to be higher than before training. The feasibility of conducting MPAPI interviews in this setting was found to be high. Network coverage was available in all clinics and hardware, software, cost, and secure transmission to the data center presented no significant challenges over the 21-month period. For the 12 MHL participants in group 2, anxiety about the multimedia capabilities of the phone was

  5. Influence of carbon dioxide on numbers of Culicoides midges collected with suction light traps in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Venter, G J; Boikanyo, S N B; Majatladi, D M; Morey, L

    2016-03-01

    To implement risk management against diseases transmitted by species of Culicoides Latreille, 1809 (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), it is essential to identify all potential vectors. Light traps are the most commonly used tool for the collection of Culicoides midges. Given the indiscriminate artificial attraction of light, traps will collect all night-flying insects rather than only livestock-associated Culicoides midges. Factors that may increase the efficacy of traps, especially for livestock-associated Culicoides midges, require investigation. In the present study, results obtained with Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and Onderstepoort light traps baited with carbon dioxide (CO2 ) were compared with those of unbaited controls. Comparisons were made using two replicates of a 4 × 4 randomized Latin square design. With both trap types, the mean numbers of Culicoides midges collected in 16 baited traps were higher than those caught in 16 unbaited traps. Although exceptionally low numbers were collected with the CDC traps, the increases in the numbers and frequency of collection of Culicoides imicola Kieffer, 1913 were more pronounced in the CDC traps compared with the Onderstepoort traps. These results indicate that the addition of CO2 may increase the efficiency of these traps for the collection of C. imicola and other livestock-associated Culicoides species. PMID:26522279

  6. Biowaste separate collection and composting in a Small Island Developing State: The case study of São Tomé and Principe, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Vaz, João M; Ferreira, José S; Dias-Ferreira, Celia

    2015-12-01

    São Tomé and Principe archipelago in West Africa is a Small Island Developing State facing acute waste management problems. This article describes the implementation of selective collection of biowaste combined with composting in São Tomé, as a case-study of an innovative action in the framework of a Small Island Developing State. Collection was designed to gather 225 t y(-1), targeting non-domestic biowaste producers, namely local businesses, municipal markets and municipal green waste. A municipal composting plant was built using basic facilities and windrow composting. The total investment amounted to €50,000, mainly supported by external aid. Biowaste producers reacted very positively, source segregating enthusiastically. Irregular service - collection collapsed each time the old vehicle was repaired - together with political disengagement and unmotivated work force were the major constrains. Biowaste was intermittently delivered to the composting plant and yielded 2 t of compost from July to December 2013 and 10 t during 2014. Compost was sold as organic fertiliser to a touristic resource, to small farmers and to gardeners, at a market price slightly below production costs, meaning the process is not economically sustainable without support. Nevertheless, biowaste is one of the few waste fractions (other than glass) that can be turned into a product that has both market value and a real demand, showing the enormous potential of composting source-separated biowaste in this part of the world. PMID:26526021

  7. Biowaste separate collection and composting in a Small Island Developing State: The case study of São Tomé and Principe, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Vaz, João M; Ferreira, José S; Dias-Ferreira, Celia

    2015-12-01

    São Tomé and Principe archipelago in West Africa is a Small Island Developing State facing acute waste management problems. This article describes the implementation of selective collection of biowaste combined with composting in São Tomé, as a case-study of an innovative action in the framework of a Small Island Developing State. Collection was designed to gather 225 t y(-1), targeting non-domestic biowaste producers, namely local businesses, municipal markets and municipal green waste. A municipal composting plant was built using basic facilities and windrow composting. The total investment amounted to €50,000, mainly supported by external aid. Biowaste producers reacted very positively, source segregating enthusiastically. Irregular service - collection collapsed each time the old vehicle was repaired - together with political disengagement and unmotivated work force were the major constrains. Biowaste was intermittently delivered to the composting plant and yielded 2 t of compost from July to December 2013 and 10 t during 2014. Compost was sold as organic fertiliser to a touristic resource, to small farmers and to gardeners, at a market price slightly below production costs, meaning the process is not economically sustainable without support. Nevertheless, biowaste is one of the few waste fractions (other than glass) that can be turned into a product that has both market value and a real demand, showing the enormous potential of composting source-separated biowaste in this part of the world.

  8. Whole genome detection of rotavirus mixed infections in human, porcine and bovine samples co-infected with various rotavirus strains collected from sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Nyaga, Martin M; Jere, Khuzwayo C; Esona, Mathew D; Seheri, Mapaseka L; Stucker, Karla M; Halpin, Rebecca A; Akopov, Asmik; Stockwell, Timothy B; Peenze, Ina; Diop, Amadou; Ndiaye, Kader; Boula, Angeline; Maphalala, Gugu; Berejena, Chipo; Mwenda, Jason M; Steele, A Duncan; Wentworth, David E; Mphahlele, M Jeffrey

    2015-04-01

    Group A rotaviruses (RVA) are among the main global causes of severe diarrhea in children under the age of 5years. Strain diversity, mixed infections and untypeable RVA strains are frequently reported in Africa. We analysed rotavirus-positive human stool samples (n=13) obtained from hospitalised children under the age of 5years who presented with acute gastroenteritis at sentinel hospital sites in six African countries, as well as bovine and porcine stool samples (n=1 each), to gain insights into rotavirus diversity and evolution. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) analysis and genotyping with G-(VP7) and P-specific (VP4) typing primers suggested that 13 of the 15 samples contained more than 11 segments and/or mixed G/P genotypes. Full-length amplicons for each segment were generated using RVA-specific primers and sequenced using the Ion Torrent and/or Illumina MiSeq next-generation sequencing platforms. Sequencing detected at least one segment in each sample for which duplicate sequences, often having distinct genotypes, existed. This supported and extended the PAGE and RT-PCR genotyping findings that suggested these samples were collected from individuals that had mixed rotavirus infections. The study reports the first porcine (MRC-DPRU1567) and bovine (MRC-DPRU3010) mixed infections. We also report a unique genome segment 9 (VP7), whose G9 genotype belongs to lineage VI and clusters with porcine reference strains. Previously, African G9 strains have all been in lineage III. Furthermore, additional RVA segments isolated from humans have a clear evolutionary relationship with porcine, bovine and ovine rotavirus sequences, indicating relatively recent interspecies transmission and reassortment. Thus, multiple RVA strains from sub-Saharan Africa are infecting mammalian hosts with unpredictable variations in their gene segment combinations. Whole-genome sequence analyses of mixed RVA strains underscore the considerable diversity of rotavirus sequences and

  9. Whole genome detection of rotavirus mixed infections in human, porcine and bovine samples co-infected with various rotavirus strains collected from sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Nyaga, Martin M.; Jere, Khuzwayo C.; Esona, Mathew D.; Seheri, Mapaseka L.; Stucker, Karla M.; Halpin, Rebecca A.; Akopov, Asmik; Stockwell, Timothy B.; Peenze, Ina; Diop, Amadou; Ndiaye, Kader; Boula, Angeline; Maphalala, Gugu; Berejena, Chipo; Mwenda, Jason M.; Steele, A. Duncan; Wentworth, David E.; Mphahlele, M. Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Group A rotaviruses (RVA) are among the main global causes of severe diarrhea in children under the age of 5 years. Strain diversity, mixed infections and untypeable RVA strains are frequently reported in Africa. We analysed rotavirus-positive human stool samples (n=13) obtained from hospitalised children under the age of 5 years who presented with acute gastroenteritis at sentinel hospital sites in six African countries, as well as bovine and porcine stool samples (n=1 each), to gain insights into rotavirus diversity and evolution. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) analysis and genotyping with G- (VP7) and P-specific (VP4) typing primers suggested that 13 of the 15 samples contained more than 11 segments and/or mixed G/P genotypes. Full-length amplicons for each segment were generated using RVA-specific primers and sequenced using the Ion Torrent and/or Illumina MiSeq next-generation sequencing platforms. Sequencing detected at least one segment in each sample for which duplicate sequences, often having distinct genotypes, existed. This supported and extended the PAGE and RT-PCR genotyping findings that suggested these samples were collected from individuals that had mixed rotavirus infections. The study reports the first porcine (MRC-DPRU1567) and bovine (MRC-DPRU3010) mixed infections. We also report a unique genome segment 9 (VP7), whose G9 genotype belongs to lineage VI and clusters with porcine reference strains. Previously, African G9 strains have all been in lineage III. Furthermore, additional RVA segments isolated from humans have a clear evolutionary relationship with porcine, bovine and ovine rotavirus sequences, indicating relatively recent interspecies transmission and reassortment. Thus, multiple RVA strains from sub-Saharan Africa are infecting mammalian hosts with unpredictable variations in their gene segment combinations. Whole-genome sequence analyses of mixed RVA strains underscore the considerable diversity of rotavirus sequences and

  10. Whole genome detection of rotavirus mixed infections in human, porcine and bovine samples co-infected with various rotavirus strains collected from sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Nyaga, Martin M; Jere, Khuzwayo C; Esona, Mathew D; Seheri, Mapaseka L; Stucker, Karla M; Halpin, Rebecca A; Akopov, Asmik; Stockwell, Timothy B; Peenze, Ina; Diop, Amadou; Ndiaye, Kader; Boula, Angeline; Maphalala, Gugu; Berejena, Chipo; Mwenda, Jason M; Steele, A Duncan; Wentworth, David E; Mphahlele, M Jeffrey

    2015-04-01

    Group A rotaviruses (RVA) are among the main global causes of severe diarrhea in children under the age of 5years. Strain diversity, mixed infections and untypeable RVA strains are frequently reported in Africa. We analysed rotavirus-positive human stool samples (n=13) obtained from hospitalised children under the age of 5years who presented with acute gastroenteritis at sentinel hospital sites in six African countries, as well as bovine and porcine stool samples (n=1 each), to gain insights into rotavirus diversity and evolution. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) analysis and genotyping with G-(VP7) and P-specific (VP4) typing primers suggested that 13 of the 15 samples contained more than 11 segments and/or mixed G/P genotypes. Full-length amplicons for each segment were generated using RVA-specific primers and sequenced using the Ion Torrent and/or Illumina MiSeq next-generation sequencing platforms. Sequencing detected at least one segment in each sample for which duplicate sequences, often having distinct genotypes, existed. This supported and extended the PAGE and RT-PCR genotyping findings that suggested these samples were collected from individuals that had mixed rotavirus infections. The study reports the first porcine (MRC-DPRU1567) and bovine (MRC-DPRU3010) mixed infections. We also report a unique genome segment 9 (VP7), whose G9 genotype belongs to lineage VI and clusters with porcine reference strains. Previously, African G9 strains have all been in lineage III. Furthermore, additional RVA segments isolated from humans have a clear evolutionary relationship with porcine, bovine and ovine rotavirus sequences, indicating relatively recent interspecies transmission and reassortment. Thus, multiple RVA strains from sub-Saharan Africa are infecting mammalian hosts with unpredictable variations in their gene segment combinations. Whole-genome sequence analyses of mixed RVA strains underscore the considerable diversity of rotavirus sequences and

  11. Southern Africa

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Southern Africa     View larger JPEG image ... visibility of smoke plumes and haze. The southern tip of South Africa is at the bottom of the image, and Zambia is at the top. ... MISR Team. Aug 25, 2000 - South Africa to Zambia including the Okavango Delta. project:  ...

  12. Successful Implementation of a Multicountry Clinical Surveillance and Data Collection System for Ebola Virus Disease in West Africa: Findings and Lessons Learned

    PubMed Central

    Roshania, Reshma; Mallow, Michaela; Dunbar, Nelson; Mansary, David; Shetty, Pranav; Lyon, Taralyn; Pham, Kacey; Abad, Matthew; Shedd, Erin; Tran, Anh-Minh A; Cundy, Sarah; Levine, Adam C

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: The 2014 outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa was the largest ever recorded. Starting in September 2014, International Medical Corps (IMC) managed 5 Ebola treatment units (ETUs) in Liberia and Sierra Leone, which cumulatively cared for about 2,500 patients. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patient data collected at the 5 ETUs over 1 year of operations. Methods: To collect clinical and epidemiological data from the patient care areas, each chart was either manually copied across the fence between the high-risk zone and low-risk zone, imaged across the fence, or imaged in the high-risk zone. Each ETU’s data were entered into a separate electronic database, and these were later combined into a single relational database. Lot quality assurance sampling was used to ensure data quality, with reentry of data with high error rates from imaged records. Results: The IMC database contains records on 2,768 patient presentations, including 2,351 patient admissions with full follow-up data. Of the patients admitted, 470 (20.0%) tested positive for EVD, with an overall case fatality ratio (CFR) of 57.0% for EVD-positive patients and 8.1% for EVD-negative patients. Although more men were admitted than women (53.4% vs. 46.6%), a larger proportion of women were diagnosed EVD positive (25.6% vs. 15.2%). Diarrhea, red eyes, contact with an ill person, and funeral attendance were significantly more common in patients with EVD than in those with other diagnoses. Among EVD-positive patients, age was a significant predictor of mortality: the highest CFRs were among children under 5 (89.1%) and adults over 55 (71.4%). Discussion: While several prior reports have documented the experiences of individual ETUs, this study is the first to present data from multiple ETUs across 2 countries run by the same organization with similar clinical protocols. Our experience demonstrates that even in austere settings under difficult conditions, it is

  13. Photomontage. Water in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKoski, David

    The Water in Africa Project was realized over a 2-year period by a team of Peace Corps volunteers. As part of an expanded, detailed design, resources were collected from over 90 volunteers serving in African countries, photos and stories were prepared, and standards-based learning units were created for K-12 students. This unit, "Photomontage,"…

  14. Topical Research: Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynn, Karen

    This lesson plan can be used in social studies, language arts, or library research. The instructional objective is for students to select a topic of study relating to Africa, write a thesis statement, collect information from media sources, and develop a conclusion. The teacher may assign the lesson for written or oral evaluation. The teacher…

  15. Africa and Applied Linguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makoni, Sinfree, Ed.; Meinhof, Ulrike H., Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This collection of articles includes: "Introducing Applied Linguistics in Africa" (Sinfree Makoni and Ulrike H. Meinhof); "Language Ideology and Politics: A Critical Appraisal of French as Second Official Language in Nigeria" (Tope Omoniyi); "The Democratisation of Indigenous Languages: The Case of Malawi" (Themba Moyo); "Classroom Code-Switching…

  16. Hantaviruses in Africa.

    PubMed

    Witkowski, Peter T; Klempa, Boris; Ithete, Ndapewa L; Auste, Brita; Mfune, John K E; Hoveka, Julia; Matthee, Sonja; Preiser, Wolfgang; Kruger, Detlev H

    2014-07-17

    This paper summarizes the progress in the search for hantaviruses and hantavirus infections in Africa. After having collected molecular evidence of an indigenous African hantavirus in 2006, an intensive investigation for new hantaviruses has been started in small mammals. Various novel hantaviruses have been molecularly identified not only in rodents but also in shrews and bats. In addition, the first African hantavirus, Sangassou virus, has been isolated and functionally characterized in cell culture. Less is known about the ability of these hantaviruses to infect humans and to cause diseases. To date, no hantavirus genetic material could be amplified from patients' specimens collected in Africa. Serological studies in West Africa, based on a battery of screening and confirmatory assays, led to the detection of hantavirus antibodies in the human population and in patients with putative hantavirus disease. In addition to this overview, we present original data from seroepidemiological and field studies conducted in the Southern part of Africa. A human seroprevalence rate of 1.0% (n=1442) was detected in the South African Cape Region whereas no molecular evidence for the presence of hantavirus was found in 2500 small animals trapped in South Africa and Namibia.

  17. Hantaviruses in Africa.

    PubMed

    Witkowski, Peter T; Klempa, Boris; Ithete, Ndapewa L; Auste, Brita; Mfune, John K E; Hoveka, Julia; Matthee, Sonja; Preiser, Wolfgang; Kruger, Detlev H

    2014-07-17

    This paper summarizes the progress in the search for hantaviruses and hantavirus infections in Africa. After having collected molecular evidence of an indigenous African hantavirus in 2006, an intensive investigation for new hantaviruses has been started in small mammals. Various novel hantaviruses have been molecularly identified not only in rodents but also in shrews and bats. In addition, the first African hantavirus, Sangassou virus, has been isolated and functionally characterized in cell culture. Less is known about the ability of these hantaviruses to infect humans and to cause diseases. To date, no hantavirus genetic material could be amplified from patients' specimens collected in Africa. Serological studies in West Africa, based on a battery of screening and confirmatory assays, led to the detection of hantavirus antibodies in the human population and in patients with putative hantavirus disease. In addition to this overview, we present original data from seroepidemiological and field studies conducted in the Southern part of Africa. A human seroprevalence rate of 1.0% (n=1442) was detected in the South African Cape Region whereas no molecular evidence for the presence of hantavirus was found in 2500 small animals trapped in South Africa and Namibia. PMID:24406800

  18. West Africa

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... article title:  Hazy and Dusty Skies over Western Africa     View Larger Image ... the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude. These data products were generated from a portion of the ...

  19. South Africa

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Red Tide Strands South African Rock Lobsters     ... and on atmospheric and oceanic conditions. At Elands Bay in South Africa's Western Cape province, about 1000 tons of rock lobsters beached ...

  20. Bilateral asymmetry in certain morphological characters of Sarotherodon melanotheron Rüppell 1852 and Coptodon guineensis (Günther 1862) collected from Lake Ahémé and Porto-Novo Lagoon Bénin, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Jawad, Laith; Gnohossou, Pierre; Tossou, Ayoko Géraldine

    2016-02-15

    Asymmetry analysis was carried out for three bilateral characters of two cichlid fish species, Sarotherodon melanotheron and Coptodon guineensis collected from two localities, Lake Ahémé and Porto-Novo lagoon, Republic of Bénin, West Africa. For both S. melanotheron and C. guineensis snout length (SL), eye diameter (ED) and number of scales on lateral line (LLS), bilateral asymmetry was higher in the fish specimens collected from Porto-Novo lagoon compared with that of specimens from Lake Ahémé. Bilateral asymmetry in S. melanotheron and C. guineensis increased with the fish size at all localities. The possible causes of bilateral asymmetry in the two cichlid species are discussed in relation to different pollutants in both water bodies.

  1. South Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image of South Africa was acquired on May 14, 2000, by NASA's Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, or MODIS. The image was produced using a combination of the sensor's 250-m and 500-m resolution visible wavelength bands. As part of the opening ceremony to begin the joint U.S.-South Africa SAFARI Field Experiment, NASA presented print copies of this image as GIFts to Dr. Ben Ngubane, Minister of Arts, Science and Technology, and Honorable Advocate Ngoaka Ramathlodi, Premier of the Northern Province, South Africa. The area shown in this image encompasses seven capital cities and a number of the region's distinctive geological features can be seen clearly. Toward the northern (top) central part of the image, the browns and tans comprise the Kalahari Desert of southern Botswana. The Tropic of Capricorn runs right through the heart of the Kalahari and the Botswanan capital city of Gaborone sits on the Limpopo River, southeast of the Kalahari. Along the western coastline of the continent is the country of Namibia, where the Namib Desert is framed against the sea by the Kaokoveld Mountains. The Namibian capital of Windhoek is obscured by clouds. Looking closely in the center of the image, the Orange River can be seen running from east to west, demarcating the boundary between Namibia and South Africa. On the southwestern corner of the continent is the hook-like Cape of Good Hope peninsula and Cape Town, the parliamentary capital of South Africa. Running west to east away from Cape Town are the Great Karroo Mountains. The shadow in this image conveys a sense of the very steep grade of the cliffs along the southern coast of South Africa. Port Elizabeth sits on the southeasternmost point of South Africa, and a large phytoplankton bloom can be seen in the water about 100 miles east of there. Moving northward along the east coast, the Drakensberg Mountains are visible. The two small nations of Lesotho and Swaziland are in this region, completely

  2. Scolopendromorph centipedes (Chilopoda: colopendromorpha) in the Natural History Museum (London): a review of the hitherto unidentified species collected in Africa, with remarks on taxonomy and distribution, and a new species of Otostigmus (Parotostigmus).

    PubMed

    Simaiakis, Stylianos Michail; Edgecombe, Gregory D

    2013-11-06

    The collection of centipedes in the Natural History Museum (NHM) in London is one of the most taxonomically and geographically complete in the world. Type material includes many species described by William Leach, George Newport, and especially Reginald I. Pocock. The present paper provides a survey of previously unidentified centipedes in the collections in the NHM, and is focused on scolopendromorph specimens collected during expeditions to Africa between 1892 and 1967. It deals with material gathered in numerous regions, provinces and islands across the African continent, mainly by British naturalists. Species of the genera Alipes Imhoff, 1854, Asanada Meinert, 1886, Cormocephalus Newport, 1844, Cryptops Leach, 1815, Ethmostigmus Pocock, 1898, Otostigmus Porat, 1876, Rhysida Wood, 1862, Scolopendra Linnaeus, 1758 and Scolopocryptops Newport, 1844, were examined. A total of 32 species and subspecies are identified, one of which, is described as new: Otostigmus (Parotostigmus) coltellus n. sp., from São Tome, while many of them are new to the fauna of certain African regions/countries. The syntypes of Otostigmus (Parotostigmus) productus Karsch, 1888, include two species, one of which is O. (P.) coltellus; a lectotype is selected to stabilize the name. Cormocephalus westwoodi anceps and Rhysida lithobioides paucidens have been returned to specific rank.

  3. West Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    With its vast expanses of sand, framed by mountain ranges and exposed rock, northwestern Africa makes a pretty picture when viewed from above. This image was acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The Canary Islands can be seen on the left side of the image just off Africa's Atlantic shore. The light brown expanse running through the northern two thirds of the image is the Sahara Desert. The desert runs up against the dark brown Haut Atlas mountain range of Morocco in the northwest, the Atlantic Ocean to the west and the semi-arid (light brown pixels) Sahelian region in the South. The Sahara, however, isn't staying put. Since the 1960s, the desert has been expanding into the Sahelian region at a rate of up to 6 kilometers per year. In the 1980s this desert expansion, combined with over cultivation of the Sahel, caused a major famine across west Africa. Over the summer months, strong winds pick up sands from the Sahara and blow them across the Atlantic as far west as North America, causing air pollution in Miami and damaging coral reefs in the Bahamas and the Florida Keys. The white outlines on the map represent country borders. Starting at the top-most portion of the map and working clockwise, the countries shown are Morocco, Western Sahara, Mauritania, Senegal, Mali, Burkina Fasso, Nigeria, Mali (again), and Algeria. Image by Reto Stockli, Robert Simmon, and Brian Montgomery, NASA Earth Observatory, based on data from MODIS

  4. Madagascar Adventure. Water in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abernathy-Tabor, Michelle

    The Water in Africa Project was realized over a 2-year period by a team of Peace Corps volunteers, World Wise Schools (WWS) classroom teachers, and WWS staff members. As part of an expanded, detailed design, resources were collected from over 90 volunteers serving in African countries, photos and stories were prepared, and standards-based learning…

  5. Water Pressure. Water in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Carly Sporer

    The Water in Africa Project was realized over a 2-year period by a team of Peace Corps volunteers. As part of an expanded, detailed design, resources were collected from over 90 volunteers serving in African countries, photos and stories were prepared, and standards-based learning units were created for K-12 students. This unit, "Water Pressure,"…

  6. Narrative Cartoons. Water in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKoski, David

    The Water in Africa Project was realized over a 2-year period by a team of Peace Corps volunteers, World Wise Schools (WWS) classroom teachers, and WWS staff members. As part of an expanded, detailed design, resources were collected from over 90 volunteers serving in African countries, photos and stories were prepared, and standards-based learning…

  7. When Are Mobile Phones Useful for Water Quality Data Collection? An Analysis of Data Flows and ICT Applications among Regulated Monitoring Institutions in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Kumpel, Emily; Peletz, Rachel; Bonham, Mateyo; Fay, Annette; Cock-Esteb, Alicea; Khush, Ranjiv

    2015-09-02

    Water quality monitoring is important for identifying public health risks and ensuring water safety. However, even when water sources are tested, many institutions struggle to access data for immediate action or long-term decision-making. We analyzed water testing structures among 26 regulated water suppliers and public health surveillance agencies across six African countries and identified four water quality data management typologies. Within each typology, we then analyzed the potential for information and communication technology (ICT) tools to facilitate water quality information flows. A consistent feature of all four typologies was that testing activities occurred in laboratories or offices, not at water sources; therefore, mobile phone-based data management may be most beneficial for institutions that collect data from multiple remote laboratories. We implemented a mobile phone application to facilitate water quality data collection within the national public health agency in Senegal, Service National de l'Hygiène. Our results indicate that using the phones to transmit more than just water quality data will likely improve the effectiveness and sustainability of this type of intervention. We conclude that an assessment of program structure, particularly its data flows, provides a sound starting point for understanding the extent to which ICTs might strengthen water quality monitoring efforts.

  8. When Are Mobile Phones Useful for Water Quality Data Collection? An Analysis of Data Flows and ICT Applications among Regulated Monitoring Institutions in Sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Kumpel, Emily; Peletz, Rachel; Bonham, Mateyo; Fay, Annette; Cock-Esteb, Alicea; Khush, Ranjiv

    2015-01-01

    Water quality monitoring is important for identifying public health risks and ensuring water safety. However, even when water sources are tested, many institutions struggle to access data for immediate action or long-term decision-making. We analyzed water testing structures among 26 regulated water suppliers and public health surveillance agencies across six African countries and identified four water quality data management typologies. Within each typology, we then analyzed the potential for information and communication technology (ICT) tools to facilitate water quality information flows. A consistent feature of all four typologies was that testing activities occurred in laboratories or offices, not at water sources; therefore, mobile phone-based data management may be most beneficial for institutions that collect data from multiple remote laboratories. We implemented a mobile phone application to facilitate water quality data collection within the national public health agency in Senegal, Service National de l’Hygiène. Our results indicate that using the phones to transmit more than just water quality data will likely improve the effectiveness and sustainability of this type of intervention. We conclude that an assessment of program structure, particularly its data flows, provides a sound starting point for understanding the extent to which ICTs might strengthen water quality monitoring efforts. PMID:26404343

  9. When Are Mobile Phones Useful for Water Quality Data Collection? An Analysis of Data Flows and ICT Applications among Regulated Monitoring Institutions in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Kumpel, Emily; Peletz, Rachel; Bonham, Mateyo; Fay, Annette; Cock-Esteb, Alicea; Khush, Ranjiv

    2015-09-01

    Water quality monitoring is important for identifying public health risks and ensuring water safety. However, even when water sources are tested, many institutions struggle to access data for immediate action or long-term decision-making. We analyzed water testing structures among 26 regulated water suppliers and public health surveillance agencies across six African countries and identified four water quality data management typologies. Within each typology, we then analyzed the potential for information and communication technology (ICT) tools to facilitate water quality information flows. A consistent feature of all four typologies was that testing activities occurred in laboratories or offices, not at water sources; therefore, mobile phone-based data management may be most beneficial for institutions that collect data from multiple remote laboratories. We implemented a mobile phone application to facilitate water quality data collection within the national public health agency in Senegal, Service National de l'Hygiène. Our results indicate that using the phones to transmit more than just water quality data will likely improve the effectiveness and sustainability of this type of intervention. We conclude that an assessment of program structure, particularly its data flows, provides a sound starting point for understanding the extent to which ICTs might strengthen water quality monitoring efforts. PMID:26404343

  10. AIDS in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ijsselmuiden, C; Evian, C; Matjilla, J; Steinberg, M; Schneider, H

    1993-01-01

    The National AIDS Convention in South Africa (NACOSA) in October 1992 was the first real attempt to address HIV/AIDS. In Soweto, government, the African National Congress, nongovernmental organizations, and organized industry and labor representatives worked for 2 days to develop a national plan of action, but it did not result in a united effort to fight AIDS. The highest HIV infection rates in South Africa are among the KwaZulu in Natal, yet the Inkatha Freedom Party did not attend NACOSA. This episode exemplifies the key obstacles for South Africa to prevent and control AIDS. Inequality of access to health care may explain why health workers did not diagnose the first AIDS case in blacks until 1985. Migrant labor, Bantu education, and uprooted communities affect the epidemiology of HIV infection. Further, political and social polarization between blacks and whites contributes to a mindset that AIDS is limited to the other race which only diminishes the personal and collective sense of susceptibility and the volition and aptitude to act. The Department of National Health and Population Development's voluntary register of anonymously reported cases of AIDS specifies 1517 cumulative AIDS cases (October 1992), but this number is low. Seroprevalence studies show between 400,000-450,000 HIV positive cases. Public hospitals cannot give AIDS patients AZT and DDI. Few communities provided community-based care. Not all hospitals honor confidentiality and patients' need for autonomy. Even though HIV testing is not mandatory, it is required sometimes, e.g., HIV testing of immigrants. AIDS Training, Information and Counselling Centers are in urban areas, but not in poor areas where the need is most acute. The government just recently developed in AIDS education package for schools, but too many people consider it improper, so it is not being used. The poor quality education provided blacks would make it useless anyhow. Lifting of the academic boycott will allow South African

  11. Quantitative variations of intracellular microcystin-LR, -RR and -YR in samples collected from four locations in Hartbeespoort Dam in North West Province (South Africa) during the 2010/2011 summer season.

    PubMed

    Mbukwa, Elbert A; Msagati, Titus A M; Mamba, Bhekie B

    2012-10-01

    The Hartbeespoort (HBP) Dam is a reservoir used for agricultural, domestic supply of raw potable water and recreational activities in South Africa's North-West Province. Eutrophication and cyanobacterial blooms have long been a cause of water-quality problems in this reservoir. The most prevalent bloom-forming species is Microcystis aeruginosa, often producing the toxin microcystin, a hepatotoxin which can negatively impact aquatic animal and human health, and poses a problem for potable water supply. Algal samples were collected monthly from four pre-determined sites in the dam during the summer months (December 2010-March 2011). Intracellular microcystins (MCs) were extracted using SPE C(18)cartridges, followed by separation, identification and quantification using LC-ESI-MS techniques. Quantitative variation studies of MCs were conducted with respect to MC congener isolated, sampling site and month. Three main MC congeners (MC-RR, -LR and-YR) were isolated, identified and quantified. In addition, three minor MCs (MC-WR, MC-(H(4))YR and (D-Asp(3), Dha(7))MC-RR were also identified, but were not quantified. The MC dominance followed the order MC-RR>MC-LR>MC-YR across all sites and time. The maximum and minimum concentrations were 268 µg/g and 0.14 µg/g DW for MC-RR and MC-YR, respectively, of the total MCs quantified from this study. One-way ANOVA showed that there were no significant differences between average MC concentrations recorded across months (P = 0.62), there was, however, a marginally-significant difference in concentrations among MC congeners (P = 0.06). ANCOVA revealed a highly significant interaction between sites and MC congeners on MC concentration (P < 0.001).

  12. Africa: Prosperous times

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    Political instability and corruption is the rule, rather than the exception, in Africa`s main producing regions, but exploration and production prospects there are bright and attractive to foreign operators. The paper discusses exploration, drilling, resource development, and production in Nigeria, Libya, Algeria, Egypt, Angola, Congo, Gabon, and Tunisia. The other countries of Africa are briefly mentioned, i.e., Cameroon, Cote D`Ivoire, South Africa, Sudan, Namibia, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Zaire, Mozambique, Ghana, Niger, and Seychelles.

  13. Africa's Geomosaic under Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Blij, H. J.

    1991-01-01

    Traces the transformation of Subsaharan Africa during the last 35 years. Contends that the domino effect hastened decolonization and increased polarization within South Africa. Argues that modernization is taking place only in South Africa's core and that the geopolitical framework appears stable but may collapse from within. (NL)

  14. Managing University Research Microdata Collections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolfrey, Lynn; Fry, Jane

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the management of microdata collections in a university context. It is a cross-country analysis: Collection management at data services in Canada and South Africa are considered. The case studies are of two university sub-contexts: One collection is located in a library; the other at a Faculty-based Data Service. Stages in…

  15. Good Tastes in Africa: A Recipe Book. African Outreach Series, No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyasi, Rebecca, Comp.; Crane, Louise, Ed.

    This book contains a collection of recipes by African students from various parts of the continent and by others who have lived and worked in Africa. While primarily a cookbook, it also can help refute generalizations and stereotypes about Africa. Part 1, "Cooking in Africa," is designed to give students background information on the customs…

  16. [Ecology of Cryptococcus neoformans in central Africa].

    PubMed

    Swinne, D; Taelman, H; Batungwanayo, J; Bigirankana, A; Bogaerts, J

    1994-01-01

    Cryptococcosis associated with AIDS is mainly due to Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans which is found in saprophytic form in pigeon droppings. This variety has been isolated in Central Africa, particularly in Zaire, Burundi and Rwanda, from dust collected from the houses of patients with cryptococcosis. Several patients confirmed frequent contact with pigeons. Recent studies in Australia demonstrated a link between the yeast and Eucalyptus of the camaldulensis and teriticornis species. These two species were imported to Central Africa from Australia. Examination of 657 Eucalyptus specimens collected in Rwanda did not detect the yeast in any type of tree. This finding casts doubt on the role of Eucalyptus in the ecology of cryptococcosis in Central Africa. PMID:8196527

  17. Obtaining informed consent for genomics research in Africa: analysis of H3Africa consent documents

    PubMed Central

    Munung, Nchangwi Syntia; Marshall, Patricia; Campbell, Megan; Littler, Katherine; Masiye, Francis; Ouwe-Missi-Oukem-Boyer, Odile; Seeley, Janet; Stein, D J; Tindana, Paulina; de Vries, Jantina

    2016-01-01

    Background The rise in genomic and biobanking research worldwide has led to the development of different informed consent models for use in such research. This study analyses consent documents used by investigators in the H3Africa (Human Heredity and Health in Africa) Consortium. Methods A qualitative method for text analysis was used to analyse consent documents used in the collection of samples and data in H3Africa projects. Thematic domains included type of consent model, explanations of genetics/genomics, data sharing and feedback of test results. Results Informed consent documents for 13 of the 19 H3Africa projects were analysed. Seven projects used broad consent, five projects used tiered consent and one used specific consent. Genetics was mostly explained in terms of inherited characteristics, heredity and health, genes and disease causation, or disease susceptibility. Only one project made provisions for the feedback of individual genetic results. Conclusion H3Africa research makes use of three consent models—specific, tiered and broad consent. We outlined different strategies used by H3Africa investigators to explain concepts in genomics to potential research participants. To further ensure that the decision to participate in genomic research is informed and meaningful, we recommend that innovative approaches to the informed consent process be developed, preferably in consultation with research participants, research ethics committees and researchers in Africa. PMID:26644426

  18. Water-Borne Illnesses. Water in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Carly Sporer

    The Water in Africa Project was realized over a 2-year period by a team of Peace Corps volunteers. As part of an expanded, detailed design, resources were collected from over 90 volunteers serving in African countries, photos and stories were prepared, and standards-based learning units were created for K-12 students. This unit, "Water-Borne…

  19. Narrative vs. Expository Texts. Water in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Carly Sporer

    The Water in Africa Project was realized over a 2-year period by a team of Peace Corps volunteers. As part of an expanded, detailed design, resources were collected from over 90 volunteers serving in African countries, photos and stories were prepared, and standards-based learning units were created for K-12 students. This unit, "Narrative vs.…

  20. A Sense of Water. Water in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abernathy-Tabor, Michelle

    The Water in Africa Project was realized over a 2-year period by a team of Peace Corps volunteers, World Wise Schools (WWS) classroom teachers, and WWS staff members. As part of an expanded, detailed design, resources were collected from over 90 volunteers serving in African countries, photos and stories were prepared, and standards-based learning…

  1. Aerosol Transport Over Equatorial Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatebe, C. K.; Tyson, P. D.; Annegarn, H. J.; Kinyua, A. M.; Piketh, S.; King, M.; Helas, G.

    1999-01-01

    Long-range and inter-hemispheric transport of atmospheric aerosols over equatorial Africa has received little attention so far. Most aerosol studies in the region have focussed on emissions from rain forest and savanna (both natural and biomass burning) and were carried out in the framework of programs such as DECAFE (Dynamique et Chimie Atmospherique en Foret Equatoriale) and FOS (Fires of Savanna). Considering the importance of this topic, aerosols samples were measured in different seasons at 4420 meters on Mt Kenya and on the equator. The study is based on continuous aerosol sampling on a two stage (fine and coarse) streaker sampler and elemental analysis by Particle Induced X-ray Emission. Continuous samples were collected for two seasons coinciding with late austral winter and early austral spring of 1997 and austral summer of 1998. Source area identification is by trajectory analysis and sources types by statistical techniques. Major meridional transports of material are observed with fine-fraction silicon (31 to 68 %) in aeolian dust and anthropogenic sulfur (9 to 18 %) being the major constituents of the total aerosol loading for the two seasons. Marine aerosol chlorine (4 to 6 %), potassium (3 to 5 %) and iron (1 to 2 %) make up the important components of the total material transport over Kenya. Minimum sulfur fluxes are associated with recirculation of sulfur-free air over equatorial Africa, while maximum sulfur concentrations are observed following passage over the industrial heartland of South Africa or transport over the Zambian/Congo Copperbelt. Chlorine is advected from the ocean and is accompanied by aeolian dust recirculating back to land from mid-oceanic regions. Biomass burning products are transported from the horn of Africa. Mineral dust from the Sahara is transported towards the Far East and then transported back within equatorial easterlies to Mt Kenya. This was observed during austral summer and coincided with the dying phase of 1997/98 El

  2. Generation 2030/Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    You, Danzhen; Hug, Lucia; Anthony, David

    2014-01-01

    Until relatively recently, much of Africa has been among the economically least developed and least densely populated places on earth, replete with villages and rural communities. Africa is changing rapidly, in its economy, trade and investment; in climate change; in conflict and stability; in urbanization, migration patterns, and most of all in…

  3. Teaching about Francophone Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merryfield, Mary; Timbo, Adama

    Lessons and resources for Social Studies and French courses are included in this document. The major goals of these materials are to help students (1) explore the history and geography of Francophone Africa, (2) examine French influences in contemporary Africa, (3) recognize and appreciate cultural differences and similarities in values and…

  4. Historical Capsule: South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Robert

    1988-01-01

    Briefly traces the history of South Africa from British acquisition in 1815 through the creation of the Union of South Africa in 1910. Presents a chronicle of the year 1900 to show part of the European achievement in close-up. Lists accomplishments in literature, fine arts, science, technology, music, theater, and dance. (GEA)

  5. Multilingualism in Southern Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peirce, Bonny Norton; Ridge, Stanley G. M.

    1997-01-01

    Reviews recent research in multilingualism in Southern Africa, focusing on the role of languages in education, sociolinguistics, and language policy. Much of the research is on South Africa. Topics discussed include language of instruction in schools, teacher education, higher education, adult literacy, language contact, gender and linguistic…

  6. Safe water for Africa (Africa-1000)

    SciTech Connect

    Dalton, R.; Kashkari, C.

    1996-12-31

    Africa-1000 is a program to provide safe water to thousands of villages in Africa. It is a formidable effort and needs the support of the international scientific community. Science and technology is the only hope for a solution of the African crisis. There are vast areas in the Sub-Saharan Africa that have water under the ground but due to lack of electric power, the water cannot be pumped. Thus the land is dry and barren and people are starving. The African continent has abundant renewable energy in the form of solar and wind energy. The technologies are well developed and available in the developed countries. Therefore, the solution is as follows: dig and drill wells and boreholes to reach underground water; install standardized solar or wind driven pumps to bring water to the surface; train village technicians to operate, maintain and repair these energy systems; and replicate these installations in thousands of villages, thus establishing standard water and energy systems across Africa.

  7. Poverty reduction in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Collier, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Poverty in Africa has been rising for the last quarter-century, while it has been falling in the rest of the developing world. Africa's distinctive problem is that its economies have not been growing. This article attempts to synthesize a range of recent research to account for this failure of the growth process. I argue that the reasons lie not in African peculiarities but rather in geographic features that globally cause problems but that are disproportionately pronounced in Africa. These features interact to create three distinct challenges that are likely to require international interventions beyond the conventional reliance on aid. PMID:17942702

  8. The Seismotectonic Model of Southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Midzi, Vunganai; Mulabisana, Thifelimbulu; Manzunzu, Brassnavy

    2013-04-01

    Presented in this report is a summary of the major structures and seismotectonic zones in Southern Africa (Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa and Swaziland), which includes available information on fault plane solutions and stress data. Reports published by several experts contributed much to the prepared zones. The work was prepared as part of the requirements for the SIDA/IGCP Project 601 titled "Seismotectonics and Seismic Hazards in Africa" as well as part of the seismic source characterisation of the GEM-Africa Seismic hazard study. The seismic data used are part of the earthquake catalogue being prepared for the GEM-Africa project, which includes historical and instrumental records as collected from various agencies. Seventeen seismic zones/sources were identified and demarcated using all the available information. Two of the identiied sources are faults with reliable evidence of their activity. Though more faults have been identified in unpublished material as being active, more work is being carried out to obtain information that can be used to characterise them before they are included in the seismotectonic model. Explanations for the selected boundaries of the zones are also given in the report. It should be noted that this information is the first draft of the seismic source zones of the region. Futher interpreation of the data is envisaged which might result in more than one version of the zones.

  9. Research Management in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benneh, George

    2002-01-01

    Examines research management, particularly within higher education institutions, in Africa including, research and current trends in knowledge production, institutional aspects, research funding, and good practice in research management. (EV)

  10. Women in Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitzer, Manon

    1975-01-01

    The role and status of women in Africa has changed profoundly since the end of the colonial period. Many differences in women's status and role are based on geography, history, nationality, political and socioeconomic systems, culture, and religion. (JR)

  11. Profile of South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, G.J.; Tonneson, L.C.

    1996-08-01

    A broad overview of the Republic of South Africa`s nuclear energy program is presented. Economic aspects are the main focus of the article, and numerical data is provided for electricity generation and use and uranium production. The role of the molecular laser isotope process for enrichment is discussed. The research reactor program, waste disposal and decommissioning, mining history, uranium production, and nonproliferation policy are other highlighted topics.

  12. Astronomy Landscape in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemaungani, Takalani

    2015-01-01

    The vision for astronomy in Africa is embedded in the African Space Policy of the African Union in early 2014. The vision is about positioning Africa as an emerging hub for astronomy sciences and facilities. Africa recognized the need to take advantage of its natural resource, the geographical advantage of the clear southern skies and pristine sites for astronomy. The Pan African University (PAU) initiative also presents an opportunity as a post-graduate training and research network of university nodes in five regions of Africa and supported by the African Union. The Southern African node based in South Africa concentrates on space sciences which also includes astronomy. The PAU aims to provide the opportunity for advanced graduate training and postgraduate research to high-performing African students. Objectives also include promoting mobility of students and teachers and harmonizing programs and degrees.A number of astronomy initiatives have burgeoned in the Southern African region and these include the Southern Africa Largest Optical Telescope (SALT), HESS (High Energy Stereoscopic System), the SKA (Square Kilometre Array) and the AVN (African Very Long Baseline Interferometer Network). There is a growing appetite for astronomy sciences in Africa. In East Africa, the astronomy community is well organized and is growing - the East African Astronomical society (EAAS) held its successful fourth annual conference since 2010 on 30 June to 04 July 2014 at the University of Rwanda. Centred around the 'Role of Astronomy in Socio-Economic Transformation,' this conference aimed at strengthening capacity building in Astronomy, Astrophysics and Space Science in general, while providing a forum for astronomers from the region to train young and upcoming scientists.

  13. Usutu virus in Africa.

    PubMed

    Nikolay, Birgit; Diallo, Mawlouth; Boye, Cheikh Saad Bouh; Sall, Amadou Alpha

    2011-11-01

    Usutu virus (USUV) was discovered in South Africa in 1959. Since then, it has been reported in several African countries including Senegal, Central African Republic, Nigeria, Uganda, Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, and Morocco. In 2001, USUV has been identified for the first time outside of Africa, namely in Europe, where it caused a significant mortality among blackbirds in Vienna, Austria. In 2009, the first two human cases of USUV infection in Europe have been reported in Italy, causing encephalitis in immunocompromised patients. The host range in Africa includes mainly Culex mosquitoes, birds, and also humans with one benign and one severe case. Given its role as a potential human pathogen and the similar appearance compared with other emerging arboviruses, it is essential to investigate the natural history and ecology of USUV in Africa. In this regard, we review the emergence of USUV in Africa, summarizing data about isolations, host range, and potential vectors, which should help to improve our understanding of the factors underlying the circulation of USUV in Europe and Africa. PMID:21767160

  14. Water Uses and Children's Lives in East Africa. Water in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maher, Robert

    The Water in Africa Project was realized over a 2-year period by a team of Peace Corps volunteers, World Wise Schools (WWS) classroom teachers, and WWS staff members. As part of an expanded, detailed design, resources were collected from over 90 volunteers serving in African countries, photos and stories were prepared, and standards-based learning…

  15. Water Sources in Cape Verde and West Africa. Water in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maher, Robert

    The Water in Africa Project was realized over a 2-year period by a team of Peace Corps volunteers, World Wise Schools (WWS) classroom teachers, and WWS staff members. As part of an expanded, detailed design, resources were collected from over 90 volunteers serving in African countries, photos and stories were prepared, and standards-based learning…

  16. [Health care insurance for Africa].

    PubMed

    Schellekens, O P; Lindner, M E; van Esch, J P L; van Vugt, M; Rinke de Wit, T F

    2007-12-01

    Long-term substantial development aid has not prevented many African countries from being caught in a vicious circle in health care: the demand for care is high, but the overburdened public supply of low quality care is not aligned with this demand. The majority of Africans therefore pay for health care in cash, an expensive and least solidarity-based option. This article describes an innovative approach whereby supply and demand of health care can be better aligned, health care can be seen as a value chain and health insurance serves as the overarching mechanism. Providing premium subsidies for patients who seek health care through private, collective African health insurance schemes stimulates the demand side. The supply of care improves by investing in medical knowledge, administrative systems and health care infrastructure. This initiative comes from the Health Insurance Fund, a unique collaboration of public and private sectors. In 2006 the Fund received Euro 100 million from the Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs to implement insurance programmes in Africa. PharmAccess Foundation is the Fund's implementing partner and presents its first experiences in Africa. PMID:18179087

  17. Coccinia intermedia – a new Cucurbitaceae species from West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Holstein, Norbert; Renner, Susanne S.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Nuclear and plastid sequences from two individuals of a suspected new species of Coccinia from West Africa were added to an available molecular phylogeny for the remaining 27 species of the genus. Phylogenetic analyses of these data indicate the new species' monophyletic status and closest relatives. Based on four fertile collections, we here describe and illustrate Coccinia intermedia Holstein. We also provide a key to the Coccinia species of West Africa and map their distributions. PMID:22287923

  18. 'Africa Alive Corridors': Forging a new future for the people of Africa by the people of Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felix Toteu, Sadrack; Malcolm Anderson, John; de Wit, Maarten

    2010-11-01

    ' Africa Alive Corridors' (AAC) addresses major stewardship goals in Africa through a selection of 20 heritage Corridors (varying from 1000 to 4000 km in length and 50 to 100 km wide). These include more than 400 heritage nodes (World Heritage Sites, Biosphere Reserves, biodiversity hotspots, Geoparks, etc.). AAC tracks Africa's journey from around 4 billion years ago to the present day through these chronologically sequenced Corridors. And so, the 4-billion-year autobiography of the continent is told. It encompasses the geological, biological and anthropological/cultural history of Africa's 54 nations - a (hi-) story without borders. The wealth of scientific and biographical knowledge archived in this network of Corridors tells the story of continental drift, mega-geohazards, climate variability and change, and the origin and extinction of biodiversity; and includes our human roots, culture and spirituality, our impact on the Earth and our potential to influence its future. In telling this story of Africa, new research avenues will be discovered and new learning methodologies will be experienced and developed and shared. In this way, the AAC provide loci along which the eight UN-Millennium Development Goals may be readily and realistically achieved. In concert, they can form the basis for a new collective endeavour - of Pan African Earth Stewardship Science. In this, the final - 2010 - phase of IYPE (the International Year of Planet Earth), we aim to make a start at bringing the ' Africa Alive Corridors' into real-life context. Whilst the concept of the Corridors has been formulated and presented at various international forums—most recently in Africa at the launch of IYPE in Arusha, Tanzania, in May 2008—here we present in brief their conceptual framework, and summarize the rationale behind the selection of the 20 African Corridors. Then, we describe, for the first time, how the AAC concept might evolve. To achieve the latter, we focus on an exploratory

  19. Seismic Hazard Implication of the Seismotectonics of southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Midzi, Vunganai; Mulabisana, Thifelimbilu; Manzunzu, Brassnavy

    2014-05-01

    The work presented in this report / presentation was prepared as part of the requirements for the SIDA/IGCP Project 601 titled "Seismotectonics and Seismic Hazards in Africa" as well as part of the seismic source characterisation of the GEM-Africa Seismic hazard study. An effort was made to compile information necessary to prepare a seismotectonic map of Africa which can then be used in carrying out a seismic hazard assessment of the continent or locations within the continent. Information on major faults, fault plane solutions, geophysical data as well as stress data has so far been collected and included in a database for the southern Africa region. Reports published by several experts contributed much to the collected information. The seismicity data used are part of the earthquake catalogue being prepared for the GEM-Africa project, which includes historical and instrumental records as collected from various sources. An effort has been made to characterise the identified major faults and through further analysis investigate their possible impact on the seismic hazard of southern Africa.

  20. Reading for All in Africa: Building Communities Where Literacy Thrives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arua, Arua E., Ed.

    This collection of more than 40 papers was selected from more than 150 presentations at the 2nd Pan-African Conference on Reading sponsored by the Reading Association of Nigeria and the International Reading Association's International Development in Africa Committee. The collection is divided into seven sections. Under Section 1--Towards Building…

  1. Tobacco in Africa.

    PubMed

    Yach, D

    1996-01-01

    Tobacco has been a common commodity in Africa for over three centuries. By 1993, some 500 000 tons of tobacco were being grown in 33 African countries, with only two countries exporting more than they import. Attempts to measure the current and potential impact of the tobacco business on health, society and the environment are still in their early stages, but the need for preventive action is already inescapably clear. Comprehensive control strategies are urgently required to prevent a major epidemic of tobacco-related disease in Africa. PMID:8820139

  2. Telecommunications and Development in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiplagat, B. A., Ed.; Werner, M. C. M., Ed.

    The Telecommunications Foundation of Africa (TFA) was created in 1992 out of a conviction that insufficient telecommunications in Africa are an impediment to economic growth, and that more resources could be mobilized to strengthen this sector. This volume was made by TFA for readers both inside and outside of Africa and the telecommunications…

  3. Family Planning Programmes in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pradervand, Pierre

    The countries discussed in this paper are the francophone countries of West Africa and the Republic of Congo, with comparative references made to North Africa (mainly Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia). Obstacles to the adoption of family planning in the countries of tropical Africa are a very high mortality rate among children; a socioeconomic…

  4. Country Energy Profile, South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    This country energy profile provides energy and economic information about South Africa. Areas covered include: Economics, demographics, and environment; Energy situation; Energy structure; Energy investment opportunities; Department of Energy (DOE) programs in South Africa; and a listing of International aid to South Africa.

  5. Pythiosis in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Rivierre, Christine; Laprie, Caroline; Guiard-Marigny, Olivier; Bergeaud, Patrick; Berthelemy, Madeleine

    2005-01-01

    We report the first case of pythiosis from Africa in an 8-month-old dog with a chronic and ulcerative cutaneous lesion. The etiologic agent belonged to the genus Pythium. Phylogenetic analysis placed the isolate in a sister group to the other P. insidiosum strains. However, the isolate may belong to a new Pythium species. PMID:15757572

  6. Anglicising Postapartheid South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louw, P. Eric

    2004-01-01

    The apartheid state deliberately encouraged linguistic diversity and actively built cultural infrastructures which impeded Anglicisation. With the end of apartheid has come "de facto" Anglicisation. So although South Africa has, since 1994, had 11 official languages, in reality, English is swamping the other 10 languages. Afrikaans has, in…

  7. Out of Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilbert, Nancy Corrigan

    2009-01-01

    Karen Blixen (Isak Dinesen), author of "Out of Africa," said, "God made the world round so people would never be able to see too far down the road." The author embraced this wonderful thought by venturing on a three-week journey to Kenya and Tanzania in search of grand adventure. In this article, the author shares her adventure with her students…

  8. Africa: Myth and Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Barbara B.

    1994-01-01

    Reports on the Third International Social Studies Conference held in Nairobi, Kenya, in 1994. Discusses democracy, educational reform efforts, and the importance of tourism to the Kenyan economy. Asserts that U.S. teachers must use accurate and nonstereotypical instructional materials in teaching about Africa. (CFR)

  9. West and Central Africa.

    PubMed

    Lydie, N; Robinson, N J

    1998-01-01

    This article reviews scientific and other literature during the 1990s that links migration and mobility with the spread of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including HIV/AIDS. The focus is on key population groups linked to the spread of HIV and STDs in West and Central Africa: migrant laborers, truck drivers, itinerant traders, commercial sex workers (CSWs), and refugees. Countries with high emigration and immigration tend to have high levels of HIV infection, with the exception of Senegal. The main destination of immigrants are Senegal, Nigeria, and Cote d'Ivoire in West Africa and Cameroon, Congo, Gabon, and Congo in Central Africa. The risk of infection and the spread of HIV is variable among migrants. There is little in the literature that substantiates hypotheses about the strong association between migration and HIV-positive status. Information is needed on the duration, frequency of return visits, living conditions, sexual activities with multiple partners, and information before departure, along the routes, at final destination, and at the time of returns. Action-based research in five West African countries (Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Mali, Niger, and Senegal) should produce results in late 1998. Comparable studies in Central Africa are unknown. Regional studies should be complemented by local studies. Prevention would benefit from studies on the relative size of these five population groups by geographic location.

  10. South Africa's Constitutional Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Getman, Thomas

    1987-01-01

    Describes the striking dichotomy of South Africa's beauty and the squalor resulting from the apartheid policies of the government. Reviews reactions of black South Africans to recent constitutional changes and details efforts to secure more sweeping reform. Includes stories of several individuals who have taken actions which oppose the system of…

  11. Trends Abroad: South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varley, Douglas H.

    1970-01-01

    In South Africa today there is a complex structure of laws and regulations which impose a variety of restrictions on individual liberties including the freedom to publish and read literary material. The successive steps by which this state of affairs has been reached are briefly described. (NH)

  12. Education in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Documentation and Information, 1977

    1977-01-01

    This selected, annotated bibliography of information resources in English and/or French is divided into sections on books; documents and articles; UNESCO publications; reference works; and African periodicals. A list of institutions concerned with education in Africa is included, as well as educational documentation and information services in…

  13. AED in Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academy for Educational Development, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Founded in 1961, the Academy for Educational Development (AED) is an independent, nonprofit, charitable organization that operates development programs in the United States and throughout the world. This directory presents an overview of the AED programs in Africa since 1975. Current AED Programs include: (1) HIV/AIDS Prevention and Impact…

  14. Neonatal surgery in Africa.

    PubMed

    Chirdan, Lohfa B; Ngiloi, Petronilla J; Elhalaby, Essam A

    2012-05-01

    The management of neonatal surgical problems continues to pose considerable challenges, particularly in low-resource settings. The burden of neonatal surgical diseases in Africa is not well documented. The characteristics of some neonatal surgical problems are highlighted. Late presentation coupled with poor understanding of the milieu interior of the neonates by incompetent health care providers and poorly equipped hospitals combine to give rise to the unacceptable high morbidity and mortality in most parts of Africa. Proper training of all staff involved in neonatal health care coupled with community awareness must be vigorously pursued by all stakeholders. Various governments throughout the continent of Africa, in conjunction with international donor agencies, must not only provide an adequate budget for health care services and improve infrastructures, but must also deliberately encourage and provide funding for neonatal surgical care and research across the continent. The well-established pediatric surgical training programs, particularly in North and South Africa, should hold the moral responsibility of training all possible numbers of young surgeons from other African countries that do not have any existing pediatric surgical training programs or those countries suffering from remarkable shortage of trained pediatric surgeons.

  15. Literacy in Francophone Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokora, Pascal D.

    1991-01-01

    Literacy in francophone Africa, where literacy is still a privilege, is reviewed in terms of the complex linguistic situation, effects of population change, concepts and definitions of literacy, promotion of literacy in adult nonformal settings (e.g., African language literacy materials, multilingual settings). (23 references) (LB)

  16. Short shrift for Africa.

    PubMed

    Collymore, Y

    1994-01-01

    The plan of action that emerged from the International Conference on Population and development (ICPD) held in Cairo in September 1994 did not directly address the major problems of pervasive poverty and dismal infant and maternal mortality rates in Africa. The Organization of African Unity met the week before ICPD to develop an integrated population and development strategy. The continent's population growth rate of 3% far exceeds that in most other developing countries; the maternal mortality rate is 640/100,000 live births vs. only 30 for industrialized countries. Its infant mortality rate is 114 deaths/1000 live births--double that of Western Europe. Africa's annual requirements under the Cairo plan for environmental, population, and development strategies would be $2.2-3 billion during 1995-2000. The estimated needs will grow to $4.3-5.6 billion by the year 2015. However, Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Swaziland, and South Africa warned against these ambitious goals, preferring instead individual national targets. South Africa is compiling population data that indicate that the rate of growth is 2%/year with a current estimated population of 40 million. A population policy is being considered within the context of reconstruction and development. Namibia also faces a growing population that could compromise economic development. Some nongovernmental organizations have stated that the ICPD failed to confront unsafe abortions and reproductive health problems in an effort to appease the Vatican and Islamic countries. Women's reproductive and sexual rights have also been rejected by some Latin American and Islamic countries as alien to their laws and culture. Nevertheless, an agreement was reached on information and access to family planning services for teenagers and counseling on responsible sexual behavior. There were also charges from African delegates about diverting attention from the internecine conflicts in Africa that have resulted in

  17. Identification of Rickettsia africae and Wolbachia sp. in Ceratophyllus garei Fleas from Passerine Birds Migrated from Africa

    PubMed Central

    Sekeyová, Zuzana; Mediannikov, Oleg; Roux, Véronique; Subramanian, Geetha; Špitalská, Eva; Kristofík, Jano; Darolová, Alžbeta

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the study was to reveal new aspects of the role of flea vector taken from migratory birds by screening of specimens with molecular biological methods. A field study was done in fishponds in Slovakia. Actually, 47 fleas were collected from reed warblers (Acrocephalus scirpaceus) and their nests. DNA was extracted and analyzed for representatives of the orders Rickettsiales. A rickettsia that shares 99.7% of identity by gltA gene with Rickettsia africae was identified in Ceratophyllus garei collected from A. scirpaceus. Moreover, two Wolbachia sp. were also detected in fleas. This is the first record of R. africae and Wolbachia sp. identified so far in Central Europe in fleas collected from migratory bird returning from Africa. This molecular study extends the geographic range and vector spectrum of arthropod-borne agents. PMID:22448745

  18. Cholera outbreaks in Africa.

    PubMed

    Mengel, Martin A; Delrieu, Isabelle; Heyerdahl, Leonard; Gessner, Bradford D

    2014-01-01

    During the current seventh cholera pandemic, Africa bore the major brunt of global disease burden. More than 40 years after its resurgence in Africa in 1970, cholera remains a grave public health problem, characterized by large disease burden, frequent outbreaks, persistent endemicity, and high CFRs, particularly in the region of the central African Great Lakes which might act as reservoirs for cholera. There, cases occur year round with a rise in incidence during the rainy season. Elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa, cholera occurs mostly in outbreaks of varying size with a constant threat of widespread epidemics. Between 1970 and 2011, African countries reported 3,221,050 suspected cholera cases to the World Health Organization, representing 46 % of all cases reported globally. Excluding the Haitian epidemic, sub-Saharan Africa accounted for 86 % of reported cases and 99 % of deaths worldwide in 2011. The number of cholera cases is possibly much higher than what is reported to the WHO due to the variation in modalities, completeness, and case definition of national cholera data. One source on country specific incidence rates for Africa, adjusting for underreporting, estimates 1,341,080 cases and 160,930 deaths (52.6 % of 2,548,227 estimated cases and 79.6 % of 209,216 estimated deaths worldwide). Another estimates 1,411,453 cases and 53,632 deaths per year, respectively (50 % of 2,836,669 estimated cases and 58.6 % of 91,490 estimated deaths worldwide). Within Africa, half of all cases between 1970 and 2011 were notified from only seven countries: Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mozambique, Nigeria, Somalia, Tanzania, and South Africa. In contrast to a global trend of decreasing case fatality ratios (CFRs), CFRs have remained stable in Africa at approximately 2 %. Early propagation of cholera outbreaks depends largely on the extent of individual bacterial shedding, host and organism characteristics, the likelihood of people coming into contact with

  19. Intermediate hosts of Schistosoma in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Mandahl-Barth, G.

    1960-01-01

    Dr Mandahl-Barth's monograph on the intermediate hosts of Schistosoma in Africa, published by the World Health Organization in 1958, attempted to clarify the complicated subject of the taxonomy of Biomphalaria and Bulinus—the snail vectors of bilharziasis in Africa. The classification of these vectors, however, is still far from being cut-and-dried, and each fresh fact unearthed must be regarded as a potential challenge to its validity. Since the publication of the monograph a great deal of further material has been submitted to the WHO Snail Identification Centre at Charlottenlund, Denmark. The additional information collected, together with some amendments to the earlier data, is presented in this supplementary contribution to the monograph. ImagesPLATE IPLATE II PMID:14420527

  20. Internet Performance to Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Cottrell, L

    2003-10-01

    We report the first results ever for real-time Internet performance to Africa using the PingER methodology. Multiple monitoring hosts were used to enable comparisons with performance from different parts of the world. From these preliminary measurements, we have found that Internet packet losses to some African sites in recent months range from very poor to bad (> 12%), some getting better, others are holding steady or getting worse. This, together with the average monthly Round Trip Times, imply end-to-end maximum TCP throughputs that are order of magnitudes different between countries in the region. Africa is shown to be far from the Internet performance in industrialized nations due to the poor infrastructure in place today. These monitoring efforts can provide valuable information to analyze the relative rates of future improvement and today they help us to quantify the digital divide and can provide quantitative information to policy makers.

  1. This Is Africa.

    PubMed

    Verlo, April R; Bailey, Hugh H; Cook, Martin R

    2015-01-01

    Military deployments will always result in exposure to health hazards other than those from combat operations. The occupational and environmental health and endemic disease health risks are greater to the Special Operations Forces (SOF) deployed to the challenging conditions in Africa than elsewhere in the world. SOF are deployed to locations that lack life support infrastructures that have become standard for most military deployments; instead, they rely on local resources to sustain operations. Particularly, SOF in Africa do not generally have access to advanced diagnostic or monitoring capabilities or to medical treatment in austere locations that lack environmental or public health regulation. The keys to managing potential adverse health effects lie in identifying and documenting the health hazards and exposures, characterizing the associated risks, and communicating the risks to commanders, deployed personnel, and operational planners.

  2. Learning shortcuts to success. Africa.

    PubMed

    1996-02-01

    The exchange of experiences and lessons has been a feature of JOICFP's IP in Africa since the project's earliest days, particularly at the local level. At the end of 1995, this exchange system was expanded to the regional level with the swap of study teams between Zambia and Tanzania. Five personnel from Tanzania visited Zambia from October 14 to 28 and four IP personnel from Zambia visited Tanzania from November 4 to 18. For both teams the experience was one of learning and provided insights into different approaches to such areas as logistics, operational strategy, service delivery, organization setup, administration, income-generation and sustainability, data collection, analysis and reporting and cost-effectiveness. The Tanzanian team was impressed with the effective use of the health advisory committees at the village level in Zambia to reach local people. The steering committee structure ends at the ward level and not the village level in Tanzania. They also noted the strong involvement of men in the project and the dual existence of clubs for men and women. In one of the villages visited, the team joined an IP Open Day attended by over 5000. The study visit to Tanzania was also effective for the Zambian team, which was impressed with the IP system for the collection and analysis of CYP/CPR data. The members noted the close UMATI-government collaboration and joining of forces for FP service delivery. Tanzania's success with systematic CBD/CBS deployment was another impressive feature for the Zambians.

  3. Terrorism in South Africa.

    PubMed

    MacFarlane, Campbell

    2003-01-01

    The Republic of South Africa lies at the southern tip of the African continent. The population encompasses a variety of races, ethnic groups, religions, and cultural identities. The country has had a turbulent history from early tribal conflicts, colonialisation, the apartheid period, and post-apartheid readjustment. Modern terrorism developed mainly during the apartheid period, both by activities of the state and by the liberation movements that continued to the time of the first democratic elections in 1994, which saw South Africa evolve into a fully representative democratic state with equal rights for all. Since 1994, terrorist acts have been criminal-based, evolving in the Cape Town area to political acts, largely laid at the feet of a predominantly Muslim organisation, People against Gangsterism and Drugs, a vigilant organisation allegedly infiltrated by Muslim fundamentalists. Along with this, has been terrorist activities, mainly bombings by disaffected members of white, right-wing groups. In the apartheid era, a Draconian series of laws was enacted to suppress liberation activities. After 1994, most of these were repealed and new legislation was enacted, particularly after the events of 11 September 2001; this legislation allows the government to act against terrorism within the constraints of a democratic system. Disaster management in South Africa has been largely local authority-based, with input from provincial authorities and Civil Defence. After 1994, attempts were made to improve this situation, and national direction was provided. After 11 September 2001, activity was increased and the Disaster Management Act 2002 was brought into effect. This standardized disaster management system at national, provincial, and local levels, also facilites risk assessment and limitation as well as disaster mitigation. The potential still exists for terrorism, mainly from right-wing and Muslim fundamentalist groups, but the new legislation should stimulate disaster

  4. Namib Desert, Namibia, Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    One of the driest regions on Earth, the Namib Desert, Namibia, Africa (23.0N, 15.0E) lies adjacent to the Atlantic coast but the upwelling oceanic water causes a very stable rainless atmosphere. The few local inland rivers do not reach the sea but instead, appear as long indentations where they penetrate the dune fields and end as small dry lakes. The vast dune fields are the result of sands deposited over millions of years by the stream flow.

  5. Mozambique Coast, Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The serene coastline of Mozambique (17.0S, 39.5E) Africa and the Indian Ocean offer some of the best beaches and recreational diving water in the world. Offshore reefs provide interesting coral formations that host a wide variety of marine life. Inland, the coastal savannas of this tropical nation are filled with a wide range of wildlife in some of the last animal refuges on the African continent.

  6. Namib Desert, Namibia, Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    One of the driest regions on Earth, the Namib Desert, Namibia, Africa (23.0N, 15.0E) lies adjacent to the Atlantic coast but upwelling oceanic water causes a very stable rainless atmosphere. The few local inland rivers do not reach the sea but instead appear as long indentations where rivers penetrate the dune fields and end as small dry lakes. The vast dune fields are the result of sands deposited over millions of years by the stream flow.

  7. Lake Chad, Chad, Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The fluctuating water levels of Lake Chad, (13.0N, 15.0E) at the intersection of the borders of Chad, Niger and Cameroon in the Sahara Desert, is an index of the drought in Africa. The lake level continues to decrease as indicated by the growing number and extent of emerging islands as previously submerged ancient sand dunes become visible. The water impounded between the dunes is probably because of local rainfall rather than a reversal of desertification.

  8. Astrophysics in Southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitelock, Patricia

    2008-03-01

    The government of South Africa has identified astronomy as a field in which their country has a strategic advantage and is consequently investing very significantly in astronomical infrastructure. South Africa now operates a 10-m class optical telescope, the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT), and is one of two countries short listed to host the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), an ambitious international project to construct a radio telescope with a sensitivity one hundred times that of any existing telescope. The challenge now is to produce an indigenous community of users for these facilities, particularly from among the black population which was severely disadvantaged under the apartheid regime. In this paper I briefly describe the observing facilities in Southern Africa before going on to discuss the various collaborations that are allowing us to use astronomy as a tool for development, and at the same time to train a new generation of astronomers who will be well grounded in the science and linked to their colleagues internationally.

  9. Drought in West Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Drought settled over West Africa's Ivory Coast region when wet season rains came late in 2007. Instead of beginning in February, the rainy season didn't start until March, and steady rains didn't start until late March, said the Famine Early Warning System Network. Though the rain had started to alleviate the drought, vegetation was still depressed in parts of Cote d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) between March 22 and April 6, 2007, when the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite captured the data used to make this image. The image shows current vegetation conditions compared to average conditions recorded since 2000. Areas where plants are growing more slowly or more sparsely than average are brown, while areas where vegetation is denser than average are green. The brown tint that dominates the image indicates that plants through most of the country are more sparse than normal. Among the crops affected by the lack of rain was West Africa's cocoa crop. About 70 percent of the world's cocoa comes from West Africa, and Cote d'Ivoire is a top grower, said Reuters. Cocoa prices climbed as the crop fell short. Farmers called the drought the worst in living memory, Reuters said. The delay in rainfall also led to water shortages in parts of Cote d'Ivoire, according to the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs.

  10. Rabies in southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Swanepoel, R; Barnard, B J; Meredith, C D; Bishop, G C; Brückner, G K; Foggin, C M; Hübschle, O J

    1993-12-01

    The first confirmed outbreak of rabies in Africa, believed to have followed the importation of an infected dog from England in 1892, occurred in the eastern Cape Province of South Africa, and was brought under control in 1894. An unconfirmed epidemic of rabies in dogs occurred in western Zambia in 1901. By the following year the disease had apparently spread along a major trade route, to cause an outbreak in Zimbabwe which engulfed most of the country before being eradicated in 1913. The existence of endemic rabies of viverrids (mongooses and genets) was confirmed in South Africa in 1928, and since then the viverrid disease has continued to occur widely on the interior plateau of the country with spill-over of infection to cattle and a variety of other animals. From about 1947 onwards, an invasive form of dog rabies spread from southern Zambia and/or Angola into Namibia, across northern and eastern Botswana into Zimbabwe and the northern Transvaal by 1950, entered Mozambique in 1952, and spread from there to Swaziland in 1954. Dog rabies extended from southern Mozambique into Natal in 1961 to cause a major epidemic which was brought under control in 1968. The disease re-entered northern Natal from Mozambique in 1976 and since then dog rabies has proved difficult to control in the peri-urban settlements of Natal-KwaZulu. The disease spread from Natal to Lesotho in 1982, and into the Transkei region of the eastern Cape Province in 1987, to reach the Ciskei by 1990. The spread of the disease in dogs was followed by the emergence of rabies of jackals and cattle in central Namibia, northern Botswana, Zimbabwe and the northern Transvaal. A unique outbreak of rabies in kudu antelope occurred in central Namibia from 1977 to 1985, apparently involving oral spread of infection between individuals. A few cases of rabies in the bat-eared fox were recognized each year in Namibia from 1967 onwards, and from the 1970s the occurrence of the disease in the fox has emerged as a

  11. Massive Open Online Courses for Africa by Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oyo, Benedict; Kalema, Billy Mathias

    2014-01-01

    Africa is known for inadequate access to all sorts of human needs including health, education, food, shelter, transport, security, and energy. Before the emergence of massive open online courses (MOOCs), open access to higher education (HE) was exclusive of Africa. However, as a generally affordable method of post-secondary education delivery,…

  12. Antigenic characterisation of lyssaviruses in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ngoepe, Ernest; Fehlner-Gardiner, Christine; Wandeler, Alex; Sabeta, Claude

    2014-01-01

    There are at least six Lyssavirus species that have been isolated in Africa, which include classical rabies virus, Lagos bat virus, Mokola virus, Duvenhage virus, Shimoni bat virus and Ikoma lyssavirus. In this retrospective study, an analysis of the antigenic reactivity patterns of lyssaviruses in South Africa against a panel of 15 anti-nucleoprotein monoclonal antibodies was undertaken. A total of 624 brain specimens, collected between 2005 and 2009, confirmed as containing lyssavirus antigen by direct fluorescent antibody test, were subjected to antigenic differentiation. The lyssaviruses were differentiated into two species, namely rabies virus (99.5%) and Mokola virus (0.5%). Furthermore, rabies virus was further delineated into two common rabies biotypes in South Africa: canid and mongoose. Initially, it was found that the canid rabies biotype had two reactivity patterns; differential staining was observed with just one monoclonal antibody. This difference was likely to have been an artefact related to sample quality, as passage in cell culture restored staining. Mongoose rabies viruses were more heterogeneous, with seven antigenic reactivity patterns detected. Although Mokola viruses were identified in this study, prevalence and reservoir host species are yet to be established. These data demonstrate the usefulness of monoclonal antibody typing panels in lyssavirus surveillance with reference to emergence of new species or spread of rabies biotypes to new geographic zones. PMID:25685866

  13. Regions. [Africa, Middle East].

    PubMed

    1985-03-01

    This discussion of population focuses on the regions of Africa and the Middle East. In South Africa more white women are working but fewer black women work. The overall result is that the percentage of women who work is declining. Marita de Beer, research liaison executive at the South African Advertising Research Foundation, reports that the female population grew by 31% in the past 10 years while the number of working women has grown by only 11%. Among blacks the female population rose by 36%, but the number of workers among them declined by about 1%. Married women are among the fastest growing groups of working women in South Africa. The most recent estimate of the population of Nigeria is 92 million. According to Professor Vremudia Diejomaoh, Nigeria's population will probably reach 155 million by 2000 with 33% living in urban areas. In Saudi Arabia the Pan Arab Research Center recently completed a census of retail outlets in 3 metropolitan areas: Jeddah, Riyadh, and Dammam. The types of outlets surveyed include large supermarkets, small supermarkets, groceries with and without deep freeze, tobacco shops, meat shop/delis, small cafeterias, large restaurants/hotels, cosmetics shops or perfumeries, camera stores, toy shops, pharmacies, watch and gift shop, newsstands, department store, and appliance outlets. Using the Census of Retail Outlets as a base, Pan Arab Research Center also has a new distribution audit system that will cover 500 outlets. By plotting Arab countries according to their population policies and their current growth rates, it is possible to project where the middle class will grow fastest in the Arab world. The countries that have declining growth rates and strong population programs designed to encourage lower fertility rates among women are Egypt, Tunisia, Morocco, Algeria, and Lebanon. The countries most likely to have a better per capita distribution of resources within this decade are those where governments encourage reductions in

  14. Regions. [Africa, Middle East].

    PubMed

    1985-03-01

    This discussion of population focuses on the regions of Africa and the Middle East. In South Africa more white women are working but fewer black women work. The overall result is that the percentage of women who work is declining. Marita de Beer, research liaison executive at the South African Advertising Research Foundation, reports that the female population grew by 31% in the past 10 years while the number of working women has grown by only 11%. Among blacks the female population rose by 36%, but the number of workers among them declined by about 1%. Married women are among the fastest growing groups of working women in South Africa. The most recent estimate of the population of Nigeria is 92 million. According to Professor Vremudia Diejomaoh, Nigeria's population will probably reach 155 million by 2000 with 33% living in urban areas. In Saudi Arabia the Pan Arab Research Center recently completed a census of retail outlets in 3 metropolitan areas: Jeddah, Riyadh, and Dammam. The types of outlets surveyed include large supermarkets, small supermarkets, groceries with and without deep freeze, tobacco shops, meat shop/delis, small cafeterias, large restaurants/hotels, cosmetics shops or perfumeries, camera stores, toy shops, pharmacies, watch and gift shop, newsstands, department store, and appliance outlets. Using the Census of Retail Outlets as a base, Pan Arab Research Center also has a new distribution audit system that will cover 500 outlets. By plotting Arab countries according to their population policies and their current growth rates, it is possible to project where the middle class will grow fastest in the Arab world. The countries that have declining growth rates and strong population programs designed to encourage lower fertility rates among women are Egypt, Tunisia, Morocco, Algeria, and Lebanon. The countries most likely to have a better per capita distribution of resources within this decade are those where governments encourage reductions in

  15. Zika Virus Outside Africa

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus related to yellow fever, dengue, West Nile, and Japanese encephalitis viruses. In 2007 ZIKV caused an outbreak of relatively mild disease characterized by rash, arthralgia, and conjunctivitis on Yap Island in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. This was the first time that ZIKV was detected outside of Africa and Asia. The history, transmission dynamics, virology, and clinical manifestations of ZIKV disease are discussed, along with the possibility for diagnostic confusion between ZIKV illness and dengue.The emergence of ZIKV outside of its previously known geographic range should prompt awareness of the potential for ZIKV to spread to other Pacific islands and the Americas. PMID:19788800

  16. Fires in Central Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Hundreds of fires are set every year during the dry season in Central Africa. This true color image from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) shows dozens of smoke plumes in the Democratic Republic of the Congo on June 29, 2000. Residents burn away scrub and brush annually in the woody savanna to clear land for farming and grazing. For more information, visit the SeaWiFS Home Page, Global Fire Monitoring Fact Sheet, and 4km2 Fire Data Image Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  17. Zika virus outside Africa.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Edward B

    2009-09-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus related to yellow fever, dengue, West Nile, and Japanese encephalitis viruses. In 2007 ZIKV caused an outbreak of relatively mild disease characterized by rash, arthralgia, and conjunctivitis on Yap Island in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. This was the first time that ZIKV was detected outside of Africa and Asia. The history, transmission dynamics, virology, and clinical manifestations of ZIKV disease are discussed, along with the possibility for diagnostic confusion between ZIKV illness and dengue.The emergence of ZIKV outside of its previously known geographic range should prompt awareness of the potential for ZIKV to spread to other Pacific islands and the Americas.

  18. Immunology in Africa.

    PubMed

    Cose, Stephen; Bagaya, Bernard; Nerima, Barbara; Joloba, Moses; Kambugu, Andrew; Tweyongyere, Robert; Dunne, David W; Mbidde, Edward; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Elliott, Alison M

    2015-12-01

    Africa is a continent with a large burden of both infectious and non-communicable diseases. If we are to move forward as a continent, we need to equip our growing cadre of exceptional young scientists with the skills needed to tackle the diseases endemic to this continent. For this, immunology is among the key disciplines. Africans should be empowered to study and understand the diseases that affect them, and to perform their cutting-edge research in their country of origin. This requires a multifaceted approach, with buy-in from funders, overseas partners and perhaps, most important of all, African governments themselves.

  19. Initiatives in Africa.

    PubMed

    Goliber, T J; Middleberg, M I

    1986-03-01

    Since the 1st oil crisis in 1973, the economies of sub-Saharan Africa have barely kept pace with their burgeoning populations. Women in Sub-Saharan Africa give birth more often than women in any other region of the world, with an average of more than 6.5 live births each. The region's natural increase average 2.5% a year in the 1960s, 2.7% in the 1970s, and in the mid-1980s, it is 3.1% per annum--a rate that will double the regions population in 22 years. National leaders in Sub-Saharan Africa were slow to consider population policy as a key component of the social and economic development effort. The neglect of population issues is reflected in the limited scope of public or private family planning programs in the sub-continent. Donor countries and institutions play an important role in developing the information base by providing technical training to government staff, supporting research, and disseminating information to a broad spectrum of political actors. Some examples of policy reconsiderations in Nigeria, Zambia, Liberia, and Niger are given. These countries are starting to give active consideration to population policies to reduce fertility and high rates of population growth by expanding family planning services, raising the age of marriage, improving the status of women, providing family-life education, and incorporating economic incentives for smaller families into the provision of social services. The highly centralized nature of African governments dictates that the acquiescence of the governmental elite must be obtained before any policy can take hold. Overall, high population growth rates in combination with a stagnating social and economic development effort throughout the region have provided the catalyst for a new look at Sub-Saharan Africa population policy. The ability of African nations to implement policies that reduce fertility is more open to question; no African nation has as yet done so, and the socioeconomics factors contributing to high

  20. Splish Splash: A Daily Use of Water. Water in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franz, Kristi Rennebohm

    The Water in Africa Project was realized over a 2-year period by a team of Peace Corps volunteers, World Wise Schools (WWS) classroom teachers, and WWS staff members. As part of an expanded, detailed design, resources were collected from over 90 volunteers serving in African countries, photos and stories were prepared, and standards-based learning…

  1. Drip Drop: Access to Water. Water in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franz, Kristi Rennebohm

    The Water in Africa Project was realized over a 2-year period by a team of Peace Corps volunteers, World Wise Schools (WWS) classroom teachers, and WWS staff members. As part of an expanded, detailed design, resources were collected from over 90 volunteers serving in African countries, photos and stories were prepared, and standards-based learning…

  2. Water: From Neglect to Respect. Water in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Amy

    The Water in Africa Project was realized over a 2-year period by a team of Peace Corps volunteers, World Wise Schools (WWS) classroom teachers, and WWS staff members. As part of an expanded, detailed design, resources were collected from over 90 volunteers serving in African countries, photos and stories were prepared, and standards-based learning…

  3. Precious Droplets: The Value of Water. Water in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franz, Kristi Rennebohm

    The Water in Africa Project was realized over a 2-year period by a team of Peace Corps volunteers, World Wise Schools (WWS) classroom teachers, and WWS staff members. As part of an expanded, detailed design, resources were collected from over 90 volunteers serving in African countries, photos and stories were prepared, and standards-based learning…

  4. Water: The Flow of Women's Work. Water in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Amy

    The Water in Africa Project was realized over a 2-year period by a team of Peace Corps volunteers, World Wise Schools (WWS) classroom teachers, and WWS staff members. As part of an expanded, detailed design, resources were collected from over 90 volunteers serving in African countries, photos and stories were prepared, and standards-based learning…

  5. Aspects of Education in the Middle East and North Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Colin, Ed.; Levers, Lila Zia

    2007-01-01

    The chapters in this volume do not represent the whole of the Middle East and North Africa, as such a collection would have been too large for one volume. Rather, the selection here is intended to present different perspectives on a range of educational issues, relevant to a particular focus or country, or common to a number of countries in the…

  6. Art Activities for All Ages. Hands-On Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, Yvonne Y.

    This book explores the art heritage of Sub-Saharan Africa with projects (n=40) and activities (n=15) featuring African animals. Artifacts from museums and private collections have inspired the activity choices in the book, and an effort has been made to present fresh and new ideas, not always found in most activity books on diversity. As with all…

  7. Water Safari, a Journey of Life. Water in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Dany

    The Water in Africa Project was realized over a 2-year period by a team of Peace Corps volunteers, World Wise Schools (WWS) classroom teachers, and WWS staff members. As part of an expanded, detailed design, resources were collected from over 90 volunteers serving in African countries, photos and stories were prepared, and standards-based learning…

  8. Water: Source of Health, Source of Illness. Water in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Amy

    The Water in Africa Project was realized over a 2-year period by a team of Peace Corps volunteers, World Wise Schools (WWS) classroom teachers, and WWS staff members. As part of an expanded, detailed design, resources were collected from over 90 volunteers serving in African countries, photos and stories were prepared, and standards-based learning…

  9. Water: A Source of Life and Culture. Water in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKoski, David

    The Water in Africa Project was realized over a 2-year period by a team of Peace Corps volunteers. As part of an expanded, detailed design, resources were collected from over 90 volunteers serving in African countries, photos and stories were prepared, and standards-based learning units were created for K-12 students. This unit, "Water as a Source…

  10. Celebrating Our Connections through Water. Water in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abernathy-Tabor, Michelle

    The Water in Africa Project was realized over a 2-year period by a team of Peace Corps volunteers, World Wise Schools (WWS) classroom teachers, and WWS staff members. As part of an expanded, detailed design, resources were collected from over 90 volunteers serving in African countries, photos and stories were prepared, and standards-based learning…

  11. Climate and Water in Ghana. Water in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maher, Robert

    The Water in Africa Project was realized over a 2-year period by a team of Peace Corps volunteers, World Wise Schools (WWS) classroom teachers, and WWS staff members. As part of an expanded, detailed design, resources were collected from over 90 volunteers serving in African countries, photos and stories were prepared, and standards-based learning…

  12. Atlantic marginal basins of Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, G.T.

    1988-02-01

    The over 10,000-km long Atlantic margin of Africa is divisible into thirty basins or segments of the margin that collectively contain over 18.6 x 10/sup 6/ km/sup 3/ of syn-breakup and post-breakup sediments. Twenty of these basins contain a sufficiently thick volume of sediments to be considered prospects. These basins lie, at least partially, within the 200 m isobath. The distribution of source rocks is broad enough to give potential to each of these basins. The sedimentation patterns, tectonics, and timing of events differ from basin to basin and are related directly to the margin's complex history. Two spreading modes exist: rift and transform. Rifting dates from Late Triassic-Early Jurassic in the northwest to Early Cretaceous south of the Niger Delta. A complex transform fault system separated these two margins. Deep-water communication between the two basins became established in the middle Cretaceous. This Mesozoic-Cenozoic cycle of rifting and seafloor spreading has segmented the margin and where observable, basins tend to be bounded by these segments.

  13. Quantitative Variations of Intracellular Microcystin-LR, -RR and -YR in Samples Collected from Four Locations in Hartbeespoort Dam in North West Province (South Africa) During the 2010/2011 Summer Season

    PubMed Central

    Mbukwa, Elbert A.; Msagati, Titus A.M.; Mamba, Bhekie B.

    2012-01-01

    The Hartbeespoort (HBP) Dam is a reservoir used for agricultural, domestic supply of raw potable water and recreational activities in South Africa’s North-West Province. Eutrophication and cyanobacterial blooms have long been a cause of water-quality problems in this reservoir. The most prevalent bloom-forming species is Microcystis aeruginosa, often producing the toxin microcystin, a hepatotoxin which can negatively impact aquatic animal and human health, and poses a problem for potable water supply. Algal samples were collected monthly from four pre-determined sites in the dam during the summer months (December 2010–March 2011). Intracellular microcystins (MCs) were extracted using SPE C18 cartridges, followed by separation, identification and quantification using LC-ESI-MS techniques. Quantitative variation studies of MCs were conducted with respect to MC congener isolated, sampling site and month. Three main MC congeners (MC-RR, -LR and-YR) were isolated, identified and quantified. In addition, three minor MCs (MC-WR, MC-(H4)YR and (D-Asp3, Dha7)MC-RR were also identified, but were not quantified. The MC dominance followed the order MC-RR>MC-LR>MC-YR across all sites and time. The maximum and minimum concentrations were 268 µg/g and 0.14 µg/g DW for MC-RR and MC-YR, respectively, of the total MCs quantified from this study. One-way ANOVA showed that there were no significant differences between average MC concentrations recorded across months (P = 0.62), there was, however, a marginally-significant difference in concentrations among MC congeners (P = 0.06). ANCOVA revealed a highly significant interaction between sites and MC congeners on MC concentration (P < 0.001). PMID:23202758

  14. Cretaceous paleogeography of Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Hulver, M.L.; Ziegler, A.M.; Rowley, D.B.; Sahagian, D.

    1986-05-01

    Five stage-length maps (Valanginian, Aptian, Cenomanian, Coniacian, and Maestrichtian) of Africa integrate topography/bathymetry, lithofacies, tectonics, and climatically sensitive sediments. These reconstructions differ from currently available maps in their level of detail and accuracy, and in that computer routines were developed to plot all aspects of the maps, including lithofacies patterns. Bathymetric contours were determined from community paleoecology and from thermal subsidence models of the newly opening Atlantic and Indian oceans. Topographic contours have been estimated from uplift models of rift shoulders, as well as from the erosion and sedimentation record of both the internal and marginal basins. The uplift of rift shoulders from Nigeria to Sudan is suggested by the extensive Nubian and equivalent sandstones across north Africa. This Benue-Ngaoundere-Abu Gabra rift system approximately paralleled the paleoequator, and its shoulders must have experienced the high rainfall normally associated with the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ). In fact, these mountains would have served as a high level heat source, and would have pinned the ITCZ to their summits. Such a system tends to reduce seasonal excursions of the ITCZ, and may have influenced the high biological productivity represented by the oil source rocks of the Arabian peninsula. These sources also lie on the equator and could have resulted from a shelf incursion of the equatorial divergence zone, which is controlled by the ITCZ.

  15. Re-energizing South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Scholand, M.

    1996-09-01

    Bringing modern energy services to South Africa`s deprived majority doesn`t have to mean simply expanding the now obsolete coal-based system built for the nation`s white minority. A partheid still haunts South Africa`s energy economy. The country`s fledgling democracy has inherited two energy systems, as different from each other as California`s is from that of Bangladesh-but less efficient and more polluting than either of those. For the country`s white minority, cheap electricity is available at the flip of a switch. But even though South Africa has 30 percent more generating capacity than it uses, two-thirds of its black citizens have no electricity at all. Dealing with this legacy is essential for the survival of the two-year-old government. Mandela has made ambitious promises to transform the nation`s energy system-providing such basic amenities as lighting and heating to millions of blacks, while reducing pollution. However, conventional development will never reach those goals - the country`s energy system has huge fundamental inefficiencies. To keep its promises, the government will need an array of cutting-edge technologies, including lowcost super-efficient housing, solar electric systems, gas fired cogeneration. South Africa is well positioned with huge solar and wind energy potential, a well capitalized industrial base and millions of aid dollars. This article examines the emerging energy needs/demands of South Africa in light of these factors.

  16. [Ultrasound in East Africa].

    PubMed

    Gysel, W

    2012-09-01

    Ultrasound is poorly established in East Africa because of missing finances and medical staff. The Foundation for medical know how transfer SmW installed in the last 3 years an ultrasound department in all District Hospitals in the South Province Mombasa in Kenya and was teaching the medical staff 2-3 times an year according the guidelines of SGUM and EFSUMB. The project is based on the idea that knowledge transfer is more efficient than money transfer. The project is supervised by public health studies. The first results show that non physicians are able to perform good quality ultrasound examinations. 75% of the obstetrical and 50% of the abdominal ultrasound examinations show therapy-relevant findings. Ultrasound is going to rise to the position of the most important imagine system in developing countries.

  17. [Nutrition in Africa].

    PubMed

    Ganzin, M

    1985-01-01

    A certain number of countries in Africa south of the Sahara are suffering from severe food shortages and famine which have called the attention of the international public opinion. A review of the situation clearly shows that, not only the availability of food depends upon agricultural production and its various conditioning factors (soil, climate, fertility, agricultural technology, storage facilities, etc.), but that such socio-economic factors as population, migration, supplies to urban centres, transport, unemployment, inflation and debt also have a strong influence. With some variations in intensity, these factors and conditions are the same everywhere. It may therefore be said at the present time that political disorders and a poor understanding of nutritional problems are more often than not responsible for tragic situations.

  18. Ebola in West Africa.

    PubMed

    Raka, Lul; Guardo, Monica

    2015-03-15

    Ebola viral disease (EVD) is a severe and life-threatening disease. The current Ebola outbreak in West Africa entered its second year and is unprecedented because it is the largest one in history, involved urban centers and affected a large number of health care workers. It quickly escalated from medical into a humanitarian, social, economic, and security crisis. The primary pillars to prevent EVD are: early diagnosis, isolation of patients, contact tracing and monitoring, safe burials, infection prevention and control and social mobilization. The implementation of all these components was challenged in the field. Key lessons from this Ebola outbreak are that countries with weak health care systems can't withstand the major outbreaks; preparedness to treat the first confirmed cases is a national emergency; all control measures must be coordinated together and community engagement is the great factor to combat this disease.

  19. Schistosomiasis collection at NHM (SCAN)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Natural History Museum (NHM) is developing a repository for schistosomiasis-related material, the Schistosomiasis Collection at NHM (SCAN) as part of its existing Wolfson Wellcome Biomedical Laboratory (WWBL). This is timely because a major research and evaluation effort to understand control and move towards elimination of schistosomiasis in Africa has been initiated by the Schistosomiasis Consortium for Operational Research and Evaluation (SCORE), resulting in the collection of many important biological samples, including larval schistosomes and snails. SCAN will collaborate with a number of research groups and control teams and the repository will acquire samples relevant to both immediate and future research interest. The samples collected through ongoing research and field activities, WWBL’s existing collections, and other acquisitions will be maintained over the long term and made available to the global research community for approved research purposes. Goals include: · Consolidation of the existing NHM schistosome and snail collections and transfer of specimens into suitable long-term storage systems for DNA retrieval, · Long-term and stable storage of specimens collected as part of on going field programmes initially in Africa especially relating to the SCORE research programmes, · Provision of access to snail and schistosome collections for approved research activities. PMID:22943137

  20. Needed: optics light in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kingsley, Akanihu

    2005-10-01

    Though Africa is known and in many quarters still referred to as the dark continent, should she still be in that state in this day and time in which we live? Data now travels at the speed of light and information reaches every nook and cranny of the earth, and I ask, can some of this not be directed towards Africa? More attention needs to be focused on educating Africa in the fields of photonics and optics to illuminate her because if mother earth has got to progress, no part of her or her children can and should be left behind.

  1. Roles of genetic counselors in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Kromberg, Jennifer G R; Wessels, Tina-Marié; Krause, Amanda

    2013-12-01

    Genetic counseling is a growing health profession in South Africa. Training (set up in 1988) and registration are in place, but job creation remains challenging. The aim of the present study was to investigate the roles played by genetic counselors in the provision of genetic services, in South Africa. A questionnaire comprising items on the types of roles they performed was constructed and counselors were asked to make the log-books, in which they recorded their daily counseling activities, available. A check list was drawn up so that relevant information could be collected systematically from these log-books. Then departmental statistics were accessed from the two universities providing genetic services and genetic counselor training. Structured interviews were conducted with the genetic counselors (16 of 23 participated), and data were collected from their completed questionnaires, log-books and the departmental statistics, for the years 2007 and 2008. These data were analyzed and the findings showed that the counselors counseled about one third (39 %) of all the cases seen at genetic clinics per annum, and the total numbers were increasing. They counseled for 57 different genetic disorders, and their clients represented the range of local ethnic groups. They also had educational, research, marketing and administrative roles. They expected to expand these roles and advance the profession in future. Genetic counselors are versatile, playing several significant roles. As these become better recognized, demand for their services should increase, jobs should be created and the service expanded. PMID:23723047

  2. Africa: Private Power's Next Frontier?

    SciTech Connect

    Lock, Reinier

    2006-10-15

    There might seem to be ample economic gloom and doom to support the old notion that much of Africa is a 'basket case' with no real hope of escaping from its sub-economic cellblock. But such a view may be misguided as we witness the creation of many of the building blocks for real, sustainable economic progress in much of Africa, including programs for serious expansions in electricity infrastructure. (author)

  3. Balancing Human Rights and Civil Liberties in an Emerging Democracy: Education Law, Policy and Practice in South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckmann, Johan; Maile, Simeon; van Vollenhoven, Willie; Joubert Rika

    This outline is part of a collection of 54 papers from the 48th annual conference of the Education Law Association held in November 2002. It covers a presentation on changes in the law and social structure of South Africa. As an outline, it briefly touches upon a number of topics, but focuses mainly on South Africa's emerging "final" Constitution,…

  4. Education for Child Survival and Development in Africa. UNESCO-UNICEF Co-operative Programme Digest No. 20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kagia, Ruth; And Others

    Collected in this digest are nine articles concerning education for child survival and development in Africa. Topics include: (1) the role of basic education in the promotion of child survival and development; (2) child health in Eastern and Southern Africa, including discussions of problems, interventions, and the role of education for health;…

  5. Regional case studies--Africa.

    PubMed

    Prentice, Andrew M

    2009-01-01

    Africa is the final continent to be affected by the nutrition transition and, as elsewhere, is characterized by the paradoxical coexistence of malnutrition and obesity. Several features of the obesity epidemic in Africa mirror those in other emerging nations: it penetrates the richer nations and urban areas first with a strong urban- rural gradient; initially it affects the wealthy, but later there is a demographic switch as obesity becomes a condition more associated with poverty, and it shares many of the same drivers related to the increasing affordability of highly refined oils and carbohydrates, and a move away from subsistence farm work and towards sedentary lifestyles. Africa also has some characteristics of the obesity epidemic that stand out from other regions such as: (1) excepting some areas of the Pacific, Africa is probably the only region in which obesity (especially among women) is viewed culturally as a positive and desirable trait, leading to major gender differences in obesity rates in many countries; (2) most of Africa has very low rates of obesity in children, and to date African obesity is mostly an adult syndrome; (3) Africans seem genetically prone to higher rates of diabetes and hypertension in association with obesity than Caucasians, but seem to be relatively protected from dislipidemias; (4) the case-specific deaths and disabilities from diabetes and hypertension in Africa are very high due to the paucity of health services and the strain that the 'double burden' of disease places on health systems.

  6. AIDS in Africa.

    PubMed

    Wilson, D; Armstrong, M; Lavelle, S

    1991-01-01

    Works on epidemiological, and social and behavioral science aspects of AIDS prevention and support in Africa are reviewed from the 7th Conference on AIDS. Participants were especially concerned with why AIDS spreads at disparate rates in different countries and regions of the world. Research on the casual factors of the spread of HIV generally focused upon patterns of sex behavior, the presence of other STDs, and the effect of circumcision. The roles of certain vaginal tightening agents used by Zairian prostitutes, vaginal bruising and bleeding, sex during menses, and oral contraception were also considered. Further, participants explored the possibility of a more coordinated, integrated approach to research and intervention development between the medical and social disciplines, and expressed the overall need for concurrent mass education interventions. In the face of ever increasing rates of HIV infection, including vertical transmission, making condoms ubiquitous, affordable, and highly publicized should garner higher general acceptance and use rates in these populations. Papers and models on the micro- and macro-socioeconomic impact of AIDS were finally discussed, followed by recommendations for a complete reassessment and reworking of policy for AIDS prevention. AIDS activities should, in fact, be integrated into the daily fabric of society, with prevention measures considered an ultimate necessity for social survival.

  7. Collection Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Libraries in Canada, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Includes 21 articles that discuss collection development in Canadian school libraries. Topics include digital collections in school library media centers; print and electronic library resources; library collections; collaborative projects; print-disabled students; informing administrators of the importance of collection development; censorship;…

  8. A renal registry for Africa: first steps

    PubMed Central

    Davids, M. Razeen; Eastwood, John B.; Selwood, Neville H.; Arogundade, Fatiu A.; Ashuntantang, Gloria; Benghanem Gharbi, Mohammed; Jarraya, Faiçal; MacPhee, Iain A.M.; McCulloch, Mignon; Plange-Rhule, Jacob; Swanepoel, Charles R.; Adu, Dwomoa

    2016-01-01

    There is a dearth of data on end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in Africa. Several national renal registries have been established but have not been sustainable because of resource limitations. The African Association of Nephrology (AFRAN) and the African Paediatric Nephrology Association (AFPNA) recognize the importance of good registry data and plan to establish an African Renal Registry. This article reviews the elements needed for a successful renal registry and gives an overview of renal registries in developed and developing countries, with the emphasis on Africa. It then discusses the proposed African Renal Registry and the first steps towards its implementation. A registry requires a clear purpose, and agreement on inclusion and exclusion criteria, the dataset and the data dictionary. Ethical issues, data ownership and access, the dissemination of findings and funding must all be considered. Well-documented processes should guide data collection and ensure data quality. The ERA-EDTA Registry is the world's oldest renal registry. In Africa, registry data have been published mainly by North African countries, starting with Egypt and Tunisia in 1975. However, in recent years no African country has regularly reported national registry data. A shared renal registry would provide participating countries with a reliable technology platform and a common data dictionary to facilitate joint analyses and comparisons. In March 2015, AFRAN organized a registry workshop for African nephrologists and then took the decision to establish, for the first time, an African Renal Registry. In conclusion, African nephrologists have decided to establish a continental renal registry. This initiative could make a substantial impact on the practice of nephrology and the provision of services for adults and children with ESRD in many African countries. PMID:26798479

  9. A renal registry for Africa: first steps.

    PubMed

    Davids, M Razeen; Eastwood, John B; Selwood, Neville H; Arogundade, Fatiu A; Ashuntantang, Gloria; Benghanem Gharbi, Mohammed; Jarraya, Faiçal; MacPhee, Iain A M; McCulloch, Mignon; Plange-Rhule, Jacob; Swanepoel, Charles R; Adu, Dwomoa

    2016-02-01

    There is a dearth of data on end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in Africa. Several national renal registries have been established but have not been sustainable because of resource limitations. The African Association of Nephrology (AFRAN) and the African Paediatric Nephrology Association (AFPNA) recognize the importance of good registry data and plan to establish an African Renal Registry. This article reviews the elements needed for a successful renal registry and gives an overview of renal registries in developed and developing countries, with the emphasis on Africa. It then discusses the proposed African Renal Registry and the first steps towards its implementation. A registry requires a clear purpose, and agreement on inclusion and exclusion criteria, the dataset and the data dictionary. Ethical issues, data ownership and access, the dissemination of findings and funding must all be considered. Well-documented processes should guide data collection and ensure data quality. The ERA-EDTA Registry is the world's oldest renal registry. In Africa, registry data have been published mainly by North African countries, starting with Egypt and Tunisia in 1975. However, in recent years no African country has regularly reported national registry data. A shared renal registry would provide participating countries with a reliable technology platform and a common data dictionary to facilitate joint analyses and comparisons. In March 2015, AFRAN organized a registry workshop for African nephrologists and then took the decision to establish, for the first time, an African Renal Registry. In conclusion, African nephrologists have decided to establish a continental renal registry. This initiative could make a substantial impact on the practice of nephrology and the provision of services for adults and children with ESRD in many African countries.

  10. How many species of fungi are there at the tip of Africa?

    PubMed Central

    Crous, Pedro W.; Rong, Isabella H.; Wood, Alan; Lee, Seonju; Glen, Hugh; Botha, Wilhelm; Slippers, Bernard; de Beer, Wilhelm Z.; Wingfield, Michael J.; Hawksworth, David L.

    2006-01-01

    Several recent studies have reviewed the extent of fungal biodiversity, and have used these data as basis for revised estimates of species numbers based on known numbers of plants and insects. None of these studies, however, have focused on fungal biodiversity in South Africa. Coinciding with the 100th anniversary of the National Collection of Fungi (PREM) in South Africa in 2005, it is thus timely to reflect on the taxonomic research that has been conducted in South Africa over the past Century. Information is presented on the extent of fungal collections preserved at PREM, and the associated research publications that have largely resulted from this resource. These data are placed in context of the known plant and insect biodiversity, and used as basis to estimate the potential number of fungi that could be expected in South Africa. The conservative estimate is of approximately 200 000 species without taking into account those associated with a substantial insect biodiversity. PMID:18490969

  11. Radar Mosaic of Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This is an image of equatorial Africa, centered on the equator at longitude 15degrees east. This image is a mosaic of almost 4,000 separate images obtained in 1996 by the L-band imaging radar onboard the Japanese Earth Resources Satellite. Using radar to penetrate the persistent clouds prevalent in tropical forests, the Japanese Earth Resources Satellite was able for the first time to image at high resolution this continental scale region during single flooding seasons. The area shown covers about 7.4 million square kilometers (2.8 million square miles) of land surface, spans more than 5,000 kilometers(3,100 miles) east and west and some 2,000 kilometers (1,240 miles) north and south. North is up in this image. At the full resolution of the mosaic (100 meters or 330 feet), this image is more than 500 megabytes in size, and was processed from imagery totaling more than 60 gigabytes.

    Central Africa was imaged twice in 1996, once between January and March, which is the major low-flood season in the Congo Basin, and once between October and November, which is the major high-flood season in the Congo Basin. The red color corresponds to the data from the low-flood season, the green to the high-flood season, and the blue to the 'texture' of the low-flood data. The forests appear green as a result, the flooded and palm forests, as well as urban areas, appear yellow, the ocean and lakes appear black, and savanna areas appear blue, black or green, depending on the savanna type, surface topography and other factors. The areas of the image that are black and white were mapped only between January and March 1996. In these areas, the black areas are savanna or open water, the gray are forests, and the white areas are flooded forests or urban areas. The Congo River dominates the middle of the image, where the nearby forests that are periodically flooded by the Congo and its tributaries stand out as yellow. The Nile River flows north from Lake Victoria in the middle right of

  12. Central and southern Africa

    SciTech Connect

    McGrew, H.J.

    1981-10-01

    Exploration in central and southern Africa continued to expand during 1980. The greatest concentration of activity was in Nigeria. However, there was considerable increase in the level of exploratory work in Cameroon and Congo. Significant new finds have been made in Ivory Coast. Geological and geophysical activity was carried out in 18 of the countries, with those in the western part having the largest share. Seismic work involved 225 party months of operation. Most of this time was spent on land, but marine operations accounted for 73,389 km of new control. Gravity and magnetic data were recorded during the marine surveys, and several large aeromagnetic projects were undertaken to obtain a total of 164,498 line km of data. Exploratory and development drilling accounted for a total of 304 wells and 2,605,044 ft (794,212 m) of hole. The 92 exploratory wells that were drilled resulted in 47 oil and gas discoveries. In development drilling 89% of the 212 wells were successful. At the end of the year, 27 exploratory wells were underway, and 34 development wells were being drilled for a total of 61. Oil production from the countries that this review covers was 918,747,009 bbl in 1980, a drop of about 9% from the previous year. Countries showing a decline in production were Nigeria, Gabon, Cabinda, and Zaire. Increases were recorded in Cameroon, Congo, and Ghana. A new country was added to the list of producers when production from the Belier field in Ivory Coast came on stream. 33 figures, 15 tables.

  13. "Been to Africa".

    PubMed

    Fiander, A; Hughes, D

    The main drawback for young doctors from developed countries working in Africa or other developing area, is the lack of supervision. Medical and nursing care standards are low, with poor facilities and infrastructure and the problems encountered are enormous. Attitudes and expectations will have to change and mistakes will inevitably occur. Additional frustrations are poor motivation of the local staff, lack of essential supplies and the doctor coming down with tropical diseases. However, much can be gained by this type of experience: basic skills will be improved and self-confidence gained in ones own judgement; technical abilities will grow because of limited resources and equipment, and the need to justify their use only when absolutely necessary. Management and administrative skills will also improve, and opportunities found for teaching and making little changes. The personal thanks and appreciation of the patients, despite their great poverty and their quiet suffering also adds to the experience. Valuable lessons can be learned from the nurses, both medically and culturally and they have been accepting and friendly. Planning for such an experience takes 1-2 years. It is hard to find suitable jobs and one should seek the advice of consultants or other experts with experience abroad. Organizations concerned with health in developing countries such as the Institute of Child Health, International Centre for Eye Health, Christian Medical Fellowship, are resources for obtaining positions. Placement may be with a missionary organization, nongovernmental organization, college program, or a hospital exchange. The best time is when the doctor has completed the specialist exams and has something specific to offer. A 2-year contract is a reasonable time period to plan for. Keeping up with the literature and some standard teaching tools are important and publishing the experiences gained will be valuable for others. Prepare for this by keeping records of work, including a

  14. Three futures for Africa.

    PubMed

    Bugnicourt, J

    1979-01-01

    Industrialization and the monetary economy have changed the relationship between society and nature that characterized majority of African cultures. Modernization is raping the environment, and impersonal and formal attitudes are on the rise. To determine what African life would be like by the year 2000, 3 scenarios are proposed, based upon the relationship of lifestyle to the African people's most pressing needs and aspirations, and the ways in which these can be satisfied: 1) the prolongation of present tendencies. This means the continued exploitation of African raw materials, concurrent increase of energy imports with growth rates, and modernization pattern following the European or American model. Environmental damage is dealt with by a limited policy, mainly in smart areas and big agglomerations, and in certain tourist spots. 2) distributing benefits of development--the dominant countries redistribute benefits of development (e.g., improved terms of trade for Africa); the African economy, however is still directed to the outside, even if it is partly managed by African managers. Intermediate lifestyles are fostered by the money economy, and the African masses aspire for imported models. 3) environmental development--African society no longer depends on the world market but instead tries to meet the basic needs of its people, with the environment as the permanent focal point of reference. This necessitates the adoption of a tough strategy and new options in use of technology, in consumption levels, in cultural models, and in distribution of activities between town and country. Currently, the future environment and life styles of the African people are being decided by various centres of decision-making--big powers, multinationals, governments, local interests--without their being aware of it. It is not unreasonable to expect that a great public debate on whether to conform or to imitate, or to be independent, may soon unfold to determine the aspirations of the

  15. Forecasting droughts in East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mwangi, E.; Wetterhall, F.; Dutra, E.; Di Giuseppe, F.; Pappenberger, F.

    2014-02-01

    The humanitarian crises caused by the recent droughts (2008-2009 and 2010-2011) in East Africa have illustrated that the ability to make accurate drought forecasts with sufficient lead time is essential. The use of dynamical model precipitation forecasts in combination with drought indices, such as the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), can potentially lead to a better description of drought duration, magnitude and spatial extent. This study evaluates the use of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) products in forecasting droughts in East Africa. ECMWF seasonal precipitation shows significant skill for March-May and October-December rain seasons when evaluated against measurements from the available in situ stations from East Africa. The forecast for October-December rain season has higher skill than for the March-May season. ECMWF forecasts add value to the consensus forecasts produced during the Greater Horn of Africa Climate Outlook Forum (GHACOF), which is the present operational product for precipitation forecast over East Africa. Complementing the original ECMWF precipitation forecasts with SPI provides additional information on the spatial extent and intensity of the drought event.

  16. Medicine and medical sciences in Africa.

    PubMed

    Gathiram, Prem; Hänninen, Osmo

    2014-06-01

    acknowledge learning medicine and anatomy form the Egyptian experts. The University of Al Karaouine, in Fez, Morocco, Africa is considered the oldest continuously operating university in the world and has been a center of learning for more than 1,000 years. Medicine in Africa has been acknowledged by many authoritarians to be well developed, long before its development in Greece and other European Countries. Almost every African country has medical and medical sciences societies and associations. According the WHO, African journals online (AJOL) as the worlds largest collection of peer-reviewed journals. It is also believed that Africa will play a major role in Sciences in the future, and in fact one of the Worlds leading palaeo-anthropologist was a South African. PMID:24290618

  17. Collecting apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Duncan, Charles P.

    1983-01-01

    An improved collecting apparatus for small aquatic or airborne organisms such as plankton, larval fish, insects, etc. The improvement constitutes an apertured removal container within which is retained a collecting bag, and which is secured at the apex of a conical collecting net. Such collectors are towed behind a vessel or vehicle with the open end of the conical net facing forward for trapping the aquatic or airborne organisms within the collecting bag, while allowing the water or air to pass through the apertures in the container. The container is readily removable from the collecting net whereby the collecting bag can be quickly removed and replaced for further sample collection. The collecting bag is provided with means for preventing the bag from being pulled into the container by the water or air flowing therethrough.

  18. [Africa: land of innovation and imagination in demography].

    PubMed

    Piche, V; Mumpasi, L

    1992-01-01

    This edition of Cahiers Quebecois de Demographie is dedicated to the important evolution in the demographic production in French speaking Africa, with the exception of one article on fertility trends in Haiti. Between the 1960s until about the 1980s, African demography settled down to the heavy task of filling the void in demographic data. Data collection and development of new analysis techniques characterize the type of training received by demographers and their scientific production, most often realized in the teaching of national statistics. During this period, African demography contributed much to the advancement of demography, especially certain concepts and tools for collection and analysis. It faced declared limits in classical definitions of household, migration, and forms of union. It yearned to forge definitions which better fit the African context. It uses historical calendars to collect data on age in populations which do not always know their birth year. It developed the technique of observation to collect data on nomads. Africa had been the place entitled to the development of indirect estimation methods. Demographic works in Africa have participated in the restatement of the demographic transition theory and the reversal of intergenerational transfers theory. Since the end of the 1980s, African demography has moved in a social and explicative direction. One article in this edition concerns a new proposed method to comprehend the notion of family ties in demographic surveys, especially those examining migrants to Dakar and Bamako. Another article explores the implications of a very young age structure in Africa. Another article analyzes the differential factors of intergenerational intervals while considering all at once demographic variables and socioeconomic variables. Another articles addresses excess female mortality, especially after three months, in Mali. Two articles examine female migration towards Lome, Togo, and in Burkina Faso. PMID

  19. Tutorials for Africa: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/africa/index.html Tutorials for Africa To use the sharing features on ... of an interview with Makerere University medical students. Tutorials Malaria Diarrhea For tips and instructions on using ...

  20. Language and Social Justice in South Africa's Higher Education: Insights from a South African University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mwaniki, Munene

    2012-01-01

    The paper interrogates the issue of language and social justice in South Africa's higher education using quantitative and qualitative data collected at the University of the Free State (UFS). Data were collected using questionnaires. Through purposive sampling based on South African and UFS demographics, 120 questionnaires were administered to UFS…

  1. Monitoring and Evaluation of Substance Abuse Services in South Africa: Implications for Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Bronwyn; Burnhams, Nadine Harker; Fakier, Nuraan

    2010-01-01

    Although outcomes monitoring and the collection of other performance data holds benefits for service managers and policy makers, the extent to which these data are collected by South African substance abuse service providers is unknown. To describe (i) the extent to which substance abuse service providers in South Africa monitor and evaluate their…

  2. Africa and the AIDS myth.

    PubMed

    Versi, A

    1990-04-01

    The recently released television documentary, "Monkey Business, AIDS: The African Story," has created controversy in Europe with its premise that AIDS did not originate in Africa. Although AIDS 1st appeared in New York in 1981 and was not recorded in Africa until 1983, researchers and the media have promoted the theory that AIDS came from Africa through human contact with the green monkey. Subsequent research forced the original champions of this "green monkey connection" theory to acknowledge that the AIDS virus and the green monkey virus are so dissimilar that they could not be historically linked. Then, the focus turned to the theory that a remote pygmy tribe had been endemically infected with the AIDS virus and carried the disease, by airplane, out of the country. This theory, too, was refuted by the failure to locate any HIV-positive pygmies in the Central African Republic. Still determined to prove that AIDS did not have an American or European origin, researchers reported that blood testing conducted in 1984 revealed 50-90% of Africans to be HIV-infected. Retesting with a more accurate procedure revealed the rate of infectivity to be only 0.02%; yet the media have continued to portray Africa as the source of the AIDS scourge. Moreover, it appears that AIDS cases are actually overreported from Africa--not underreported--due to confusion with conditions such as malnutrition and tropical diseases. To some, this relentless drive to vilify Africa reflects racism. Others believe that it represents an effort to cover up the possibility that the AIDS virus is man-made--a result of an accident in gene technology or microbiology.

  3. Volcanism in Eastern Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cauthen, Clay; Coombs, Cassandra R.

    1996-01-01

    In 1891, the Virunga Mountains of Eastern Zaire were first acknowledged as volcanoes, and since then, the Virunga Mountain chain has demonstrated its potentially violent volcanic nature. The Virunga Mountains lie across the Eastern African Rift in an E-W direction located north of Lake Kivu. Mt. Nyamuragira and Mt. Nyiragongo present the most hazard of the eight mountains making up Virunga volcanic field, with the most recent activity during the 1970-90's. In 1977, after almost eighty years of moderate activity and periods of quiescence, Mt. Nyamuragira became highly active with lava flows that extruded from fissures on flanks circumscribing the volcano. The flows destroyed vast areas of vegetation and Zairian National Park areas, but no casualties were reported. Mt. Nyiragongo exhibited the same type volcanic activity, in association with regional tectonics that effected Mt. Nyamuragira, with variations of lava lake levels, lava fountains, and lava flows that resided in Lake Kivu. Mt. Nyiragongo, recently named a Decade volcano, presents both a direct and an indirect hazard to the inhabitants and properties located near the volcano. The Virunga volcanoes pose four major threats: volcanic eruptions, lava flows, toxic gas emission (CH4 and CO2), and earthquakes. Thus, the volcanoes of the Eastern African volcanic field emanate harm to the surrounding area by the forecast of volcanic eruptions. During the JSC Summer Fellowship program, we will acquire and collate remote sensing, photographic (Space Shuttle images), topographic and field data. In addition, maps of the extent and morphology(ies) of the features will be constructed using digital image information. The database generated will serve to create a Geographic Information System for easy access of information of the Eastem African volcanic field. The analysis of volcanism in Eastern Africa will permit a comparison for those areas from which we have field data. Results from this summer's work will permit

  4. Can GM sorghum impact Africa?

    PubMed

    Botha, Gerda M; Viljoen, Christopher D

    2008-02-01

    It is said that genetic modification (GM) of grain sorghum has the potential to alleviate hunger in Africa. To this end, millions of dollars have been committed to developing GM sorghum. Current developments in the genetic engineering of sorghum are similar to efforts to improve cassava and other traditional African crops, as well as rice in Asia. On closer analysis, GM sorghum is faced with the same limitations as 'Golden Rice' (GM rice) in the context of combating vitamin A deficiency (VAD) efficiently and sustainably. Thus, it is questionable whether the cost of developing GM sorghum can be justified when compared to the cost of investing in sustainable agricultural practice in Africa.

  5. The international seismological observing period in Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Engdahl, E.R.; Bergman, Eric A.

    1992-01-01

    The International Seismological Observing Period (ISOP) is a specific time interval designated for enhanced international cooperation in the collection and dissemination of observatory measurements from the global seismographic network. The primary purpose of the ISOP is to strengthen the international infrastructure that supports current seismological practice and increase the cooperation among nations that operate seismological observatories. Measurements, reported by the existing global network and compiled by agencies such as the International Seismological Centre (ISC), are providing new information about earthquakes and the structure of the Earth of fundamental importance to the Earth sciences. However, these data represent but a small fraction of the information contained in the seismograms. One of the goals of the ISOP is to collect improved sets of data. In particular, the measurement and reporting of later-arriving phases, during a fixed ISOP period, from earthquakes selected for detailed observation by the cooperating stations will be encouraged. The use of advanced, digital instrumentation provides an unprecedented opportunity for enhancing the methods of seismogram interpretation and seismic parameter extraction, by the implementation of digital processing methods at seismic observatories worldwide. It must be ensured that this new information will be available to the entire seismological community. It is believed that this purpose is best served with an ISOP that promotes increased on-site processing at digital stations in Africa and elsewhere. Improvements in seismology require truly international cooperation and the educational aspects of seismological practice form one of the goals of the ISOP. Thus, workshops will be needed in Africa to train analysts in ISOP procedures and to introduce them to modern techniques and applications of the data. Participants will, thus, benefit from theoretical results and practical experience that are of direct

  6. The Regionalization of Africa: Delineating Africa's Subregions Using Airline Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Good, Pieter R.; Derudder, Ben; Witlox, Frank J.

    2011-01-01

    Current regionalizations of Africa have limitations in that they are attribute-based and regions are delineated according to national boundaries. Taking the world city network approach as starting point, it is possible to use relational data (i.e., information about the relationships between cities) rather than attribute data, and moreover, it…

  7. Analysis of Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Sesame Accessions from Africa and Asia as Major Centers of Its Cultivation

    PubMed Central

    Dossa, Komivi; Wei, Xin; Zhang, Yanxin; Fonceka, Daniel; Yang, Wenjuan; Diouf, Diaga; Liao, Boshou; Cissé, Ndiaga; Zhang, Xiurong

    2016-01-01

    Sesame is an important oil crop widely cultivated in Africa and Asia. Understanding the genetic diversity of accessions from these continents is critical to designing breeding methods and for additional collection of sesame germplasm. To determine the genetic diversity in relation to geographical regions, 96 sesame accessions collected from 22 countries distributed over six geographic regions in Africa and Asia were genotyped using 33 polymorphic SSR markers. Large genetic variability was found within the germplasm collection. The total number of alleles was 137, averaging 4.15 alleles per locus. The accessions from Asia displayed more diversity than those from Africa. Accessions from Southern Asia (SAs), Eastern Asia (EAs), and Western Africa (WAf) were highly diversified, while those from Western Asia (WAs), Northern Africa (NAf), and Southeastern Africa (SAf) had the lowest diversity. The analysis of molecular variance revealed that more than 44% of the genetic variance was due to diversity among geographic regions. Five subpopulations, including three in Asia and two in Africa, were cross-identified through phylogenetic, PCA, and STRUCTURE analyses. Most accessions clustered in the same population based on their geographical origins. Our results provide technical guidance for efficient management of sesame genetic resources in breeding programs and further collection of sesame germplasm from these different regions. PMID:27077887

  8. South Africa/Time Running Out.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Todd, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Based on the book, "South Africa: Time Running Out," a report of the Study Commission on U.S. Policy Toward Southern Africa, this 10-20 day unit of study is designed to help high school students learn about the history, geography, and present situation in South Africa and its relationship to the United States. The first of four sections provides…

  9. Theme: Education with Production in South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Ben; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Includes " A Bridge Too Far: Democracy, Development and Education in Rural South Africa (Parker); "Khuphuka: A Skills Training and Employment Programme in Durban, South Africa" (Comninos); "Reconstruction and Development Programme and Tertiary Institutions in South Africa"; and "Report on the First Session of the Seminar: Mafeking, September…

  10. Barriers to Cataract Surgery in Africa: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Aboobaker, Shaheer; Courtright, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Cataract remains the leading cause of blindness in Africa. We performed a systematic literature search of articles reporting barriers to cataract surgery in Africa. PubMed and Google Scholar databases were searched with the terms “barriers, cataract, Africa, cataract surgery, cataract surgical coverage (CSC), and rapid assessment of avoidable blindness (RAAB).” The review covered from 1999 to 2014. In RAAB studies, barriers related to awareness and access were more commonly reported than acceptance. Other type of studies reported cost as the most common barrier. Some qualitative studies tended to report community and family dynamics as barriers to cataract surgery. CSC was lower in females in 88.2% of the studies. The variability in outcomes of studies of barriers to cataract surgery could be due to context and the type of data collection. It is likely that qualitative data will provide a deeper understanding of the complex social, family, community, financial and gender issues relating to barriers to uptake of cataract surgery in Africa. PMID:26957856

  11. Gendered Patterns of Migration in Rural South Africa.

    PubMed

    Camlin, Carol S; Snow, Rachel C; Hosegood, Victoria

    2014-08-01

    Gender is increasingly recognized as fundamental to understanding migration processes, causes and consequences. In South Africa, it is intrinsic to the social transformations fueling high levels of internal migration and complex forms of mobility. While female migration in Africa has often been characterized as less prevalent than male migration, and primarily related to marriage, in South Africa a feminization of internal migration is underway, fueled by women's increasing labor market participation. In this paper, we report sex differences in patterns, trends and determinants of internal migration based on data collected in a demographic surveillance system between 2001 and 2006 in rural KwaZulu-Natal. We show that women were somewhat more likely than men to undertake any migration, but sex differences in migration trends differed by migration flow, with women more likely to migrate into the area than men, and men more likely to out-migrate. Out-migration was suppressed by marriage particularly for women, but most women were not married; both men's and women's out-migrations were undertaken mainly for purposes of employment. Over half of female out-migrations (versus 35% of male out-migrations) were to nearby rural areas. The findings highlight the high mobility of this population and the extent to which gender is intimately related to the processes determining migration. We consider the implications of these findings for the measurement of migration and mobility, in particular for health and social policy and research among highly mobile populations in southern Africa.

  12. Collection Mapping and Collection Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, William; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Describes the use of collection mapping to assess media collections of Aurora, Colorado, Public Schools. Case studies of elementary, middle, and high school media centers describe materials selection and weeding and identify philosophies that library collections should support school curriculum, and teacher-library media specialist cooperation in…

  13. Forecasting droughts in East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mwangi, Emmah; Wetterhall, Fredrik; Dutra, Emanuel; Di Giuseppe, Francesca; Pappenberger, Florian

    2014-05-01

    The humanitarian crisis caused by the recent droughts (2008-2009 and 2010-2011) in East Africa have illustrated that the ability to make accurate drought predictions with sufficient lead time is essential. The use of dynamical model forecasts in combination with drought indices, such as the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), can potentially to lead to a better description of drought duration, magnitude and spatial extent. This study evaluates the use of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) products in forecasting droughts in East Africa. ECMWF seasonal precipitation shows significant skill for both rain seasons when evaluated against measurements from the available in-situ stations from East Africa. The forecast for October-December rain season has higher skill than for the March-May season. ECMWF forecasts add value to the statistical forecasts produced during the Greater Horn of Africa Climate Outlook Forums (GHACOF), which is the present operational product. Complementing the raw precipitation forecasts with SPI provides additional information on the spatial extent and intensity of the drought event.

  14. Basic space sciences in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abiodun, Adigun Ade; Odingo, Richard S.

    Through space applications, a number of social and economic programmes in education, communications, agro-climatology, weather forecasting and remote sensing are being realized within the African continent. Regional and international organizations and agencies such as the African Remote Sensing Council, the Pan-African Telecommunication Union and the United Nations system have been instrumental in making Africa conscious of the impact and implications of space science and technology on its peoples. The above notwithstanding, discernible interests in space research, to date, in Africa, have been limited to the work on the solar system and on interplanetary matters including satellite tracking, and to the joint African-Indian proposal for the establishment of an International Institute for Space Sciences and Electronics (INISSE) and the construction, in Kenya, of a Giant Equatorial Radio Telescope (GERT). During this ``Transport and Communications Decade in Africa,'' Africa's basic space research efforts would need to initially focus on the appropriateness, modification and adaptation of existing technologies for African conditions with a view to providing economic, reliable and functional services for the continent. These should include elements of electronics, communications, structural and tooling industries, and upper-atmosphere research. The experience of and collaborative work with India, Brazil and Argentina, as well as the roles of African scientists, are examined.

  15. Conservation Education in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sewell, Keira

    2012-01-01

    Lawrence Anthony is a conservationist for whom actions speak far louder than words. An imposing figure, Anthony does not take "no" for an answer and uses his commitment, enthusiasm and indefatigable drive to change situations, both in his native South Africa and around the world. Anthony has worked tirelessly alongside tribal leaders over many…

  16. Atmospheric chemistry over southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatebe, Charles K.; Levy, Robert C.; Thompson, Anne M.

    2012-03-01

    Changing Chemistry in a Changing Climate: Human and Natural Impacts Over Southern Africa (C4-SAR); Midrand, South Africa, 31 May to 3 June 2011 During the southern African dry season, regional haze from mixed industrial pollution, biomass burning aerosol and gases from domestic and grassland fires, and biogenic sources from plants and soils is worsened by a semipermanent atmospheric gyre over the subcontinent. These factors were a driver of several major international field campaigns in the 1990s and early 2000s and attracted many scientists to the region. Some researchers were interested in understanding fundamental processes governing chemistry of the atmosphere and interaction with climate change. Others found favorable conditions for evaluating satellite- derived measurements of atmospheric properties and a changing land surface. With that background in mind a workshop on atmospheric chemistry was held in South Africa. Sponsored by the International Commission on Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Pollution (ICACGP; http://www.icacgp.org/), the workshop received generous support from Eskom, the South African power utility; and the Climatology Research Group of the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

  17. NeuroAIDS in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Kevin; Liner, Jeff; Hakim, James; Sankalé, Jean-Louis; Grant, Igor; Letendre, Scott; Clifford, David; Diop, Amadou Gallo; Jaye, Assan; Kanmogne, Georgette; Njamnshi, Alfred; Langford, T. Dianne; Gemechu Weyessa, Tufa; Wood, Charles; Banda, Mwanza; Hosseinipour, Mina; Sacktor, Ned; Nakasuja, Noeline; Bangirana, Paul; Paul, Robert; Joska, John; Wong, Joseph; Boivin, Michael; Holding, Penny; Kammerer, Betsy; Van Rie, Annelies; Ive, Prudence; Nath, Avindra; Lawler, Kathy; Adebamowo, Clement; Royal, Walter; Joseph, Jeymohan

    2013-01-01

    In July 2009, the Center for Mental Health Research on AIDS at the National Institute of Mental Health organized and supported the meeting “NeuroAIDS in Africa.” This meeting was held in Cape Town, South Africa, and was affiliated with the 5th IAS Conference on HIV Pathogenesis, Treatment and Prevention. Presentations began with an overview of the epidemiology of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa, the molecular epidemiology of HIV, HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HANDs), and HAND treatment. These introductory talks were followed by presentations on HAND research and clinical care in Botswana, Cameroon, Ethiopia, The Gambia, Kenya, Malawi, Nigeria, Senegal, South Africa, Uganda, and Zambia. Topics discussed included best practices for assessing neurocognitive disorders, patterns of central nervous system (CNS) involvement in the region, subtype-associated risk for HAND, pediatric HIV assessments and neurodevelopment, HIV-associated CNS opportunistic infections and immune reconstitution syndrome, the evolving changes in treatment implementation, and various opportunities and strategies for NeuroAIDS research and capacity building in the region. PMID:20500018

  18. Christian Higher Education in Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Stuart; Mutua, Isaac N.

    2012-01-01

    Africa is commonly seen as a continent of rampant political corruption, poverty, violence, and ethnic conflicts rising at times to genocide. There is some truth in this view although the real picture is diverse, with the situation varying considerably from country to country. However, the more important question seldom asked is: What are the…

  19. Africa in Social Studies Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zekiros, Astair; Wiley, Marylee

    Based on an examination of 50 general social studies textbooks, the report discusses the most frequently found biases, misconceptions, omissions, inaccuracies, and misrepresentations. Criteria for judging the textbooks include: readable and suitable materials; accurate and current content; presentation of Africa as a diverse continent; open…

  20. Television, Censorship and South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giffard, C. Anthony; Cohen, Lisa

    Network television news has often been accused of inciting and prolonging incidents of public violence, whether riots or terrorism, and in South Africa this type of thinking has led to increasingly stringent restrictions on both domestic and foreign media covering the violent unrest there. A study determined a chronology of events and analyzed the…

  1. [The cases of teratology in Mallophaga of South Africa].

    PubMed

    Złotorzycka, J; Modrzejewska, M

    2001-01-01

    The following types ofteratology were found in the collection of 1278 individuals of Mallophaga coming from the birds of South Africa origin: deformity clypeus in Quadraceps kilimandjarensis (KELL.) from Stephanibyx coronatus (BURCH.), partial atrophy of one of the antennae of two males Q. kilimandjarensis and abdomen plates deformity of two females Q. kilimandjarensis, in male and female Quadraceps chorleyi TIMM. from Hoplopterus armatus (BURCH.), in female Saemundssonia africana TIMM. from Stephanibyx coronatus (BODD.) and male Plegadiphilus threskiornis (BEDF.) from Threskiornis aethiopicus (LATH.) the only representative of Amblycera (the other teratology belonged to Ischnocera suborder). Generally teratology was found in 0.70% of the collection. PMID:16888959

  2. Plasmodium vivax Transmission in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Howes, Rosalind E.; Reiner Jr., Robert C.; Battle, Katherine E.; Longbottom, Joshua; Mappin, Bonnie; Ordanovich, Dariya; Tatem, Andrew J.; Drakeley, Chris; Gething, Peter W.; Zimmerman, Peter A.; Smith, David L.; Hay, Simon I.

    2015-01-01

    Malaria in sub-Saharan Africa has historically been almost exclusively attributed to Plasmodium falciparum (Pf). Current diagnostic and surveillance systems in much of sub-Saharan Africa are not designed to identify or report non-Pf human malaria infections accurately, resulting in a dearth of routine epidemiological data about their significance. The high prevalence of Duffy negativity provided a rationale for excluding the possibility of Plasmodium vivax (Pv) transmission. However, review of varied evidence sources including traveller infections, community prevalence surveys, local clinical case reports, entomological and serological studies contradicts this viewpoint. Here, these data reports are weighted in a unified framework to reflect the strength of evidence of indigenous Pv transmission in terms of diagnostic specificity, size of individual reports and corroboration between evidence sources. Direct evidence was reported from 21 of the 47 malaria-endemic countries studied, while 42 countries were attributed with infections of visiting travellers. Overall, moderate to conclusive evidence of transmission was available from 18 countries, distributed across all parts of the continent. Approximately 86.6 million Duffy positive hosts were at risk of infection in Africa in 2015. Analysis of the mechanisms sustaining Pv transmission across this continent of low frequency of susceptible hosts found that reports of Pv prevalence were consistent with transmission being potentially limited to Duffy positive populations. Finally, reports of apparent Duffy-independent transmission are discussed. While Pv is evidently not a major malaria parasite across most of sub-Saharan Africa, the evidence presented here highlights its widespread low-level endemicity. An increased awareness of Pv as a potential malaria parasite, coupled with policy shifts towards species-specific diagnostics and reporting, will allow a robust assessment of the public health significance of Pv, as well

  3. Plasmodium vivax Transmission in Africa.

    PubMed

    Howes, Rosalind E; Reiner, Robert C; Battle, Katherine E; Longbottom, Joshua; Mappin, Bonnie; Ordanovich, Dariya; Tatem, Andrew J; Drakeley, Chris; Gething, Peter W; Zimmerman, Peter A; Smith, David L; Hay, Simon I

    2015-11-01

    Malaria in sub-Saharan Africa has historically been almost exclusively attributed to Plasmodium falciparum (Pf). Current diagnostic and surveillance systems in much of sub-Saharan Africa are not designed to identify or report non-Pf human malaria infections accurately, resulting in a dearth of routine epidemiological data about their significance. The high prevalence of Duffy negativity provided a rationale for excluding the possibility of Plasmodium vivax (Pv) transmission. However, review of varied evidence sources including traveller infections, community prevalence surveys, local clinical case reports, entomological and serological studies contradicts this viewpoint. Here, these data reports are weighted in a unified framework to reflect the strength of evidence of indigenous Pv transmission in terms of diagnostic specificity, size of individual reports and corroboration between evidence sources. Direct evidence was reported from 21 of the 47 malaria-endemic countries studied, while 42 countries were attributed with infections of visiting travellers. Overall, moderate to conclusive evidence of transmission was available from 18 countries, distributed across all parts of the continent. Approximately 86.6 million Duffy positive hosts were at risk of infection in Africa in 2015. Analysis of the mechanisms sustaining Pv transmission across this continent of low frequency of susceptible hosts found that reports of Pv prevalence were consistent with transmission being potentially limited to Duffy positive populations. Finally, reports of apparent Duffy-independent transmission are discussed. While Pv is evidently not a major malaria parasite across most of sub-Saharan Africa, the evidence presented here highlights its widespread low-level endemicity. An increased awareness of Pv as a potential malaria parasite, coupled with policy shifts towards species-specific diagnostics and reporting, will allow a robust assessment of the public health significance of Pv, as well

  4. Cenozoic vegetation, climate changes and hominid evolution in tropical Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnefille, Raymonde

    2010-07-01

    This paper reviews information on past vegetation of tropical Africa during the Cenozoic, focused upon the last 10 Ma, a time spanning hominid record in Central and East Africa. Summary of palaeobotanical data collected at terrestrial sites are compared with new results on the long term evolution of the continental vegetation zones documented from marine pollen record of two deep sea cores recovered from the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. Section 2 includes a summary of modern distribution of vegetation belts in the African continent and a synthesis of the results of both macrobotanical (fossil wood, leaves and fruits) and microbotanical (mainly pollen) studies presented according to time scale and geographical location. The main features emphasized by the palaeobotanical results are 1) seasonal vegetation and climate documented as soon as the Eocene in Tanzania 2) well diversified forests existing in northern West Ethiopia during the Oligocene 3) high temporal and spatial variabilities of forests composition during the Miocene when deciduous Legume woodland was documented in Ethiopia whereas wetter evergreen forests existed in Western Kenya 4) lack of evidence for an evergreen forest belt, continuous from Western Congo to East Africa. Section 3 presents new original pollen data recovered from a long core in the Gulf of Aden documenting large scale past vegetation changes in East Africa during the last 11 Ma. These results are discussed in comparison with a summarized long pollen sequence previously published from a marine core offshore the Niger delta. This comparison illustrates variations in geographical distribution of large vegetation zone at the continental scale, through time. In Section 4, vegetation changes registered during the last 10 Ma are discussed in relation with the results of isotopic studies and an updated presentation of hominids evolution in Africa. Several changes are shown in the marine records. An expansion of savanna/grassland is shown at 10

  5. Collecting Rocks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Rachel M.

    One of a series of general interest publications on science topics, the booklet provides those interested in rock collecting with a nontechnical introduction to the subject. Following a section examining the nature and formation of igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks, the booklet gives suggestions for starting a rock collection and using…

  6. Collective Enumeration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahrami, Bahador; Didino, Daniele; Frith, Chris; Butterworth, Brian; Rees, Geraint

    2013-01-01

    Many joint decisions in everyday life (e.g., Which bar is less crowded?) depend on approximate enumeration, but very little is known about the psychological characteristics of counting together. Here we systematically investigated collective approximate enumeration. Pairs of participants made individual and collective enumeration judgments in a…

  7. Jay's Collectibles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cappel, James J.; Gillman, Jason R., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    There is growing interest in collectibles of many types, as indicated by the popularity of television programs such as the History Channel's "Pawn Stars" and "American Pickers" and the Public Broadcasting Service's "Antiques Road Show." The availability of online auction sites such as eBay has enabled many people to collect items of interest as a…

  8. Rickettsia africae in Hyalomma dromedarii ticks from sub-Saharan Algeria.

    PubMed

    Kernif, Tahar; Djerbouh, Amel; Mediannikov, Oleg; Ayach, Bouhous; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe; Bitam, Idir

    2012-12-01

    Spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsioses are caused by obligate, intracellular Gram-negative bacteria of the genus Rickettsia. In recent years, several species and subspecies of rickettsias have been identified as emerging pathogens throughout the world, including sub-Saharan Africa. We report here the detection of Rickettsia africae, the agent responsible for African tick-bite fever, by amplification of fragments of gltA and ompA genes and multi-spacer typing from Hyalomma dromedarii ticks collected from the camel Camelus dromedarius in the Adrar and Béchar region (sub-Saharan Algeria). To date, R. africae has been associated mainly with Amblyomma spp. The role of H. dromedarii in the epidemiology of R. africae requires further investigation.

  9. [Oral receptivity of Aedes aegypti formosus from Franceville (Gabon, central Africa) for type 2 dengue virus].

    PubMed

    Vazeille-Falcoz, M; Failloux, A B; Mousson, L; Elissa, N; Rodhain, F

    1999-12-01

    Dengue is widely distributed in the tropics but epidemic activity was rarely reported in Africa before the 1980's. In the past 15 years, increased epidemic dengue fever has been reported both in East and West Africa, raising concern about the ability of local populations of Aedes aegypti to transmit dengue viruses. Ae. aegypti is present in two forms in Africa: Ae. aegypti aegypti and Ae. aegypti formosus. This latter form, much darker, was not originally a local species but is now colonizing artificial breeding sites within cities. We have been able to demonstrate the oral susceptibility for dengue type 2 virus of Ae. aegypti formosus collected in Franceville, Gabon (Central Africa). However, these mosquitoes sampled exhibited lower infection rates than those of a control colony of Ae. aegypti aegypti originating from French Polynesia.

  10. Tropical Africa: Land use, biomass, and carbon estimates for 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, S.; Gaston, G.; Daniels, R.C.

    1996-06-01

    This document describes the contents of a digital database containing maximum potential aboveground biomass, land use, and estimated biomass and carbon data for 1980 and describes a methodology that may be used to extend this data set to 1990 and beyond based on population and land cover data. The biomass data and carbon estimates are for woody vegetation in Tropical Africa. These data were collected to reduce the uncertainty associated with the possible magnitude of historical releases of carbon from land use change. Tropical Africa is defined here as encompassing 22.7 x 10{sup 6} km{sup 2} of the earth`s land surface and includes those countries that for the most part are located in Tropical Africa. Countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea and in southern Africa (i.e., Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, South Africa, Lesotho, Swaziland, and Western Sahara) have maximum potential biomass and land cover information but do not have biomass or carbon estimate. The database was developed using the GRID module in the ARC/INFO{sup TM} geographic information system. Source data were obtained from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the U.S. National Geophysical Data Center, and a limited number of biomass-carbon density case studies. These data were used to derive the maximum potential and actual (ca. 1980) aboveground biomass-carbon values at regional and country levels. The land-use data provided were derived from a vegetation map originally produced for the FAO by the International Institute of Vegetation Mapping, Toulouse, France.

  11. Mites (family Trombiculidae) parasitizing birds migrating from Africa to Europe

    PubMed Central

    Varma, M. G. R.

    1964-01-01

    The mechanisms of dissemination of arthropod-borne human and animal pathogens are of considerable interest to the epidemiologist, veterinarian and biologist. Birds which are hosts to such pathogens and their arthropod vectors could transport them over long distances during their spring and autumn migratory flights. In April 1961, birds migrating from Africa to Europe were collected in south-western Spain and examined for ectoparasites and antibodies to arboviruses. Fully engorged larvae of two species of trombiculid mites unknown in Europe (genera Neoschoengastia and Blankaartia) but found in Africa were collected from two of the migrating birds (redstart and little bittern), suggesting that the birds were carrying the mites from Africa to Europe. Trombiculid mites are the proven vectors of scrub typhus; they have also been implicated in the transmission of human haemorrhagic nephroso-nephritis. The finding of the mite larvae on migrating birds is therefore of some epidemiological interest and underlines the importance of obtaining more data on the dispersal of trombiculids by migrating birds. PMID:14267750

  12. Human Heredity and Health (H3) in Africa Kidney Disease Research Network: A Focus on Methods in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Osafo, Charlotte; Raji, Yemi Raheem; Burke, David; Tayo, Bamidele O; Tiffin, Nicki; Moxey-Mims, Marva M; Rasooly, Rebekah S; Kimmel, Paul L; Ojo, Akinlolu; Adu, Dwomoa; Parekh, Rulan S

    2015-12-01

    CKD affects an estimated 14% of adults in sub-Saharan Africa, but very little research has been done on the cause, progression, and prevention of CKD there. As part of the Human Heredity and Health in Africa (H3Africa) Consortium, the H3Africa Kidney Disease Research Network was established to study prevalent forms of kidney disease in sub-Saharan Africa and increase the capacity for genetics and genomics research. The study is performing comprehensive phenotypic characterization and analyzing environmental and genetic factors from nine clinical centers in four African countries (Ghana, Nigeria, Ethiopia, and Kenya) over a 5-year period. Approximately 4000 participants with specified kidney disease diagnoses and 4000 control participants will be enrolled in the four African countries. In addition, approximately 50 families with hereditary glomerular disease will be enrolled. The study includes both pediatric and adult participants age <1 to 74 years across a broad spectrum of kidney diseases secondary to hypertension-attributed nephropathy, diabetes, HIV infection, sickle cell disease, biopsy-proven glomerular disease, and CKD of unknown origin. Clinical and demographic data with biospecimens are collected to assess clinical, biochemical, and genetic markers of kidney disease. As of March 2015, a total of 3499 patients and controls have been recruited and 1897 had complete entry data for analysis. Slightly more than half (50.2%) of the cohort is female. Initial quality control of clinical data collection and of biosample and DNA analysis is satisfactory, demonstrating that a clinical research infrastructure can be successfully established in Africa. This study will provide clinical, biochemical, and genotypic data that will greatly increase the understanding of CKD in sub-Saharan Africa.

  13. Burn care in South Africa: a micro cosmos of Africa.

    PubMed

    Rode, H; Cox, S G; Numanoglu, A; Berg, A M

    2014-07-01

    Burn injuries in Africa are common with between 300,000 and 17.5 million children under 5 years sustaining burn injuries annually, resulting in a high estimated fatality rate. These burns are largely environmentally conditioned and therefore preventable. The Western Cape Province in South Africa can be regarded as a prototype of paediatric burns seen on the continent, with large numbers, high morbidity and mortality rates and an area inclusive of all factors contributing to this extraordinary burden of injury. Most of the mechanisms to prevent burns are not easily modified due to the restraint of low socio-economic homes, overcrowding, unsafe appliances, multiple and complex daily demands on families and multiple psycho-social stressors. Children <4 years are at highest risk of burns with an average annual rate of 6.0/10,000 child-years. Burn care in South Africa is predominantly emergency driven and variable in terms of organization, clinical management, facilities and staffing. Various treatment strategies were introduced. The management of HIV positive children poses a problem, as well as the conflict of achieving equity of burn care for all children. Without alleviating poverty, developing minimum standards for housing, burn education, safe appliances and legislation, we will not be able to reduce the "curse of poor people" and will continue to treat the consequences.

  14. The atmospheric circulation over West Africa and equatorial Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grist, Jeremy Peter

    2000-11-01

    The atmospheric circulation over West Africa and equatorial Africa is examined with two objectives in mind. The first goal is to determine the features of the circulation that distinguish a wet spell from a dry spell. The second is to examine how these differences affect the African Easterly Waves that traverse the region. The study utilizes the new NCEP reanalysis product. This new data set is compared with other sources of data and evaluated for West Africa. The mean annual cycle (1958-97) of the basic state and the easterly disturbances were examined using 40 years of NCEP reanalysis data. The results suggest that there is a seasonal dependence in the dominant shear instability mechanism. This seasonal shift in the instability mechanism may produce a similar seasonal change in the structure of the African Easterly Waves. Composites of atmospheric fields for four wet years (1958-61) were compared to those of four dry years (1982-85). Important differences were noted in the wind, temperature, and humidity fields. In particular, wet years were characterized by a stronger monsoonal flow, a stronger Tropical Easterly Jet, and a more northerly African Easterly Jet. Similarly, differences in the AEWs between wet and dry years were examined. It was found that the wave season in wet years tended to be longer, more active, and composed of stronger waves. In addition, the wave structure exhibited a greater seasonal dependence in wet years.

  15. Infection of Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in North Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhioua, E.; Bouattour, A.; Hu, C.M.; Gharbi, M.; Aeschliman, A.; Ginsberg, H.S.; Gern, L.

    1999-01-01

    Free-living adult Ixodes ricinus L. were collected in Amdoun, situated in the Kroumiry mountains in northwestern Tunisia (North Africa). Using direct fluorescence antibody assay, the infection rate of field-collected I. ricinus by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato was 30.5% (n = 72). No difference in infection rate was observed between male and female ticks. Spirochetes that had been isolated from I. ricinus from Ain Drahim (Kroumiry Mountains) in 1988 were identified as Borrelia lusitaniae (formerly genospecies PotiB2). This is the first identification of a genospecies of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato from the continent of Africa.

  16. Culture collections.

    PubMed

    Smith, David

    2012-01-01

    Culture collections no matter their size, form, or institutional objectives play a role in underpinning microbiology, supplying the resources for study, innovation, and discovery. Their basic roles include providing a mechanism for ex situ conservation of organisms; they are repositories for strains subject to publication, taking in safe, confidential, and patent deposits from researchers. They supply strains for use; therefore, the microorganisms provided must be authentic and preserved well, and any associated information must be valid and sufficient to facilitate the confirmation of their identity and to facilitate their use. The organisms must be collected in compliance with international conventions, international and national legislation and distributed to users indicating clearly the terms and conditions under which they are received and can be used. Collections are harmonizing approaches and characterizing strains to meet user needs. No one single collection can carry out this task alone, and therefore, it is important that output and strategy are coordinated to ensure culture collections deliver the basic resources and services microbiological innovation requires. This chapter describes the types of collection and how they can implement quality management systems and operate to deliver their basic functions. The links to information sources given not only provide support for the practitioners within collections but also provide guidance to users on accessing the huge resource available and how they can help ensure microbiology has the resources and a solid platform for future development.

  17. Evidence of nutrition transition in Southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Nnyepi, Maria S; Gwisai, Namo; Lekgoa, Malebogo; Seru, Tumelo

    2015-11-01

    Nutrition transition is characterised by shift to highly refined diets high in fat, salt and caloric sweeteners and low in fibre in rapidly growing economies. Dietary shifts occur almost concurrently with demographic and epidemiologic shifts, urbanisation and industrialisation and together contribute to increased prevalence of nutrition related (NR)-non-communicable disease (NCR). The emergence of nutrition transition in Southern Africa countries (SAC) was examined using anthropometric, NCD prevalence, and food consumption data. The findings reveal growing prevalence of overweight and obesity (OWOB) across SAC, with national prevalence estimated between 30 and 60 % in all but two SAC. Overweight prevalence in excess of 60 % has been reported in some sub-population groups. Hypertension prevalence of at least 30 % has also been reported. Further, the prevalence of OWOB and hypertension in many SAC exceeds that of HIV and is often at par with stunting in children. NCD are equally serious public health problems as stunting and HIV. Collectively, NR-NCD explain 20-31 % of mortality for Botswana, South Africa, Swaziland, Mozambique and Zambia. At least 72 % of adults in SAC have fewer servings of fruit and vegetable servings daily than recommended. Additionally, adults in SAC do poorly in physical activity; 31-75 % do not exercise regularly. Not surprisingly, 15-40 % of adults in SAC have at least three risk factors of CVD. SAC are grappling with NR-NCD which threaten to surpass infectious diseases burden. SAC are at various levels in interventions for moving their populations to stage 5, but there is room for much improvement.

  18. Rickettsia africae and Candidatus Rickettsia barbariae in Ticks in Israel

    PubMed Central

    Waner, Trevor; Keysary, Avi; Eremeeva, Marina E.; Din, Adi Beth; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y.; King, Roni; Atiya-Nasagi, Yafit

    2014-01-01

    DNA of several spotted fever group rickettsiae was found in ticks in Israel. The findings include evidence for the existence of Rickettsia africae and Candidatus Rickettsia barbariae in ticks in Israel. The DNA of R. africae was detected in a Hyalomma detritum tick from a wild boar and DNA of C. Rickettsia barbariae was detected in Rhipicephalus turanicus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus collected from vegetation. The DNA of Rickettsia massiliae was found in Rh. sanguineus and Haemaphysalis erinacei, whereas DNA of Rickettsia sibirica mongolitimonae was detected in a Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus. Clinicians should be aware that diseases caused by a variety of rickettsiae previously thought to be present only in other countries outside of the Middle East may infect residents of Israel who have not necessarily traveled overseas. Furthermore, this study reveals again that the epidemiology of the spotted fever group rickettsiae may not only involve Rickettsia conorii but may include other rickettsiae. PMID:24615133

  19. Southern Africa Validation of NASA's Earth Observing System (SAVE EOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Privette, Jeffrey L.

    2000-01-01

    Southern Africa Validation of EOS (SAVE) is 4-year, multidisciplinary effort to validate operational and experimental products from Terra-the flagship satellite of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS). At test sites from Zambia to South Africa, we are measuring soil, vegetation and atmospheric parameters over a range of ecosystems for comparison with products from Terra, Landsat 7, AVHRR and SeaWiFS. The data are also employed to parameterize and improve vegetation process models. Fixed-point and mobile "transect" sampling are used to collect the ground data. These are extrapolated over larger areas with fine-resolution multispectral imagery. We describe the sites, infrastructure, and measurement strategies developed underSAVE, as well as initial results from our participation in the first Intensive Field Campaign of SAFARI 2000. We also describe SAVE's role in the Kalahari Transect Campaign (February/March 2000) in Zambia and Botswana.

  20. Rickettsia africae and Candidatus Rickettsia barbariae in ticks in Israel.

    PubMed

    Waner, Trevor; Keysary, Avi; Eremeeva, Marina E; Din, Adi Beth; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y; King, Roni; Atiya-Nasagi, Yafit

    2014-05-01

    DNA of several spotted fever group rickettsiae was found in ticks in Israel. The findings include evidence for the existence of Rickettsia africae and Candidatus Rickettsia barbariae in ticks in Israel. The DNA of R. africae was detected in a Hyalomma detritum tick from a wild boar and DNA of C. Rickettsia barbariae was detected in Rhipicephalus turanicus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus collected from vegetation. The DNA of Rickettsia massiliae was found in Rh. sanguineus and Haemaphysalis erinacei, whereas DNA of Rickettsia sibirica mongolitimonae was detected in a Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus. Clinicians should be aware that diseases caused by a variety of rickettsiae previously thought to be present only in other countries outside of the Middle East may infect residents of Israel who have not necessarily traveled overseas. Furthermore, this study reveals again that the epidemiology of the spotted fever group rickettsiae may not only involve Rickettsia conorii but may include other rickettsiae.

  1. Determining Correlations Between Climatic Variables and Malaria Outbreaks in South Africa, Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, R.; Forsythe, T. S.; Janjic, A.; Ness, S.; Souther, B.; Gunter, G.; Shepherd, M.; Swanson, A. J.

    2008-12-01

    Malaria is a life-threatening disease and is epidemic in the country of South Africa. This study identified the existing correlations between malaria cases and climatic variables to include soil moisture, vegetation, rainfall, and temperature in the provinces Limpopo, Mpumalanga, and Kwazulu-Natal of South Africa. Earth Observation Systems from NASA and partners, including NOAA, were utilized in data collection. The data were imported into Minitab 15, JMP, and Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) for statistical analysis. A stepwise regression analysis test for each province led to the formulation of predictability model equations utilizing the best predictors of disease outbreak for each province. All climatic parameters were proven to be statistically significant in Mpumalanga and intermittent results occurred for the other provinces. When evaluating the factors to determine the one most accurate in disease prediction, varying results were found to produce the most accurate model. To better understand malaria outbreaks in epidemic regions, studies must be conducted in other regions. Additionally, comparative analysis of the results are required to determine the accuracy of the predictive models. By establishing a multivariate statistical model, populations will be more knowledgeable of potential outbreaks and preventative measures may be taken to preserve the social and economic health of an area.

  2. Africa gaining importance in world LPG trade

    SciTech Connect

    Haun, R.R.; Otto, K.W.; Whitley, S.C.

    1997-05-12

    Major LPG projects planned or under way in Africa will increase the importance of that region`s presence in world LPG trade. Supplies will nearly double between 1995 and 2005, at which time they will remain steady for at least 10 years. At the same time that exports are leveling, however, increasing domestic demand for PG is likely to reduce export-market participation by Algeria, Nigeria, Egypt, and Libya. The growth of Africa`s participation in world LPG supply is reflected in comparisons for the next 15--20 years. Total world supply of LPG in 1995 was about 165 million metric tons (tonnes), of which Africans share was 7.8 million tonnes. By 2000, world supply will grow to slightly more than 200 million tonnes, with Africa`s share expected to increase to 13.2 million tonnes (6.6%). And by 2005, world LPG supply will reach nearly 230 million tonnes; Africa`s overall supply volumes by that year will be nearly 16.2 million tonnes (7%). World LPG supply for export in 1995 was on order of 44 million tonnes with Africa supply about 4 million tonnes (9%). By 2005, world export volumes of LPG will reach nearly 70 million tonnes; Africa`s share will have grown by nearly 10 million tonnes (14.3%).

  3. Dust storm off Western Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The impacts of Saharan dust storms reach far beyond Africa. Wind-swept deserts spill airborne dust particles out over the Atlantic Ocean where they can enter trade winds bound for Central and North America and the Caribbean. This Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image shows a dust storm casting an opaque cloud of cloud across the Canary Islands and the Atlantic Ocean west of Africa on June 30, 2002. In general it takes between 5 and 7 days for such an event to cross the Atlantic. The dust has been shown to introduce foreign bacteria and fungi that have damaged reef ecosystems and have even been hypothesized as a cause of increasing occurrences of respiratory complaints in places like Florida, where the amount of Saharan dust reaching the state has been increasing over the past 25 years.

  4. Africa: the emphasis is exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-15

    Individual country reports on drilling, oil and gas production, and petroleum exploration and reserves are given for Africa. Nigeria was the continent's largest oil producer in 1979, averaging 2.3 million bpd, followed closely by Libya with 2.07 million bpd. Algeria cut production of crude oil in 1979 to a level of 1,194,350 bpd, and increased gas production to 2031 mmcfd. In Egypt, the return of Israeli-occupied oil fields and a surge in productive capacity enabled production averaging 524,000 bpd. Brief country reports are included for Gabon, Angola, Republic of the Congo, Cameroun, Tunisia, Morocco, Zaire, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Niger, Chad, Republic of South Africa, Sudan, Tanzania, Equatorial Guinea, Seychelles Islands, Mauritania, Republic of Mali, Benin, Kenya, Madagascar, Botswana, Gambia, Mozambique, and Senegal.

  5. Mansonella perstans filariasis in Africa.

    PubMed

    Simonsen, Paul E; Onapa, Ambrose W; Asio, Santa Maria

    2011-09-01

    Mansonella perstans is a vector-borne human filarial nematode, transmitted by tiny blood-sucking flies (biting midges). It is widespread in many parts of Sub-Saharan Africa and also occurs in parts of Central and South America. Despite the commonness of this parasite very few studies have been carried out on its epidemiology and on the morbidity resulting from it, and only few thorough drug trials have been conducted to look for effective and suitable drugs and drug regimens for treatment and control. Here, we review currently available knowledge on M. perstans infections in Africa, including documented aspects of biology, vectors, transmission, diagnosis, epidemiology, morbidity and treatment. It is concluded that there is an urgent need for more research on this widespread but greatly neglected infection in order to properly assess its public health significance and as a background for identifying and recommending optimal means and strategies for treatment and control. PMID:20152790

  6. Micrometeorite Collecting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toubes, Joe; Hoff, Darrel

    1974-01-01

    Describes how to collect micrometeorites and suggests a number of related activities such as determining the number of meteors entering the atmosphere and determining the composition of the micrometeorites. (BR)

  7. Who really cares for Africa?

    PubMed

    Stamps, T J

    1993-01-01

    The destiny of all the peoples in the world is today, more than ever before in recorded history, linked closely together. This is why the traditional political, economic and social divisions that were created to promote self-interest at the expense of others can no longer be tolerated. The author gives some examples of the obstacles to progress in Africa and other developing countries, and calls for a truly new world order based on justice and equity.

  8. Archaeological shellfish size and later human evolution in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Richard G.; Steele, Teresa E.

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 50 ka, one or more subgroups of modern humans expanded from Africa to populate the rest of the world. Significant behavioral change accompanied this expansion, and archaeologists commonly seek its roots in the African Middle Stone Age (MSA; ∼200 to ∼50 ka). Easily recognizable art objects and “jewelry” become common only in sites that postdate the MSA in Africa and Eurasia, but some MSA sites contain possible precursors, especially including abstractly incised fragments of ocher and perforated shells interpreted as beads. These proposed art objects have convinced most specialists that MSA people were behaviorally (cognitively) modern, and many argue that population growth explains the appearance of art in the MSA and its post-MSA florescence. The average size of rocky intertidal gastropod species in MSA and later coastal middens allows a test of this idea, because smaller size implies more intense collection, and more intense collection is most readily attributed to growth in the number of human collectors. Here we demonstrate that economically important Cape turban shells and limpets from MSA layers along the south and west coasts of South Africa are consistently and significantly larger than turban shells and limpets in succeeding Later Stone Age (LSA) layers that formed under equivalent environmental conditions. We conclude that whatever cognitive capacity precocious MSA artifacts imply, it was not associated with human population growth. MSA populations remained consistently small by LSA standards, and a substantial increase in population size is obvious only near the MSA/LSA transition, when it is dramatically reflected in the Out-of-Africa expansion. PMID:23776248

  9. Forecasting droughts in East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mwangi, E.; Wetterhall, F.; Dutra, E.; Di Giuseppe, F.; Pappenberger, F.

    2013-08-01

    The humanitarian crisis caused by the recent droughts (2008-2009 and 2010-2011) in the East African region have illustrated that the ability to make accurate drought predictions with adequate lead time is essential. The use of dynamical model forecasts and drought indices, such as Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), promises to lead to a better description of drought duration, magnitude and spatial extent. This study evaluates the use of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) products in forecasting droughts in East Africa. ECMWF seasonal precipitation shows significant skill for both rain seasons when evaluated against measurements from the available in-situ stations from East Africa. The October-December rain season has higher skill that the March-May season. ECMWF forecasts add value to the statistical forecasts produced during the Greater Horn of Africa Climate Outlook Forums (GHACOF) which is the present operational product. Complementing the raw precipitation forecasts with SPI provides additional information on the spatial extend and intensity of the drought event.

  10. Spreading Astronomy Education Through Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baki, P.

    2006-08-01

    Although Astronomy has been an important vehicle for effectively passing a wide range of scientific knowledge, teaching the basic skills of scientific reasoning, and for communicating the excitement of science to the public, its inclusion in the teaching curricula of most institutions of higher learning in Africa is rare. This is partly due to the fact that astronomy appears to be only good at fascinating people but not providing paid jobs. It is also due to the lack of trained instructors, teaching materials, and a clear vision of the role of astronomy and basic space science within the broader context of education in the physical and applied sciences. In this paper we survey some of the problems bedeviling the spread of astronomy in Africa and discuss some interdisciplinary traditional weather indicators. These indicators have been used over the years to monitor the appearance of constellations. For example, orions are closely intertwined with cultures of some ethnic African societies and could be incorporated in the standard astronomy curriculum as away of making the subject more `home grown' and to be able to reach out to the wider populace in popularizing astronomy and basic sciences. We also discuss some of the other measures that ought to be taken to effectively create an enabling environment for sustainable teaching and spread of astronomy through Africa.

  11. South Africa, Namibia, and Botswana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Pale green vegetation and red-brown deserts dominate this MODIS image of Namibia (left), Botswana (upper right), and the Republic of South Africa (bottom) acquired on June3, 2002. In central Namibia the mountainous terrain of Namaqualand is sandwiched between the Namib Desert on the Atlantic Coast and the Kalahari Desert to the interior, where white dots mark the location of small, impermanent lakes and ponds. Namaqualand is home to numerous rare succulent plants that can survive on the region.s scant rainfall as well as fog that blows in off the ocean. Namaqualand extends south of the Orange River, which runs along the border of Namibia and South Africa and into that country.s Northern Cape region. The Orange River extends almost all the way back through the country, and where it makes a sharp southward dip in this image (at lower right), it runs through the Asbestos Mountains, names for the naturally-occurring asbestos they contain. In southwestern South Africa, high plateaus, such as the Great Karoo become mountain ridges near the coast, and the city of Cape Town is visible as a grayish area of pixels on the north shores of the horseshoe-shaped False Bay at the Cape of Good Hope. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  12. Systematic review of birth cohort studies in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Alasdair; Rudan, Igor

    2011-01-01

    Aim In sub-Saharan Africa, unacceptably high rates of mortality amongst women and children continue to persist. The emergence of research employing new genomic technologies is advancing knowledge on cause of disease. This review aims to identify birth cohort studies conducted in sub-Saharan Africa and to consider their suitability as a platform to support genetic epidemiological studies. Methods A systematic literature review was conducted to identify birth cohort studies in sub-Saharan Africa across the following databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, AFRO and OpenSIGLE. A total of 8110 papers were retrieved. Application of inclusion/exclusion criteria retained only 189 papers, of which 71 met minimum quality criteria and were retained for full text analysis. Results The search revealed 28 birth cohorts: 14 of which collected biological data, 10 collected blood samples and only one study collected DNA for storage. These studies face many methodological challenges: notably, high rates of attrition and lack of funding for several rounds of study follow up. Population-based ‘biobanks’ have emerged as a major approach to harness genomic technologies in health research and yet the sub-Saharan African region still awaits large scale birth cohort biobanks collecting DNA and associated health and lifestyle data. Conclusion Investment in this field, together with related endeavours to foster and develop research capacity for these studies, may lead to an improved understanding of the determinants of intrauterine growth and development, birth outcomes such as prematurity and low birth weight, the links between maternal and infant health, survival of infectious diseases in the first years of life, and response to vaccines and antibiotic treatment. PMID:23198102

  13. Assessment of shale-gas resources of the Karoo Province, South Africa and Lesotho, Africa, 2016

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Finn, Thomas M.

    2016-07-08

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resource of 44.5 trillion cubic feet of shale gas in the Karoo Province of South Africa and Lesotho, Africa.

  14. Assessment of shale-gas resources of the Karoo Province, South Africa and Lesotho, Africa, 2016

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Finn, Thomas M.

    2016-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resource of 44.5 trillion cubic feet of shale gas in the Karoo Province of South Africa and Lesotho, Africa.

  15. Uranium in a changing South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    In the early 1980s, the Republic of South Africa was the world's second-largest producer of uranium, and the country historically has been a major exporter of many other important mineral resources, including gold, platinum group metals, manganese, vanadium, and gem-quality diamonds. Yet political turbulence in the latter part of the decade caused economic stress on South Africa. Apartheid, the country's disenfranchisement of the black majority, put South Africa in the international spotlight. The world responded by implementing economic sanctions against South Africa, to pressure its government into change. In the past several years, South Africa has made significant progress toward ending apartheid. As a result, many US economic sanctions previously maintained against the country have been lifted. However, economic troubles continue to plague South Africa; repealing sanctions has done little to alleviate its economic and political challenges.

  16. Emigration dynamics in southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Milazi, D

    1995-01-01

    This review of the dynamics of international migration in Southern Africa focuses on four aspects of labor migration: 1) while migrant workers suffer from discrimination and lack of protection, there are few alternatives for them; 2) the regulations imposed by the Chamber of Mines in South Africa favor the mining industry at the expense of the workers; 3) worker supplier states have few options for negotiating a commercialized migration policy to achieve economic benefits; and 4) foreign mine workers must unionize in order to escape perpetual subordination. The review opens with a consideration of how migrant mine workers from Botswana, Lesotho, and Swaziland have provided a source of cheap labor which has enhanced the economic prosperity of South Africa. The role of the Chamber of Mines in regulating the supply of labor and employment policy for its members is described. Attention is then turned to Lesotho where land pressure has exacerbated poverty levels. Large-scale migration has led the citizens of Lesotho to consider it a place to live or retire to, not a place to work. Labor migration from Lesotho is organized, is supported by the government, is recurrent, and remains a viable alternative despite faltering demand. The discussion of Lesotho includes a consideration of its political, economic, and demographic situation as well as of ecological factors. Briefer analyses are then provided for Botswana, Swaziland, and Mozambique. The receiving country, South Africa, is shown to be suffering a decline in economic growth which is marked by widespread unemployment. More than 250,000 Whites are prospective emigrants from South Africa. After considering the issues surrounding refugees, regional concerns created by changing economic and political scenarios, and labor strategies which could be adopted by supplier states, the report reiterates a series of recommendations which arose from two major conferences on the problem of unemployment. It is concluded that the

  17. [Epidemic characteristics and security implications of Africa schistosomiasis on people who go to Africa].

    PubMed

    Pan, Xiang; Zhou, Yi-biao; Yang, Ya; Song, Xiu-xia; Jiang, Qing-wu

    2015-08-01

    With the economic globalization, and the economic and trade cooperation and cultural communication between China and African countries, more and more Chinese people go to Africa for work or travel. However, there is a quick increase of imported schistosomiasis patients who return from Africa. This paper analyzes the security implications of epidemic characteristics of Africa schistosomiasis on the people who go to Africa, and put forward several suggestions to help them to prevent from schistosomiasis. PMID:26767275

  18. [Epidemic characteristics and security implications of Africa schistosomiasis on people who go to Africa].

    PubMed

    Pan, Xiang; Zhou, Yi-biao; Yang, Ya; Song, Xiu-xia; Jiang, Qing-wu

    2015-08-01

    With the economic globalization, and the economic and trade cooperation and cultural communication between China and African countries, more and more Chinese people go to Africa for work or travel. However, there is a quick increase of imported schistosomiasis patients who return from Africa. This paper analyzes the security implications of epidemic characteristics of Africa schistosomiasis on the people who go to Africa, and put forward several suggestions to help them to prevent from schistosomiasis.

  19. Carbon emissions reduction strategies in Africa from improved waste management: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Couth, R.; Trois, C.

    2010-11-15

    The paper summarises a literature review into waste management practices across Africa as part of a study to assess methods to reduce carbon emissions. Research shows that the average organic content for urban Municipal Solid Waste in Africa is around 56% and its degradation is a major contributor to greenhouse gas emissions. The paper concludes that the most practical and economic way to manage waste in the majority of urban communities in Africa and therefore reduce carbon emissions is to separate waste at collection points to remove dry recyclables by door to door collection, compost the remaining biogenic carbon waste in windrows, using the maturated compost as a substitute fertilizer and dispose the remaining fossil carbon waste in controlled landfills.

  20. Blood Collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The method that is used for the collection, storage and real-time analysis of blood and other bodily fluids has been licensed to DBCD, Inc. by NASA. The result of this patent licensing agreement has been the development of a commercial product that can provide serum or plasma from whole blood volumes of 20 microliters to 4 milliliters. The device has a fibrous filter with a pore size of less than about 3 microns, and is coated with a mixture of mannitol and plasma fraction protein. The coating causes the cellular fraction to be trapped by the small pores, leaving the cellular fraction intact on the fibrous filter while the acellular fraction passes through the filter for collection in unaltered form from the serum sample collection chamber. The method used by this product is useful to NASA for blood analysis on manned space missions.

  1. Private Higher Education in Africa: The Case of Monash South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Setswe, G.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to review the contribution of private institutions to higher education in Africa and use Monash South Africa as a case study. A literature search was conducted to gain perspective on the current situation with respect to private higher education institutions in Africa and how they are perceived in relation to public…

  2. Collecting Artifacts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffey, Natalie

    2004-01-01

    Fresh out of college, the author had only a handful of items worthy of displaying, which included some fossils she had collected in her paleontology class. She had binders filled with great science information, but kids want to see "real" science, not paper science. Then it came to her: she could fill the shelves with science artifacts with the…

  3. Wastewater Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatterjee, Samar; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastewater collection systems and components. This review covers: (1) planning, (2) construction; (3) sewer system evaluation; (4) maintenance; (5) rehabilitation; (6) overview prevention; and (7) wastewater pumping. A list of 111 references is also presented. (HM)

  4. Collection Security.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boss, Richard W.

    1984-01-01

    Presents a systematic approach to the problem of security of library collections and facilities from theft and vandalism. Highlights include responses to losses, defining security needs, typical weaknesses of facilities, policies and procedures that weaken a library's security, conducting a security audit, cost of security, cost-effectiveness, and…

  5. Fossil land snails of East Africa and their palaeoecological significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickford, Martin

    1995-04-01

    This study deals with the Neogene and extant land snails of tropical East Africa and their implications for interpreting the paleoenvironments of the numerous localities at which they have been found. Of major significance to the study is the intimate association between the terrestrial molluscs and the rich mammalian faunas, hominoids included, of East Africa. Thus, palaeoecological reconstructions based on land snails are directly applicable to the mammalian faunas. Palaeoecological reconstructions are proposed for most of the Lower and Middle Miocene hominoids, including Proconsul, Rangwapithecus, Limnopithecus, Micropithecus, Nyanzapithecus, Kenyapithecus and others, and for the mid-Pliocene Australopithecus from Laetoli, Tanzania. The departure point for the palaeoecological reconstructions is a comprehensive study of extant terrestrial molluscs of East Africa, the habitat preferences of which are well documented. All the fossil gastropods studied comprise extant genera and even species, so the usual problems regarding the application of actualism to fossil assemblages is avoided. Furthermore, the fossil gastropod assemblages resemble extant ones, confirming their utility for such reconstructions. Among the parameters examined are rainfall, altitude, vegetation cover and type and zoogeography. A further point of interest is that the samples are more than adequate for the purposes of the study, many of the fossil localities having yielded several thousand specimens. Finally, more than 40% of the extant genera of East Africa have now been recognized in the fossil state. The molluscs are thus, by far, the best represented biological group known in the fossil record of Africa and as such hold great potential for understanding the past. This study ends with reconstructions of the palaeoecology of numerous fossiliferous localities in East Africa which have yielded molluscs and mammals. Changes through the geological column are documented and the habitat preferences

  6. H3Africa and the African life sciences ecosystem: building sustainable innovation.

    PubMed

    Dandara, Collet; Huzair, Farah; Borda-Rodriguez, Alexander; Chirikure, Shadreck; Okpechi, Ikechi; Warnich, Louise; Masimirembwa, Collen

    2014-12-01

    Interest in genomics research in African populations is experiencing exponential growth. This enthusiasm stems in part from the recognition that the genomic diversity of African populations is a window of opportunity for innovations in postgenomics medicine, ecology, and evolutionary biology. The recently launched H3Africa initiative, for example, captures the energy and momentum of this interest. This interdisciplinary socio-technical analysis highlights the challenges that have beset previous genomics research activities in Africa, and looking ahead, suggests constructive ways H3Africa and similar large scale science efforts could usefully chart a new era of genomics and life sciences research in Africa that is locally productive and globally competitive. As independent African scholars and social scientists, we propose that any serious global omics science effort, including H3Africa, aiming to build genomics research capacity and capability in Africa, needs to fund the establishment of biobanks and the genomic analyses platforms within Africa. Equally they need to prioritize community engagement and bioinformatics capability and the training of African scientists on these platforms. Historically, the financial, technological, and skills imbalance between Africa and developed countries has created exploitative frameworks of collaboration where African researchers have become merely facilitators of Western funded and conceived research agendas involving offshore expatriation of samples. Not surprisingly, very little funding was allocated to infrastructure and human capital development in the past. Moving forward, capacity building should materialize throughout the entire knowledge co-production trajectory: idea generation (e.g., brainstorming workshops for innovative hypotheses development by African scientists), data generation (e.g., genome sequencing), and high-throughput data analysis and contextualization. Additionally, building skills for political science

  7. The highly neglected burden of resistant hypertension in Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nansseu, Jobert Richie N; Noubiap, Jean Jacques N; Mengnjo, Michel K; Aminde, Leopold Ndemnge; Essouma, Mickael; Jingi, Ahmadou M; Bigna, Jean Joel R

    2016-01-01

    Objective The hypertension epidemic in Africa collectively with very low rates of blood pressure control may predict an incremented prevalence of resistant hypertension (RH) across the continent. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of RH and associated risk factors in Africa. Data sources We conducted a comprehensive search of electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, Africa Wide Information and Africa Index Medicus) completed by manual search of articles, regardless of language or publication date. Methods We included studies which have reported the prevalence and/or risk factors for RH in Africa from inception to 19 May 2016. Forest plots were drawn to visualise the combined prevalence of RH and extent of statistical heterogeneity between studies. Results Out of 259 retrieved studies, only 5 from Cameroon, Nigeria, Burkina Faso, Lesotho and Algeria with a total population of 4 068 patients were finally included in this review. There was no study from the Eastern part of Africa. Though the definition of RH was not similar across studies, its prevalence was respectively 11.7%, 4.9%, 14.6%, 14.3% and 19.0%, with an overall pooled prevalence of 12.1% (95% CI 8.0% to 17.7%). Potential risk factors were: non-compliance to treatment, ageing, male sex, dyslipidaemia, metabolic syndrome, previous cardiovascular events, physical inactivity and stress, but not excessive salt intake, alcohol and coffee ingestions. Moreover, diabetes, smoking, obesity and renal insufficiency yielded discrepant results. Conclusions There is a huge dearth of research on the epidemiology of RH in Africa. Thereby, an extensive study of RH prevalence and risk factors is still largely warranted to curtail the high and continuously increasing burden of hypertension across Africa. PMID:27650760

  8. H3Africa and the African life sciences ecosystem: building sustainable innovation.

    PubMed

    Dandara, Collet; Huzair, Farah; Borda-Rodriguez, Alexander; Chirikure, Shadreck; Okpechi, Ikechi; Warnich, Louise; Masimirembwa, Collen

    2014-12-01

    Interest in genomics research in African populations is experiencing exponential growth. This enthusiasm stems in part from the recognition that the genomic diversity of African populations is a window of opportunity for innovations in postgenomics medicine, ecology, and evolutionary biology. The recently launched H3Africa initiative, for example, captures the energy and momentum of this interest. This interdisciplinary socio-technical analysis highlights the challenges that have beset previous genomics research activities in Africa, and looking ahead, suggests constructive ways H3Africa and similar large scale science efforts could usefully chart a new era of genomics and life sciences research in Africa that is locally productive and globally competitive. As independent African scholars and social scientists, we propose that any serious global omics science effort, including H3Africa, aiming to build genomics research capacity and capability in Africa, needs to fund the establishment of biobanks and the genomic analyses platforms within Africa. Equally they need to prioritize community engagement and bioinformatics capability and the training of African scientists on these platforms. Historically, the financial, technological, and skills imbalance between Africa and developed countries has created exploitative frameworks of collaboration where African researchers have become merely facilitators of Western funded and conceived research agendas involving offshore expatriation of samples. Not surprisingly, very little funding was allocated to infrastructure and human capital development in the past. Moving forward, capacity building should materialize throughout the entire knowledge co-production trajectory: idea generation (e.g., brainstorming workshops for innovative hypotheses development by African scientists), data generation (e.g., genome sequencing), and high-throughput data analysis and contextualization. Additionally, building skills for political science

  9. Phylogenetic Variants of Rickettsia africae, and Incidental Identification of "Candidatus Rickettsia Moyalensis" in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Kimita, Gathii; Mutai, Beth; Nyanjom, Steven Ger; Wamunyokoli, Fred; Waitumbi, John

    2016-01-01

    Background Rickettsia africae, the etiological agent of African tick bite fever, is widely distributed in sub-Saharan Africa. Contrary to reports of its homogeneity, a localized study in Asembo, Kenya recently reported high genetic diversity. The present study aims to elucidate the extent of this heterogeneity by examining archived Rickettsia africae DNA samples collected from different eco-regions of Kenya. Methods To evaluate their phylogenetic relationships, archived genomic DNA obtained from 57 ticks a priori identified to contain R. africae by comparison to ompA, ompB and gltA genes was used to amplify five rickettsial genes i.e. gltA, ompA, ompB, 17kDa and sca4. The resulting amplicons were sequenced. Translated amino acid alignments were used to guide the nucleotide alignments. Single gene and concatenated alignments were used to infer phylogenetic relationships. Results Out of the 57 DNA samples, three were determined to be R. aeschlimanii and not R. africae. One sample turned out to be a novel rickettsiae and an interim name of “Candidatus Rickettsia moyalensis” is proposed. The bonafide R. africae formed two distinct clades. Clade I contained 9% of the samples and branched with the validated R. africae str ESF-5, while clade II (two samples) formed a distinct sub-lineage. Conclusions This data supports the use of multiple genes for phylogenetic inferences. It is determined that, despite its recent emergence, the R. africae lineage is diverse. This data also provides evidence of a novel Rickettsia species, Candidatus Rickettsia moyalensis. PMID:27387337

  10. H3Africa and the African Life Sciences Ecosystem: Building Sustainable Innovation

    PubMed Central

    Huzair, Farah; Borda-Rodriguez, Alexander; Chirikure, Shadreck; Okpechi, Ikechi; Warnich, Louise; Masimirembwa, Collen

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Interest in genomics research in African populations is experiencing exponential growth. This enthusiasm stems in part from the recognition that the genomic diversity of African populations is a window of opportunity for innovations in postgenomics medicine, ecology, and evolutionary biology. The recently launched H3Africa initiative, for example, captures the energy and momentum of this interest. This interdisciplinary socio-technical analysis highlights the challenges that have beset previous genomics research activities in Africa, and looking ahead, suggests constructive ways H3Africa and similar large scale science efforts could usefully chart a new era of genomics and life sciences research in Africa that is locally productive and globally competitive. As independent African scholars and social scientists, we propose that any serious global omics science effort, including H3Africa, aiming to build genomics research capacity and capability in Africa, needs to fund the establishment of biobanks and the genomic analyses platforms within Africa. Equally they need to prioritize community engagement and bioinformatics capability and the training of African scientists on these platforms. Historically, the financial, technological, and skills imbalance between Africa and developed countries has created exploitative frameworks of collaboration where African researchers have become merely facilitators of Western funded and conceived research agendas involving offshore expatriation of samples. Not surprisingly, very little funding was allocated to infrastructure and human capital development in the past. Moving forward, capacity building should materialize throughout the entire knowledge co-production trajectory: idea generation (e.g., brainstorming workshops for innovative hypotheses development by African scientists), data generation (e.g., genome sequencing), and high-throughput data analysis and contextualization. Additionally, building skills for political

  11. Kaposi's sarcoma in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Sitas, F; Newton, R

    2001-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma was endemic in South Africa even before the advent of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Between 1988 and 1996, the incidence of Kaposi's sarcoma in South Africa has risen at least threefold and continues to increase as the HIV epidemic grows. Research from South Africa has shown that infection with human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8) is associated with Kaposi's sarcoma but not with any other major cancer site or type. In addition, the risk of Kaposi's sarcoma increases with increasing antibody titer to HHV8, but, for a given titer, the risk is greater in HIV-seropositive compared with HIV-seronegative individuals. The age- and sex-standardized seroprevalence of HHV8 in black South African hospital patients was found to be slightly more than 30%; the seroprevalence of HHV8 increased with age and was similar in men and in women. The modes of transmission of HHV8 are yet to be fully elucidated. Limited evidence exists for sexual transmission in black South African adults, but mother-to-child and person-to-person transmission in childhood is also likely. Furthermore, the seroprevalence of HHV8 decreases with increasing levels of education and is lower in whites than in blacks, suggesting that factors associated with poverty may be important determinants of transmission. Future research should focus on risk factors for Kaposi's sarcoma in HHV8-infected individuals, on determinants and mode of transmission of HHV8, and on the elucidation of the effect of primary HHV8 infection in adults and in children.

  12. PPP insights in South Africa.

    PubMed

    du Toit, Japie

    2003-01-01

    After functioning for some time in an increasingly regulated and structured environment in dealing with the private sector in South Africa, it was important to Government, to carefully review the terminology used in this evolving playing field. As the definitions and mechanisms impacting on this form of interaction became clear, it was essential to find a broader definition to encompass all forms of commercial intervention between the two sectors. In preparation for the first South African National Health Summit during 2001, the term public private interaction became a general term used in this context. In the South African healthcare sectors this term is used specifically to indicate that all forms of interaction between the two sectors should be considered, rather than merely focussing on specific Public Private Partnerships (PPPs), that have a much more narrow definition. Recent health policy documents in South Africa all stress four key goals--equity, coherence, quality of care and efficiency--which provide a useful basis for decision-making about PPIs. The range of public-private interactions that may support or constrain the South African health system's development are set within the overall public/private mix of the country. In developing an equitable, efficient, coherent and high quality health system in South Africa, there is considerable potential for constructive engagement (collaboration and co-operation) between the public and the private health care sectors. Both sectors should embrace this opportunity and therefore it is useful to propose some basic guidelines for engagement based on the vision and goals of the national health system. In deciding whether or not to pursue any new PPI within the health sector, or in evaluating whether an existing PPI should continue or be revised, it is necessary to assess its merits in relation to the achievement of health system goals.

  13. [Suppurative intracranial infections in Africa].

    PubMed

    Loembe, P M; Okome-Kouakou, M; Alliez, B

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to review recent African literature on suppurative intracranial infection and its implications for neurosurgery. In order of decreasing frequency the main lesions are brain abscess, subdural empyema, and epidural abscess. Despite progress in diagnostic imaging and availability of antibiotic therapy, these lesions still cause disturbingly high morbidity and mortality especially in sub-Saharan Africa where diagnosis is often delayed. The male-to-female ratio was 3.6:1 and 70 to 80% of patients were under the age of 20 years. Spread from the paranasal sinus or ear was the most common mechanism of infection. Hematogenous processes accounted for 22% of cases and the origin was undetermined in 11% to 26% of cases. Staphylococcus aureus and enteric gram-negative bacilli were the most common bacteria identified but cultures were reported as sterile in 30% to 50% of cases. While ultrasonography can be useful in newborns with an open fontanelle, arteriography is often the only feasible procedure for diagnosis in Black Africa. The diagnostic modality of choice is computed tomography which allows precise mapping prior to neurosurgery. Introduction of computed tomography in some African cities has led to a decrease in mortality ranging from 4.7% to 43%. The most effective treatment is a combination of appropriate antimicrobial therapy and surgical decompression of expanding lesions. The main procedures are aspiration through burr holes and craniotomy. Use of this combined strategy requires close cooperation between the neurosurgeon, infectious disease specialist, and microbiologist. Therapeutic indications are discussed within the context of Black Africa. PMID:9304016

  14. Kaposi's sarcoma in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Sitas, F; Newton, R

    2001-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma was endemic in South Africa even before the advent of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Between 1988 and 1996, the incidence of Kaposi's sarcoma in South Africa has risen at least threefold and continues to increase as the HIV epidemic grows. Research from South Africa has shown that infection with human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8) is associated with Kaposi's sarcoma but not with any other major cancer site or type. In addition, the risk of Kaposi's sarcoma increases with increasing antibody titer to HHV8, but, for a given titer, the risk is greater in HIV-seropositive compared with HIV-seronegative individuals. The age- and sex-standardized seroprevalence of HHV8 in black South African hospital patients was found to be slightly more than 30%; the seroprevalence of HHV8 increased with age and was similar in men and in women. The modes of transmission of HHV8 are yet to be fully elucidated. Limited evidence exists for sexual transmission in black South African adults, but mother-to-child and person-to-person transmission in childhood is also likely. Furthermore, the seroprevalence of HHV8 decreases with increasing levels of education and is lower in whites than in blacks, suggesting that factors associated with poverty may be important determinants of transmission. Future research should focus on risk factors for Kaposi's sarcoma in HHV8-infected individuals, on determinants and mode of transmission of HHV8, and on the elucidation of the effect of primary HHV8 infection in adults and in children. PMID:11158199

  15. Concepts, definitions and classifications for internal migration statistics in Africa.

    PubMed

    1983-01-01

    This brief discussion of the various data collection systems used in Africa represents the data situation with regard to African migration statistics. Population censuses are increasingly becoming the most popular source for migration statistics in Africa. The derivation of internal migration information from surrogate measures such as age and sex distributions is predicated on the assumption that the movement is selective with respect to these variables. The part attributable to migration after taking into account natural increases is made difficult in Africa because the correct levels of birth and death rates are not usually known with certainty, nationally or locally. The population census data are useful for the investigation of the national volumes and rates of migration; this provides information on broad patterns of migration for countries. However, it is not suitable for migration studies that intend to investigate in-depth such topics as determinants and impact and delineate various types of migratory movements. African countries should, in addition to the birthplace question, include at least 1 of the following supplementary questions: 1) duration of residence, 2) place of previous residence, and 3) place of residence at a fixed prior date. It is increasingly noted that sample surveys are where most of the new data required for policy ought to come from. Longitudinal surveys on migration are also required to advance our present knowledge about the various types of mobility and their seasonal character and about the consequences of the movement. Data collection systems must also be improved in the concepts, definitions, and classifications. This applies to the definition of migration as well as the spatial classifications used as the reference units for the collection of data and the definitions of rural and urban. PMID:12280600

  16. The Seismotectonic Map of Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meghraoui, Mustapha

    2015-04-01

    We present the Seismotectonic Map of Africa based on a geological, geophysical and geodetic database including the instrumental seismicity and re-appraisal of large historical events with harmonization and homogenization of earthquake parameters in catalogues. Although the seismotectonic framework and mapping of the African continent is a difficult task, several previous and ongoing projects provide a wealth of data and outstanding results. The database of large and moderate earthquakes in different geological domains includes the coseismic and Quaternary faulting that reveals the complex nature of the active tectonics in Africa. The map also benefits from previous works on local and regional seismotectonic maps that needed to be integrated with the lithospheric and upper mantle structures from tomographic anisotropy and gravity anomaly into a continental framework. The synthesis of earthquake and volcanic studies with the analysis of long-term (late Quaternary) and short-term (last decades and centuries) active deformation observed with geodetic and other approaches presented along with the seismotectonic map serves as a basis for hazard calculations and the reduction of seismic risks. The map may also be very useful in the assessment of seismic hazard and mitigation of earthquake risk for significant infrastructures and their implications in the socio-economic impact in Africa. In addition, the constant population increase and infrastructure growth in the continent that exacerbate the earthquake risk justify the necessity for a continuous updating of the seismotectonic map. The database and related map are prepared in the framework of the IGC Project-601 "Seismotectonics and Seismic Hazards in Africa" of UNESCO-IUGS, funded by the Swedish International Development Agency and UNESCO-Nairobi for a period of 4 years (2011 - 2014), extended to 2016. * Mustapha Meghraoui (Coordinator) EOST - IPG Strasbourg CNRS-UMR 7516 m.meghraoui@unistra.fr corresponding author

  17. Retinitis pigmentosa in southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, J; Bartmann, L; Ramesar, R; Beighton, P

    1993-11-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a heterogeneous group of inherited retinal disorders which are a common cause of genetic blindness. The relative frequencies of the different forms of RP in South Africa, as determined from the register at the DNA banking centre for RP at the Department of Human Genetics, University of Cape Town, are presented and discussed. Of the 125 families analysed, 29 (23%) showed autosomal dominant, 33 (27%) autosomal recessive and 3 (3%) X-linked inheritance. In 10 families the pedigree data were insufficient to allow accurate genetic subtyping and a further 50 patients were sporadic without a family history of RP or other syndromic features which would allow categorization.

  18. Contextualizing group rape in post-apartheid South Africa.

    PubMed

    Wood, Kate

    2005-01-01

    Collective male sexual violence is part of a continuum of sexual coercion in South Africa. This paper is based on long-term ethnographic work in an urban township in the former Transkei region. Drawing on intensive participant observation and interviews with young men in particular, it attempts to make sense of emergent narratives relating to streamlining, a local term for a not uncommon form of collective sexual coercion involving a group of male friends and one or more women. The paper begins with an overview of existing anthropological literature on collective male sexual violence, going onto elaborate the different scenarios associated with group sexual violence in the fieldsite. It seeks to provide a multi-layered contextualization of the phenomenon by considering prevailing gender discourses, subcultural issues pertaining to the urban tsotsi phenomenon, the rural practice of ukuthwala (bride capture), young working-class Africans' experiences of marginalization, and the complex links between political economy and violence in this setting.

  19. Africa Today: An Atlas of Reproducible Pages. 1990 Revised Edition. World Eagle's Today Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Eagle, Inc., Wellesley, MA.

    A collection of reproducible black and white maps, charts, and graphs for classroom use profiles Africa today. Individual country maps were originally produced by the United Nations, U.S. Department of State, and the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency. The material depicts the continent's (1) size, (2) population, (3) resources, (4) commodities, (5)…

  20. Draft Genome Sequence of Alternaria alternata Isolated from Onion Leaves in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Cloete, Michele; Gerrano, Abe Shegro; Oelofse, Dean; Adebola, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler strain PPRI 21032 was isolated from onion leaves collected in Roodeplaat, Pretoria, South Africa. The whole genome of this strain was sequenced and produced a total of 33.12 Mb with a GC content of 50.9%. The whole genome comprises 11,701 predicted coding sequences. PMID:27660793

  1. Head blight of wheat in South Africa is associated with numerous Fusarium species and chemotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) of wheat is caused by numerous Fusarium species, including trichothecene-producers. In South Africa, FHB is mostly associated with irrigated wheat rotated with maize. Twenty symptomatic wheat heads were collected from four cultivars each in irrigated fields during 2008 and...

  2. Fusarium spp. associated with head blight of wheat in South Africa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) of wheat is caused by numerous Fusarium species, including trichothecene-producers. In South Africa, FHB is mostly associated with irrigated wheat rotated with maize. Twenty symptomatic wheat heads were collected from four cultivars each in irrigated fields in the Northern...

  3. The Hare and the Water: A Tanzanian Folktale. Water in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abernathy-Tabor, Michelle

    The Water in Africa Project was realized over a 2-year period by a team of Peace Corps volunteers, World Wise Schools (WWS) classroom teachers, and WWS staff members. As part of an expanded, detailed design, resources were collected from over 90 volunteers serving in African countries, photos and stories were prepared, and standards-based learning…

  4. Ebola Virus RNA Stability in Human Blood and Urine in West Africa's Environmental Conditions.

    PubMed

    Janvier, Frédéric; Delaune, Deborah; Poyot, Thomas; Valade, Eric; Mérens, Audrey; Rollin, Pierre E; Foissaud, Vincent

    2016-02-01

    We evaluated RNA stability of Ebola virus in EDTA blood and urine samples collected from infected patients and stored in West Africa's environmental conditions. In blood, RNA was stable for at least 18 days when initial cycle threshold values were <30, but in urine, RNA degradation occurred more quickly.

  5. Draft Genome Sequence of Alternaria alternata Isolated from Onion Leaves in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Bihon, Wubetu; Cloete, Michele; Gerrano, Abe Shegro; Oelofse, Dean; Adebola, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler strain PPRI 21032 was isolated from onion leaves collected in Roodeplaat, Pretoria, South Africa. The whole genome of this strain was sequenced and produced a total of 33.12 Mb with a GC content of 50.9%. The whole genome comprises 11,701 predicted coding sequences. PMID:27660793

  6. Bringing Water to a Lesotho Village: A Classroom Simulation. Water in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Dany M.

    The Water in Africa Project was realized over a 2-year period by a team of Peace Corps volunteers, World Wise Schools (WWS) classroom teachers, and WWS staff members. As part of an expanded, detailed design, resources were collected from over 90 volunteers serving in African countries, photos and stories were prepared, and standards-based learning…

  7. Educational Decentralization and School Governance in South Africa: From Policy to Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naidoo, Jordan P.

    2005-01-01

    This booklet explores the nature of participation, representation and decision-making in school governance in South Africa based on a collective case-study of six schools in Gauteng and KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) that was undertaken between 2002 and 2004. The different types of schools were compared by the following criteria: their interpretation of the…

  8. House amends Africa trade bill to include mention of AIDS.

    PubMed

    1999-08-01

    At the recommendation of the Congressional Black Caucus, the House of Representatives amended the recently approved African Growth and Opportunity Act (H.R. 434) to include two clauses related to HIV/AIDS. The first statement indicates that HIV should be a central component of U.S. foreign policy in Africa. The second is an appeal to commercial businesses with interests in sub-Saharan countries to establish an HIV/AIDS response fund to coordinate the collection and distribution of private assistance.

  9. Collective instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    K.Y. Ng

    2003-08-25

    The lecture covers mainly Sections 2.VIII and 3.VII of the book ''Accelerator Physics'' by S.Y. Lee, plus mode-coupling instabilities and chromaticity-driven head-tail instability. Besides giving more detailed derivation of many equations, simple interpretations of many collective instabilities are included with the intention that the phenomena can be understood more easily without going into too much mathematics. The notations of Lee's book as well as the e{sup jwt} convention are followed.

  10. Industrial aerosol characterisation at a remote site in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piketh, S. J.; Formenti, P.; Annegarn, H. J.; Tyson, P. D.

    1999-04-01

    South Africa is the most industrialised country in southern Africa with approximately 1.1 Tg of sulphur emitted from anthropogenic activities per annum. Complex circulation patterns and highly stable vertical atmospheric conditions promote the accumulation of pollutants below 700 hPa or 3000 m asl. A remote site in the Eastern Cape of South Africa, Ben Macdhui (30.5°S 27.9°E, 3001 m) was selected for testing the hypothesis that industrial emissions, specifically sulphate, are transported over thousands of kilometres in anticyclonic type patterns of flow and exported from the subcontinent towards the Indian Ocean at about 30°S. Time resolved particulate sampling (streaker) was conducted between June 1995 and January 1997. To characterise the industrial aerosol signal, two intensive sampling campaigns (summer and winter) were undertaken in 1996. Aerosol samples were collected by a streaker sampler and an open-faced stacked filter unit (SFU). Samples were PIXE analysed to obtain elemental concentrations. The industrial signature detected at Ben Macdhui was characterised by elevated concentration of sulphur and iron in the fine fraction and fine sulphur detected in the coarse mode. Other sources identified from the elemental data were soil (Al, Si, Ca, Mg, K, S, Mn), biomass burning (fine K) and marine (Cl, Ca, Mg, S and coarse K). These four sources accounted for approximately 70% of the total detected elemental mass. Major individual contributions came from the crustal (53%) and industrial components (21%). Air parcel trajectory analyses confirmed that peak episodes of enhanced aerosol sulphur were related to transport from the industrial Highveld region of South Africa and conversely that clean air masses originated over the southern oceans.

  11. Gendered Patterns of Migration in Rural South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Camlin, Carol S.; Snow, Rachel C.; Hosegood, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Gender is increasingly recognized as fundamental to understanding migration processes, causes and consequences. In South Africa, it is intrinsic to the social transformations fueling high levels of internal migration and complex forms of mobility. While female migration in Africa has often been characterized as less prevalent than male migration, and primarily related to marriage, in South Africa a feminization of internal migration is underway, fueled by women’s increasing labor market participation. In this paper, we report sex differences in patterns, trends and determinants of internal migration based on data collected in a demographic surveillance system between 2001 and 2006 in rural KwaZulu-Natal. We show that women were somewhat more likely than men to undertake any migration, but sex differences in migration trends differed by migration flow, with women more likely to migrate into the area than men, and men more likely to out-migrate. Out-migration was suppressed by marriage particularly for women, but most women were not married; both men’s and women’s out-migrations were undertaken mainly for purposes of employment. Over half of female out-migrations (versus 35% of male out-migrations) were to nearby rural areas. The findings highlight the high mobility of this population and the extent to which gender is intimately related to the processes determining migration. We consider the implications of these findings for the measurement of migration and mobility, in particular for health and social policy and research among highly mobile populations in southern Africa. PMID:25332690

  12. Hypertension awareness, treatment and control in Africa: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Inadequate diagnosis and suboptimal control of hypertension is a major driver of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in Africa. Understanding the levels of awareness, treatment and control of hypertension and the associated factors has important implications for hypertension control efforts. Methods The PubMed database was searched for original articles related to awareness, treatment and control of hypertension in Africa published between 1993 and 2013. The key search terms were: Africa, awareness, treatment, control, and hypertension. Exploration of bibliographies cited in the identified articles was done to provide further studies. Full texts of the articles were obtained from various internet sources and individual authors. A data extraction sheet was used to collect this information. Results Thirty eight studies drawn from 23 African countries from all regions of the continent met the inclusion criteria. The levels of awareness, treatment and control varied widely from country to country. Rural populations had lower levels of awareness than urban areas. North African countries had the highest levels of treatment in the continent. There was generally poor control of hypertension across the region even among subjects that were aware of their status and those that were treated. On the whole, the women had a better control status than the men. Conclusion There are low levels of awareness and treatment of hypertension and even lower levels of control. Tailored research is required to uncover specific reasons behind these low levels of awareness and treatment, and especially control, in order to inform policy formulation for the improvement of outcomes of hypertensive patients in Africa. PMID:23915151

  13. Personal Concepts on "Hunger in Africa"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obermaier, Gabriele; Schrufer, Gabriele

    2009-01-01

    When discussing the topic "Hunger in Africa" with students, incorrect and biased ideas on the causes for hunger are revealed. In order to change the students' personal concepts it is necessary to become acquainted with their mental models. Therefore, a survey of Geography students' different personal theories concerning "Hunger in Africa" was…

  14. Financing Schools in the New South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reschovsky, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    In almost every dimension, South Africa has undergone dramatic changes since the end of apartheid. Public education in South Africa has been completely transformed from an amalgam of separate and highly unequal educational systems, defined in terms of the race and place of residence of students, into a unified system based on the principle of…

  15. AIDS Infects Education Systems in Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Bess

    2005-01-01

    The AIDS pandemic raging across sub-Saharan Africa does not stop with personal carnage. It also threatens whole systems, including what is arguably the most critical for the region's future--education. Where rates of HIV infection are high, as they are in much of southern and eastern Africa, experts warn, the effects on social stability and…

  16. The Flynn Effect in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    te Nijenhuis, Jan; Murphy, Raegan; van Eeden, Rene

    2011-01-01

    This is a study of secular score gains in South Africa. The findings are based on representative samples from datasets utilized in norm studies of popular mainstream intelligence batteries such as the WAIS as well as widely used test batteries which were locally developed and normed in South Africa. Flynn effects were computed in three ways.…

  17. Africa's Infrastructure Gathering: A Report Card

    SciTech Connect

    Lock, Reinier

    2006-12-15

    This conference's high turnout and buoyant mood was a tribute to the progress that the Corporate Council on Africa, and the constituencies represented at the conference, have made in focusing on Africa's real development challenges and in persuading U.S. corporations and institutions to do so. (author)

  18. Muffled Drums: The News Media in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hachten, William A.

    This book examines the news media of modern Africa--newspapers, radio, television, news agencies, and magazines. The first half of the book presents a general overview of African news media, including the following topics: the context of Africa as related to the media, the background of each form of media, government involvement, the patterns of…

  19. Health Promoting Schools: Initiatives in Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macnab, Andrew J.; Stewart, Donald; Gagnon, Faith A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the rationale for and potential of World Health Organization (WHO) health promoting schools (HPS) in Africa. Design/Methodology/Approach: Overview of the related literature and presentations at the 2011 Stellenbosch international colloquium on HPS relating to sub-Saharan Africa. Findings: Schools…

  20. Evaluating Materials About Africa for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Nancy J.

    Choosing texts, media, and literature about Africa is a difficult task for school librarians who have not studied Africa in detail; however it is possible to evaluate the available materials on the basis of several important criteria. These include the authority of the author, the dates of preparation and publication, and the accuracy of…

  1. Education, Democracy and Poverty Reduction in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harber, Clive

    2002-01-01

    Authoritarian rule in Africa has exacerbated poverty levels in six ways. Achievement of greater democracy depends upon political culture and civil society in Africa becoming more democratic; education must play a part in teaching democratic values and behaviors. Examples show how education has not furthered democracy in Botswana, Zimbabwe, and…

  2. Western Perspectives in Applied Linguistics in Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makoni, Sinfree; Meinhof, Ulrike H.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this article is to analyze the nature of the historical and contemporary social contexts within which applied linguistics in Africa emerged, and is currently practiced. The article examines the challenges "local" applied Linguistics in Africa is confronted with as it tries to amplify applied linguistic programs emanating from…

  3. Moko Jumbies: Dancing Spirits from Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, S. A.; Phillips, Claire; Moore, Natalie

    2009-01-01

    The original Moko Jumbie was a spirit dancer from West Africa. "Moko" is a West African word that refers to gods and "Jumbie" means ghost. In West Africa, Moko Jumbies are known to kidnap and eat disobedient children, steal dreams and see into evildoers' hearts and terrorize them. They walk through villages on 10- to 15-foot-high stilts wearing…

  4. Addressing South Africa's Engineering Skills Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Jonathan; Sandelands, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to provide a case study of how engineering skills gaps are being addressed by Murray & Roberts in South Africa. Design/methodology/approach: The paper focuses on skills challenges in South Africa from a reflective practitioner perspective, exploring a case example from an industry leader. Findings: The paper explores how…

  5. Deafness in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiyaga, Nassozi B.; Moores, Donald F.

    2003-01-01

    A review of deaf education in sub-Saharan Africa notes the role of missionaries, especially Andrew Foster who established 31 schools and introduced total communication; deaf education in Nigeria, Kenya, Uganda, and South Africa; the growing acceptance of sign language; and the role of international disability organizations, especially the World…

  6. Social Change and Language Shift: South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamwangamalu, Nkonko M.

    2003-01-01

    Examines language shift from majority African languages, such as Sotho, Xhosa, and Zulu to English in South Africa. Examines the extent to which sociopolitical changes that have taken place in South Africa have impacted everyday linguistic interaction and have contributed to language shift from the indigenous African language to English,…

  7. Intercultural and Transcultural Literacy in Contemporary Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adejunmobi, Moradewun

    2008-01-01

    This paper argues that the challenge of intercultural communication has often been overlooked in discussions of indigenous language literacy in Africa. The omission continues despite the fact that literacy practices in Africa have often served as a means of intercultural communication, especially among highly educated Africans. Proposals for the…

  8. OER in Africa's Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngugi, Catherine N.

    2011-01-01

    Higher education in Africa has had diverse histories and trajectories, and has played different roles over time. This article is concerned with the evolution and future of higher education on the continent, and the role that open educational resources (OER) might play therein. It is generally accepted that "the university in Africa and higher…

  9. Quality of chloroquine tablets available in Africa

    PubMed Central

    SAWADOGO, C W; AMOOD AL-KAMARANY, M; AL-MEKHLAFI, H M; ELKARBANE, M; AL-ADHROEY, A H; CHERRAH, Y; BOUKLOUZE, A

    2011-01-01

    Malaria is the biggest killer of African children, yet it is cheaply preventable and curable with insecticides spraying, impregnated bednets and effective drugs. This study aimed to evaluate the quality of Chloroquine (CQ) tablets available in selected African countries. Twenty-six samples of antimalarial CQ tablet of 100, 150 and 250 mg were collected from 12 African countries and evaluated for their quality in the Drugs Quality Control Laboratory of Rabat, Morocco. The identification and dosage of active pharmaceutical ingredients in the tablets, dissolution rate, hardness and the friability of CQ tablets were performed according to the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) and European Pharmacopoeia (Eur.Ph.) recommended methods. The results showed that 7.7% of the sampled CQ tablets available in Burkina Faso were of low quality. Failure in dissolution profile was found in 50% of CQ tablets sampled from Benin, Burkina Faso, Comoros Union, Mali and Senegal. The findings showed poor quality of CQ tablets available in the African market. This problem may affect the efforts to control malaria in Africa. Efficient regulatory systems of drugs quality control should be implemented. PMID:22117854

  10. Human origins: Out of Africa

    PubMed Central

    Tattersall, Ian

    2009-01-01

    Our species, Homo sapiens, is highly autapomorphic (uniquely derived) among hominids in the structure of its skull and postcranial skeleton. It is also sharply distinguished from other organisms by its unique symbolic mode of cognition. The fossil and archaeological records combine to show fairly clearly that our physical and cognitive attributes both first appeared in Africa, but at different times. Essentially modern bony conformation was established in that continent by the 200–150 Ka range (a dating in good agreement with dates for the origin of H. sapiens derived from modern molecular diversity). The event concerned was apparently short-term because it is essentially unanticipated in the fossil record. In contrast, the first convincing stirrings of symbolic behavior are not currently detectable until (possibly well) after 100 Ka. The radical reorganization of gene expression that underwrote the distinctive physical appearance of H. sapiens was probably also responsible for the neural substrate that permits symbolic cognition. This exaptively acquired potential lay unexploited until it was “discovered” via a cultural stimulus, plausibly the invention of language. Modern humans appear to have definitively exited Africa to populate the rest of the globe only after both their physical and cognitive peculiarities had been acquired within that continent. PMID:19805256

  11. South Africa: a toxicologist's goldmine.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Michael J

    2002-02-01

    The emerging nation of South Africa, in common with some other countries, notably Eastern Europe, is heir to decades of neglect with regards to the exposure of the majority of its population to toxic materials. In this short review, the major toxic health hazards are described. For most of these risks there are now programs in place to improve the situation, but co-ordination and financial constraints, along with the fact that the majority of the population neither live, nor work, in a controlled environment, mean that much remains to be done. The recent formation of a South African Toxicology society, which strives to bring together environmental, industrial, forensic and clinical toxicology should assist in an improvement, both in the epidemiology of toxicity in South Africa and in improved measures to reduce the incidence of preventable noncommunicable diseases related to both acute and chronic exposure to toxins. The South African scene also provides a "window' of opportunity to study the more fundamental aspects of exposure in human subjects and to couple these to animal and in vitro studies to elucidate the underlying mechanisms where these are unknown. PMID:11805740

  12. HIV prevention strategies in Africa.

    PubMed

    Menting, A

    2000-01-01

    This paper concerns the administration of governmental and nongovernmental programs for the prevention of HIV/AIDS in Africa. A 1986 government campaign in the prevention of HIV in Senegal has been initiated and has been guided consistently. The Society for Women and AIDS in Africa (SWAA) is a nongovernmental organization (NGO) which assembles young population, women, and communities, towards their goal to prevent HIV infection. Marocaine de Lutte Contre le SIDA (ALCS), another NGO in Morocco believes that early intervention and education could help prevent further spread of infection. ALCS focused on the education of sex workers and the use of condoms. They also work with a group of men to promote safe sex and tackle the need for better testing facilities. In Uganda, the focus of the organization is to control the high incidence found in couples with only one infected partner. Another organization incorporates accurate HIV/AIDS information during prayers and other religious activities. Another approach was adopted by teaching English in secondary schools with AIDS information, values on education, family, and employment as content. An NGO in Cape Town was established to form loose cooperative to exchange information and resources within the community. An ongoing nationwide campaign for HIV prevention and control especially among high-risk groups and an effort on STD treatment is being organized.

  13. [Tobacco control in South Africa].

    PubMed

    Van Walbeek, Corné

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to briefly describe South Africa's experience in tobacco control, and to highlight some of the lessons that are applicable to other developing countries. South Africa's tobacco control strategy is based on two main pillars: (1) rapidly increasing excise taxes on tobacco, and (2) comprehensive legislation, of which the most important features are banning all tobacco advertising and sponsorship, and prohibition of smoking in public and work places. As a result of the increases in the excise tax, the real (inflation-adjusted) price of cigarettes has increased by 115% between 1993 and 2003. Aggregate cigarette consumption has decreased by about a third and per capita consumption has decreased by about 40% since 1993. Despite the decrease in cigarette consumption, real government revenue from tobacco excise taxes has increased by nearly 150% between 1993 and 2003. Some important lessons can be drawn from South Africa's experience in tobacco control. Firstly, strong and consistent lobbying was required to persuade the government to implement an effective tobacco control strategy. Country-specific research, drawn from a variety of disciplines, was used to back up and give credibility to the lobbyists' appeals. Secondly, rapid increases in the excise tax on cigarettes are particularly effective in reducing tobacco consumption. An increase in the excise tax increases the price of cigarettes, which in turn reduces cigarette consumption. In South Africa a 10% increase in the real price of cigarettes decreases cigarette consumption by between 6 and 8%. Similar results have been found for many other developing countries. Thirdly, while an increase in the excise tax is generally regarded as the most effective tobacco control measure, tobacco control legislation also plays an important role in a comprehensive tobacco control strategy. Bans on tobacco advertising and bans on smoking in public and work places denormalise and deglamorise smoking, and are

  14. Atmospheric Chemistry Over Southern Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatebe, Charles K.; Levy, Robert C.; Thompson, Anne M.

    2011-01-01

    During the southern African dry season, regional haze from mixed industrial pollution, biomass burning aerosol and gases from domestic and grassland fires, and biogenic sources from plants and soils is worsened by a semi-permanent atmosphere gyre over the subcontinent. These factors were a driver of several major international field campaigns in the 1990s and early 2000s, and attracted many scientists to the region. Some researchers were interested in understanding fundamental processes governing chemistry of the atmosphere and interaction with climate change. Others found favorable conditions for evaluating satellite-derived measurements of atmospheric properties and a changing land surface. With that background in mind a workshop on atmospheric chemistry was held in South Africa. Sponsored by the International Commission for Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Pollution (ICACGP; http://www.icacgp.org/), the workshop received generous support from the South African power utility, Eskom, and the Climatology Research Group of the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. The purpose of the workshop was to review some earlier findings as well as more recent findings on southern African climate vulnerability, chemical changes due to urbanization, land-use modification, and how these factors interact. Originally proposed by John Burrows, president of ICACGP, the workshop was the first ICACGP regional workshop to study the interaction of air pollution with global chemical and climate change. Organized locally by the University of the Witwatersrand, the workshop attracted more than 60 delegates from South Africa, Mozambique, Botswana, Zimbabwe, France, Germany, Canada, and the United States. More than 30 presentations were given, exploring both retrospective and prospective aspects of the science. In several talks, attention was focused on southern African chemistry, atmospheric pollution monitoring, and climate processes as they were studied in the field

  15. Namibia [South-West Africa].

    PubMed

    1983-01-01

    Namibia, a country of 1,051,700 inhabitants of whom 85.6% are blacks of diverse ethnic and linguistic origins, 7.5% are white, and the rest are of mixed ancestry, has been illegally administered by South Africa since 1966, when a League of Nations mandate was revoked by the UN. The Namibian Desert was a barrier to European expansion until the late 18th century, when the area came under German and British influence. Efforts to bring about an orderly and peaceful transition to independent status are hampered at present by the lack of parallel progress toward withdrawal of Cuban combat forces from Angola. Beginning in 1980, considerable executive power was transferred from the administrator general appointed by the South African Government to an interim 3-tier system of elected representatives dividing responsibility between central, ethnic, and local authorities. The judicial structure has separate overlapping systems for whites, westernized blacks and coloreds and for indigenous blacks. Namibian society is highly politicized, with 4 white and about 40 nonwhite political groups. The South West Africa People's Organization (SWAPO) remains an active party inside Namibia despite simultaneous detention of its entire leadership in 1979 by the South African Government. Namibia's economy is dual, with a modern market sector of mining, ranching and fishing producing most of the wealth and a traditional subsistence sector supporting most of the labor force. About 60% of the work force of 500,000 in 1981 worked in agriculture, 19% in industry and commerce, 6% in mining, 8% in services, and 7% in government. Namibia's gross domestic product in 1980 was $1.712 billion, representing an average growth rate of 2.5% from 1970-80. However, real growth since 1978 has been negative because of persistent drought, political uncertainty, low demand for mineral products, and previous overfishing. Namibia has no separate representation in any international body. The country may have the

  16. Monitoring the quality of medicines: results from Africa, Asia, and South America.

    PubMed

    Hajjou, Mustapha; Krech, Laura; Lane-Barlow, Christi; Roth, Lukas; Pribluda, Victor S; Phanouvong, Souly; El-Hadri, Latifa; Evans, Lawrence; Raymond, Christopher; Yuan, Elaine; Siv, Lang; Vuong, Tuan-Anh; Boateng, Kwasi Poku; Okafor, Regina; Chibwe, Kennedy M; Lukulay, Patrick H

    2015-06-01

    Monitoring the quality of medicines plays a crucial role in an integrated medicines quality assurance system. In a publicly available medicines quality database (MQDB), the U.S. Pharmacopeial Convention (USP) reports results of data collected from medicines quality monitoring (MQM) activities spanning the period of 2003-2013 in 17 countries of Africa, Asia, and South America. The MQDB contains information on 15,063 samples collected and tested using Minilab® screening methods and/or pharmacopeial methods. Approximately 71% of the samples reported came from Asia, 23% from Africa, and 6% from South America. The samples collected and tested include mainly antibiotic, antimalarial, and antituberculosis medicines. A total of 848 samples, representing 5.6% of total samples, failed the quality test. The failure proportion per region was 11.5%, 10.4%, and 2.9% for South America, Africa, and Asia, respectively. Eighty-one counterfeit medicines were reported, 86.4% of which were found in Asia and 13.6% in Africa. Additional analysis of the data shows the distribution of poor-quality medicines per region and by therapeutic indication as well as possible trends of counterfeit medicines.

  17. Cenozoic vegetation, climate changes and hominid evolution in tropical Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnefille, Raymonde

    2010-07-01

    This paper reviews information on past vegetation of tropical Africa during the Cenozoic, focused upon the last 10 Ma, a time spanning hominid record in Central and East Africa. Summary of palaeobotanical data collected at terrestrial sites are compared with new results on the long term evolution of the continental vegetation zones documented from marine pollen record of two deep sea cores recovered from the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. Section 2 includes a summary of modern distribution of vegetation belts in the African continent and a synthesis of the results of both macrobotanical (fossil wood, leaves and fruits) and microbotanical (mainly pollen) studies presented according to time scale and geographical location. The main features emphasized by the palaeobotanical results are 1) seasonal vegetation and climate documented as soon as the Eocene in Tanzania 2) well diversified forests existing in northern West Ethiopia during the Oligocene 3) high temporal and spatial variabilities of forests composition during the Miocene when deciduous Legume woodland was documented in Ethiopia whereas wetter evergreen forests existed in Western Kenya 4) lack of evidence for an evergreen forest belt, continuous from Western Congo to East Africa. Section 3 presents new original pollen data recovered from a long core in the Gulf of Aden documenting large scale past vegetation changes in East Africa during the last 11 Ma. These results are discussed in comparison with a summarized long pollen sequence previously published from a marine core offshore the Niger delta. This comparison illustrates variations in geographical distribution of large vegetation zone at the continental scale, through time. In Section 4, vegetation changes registered during the last 10 Ma are discussed in relation with the results of isotopic studies and an updated presentation of hominids evolution in Africa. Several changes are shown in the marine records. An expansion of savanna/grassland is shown at 10

  18. New initiatives against Africa's worms.

    PubMed

    Fenwick, Alan

    2006-03-01

    Since 1999, the funding available for the control of diseases of poverty (neglected diseases) has increased mainly due to leverage resulting from donations by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and loans from the World Bank. Many countries have embarked on control programmes on a national scale due to drug donations by pharmaceutical companies through vertical programmes. The Schistosomiasis Control Initiative has expanded its operations to cover six countries in sub-Saharan Africa, but overlap of treatments between different vertical programmes is now a reality, and so care is needed to ensure that too many different drugs are not given together. Dialogue between programme managers has increased, and integration of some programmes may offer chances of synergy.

  19. Retinitis pigmentosa in southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, J; Bartmann, L; Ramesar, R; Beighton, P

    1993-11-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a heterogeneous group of inherited retinal disorders which are a common cause of genetic blindness. The relative frequencies of the different forms of RP in South Africa, as determined from the register at the DNA banking centre for RP at the Department of Human Genetics, University of Cape Town, are presented and discussed. Of the 125 families analysed, 29 (23%) showed autosomal dominant, 33 (27%) autosomal recessive and 3 (3%) X-linked inheritance. In 10 families the pedigree data were insufficient to allow accurate genetic subtyping and a further 50 patients were sporadic without a family history of RP or other syndromic features which would allow categorization. PMID:8313621

  20. Missionary Education in Colonial Africa: The Critique of Mary Kingsley.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Robert

    1988-01-01

    Discussing missionary education in colonial Africa, Pearce examines the ideas of Mary Kingsley, one of the major influences on British thinking towards Africa from the late 1890's. Focusing attention on her educational views, Pearce states that she had influence on all areas of British policy in Africa, and especially West Africa. (GEA)

  1. Dietary mineral supplies in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Joy, Edward J M; Ander, E Louise; Young, Scott D; Black, Colin R; Watts, Michael J; Chilimba, Allan D C; Chilima, Benson; Siyame, Edwin W P; Kalimbira, Alexander A; Hurst, Rachel; Fairweather-Tait, Susan J; Stein, Alexander J; Gibson, Rosalind S; White, Philip J; Broadley, Martin R

    2014-01-01

    Dietary micronutrient deficiencies (MNDs) are widespread, yet their prevalence can be difficult to assess. Here, we estimate MND risks due to inadequate intakes for seven minerals in Africa using food supply and composition data, and consider the potential of food-based and agricultural interventions. Food Balance Sheets (FBSs) for 46 countries were integrated with food composition data to estimate per capita supply of calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), iodine (I), magnesium (Mg), selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn), and also phytate. Deficiency risks were quantified using an estimated average requirement (EAR) ‘cut-point’ approach. Deficiency risks are highest for Ca (54% of the population), followed by Zn (40%), Se (28%) and I (19%, after accounting for iodized salt consumption). The risk of Cu (1%) and Mg (<1%) deficiency are low. Deficiency risks are generally lower in the north and west of Africa. Multiple MND risks are high in many countries. The population-weighted mean phytate supply is 2770 mg capita−1 day−1. Deficiency risks for Fe are lower than expected (5%). However, ‘cut-point’ approaches for Fe are sensitive to assumptions regarding requirements; e.g. estimates of Fe deficiency risks are 43% under very low bioavailability scenarios consistent with high-phytate, low-animal protein diets. Fertilization and breeding strategies could greatly reduce certain MNDs. For example, meeting harvestplus breeding targets for Zn would reduce dietary Zn deficiency risk by 90% based on supply data. Dietary diversification or direct fortification is likely to be needed to address Ca deficiency risks. PMID:24524331

  2. [Women and AIDS in Africa].

    PubMed

    Coll Seck, A M

    1990-10-01

    The theme of "World Aids Day" for 1990 was "Women and AIDS." This theme was chosen because of the devastating effects AIDS has on women. The World Health Organization's (WHO) latest figures state that women represent 1/3 of the estimated 6 million people infected with AIDS worldwide. The majority of these women are in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and the Caribbean. The outcomes of a recent study done in a Central African country showed that women were 4 times more susceptible to getting AIDS than men, in spite of the fact that there are more men than women in this area of SSA. The reasons that women are so vulnerable are multiple: illiteracy, lack of access to information, prejudices, sexual taboos, and an economic dependency which have all led women towards prostitution and the growing incidence of hetero sexual transmission of AIDS in SSA. Prostitutes are 88% seropositive in Kigali; 16% in Dakar and 90% in Nairobi. 10% of all AIDS cases in SSA are due to transfusions where the blood banks are not monitored because women are loosing large quantities of blood through abortions, hemorrhages, deliveries and chronic anemia due to continuous pregnancies that are badly spaced. Additional problems for women are transmitting AIDS to their babies -- 25-30% of pediatric AIDS are transmitted from mother to child through "vertical transmission (VT)." This VT is a serious problem in East Africa where a survey in Uganda showed that 24% of pregnant women were infected with AIDS. The WHO estimated that between 1980-1987, 80,000 children were infected with AIDS of which 80% died before age 5. AIDS in SSA is taking its toll on women who face environmental, socio-cultural, political and economic discrimination. Such a loss to AIDS to incalculable to society.

  3. Africa's natural gas: potentialities and letdowns

    SciTech Connect

    Baladian, K.

    1983-11-01

    Although Africa has experienced 10 times less hydrocarbon exploration than Western Europe, its proved gas reserves already amount to 220-223 trillion CF or 7% of world reserves, while Europe holds 6% or 167 TCF. Yet Africa marketed only 1.3 TCF in 1982 against Europe's 6.5 TCF. Because of the lack of domestic demand for gas, Africa flares up to 21% of its gas output. Algeria is the continent's primary gas consumer, with Egypt, Libya, and Nigeria trying to expand local gas markets. The vast majority of marketed African gas goes to Europe, either as gas sent through the Trans-Med pipeline or as LNG via tanker.

  4. Status of Seismotectonic and seismic hazard studies in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Midzi, V.

    2012-04-01

    Though South Africa is considered to lie in a stable continental region, earthquakes are recorded and located daily. Large events have been recorded that resulted in severe damage to infrastructure in nearby towns, farms, underground mines and even death in some circumstances. Therefore, it is necessary that we consider the effects of these events in the design of our infrastructure. This mitigation is done by carrying out reliable seismic hazard and risk studies of our regions using state of the art methodologies. In South Africa, several regional seismic hazard studies have been carried out and published. Continental wide studies that include the South African region were also published by various scientists from the continent (e.g. GSHAP). However, to ensure that we conform to international best practice in such studies, more studies need and are being done to improve data, knowledge and methodologies used in the assessments. We continue to collect and improve collection methods of historical and instrumental seismicity data. Available geological information is being used to identify and characterize active or capable faults.

  5. Clarifying the Dioscorea buchananii Benth. species complex: a new potentially extinct subspecies for South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Wilkin, Paul; Muasya, A. Muthama

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Dioscorea buchananii complex is shown to comprise three species, one of which is divided into two subspecies, based on morphological data. Two species, Dioscorea rupicola Kunth and Dioscorea multiloba Kunth, are endemic or subendemic to South Africa and of widespread occurrence in KwaZulu Natal. They differ markedly from each other in inflorescence and floral morphology and appear to be ecologically differentiated. The third species, Dioscorea buchananii Benth., is primarily found in southeastern tropical Africa, but a small number of specimens collected in South Africa in the late 19th and early 20th centuries are placed in an endemic subspecies, Dioscorea buchananii subsp. undatiloba (Baker) Wilkin. The latter taxon is a high priority in terms of rediscovery and conservation. Keys, descriptions, supporting information and illustrations are provided and made available online through eMonocot biodiversity informatics tools. Three nomenclatural acts are undertaken: two names are placed in synonymy and a new combination made. PMID:25931973

  6. Epidemiologic and Environmental Risk Factors of Rift Valley Fever in Southern Africa from 2008 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    Glancey, Margaret M.; Linthicum, Kenneth J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Rift Valley fever (RVF) outbreaks have been associated with periods of widespread and above-normal rainfall over several months. Knowledge on the environmental factors influencing disease transmission dynamics has provided the basis for developing models to predict RVF outbreaks in Africa. From 2008 to 2011, South Africa experienced the worst wave of RVF outbreaks in almost 40 years. We investigated rainfall-associated environmental factors in southern Africa preceding these outbreaks. Methods: RVF epizootic records obtained from the World Animal Health Information Database (WAHID), documenting livestock species affected, location, and time, were analyzed. Environmental variables including rainfall and satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data were collected and assessed in outbreak regions to understand the underlying drivers of the outbreaks. Results: The predominant domestic vertebrate species affected in 2008 and 2009 were cattle, when outbreaks were concentrated in the eastern provinces of South Africa. In 2010 and 2011, outbreaks occurred in the interior and southern provinces affecting over 16,000 sheep. The highest number of cases occurred between January and April but epidemics occurred in different regions every year, moving from the northeast of South Africa toward the southwest with each progressing year. The outbreaks showed a pattern of increased rainfall preceding epizootics ranging from 9 to 152 days; however, NDVI and rainfall were less correlated with the start of the outbreaks than has been observed in eastern Africa. Conclusions: Analyses of the multiyear RVF outbreaks of 2008 to 2011 in South Africa indicated that rainfall, NDVI, and other environmental and geographical factors, such as land use, drainage, and topography, play a role in disease emergence. Current and future investigations into these factors will be able to contribute to improving spatial accuracy of models to map risk areas

  7. SRTM Data Release for Africa, Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    central latitudes of Africa is dominated by the Great Rift Valley, extending from Lake Nyasa to the Red Sea, and splitting into two arms to enclose an interior plateau and the nearly circular Lake Victoria, visible in the right center of the image. To the west lies the Congo Basin, a vast, shallow depression which rises to form an almost circular rim of highlands.

    Most of the southern part of the continent rests on a concave plateau comprising the Kalahari basin and a mountainous fringe, skirted by a coastal plain which widens out in Mozambique in the southeast.

    Many of these regions were previously very poorly mapped due to persistent cloud cover or the inaccessibility of the terrain. Digital elevation data, such as provided by SRTM, are particularly in high demand by scientists studying earthquakes, volcanism, and erosion patterns for use in mapping and modeling hazards to human habitation. But the shape of Earth's surface affects nearly every natural process and human endeavor that occurs there, so elevation data are used in a wide range of applications.

    In this index map color-coding is directly related to topographic height, with brown and yellow at the lower elevations, rising through green, to white at the highest elevations. Blue areas on the map represent water within the mapped tiles, each of which includes shorelines or islands.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a

  8. SRTM Data Release for Africa, Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    central latitudes of Africa is dominated by the Great Rift Valley, extending from Lake Nyasa to the Red Sea, and splitting into two arms to enclose an interior plateau and the nearly circular Lake Victoria, visible in the right center of the image. To the west lies the Congo Basin, a vast, shallow depression which rises to form an almost circular rim of highlands.

    Most of the southern part of the continent rests on a concave plateau comprising the Kalahari basin and a mountainous fringe, skirted by a coastal plain which widens out in Mozambique in the southeast.

    Many of these regions were previously very poorly mapped due to persistent cloud cover or the inaccessibility of the terrain. Digital elevation data, such as provided by SRTM, are particularly in high demand by scientists studying earthquakes, volcanism, and erosion patterns for use in mapping and modeling hazards to human habitation. But the shape of Earth's surface affects nearly every natural process and human endeavor that occurs there, so elevation data are used in a wide range of applications.

    In this index map color-coding is directly related to topographic height, with brown and yellow at the lower elevations, rising through green, to white at the highest elevations. Blue areas on the map represent water within the mapped tiles, each of which includes shorelines or islands.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a

  9. Comparison of US Antarctic Meteorite Collection to Other Cold and Hot Deserts and Modern Falls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McBride, K. M.; Righter, K.

    2010-01-01

    The US Antarctic meteorite collection has grown close to 18,000 specimens, over 16,000 of which have been classified. Because of this growth, the parallel growth of Antarctic meteorite collections by Japan and China, and also the hot desert collections (from Africa and Australia), we will update the statistical overview of the US collection (last done in 1990 [1]), and make comparisons to other collections and modern falls.

  10. Jump Up and Say! A Collection of Black Storytelling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goss, Linda; Goss, Clay

    This book features more than 70 stories about the wide range of the Black experience, including traditional tales from Africa and the West Indies. Collected in the book are family stories and moral fables, ghost stories and tales rich in humor, as well as raps and rhymes, memoirs and songs, recipes and riddles, and stories and poems about freedom,…

  11. Mid-Pleistocene Hominin occupation at Elandsfontein, Western Cape, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, David R.; Levin, Naomi E.; Stynder, Deano; Herries, Andy I. R.; Archer, Will; Forrest, Frances; Roberts, David L.; Bishop, Laura C.; Matthews, Thalassa; Lehmann, Sophie B.; Pickering, Robyn; Fitzsimmons, Kathryn E.

    2013-12-01

    The current understanding of landscape scale variation in mid-Pleistocene hominin behavior is limited. Most of our understanding derives from a few localities in eastern Africa. Consequently, we know very little about hominin landscape use outside this region, despite the fact that mid-Pleistocene hominins occupied other climatic zones including temperate, and mid-latitude ecosystems. The winter rainfall zone in South Africa represents one of the world's most diverse ecosystems. Although mammal diversity is relatively low in these habitats this is compensated by the tremendous floral diversity. Buried Pleistocene land surfaces in the region provide an opportunity to understand how humans adapted to this unique, mid-latitude environment prior to the Last Interglacial. The dunefield locality of Elandsfontein in the Western Cape of South Africa is one of the richest known paleontological and archeological sites in southern Africa. It records details of landscape formation history, enabling detailed reconstruction of the ancient environments in this winter rainfall-dominated region. This dunefield archive allows us to posit the taphonomic history of newly excavated archaeological material and previously collected specimens. Here we provide initial results from the excavation and geological analysis of the Elandsfontein dunefield and provide new insights into the formation history of the archaeological and paleontological deposits. This includes indications of multiple pedogenic intervals and groundwater table fluctuations. The combination of geological, paleontological and archaeological data provides a framework for evaluating how hominins interacted with the unique ecosystems of the Cape Floral Region of South Africa during the mid-Pleistocene.

  12. Tutorials for Africa - Malaria: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    Tutorials for Africa: Malaria In Uganda, the burden of malaria outranks that of all other diseases. This ... of treatment and techniques for prevention. Select the tutorial to play: Japadhola Japadhola (Self Playing Tutorial) Luganda ...

  13. Tutorials for Africa - Diarrhea: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    Tutorials for Africa: Diarrhea Diarrhea remains one of the leading causes of childhood morbidity and mortality in ... of treatment and techniques for prevention. Select the tutorial to play: Japadhola Japadhola (Self Playing Tutorial) Luganda ...

  14. Population Explosion in Africa: Further Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hidore, John J.

    1978-01-01

    Explains that population growth in Africa has caused a deterioration of vegetation and soil resources. This deterioration has resulted from overgrazing, too frequent and too extensive burning of the vegetation, and overcultivation. (Author/AV)

  15. HIV/AIDS situation in Africa.

    PubMed

    Ogunbodede, Eyitope O

    2004-12-01

    The HIV/AIDS pandemic marks a severe development crisis in Africa, which remains by far the worst affected region in the world. Forty-two million people now live with HIV/AIDS of which 29.4 million (70.0%) are from sub-Saharan Africa. Approximately 5 million new infections occurred in 2002 and 3.5 million (70.0%) of these were also from sub-Saharan Africa. The estimated number of children orphaned by AIDS living in the region is 11 million. In 2002, the epidemic claimed about 2.4 million lives in Africa, more than 70% of the 3.1 million deaths worldwide. Average life expectancy in sub-Saharan Africa is now 47 years, when it would have been 62 years without AIDS. HIV/AIDS stigma is still a major problem despite the extensive spread of the epidemic. A complex interaction of material, social, cultural and behavioural factors shape the nature, process and outcome of the epidemic in Africa. However, too many partners and unprotected sex appear to be at the core of the problem, Even if exceptionally effective prevention, treatment and care programmes take hold immediately, the scale of the crisis means that the human and socio-economic toll will remain significant for many generations. Although 70% of people living with HIV/AIDS are in Africa, only 6,569 (4.7%) of the 140,736 scientific publications on HIV/AIDS, from 1981 to 2000, are directly related to Africa. Effective responses to the epidemic require a multisectoral approach, including governments, the business sector and civil society. PMID:15631096

  16. Rural development update for South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Arent, D.

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes renewable energy programs implemented in South Africa as part of a collaborative program for rural development. Different facets of this program include: Renewable Energy for South Africa (REFSA); hybrid collaborative R&D; electricity sector restructuring; provincial level initiation of renewable energy applications; renewable energy for African development (REFAD); and Suncorp photovoltaic manufacturing company. Limited detailed information is provided on the activities of each of these different program facets over the past year in particular.

  17. Food allergy in Africa: myth or reality?

    PubMed

    Kung, Shiang-Ju; Steenhoff, Andrew P; Gray, Claudia

    2014-06-01

    Food allergy has been traditionally perceived as being rare in Africa. However, the prevalence of other allergic manifestations such as asthma and atopic dermatitis continue to rise in the higher-income African countries. Since the food allergy epidemic in westernized countries has lagged behind that of allergic respiratory conditions, we hypothesize that food allergy is increasing in Africa. This article systematically reviews the evidence for food allergy in Africa, obtained through searching databases including PubMed, Medline, MD Consult, and scholarly Google. Articles are divided into categories based on strength of methodological diagnosis of food allergy. Information was found for 11 African countries: Botswana, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ghana, Kenya, Morocco, Mozambique, Nigeria, South Africa, Tanzania, Tunisia, and Zimbabwe. Most studies reflect sensitization to food or self-reported symptoms. However, a few studies had more stringent diagnostic testing that is convincing for food allergy, mostly conducted in South Africa. Apart from the foods that commonly cause allergy in westernized countries, other regionally significant or novel food allergens may include pineapple (Ghana), okra (Nigeria), and mopane worm (Botswana). Food allergy is definitely an emerging disease in Africa and resources need to be diverted to study, diagnose, treat, and prevent this important disease.

  18. Central Africa Energy: Utilizing NASA Earth Observations to Explore Flared Gas as an Energy Source Alternative to Biomass in Central Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Amber; White, Charles; Castillo, Christopher; Hitimana, Emmanuel; Nguyen, Kenny; Mishra, Shikher; Clark, Walt

    2014-01-01

    Much of Central Africa's economy is centered on oil production. Oil deposits lie below vast amounts of compressed natural gas. The latter is often flared off during oil extraction due to a lack of the infrastructure needed to utilize it for productive energy generation. Though gas flaring is discouraged by many due to its contributions to greenhouse emissions, it represents a waste process and is rarely tracked or recorded in this region. In contrast to this energy waste, roughly 80% of Africa's population lacks access to electricity and in turn uses biomass such as wood for heat and light. In addition to the dangers incurred from collecting and using biomass, the practice commonly leads to ecological change through the acquisition of wood from forests surrounding urban areas. The objective of this project was to gain insight on domestic energy usage in Central Africa, specifically Angola, Gabon, and the Republic of Congo. This was done through an analysis of deforestation, an estimation of gas flared, and a suitability study for the infrastructure needed to realize the natural gas resources. The energy from potential natural gas production was compared to the energy equivalent of the biomass being harvested. A site suitability study for natural gas pipeline routes from flare sites to populous locations was conducted to assess the feasibility of utilizing natural gas for domestic energy needs. Analyses and results were shared with project partners, as well as this project's open source approach to assessing the energy sector. Ultimately, Africa's growth demands energy for its people, and natural gas is already being produced by the flourishing petroleum industry in numerous African countries. By utilizing this gas, Africa could reduce flaring, recuperate the financial and environmental loss that flaring accounts for, and unlock a plentiful domestic energy source for its people. II. Introduction Background Africa is home to numerous burgeoning economies; a

  19. Mt. Elgon, Africa, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The striking contrast of geologic structures in Africa is shown in this shaded relief image of Mt. Elgon on the left and a section of the Great Rift Valley on the right.

    Mt. Elgon is a solitary extinct volcano straddling the border between Uganda and Kenya, and at 4,321 meters (14,178 feet) tall is the eighth highest mountain in Africa. It is positioned on the Pre-Cambriam bedrock of the Trans Nzoia Plateau, and is similar to other such volcanoes in East Africa in that it is associated with the formation of the Rift Valley. However one thing that sets Mt. Elgon apart is its age.

    Although there is no verifiable evidence of its earliest volcanic activity, Mt. Elgon is estimated to be at least 24 million years old, making it the oldest extinct volcano in East Africa. This presents a striking comparison to Mt. Kilimanjaro, the highest mountain in Africa at 5,895 meters (19,341 feet), which is just over one million years old. Judging by the diameter of its base, it is a common belief among geological experts that Mt. Elgon was once the highest mountains in Africa, however erosion has played a significant role in reducing the height to its present value.

    Juxtaposed with this impressive mountain is a section of the Great Rift Valley, a geological fault system that extends for about 4,830 kilometers (2,995 miles) from Syria to central Mozambique. Erosion has concealed some sections, but in some sections like that shown here, there are sheer cliffs several thousand feet high. The present configuration of the valley, which dates from the mid-Pleistocene epoch, results from a rifting process associated with thermal currents in the Earth's mantle.

    Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly

  20. HIV vaccine development and Africa.

    PubMed

    Pervane, Z

    2000-01-01

    The genetic variation of HIV poses a great problem in the development of a vaccine that will work against the viral subtypes that predominate in Africa. HIV-1 exists in as many as 10 subtypes and these subtypes have 20-30% inter-subtype variation, while differences within a subtype can differ up to 15%. Moreover, HIV differs from person to person; it creates so many different versions of itself, which overwhelms the person's immune system. However, many areas of the code are conserved or shared across subtypes. Focusing on these shared areas could help in the development of a vaccine that is effective against the subtype for which it is made. Current investigations focus on stripping away glycoproteins which act to secure the virus to the surface of T4 cell, an immune-system cell found in the blood. To test if this vaccine is effective on humans, it has to undergo 3 trial tests. Phase I and II trials involve a number of volunteers and are designed to test safety, check for harmful side effects, and measure immune responses. Phase III trials, or efficacy trials, involve a greater number of volunteers. It is designed to determine whether the vaccine actually works. Although human testing is fundamental in the process of determining whether a vaccine works, it faces difficult ethical questions.

  1. [The population situation in Africa].

    PubMed

    Li, Q L

    1981-07-01

    The population growth rate in Africa has been the highest in the world since 1970--about 2.7% annually. A lower mortality rate because of better health conditions, their tradition of early marriage and polygamy, and the predominantly agricultural economy are the main reasons. The lack of coordination of such rapid population growth with the slow economic development and backward industrial and agricultural conditions have caused a very serious unemployment problem and inhibit increases in the living standard. The vast areas of desert and equatorial forest are sparsely inhabited. The coastline, Nile delta, and the plateaus are the most densely populated areas of the world. The abnormally developed cities cause expansion of the urban population and serious problems in employment, housing, traffic, health, and education. Many leaders of African countries have begun to realize the seriousness of the rapid population growth, and a few have begun family planning programs. Most countries have no official policies concerning population control and a few even encourage population growth.

  2. 'Emerging' mycobacteria in South Africa.

    PubMed

    van Helden, P D; Parsons, S D C; Gey van Pittius, N C

    2009-12-01

    Disease can be caused by various species of the genus Mycobacterium. A number of reports, both published and unpublished, of rarely reported mycobacteria have surfaced in South Africa in the last few years. Some unusual hosts have also been involved, causing concern in some quarters.These include reports on Mycobacterium goodii in a spotted hyaena (Crocuta crocuta), M. xenopi in a ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata), M. intracellulare in wild-caught chacma baboons (Papio ursinus), the 'dassie bacillus' in free ranging rock hyrax (dassies; Procavia capensis) the 'oryx bacillus' from free-ranging buffalo (Syncerus caffer) and M. tuberculosis in suricates (Suricata suricatta), a domestic dog and in baboons. In this article it has been attempted to put these in context and show how improved surveillance and technologies have allowed mycobacteria to be identified to species level more easily. Most of the unusual mycobacterial species have most likely been present in the region for many years and have probably caused disease episodes before, but have been misdiagnosed. Each case must be evaluated carefully with respect to the animal species involved, the environment in which the host is found and the mycobacterial species, and operational decisions made accordingly. PMID:20458859

  3. Downstaging cancer in rural Africa.

    PubMed

    Ngoma, Twalib; Mandeli, John; Holland, James F

    2015-06-15

    Cancer is usually diagnosed late in rural Africa leading to incurability and abbreviated survival. Many curable cancers present on the body surface, often recognizable early by laymen as suspicious, justifying professional referral. Cancer diagnoses in two randomly chosen Tanzanian villages were compared after conventional dispensary self-referral vs. proactive visits in the home. Village navigators organized trips for professional consultation. In the control village 21% were self-referred, 20% of them were sent on as suspicious, 78% had cancer (8% in men) 0.9% of the village population. In the intervention village 99% were screened, 14% were referred for professional opinion, 93% had cancer (32% in men) 1.6% (p < 0.01 compared with control village). In the second and third years similar activity yielded 0.5% cancer annually in the control village for a 3 year total of 1.86% whereas interventional villagers had 1.4% and 0.6% cancer for a 3 year total of 3.56% (p < 0.001). Downstaging was recognized in the second and third years of intervention from 23 to 51 to 74% Stages I and II (p < 0.001) but in the control village Stages I and II changed from 11% to 22% to 37% (p = NS). The greatest downstaging occurred in breast and cervix cancers.

  4. Occurrences and Effects of Drought across Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mwangi, M. N.

    2009-12-01

    Drought is a common occurrence in Africa and its effects vary temporally and spatially across the continent. The objective of this paper is to synthesize available information on droughts in Africa in order to discern emerging trends vis-à-vis spatiotemporal occurrences, impacts and adaptation. Drought forcings in the Sahelian region and southern Africa are predominately related to the passage of mid-latitude air masses while in locations near the equator is strongly linked to the position of ITCZ, except perhaps in the deserts where albedo may predominate. The review shows that drought occurrences have increased both temporally and spatially; its effects on the society vary across scales, and are influenced by political, economic, social, cultural, and ecological factors. The drought occurrence and its impacts varied spatially and temporally. The effect of drought also varied with socioeconomic sector; agriculture and pastoralism were the widely reported. The greater horn of Africa, specifically Kenya, has the most continuous record of droughts. The synthesis also reveals that a suite of drought adaptation strategies exists at the local scale; in contrasts, at the aggregate scale, coping strategies are scarce. Drought management tailored for specific livelihood system or societies are non-existent. The study found that occurrence of drought alongside issues related to the multiscale political economy affect the viability of most adaptation strategies used by societies across Africa. Drought management has been silent on the social, political, and economic dimensions that reasonably aggravate the vulnerability of lives and livelihood systems to this climatic hazard. The effect of drought and social pressures is relational and simultaneous to such a degree that differential vulnerability among communities across Africa is to be expected. Although scenarios about rainfall and drought vis-à-vis Africa are largely contested there is a general indication that most

  5. Human Responses to Climate Variability: The Case of South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oppenheimer, M.; Licker, R.; Mastrorillo, M.; Bohra-Mishra, P.; Estes, L. D.; Cai, R.

    2014-12-01

    Climate variability has been associated with a range of societal and individual outcomes including migration, violent conflict, changes in labor productivity, and health impacts. Some of these may be direct responses to changes in mean temperature or precipitation or extreme events, such as displacement of human populations by tropical cyclones. Others may be mediated by a variety of biological, social, or ecological factors such as migration in response to long-term changes in crops yields. Research is beginning to elucidate and distinguish the many channels through which climate variability may influence human behavior (ranging from the individual to the collective, societal level) in order to better understand how to improve resilience in the face of current variability as well as future climate change. Using a variety of data sets from South Africa, we show how climate variability has influenced internal (within country) migration in recent history. We focus on South Africa as it is a country with high levels of internal migration and dramatic temperature and precipitation changes projected for the 21st century. High poverty rates and significant levels of rain-fed, smallholder agriculture leave large portions of South Africa's population base vulnerable to future climate change. In this study, we utilize two complementary statistical models - one micro-level model, driven by individual and household level survey data, and one macro-level model, driven by national census statistics. In both models, we consider the effect of climate on migration both directly (with gridded climate reanalysis data) and indirectly (with agricultural production statistics). With our historical analyses of climate variability, we gain insights into how the migration decisions of South Africans may be influenced by future climate change. We also offer perspective on the utility of micro and macro level approaches in the study of climate change and human migration.

  6. The Regionalization of Africa in Undergraduate Geography of Africa Textbooks, 1953 to 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Roy

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the regionalization of Africa through analysis of forty-two English-language geography of Africa texts written for undergraduates between 1953 and 2004. Authors identify regions with reference to one or more variables. Some authors provided no explanation for their regionalization; others labored mightily to justify their…

  7. International Institute for Capacity Building in Africa: Strengthening Africa's Educational Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UNESCO International Institute for Capacity Building in Africa, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Established in 1999, the UNESCO International Institute for Capacity Building in Africa (IICBA) is one of six UNESCO Institutes and Centers under the direction of the UNESCO Secretariat. The only UNESCO Institute in Africa, it is mandated to strengthen the capacities of the teacher education institutions of its 53 member states, and promote…

  8. Compositions of Three Lunar Meteorites: Meteorite Hills 01210, Northeast Africa 001, and Northwest Africa 3136

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korotev, R. L.; Irving, A. J.

    2005-01-01

    We report on compositions obtained by instrumental neutron activation analysis on three new lunar meteorites, MET 01210 (Meteorite Hills, Antarctica; 23 g), NEA 001 (Northeast Africa, Sudan; 262 g), and NWA 3136 (Northwest Africa, Algeria or Morocco; 95 g). As in previous similar studies, we divided our samples into many (8-9) small (approximately 30 mg) subsamples prior to analysis.

  9. Step Into Africa: Elementary Level Activities Using Africa Is Not a Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starbird, Caroline; Bahrenburg, Amy

    2004-01-01

    This book takes student inside the vast continent of Africa. The goal of these lessons is to provide young students with a look at contemporary Africa and to give them a feeling for the rich diversity of the many different nations of the continent. The lessons integrate language arts and geography, and some lessons include math. This book…

  10. Managing the wetlands. People and rivers: Africa.

    PubMed

    Dugan, P

    1993-01-01

    At the current population growth rate in Africa, the population will reach 1 billion by 2010. Water is needed to sustain these people, yet rainfall in Africa is erratic. Africans are already confronting a shortage of freshwater. Agriculture supports 66% of the population of sub-Saharan Africa. Sound agricultural development is needed to curb rural-urban migration, but a constant supply of freshwater is essential. Major rivers (the Limpopo in southern Africa and the Save/Sabi in Zimbabwe and Mozambique) now flow only seasonally. The flows of the Chari-Logona, the Nile, and the Zambezi are falling. Continual mismanagement of Africa's river basins coupled with current projections of global climate change will expand desiccation. All but the White Nile and the Zaire rivers flood seasonally every year, thereby expanding Africa's wetlands. Wetlands have been targeted for development projects (e.g., hydroelectric projects and large dams), largely to meet urban-industrial demands. Development planners tend to ignore the economic value of the wetlands. For example, the Niger Inland Delta sustains 550,000 people, 1 million cattle, and 1 million sheep. Wetlands replenish ground water and serve as natural irrigation. River basin planning often results in environmentally disastrous schemes which do not understand local management practices. Hydrologists, engineers, geologists, and economics design these schemes, but sociologists, anthropologists, and development experts should be included. The unfinished Jonglei Canal in southern Sudan would have adversely affected 400,000 pastoralists. The Volta River Authority's Akosombo Dam displaced 84,000 people and flooded the most productive agricultural land in Ghana. A sustainable future in Africa depends on understanding the interactions of human uses and the ways in which they relate to the natural variations in river flow. The IUCN Wetlands Programme, based on the principles of the World Conservation Strategy, is working with

  11. Managing the wetlands. People and rivers: Africa.

    PubMed

    Dugan, P

    1993-01-01

    At the current population growth rate in Africa, the population will reach 1 billion by 2010. Water is needed to sustain these people, yet rainfall in Africa is erratic. Africans are already confronting a shortage of freshwater. Agriculture supports 66% of the population of sub-Saharan Africa. Sound agricultural development is needed to curb rural-urban migration, but a constant supply of freshwater is essential. Major rivers (the Limpopo in southern Africa and the Save/Sabi in Zimbabwe and Mozambique) now flow only seasonally. The flows of the Chari-Logona, the Nile, and the Zambezi are falling. Continual mismanagement of Africa's river basins coupled with current projections of global climate change will expand desiccation. All but the White Nile and the Zaire rivers flood seasonally every year, thereby expanding Africa's wetlands. Wetlands have been targeted for development projects (e.g., hydroelectric projects and large dams), largely to meet urban-industrial demands. Development planners tend to ignore the economic value of the wetlands. For example, the Niger Inland Delta sustains 550,000 people, 1 million cattle, and 1 million sheep. Wetlands replenish ground water and serve as natural irrigation. River basin planning often results in environmentally disastrous schemes which do not understand local management practices. Hydrologists, engineers, geologists, and economics design these schemes, but sociologists, anthropologists, and development experts should be included. The unfinished Jonglei Canal in southern Sudan would have adversely affected 400,000 pastoralists. The Volta River Authority's Akosombo Dam displaced 84,000 people and flooded the most productive agricultural land in Ghana. A sustainable future in Africa depends on understanding the interactions of human uses and the ways in which they relate to the natural variations in river flow. The IUCN Wetlands Programme, based on the principles of the World Conservation Strategy, is working with

  12. Moving Across Boundaries: Migration in South Africa, 1950–2000

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Existing knowledge about historical patterns of black internal migration in South Africa is incomplete, primarily because of the lack of good life course studies as well as the apartheid government’s suppression and censoring of data. This article provides a comprehensive picture of historical internal migration patterns with an analysis of a unique individual retrospective life history data set. This sample of the black population, collected in 2000, is the only known nationally representative life history data for South Africa; it includes all residential moves for each individual during his/her lifetime. Various mobility outcomes are analyzed: moves within/across provinces, moves within/across rural and urban areas, forced moves, moves with a nuclear family, and individual moves. The results indicate that migration significantly increased among black South Africans during the last half of the twentieth century, and that this increase began before the Pass Laws were repealed in 1986 and well before the official end of apartheid in 1991 or the first free election in 1994. The timing of this increase in migration rates suggests that migration in defiance of the Pass Laws (albeit a dangerous and desperate proposition) was a way of life for many black South Africans. PMID:22956415

  13. The Lithospheric Structure of Southern Africa from Magnetotelluric Sounding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, R. L.; Jones, A. G.; Atekwana, E. A.

    2014-12-01

    Measurements of mantle electrical conductivity, made through the magnetotelluric method, offer considerable insight into the structure of cratonic lithosphere. A particularly expansive data set has been collected in Southern Africa, started through the Southern Africa Magnetotelluric Experiment (SAMTEX) experiment, now continuing north through Zambia as part of the Project for Rift Initiation Development and Evolution (PRIDE) experiment. The combined data set highlights large variability in lithospheric structure that broadly correlates with surface geology: cratonic lithosphere is generally thick and electrically resistive, while much thinner lithosphere is seen beneath mobile belts. In areas of relatively uniform resistivity structure, we have constructed resistivity-depth profiles and use new laboratory data to place constraints on the water content of lithospheric mantle. Uncertainty in our estimates arises from differences between different laboratory results, but our data are generally consistent with a slightly damp upper lithospheric mantle above a dry and strong cratonic root. Other areas show complexity of structure that is difficult to understand using current knowledge of conductivity -the Bushveld complex, where the mantle is highly conductive, is one such example. In southwestern Zambia, the lithosphere is seen to be very thin (around 50km) beneath mobile belt terrain, as was inferred nearly 40 years ago on the basis of high heatflow. The mantle is highly conductive, most likely due to a combination of elevated temperatures, water content and perhaps a trace amount of melting. This anomalous structure may be linked to the southwest propagation of the East African Rift system.

  14. Moving across boundaries: migration in South Africa, 1950-2000.

    PubMed

    Reed, Holly E

    2013-02-01

    Existing knowledge about historical patterns of black internal migration in South Africa is incomplete, primarily because of the lack of good life course studies as well as the apartheid government's suppression and censoring of data. This article provides a comprehensive picture of historical internal migration patterns with an analysis of a unique individual retrospective life history data set. This sample of the black population, collected in 2000, is the only known nationally representative life history data for South Africa; it includes all residential moves for each individual during his/her lifetime. Various mobility outcomes are analyzed: moves within/across provinces, moves within/across rural and urban areas, forced moves, moves with a nuclear family, and individual moves. The results indicate that migration significantly increased among black South Africans during the last half of the twentieth century, and that this increase began before the Pass Laws were repealed in 1986 and well before the official end of apartheid in 1991 or the first free election in 1994. The timing of this increase in migration rates suggests that migration in defiance of the Pass Laws (albeit a dangerous and desperate proposition) was a way of life for many black South Africans.

  15. Mineral facilities of Africa and the Middle East

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eros, J.M.; Candelario-Quintana, Luissette

    2006-01-01

    This map displays over 1,500 mineral facilities in Africa and the Middle East. The mineral facilities include mines, plants, mills, or refineries of aluminum, cement, coal, copper, diamond, gold, iron and steel, nickel, platinum-group metals, salt, and silver, among others. The data used in this poster were compiled from multiple sources, including the 2004 USGS Minerals Yearbook (Africa and Middle East volume), Minerals Statistics and Information from the USGS Web site (http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/), and data collected by USGS minerals information country specialists. Data reflect the most recent published table of industry structure for each country. Other sources include statistical publications of individual countries, annual reports and press releases of operating companies, and trade journals. Due to the sensitivity of some energy commodity data, the quality of these data should be evaluated on a country-by-country basis. Additional information and explanation is available from the country specialists. See Table 1 for general information about each mineral facility site including country, location and facility name, facility type, latitude, longitude, mineral commodity, mining method, main operating company, status, capacity, and units.

  16. Young widows, tragic voices. Voices of girls 2: Africa.

    PubMed

    Owen, M

    1998-01-01

    The tragic consequences for young girls of becoming widows or being the daughters of widows have not yet been addressed. In Africa, girls are sometimes given in marriage to old men. When the girls are widowed while still young, their chances for remarriage are slim. The marriages of girl children continue unabated in Africa and may be on the increase because of the AIDS epidemic. Modern legislation that complies with marriage age obligations created by the Convention for the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women simply creates statutory limits to marriage without parental consent and fails to regulate child marriages arranged by parents. Being the daughter of a widow is almost as bad as being a widow, because widows routinely withdraw their daughters from school to protect them from unwanted sexual approaches or marrying them off at a young age. Widows and their daughters are often considered chattel by male relatives who feel no compulsion to seek their consent before arranging marriages for them. Child widowhood is not addressed in the Platform for Action of the Fourth World Conference on Women, but during the 1998 UN Commission on the Status of Women, the European Union countries agreed to pay special attention to widows. It is time for international agencies to begin to collect data on this issue.

  17. TB Incidence in an Adolescent Cohort in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Mahomed, Hassan; Ehrlich, Rodney; Hawkridge, Tony; Hatherill, Mark; Geiter, Lawrence; Kafaar, Fazlin; Abrahams, Deborah Ann; Mulenga, Humphrey; Tameris, Michele; Geldenhuys, Hennie; Hanekom, Willem Albert; Verver, Suzanne; Hussey, Gregory Dudley

    2013-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health problem globally. Little is known about TB incidence in adolescents who are a proposed target group for new TB vaccines. We conducted a study to determine the TB incidence rates and risk factors for TB disease in a cohort of school-going adolescents in a high TB burden area in South Africa. Methods We recruited adolescents aged 12 to 18 years from high schools in Worcester, South Africa. Demographic and clinical information was collected, a tuberculin skin test (TST) performed and blood drawn for a QuantiFERON TB Gold assay at baseline. Screening for TB cases occurred at follow up visits and by surveillance of registers at public sector TB clinics over a period of up to 3.8 years after enrolment. Results A total of 6,363 adolescents were enrolled (58% of the school population targeted). During follow up, 67 cases of bacteriologically confirmed TB were detected giving an overall incidence rate of 0.45 per 100 person years (95% confidence interval 0.29–0.72). Black or mixed race, maternal education of primary school or less or unknown, a positive baseline QuantiFERON assay and a positive baseline TST were significant predictors of TB disease on adjusted analysis. Conclusion The adolescent TB incidence found in a high burden setting will help TB vaccine developers plan clinical trials in this population. Latent TB infection and low socio-economic status were predictors of TB disease. PMID:23533639

  18. Botryosphaeriaceae associated with Pterocarpus angolensis (kiaat) in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mehl, James W M; Slippers, Bernard; Roux, Jolanda; Wingfield, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    There have been several recent reports of Pterocarpus angolensis (kiaat) trees dying in South Africa, Zambia and Zimbabwe, where this tree is used in traditional medicine and is a valuable source of timber for woodcarving and furniture. A survey of material from diseased P. angolensis trees in South Africa yielded isolates of the Botryosphaeriaceae, an important fungal family known to cause a number of tree diseases. The aim of this study was to identify these Botryosphaeriaceae and to determine their pathogenicity to P. angolensis with branch inoculations. Seven species of the Botryosphaeriaceae were identified based on a combination of morphological characteristics and sequences from the ITS and EF-1α gene regions. Four of these represent undescribed taxa for which the names Pseudofusicoccum violaceum, P. olivaceum, Diplodia alatafructa and Fusicoccum atrovirens are provided. The remaining three species collected include Lasiodiplodia theobromae, L. pseudotheobromae and L. crassispora. Inoculation trials on tree branches showed that L. pseudotheobromae and one isolate of D. alatafructa differed significantly from control inoculations. The high levels of virulence and common occurrence of L. pseudotheobromae suggest that this species could play a role in tree dieback and death. PMID:21186325

  19. Africa and the global carbon cycle

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Christopher A; Hanan, Niall P; Neff, Jason C; Scholes, Robert J; Berry, Joseph A; Denning, A Scott; Baker, David F

    2007-01-01

    The African continent has a large and growing role in the global carbon cycle, with potentially important climate change implications. However, the sparse observation network in and around the African continent means that Africa is one of the weakest links in our understanding of the global carbon cycle. Here, we combine data from regional and global inventories as well as forward and inverse model analyses to appraise what is known about Africa's continental-scale carbon dynamics. With low fossil emissions and productivity that largely compensates respiration, land conversion is Africa's primary net carbon release, much of it through burning of forests. Savanna fire emissions, though large, represent a short-term source that is offset by ensuing regrowth. While current data suggest a near zero decadal-scale carbon balance, interannual climate fluctuations (especially drought) induce sizeable variability in net ecosystem productivity and savanna fire emissions such that Africa is a major source of interannual variability in global atmospheric CO2. Considering the continent's sizeable carbon stocks, their seemingly high vulnerability to anticipated climate and land use change, as well as growing populations and industrialization, Africa's carbon emissions and their interannual variability are likely to undergo substantial increases through the 21st century. PMID:17343752

  20. Science-based health innovation in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Al-Bader, Sara; Masum, Hassan; Simiyu, Ken; Daar, Abdallah S; Singer, Peter A

    2010-01-01

    In recent years emerging markets such as India, China, and Brazil have developed appropriate business models and lower-cost technological innovations to address health challenges locally and internationally. But it is not well understood what capabilities African countries, with their high disease burden, have in science-based health innovation.This gap in knowledge is addressed by this series in BMC International Health and Human Rights. The series presents the results of extensive on-the-ground research in the form of four country case studies of health and biotechnology innovation, six studies of institutions within Africa involved in health product development, and one study of health venture funds in Africa. To the best of our knowledge it is the first extensive collection of empirical work on African science-based health innovation.The four country cases are Ghana, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda. The six case studies of institutions are A to Z Textiles (Tanzania), Acorn Technologies (South Africa), Bioventures venture capital fund (South Africa), the Malagasy Institute of Applied Research (IMRA; Madagascar), the Kenyan Medical Research Institute (KEMRI; Kenya), and Niprisan's development by Nigeria's National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development and Xechem (Nigeria).All of the examples highlight pioneering attempts to build technological capacity, create economic opportunities, and retain talent on a continent significantly affected by brain drain. They point to the practical challenges for innovators on the ground, and suggest potentially helpful policies, funding streams, and other support systems.For African nations, health innovation represents an opportunity to increase domestic capacity to solve health challenges; for international funders, it is an opportunity to move beyond foreign aid and dependency. The shared goal is creating self-sustaining innovation that has both health and development impacts. While this is a long-term strategy

  1. Science-based health innovation in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Al-Bader, Sara; Masum, Hassan; Simiyu, Ken; Daar, Abdallah S; Singer, Peter A

    2010-01-01

    In recent years emerging markets such as India, China, and Brazil have developed appropriate business models and lower-cost technological innovations to address health challenges locally and internationally. But it is not well understood what capabilities African countries, with their high disease burden, have in science-based health innovation.This gap in knowledge is addressed by this series in BMC International Health and Human Rights. The series presents the results of extensive on-the-ground research in the form of four country case studies of health and biotechnology innovation, six studies of institutions within Africa involved in health product development, and one study of health venture funds in Africa. To the best of our knowledge it is the first extensive collection of empirical work on African science-based health innovation.The four country cases are Ghana, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda. The six case studies of institutions are A to Z Textiles (Tanzania), Acorn Technologies (South Africa), Bioventures venture capital fund (South Africa), the Malagasy Institute of Applied Research (IMRA; Madagascar), the Kenyan Medical Research Institute (KEMRI; Kenya), and Niprisan's development by Nigeria's National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development and Xechem (Nigeria).All of the examples highlight pioneering attempts to build technological capacity, create economic opportunities, and retain talent on a continent significantly affected by brain drain. They point to the practical challenges for innovators on the ground, and suggest potentially helpful policies, funding streams, and other support systems.For African nations, health innovation represents an opportunity to increase domestic capacity to solve health challenges; for international funders, it is an opportunity to move beyond foreign aid and dependency. The shared goal is creating self-sustaining innovation that has both health and development impacts. While this is a long-term strategy

  2. Science-based health innovation in sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    In recent years emerging markets such as India, China, and Brazil have developed appropriate business models and lower-cost technological innovations to address health challenges locally and internationally. But it is not well understood what capabilities African countries, with their high disease burden, have in science-based health innovation. This gap in knowledge is addressed by this series in BMC International Health and Human Rights. The series presents the results of extensive on-the-ground research in the form of four country case studies of health and biotechnology innovation, six studies of institutions within Africa involved in health product development, and one study of health venture funds in Africa. To the best of our knowledge it is the first extensive collection of empirical work on African science-based health innovation. The four country cases are Ghana, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda. The six case studies of institutions are A to Z Textiles (Tanzania), Acorn Technologies (South Africa), Bioventures venture capital fund (South Africa), the Malagasy Institute of Applied Research (IMRA; Madagascar), the Kenyan Medical Research Institute (KEMRI; Kenya), and Niprisan’s development by Nigeria’s National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development and Xechem (Nigeria). All of the examples highlight pioneering attempts to build technological capacity, create economic opportunities, and retain talent on a continent significantly affected by brain drain. They point to the practical challenges for innovators on the ground, and suggest potentially helpful policies, funding streams, and other support systems. For African nations, health innovation represents an opportunity to increase domestic capacity to solve health challenges; for international funders, it is an opportunity to move beyond foreign aid and dependency. The shared goal is creating self-sustaining innovation that has both health and development impacts. While this is a long

  3. Characterization of and application of monoclonal antibodies against Rickettsia africae, a newly recognized species of spotted fever group rickettsia.

    PubMed Central

    Xu, W; Beati, L; Raoult, D

    1997-01-01

    Rickettsia africae is a newly described species which causes African tick bite fever. Mediterranean spotted fever caused by R. conorii is endemic in the same regions of Africa as tick bite fever, and differentiation of the two syndromes by characterization of their etiological agents is important for epidemiological studies. R. africae and R. conorii are, however, difficult to distinguish, and therefore, our aim was to produce monoclonal antibodies to address this problem. Monoclonal antibodies were produced against R. africae by fusing splenocytes from BALB/C mice immunized with purified rickettsial organisms and SP2/0-Ag14 myeloma cells. A total of 355 hybridomas producing monoclonal antibodies to R. africae were identified by initial screening with six different antigens by microimmunofluorescence assay. A panel of 23 representative monoclonal antibodies were selected and subcloned. This panel was screened with a further 17 different spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsial reference antigens. Of these 23 monoclonal antibodies, 1 cross-reacted with only R. parkeri, whereas the others cross-reacted with more than two different antigens. Immunoblotting indicated that all the monoclonal antibodies were directed against the epitopes on two major high-molecular-mass heat-labile proteins, of which the molecular masses were 128 and 135 kDa, respectively. This monoclonal antibody panel was used successfully to identify R. africae in the blood culture of an infected patient, in infected cells within shell vials, and in infected ticks collected from Africa. Furthermore, the cross-reactivity of each SFG rickettsia with each of these 23 monoclonal antibodies was scored and was used to build a dendrogram of taxonomic relatedness between R. africae and the other SFG rickettsiae on the basis of Jaccard coefficients and unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean analysis. The relatedness was generally consistent with that obtained by other methods of comparison. PMID

  4. Understanding the Influence of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Factors on Inquiry-Based Science Education at Township Schools in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramnarain, Umesh

    2016-01-01

    This mixed-methods research investigated teachers' perceptions of intrinsic factors (personal attributes of the teacher) and extrinsic factors (environmental) influencing the implementation of inquiry-based science learning at township (underdeveloped urban area) high schools in South Africa. Quantitative data were collected by means of an adapted…

  5. An Investigation on Students' Risky Sexual Behavior at KwaZulu-Natal University, Durban, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mutinta, Given; Govender, Kaymarlin; Gow, Jeff; George, Gavin

    2013-01-01

    University environments are fertile grounds for risky sexual behaviors. This study investigated students' risky sexual practices at the University of KwaZulu-Natal in Durban, South Africa. Data were collected using quantitative and qualitative methods. A total of 1,405 questionnaires were administered, and 80 in-depth interviews and four…

  6. IFLA General Conference 1988. Division of Regional Activities. Sections on: Asia and Oceania; Africa; Latin America and the Caribbean; Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    The eight papers in this collection focus on library activities in various geographical regions, e.g., Asia, Oceania, Africa, Latin America, the Caribbean, and Western Australia: (1) "Future Approaches and Prospects of Computerised Information Network among the Countries of South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC)" (Abdullah…

  7. The Practice of Conservation of Library Materials in Sub-Saharan Africa. Monograph on Africana Librarianship No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojo-Igbinoba, M. E.

    This document is concerned with the practice of conservation of library materials in African university libraries south of the Sahara and north of the Limpopo. Data were collected using a questionnaire mailed to 42 university libraries in Sub-Saharan Africa. Responses were received from 27 libraries for a 64% response rate. Data analysis was…

  8. Educational Management and Policy: Research, Theory and Practice in South Africa. Bristol Papers in Education. Comparative and International Studies: 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, David, Ed.

    This book contains a collection of papers written by students involved in the Educational Management Project for South Africa. The project was established to introduce selected South Africans to theories and practices in educational management in an international comparative context. The papers focus on priorities for educational change and…

  9. Factors Contributing to Sexual Violence at Selected Schools for Learners with Mild Intellectual Disability in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyokangi, Doris; Phasha, Nareadi

    2016-01-01

    Background: This paper reports part of the findings of a study which exposed sexual violence in schools for learners with mild intellectual disability in South Africa. Special attention was paid on factors contributing to such a problem. Methods: Data were collected using focus groups and individual interviews with 16 learners with mild…

  10. Fertility, Education, and Resources in South Africa. Land and Population Program Working Paper Series 96-15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Duncan

    This paper concludes that population and education are likely to play central roles in public policy in South Africa as it emerges from years of apartheid. The study examines some of the mechanisms that underlie the negative association between fertility and education. Using household survey data collected as part of the Project for Statistics on…

  11. Protosclerogibba australis gen. et sp. nov., new genus and species of sclerogibbid wasps (Hymenoptera: Sclerogibbidae) from South Africa.

    PubMed

    Olmi, Massimo; Marletta, Alessandro; Guglielmino, Adalgisa; Speranza, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Protosclerogibba australis Olmi, Marletta, Guglielmino & Speranza, gen. et sp. nov. is described and illustrated from specimens collected in Kimberley (Northern Cape Province, South Africa). The female of the new taxon is the first micropterous sclerogibbid. Females of other extant Sclerogibbidae are always apterous, whereas fossil females can be apterous or macropterous. PMID:27394292

  12. Comparing the effect of modeled climatic variables on the distribution of African horse sickness in South Africa and Namibia.

    PubMed

    Liebenberg, Danica; van Hamburg, Huib; Piketh, Stuart; Burger, Roelof

    2015-12-01

    Africa horse sickness (AHS) is a lethal disease of horses with a seasonal occurrence that is influenced by environmental conditions that favor the development of Culicoides midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). This study compared and evaluated the relationship of various modeled climatic variables with the distribution and abundance of AHS in South Africa and Namibia. A comprehensive literature review of the historical AHS reported data collected from the Windhoek archives as well as annual reports from the Directorate of Veterinary services in Namibia were conducted. South African AHS reported data were collected from the South African Department of Agriculture, Forestry, and Fisheries. Daily climatic data were extracted for the time period 1993-2011 from the ERA-interim re-analysis dataset. The principal component analysis of the complete dataset indicated a significant statistical difference between Namibia and South Africa for the various climate variables and the outbreaks of AHS. The most influential parameters in the distribution of AHS included humidity, precipitation, evaporation, and minimum temperature. In South Africa, temperature had the most significant effect on the outbreaks of AHS, whereas in Namibia, humidity and precipitation were the main drivers. The maximum AHS cases in South Africa occurred at temperatures of 20-22° C and relative humidity between 50-70%. Furthermore, anthropogenic effects must be taken into account when trying to understand the distribution of AHS.

  13. Research ethics capacity building in Sub-Saharan Africa: a review of NIH Fogarty-funded programs 2000–2012.

    PubMed

    Ndebele, Paul; Wassenaar, Douglas; Benatar, Solomon; Fleischer, Theodore; Kruger, Mariana; Adebamowo, Clement; Kass, Nancy; Hyder, Adnan A; Meslin, Eric M

    2014-04-01

    The last fifteen years have witnessed a significant increase in investment in research ethics capacity development throughout the world. We examine nine research ethics training programs that are focused on Sub-Saharan Africa and supported by the US National Institutes of Health. We collected data from grants awards' documents and annual reports supplemented by questionnaires completed by the training program directors. Together, these programs provided long-term training in research ethics to 275 African professionals, strengthened research ethics committees in 19 countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, and created research ethics curricula at many institutions and bioethics centers within Africa. Trainees' leadership resulted in new national systems and policies on research ethics, human tissue storage and export, and methods of monitoring compliance with research ethics guidelines. Training programs adapted to challenges that arose due to varied trainees' background knowledge in ethics, duration of time available for training, spoken and written English language skills, administrative obstacles, and the need to sustain post-training research ethics activities. Our report showcases the development of awareness of research ethics and building/strengthening of basic research ethics infrastructure in Sub-Saharan Africa. Nevertheless, the increasing amount and complexity of health research being conducted in Sub-Saharan Africa suggests the need for continued investment in research ethics capacity development in this region. This paper is part of a collection of papers analyzing the Fogarty International Center's International Research Ethics Education and Curriculum Development program. PMID:24782070

  14. Comparing the effect of modeled climatic variables on the distribution of African horse sickness in South Africa and Namibia.

    PubMed

    Liebenberg, Danica; van Hamburg, Huib; Piketh, Stuart; Burger, Roelof

    2015-12-01

    Africa horse sickness (AHS) is a lethal disease of horses with a seasonal occurrence that is influenced by environmental conditions that favor the development of Culicoides midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). This study compared and evaluated the relationship of various modeled climatic variables with the distribution and abundance of AHS in South Africa and Namibia. A comprehensive literature review of the historical AHS reported data collected from the Windhoek archives as well as annual reports from the Directorate of Veterinary services in Namibia were conducted. South African AHS reported data were collected from the South African Department of Agriculture, Forestry, and Fisheries. Daily climatic data were extracted for the time period 1993-2011 from the ERA-interim re-analysis dataset. The principal component analysis of the complete dataset indicated a significant statistical difference between Namibia and South Africa for the various climate variables and the outbreaks of AHS. The most influential parameters in the distribution of AHS included humidity, precipitation, evaporation, and minimum temperature. In South Africa, temperature had the most significant effect on the outbreaks of AHS, whereas in Namibia, humidity and precipitation were the main drivers. The maximum AHS cases in South Africa occurred at temperatures of 20-22° C and relative humidity between 50-70%. Furthermore, anthropogenic effects must be taken into account when trying to understand the distribution of AHS. PMID:26611969

  15. Program Management Collection. "LINCS" Resource Collection News

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Literacy Information and Communication System, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This edition of "'LINCS' Resource Collection News" features the Program Management Collection, which covers the topics of Assessment, Learning Disabilities, and Program Improvement. Each month Collections News features one of the three "LINCS" (Literacy Information and Communication System) Resource Collections--Basic Skills, Program Management,…

  16. Workforce Competitiveness Collection. "LINCS" Resource Collection News

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Literacy Information and Communication System, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This edition of "'LINCS' Resource Collection News" features the Workforce Competitiveness Collection, covering the topics of workforce education, English language acquisition, and technology. Each month Collections News features one of the three "LINCS" (Literacy Information and Communication System) Resource Collections--Basic Skills, Program…

  17. Applications of the IRI in Southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coetzee, P. J.

    2004-01-01

    The IRI forms the basis of the Single Site Location Direction Finding networks of the South African Defence Force as well as theNational Intelligence Agency. It is also used in "Path Analysis" applications where the possible transmitter coverage is calculated. Another application of the IRI is in HF frequency predictions, especially for the South African Defence Force involved in peace keeping duties in Africa. The IRI is either used independently or in conjunction with vertical ionosondes. In the latter case the scaled F2 peak parameters (foF2, hmF2) are used as inputs to the IRI. The IRI thus gets "calibrated" to extend the area covered by the ionosonde(s). The IRI has proved to be a very important tool in South Africa and Africa in the fight against crime, drug trafficking, political instability and maintaining the peace in potentially unstable countries.

  18. A survey of Simulium control in Africa.

    PubMed

    BROWN, A W

    1962-01-01

    It has become possible to control or even eradicate the Simulium fly vectors of Onchocerca volvulus, the causative organism of onchocerciasis. There are two vectors in Africa-namely, S. damnosum, characteristic of the rivers of West Africa, and S. neavei, which breeds on the carapaces of crabs in the streams of East Africa. The use of DDT applied to the water at a concentration as low as 0.1 p.p.m. for 30 minutes eliminates the larvae of Simulium. Such larvicidal methods have eradicated S. neavei from western Kenya and virtually eradicated S. damnosum from the Victoria Nile in Uganda. Excellent control sufficient to render the transmission of onchocerciasis almost negligible has been obtained at Léopoldville (Republic of the Congo) and in circumscribed areas in southern Chad, Northern Nigeria, and Sierra Leone. The following survey describes operational research on Simulium control carried out in Kenya, Uganda, the Congo, Chad, Nigeria, Ghana, Upper Volta and Sierra Leone.

  19. Asbestos-Related Disease in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Lundy; Kisting, Sophia

    2006-01-01

    South Africa was the third largest exporter of asbestos in the world for more than a century. As a consequence of particularly exploitative social conditions, former workers and residents of mining regions suffered—and continue to suffer—from a serious yet still largely undocumented burden of asbestos-related disease. This epidemic has been invisible both internationally and inside South Africa. We examined the work environment, labor policies, and occupational-health framework of the asbestos industry in South Africa during the 20th century. In a changing local context where the majority of workers were increasingly disenfranchised, unorganized, excluded from skilled work, and predominantly rural, mining operations of the asbestos industry not only exposed workers to high levels of asbestos but also contaminated the environment extensively. PMID:16809596

  20. Bioinformatics in Africa: The Rise of Ghana?

    PubMed

    Karikari, Thomas K

    2015-09-01

    Until recently, bioinformatics, an important discipline in the biological sciences, was largely limited to countries with advanced scientific resources. Nonetheless, several developing countries have lately been making progress in bioinformatics training and applications. In Africa, leading countries in the discipline include South Africa, Nigeria, and Kenya. However, one country that is less known when it comes to bioinformatics is Ghana. Here, I provide a first description of the development of bioinformatics activities in Ghana and how these activities contribute to the overall development of the discipline in Africa. Over the past decade, scientists in Ghana have been involved in publications incorporating bioinformatics analyses, aimed at addressing research questions in biomedical science and agriculture. Scarce research funding and inadequate training opportunities are some of the challenges that need to be addressed for Ghanaian scientists to continue developing their expertise in bioinformatics.

  1. Serogroup A meningococcal conjugate vaccines in Africa.

    PubMed

    Kristiansen, Paul A; Jørgensen, Hannah J; Caugant, Dominique A

    2015-01-01

    Serogroup A meningococcal epidemics have been a recurrent public health problem, especially in resource-poor countries of Africa. Recently, the administration in mass vaccination campaigns of a single dose of the monovalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine, MenAfriVac, to the 1-29 year-old population of sub-Saharan Africa has prevented epidemics of meningitis caused by serogroup A Neisseria meningitidis. This strategy has also been shown to provide herd protection of the non-vaccinated population. Development of meningococcal conjugate vaccines covering other serogroups and enhanced use of the pneumococcal and Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccines must be pursued to fully control bacterial meningitis in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:26358167

  2. Serogroup A meningococcal conjugate vaccines in Africa.

    PubMed

    Kristiansen, Paul A; Jørgensen, Hannah J; Caugant, Dominique A

    2015-01-01

    Serogroup A meningococcal epidemics have been a recurrent public health problem, especially in resource-poor countries of Africa. Recently, the administration in mass vaccination campaigns of a single dose of the monovalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine, MenAfriVac, to the 1-29 year-old population of sub-Saharan Africa has prevented epidemics of meningitis caused by serogroup A Neisseria meningitidis. This strategy has also been shown to provide herd protection of the non-vaccinated population. Development of meningococcal conjugate vaccines covering other serogroups and enhanced use of the pneumococcal and Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccines must be pursued to fully control bacterial meningitis in sub-Saharan Africa.

  3. Bioinformatics in Africa: The Rise of Ghana?

    PubMed Central

    Karikari, Thomas K.

    2015-01-01

    Until recently, bioinformatics, an important discipline in the biological sciences, was largely limited to countries with advanced scientific resources. Nonetheless, several developing countries have lately been making progress in bioinformatics training and applications. In Africa, leading countries in the discipline include South Africa, Nigeria, and Kenya. However, one country that is less known when it comes to bioinformatics is Ghana. Here, I provide a first description of the development of bioinformatics activities in Ghana and how these activities contribute to the overall development of the discipline in Africa. Over the past decade, scientists in Ghana have been involved in publications incorporating bioinformatics analyses, aimed at addressing research questions in biomedical science and agriculture. Scarce research funding and inadequate training opportunities are some of the challenges that need to be addressed for Ghanaian scientists to continue developing their expertise in bioinformatics. PMID:26378921

  4. Borrelia infection in small mammals in West Africa and its relationship with tick occurrence inside burrows.

    PubMed

    Diatta, Georges; Duplantier, Jean-Marc; Granjon, Laurent; Bâ, Khalilou; Chauvancy, Gilles; Ndiaye, Mady; Trape, Jean-François

    2015-12-01

    Tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF) is a zoonotic disease caused by several Borrelia species transmitted to humans by Ornithodoros tick vectors. In West Africa, Borrelia crocidurae is a common cause of disease in many rural populations. Small mammals act as reservoirs of infection. We report here the results of surveys that investigated the occurrence of B. crocidurae infection in rodents and insectivores from eight countries of West and Central Africa. Animals were identified at the species level and tested for Borrelia either by examination of thick blood film, intra-peritoneal inoculation of blood or brain tissues into laboratory mice, or by molecular techniques. A total of 4358 small mammals belonging to 38 species and 7 families were collected, including 3225 specimens collected in areas where the occurrence of Ornithodoros sonrai tick in rodent burrows was documented, and 1133 in areas where this tick was absent. In areas with O. sonrai, Borrelia infection was demonstrated in 287 of 3109 (9.2%) small mammals tested, and none was documented in 1004 animals tested from other areas. There was no relationship between the occurrence of Rhipicephalus, Hyaloma and Argas ticks in burrows and the distribution of Borrelia infection in small mammals. The 287 specimens infected by Borrelia belonged to 15 rodent and shrew species, including three Saharo-Sahelian species - Gerbillus gerbillus, Gerbillus occiduus and Gerbillus tarabuli - identified as reservoirs for TBRF with a distribution restricted to this area. In Sudan and Sudano-Sahelian areas, Arvicanthis niloticus, Mastomys erythroleucus and Mastomys huberti were the main reservoir of infection. Although most small mammals species collected had a large distribution in West and Central Africa, the fact that only animals collected in areas with O. sonrai were found infected suggest that this tick is the only vector of TBRF in rodents and insectivores in this part of Africa. PMID:26327444

  5. Separate Schools and Separate People of South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Franklin

    1972-01-01

    After reviewing the historical and legal background of race relations in South Africa, the author reviews his experiences at a recent conference on Accelerated Development in Southern Africa,'' held in Johannesburg. (JM)

  6. Do More to Fight HIV in Africa: Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_159839.html Do More to Fight HIV in Africa: Study Male circumcision, broader use of preventive drugs ... a long way to go in curbing the HIV epidemic in Africa," said Kong. "People need to adopt these strategies, ...

  7. Quantitative maps of groundwater resources in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, A. M.; Bonsor, H. C.; Dochartaigh, B. É. Ó.; Taylor, R. G.

    2012-06-01

    In Africa, groundwater is the major source of drinking water and its use for irrigation is forecast to increase substantially to combat growing food insecurity. Despite this, there is little quantitative information on groundwater resources in Africa, and groundwater storage is consequently omitted from assessments of freshwater availability. Here we present the first quantitative continent-wide maps of aquifer storage and potential borehole yields in Africa based on an extensive review of available maps, publications and data. We estimate total groundwater storage in Africa to be 0.66 million km3 (0.36-1.75 million km3). Not all of this groundwater storage is available for abstraction, but the estimated volume is more than 100 times estimates of annual renewable freshwater resources on Africa. Groundwater resources are unevenly distributed: the largest groundwater volumes are found in the large sedimentary aquifers in the North African countries Libya, Algeria, Egypt and Sudan. Nevertheless, for many African countries appropriately sited and constructed boreholes can support handpump abstraction (yields of 0.1-0.3 l s-1), and contain sufficient storage to sustain abstraction through inter-annual variations in recharge. The maps show further that the potential for higher yielding boreholes ( > 5 l s-1) is much more limited. Therefore, strategies for increasing irrigation or supplying water to rapidly urbanizing cities that are predicated on the widespread drilling of high yielding boreholes are likely to be unsuccessful. As groundwater is the largest and most widely distributed store of freshwater in Africa, the quantitative maps are intended to lead to more realistic assessments of water security and water stress, and to promote a more quantitative approach to mapping of groundwater resources at national and regional level.

  8. Sub-Saharan Africa thirty years hence.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, J

    1986-11-01

    By the year 2015, Sub-Saharan Africa's population will probably rise from a 1985 level of about 460 million to about 1.1 billion. Today Africa's population is growing at a rate of roughly 3% a year, with exceptionally high growth rates in some countries. The leaders of Africa, and those who wish to help Africa, confront difficult and urgent problems of drought, political and military conflict, accumulated debt, lower commodity prices, and other factors of immediate and important concern. Africa has given education a high priority and should be as well known for its success in increasing school enrollment as it is for its relative failures in other areas. A projected population of 1.1 billion people and a fertility rate down to 30/1000 by the year 2015 suggests that the number of children old enough to enter primary school will be of the order of 30 million a year at this time. The working-age population will grow from 235 million now to perhaps 600 million in 30 years. The urban population has been growing at about 6% a year--twice the pace of population increase. All of these situations will have an effect on environment, water, and health. Coping with Africa's burgeoning population in terms of children in school, the demand on health systems, the need for jobs, achieving an adequate diet, the provision of basic urban services, and all the rest, is an extraordinary challenge. While the government's role is critical, success at the sectoral level almost always means cost recovery, administration decentralized to the community or to the private sector, and program implementation that does not burden the budget. PMID:12268599

  9. Population problems and family planning in Africa.

    PubMed

    Uche, C

    1972-01-01

    Focus is on the population problems in Africa and what the African peoples and governments are doing about these problems. The position of this writer is that there is definitely a population problem in Africa. Those who take the opposing view support their arguments by looking at the following indicators: population density and pressure, undeveloped resources, the availability of empty lands, and alleged intrigue by external forces. Few governments have population control policies and/or national family planning programs. These countries include Ghana, Kenya, Mauritius, Morocco, Tunisia, and the United Arab Republic. Currently, governments of black African countries for the greater part either support family planning programs or allow such efforts to exist under private auspices. Of the 35 African countries and territories covered by the United States Agency for International Development report, only the governments of Cameroon, Malagasy, and Malawi have stated explicitly that they want to encourage population growth. In all surveys in East Africa, the ideal family size was more than 5 and generally 6 children. In Ghana and Nigeria, the ideal size was 7 or more. Generally, the ideal family size in Black Africa ranges from 6-8 children, but the influences of urbanization and education in West Africa reduced the ideal family size to between 4 and 6. Abstinence, herbs, and withdrawal are widely known in traditional African society though withdrawal was little used as a contraceptive method. Regarding modern contraceptive methods, the most knowledgeable group is the urban elites. Below the elite, the knowledge level is very low. There is little contraceptive practice in Africa.

  10. Nephrology in Africa--not yet uhuru.

    PubMed

    Swanepoel, Charles R; Wearne, Nicola; Okpechi, Ikechi G

    2013-10-01

    Nephrology is a 'Cinderella speciality', a disregarded area of health care, in Africa. Other health issues have relegated the treatment of kidney diseases to a low priority status, and the cost of treating the more common and widespread communicable diseases, financial mismanagement and corruption in many countries has sounded the death knell for expensive therapies such as dialysis. The communicable diseases that have devastated the health systems around Africa are tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS. Until recently, very little information was available on the impact of HIV on acute and chronic dialysis admissions. Patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) in most of Africa are seldom treated because of great distances to travel, lack of expertise, poverty and poor sustainable funding for health matters. An acute peritoneal dialysis (PD) programme has now been initiated in Tanzania but the sustainability of this project will be tested in the future. The International Society of Nephrology (ISN) has developed a training programme for nephrologists from developing countries, which may now be bearing fruit. A report from the sub-Saharan Africa region shows that the numbers of patients on dialysis and those diagnosed with chronic kidney disease (CKD) has increased significantly. Other ISN-sponsored programmes such as Continuing Medical Education activities for physicians and community screening projects have had far-reaching positive effects. Government funding for a dialysis programme is well established in South Africa, but this funding is limited so that the numbers accepted for public dialysis are restricted. Consequently in the Western Cape province of South Africa, a 'category system' has been formulated to attempt to cope with this unacceptable and restrictive ruling. PMID:23958719

  11. Nephrology in Africa--not yet uhuru.

    PubMed

    Swanepoel, Charles R; Wearne, Nicola; Okpechi, Ikechi G

    2013-10-01

    Nephrology is a 'Cinderella speciality', a disregarded area of health care, in Africa. Other health issues have relegated the treatment of kidney diseases to a low priority status, and the cost of treating the more common and widespread communicable diseases, financial mismanagement and corruption in many countries has sounded the death knell for expensive therapies such as dialysis. The communicable diseases that have devastated the health systems around Africa are tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS. Until recently, very little information was available on the impact of HIV on acute and chronic dialysis admissions. Patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) in most of Africa are seldom treated because of great distances to travel, lack of expertise, poverty and poor sustainable funding for health matters. An acute peritoneal dialysis (PD) programme has now been initiated in Tanzania but the sustainability of this project will be tested in the future. The International Society of Nephrology (ISN) has developed a training programme for nephrologists from developing countries, which may now be bearing fruit. A report from the sub-Saharan Africa region shows that the numbers of patients on dialysis and those diagnosed with chronic kidney disease (CKD) has increased significantly. Other ISN-sponsored programmes such as Continuing Medical Education activities for physicians and community screening projects have had far-reaching positive effects. Government funding for a dialysis programme is well established in South Africa, but this funding is limited so that the numbers accepted for public dialysis are restricted. Consequently in the Western Cape province of South Africa, a 'category system' has been formulated to attempt to cope with this unacceptable and restrictive ruling.

  12. Primary health care in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Buch, E

    1989-01-01

    Even though most countries have committed to primary health care (PHC), South Africa, a middle-income country, has an inadequate PHC system. The poor system has roots in the colonial period and apartheid reinforces this system. Race, class, and place of residence determine the type of health care individuals receive. South Africa falls far short of all 5 principles of PHC. Just 12% of the health budget goes to 40% of the population who live in the homelands which shows the inequitable distribution of health care resources and inadequate quality health care for all. Similarly, South Africa has not altered its communication and education techniques to improve preventive and promotive health services. It has not implemented any successful national campaigns such as a campaign against diarrhea deaths. South Africa does not make good use of available appropriate technology such as breast feeding, oral rehydration, refrigeration, and the ventilated improved pit latrine which lead to health for all. People in South Africa discuss community participation but it is not likely to occur without general political democracy. Some people have made local attempts at community participation but they tend to use inflexible means and request either cash or contributions in kind from people who have little. The elite in South Africa has not recognized the need to correct socioeconomic inequalities. The Population Development Plan Programme among white farmer-owners has showed some support for a multisectoral approach to improve health care, however. For example, it acknowledges that non-health-care interventions such as better salaries, literacy, and living conditions, lead to better health. The Department of National Health has discussed improved coordination of the budget to allow priority determination of national PHD and manpower plans. Nongovernmental organizations are beginning to use the PHC approach instead of the charitable approach.

  13. The first modern human dispersals across Africa.

    PubMed

    Rito, Teresa; Richards, Martin B; Fernandes, Verónica; Alshamali, Farida; Cerny, Viktor; Pereira, Luísa; Soares, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of more refined chronologies for climate change and archaeology in prehistoric Africa, and for the evolution of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), now make it feasible to test more sophisticated models of early modern human dispersals suggested by mtDNA distributions. Here we have generated 42 novel whole-mtDNA genomes belonging to haplogroup L0, the most divergent clade in the maternal line of descent, and analysed them alongside the growing database of African lineages belonging to L0's sister clade, L1'6. We propose that the last common ancestor of modern human mtDNAs (carried by "mitochondrial Eve") possibly arose in central Africa ~180 ka, at a time of low population size. By ~130 ka two distinct groups of anatomically modern humans co-existed in Africa: broadly, the ancestors of many modern-day Khoe and San populations in the south and a second central/eastern African group that includes the ancestors of most extant worldwide populations. Early modern human dispersals correlate with climate changes, particularly the tropical African "megadroughts" of MIS 5 (marine isotope stage 5, 135-75 ka) which paradoxically may have facilitated expansions in central and eastern Africa, ultimately triggering the dispersal out of Africa of people carrying haplogroup L3 ~60 ka. Two south to east migrations are discernible within haplogroup LO. One, between 120 and 75 ka, represents the first unambiguous long-range modern human dispersal detected by mtDNA and might have allowed the dispersal of several markers of modernity. A second one, within the last 20 ka signalled by L0d, may have been responsible for the spread of southern click-consonant languages to eastern Africa, contrary to the view that these eastern examples constitute relicts of an ancient, much wider distribution.

  14. The First Modern Human Dispersals across Africa

    PubMed Central

    Rito, Teresa; Richards, Martin B.; Fernandes, Verónica; Alshamali, Farida; Cerny, Viktor

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of more refined chronologies for climate change and archaeology in prehistoric Africa, and for the evolution of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), now make it feasible to test more sophisticated models of early modern human dispersals suggested by mtDNA distributions. Here we have generated 42 novel whole-mtDNA genomes belonging to haplogroup L0, the most divergent clade in the maternal line of descent, and analysed them alongside the growing database of African lineages belonging to L0’s sister clade, L1’6. We propose that the last common ancestor of modern human mtDNAs (carried by “mitochondrial Eve”) possibly arose in central Africa ~180 ka, at a time of low population size. By ~130 ka two distinct groups of anatomically modern humans co-existed in Africa: broadly, the ancestors of many modern-day Khoe and San populations in the south and a second central/eastern African group that includes the ancestors of most extant worldwide populations. Early modern human dispersals correlate with climate changes, particularly the tropical African “megadroughts” of MIS 5 (marine isotope stage 5, 135–75 ka) which paradoxically may have facilitated expansions in central and eastern Africa, ultimately triggering the dispersal out of Africa of people carrying haplogroup L3 ~60 ka. Two south to east migrations are discernible within haplogroup LO. One, between 120 and 75 ka, represents the first unambiguous long-range modern human dispersal detected by mtDNA and might have allowed the dispersal of several markers of modernity. A second one, within the last 20 ka signalled by L0d, may have been responsible for the spread of southern click-consonant languages to eastern Africa, contrary to the view that these eastern examples constitute relicts of an ancient, much wider distribution. PMID:24236171

  15. Children in Africa: Key Statistics on Child Survival, Protection and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UNICEF, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This report presents key statistics relating to: (1) child malnutrition in Africa; (2) HIV/AIDS and Malaria in Africa; (3) child marriage, birth registration and Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C); (4) education in Africa; (5) child mortality in Africa; (6) Drinking water and sanitation in Africa; and (7) maternal health in Africa.…

  16. Challenges in Exploratory Methods for Tuberculosis Research in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, Helen; Abney, Kate; Abrams, Amber; Truyts, Carina

    2016-07-01

    Haunted by a legacy of apartheid governance that left millions in material poverty, South Africa has among the highest tuberculosis (TB) morbidity and mortality rates in the world. Our Social Markers of TB research project shared a vision of working with ethnographic research methods to understand TB-infected persons, their families, care providers, and social networks. We argue that felt and enacted TB stigma and the related HIV-TB stigma impaired our ability to collect the necessary data for a full portrait of TB-infected persons and their lived conditions. To circumvent this limitation, each researcher improvised and augmented conventional anthropological methods with more creative, directed, and at times destabilizing methods. We present three case studies as useful illustrations of the complexities and challenges we encountered in our attempts to conduct ethically sound TB research. We discuss the implications of our call for "improvisation" for the politics of research and ethical oversight.

  17. Notes on southern Africa Jerusalem crickets (Orthoptera: Stenopelmatidae: Sia).

    PubMed

    Weissman, David B; Bazelet, Corinna S

    2013-02-18

    The Old World Jerusalem cricket (JC) subfamily Siinae contains one genus, Sia, with two subgenera: Sia (Sia) with two fully winged species from southeast Asia, and Sia (Maxentius) with four wingless species from southern Africa. Because there is a dearth of published data about the behavior and biology of these insects, we present new field and laboratory research on southern African Sia (Maxentius), gather museum and literature information, and present guidelines for collecting and rearing specimens. While we make no taxonomic decisions, this review should be useful for future studies, including a needed taxonomic revision. We also compare results from these southern African JCs with recent investigations on related New World taxa, where fascinating biological traits and extensive cryptic biodiversity have been uncovered. DNA analysis reveals that these Old and New World JCs are polyphyletic.

  18. Gendered Perceptions of Sexual Behaviour in Rural South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Ndinda, C.; Uzodike, U. O.; Chimbwete, C.; Mgeyane, M. T. M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses sexual behaviour findings collected through eleven homogenous focus group discussions conducted among women and men in a predominantly Zulu population in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The objective of this paper is to shed light on sexual behaviour in a rural community. The findings suggest that sex is a taboo subject and the discussion around it is concealed in the use of polite language, euphemisms, and gestures. There are gender and generational dimensions to the discussion of sex. The contribution of this paper lies in the identification of what rural people discuss about sex and the influence of cultural practices and urban or global forces on sexual behaviour in rural areas. The paper adds to the growing body of literature on the use of focus groups in understanding sexual behaviour in rural contexts. PMID:22295199

  19. Magnetotelluric studies in East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whaler, K. A.

    2012-12-01

    Since its introduction just over half a century ago, the magnetotelluric method has been used in a wide range of environments, both onshore and submarine, at a large number of length scales, and to tackle a huge variety of problems in the earth sciences, both applied and curiosity-driven. Electromagnetic fields are induced in the sub-surface by passive magnetic field sources originating from lightning strikes trapped in the ionospheric waveguide and from the solar wind interacting with the magnetosphere, which enables information on the sub-surface resistivity distribution to be derived. Measuring the tiny induced signals depends on the careful deployment of very sensitive equipment. These time series are then subject to careful selection and processing techniques in the frequency domain to make robust estimates of the tensor quantity embodying the resistivity information as a function of depth. Further processing and assessment of the data allows the practitioner to assess the minimum dimension of the underlying resistivity distribution consistent with the data. As if this wasn't enough, the inverse problem is extremely non-linear, even in the simplest case of resistivity purely a function of depth. Most modelling and interpretation thus proceeds by a combination of forward modelling and regularised inversion, with tests to assess the resolving depth of the data, and their sensitivity to certain features of the model, for example. After introducing the method, I will illustrate it with examples of experiments carried out in East Africa with which I've been involved, concentrating on two substantial inter-disciplinary studies in Ethiopia, one of the northern Main Ethiopian rift, and the other an on-going project studying magmatic and tectonic processes associated with a current rifting episode in Afar. The main target for magnetotellurics in these projects has been imaging partial melt and magma in the sub-surface. I will aim to show how the interpretation of the

  20. AfricaArray: Building science capacity and improving seismic networks in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyblade, A.; Dirks, P.; Graham, G.

    2007-05-01

    AfricaArray is a long-term initiative to promote coupled training and research programs in geophysics for building and maintaining a scientific workforce for Africa's natural resource sector. The main goals of AfricaArray are to: 1) maintain and develop further geophysical training programs in Africa, in response to industry, government and university needs, 2) promote geophysical research in Africa, and establish an Africa-to-Africa research support system, 3) obtain geophysical data, through a network of shared observatories, to study scientific targets of economic and societal interest, as well as fundamental geological processes shaping the African continent. AfricaArray is supported by a public-private partnership consisting of many government organizations in the US and Africa, and mining and oil companies. AfricaArray has been built on existing programs and expertise within partner institutions and is being implemented in three phases over ten years. During Phase 1 (1/2005 - 12/2007), the educational program at the University of the Witwatersrand is being expanded and improved to provide B.Sc., M.Sc., and Ph.D. degree training in geophysics for students from across Africa. Seismic stations are being installed or upgraded in participating countries to form a network of shared scientific observatories, and technical personnel are being trained to operate and maintain the seismic equipment. Data from the seismic stations are being used for student thesis research projects, and the seismic network is helping to catalyze scientific community building through educational and research collaborations. During subsequent phases (2007-2014), the in-situ education and research program will grow to provide B.Sc., M.Sc. and Ph.D. training for many more African students, the network of shared scientific observatories will be expanded, temporary networks of seismic stations will be installed, sustainable centers of excellence in geophysics will be established at other

  1. SERVIR-Africa: Developing an Integrated Platform for Floods Disaster Management in Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macharia, Daniel; Korme, Tesfaye; Policelli, Fritz; Irwin, Dan; Adler, Bob; Hong, Yang

    2010-01-01

    SERVIR-Africa is an ambitious regional visualization and monitoring system that integrates remotely sensed data with predictive models and field-based data to monitor ecological processes and respond to natural disasters. It aims addressing societal benefits including floods and turning data into actionable information for decision-makers. Floods are exogenous disasters that affect many parts of Africa, probably second only to drought in terms of social-economic losses. This paper looks at SERVIR-Africa's approach to floods disaster management through establishment of an integrated platform, floods prediction models, post-event flood mapping and monitoring as well as flood maps dissemination in support of flood disaster management.

  2. Project Coast: eugenics in apartheid South Africa.

    PubMed

    Singh, Jerome Amir

    2008-03-01

    It is a decade since the exposure of Project Coast, apartheid South Africa's covert chemical and biological warfare program. In that time, attention has been focused on several aspects of the program, particularly the production of narcotics and poisons for use against anti-apartheid activists and the proliferation of both chemical and biological weapons. The eugenic dimension of Project Coast has, by contrast, received scant attention. It is time to revisit the testimony that brought the suggestion of eugenic motives to light, reflect on some of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission's findings and search for lessons that can be taken from this troubled chapter in South Africa's history.

  3. Tele-Education in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Mars, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Telemedicine includes the use of information and communication technology for education in the health sector, tele-education. Sub-Saharan Africa has an extreme shortage of health professionals and as a result, doctors to teach doctors and students. Tele-education has the potential to provide access to education both formal and continuing medical education. While the uptake of telemedicine in Africa is low, there are a number of successful and sustained tele-education programs. The aims of this study were (i) to review the literature on tele-education in South Africa, (ii) describe tele-education activities at the University of KwaZulu-Natal (UKZ-N) in South Africa, and (iii) review the development of these programs with respect to current thinking on eHealth project implementation. Method: A literature review of tele-education in South Africa was undertaken. The development of the tele-education services at UKZ-N from 2001 to present is described. The approaches taken are compared with current teaching on eHealth implementation and a retrospective design-reality gap analysis is made. Results: Tele-education has been in use in South Africa since the 1970s. Several forms of tele-education are in place at the medical schools and in some Provincial Departments of Health (DOH). Despite initial attempts by the National DOH, there are no national initiatives in tele-education. At UKZ-N, a tele-education service has been running since 2001 and appears to be sustainable and reaching maturity, with over 1,400 h of videoconferenced education offered per year. The service has expanded to offer videoconferenced education into Africa using different ways of delivering tele-education. Conclusion: Tele-education has been used in different forms for many years in the health sector in South Africa. There is little hard evidence of its educational merit or economic worth. What it apparent is that it improves access to education and training in resource constrained

  4. River Knick Points of Southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crossley, R.; Markwick, P.

    2005-12-01

    Successful interpretation of the longitudinal profiles of rivers in southern Africa requires identification of the relative roles of bedrock geology, tectonics, river capture history, climatic change and eustasy. Knick points, expressed as waterfalls or as changes in gradient, are examined for the Kunene, Orange, Zambezi and Shire Rivers utilising Shuttle Imaging Radar topographic data, Gtopo 30 topographic data, Hydro 1K drainage data, satellite imagery, zoogeography and fieldwork. The results provide insights into what can, and cannot, be inferred about the uplift history of Africa.

  5. Wildlife biomaterial banking in Africa for now and the future.

    PubMed

    Bartels, Paul; Kotze, Antoinette

    2006-08-01

    The Wildlife Biological Resource Centre (wBRC) together with its partners in BioBank SA, have created a Biological Resource Bank (BRB) that is dedicated to the acquisition, processing, banking, using and provision of biomaterials to the scientific and conservation industry that are viable, diverse and representative of southern Africa's wildlife populations. Banked biomaterials include tissue such as muscle, kidney, fat, liver, embryos, fibroblast cultures, blood, sperm, hair, egg shells and other tissue, fluids and cells. Biomaterials are made available for research, biodiversity conservation and biotechnology development. Biomaterials are used in many disciplines, including genetics, reproduction, nutrition, and disease studies. Biomaterials from selected species are also useful for the detection and monitoring of Persistent Organic Pollutants and other potentially harmful substances found in the environment. Biomaterials are made available to third parties with prior consent from the biomaterials "owner" and only after the signing of a customised Material Transfer Agreement (MTA) or Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA). The training of staff from National and Provincial Game Reserves, Zoological Gardens, Animal Breeders and laboratories is carried out on a regular basis with the aim of securing good quality biomaterials. Sampling kits are made available to persons tasked with the collection of wildlife biomaterials. The Biobank SA consortium acts as an integrated resource centre linking partner collections. The consortium's operational arm, namely wBRC, is active in the development of relevant policy, regulations and legislation pertaining to biomaterials, including Access and Benefit Sharing systems. The main sponsor of the project is the Department of Science and Technology, National Government of South Africa. PMID:16896459

  6. Complex Seismic Anisotropy in the Earth's Inner Core Beneath Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, W.; Wen, L.

    2005-12-01

    Seismic anisotropic velocity structure plays an important role in understanding the geodynamics and mineral physics in the Earth's inner core. Previous seismic studies using the PKiKP-PKIKP phase pairs have suggested no evidence for the presence of anisotropy in velocity in the top 80 km of the inner core. However, the sampling coverage of the PKiKP-PKIKP phase pairs in previous studies was limited, especially along the polar paths. Here we expand our PKiKP-PKIKP dataset by collecting the PKiKP-PKIKP waveforms sampling the inner core globally and along various sampling directions. Our data are selected from the Global Seismographic Network and many regional seismic networks: GEOSCOPE, GEOFON, the Canadian National Seismic Network (CNCN), the Oceanographic Hemisphere Project (OHP), Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan. Our seismic observations show that there is indeed no difference in PKiKP-PKIKP differential travel time residual between the polar and equatorial paths in most regions of the inner core, suggesting no anisotropy in velocity in the top 80 km of the inner core in most regions. Our expanded collection of the PKiKP-PKIKP phases, however, reveals a clear polar-equatorial difference in differential travel time residual in a localized region in the western hemisphere beneath Africa. The PKiKP-PKIKP data sampling along the polar paths in this area of the inner core also exhibit strong lateral variations, requiring the thickness of isotropic layer varying from 10 km or less beneath Uganda and western Africa to 50 km beneath Cameron and Congo. We will show the seismic data grouped according to their sampling regions in the inner core and anisotropic velocity models in each of these regions by waveform modeling the PKiKP-PKIKP data, the PKP data observed at the caustics distance range (141°-145°), and the PKPbc-PKIKP data recorded at larger distances.

  7. I Didn't Know There Were Cities in Africa!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randolph, Brenda

    2008-01-01

    As Professor Michael Bamidele Adeyemi of the University of Botswana suggests, "Americans believe that Africa is a country, that Africa is "still uncivilized," that the average African is polygamous, and that Africa is not urbanized." In fact, the African continent encompasses a diverse set of more than 50 nations, each made up of a variety of…

  8. The State of Adult and Continuing Education in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indabawa, Sabo A., Ed.; Oduaran, Akpovire, Ed.; Afrik, Tai, Ed.; Walters, Shirley, Ed.

    This document contains 21 papers examining the state of adult and continuing education in Africa. The following papers are included: "Introduction: An Overview of the State of Adult and Continuing Education in Africa" (Akpovire Oduaran); "Setting the Tone of Adult and Continuing Education in Africa" (Michael A. Omolewa); "Significant Post…

  9. New Principals in Africa: Preparation, Induction and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Tony; Oduro, George K. T.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to examine the challenges facing new principals in Africa. Design/methodology/approach: Based on recent research and literature, the paper analyses the experience of principals and proposes an induction model for principalship in Africa. Findings: School principals in Africa face a daunting challenge. They often work in…

  10. The H3Africa policy framework: negotiating fairness in genomics.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Jantina; Tindana, Paulina; Littler, Katherine; Ramsay, Michèle; Rotimi, Charles; Abayomi, Akin; Mulder, Nicola; Mayosi, Bongani M

    2015-03-01

    Human Heredity and Health in Africa (H3Africa) research seeks to promote fair collaboration between scientists in Africa and those from elsewhere. Here, we outline how concerns over inequality and exploitation led to a policy framework that places a firm focus on African leadership and capacity building as guiding principles for African genomics research.

  11. Implementation of the principles of primary health care in a rural area of South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Marguerite

    2014-01-01

    Background The philosophy of primary healthcare forms the basis of South Africa's health policy and provides guidance for healthcare service delivery in South Africa. Healthcare service provision in South Africa has shown improvement in the past five years. However, it is uncertain as to whether the changes have reached rural areas and if primary healthcare is implemented successfully in these areas. Objectives The aim of this article is to explore the extent to which the principles of primary healthcare are implemented in a remote, rural setting in South Africa. Method A descriptive, qualitative design was implemented. Data were collected through interviews and case studies with 36 purposively-sampled participants, then analysed through Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Results Findings indicated challenges with regard to client-centred care, provision of health promotion and rehabilitation, the way care was organised, the role of the doctor, health-worker attitudes, referral services and the management of complex conditions. Conclusion The principles of primary healthcare were not implemented successfully. The community was not involved in healthcare management, nor were users involved in their personal health management. The initiation of a community-health forum is recommended. Service providers, users and the community should identify and address the determinants of ill health in the community. Other recommendations include the training of service managers in the logistical management of ensuring a constant supply of drugs, using a Kombi-type vehicle to provide user transport for routine visits to secondary- and tertiary healthcare services and increasing the doctors’ hours. PMID:26245391

  12. Multiple Phytophthora species associated with a single riparian ecosystem in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Jan H; Slippers, Bernard; Wingfield, Michael J; Gryzenhout, Marieka

    2015-01-01

    The diversity of Phytophthora spp. in rivers and riparian ecosystems has received considerable international attention, although little such research has been conducted in South Africa. This study determined the diversity of Phytophthora spp. within a single river in Gauteng province of South Africa. Samples were collected over 1 y including biweekly river baiting with Rhododendron indicum leaves. Phytophthora isolates were identified with phylogenetic analyses of sequences for the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the ribosomal DNA and the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase c subunit I (coxI) gene. Eight Phytophthora spp. were identified, including a new taxon, P. taxon Sisulu-river, and two hybrid species from Cooke's ITS clade 6. Of these, species from Clade 6 were the most abundant, including P. chlamydospora and P. lacustris. Species residing in Clade 2 also were encountered, including P. multivora, P. plurivora and P. citrophthora. The detection of eight species in this investigation of Phytophthora diversity in a single riparian river ecosystem in northern South Africa adds to the known diversity of this genus in South Africa and globally.

  13. Population genetic structure of Rhizoctonia solani AG 3-PT from potatoes in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Muzhinji, Norman; Woodhall, James W; Truter, Mariette; van der Waals, Jacquie E

    2016-05-01

    Rhizoctonia solani AG 3-PT is an important potato pathogen causing significant yield and quality losses in potato production. However, little is known about the levels of genetic diversity and structure of this pathogen in South Africa. A total of 114 R. solani AG 3-PT isolates collected from four geographic regions were analysed for genetic diversity and structure using eight microsatellite loci. Microsatellite analysis found high intra-population genetic diversity, population differentiation and evidence of recombination. A total of 78 multilocus genotypes were identified with few shared among populations. Low levels of clonality (13-39 %) and high levels of population differentiation were observed among populations. Most of the loci were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and all four populations showed evidence of a mixed reproductive mode of both clonality and recombination. The PCoA clustering method revealed genetically distinct geographic populations of R. solani AG 3-PT in South Africa. This study showed that populations of R. solani AG 3-PT in South Africa are genetically differentiated and disease management strategies should be applied accordingly. This is the first study of the population genetics of R. solani AG 3-PT in South Africa and results may help to develop knowledge-based disease management strategies.

  14. Genetic analysis of the VP2-encoding gene of canine parvovirus strains from Africa.

    PubMed

    Dogonyaro, Banenat B; Bosman, Anna-Mari; Sibeko, Kgomotso P; Venter, Estelle H; van Vuuren, Moritz

    2013-08-30

    Since the emergence of canine parvovirus type-2 (CPV-2) in the early 1970s, it has been evolving into novel genetic and antigenic variants (CPV-2a, 2b and 2c) that are unevenly distributed throughout the world. Genetic characterization of CPV-2 has not been documented in Africa since 1998 apart from the study carried out in Tunisia 2009. A total of 139 field samples were collected from South Africa and Nigeria, detected using PCR and the full length VP2-encoding gene of 27 positive samples were sequenced and genetically analyzed. Nigerian samples (n=6), South Africa (n=19) and vaccine strains (n=2) were compared with existing sequences obtained from GenBank. The results showed the presence of both CPV-2a and 2b in South Africa and only CPV-2a in Nigeria. No CPV-2c strain was detected during this study. Phylogenetic analysis showed a clustering not strictly associated with the geographical origin of the analyzed strains, although most of the South African strains tended to cluster together and the viral strains analyzed in this study were not completely distinct from CPV-2 strains from other parts of the world. Amino acid analysis showed predicted amino acid changes.

  15. Africa's middle class women bring entrepreneurial opportunities in breast care medical tourism to South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ahwireng-Obeng, Frederick; van Loggerenberg, Charl

    2011-01-01

    Africa's distribution of specialized private health services is severely disproportionate. Mismatch between South Africa's excess supply and a huge demand potential in an under-serviced continent represents an entrepreneurial opportunity to attract patients to South Africa for treatment and recuperative holidays. However, effective demand for intra-African medical tourism could be constrained by sub-Saharan poverty. Results from interviewing 320 patients and five staff at the Johannesburg Breast care Centre of Excellence, however, reject this proposition, Africa's middle class women being the target market estimated to grow annually by one million while breast cancer incidence increases with middle-class lifestyles. Uncovering this potential involves an extensive marketing strategy. PMID:22392794

  16. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the South Africa Coastal Province, Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Cook, Troy A.; Pollastro, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    The South Africa Coastal Province along the South Africa coast recently was assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids resources as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) World Oil and Gas Assessment. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the USGS estimated mean volumes of 2.13 billion barrels of oil, 35.96 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 1,115 million barrels of natural gas liquids.

  17. Redirecting Student Interests: Africa and Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Lincoln C.

    Suggestions for students preparing for foreign study in Asia and Africa are presented. It is noted that cooperation and peace may be linked to developing successful programs in the non-Western world. The brief time that students spend in the host country enables the student to describe what the foreign values seem to be, but probably without…

  18. Processes Affecting Tropospheric Ozone over Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diab, Roseanne D.; Thompson, Anne M.

    2004-01-01

    This is a Workshop Report prepared for Eos, the weekly AGU magazine, The workshop took place between 26-28 January 2004 at the University of KwaZulu-Natal in Durban, South Africa and was attended by 26 participants (http//www.geography.und.ac.za). Considerable progress has been made in ozone observations except for northern Africa (large data gaps) and west Africa (to be covered by the French-sponsored AMMA program). The present-day ozone findings were evaluated and reviewed by speakers using Aircraft data (MOZAIC program), NASA satellites (MOPITT, TRMM, TOMS) and ozone soundings (SHADOZ). Besides some ozone gaps, there are challenges posed by the need to assess the relative strengths of photochemical and dynamic influences on the tropospheric ozone budget. Biogenic, biofuels, biomass burning sources of ozone precursors remain highly uncertain. Recent findings (by NASA's Chatfield and Thompson, using satellite and sounding data) show significant impact of Indian Ocean pollution on African ozone. European research on pollutants over the Mediterranean and the middle east, that suggests that ozone may be exported to Africa from these areas, also needs to be considered.

  19. School Disaffection--Africa's Growing Problem?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Robert Langley

    2003-01-01

    This article argues that despite such large-scale international programmes as Education for All, backed by UNESCO and the World Bank among others, enrolment and retention rates in Africa will continue to decline as pupils, parents and employers realise that formal schooling does not deliver what it has promised. Although much attention has been…

  20. Are You Going to Teach About Africa?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, H. Thomas; And Others

    This guide for educators at the elementary and secondary levels contains articles written by people directly concerned with African studies. Charles Billings, in his article, "Africa in the Curriculum," offers a rationale for African studies and puts forward a number of useful suggestions regarding content, approaches and emphases. Commonly held…

  1. South Africa, 2004: Power, Passion, Promise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruckner, Martha

    2005-01-01

    Although the education system in post-apartheid South Africa has its share of serious challenges, the accompanying reforms carried out are inspiring as the ASCD Board of Directors and staff discovered when they visited the country in October 2004. The visit was organized around the theme of the 2005 ASCD Annual Conference: "Voices of Education:…

  2. Educating Children with Learning Disabilities in Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abosi, Okey

    2007-01-01

    The increase in the number of slow learners and children with learning disabilities in schools in Africa has become a major issue and concern. The situation is reflected in various school-leaving examinations, where an average of 30 percent of the results are below average or failures each year. Although there are no statistical records available…

  3. Facing Africa: The Price of Our History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, John H.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses Black Americans' concern about what to call themselves and examines attempts to develop an Afrocentric point of view. Questions an automatic identification between African-Americans and Africa, citing political, historical, and socioeconomic factors that qualify assumptions of cultural continuity, and calls for continued assessment and…

  4. [Depression in Sub-Saharan Africa].

    PubMed

    Perez, S; Junod, A

    1998-01-01

    We now have a better knowledge of the specific features of depression in sub-Saharan Africa. Anthropologically speaking, the Western model is irrelevant. Depression in sub-Saharan Africa involves the relationship of the subject to himself or others in a mode specific to African cultures. Ignoring this fact can lead to simplistic ethnocentrism. From a clinical standpoint, depressive illness characterized by somatic manifestations, delusions of persecution, and anxiety are increasingly uncommon. As African societies modernize, these traditional forms are being gradually supplanted by states with symptoms and prognoses more like those observed in industrialized countries. Hybrid depressive syndromes are now the most widespread. Epidemiologically the notion widely held only a few decades ago that depression is a rare occurrence in Africa has now been dispelled. Many studies have been conducted to determine the exact incidence, age distribution, and sex ratio but more precise data is still needed. This investigation will require improvement in screening and diagnostic methods which must be not only suitable for clinical use but also adaptable to local conditions. This is also true with regard to management which has the same goals as anywhere else in the world. Treatment facilities are different in urban and rural areas but care is often dispensed in unconventional settings and may be combined with traditional methods. Drug availability is limited by problems involving supply and cost. This explains why electro-convulsive therapy which was introduced into sub-Saharan Africa long ago still plays a major role in the treatment of depression.

  5. Transcending Communication Barriers with West Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ampadu, Lena

    Americans doing business with West Africans are limited in their ability to communicate successfully in that part of the world because of language, stereotyping, and ethnocentrism. Americans must become accustomed to British patterns of speech and writing. Stereotypes of Africa, its people, and its cultures perpetuated by the media keep Americans…

  6. The Image of Africa in Our Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pahl, Ronald H.

    1995-01-01

    Argues that the media portrayal of Africa remains highly selective, focusing almost solely on negative and violent stories. Positive stories (local initiatives, political reform) go unreported as does much of the Western powers involvement in famine and destruction. Includes a list of sources on African current affairs. (MJP)

  7. Africa in Today's Social Studies Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ukpokodu, Nelly

    1996-01-01

    Presents a thorough and innovative approach to integrating the study of Africa into the social studies curriculum. Profiles a three-part process consisting of preplanning, curriculum planning, and implementation. Utilizes different sources and strategies (literature, global approach, cooperative learning) to create a balanced and accurate…

  8. AIDS in Africa: a political overview.

    PubMed

    Fredland, R A

    1989-01-01

    In examining the spread of AIDS throughout Africa, it is important to recognize the differential factors of geography, economics, politics and other sociodemographic factors. Many factors such as increased prostitution and the presence of socially sanctioned promiscuity in certain communities have helped to accelerate the spread of AIDS. Statistics show that the epidemic is affecting larger numbers and is demanding recognition by political and medical authorities. Between the years 1987 and 1988, the number of AIDS cases in Uganda quadrupled. A hospital in Zaire reported that 1/4 of all deaths recorded in its facility were AIDS related. In certain sections of Central and East Africa, 2-15% of pregnant women are HIV-positive. Poor coping systems and weakened economies have prevented countries from instituting expensive health education programs. Other countries hoping to combat the epidemic might replicate the efforts of Ugandans who have worked diligently to distribute 3 million leaflets of information and open 13 screening centers. It is recognized that the AIDS epidemic will negatively affect Africa's workforce, the combined economies of African nations, and social conditions. Research in the areas of population movements and social practices is crucial to forecast the patterns of the epidemic is needed. Western aid in research and educational activities is also important in Africa's battle against AIDS.

  9. Africa's elephants and rhinos: Flagships in crisis.

    PubMed

    Western, D

    1987-11-01

    Despite extensive conservation measures over the last two decades, populations of elephants and rhinos in Africa continue to decline. The plight of the black rhino is especially acute. Poaching for rhino horn and ivory, rather than habitat loss, remains the principal threat to these species. The only long-term hope may lie in the effective protection of small, isolated populations.

  10. Africa's elephants and rhinos: Flagships in crisis.

    PubMed

    Western, D

    1987-11-01

    Despite extensive conservation measures over the last two decades, populations of elephants and rhinos in Africa continue to decline. The plight of the black rhino is especially acute. Poaching for rhino horn and ivory, rather than habitat loss, remains the principal threat to these species. The only long-term hope may lie in the effective protection of small, isolated populations. PMID:21227879

  11. Africa 2010 in retrospect: hits and misses.

    PubMed

    Davis, Robert

    2010-01-01

    ABOUT THE AUTHOR: Robert Davis works for the American Red Cross as health and measles delegate, based in Nairobi, Kenya. A 1978 graduate of the Johns Hopkins University, he has just started his 25th year in Africa, where he has worked with WHO, UNICEF, the International Rescue Committee, and Save the Children Fund. The views expressed in this editorial are his own.

  12. Challenges and opportunities for chemistry in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abegaz, Berhanu

    2016-06-01

    Chemistry education and research in Africa is challenging -- a fact that is clearly reflected by publication metrics. Yet this is far from the full story on a continent that has youth on its side, a cultural link to chemistry through its strong interest in plants and indigenous medicine, and an increasing number of ways forward.

  13. A review of HIV-1 in Africa.

    PubMed

    Ronald, A R; Ndinya-Achola, J O; Plummer, F A; Simonsen, J N; Cameron, D W; Ngugi, E N; Pamba, H

    1988-01-01

    As the AIDS epidemic reaches a dramatic stage of development, the time for African countries to establish effective control programs has come. The history of AIDS in Africa is different from that other regions of the world. The disease developed among heterosexual communities. By 1987, over 8,000 cases of AIDS had been reported from 37 of the 47 nations of Africa. Over 2,000 of these cases were found in Uganda. However, under-reporting and under-representation of the number of actual cases is still a problem. In many cases, there has been a failure to recognize the disease. The demographic and geographic distribution of seroprevalence is discussed. Because of the inaccuracies in AIDS reporting in Africa, epidemic forecasting is difficult. If 5 million are currently infected, a potential 50 million Africans may be infected by 1993. A further discussion of the risk factors for HIV-1 holds that promiscuity is the major problem. Cures and inexpensive treatments for the infection are years away. Energy, resources, and national committees in Africa and the world must be coordinated to combat the ultimate crisis of this century.

  14. Books About Africa for Children and Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntz, Patricia S.

    This index presents references to 413 children's textbooks and tradebooks about Africa. All of the entries were published in the United States between 1970 and 1979. The main purpose of the index is to aid elementary and secondary social studies and language arts classroom teachers as they develop curriculum for African area study programs.…

  15. The Politics of Testing in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chisholm, Linda; Wildeman, Russell

    2013-01-01

    This article considers the politics of adoption of a testing regime in South Africa. While the broad features of this regime are similar to those in developed countries, there are features specific to the South African context. These emerge from a combination of external and internal pressures. External pressures derive from international testing…

  16. South Africa: Challenge and Hope. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatum, Lyle, Ed.

    In South Africa, racial identification determines all facets of a person's life--political, economic, and social. Divided into ten chapters, this book was prepared to increase public awareness of black South Africans' struggle for freedom. Chapter one discusses how the system of apartheid is built on the official identification of all citizens by…

  17. Converging Oceaniac Internal Waves, Somalia, Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The arculate fronts of these apparently converging internal waves off the northeast coast of Somalia (11.5N, 51.5E) probably were produced by interaction with two parallel submarine canyons off the Horn of Africa. Internal waves are packets of tidally generated waves traveling within the ocean at varying depths and are not detectable by any surface disturbance.

  18. Africa, Asia, Europe, and Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loh, Eudora I.

    1994-01-01

    Annotates 25 publications from 19 countries: Bolivia, Brazil, Cape Verde, Chile, Dominican Republic, Hungary, India, Ireland, Jamaica, Malaysia, Mexico, Morocco, Mozambique, Netherlands, Niger, Nigeria, Peru, South Africa, and Venezuela. Topics include the environment, women's role, and household consumption and expenditures. The publication of an…

  19. Will Democracy Come to South Africa?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winchester, N. Brian

    1990-01-01

    Discusses prospects for democracy in South Africa. Explores the complexities and contradictions endemic to the process of overcoming 300 years of racist laws and practices. Considers the risks of concessions for both Black and White leaders; problems resulting from enduring political and economic inequalities; and constitutional alternatives.…

  20. Population Problems and Family Planning in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uche, Chukwudum

    The focal points of this essay are the population problems in Africa and what the African peoples and governments are doing about them. It is stated cagegorically that a problem does exist. Indicators often used to deny this position are population density and pressure, undeveloped resources, the availability of empty lands, and alleged intrigue…

  1. Cancer of the Oesophagus in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Paula

    1971-01-01

    The oesophagus is the most common site of tumour development in men in parts of eastern and southern Africa. In West Africa cancer of the oesophagus is practically unknown. In the areas where it is common, the frequency is not uniformly high but shows sharp gradients within short distances. Most of the present high frequencies seem to have developed from a negligible incidence 30 or forty years ago. In all areas the disease is more common in men than women but the sex ratio varies from less than 2: 1 to 12: 1. Alcohol has been shown to be implicated in the development of cancer of the oesophagus elsewhere in the world. Home-made beer and spirit are common in many parts of Africa but there is no geographical association between frequency of consumption and the occurrence of oesophageal cancer. Evidence exists which suggests that both the geographical and temporal distributions in Africa could reflect the use of maize as a major ingredient of alcoholic drinks. PMID:5144546

  2. It's about TIME: engendering AIDS in Africa.

    PubMed

    Brijnath, Bianca

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses how TIME magazine represents sub-Saharan African women in its coverage of HIV/AIDS. As rates of infection escalate across the continent, researchers are increasingly emphasising the need to understand the socioeconomic and cultural contexts that make women particularly vulnerable to infection. Yet popular media representations of AIDS continue to rely on older colonial imageries of Africa as the feminised, diseased 'dark continent'. This article identifies three major themes in TIME's representation of sub-Saharan African women and HIV/AIDS: the metaphor of Africa as a woman in crisis, the construction of women as the means of transmission, and the engendered nature of the debate about the impact of international development policies. It is argued that the reliance on familiar cultural narratives often obscures the epidemiological, economic and cultural realities within which sub-Saharan women live. Not merely a consequence of unprotected sex, AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa is also the result of global economics and politics, reflecting the inequities between the West and Africa, male and female, white and black. The paper concludes with a call for further research on the role of representations of HIV/AIDS and its actual routes of transmission. PMID:17612957

  3. Africa, Asia, Europe, and Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loh, Eudora I.

    1992-01-01

    This annotated bibliography lists 30 government documents published between 1988 and 1991 by Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Burundi, Chile, China, Columbia, Denmark, France, Gambia, Guinea Bissau, Hong Kong, India, Italy, Luxembourg, Mexico, Nepal, Nigeria, Portugal, Rwanda, South Africa, and Thailand. Topics addressed include the environment,…

  4. The Image of Africa in Elementary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Angene H.

    1980-01-01

    To support the hypothesis that much misinformation and many stereotypic attitudes are presented about Africa to elementary school pupils, the article analyzes 10 readers for African content and assesses effects of an African content intervention strategy on elementary school students. (DB)

  5. Science Education as South Africa's Trojan Horse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogan, John M.; Gray, Brian V.

    1999-01-01

    Presents the story of one nongovernmental organization (NGO) and the role it played in reconceptualizing science education in South Africa. Describes the success of the Science Education Project (SEP) in confronting authoritarian practices of government organizations and those within its own ranks. Science education can become the Trojan horse of…

  6. Seismotectonics and crustal deformation in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayadi, Abdelhakim

    2016-04-01

    We present the Seismotectonic Map of Africa based on a geological, geophysical and geodetic database including the instrumental seismicity and re-appraisal of large historical events, and harmonization and homogenization of earthquake parameters in catalogues. Although the seismotectonic framework of the African continent is a difficult task, several previous and ongoing projects provide a wealth of data and outstanding results. The database of large and moderate earthquakes in different geological domains includes the coseismic and Quaternary faulting that reveals the complex nature of the active tectonics in Africa. The map benefits from previous works on local and regional seismotectonic maps that needed to be integrated with the lithospheric and upper mantle structures, seismic anisotropy tomography and gravity anomaly, into a continental framework. The synthesis of earthquake and volcanic studies obtained from the analysis of late Quaternary faulting and geodetic data will serve as a basis for hazard calculations and the reduction of seismic risks. The map will be useful for the seismic hazard assessment and earthquake risk mitigation for significant infrastructures and their socio-economic implications in Africa. The constant population increase and infrastructure growth in the continent that exacerbate the earthquake risk justify the necessity for a continuous updating of this map. The database and related map are prepared in the framework of the IGC Project-601 "Seismotectonics and Seismic Hazards in Africa" of UNESCO-IUGS, funded by the Swedish International Development Agency and UNESCO-Nairobi for a period of 4 years (2011 - 2014, now extended to 2016).

  7. Food and environmental policies in Africa.

    PubMed

    Biswas, M R; Biswas, A K

    1986-08-01

    Not only is Africa experiencing severe food production and nutrition problems, but environmental conditions, on which agricultural production ultimately depends, are deteriorating. A meeting of the African Ministers of Environment was held in Cairo last December, and an African solution to an African problem was put forth. The proposed program is examined in this paper. The usable extent of the pastoral area in the arid and semi-arid regions of Africa nas been reduced by 25% since 1968. At present only about 35% of the former area of slightly productive savannah is left. Africa's rich fishing grounds are being overfished and coastal regions are threatened by pollution. Africa's problems are linked with very high rates of population growth, rapid rates of urbanization, inappropriate development policies that have neglected the agricultural sector, and nonavailability of skilled manpower. The Cairo Program of African Cooperation included the following proposals: 8 continent-wide networks of institutions are to be established or strenghened in the fields of climatology, soils and fertilizers, water resources, energy, genetic resources, environmental monitoring, science and technology, and education and training; all available African skills and experience are to be applied to seek economically feasible, environmentally sound and socially acceptable solutions in certain regions; subregional cooperation is to be strenghened in terms of implementation of priority activities; 4 committees were established in areas of priority concerns; and a formula to provide US$32.5 million to finance the follow-up activities was approved.

  8. Malarone-donation programme in Africa.

    PubMed

    Bloland, P B; Kazembe, P N; Watkins, W M; Doumbo, O K; Nwanyanwu, O C; Ruebush, T K

    1997-11-29

    Glaxo Wellcome announced in November 1996 its intent to donate up to 1 million treatment courses per year of its new antimalarial drug, Malarone, to countries in Africa, Southeast Asia, and South America, where malaria is endemic. Because the effectiveness of the small number of available antimalarial drugs is threatened by the emergence of drug resistance, the advantages of introduction of this new drug to a given area should be given careful consideration. Chloroquine, for example, is nearing the end of its effectiveness as a first-line drug for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in many areas of East and Central Africa. The lifespan of its replacement, sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, is likely to be even shorter given its long half-life and the ease with which resistance-conferring mutations occur. In Southeast Asia and the Amazon basin of South America, where multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria is a serious problem, the advantages of Malarone introduction clearly outweigh any disadvantages. In sub-Saharan Africa, the premature distribution and increasing use of artemisinins may jeopardize their long-term effectiveness, however. Another factor complicating decisions to introduce Malarone is its required 3-day course of treatment, necessitating hospitalization if compliance is to be ensured. The donation project gives patients in developing countries access to an expensive drug that would otherwise be unavailable. Time must be taken, however, to fully debate the project's pros and cons, resolve inherent logistic problems, and establish guidelines for Malarone use in sub-Saharan Africa.

  9. School Governance in the New South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Tony; Heystek, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Discusses early experiences of school governing bodies in South Africa. Examines governing bodies' powers to set fees, resulting impact on resources for different types of schools, and implications for equity and equality. Explores governing bodies' admission policies and how this led to school populations differentiated by class and race. (CAJ)

  10. Africa: A Social Studies and Science Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holboke, Kathy; And Others

    This packet was designed to help teachers maximize a visit to a zoo's Africa exhibit. The packet provides two levels of activities, grades 3-5, and grades 6-8, for use before, during and after the visit. Activities are designed to enhance skills taught in science, social studies, language arts, reading, art, and math. A multi-grade background…

  11. Homicide-Suicide in Durban, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Kerry; Wassenaar, Douglas; Canetto, Silvia Sara; Pillay, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated homicide-suicide in Durban, South Africa, for the years 2000 to 2001. The incidence was 0.89 per 100,000, higher than the international average. A majority of perpetrators (91%) and victims (87%) were Black African, proportional to their representation in the population. Perpetrators were typically men (in 95% of cases),…

  12. Book Development in Africa; Problems and Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Dept. of Mass Communication.

    A meeting on book development in Africa was convened by Unesco at Accra, 13-19 February 1968, to help formulate a programme of action. It was attended by participants from 23 African countries as well as from a number of other Member States and international organizations. The meeting was part of a long-range programme adopted by Unesco to assist…

  13. The Development of Higher Education in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    The Conference on the Development of Higher Education in Africa was held for two specific reasons. The first was to identify possible solutions to: (1) problems of choice and adaptation of the higher education curriculum to the specific conditions of African life and development, and the training of specialized personnel for public administration…

  14. Directory of Adult Education Centres in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Dakar (Senegal). Regional Office for Education in Africa.

    The Bureau Regional pour L'Education en Afrique (BREDA) survey, published partly in French, assembled data on the activities of adult education institutions in Africa in order to identify and develop future regional documentation centers. This draft copy of the survey is the first step towards improving international collaboration among…

  15. Africa Adult Education. Chronologies in Commonwealth Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draper, James A., Ed.

    In this document, leading educators from 12 African Commonwealth countries trace the development of adult education in Africa and show how providers of adult education outside the formal education system (including government and nongovernment organizations, trade unions, women's groups, and religious organizations) have met the needs of their…

  16. Africa Section. Regional Activities Division. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Papers on the role and services of African libraries and the education of African librarians, which were presented at the 1983 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference, include: (1) "The Information Sector in the Economic Development of Africa: The Potential Role for Libraries," in which Benzies Y. Boadi (Nigeria)…

  17. Quality Assurance in Sub-Saharan Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Materu, Peter; Righetti, Petra

    2010-01-01

    This article assesses the status and practice of higher education quality assurance in sub-Saharan Africa, focusing on degree-granting tertiary institutions. A main finding is that structured national-level quality assurance processes in African higher education are a very recent phenomenon and that most countries face major capacity constraints.…

  18. It's about TIME: engendering AIDS in Africa.

    PubMed

    Brijnath, Bianca

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses how TIME magazine represents sub-Saharan African women in its coverage of HIV/AIDS. As rates of infection escalate across the continent, researchers are increasingly emphasising the need to understand the socioeconomic and cultural contexts that make women particularly vulnerable to infection. Yet popular media representations of AIDS continue to rely on older colonial imageries of Africa as the feminised, diseased 'dark continent'. This article identifies three major themes in TIME's representation of sub-Saharan African women and HIV/AIDS: the metaphor of Africa as a woman in crisis, the construction of women as the means of transmission, and the engendered nature of the debate about the impact of international development policies. It is argued that the reliance on familiar cultural narratives often obscures the epidemiological, economic and cultural realities within which sub-Saharan women live. Not merely a consequence of unprotected sex, AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa is also the result of global economics and politics, reflecting the inequities between the West and Africa, male and female, white and black. The paper concludes with a call for further research on the role of representations of HIV/AIDS and its actual routes of transmission.

  19. South Africa's School Infrastructure Performance Indicator System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibberd, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    While some South African schools have excellent infrastructure, others lack basic services such as water and sanitation. This article describes the school infrastructure performance indicator system (SIPIS) in South Africa. The project offers an approach that can address both the urgent provision of basic services as well as support the…

  20. The Society of Psychiatrists of South Africa.

    PubMed

    1985-03-01

    The text is provided of a policy statement on discrimination drawn up by members of the Society of Psychiatrists of South Africa at their annual meeting on 31 January 1985. The statement "recognizes and deplores the potentially harmful psychological effects" of discrimination, declares opposition to disparities in psychiatric services, and insists that Society members practice in compliance with internationally accepted ethical codes.

  1. Environment and health in Africa.

    PubMed

    1994-01-01

    Four environmental and public health measures were identified by the World Health Organization for the well-being of Africans. This article gives some action-oriented guidelines pertaining to these measures. The measures cover an adequate and safe water supply, hygienic disposal of excrement, disposal of solid and household wastes, and a healthy habitat and housing (location, structure, and amenities). Safe water supplies should be accessible within 15 minutes. Water should not be wasted. Households may obtain water from rainwater stocks, a family well, communal water, or public taps. Households must have a sufficient number of covered containers for water storage. Collecting vessels must be kept clean and always covered. Water must be boiled during outbreaks of water-borne enteric diseases and for the use of babies, infants, and the elderly. Public places must provide adequate quantities of water for drinking and hygiene. Water supply equipment in public and community places must be properly maintained. Chlorination of the public water supplies is necessary during a disease outbreak. Communities must identify alternative water sources during emergencies. Water supplies must be protected against pollution or contamination. Latrines must be constructed, improved, and maintained within 10 meters of households and at least 15 meters of wells. Public and community places must provide clean latrines. Wastes must be collected in a suitable covered container and placed safely away from infants and animals. In lieu of public waste collection, households must dispose of wastes daily in a pit covered with dirt. Hospitals must dispose of contaminated wastes with incineration and burial of ashes in a dirt-covered pit a distance from buildings. Public collections systems for waste removal are necessary in densely populated areas. Public repositories for waste should be suitably located, well maintained, and regularly emptied. Construction materials for repositories may be

  2. Emissions from savanna fires in southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Parikhit

    2004-12-01

    Airborne measurements are presented of emissions from savanna fires in southern Africa during the dry season. Measurements were obtained aboard the University of Washington Convair-580 research aircraft during the SAFARI 2000 field project in August and September 2000. Savanna fires in southern Africa emit a wide range of gaseous and particulate species including carbon, sulfur, nitrogen, halogen, and oxygenated compounds. Emission factors, emission ratios, and regional emissions of fifty trace gas and particulate species were derived, including eight species not previously reported in the literature (dimethyl sulfide, methyl nitrate, five species of hydrocarbons, and particles with diameters from 0.1--3 mum diameter). The physical, chemical, and radiative properties of the plume from a large savanna fire in South Africa are characterized, including plume dimensions, secondary formation of ozone and organic acids, oxidation of hydrocarbons, coagulation of particles, and gas-to-particle conversion in aged smoke. Numerous fires, thermodynamically stable layers aloft, and large-scale anticylonic flow result in high concentrations of air pollution distributed throughout the lower troposphere over southern Africa during the dry season. Average regional concentrations of CO (261 +/- 81 ppbv), SO2 (2.5 +/- 1.6 ppbv), O3 (64 +/- 13 ppbv), black particulate carbon (2.3 +/- 1.9 mug m-3), organic particulate carbon (6.2 +/- 5.2 mug m-3), total particle mass (26.0 +/- 4.7 mug m-3) are comparable to those found in polluted urban environments. The GEOS-CHEM model of tropospheric chemistry is used to characterize the transport of biomass burning emissions from southern Africa to the neighboring Atlantic and Indian Oceans during the dry season (May--October) of 2000. A large quantity of biomass burning emissions from southern Africa is transported westward over the latitudes 0--20°S to the southern Atlantic Ocean (˜40 Tg CO from May--October), contributing to a pollution anomaly

  3. Migration in southern Africa: a comparative perspective.

    PubMed

    Solomon, H

    1994-01-01

    Population movement can be described as intra-state, East-West, South-North, and South-South. About 20 million persons globally are considered displaced, of which about 4.1 million are internally displaced persons in South Africa. East-West movement occurred for over 400 million when the Iron Curtain came down. South-North movements of asylum seekers were estimated at 442,000 in 1990. South-South movement amounted to 4 million official refugees in Africa in 1989 and 4.4 million in 1990. African has the largest concentration of refugees. This article does not address the 265,825 contract migrant workers in South Africa. South African migration is the South-South type and can be characterized as "brain-drain" of well-trained professionals in neighboring states and unskilled and illegal migrants from Mozambique and Angola. Movement is pushed or pulled according to sociocultural factors, communications and technology, geographic proximity, precedent, demographic factors, environmental factors, economic factors, and political factors. The effects of migration in South Africa include increased stress on housing, political and social tension, increased costs, overcrowding, transmission of disease, and marginalization of migrants into low status and low paid jobs. For Lesotho migrants in South Africa remittances are a major source of national wealth. South Africa has also experienced racial discord against Mozambicans and Chinese. Political right wing groups mobilize around anti-immigration platforms. Migrants can become policy tools, and many are used in wars of liberation. International attention may focus on mistreatment of refugees. Management can be construed as "carrot" or "stick" approaches. Stick approaches include forced repatriation, limiting immigration, housing in survival-level camps, public campaigns run by host countries in sending countries, or greater control of national borders. South Africa has extensively used stick approaches, which have been only

  4. Norovirus Epidemiology in Africa: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Mans, Janet; Armah, George E.; Steele, A. Duncan; Taylor, Maureen B.

    2016-01-01

    Norovirus (NoV) is recognised as a leading cause of gastroenteritis worldwide across all age groups. The prevalence and diversity of NoVs in many African countries is still unknown, although early sero-prevalence studies indicated widespread early infection. Reports on NoVs in Africa vary widely in terms of study duration, population groups and size, inclusion of asymptomatic controls, as well as genotyping information. This review provides an estimate of NoV prevalence and distribution of genotypes of NoVs in Africa. Inclusion criteria for the review were study duration of at least 6 months, population size of >50 and diagnosis by RT-PCR. As regions used for genotyping varied, or genotyping was not always performed, this was not considered as an inclusion criteria. A literature search containing the terms norovirus+Africa yielded 74 publications. Of these 19 studies from 14 out of the 54 countries in Africa met the inclusion criteria. Data from studies not meeting the inclusion criteria, based on sample size or short duration, were included as discussion points. The majority of studies published focused on children, under five years of age, hospitalised with acute gastroenteritis. The mean overall prevalence was 13.5% (range 0.8–25.5%) in children with gastroenteritis and 9.7% (range 7–31%) in asymptomatic controls, where tested. NoV GII.4 was the predominant genotype identified in most of the studies that presented genotyping data. Other prevalent genotypes detected included GII.3 and GII.6. In conclusion, NoV is a common pathogen in children with diarrhoea in Africa, with considerable carriage in asymptomatic children. There is however, a paucity of data on NoV infection in adults. PMID:27116615

  5. Population growth and development planning in Africa.

    PubMed

    1980-12-01

    Some of the consequences of rapid population growth and their implications for the economic development of the Africa region in the 1980s are outlined. The total population of Africa was estimated to be 412 million in 1976, or 10.2% of the total world population of 4044 million. Population density of the region is comparatively low, but the crude density measure of 14 persons per square kilometer in 1977 obscures the very high percentage of Africa's land which is desert or otherwise not arable. Continued high fertility rates in the region coupled with substantial decline in mortality rates especially for infants and children has resulted in Africa having a youthful population. The growth of cities due primarily to rural-urban migration is 1 of the most pressing problems of the region. Some countries in the region maintain pronatalist policies because they have a small population and regard population growth as a stimulus to the socioeconomic development effort. Few countries such as Kenya, Mauritius, Egypt, and Morocco consider rapid population growth a constraint on their development efforts and are now implementing national policies which aim at reducing the rate of growth of their populations. Population problems in Africa arise mainly from the fact that additions to the population needing education, housing, employment and to be fed adequately are increasing at a rate far more than most African countries can cope with. To illustrate the potential impact of population factors on development, the potential relationships between population and health, education, food supply, labor force supply and employment are analyzed.

  6. [Inequalities in access to care in Africa].

    PubMed

    Livinec, Bertrand; Milleliri, Jean-Marie; Rey, Jean-Loup; Saliou, Pierre

    2013-05-01

    Social inequalities in health are increasingly in the news in Africa. While appeals, international declarations and new strategies for health in Africa have succeeded one another over the years, we must admit that the health inequalities are increasing. It is perhaps time to take health out of its compartment and understand that it is one of the components of overall development and that we cannot act effectively against these health inequalities unless we also act on the pressing need to see all States (in the North and South) finally meet their financial commitments, demand of African leaders that they provide good government and fight against corruption, the leaders of African good government and a fight against corruption, and finally ensure that the strategies proposed in Africa focus on the health priorities of each country. If we mention the Scandinavian example, we must admit that the Nordic countries have demonstrated their capacity to obtain excellent results in health, to narrow social inequalities, and provide public transparency and aid to development. They constitute today an excellent example for most Western countries and for African countries - and also for African and western civil societies, which can be inspired by the concrete measures of transparency and strong public activity, which promote improvement in the overall statistics of their societies, in particular, in health. Accordingly we propose a new approach that looks at health statistics in the light of inequalities (especially via the Gini coefficient) and public transparency (especially via the benchmarks of perceived corruption). A New Deal for health in Africa is needed, and all the organization involved should be asked to act together for a holistic public health vision that will benefit the populations of Africa. Health cannot be separated from a political, ethical and equitable vision of society. PMID:23694842

  7. Astronomy Education & Outreach in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Throop, Henry B.

    2015-11-01

    Although South Africa has evolved greatly in the 20 years since the end of apartheid, it remains a very divided country. The highest-performing students are comparable in ability to those in the US and Europe, but nearly all of these students are from priveleged Afrikaaner (European) backgrounds. The vast majority of students in the country are native African, and school standards remain very low across the country. It is common that students have no textbooks, teachers have only a high school education, and schools have no telephones and no toilets. By high school graduation, the majority of students have never used a web browser -- even students in the capital of Johannesburg. And while a few students are inspired by home-grown world-class projects such as the Square Kilometer Array (SKA) and Southern African Large Telescope (SALT), most remain unaware of their existence.Despite the poor state of education in the country, students work hard, are curious, and desire information from the outside world. Astronomy is one subject in which students in rural Africa often show exceptional interest. Perhaps astronomy serves as a 'gateway science,' linking the physically observable world with the exotic and unknown.Here I report on many visits I have made to both rural and urban schools in South Africa during the 2013-2015 period. I have interacted with thousands of grade 7-12 students at dozens of schools, as well as taught students who graduated from this system and enrolled in local universities. I will present an assessment of the state of science education in South Africa, as well as a few broader suggestions for how scientists and educators in developed countries can best make an impact in Southern Africa.

  8. Marketing of irradiated commodities in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du Plessis, TA; Stevens, RCB

    Although the industrial exploitation of radiation processing in the medical and allied fields has been successfully marketed and applied for the past two decades in South Africa, the introduction of food radurisation on an industrial level adds a completely new dimension to the marketing of this processing technique. Extensive research into the use of radiation for the treatment of various foodstuffs has been carried out by the Nuclear Development Corporation of South Africa for more than a decade, resulting in South Africa being one of the first countries where a commercial irradiator dedicated to this branch of radiation processing, was established. The marketing of this process is especially difficult due to the emotive aspects associated with radiation and man's sensitive reaction to anything pertaining to his food. This situation was made even more difficult by the general public's apprehension towards nuclear activities throughout the world. In an attempt to transform the unfavourable public image associated with this process, an important first step was to form a National Steering Committee for the Marketing of Radurised Food, the members of which were drawn from various agricultural controlling bodies, the Department of Health, and other controlling bodies held in high esteem by the public, such as the Consumer Council and representatives from commerce and industry. This approach proved to be very successful and greatly assisted in creating a climate whereby the public in South Africa today generally has a favourable attitude towards the radurisation of foodstuffs. The development of this marketing strategy for food radurisation in South Africa is discussed in detail.

  9. [Inequalities in access to care in Africa].

    PubMed

    Livinec, Bertrand; Milleliri, Jean-Marie; Rey, Jean-Loup; Saliou, Pierre

    2013-05-01

    Social inequalities in health are increasingly in the news in Africa. While appeals, international declarations and new strategies for health in Africa have succeeded one another over the years, we must admit that the health inequalities are increasing. It is perhaps time to take health out of its compartment and understand that it is one of the components of overall development and that we cannot act effectively against these health inequalities unless we also act on the pressing need to see all States (in the North and South) finally meet their financial commitments, demand of African leaders that they provide good government and fight against corruption, the leaders of African good government and a fight against corruption, and finally ensure that the strategies proposed in Africa focus on the health priorities of each country. If we mention the Scandinavian example, we must admit that the Nordic countries have demonstrated their capacity to obtain excellent results in health, to narrow social inequalities, and provide public transparency and aid to development. They constitute today an excellent example for most Western countries and for African countries - and also for African and western civil societies, which can be inspired by the concrete measures of transparency and strong public activity, which promote improvement in the overall statistics of their societies, in particular, in health. Accordingly we propose a new approach that looks at health statistics in the light of inequalities (especially via the Gini coefficient) and public transparency (especially via the benchmarks of perceived corruption). A New Deal for health in Africa is needed, and all the organization involved should be asked to act together for a holistic public health vision that will benefit the populations of Africa. Health cannot be separated from a political, ethical and equitable vision of society.

  10. Collections Management, Collections Maintenance, and Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Museums, Washington, DC.

    This national survey of the state of the nation's museum collections investigates collection care policies and practices, conservation issues, and private sector and federal support for museum needs. It consists of two major projects and four additional information gathering projects. The Museum Collection Survey is designed to examine all major…

  11. Research priorities: women in Africa.

    PubMed

    Okeyo, A P

    1979-01-01

    In December 1979, an Expert Meeting on Research and Data Collection on Women and Development was convened in Nairobi for the purpose of defining research priorities and methodological approaches for studying the role of African women in development. After reviewing current literature relevant to the subject matter, the participants developed a number of hypotheses regarding the impact of development activities on the role and status of women, and recommended that these hypotheses be tested in future reserach. In general, agrarian reform, mechanization of agriculture, the introduction of cash cropping, and modernization were hypothesized as having a negative impact on the role, status, productive activities, and nutritional standards of women. Other hypotheses stated that development programs and agricultural extension services tended to neglect women. Recommended research methodologies include: 1) efforts to involve the community members in the development and implementation of research projects undertaken in their communities; 2) increased use of local experts and community members in data collection; and 3) interdisciplinary collaboration. The participants also recommended that each country compile a statistical profile on the women in their countries. The profiles should include comparable information on: 1) fertility; 2) educational levels, employment status, and income levels for women; 3) household composition; and 4) types of services available to women.

  12. Research priorities: women in Africa.

    PubMed

    Okeyo, A P

    1979-01-01

    In December 1979, an Expert Meeting on Research and Data Collection on Women and Development was convened in Nairobi for the purpose of defining research priorities and methodological approaches for studying the role of African women in development. After reviewing current literature relevant to the subject matter, the participants developed a number of hypotheses regarding the impact of development activities on the role and status of women, and recommended that these hypotheses be tested in future reserach. In general, agrarian reform, mechanization of agriculture, the introduction of cash cropping, and modernization were hypothesized as having a negative impact on the role, status, productive activities, and nutritional standards of women. Other hypotheses stated that development programs and agricultural extension services tended to neglect women. Recommended research methodologies include: 1) efforts to involve the community members in the development and implementation of research projects undertaken in their communities; 2) increased use of local experts and community members in data collection; and 3) interdisciplinary collaboration. The participants also recommended that each country compile a statistical profile on the women in their countries. The profiles should include comparable information on: 1) fertility; 2) educational levels, employment status, and income levels for women; 3) household composition; and 4) types of services available to women. PMID:538796

  13. EpiCollect+: linking smartphones to web applications for complex data collection projects

    PubMed Central

    Aanensen, David M.; Huntley, Derek M.; Menegazzo, Mirko; Powell, Chris I.; Spratt, Brian G.

    2014-01-01

    Previously, we have described the development of the generic mobile phone data gathering tool, EpiCollect, and an associated web application, providing two-way communication between multiple data gatherers and a project database. This software only allows data collection on the phone using a single questionnaire form that is tailored to the needs of the user (including a single GPS point and photo per entry), whereas many applications require a more complex structure, allowing users to link a series of forms in a linear or branching hierarchy, along with the addition of any number of media types accessible from smartphones and/or tablet devices (e.g., GPS, photos, videos, sound clips and barcode scanning). A much enhanced version of EpiCollect has been developed (EpiCollect+). The individual data collection forms in EpiCollect+ provide more design complexity than the single form used in EpiCollect, and the software allows the generation of complex data collection projects through the ability to link many forms together in a linear (or branching) hierarchy. Furthermore, EpiCollect+ allows the collection of multiple media types as well as standard text fields, increased data validation and form logic. The entire process of setting up a complex mobile phone data collection project to the specification of a user (project and form definitions) can be undertaken at the EpiCollect+ website using a simple ‘drag and drop’ procedure, with visualisation of the data gathered using Google Maps and charts at the project website. EpiCollect+ is suitable for situations where multiple users transmit complex data by mobile phone (or other Android devices) to a single project web database and is already being used for a range of field projects, particularly public health projects in sub-Saharan Africa. However, many uses can be envisaged from education, ecology and epidemiology to citizen science. PMID:25485096

  14. EpiCollect+: linking smartphones to web applications for complex data collection projects.

    PubMed

    Aanensen, David M; Huntley, Derek M; Menegazzo, Mirko; Powell, Chris I; Spratt, Brian G

    2014-01-01

    Previously, we have described the development of the generic mobile phone data gathering tool, EpiCollect, and an associated web application, providing two-way communication between multiple data gatherers and a project database. This software only allows data collection on the phone using a single questionnaire form that is tailored to the needs of the user (including a single GPS point and photo per entry), whereas many applications require a more complex structure, allowing users to link a series of forms in a linear or branching hierarchy, along with the addition of any number of media types accessible from smartphones and/or tablet devices (e.g., GPS, photos, videos, sound clips and barcode scanning). A much enhanced version of EpiCollect has been developed (EpiCollect+). The individual data collection forms in EpiCollect+ provide more design complexity than the single form used in EpiCollect, and the software allows the generation of complex data collection projects through the ability to link many forms together in a linear (or branching) hierarchy. Furthermore, EpiCollect+ allows the collection of multiple media types as well as standard text fields, increased data validation and form logic. The entire process of setting up a complex mobile phone data collection project to the specification of a user (project and form definitions) can be undertaken at the EpiCollect+ website using a simple 'drag and drop' procedure, with visualisation of the data gathered using Google Maps and charts at the project website. EpiCollect+ is suitable for situations where multiple users transmit complex data by mobile phone (or other Android devices) to a single project web database and is already being used for a range of field projects, particularly public health projects in sub-Saharan Africa. However, many uses can be envisaged from education, ecology and epidemiology to citizen science. PMID:25485096

  15. EpiCollect+: linking smartphones to web applications for complex data collection projects.

    PubMed

    Aanensen, David M; Huntley, Derek M; Menegazzo, Mirko; Powell, Chris I; Spratt, Brian G

    2014-01-01

    Previously, we have described the development of the generic mobile phone data gathering tool, EpiCollect, and an associated web application, providing two-way communication between multiple data gatherers and a project database. This software only allows data collection on the phone using a single questionnaire form that is tailored to the needs of the user (including a single GPS point and photo per entry), whereas many applications require a more complex structure, allowing users to link a series of forms in a linear or branching hierarchy, along with the addition of any number of media types accessible from smartphones and/or tablet devices (e.g., GPS, photos, videos, sound clips and barcode scanning). A much enhanced version of EpiCollect has been developed (EpiCollect+). The individual data collection forms in EpiCollect+ provide more design complexity than the single form used in EpiCollect, and the software allows the generation of complex data collection projects through the ability to link many forms together in a linear (or branching) hierarchy. Furthermore, EpiCollect+ allows the collection of multiple media types as well as standard text fields, increased data validation and form logic. The entire process of setting up a complex mobile phone data collection project to the specification of a user (project and form definitions) can be undertaken at the EpiCollect+ website using a simple 'drag and drop' procedure, with visualisation of the data gathered using Google Maps and charts at the project website. EpiCollect+ is suitable for situations where multiple users transmit complex data by mobile phone (or other Android devices) to a single project web database and is already being used for a range of field projects, particularly public health projects in sub-Saharan Africa. However, many uses can be envisaged from education, ecology and epidemiology to citizen science.

  16. Description of Anopheles gabonensis, a new species potentially involved in rodent malaria transmission in Gabon, Central Africa.

    PubMed

    Rahola, Nil; Makanga, Boris; Yangari, Patrick; Jiolle, Davy; Fontenille, Didier; Renaud, François; Ollomo, Benjamin; Ayala, Diego; Prugnolle, Franck; Paupy, Christophe

    2014-12-01

    The genus Anopheles includes mosquito vectors of human malaria and arboviruses. In sub-Saharan Africa, the anopheline fauna is rich of nearly 150 species, few of which are anthropophilic and capable of transmitting pathogens to humans. Some of the remaining species are found in forests far from human environments and are vectors of wildlife pathogens. The diversity and the biology of these species have yet to be fully described. As a contribution to furthering knowledge of sylvan Anophelinae, using morphological and molecular tools we describe a new Anopheles species collected in Gabon (Central Africa), which we have named Anopheles gabonensis n. sp. We also molecularly screened this species to detect infections by Plasmodium parasites. The results showed the species to have been infected by Plasmodium vinckei, a rodent parasite. We discuss the role of An. gabonensis n. sp. in the transmission of P. vinckei in the rainforest areas of Central Africa and its potential to transfer pathogens to humans.

  17. How Can the Operating Environment for Nutrition Research Be Improved in Sub-Saharan Africa? The Views of African Researchers

    PubMed Central

    Van Royen, Kathleen; Lachat, Carl; Holdsworth, Michelle; Smit, Karlien; Kinabo, Joyce; Roberfroid, Dominique; Nago, Eunice; Garimoi Orach, Christopher; Kolsteren, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Optimal nutrition is critical for human development and economic growth. Sub-Saharan Africa is facing high levels of food insecurity and only few sub-Saharan African countries are on track to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger by 2015. Effective research capacity is crucial for addressing emerging challenges and designing appropriate mitigation strategies in sub-Saharan Africa. A clear understanding of the operating environment for nutrition research in sub-Saharan Africa is a much needed prerequisite. We collected data on the barriers and requirements for conducting nutrition research in sub-Saharan Africa through semi-structured interviews with 144 participants involved in nutrition research in 35 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. A total of 133 interviews were retained for coding. The main barriers identified for effective nutrition research were the lack of funding due to poor recognition by policymakers of the importance of nutrition research and under-utilisation of research findings for developing policy, as well as an absence of research priority setting from within Africa. Current research topics were perceived to be mainly determined by funding bodies from outside Africa. Nutrition researchers argued for more commitment from policymakers at national level. The low capacity for nutrition research was mainly seen as a consequence of insufficient numbers of nutrition researchers, limited skills and a poor research infrastructure. In conclusion, African nutrition researchers argued how research priorities need to be identified by African stakeholders, accompanied by consensus building to enable creating a problem-driven national research agenda. In addition, it was considered necessary to promote interactions among researchers, and between researchers and policymakers. Multidisciplinary research and international and cross-African collaboration were seen as crucial to build capacity in sub-Saharan nutrition research. PMID:23776663

  18. Collection Directions: The Evolution of Library Collections and Collecting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dempsey, Lorcan; Malpas, Constance; Lavoie, Brian

    2014-01-01

    This article takes a broad view of the evolution of collecting behaviors in a network environment and suggests some future directions based on various simple models. The authors look at the changing dynamics of print collections, at the greater engagement with research and learning behaviors, and at trends in scholarly communication. The goal is…

  19. A Survey of Scale Insects (Sternorryncha: Coccoidea) Occurring on Table Grapes in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Walton, Vaughn M.; Krüger, Kerstin; Saccaggi, Davina L.; Millar, Ian M.

    2009-01-01

    Increasing international trade and tourism have led to an increase in the introduction of exotic pests that pose a considerable economic threat to the agro-ecosystems of importing countries. Scale insects (Sternorryncha: Coccoidea) may be contaminants of export consignments from the South African deciduous fruit industry to the European Union, Israel, United Kingdom and the United States, for example. Infestations of immature scale insects found on South African fruit destined for export have resulted in increasing rates of rejection of such consignments. To identify the risk posed by scale insect species listed as phytosanitary pests on table grapes to the abovementioned importing countries, a field survey was undertaken in 2004–2005 in vineyards throughout all grape-producing regions in South Africa. Coccoidea species found during the current field survey were Planococcus ficus (Signoret), Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni Tozzetti), Coccus hesperidum L. and Nipaecoccus viridis (Newstead). With the exception of Pl. ficus, which has only been collected from Vitis vinifera (Vitaceae) and Ficus carica (Moraceae) in South Africa, these species are polyphagous and have a wide host range. None of the scale insect species found to occur in vineyards in South Africa pose a phytosanitary risk to countries where fruit are exported except for Ferrisia malvastra (McDaniel) and N. viridis that have not been recorded in the USA. All scale insects previously found in vineyards in South Africa are listed and their phytosanitary status discussed. The results of the survey show that the risk of exporting scale insect pests of phytosanitary importance on table grapes from South Africa is limited. PMID:20050816

  20. Out of Africa, but how and when? The case of hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas).

    PubMed

    Kopp, Gisela H; Roos, Christian; Butynski, Thomas M; Wildman, Derek E; Alagaili, Abdulaziz N; Groeneveld, Linn F; Zinner, Dietmar

    2014-11-01

    Many species of Arabian mammals are considered to be of Afrotropical origin and for most of them the Red Sea has constituted an obstacle for dispersal since the Miocene-Pliocene transition. There are two possible routes, the 'northern' and the 'southern', for terrestrial mammals (including humans) to move between Africa and Arabia. The 'northern route', crossing the Sinai Peninsula, is confirmed for several taxa by an extensive fossil record, especially from northern Egypt and the Levant, whereas the 'southern route', across the Bab-el-Mandab Strait, which links the Red Sea with the Gulf of Aden, is more controversial, although post-Pliocene terrestrial crossings of the Red Sea might have been possible during glacial maxima when sea levels were low. Hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas) are the only baboon taxon to disperse out of Africa and still inhabit Arabia. In this study, we investigate the origin of Arabian hamadryas baboons using mitochondrial sequence data from 294 samples collected in Arabia and Northeast Africa. Through the analysis of the geographic distribution of genetic diversity, the timing of population expansions, and divergence time estimates combined with palaeoecological data, we test: (i) if Arabian and African hamadryas baboons are genetically distinct; (ii) if Arabian baboons exhibit population substructure; and (iii) when, and via which route, baboons colonized Arabia. Our results suggest that hamadryas baboons colonized Arabia during the Late Pleistocene (130-12 kya [thousands of years ago]) and also moved back to Africa. We reject the hypothesis that hamadryas baboons were introduced to Arabia by humans, because the initial colonization considerably predates the earliest records of human seafaring in this region. Our results strongly suggest that the 'southern route' from Africa to Arabia could have been used by hamadryas baboons during the same time period as proposed for modern humans.

  1. Emission of atmospheric pollutants out of Africa - Analysis of CARIBIC aircraft air samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorenz, Ute R.; Baker, Angela K.; Schuck, Tanja; van Velthoven, Peter F. J.; Ziereis, Helmut; Brenninkmeijer, Carl A. M.

    2014-05-01

    Africa is the single largest continental source of biomass burning (BB) emissions. The burning African savannas and tropical forests are a source for a wide range of chemical species, which are important for global atmospheric chemistry, especially for the pristine Southern Hemisphere. Emitted compounds include carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), hydrocarbons, oxygenated hydrocarbons and particles. Deep convection over Central Africa transports boundary layer emissions to the free troposphere making aircraft-based observations useful for investigation of surface emissions and examination of transport and chemistry processes over Africa The CARIBIC project (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the Atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container, www.caribic-atmosphere.com part of IAGOS www.iagos.org) is a long term atmospheric measurement program using an instrument container deployed aboard a Lufthansa Airbus A340-600 for a monthly sequence of long-distance passenger flights. Besides the online measurements mixing ratios of greenhouse gases and a suite of C2-C8 non methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) are measured from flask samples collected at cruise altitude. During northern hemispheric winter 2010/2011 CARIBIC flights took place from Frankfurt to Cape Town and Johannesburg in South Africa. Several BB tracers like methane, CO and various NMHCs were found to be elevated over tropical Africa. Using tracer-CO- and tracer-NOy-correlations emissions were characterized. The NMHC-CO correlations show monthly changing slopes, indicating a change in burned biomass, major fire stage, source region and/or other factors influencing NMHC emissions. To expand our analysis of emission sources a source region data filter was used, based on backward trajectories calculated along the flight tracks. Taking all CARIBIC samples into account having backward trajectories to the African boundary layer the dataset was enlarged from 77 to 168 samples. For both datasets tracer

  2. Out of Africa, but how and when? The case of hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas).

    PubMed

    Kopp, Gisela H; Roos, Christian; Butynski, Thomas M; Wildman, Derek E; Alagaili, Abdulaziz N; Groeneveld, Linn F; Zinner, Dietmar

    2014-11-01

    Many species of Arabian mammals are considered to be of Afrotropical origin and for most of them the Red Sea has constituted an obstacle for dispersal since the Miocene-Pliocene transition. There are two possible routes, the 'northern' and the 'southern', for terrestrial mammals (including humans) to move between Africa and Arabia. The 'northern route', crossing the Sinai Peninsula, is confirmed for several taxa by an extensive fossil record, especially from northern Egypt and the Levant, whereas the 'southern route', across the Bab-el-Mandab Strait, which links the Red Sea with the Gulf of Aden, is more controversial, although post-Pliocene terrestrial crossings of the Red Sea might have been possible during glacial maxima when sea levels were low. Hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas) are the only baboon taxon to disperse out of Africa and still inhabit Arabia. In this study, we investigate the origin of Arabian hamadryas baboons using mitochondrial sequence data from 294 samples collected in Arabia and Northeast Africa. Through the analysis of the geographic distribution of genetic diversity, the timing of population expansions, and divergence time estimates combined with palaeoecological data, we test: (i) if Arabian and African hamadryas baboons are genetically distinct; (ii) if Arabian baboons exhibit population substructure; and (iii) when, and via which route, baboons colonized Arabia. Our results suggest that hamadryas baboons colonized Arabia during the Late Pleistocene (130-12 kya [thousands of years ago]) and also moved back to Africa. We reject the hypothesis that hamadryas baboons were introduced to Arabia by humans, because the initial colonization considerably predates the earliest records of human seafaring in this region. Our results strongly suggest that the 'southern route' from Africa to Arabia could have been used by hamadryas baboons during the same time period as proposed for modern humans. PMID:25257698

  3. Receptor-Defined Subtypes of Breast Cancer in Indigenous Populations in Africa: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Eng, Amanda; McCormack, Valerie; dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is the most common female cancer in Africa. Receptor-defined subtypes are a major determinant of treatment options and disease outcomes but there is considerable uncertainty regarding the frequency of poor prognosis estrogen receptor (ER) negative subtypes in Africa. We systematically reviewed publications reporting on the frequency of breast cancer receptor-defined subtypes in indigenous populations in Africa. Methods and Findings Medline, Embase, and Global Health were searched for studies published between 1st January 1980 and 15th April 2014. Reported proportions of ER positive (ER+), progesterone receptor positive (PR+), and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 positive (HER2+) disease were extracted and 95% CI calculated. Random effects meta-analyses were used to pool estimates. Fifty-four studies from North Africa (n = 12,284 women with breast cancer) and 26 from sub-Saharan Africa (n = 4,737) were eligible. There was marked between-study heterogeneity in the ER+ estimates in both regions (I2>90%), with the majority reporting proportions between 0.40 and 0.80 in North Africa and between 0.20 and 0.70 in sub-Saharan Africa. Similarly, large between-study heterogeneity was observed for PR+ and HER2+ estimates (I2>80%, in all instances). Meta-regression analyses showed that the proportion of ER+ disease was 10% (4%–17%) lower for studies based on archived tumor blocks rather than prospectively collected specimens, and 9% (2%–17%) lower for those with ≥40% versus those with <40% grade 3 tumors. For prospectively collected samples, the pooled proportions for ER+ and triple negative tumors were 0.59 (0.56–0.62) and 0.21 (0.17–0.25), respectively, regardless of region. Limitations of the study include the lack of standardized procedures across the various studies; the low methodological quality of many studies in terms of the representativeness of their case series and the quality of the procedures for collection

  4. Why Africa matters: evolution of Old World Salvia (Lamiaceae) in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Will, Maria; Claßen-Bockhoff, Regine

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Salvia is the largest genus in Lamiaceae and it has recently been found to be non-monophyletic. Molecular data on Old World Salvia are largely lacking. In this study, we present data concerning Salvia in Africa. The focus is on the colonization of the continent, character evolution and the switch of pollination systems in the genus. Methods Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference were used for phylogenetic reconstruction. Analyses were based on two nuclear markers [internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and external transcribed spacer (ETS)] and one plastid marker (rpl32-trnL). Sequence data were generated for 41 of the 62 African taxa (66 %). Mesquite was used to reconstruct ancestral character states for distribution, life form, calyx shape, stamen type and pollination syndrome. Key Results Salvia in Africa is non-monophyletic. Each of the five major regions in Africa, except Madagascar, was colonized at least twice, and floristic links between North African, south-west Asian and European species are strongly supported. The large radiation in Sub-Saharan Africa (23 species) can be traced back to dispersal from North Africa via East Africa to the Cape Region. Adaptation to bird pollination in southern Africa and Madagascar reflects parallel evolution. Conclusions The phenotypic diversity in African Salvia is associated with repeated introductions to the continent. Many important evolutionary processes, such as colonization, adaptation, parallelism and character transformation, are reflected in this comparatively small group. The data presented in this study can help to understand the evolution of Salvia sensu lato and other large genera. PMID:24966353

  5. [The role of female veterinarians in Africa].

    PubMed

    Balogh, K K

    2000-01-01

    While the number of female veterinary students has reached figures as over 80% in the Netherlands and other European countries, the number of female veterinary students in Africa is also changing but still at a slower pace. Still nowadays, according to UNICEF, two-thirds of primary school age children, denied their right to basic education, are girls. In addition, especially in rural areas in Africa, there are only few secondary schools, so that children, either have to travel over large distances on a daily basis or have to live away from their families. As girls, already from an early age play an important role in the daily household routine, they are often not allowed to leave for schooling. There used to be less than 10 veterinary faculties in Africa during the first half of the 20th century. These faculties were located in South Africa, Sudan, Egypt and Nigeria. For many years, African veterinarians were also trained in western countries (UK, France, USA) or in former communist countries (Russia, Ukraine, Romania, Hungary Eastern Germany, Cuba) depending on the existence of historic or political links. A long stay abroad made it more difficult for female students, especially for those with children. Still nowadays, female veterinarians in Africa are mostly working for the veterinary departments mainly in the urban areas. Another area where many female veterinarians can be found are governmental diagnostic and research laboratories as well as training institutions such as veterinary faculties or agricultural colleges. Generally the salaries at these institutions are very low and therefore their male colleagues have gradually shifted to work in the private sector with more competitive salaries (private clinics, sector pharmaceutical companies, development projects, (agricultural) banks, etc). As still in most societies, women tend to follow their husbands, most female veterinarians are bound to find employment where their husbands are based. In addition, as most

  6. Typhoid Fever in South Africa in an Endemic HIV Setting

    PubMed Central

    Keddy, Karen H.; Sooka, Arvinda; Smith, Anthony M.; Musekiwa, Alfred; Tau, Nomsa P.; Klugman, Keith P.; Angulo, Frederick J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Typhoid fever remains an important disease in Africa, associated with outbreaks and the emerging multidrug resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (Salmonella Typhi) haplotype, H58. This study describes the incidence of, and factors associated with mortality due to, typhoid fever in South Africa, where HIV prevalence is high. Methods and Findings Nationwide active laboratory-based surveillance for culture-confirmed typhoid fever was undertaken from 2003–2013. At selected institutions, additional clinical data from patients were collected including age, sex, HIV status, disease severity and outcome. HIV prevalence among typhoid fever patients was compared to national HIV seroprevalence estimates. The national reference laboratory tested Salmonella Typhi isolates for antimicrobial susceptibility and haplotype. Unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression analyses were conducted determining factors associated with typhoid fever mortality. We identified 855 typhoid fever cases: annual incidence ranged from 0.11 to 0.39 per 100,000 population. Additional clinical data were available for 369 (46.8%) cases presenting to the selected sites. Among typhoid fever patients with known HIV status, 19.3% (29/150) were HIV-infected. In adult females, HIV prevalence in typhoid fever patients was 43.2% (19/44) versus 15.7% national HIV seroprevalence (P < .001); in adult males, 16.3% (7/43) versus 12.3% national HIV seroprevalence (P = .2). H58 represented 11.9% (22/185) of Salmonella Typhi isolates tested. Increased mortality was associated with HIV infection (AOR 10.7; 95% CI 2.3–50.3) and disease severity (AOR 9.8; 95% CI 1.6–60.0) on multivariate analysis. Conclusions Typhoid fever incidence in South Africa was largely unchanged from 2003–2013. Typhoid fever mortality was associated disease severity. HIV infection may be a contributing factor. Interventions mandate improved health care access, including to HIV management programmes as well as patient

  7. Ambient aromatic hydrocarbon measurements at Welgegund, South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Jaars, K.; Beukes, J. P.; van Zyl, P. G.; Venter, A. D.; Josipovic, M.; Pienaar, J. J.; Vakkari, Ville; Aaltonen, H.; Laakso, H.; Kulmala, M.; Tiitta, P.; Guenther, Alex B.; Hellen, H.; Laakso, L.; Hakola, H.

    2014-07-11

    Aromatic hydrocarbons are associated with direct adverse human health effects and can have negative impacts on ecosystems due to their toxicity, as well as indirect negative effects through the formation of tropospheric ozone and secondary organic aerosol that affect human health, crop production and regional climate. Measurements were conducted at the Welgegund measurement station (South Africa) that is considered to be a regionally representative background site. However, the site is occasionally impacted by plumes from major anthropogenic source regions in the interior of South Africa, which include the western Bushveld Igneous Complex (e.g. platinum, base metal and ferrochrome smelters), the eastern Bushveld Igneous Complex (platinum and ferrochrome smelters), the Johannesburg-Pretoria metropolitan conurbation (>10 million people), the Vaal Triangle (e.g. petrochemical and industries), the Mpumalanga Highveld (e.g. coal-fired power plants and petrochemical industry) and also a region of anti-cyclonic recirculation of air mass over the interior of South Africa. The aromatic hydrocarbon measurements were conducted with an automated sampler on Tenax-TA and Carbopack-B adsorbent tubes with heated inlet for one year. Samples were collected twice a week for two hours during daytime and two hours 1 during night-time. A thermal desorption unit, connected to a gas chromatograph and a mass 2 selective detector was used for sample preparation and analysis. Results indicated that the 3 monthly median total aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations ranged between 0.01 to 3.1 ppb. 4 Benzene levels did not exceed local air quality standards. Toluene was the most abundant 5 species, with an annual median concentration of 0.63 ppb. No statistically significant 6 differences in the concentrations measured during daytime and night-time were found and no distinct seasonal patterns were observed. Air mass back trajectory analysis proved that the lack of seasonal cycles could be

  8. Ambient aromatic hydrocarbon measurements at Welgegund, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaars, K.; Beukes, J. P.; van Zyl, P. G.; Venter, A. D.; Josipovic, M.; Pienaar, J. J.; Vakkari, V.; Aaltonen, H.; Laakso, H.; Kulmala, M.; Tiitta, P.; Guenther, A.; Hellén, H.; Laakso, L.; Hakola, H.

    2014-02-01

    Aromatic hydrocarbons are associated with direct adverse human health effects and can have negative impacts on ecosystems due to their toxicity, as well as indirect negative effects through the formation of tropospheric ozone and secondary organic aerosol that affect human health, crop production and regional climate. Measurements were conducted at the Welgegund measurement station (South Africa) that is considered to be a regionally representative background site. However, the site is occasionally impacted by plumes from major anthropogenic source regions in the interior of South Africa, which include the western Bushveld Igneous Complex (e.g. platinum, base metal and ferrochrome smelters), the eastern Bushveld Igneous Complex (platinum and ferrochrome smelters), the Johannesburg-Pretoria metropolitan conurbation (>10 million people), the Vaal Triangle (e.g. petrochemical and pyrometallurgical industries), the Mpumalanga Highveld (e.g. coal-fired power plants and petrochemical industry) and also a region of anti-cyclonic recirculation of air mass over the interior of South Africa. The aromatic hydrocarbon measurements were conducted with an automated sampler on Tenax-TA and Carbopack-B adsorbent tubes with heated inlet for one year. Samples were collected twice a week for two hours during daytime and two hours during night-time. A thermal desorption unit, connected to a gas chromatograph and a mass selective detector was used for sample preparation and analysis. Results indicated that the monthly median total aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations ranged between 0.01 to 3.1 ppb. Benzene levels did not exceed local air quality standards. Toluene was the most abundant species, with an annual median concentration of 0.63 ppb. No statistically significant differences in the concentrations measured during daytime and night-time were found and no distinct seasonal patterns were observed. Air mass back trajectory analysis proved that the lack of seasonal cycles could be

  9. Ambient aromatic hydrocarbon measurements at Welgegund, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaars, K.; Beukes, J. P.; van Zyl, P. G.; Venter, A. D.; Josipovic, M.; Pienaar, J. J.; Vakkari, V.; Aaltonen, H.; Laakso, H.; Kulmala, M.; Tiitta, P.; Guenther, A.; Hellén, H.; Laakso, L.; Hakola, H.

    2014-07-01

    Aromatic hydrocarbons are associated with direct adverse human health effects and can have negative impacts on ecosystems due to their toxicity, as well as indirect negative effects through the formation of tropospheric ozone and secondary organic aerosol, which affect human health, crop production and regional climate. Measurements of aromatic hydrocarbons were conducted at the Welgegund measurement station (South Africa), which is considered to be a regionally representative background site. However, the site is occasionally impacted by plumes from major anthropogenic source regions in the interior of South Africa, which include the western Bushveld Igneous Complex (e.g. platinum, base metal and ferrochrome smelters), the eastern Bushveld Igneous Complex (platinum and ferrochrome smelters), the Johannesburg-Pretoria metropolitan conurbation (> 10 million people), the Vaal Triangle (e.g. petrochemical and pyrometallurgical industries), the Mpumalanga Highveld (e.g. coal-fired power plants and petrochemical industry) and also a region of anticyclonic recirculation of air mass over the interior of South Africa. The aromatic hydrocarbon measurements were conducted with an automated sampler on Tenax-TA and Carbopack-B adsorbent tubes with heated inlet for 1 year. Samples were collected twice a week for 2 h during daytime and 2 h during night-time. A thermal desorption unit, connected to a gas chromatograph and a mass selective detector was used for sample preparation and analysis. Results indicated that the monthly median (mean) total aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations ranged between 0.01 (0.011) and 3.1 (3.2) ppb. Benzene levels did not exceed the local air quality standard limit, i.e. annual mean of 1.6 ppb. Toluene was the most abundant compound, with an annual median (mean) concentration of 0.63 (0.89) ppb. No statistically significant differences in the concentrations measured during daytime and night-time were found, and no distinct seasonal patterns were

  10. Predictability of rainy season onset and cessation in east Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, B.-M.

    2012-04-01

    PREDICTABILITY OF RAINY SEASONS ONSET AND CESSATION IN EAST AFRICA Boyard-Micheau Joseph, joseph.boyard-micheau@u-bourgogne.fr Camberlin Pierre, Kenya and northern Tanzania mainly display bimodal rainfall regimes, which are controlled by the annual migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone on both sides of the equator. In the low-income, semi-arid areas, food security is highly dependent on cereal yields (maize, millet and sorghum). Vulnerability is aggravated by the fact that these crops are mostly rainfed, and rely on the performance of the two, relatively brief rainy seasons. This performance depends on a combination of several rainy season characteristics, or rainfall descriptors, such as the onset and cessation dates of the rains, the frequency of rainy days, their intensity and the occurrence of wet/dry spells. The prediction of these descriptors some time (>15 days) before the real onset of the rainy season can be seen as a useful tool to help in the establishment of agricultural adaptation strategies. The main objective consists to understand linkages between regional variability of these rainfall descriptors and global modes of the climate system, in order to set up efficient predictive tools based on Model Output Statistics (MOS). The rainfall descriptors are computed from daily rainfall data collected for the period 1961-2001 from the Kenya Meteorological Department, the IGAD Climate Prediction and Application Center and the Tanzania Meteorological Agency. An initial spatial coherence analysis assesses the potential predictability of each descriptor, permitting eventually to eliminate those which are not spatially coherent, on the assumption that low spatial coherence denotes low potential predictability. Rainfall in East Africa simulated by a 24-ensemble member of the ECHAM 4.5 atmospheric general circulation model is compared with observations, to test the reproducibility of the rainfall descriptors. Canonical Correlation Analysis is next used to

  11. Epidemiology and evolution of the genetic variability of Anaplasma marginale in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mutshembele, Awelani M; Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; Mtshali, Moses S; Thekisoe, Oriel M M; Galindo, Ruth C; de la Fuente, José

    2014-10-01

    Bovine anaplasmosis caused by infection of cattle with Anaplasma marginale has been considered to be endemic in South Africa, an assumption based primarily on the distribution of the tick vectors of A. marginale and serological studies on the prevalence of anaplasmosis in Limpopo, Free State, and North West. However, molecular evidence of the distribution of anaplasmosis has only been reported in the Free State province. In order to establish effective control measures for anaplasmosis, epidemiological surveys are needed to define the prevalence and distribution of A. marginale in South Africa. In addition, a proposed control strategy for anaplasmosis is the development of an A. marginale major surface protein 1a (MSP1a)-based vaccine. Nevertheless, regional variations of this gene would need to be characterized prior to vaccine development for South Africa. The objectives of the present study were therefore to conduct a national survey of the prevalence of A. marginale in South Africa, followed by an evaluation of the diversity and evolution of msp1a in South African strains of A. marginale. To accomplish these objectives, species-specific PCR was used to test 250 blood samples from cattle collected from all South African provinces (including 26 districts and municipalities), except the Free State province where similar studies were reported previously. The prevalence of A. marginale ranged from 65% to 100%, except in Northern Cape province where A. marginale was not detected. A correlation was found between the prevalence and genetic diversity of A. marginale MSP1a. Additionally, the genetic diversity of the A. marginale MSP1a was found to evolve under negative and positive selection, and 23 new tandem repeats in South Africa were shown to have evolved from the extant tandem repeat 4. Despite the MSP1a genetic variability, some types of tandem repeats were found to be conserved among the A. marginale strains, and low-variable peptides in MSP1a tandem repeats were

  12. Economics of Malaria Prevention in US Travelers to West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Adachi, Kenji; Coleman, Margaret S.; Khan, Nomana; Jentes, Emily S.; Arguin, Paul; Rao, Sowmya R.; LaRocque, Regina C.; Sotir, Mark J.; Brunette, Gary; Ryan, Edward T.; Meltzer, Martin I.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Pretravel health consultations help international travelers manage travel-related illness risks through education, vaccination, and medication. This study evaluated costs and benefits of that portion of the health consultation associated with malaria prevention provided to US travelers bound for West Africa. Methods. The estimated change in disease risk and associated costs and benefits resulting from traveler adherence to malaria chemoprophylaxis were calculated from 2 perspectives: the healthcare payer's and the traveler's. We used data from the Global TravEpiNet network of US travel clinics that collect de-identified pretravel data for international travelers. Disease risk and chemoprophylaxis effectiveness were estimated from published medical reports. Direct medical costs were obtained from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample and published literature. Results. We analyzed 1029 records from January 2009 to January 2011. Assuming full adherence to chemoprophylaxis regimens, consultations saved healthcare payers a per-traveler average of $14 (9-day trip) to $372 (30-day trip). For travelers, consultations resulted in a range of net cost of $20 (9-day trip) to a net savings of $32 (30-day trip). Differences were mostly driven by risk of malaria in the destination country. Conclusions. Our model suggests that healthcare payers save money for short- and longer-term trips, and that travelers save money for longer trips when travelers adhere to malaria recommendations and prophylactic regimens in West Africa. This is a potential incentive to healthcare payers to offer consistent pretravel preventive care to travelers. This financial benefit complements the medical benefit of reducing the risk of malaria. PMID:24014735

  13. Seroepidemiological Prevalence of Multiple Species of Filoviruses in Fruit Bats (Eidolon helvum) Migrating in Africa.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Hirohito; Miyamoto, Hiroko; Nakayama, Eri; Yoshida, Reiko; Nakamura, Ichiro; Sawa, Hirofumi; Ishii, Akihiro; Thomas, Yuka; Nakagawa, Emiko; Matsuno, Keita; Kajihara, Masahiro; Maruyama, Junki; Nao, Naganori; Muramatsu, Mieko; Kuroda, Makoto; Simulundu, Edgar; Changula, Katendi; Hang'ombe, Bernard; Namangala, Boniface; Nambota, Andrew; Katampi, Jackson; Igarashi, Manabu; Ito, Kimihito; Feldmann, Heinz; Sugimoto, Chihiro; Moonga, Ladslav; Mweene, Aaron; Takada, Ayato

    2015-10-01

    Fruit bats are suspected to be a natural reservoir of filoviruses, including Ebola and Marburg viruses. Using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on the viral glycoprotein antigens, we detected filovirus-specific immunoglobulin G antibodies in 71 of 748 serum samples collected from migratory fruit bats (Eidolon helvum) in Zambia during 2006-2013. Although antibodies to African filoviruses (eg, Zaire ebolavirus) were most prevalent, some serum samples showed distinct specificity for Reston ebolavirus, which that has thus far been found only in Asia. Interestingly, the transition of filovirus species causing outbreaks in Central and West Africa during 2005-2014 seemed to be synchronized with the change of the serologically dominant virus species in these bats. These data suggest the introduction of multiple species of filoviruses in the migratory bat population and point to the need for continued surveillance of filovirus infection of wild animals in sub-Saharan Africa, including hitherto nonendemic countries.

  14. How boys become dogs: stigmatization and marginalization of uninitiated xhosa males in East London, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mavundla, Thandisizwe R; Netswera, Fulufhelo G; Toth, Ferenc; Bottoman, Brian; Tenge, Stembele

    2010-07-01

    Male circumcision is practiced in South Africa among the Xhosa people as a rite of passage from boyhood to manhood. The manhood status achieved after the ritual accords men power and authority in the community over women and uncircumcised men. Therefore, uninitiated men experience great pressures to get circumcised. We describe the experience of newly initiated Xhosa men in East London, South Africa. Interpretive phenomenology was used as the inquiry of choice. Data were collected through focus group discussions in which 14 men participated. The theme of marginalization of uninitiated Xhosa males emerged with two categories: (a) rejection, and (b) lack of respect. The participants revealed that uninitiated men are rejected by the community, their own families, friends, and women. We frame the discussion around the concept of stigma. Acknowledging that uninitiated males are stigmatized can help mitigate stigma, and in turn, the incidence of medical complications from botched circumcisions. PMID:20363954

  15. Community pharmacy in South Africa: a changing profession in a society in transition.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, L

    1998-09-01

    The analysis of community pharmacy as a profession in transition acquires an additional dimension in South Africa, since it is inextricably linked to its social characteristics as well as to the political transformation taking place. Using data collected by means of a documentary search, interviews with key informants and a survey of community pharmacists, the paper presents the relevant societal features and explores some of the complexities associated with the existing as well as the potential future role of community pharmacy in the context of changing health services in a society in transition. It concludes that the changes in community pharmacy and the role it can play in the provision of Primary Health Care to all the people of South Africa are linked to the greater transition in society and its future health care services.

  16. K13-propeller polymorphisms in Plasmodium falciparum parasites from sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Kamau, Edwin; Campino, Susana; Amenga-Etego, Lucas; Drury, Eleanor; Ishengoma, Deus; Johnson, Kimberly; Mumba, Dieudonne; Kekre, Mihir; Yavo, William; Mead, Daniel; Bouyou-Akotet, Marielle; Apinjoh, Tobias; Golassa, Lemu; Randrianarivelojosia, Milijaona; Andagalu, Ben; Maiga-Ascofare, Oumou; Amambua-Ngwa, Alfred; Tindana, Paulina; Ghansah, Anita; MacInnis, Bronwyn; Kwiatkowski, Dominic; Djimde, Abdoulaye A

    2015-04-15

    Mutations in the Plasmodium falciparum K13-propeller domain have recently been shown to be important determinants of artemisinin resistance in Southeast Asia. This study investigated the prevalence of K13-propeller polymorphisms across sub-Saharan Africa. A total of 1212 P. falciparum samples collected from 12 countries were sequenced. None of the K13-propeller mutations previously reported in Southeast Asia were found, but 22 unique mutations were detected, of which 7 were nonsynonymous. Allele frequencies ranged between 1% and 3%. Three mutations were observed in >1 country, and the A578S was present in parasites from 5 countries. This study provides the baseline prevalence of K13-propeller mutations in sub-Saharan Africa.

  17. Molecular evidence of Culex pipiens form molestus and hybrids pipiens/molestus in Morocco, North Africa

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Culex pipiens L. is the most widespread mosquito vector in temperate regions including North Africa. Cx. pipiens has two recognized forms or biotypes; pipiens and molestus are morphologically indistinguishable with distinct behavior and physiology that may influence their vectorial status. In our study, we prospected for the different forms of Cx. pipiens in Morocco. Methods Cx. pipiens larvae were collected in 9 sites throughout Morocco during summer 2010 and reared until imago stage. Cx. pipiens was identified using diagnostic primers designed for the flanking region of microsatellite CQ11. Results We established the presence of both forms of Cx. pipiens and their hybrids in Morocco. Conclusions Molecular identification provides the first evidence of the presence of Cx. pipiens form molestus in Morocco and hybrids between pipiens and molestus forms in North Africa. The epidemiological implications of our findings are discussed. PMID:22541050

  18. Marine biodiversity in South Africa: an evaluation of current states of knowledge.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Charles L; Robinson, Tamara B; Lange, Louise; Mead, Angela

    2010-01-01

    Continental South Africa has a coastline of some 3,650 km and an Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of just over 1 million km(2). Waters in the EEZ extend to a depth of 5,700 m, with more than 65% deeper than 2,000 m. Despite its status as a developing nation, South Africa has a relatively strong history of marine taxonomic research and maintains comprehensive and well-curated museum collections totaling over 291,000 records. Over 3 million locality records from more than 23,000 species have been lodged in the regional AfrOBIS (African Ocean Biogeographic Information System) data center (which stores data from a wider African region). A large number of regional guides to the marine fauna and flora are also available and are listed. The currently recorded marine biota of South Africa numbers at least 12,914 species, although many taxa, particularly those of small body size, remain poorly documented. The coastal zone is relatively well sampled with some 2,500 samples of benthic invertebrate communities have been taken by grab, dredge, or trawl. Almost none of these samples, however, were collected after 1980, and over 99% of existing samples are from depths shallower than 1,000 m--indeed 83% are from less than 100 m. The abyssal zone thus remains almost completely unexplored. South Africa has a fairly large industrial fishing industry, of which the largest fisheries are the pelagic (pilchard and anchovy) and demersal (hake) sectors, both focused on the west and south coasts. The east coast has fewer, smaller commercial fisheries, but a high coastal population density, resulting in intense exploitation of inshore resources by recreational and subsistence fishers, and this has resulted in the overexploitation of many coastal fish and invertebrate stocks. South Africa has a small aquaculture industry rearing mussels, oysters, prawns, and abalone-the latter two in land-based facilities. Compared with many other developing countries, South Africa has a well-conserved coastline

  19. Marine Biodiversity in South Africa: An Evaluation of Current States of Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Charles L.; Robinson, Tamara B.; Lange, Louise; Mead, Angela

    2010-01-01

    Continental South Africa has a coastline of some 3,650 km and an Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of just over 1 million km2. Waters in the EEZ extend to a depth of 5,700 m, with more than 65% deeper than 2,000 m. Despite its status as a developing nation, South Africa has a relatively strong history of marine taxonomic research and maintains comprehensive and well-curated museum collections totaling over 291,000 records. Over 3 million locality records from more than 23,000 species have been lodged in the regional AfrOBIS (African Ocean Biogeographic Information System) data center (which stores data from a wider African region). A large number of regional guides to the marine fauna and flora are also available and are listed. The currently recorded marine biota of South Africa numbers at least 12,914 species, although many taxa, particularly those of small body size, remain poorly documented. The coastal zone is relatively well sampled with some 2,500 samples of benthic invertebrate communities have been taken by grab, dredge, or trawl. Almost none of these samples, however, were collected after 1980, and over 99% of existing samples are from depths shallower than 1,000 m—indeed 83% are from less than 100 m. The abyssal zone thus remains almost completely unexplored. South Africa has a fairly large industrial fishing industry, of which the largest fisheries are the pelagic (pilchard and anchovy) and demersal (hake) sectors, both focused on the west and south coasts. The east coast has fewer, smaller commercial fisheries, but a high coastal population density, resulting in intense exploitation of inshore resources by recreational and subsistence fishers, and this has resulted in the overexploitation of many coastal fish and invertebrate stocks. South Africa has a small aquaculture industry rearing mussels, oysters, prawns, and abalone—the latter two in land-based facilities. Compared with many other developing countries, South Africa has a well

  20. Marine biodiversity in South Africa: an evaluation of current states of knowledge.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Charles L; Robinson, Tamara B; Lange, Louise; Mead, Angela

    2010-08-02

    Continental South Africa has a coastline of some 3,650 km and an Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of just over 1 million km(2). Waters in the EEZ extend to a depth of 5,700 m, with more than 65% deeper than 2,000 m. Despite its status as a developing nation, South Africa has a relatively strong history of marine taxonomic research and maintains comprehensive and well-curated museum collections totaling over 291,000 records. Over 3 million locality records from more than 23,000 species have been lodged in the regional AfrOBIS (African Ocean Biogeographic Information System) data center (which stores data from a wider African region). A large number of regional guides to the marine fauna and flora are also available and are listed. The currently recorded marine biota of South Africa numbers at least 12,914 species, although many taxa, particularly those of small body size, remain poorly documented. The coastal zone is relatively well sampled with some 2,500 samples of benthic invertebrate communities have been taken by grab, dredge, or trawl. Almost none of these samples, however, were collected after 1980, and over 99% of existing samples are from depths shallower than 1,000 m--indeed 83% are from less than 100 m. The abyssal zone thus remains almost completely unexplored. South Africa has a fairly large industrial fishing industry, of which the largest fisheries are the pelagic (pilchard and anchovy) and demersal (hake) sectors, both focused on the west and south coasts. The east coast has fewer, smaller commercial fisheries, but a high coastal population density, resulting in intense exploitation of inshore resources by recreational and subsistence fishers, and this has resulted in the overexploitation of many coastal fish and invertebrate stocks. South Africa has a small aquaculture industry rearing mussels, oysters, prawns, and abalone-the latter two in land-based facilities. Compared with many other developing countries, South Africa has a well-conserved coastline

  1. Africa's Megafans and Their Tectonic Setting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkinson, M. J.; Burke, K.

    2016-01-01

    Megafans are a really extensive continental sediment bodies, fluvially derived, and fan-shaped in planform. Only those >80 km long were included in this study. Africa's megafans were mapped for purposes of both comprehensive geomorphic description and as a method of mapping by remote sensing large probable fluvial sediment bodies (we exclude sediment bodies deposited in well defined, modern floodplains and coastal deltas). Our criteria included a length dimension of >80 km and maximum width >40 km, partial cone morphology, and a radial drainage pattern. Visible and especially IR imagery were used to identify the features, combined with topographic SRTM data. We identified 99 megafans most of which are unstudied thus far. Their feeder rivers responsible for depositing megafan sediments rise on, and are consequent drainages oriented down the slopes of the swells that have dominated African landscapes since approximately 34 Ma (the high points in Africa's so-called basin-and-swell topography [1]). Most megafans (66%) have developed along these consequent rivers relatively near the swell cores, oriented radially away from the swells. The vast basins between the swells provide accommodation for megafan sediment wedges. Although clearly visible remotely, most megafans are inactive as a result of incision by the feeder river (which then no longer operates on the fan surface). Two tectonic settings control the location of Africa's megafans, 66% on swell flanks, and 33% related to rifts. (i) Swell flanks Most megafans are apexed relatively near the core of the parent swell, and are often clustered in groups: e.g., six on the west and north flanks of the Hoggar Swell (Algeria), seven on the north and south flanks of the Tibesti Swell (Libya-Chad borderlands), twelve on the west flank of the Ethiopian Swell, four on the east flank of the East African Swell (Kenya), Africa's largest, and eight around Angola's Bié Swell (western Zambia, northern Namibia). A cluster of possible

  2. Aims of education in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrow, Walter Eugene

    1990-06-01

    The first part of this paper gives a historical account of the aims of education under Apartheid, and discusses the ideological success of Apartheid education. The second part argues that a significant discussion — that is one which could have some purchase on schooling policy and educational practice — of aims of education in South Africa is not possible at present because the historical preconditions for such a discussion are not satisfied. It is argued that Apartheid has generated a political perspective which is unsympathetic to a discussion of aims of education; that the dominance of a social engineering model of schooling distorts a discussion of aims of education; and that a shared moral discourse, which is a necessary condition for a significant discussion of aims of education, does not yet exist in South Africa.

  3. Late Cenozoic Moisture History of East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trauth, Martin H.; Maslin, Mark A.; Deino, Alan; Strecker, Manfred R.

    2005-09-01

    Lake sediments in 10 Ethiopian, Kenyan, and Tanzanian rift basins suggest that there were three humid periods at 2.7 to 2.5 million years ago (Ma), 1.9 to 1.7 Ma, and 1.1 to 0.9 Ma, superimposed on the longer-term aridification of East Africa. These humid periods correlate with increased aridity in northwest and northeast Africa and with substantial global climate transitions. These episodes could have had important impacts on the speciation and dispersal of mammals and hominins, because a number of key events, such as the origin of the genus Homo and the evolution of the species Homo erectus, took place in this region during that time.

  4. Late Cenozoic Moisture History of East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trauth, M. H.; Maslin, M. A.; Deino, A.; Strecker, M. R.

    2004-12-01

    Evidence from fluvio-lacustrine sediments in ten separate basins in the Ethiopian and Kenya rifts suggests there were three protracted humid periods during the Late Cenozoic; at 2.7 - 2.5, 1.9 - 1.7, and 1.1 - 0.9 million years before present. These wet periods are coeval with known increases of aridity in parts of North West and North East Africa, indicating significant regional shifts in African climate. These three East African wet periods correspond to major global climatic changes as well as maxima in eccentricity and thus precession, suggesting a combined global and local causation. These climatic changes were important for the speciation and dispersal of mammals and hominids in East Africa as it implies that key steps in human evolution occurred during relatively humid periods in a region containing extensive deep lakes.

  5. GMO foods and crops: Africa's choice.

    PubMed

    Paarlberg, Robert

    2010-11-30

    There is a scientific consensus, even in Europe, that the GMO foods and crops currently on the market have brought no documented new risks either to human health or to the environment. Europe has decided to stifle the use of this new technology, not because of the presence of risks, but because of the absence so far of direct benefits to most Europeans. Farmers in Europe are few in number, and they are highly productive even without GMOs. In Africa, by contrast, 60% of all citizens are still farmers and they are not yet highly productive. For Africa, the choice to stifle new technology with European-style regulations carries a much higher cost.

  6. AIDS in Africa: misinformation and disinformation.

    PubMed

    Konotey-Ahulu, F I

    1987-07-25

    Relying on his tour of 16 sub-Saharan countries, the author judges the extent of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in Africa on a scale from grade I (not much of a problem) to grade V (a catastrophe). In his assessment, AIDS is a problem (grade II) in only 5, possibly 6, countries where it has occurred. In no country is the AIDS problem consistently grade III (a great problem), nor ever grade IV (an extremely great problem), and in none can it be called a catastrophe (grade V). In Kenya, for instance, contrary to widespread rumors, the author rates AIDS in 1987 as grade I. Journalistic hyperbole has proved very expensive in that Africans overseas have experienced racial abuse and tourism has unjustly suffered. Tension seems to have developed between white doctors working in Africa, with externally funded research in danger of being halted in several countries. PMID:2885651

  7. Discrepancies in Data Reporting for Rabies, Africa

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Human rabies is an ancient disease but in modern times has primarily been associated with dog rabies–endemic countries of Asia and Africa. From an African perspective, the inevitable and tragic consequences of rabies require serious reflection of the factors that continue to drive its neglect. Established as a major disease only after multiple introductions during the colonial era, rabies continues to spread into new reservoirs and territories in Africa. However, analysis of reported data identified major discrepancies that are indicators of poor surveillance, reporting, and cooperation among national, international, and global authorities. Ultimately, the absence of reliable and sustained data compromises the priority given to the control of rabies. Appropriate actions and changes, in accordance to the One Health philosophy and including aspects such as synchronized, shared, and unified global rabies data reporting, will not only be necessary, but also should be feasible. PMID:23628197

  8. GMO foods and crops: Africa's choice.

    PubMed

    Paarlberg, Robert

    2010-11-30

    There is a scientific consensus, even in Europe, that the GMO foods and crops currently on the market have brought no documented new risks either to human health or to the environment. Europe has decided to stifle the use of this new technology, not because of the presence of risks, but because of the absence so far of direct benefits to most Europeans. Farmers in Europe are few in number, and they are highly productive even without GMOs. In Africa, by contrast, 60% of all citizens are still farmers and they are not yet highly productive. For Africa, the choice to stifle new technology with European-style regulations carries a much higher cost. PMID:20637906

  9. Technology Education in South Africa: Evaluating an Innovative Pilot Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stables, Kay; Kimbell, Richard

    2001-02-01

    Researchers from Goldsmiths College were asked to undertake an evaluation of a three year curriculum initiative introducing technology education, through a learner-centred, problem solving and collaborative approach. The program was developed in a group of high schools in the North West Province of South Africa. We visited ten schools involved in the project and ten parallel schools not involved who acted as a control group. We collected data on student capability (demonstrated through an innovative test activity) and on student attitudes towards technology (demonstrated in evaluation questionnaires and in semi-structured interviews). Collectively the data indicate that in areas of knowledge and skill and in certain aspects of procedures (most notably problem solving) the project has had a marked impact. We also illustrate that greater consideration could have been given in the project to developing skills in generating and developing ideas and in graphic communication. Gender differences are noted, particularly in terms of positive attitudes illustrated by both boys and girls from schools involved in the project. Attention is drawn to the critical impact the project has had on transforming the pedagogy of the teachers from a teacher-centred didactic model, to a learner-centred, problem solving model. Some wider implications of the successes of this project are debated.

  10. Semivolatile Particulate Organic Material Southern Africa during SAFARI 2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eatough, D. J.; Eatough, N. L.; Pang, Y.; Sizemore, S.; Kirchstetter, T. W.; Novakov, T.

    2005-01-01

    During August and September 2000, the University of Washington's Cloud and Aerosol Research Group (CARG) with its Convair-580 research aircraft participated in the Southern African Fire-Atmosphere Research Initiative (SAFARI) 2000 field study in southern Africa. Aboard this aircraft was a Particle Concentrator-Brigham Young University Organic Sampling System (PC-BOSS), which was used to determine semivolatile particulate material with a diffusion denuder sampler. Denuded quartz filters and sorbent beds in series were used to measure nonvolatile and semivolatile materials, respectively. Results obtained with the PC-BOSS are compared to those obtained with conventional quartz-quartz and Teflon-quartz filter pack samplers. Various 10-120 min integrated samples were collected during flights through the h e troposphere, in the atmospheric boundary layer, and in plumes from savanna fires. Significant fine particulate semivolatile organic compounds (SVOC) were found in all samples. The SVOC was not collected by conventional filter pack samplers and therefore would not have been determined in previous studies that used only filter pack samplers. The SVOC averaged 24% of the fine particulate mass in emissions from the fires and 36% of the fine particulate mass in boundary layer samples heavily impacted by aged emissions from savanna fires. Concentrations of fine particulate material in the atmospheric mixed layer heavily impacted by aged savanna frre emissions averaged 130 micrograms per cubic meter. This aerosol was 85% carbonaceous mated.

  11. Directional reflectance factor distributions for cover types of Northern Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimes, D. S.; Newcomb, W. W.; Tucker, C. J.; Zonneveld, I. S.; Van Wijngaarden, W.

    1985-01-01

    Directional reflectance factors that spanned the entire exitance hemisphere were collected on the ground throughout the morning period for common cover types in Tunisia, Africa. NOAA 7/8 AVHRR bands 1(0.58-0.68 micron) and 2 (0.7301.1 micron) were used in data collection. The cover types reported were a plowed field, annual grassland, steppe grassland, hard wheat, salt plain, and irrigated wheat. Several of these cover types had geometric structures that are extreme as compared to those reported in the literature. Comparisons were made between the dynamics of the observed reflectance distributions and those reported in the literature. It was found that the dynamics of the measured data could be explained by a combination of soil and vegetation scattering components. The data and analysis further validated physical principles that cause the reflectance distribution dynamics as proposed by field and simulation studies in the literature. Finally, the normalized difference transformation (Band 2 - Band 1)/(Band 1 + Band 2), which is useful in monitoring vegetation cover, generally decreased the variation in signal with changing view angle. However, several exceptions were noted.

  12. Health rights pamphlets: critical literacy and inclusive citizenship, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Strecker, Morgan; Stuttaford, Maria; London, Leslie

    2014-06-01

    The Ottawa Charter recognizes the importance of strengthening community action for health and developing personal skills. At the same time, a rights-based approach to health includes the right to information, participation and accountability. The Learning Network for Health and Human Rights is a research and learning collaboration between Civil Society Organisations (CSOs) and universities in the Western Cape, South Africa. For the purposes of this article, a CSO is understood to be any organization that is outside of the state and private market sector. As part of a wider programme of action research, the learning network developed six pamphlets aimed at enhancing individual and collective skills to support action related to the implementation of the right to health. The research reported here analyses how the pamphlets, coupled with directed training, strengthened skills, promoted critical literacy and supported inclusive citizenship. Eighteen semi-structured interviews and eight focus groups were conducted with 59 participants from eight CSOs, their members, beneficiaries and communities. The success of the pamphlets was found to be attributed to the role they played in a wider training programme, requested by the CSOs and developed jointly by CSOs and university-based researchers. Community action on the right to health is contingent on personal as well as collective skills development. Understanding of the right to health and skills for participation and accountability were extended in breadth and depth, which enabled inclusive citizenship.

  13. Risk perception and communication in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Dodoo, Alexander; Hugman, Bruce

    2012-11-01

    In this narrative review, a brief summary of theoretical approaches to risk perception is followed by an analysis of some of the special factors influencing risk perception and risk communication in sub-Saharan Africa. Examples of recent and emergent local medicines and vaccine controversies in several countries are given along with evidence and analysis of how they were managed. These demonstrate, among other things, the extent to which ethnic, religious and cultural issues influence popular perception, and the power of rumour and anecdote in shaping public opinion and official responses to events. Where safety monitoring systems exist, they are in their infancy, with limited capacity for data collection, credible scientific review, effective public communication and robust crisis management. Although increasing democratic freedoms, including less restricted media, and evolving health systems are addressing the challenges and give hope for further progress, there are still deep and intractable issues that inhibit transparent and effective risk communication and stand in the way of African populations comprehending medicines and their risks in safer and more balanced ways. Some proposals for future change and action are offered, including the pursuit of a deeper understanding of local and national values, assumptions and beliefs that drive risk perception; tailoring public health planning and communications to specifically-targeted regions and populations; strengthening of safety surveillance and data-collection systems; giving higher priority to medicines safety issues in healthcare training and public education.

  14. LLNL Middle East and North Africa research database

    SciTech Connect

    Ruppert, S.D.; Hauk, T.F.; Leach, R.

    1997-07-15

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) CTBT R{ampersand}D program has made significant progress assembling a comprehensive seismic database (DB) for events and derived parameters in the Middle East and North Africa (ME/NA). The LLNL research DB provides not only a coherent framework in which store and organize large volumes of collected seismic waveforms and associated event parameter information but also provides an efficient data processing/research environment. The DB is designed to be flexible and extensible in order to accommodate the large volumes of data in diverse formats from many sources in addition to maintaining detailed quality control and metadata. Researchers can make use of the relational nature of the DB and interactive analysis tools to quickly and efficiently process large volumes of data. Seismic waveforms have been systematically collected form a wide range of local and regional networks using numerous earthquake bulletins and converted a common format based on CSS3.O while undergoing quality control and corrections of errors. By combining traveltime observations, event characterization studies, and regional wave-propagation studies of the LLNL CTBT team, we are assembling a library of ground truth information and event location correction surfaces required to support the ME/NA regionalization program. Corrections and parameters distilled from the LLNL research DB will provide needed contributions to the DOE knowledge base for the ME/NA region and enable the USNDC and IDC to effectively verify CTBT compliance.

  15. AIDS in South Africa. Puppet power.

    PubMed

    Friedman, G

    1992-01-01

    Blacks in South Africa see the government campaign promoting condom use to prevent AIDS as a political ruse to control population growth among Blacks. The City Health Department of Johannesburg does not use a government created poster targeted to Blacks because it implies that only Blacks have AIDS. Even though the number of AIDS cases in South Africa is lower (700 reported cases) than that of its neighbors, the number of HIV infected individuals is growing. So nongovernmental organizations are trying to overcome the division between the government and Blacks by finding alternative ways to stem the AIDS epidemic. The African Research and Educational Puppetry Programme uses Puppets Against AIDS to bridge racial, cultural, language, and educational barriers to thus educate Blacks about AIDS. It not only hopes to create and perform educational and socially valuable theater, but also to rediscover performing arts traditions in southern and central Africa. Since about 76% of the black population in rural South Africa is illiterate, the gray skinned puppets constitute an interactive and inoffensive way to communicate a serious message. Someone demonstrates how to put on a condom using a life size model which induces controversy among physicians and educated whites. Blacks in Johannesburg and surrounding townships are not offended, however. In fact, many have never seen condoms before the demonstration. The puppets emphasize that safe sex and having sex with only 1 partner can stop the spread of AIDS. Each performance also includes live African percussion and music. A narrator distributes free condoms and AIDS information brochures to the audience. Videotapes of each performance are used to evaluate audience reactions. Independent evaluation teams evaluate the impact of the performance. 1-4 day workshops on AIDS, puppet making, story development, and performing skills follow each performance.

  16. Open ocean Internal Waves, Namibia Coast, Africa.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    These open ocean Internal Waves were seen off the Namibia Coast, Africa (23.0S, 14.0E). The periodic and regularly spaced sets of internal waves most likely coincide with tidal periods about 12 hours apart. The wave length (distance from crest to crest) varies between 1.5 and 5.0 miles and the crest lengths stretch across and beyond the distance of the photo. The waves are intersecting the Namibia coastline at about a 30 degree angle.

  17. Malaria vaccine offers hope. International / Africa.

    PubMed

    1995-04-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) may soon sign an agreement with the Colombian government to build a plant in Colombia for the mass production of the malaria vaccine SPf66. SPf66 consists of a combination of synthetic peptides. It will eventually be available in Africa, where 90% of all recorded malaria cases occur each year. 1 million of the 1.5-3 million malaria-related deaths each year also occur in Africa. Many of these deaths take place in children. The indirect costs of malaria in Africa is expected to increase from $800 million to $1.8 billion between 1987 and the end of 1995. Based on findings from the various clinical trials in Colombia, Thailand, The Gambia, and Tanzania, WHO's director of Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) claims that, if SPf66 can reduce the malaria incidence rate by 50% and thereby also the malaria-related death rate, the lives of 500,000 children in Africa would be spared. TDR will meet in mid-1996 to sort through all the SPf66 findings and then develop a policy for further development or production and use of SPf66. The price of each SPf66 vaccination should be around $5, comparable with the higher range of costs of other vaccines provided by WHO's Expanded Program of Immunization and UNICEF. At the 1992 WHO summit in Amsterdam, the president of the Congo called for the international community to join forces to eliminate malaria. When it was first tested on humans, in Colombia, the protection rate of SPf66 ranged from 22% to 77%, with the best results among the young and the very old. It has not caused any harmful side effects.

  18. Open ocean Internal Waves, Namibia Coast, Africa.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    These open ocean Internal Waves were seen off the Namibia Coast, Africa (19.5S, 11.5E). The periodic and regularly spaced sets of incoming internal appear to be diffracting against the coastline and recombining to form a network of interference patterns. They seem to coincide with tidal periods about 12 hours apart and wave length (distance from crest to crest) varies between 1.5 and 5.0 miles and the crest lengths stretch beyond the image.

  19. New Agricultural Settlement, Meheba River, Zambia, Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This infra-red view of a new settlement along the Meheba River, Zambia, Africa (12.5S, 26.0E) resembles the resettlement clusters in the Amazon basin of Brazil. However, this settlement is on savanna land not a tropical forest region, so relatively little land clearing was required. The familiar pattern of small single family plots, no large commercial fields, along the branches of a herringbone road network is evident.

  20. Astronomy in post-apartheid South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitelock, Patricia Ann

    2011-06-01

    Astronomy was one of the sciences earmarked for major support by South Africa's first democratically elected government in 1994. This was a very remarkable decision for a country with serious challenges in poverty, health and unemployment, but shows something of the long term vision of the new government. In this paper I give one astronomer's perception of the reasons behind the decision and some of its consequences.

  1. Carbon reduction emissions in South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Temchin, Jerome

    2002-02-28

    This project is a feasibility study for a control system for existing backup generators in South Africa. The strategy is to install a system to enable backup generators (BGs) to be dispatched only when a large generator fails. Using BGs to provide ''ten minute reserve'' will save energy and reduce emissions of greenhouse gases by an estimated nearly 500,000 tons of carbon dioxide per year.

  2. Dengue 3 virus transmission in Africa.

    PubMed

    Gubler, D J; Sather, G E; Kuno, G; Cabral, J R

    1986-11-01

    The first known transmission of dengue 3 virus in Africa was documented by virus isolation during an epidemic of dengue-like illness in Pemba, Mozambique, in late 1984 and early 1985. Dengue 3 virus was the only serotype isolated. Most patients appeared to be experiencing secondary flavivirus infections, but whether this was the result of previous dengue, yellow fever, or other flavivirus infection is not known. Two cases of hemorrhagic disease with shock and death were associated with the epidemic.

  3. Archean sedimentation and tectonics in southern Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kidd, W. S. F.

    1984-01-01

    Sequences in the Barberton Mountain Land greenstone belt (southern Africa) were examined to determine the nature of the sedimentary rocks, their tectonic implications, and their bearing on the present large-scale structural condition of the belt. Also assessed was whether there was evidence for a significant component of shallow-water-deposited sedimentary rocks in the parent materials of the Limpopo belt. The nature of a largehigh strain zone on the southern margin of the central Limpopo belt was examined.

  4. Poor quality vital anti-malarials in Africa - an urgent neglected public health priority

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Plasmodium falciparum malaria remains a major public health problem. A vital component of malaria control rests on the availability of good quality artemisinin-derivative based combination therapy (ACT) at the correct dose. However, there are increasing reports of poor quality anti-malarials in Africa. Methods Seven collections of artemisinin derivative monotherapies, ACT and halofantrine anti-malarials of suspicious quality were collected in 2002/10 in eleven African countries and in Asia en route to Africa. Packaging, chemical composition (high performance liquid chromatography, direct ionization mass spectrometry, X-ray diffractometry, stable isotope analysis) and botanical investigations were performed. Results Counterfeit artesunate containing chloroquine, counterfeit dihydroartemisinin (DHA) containing paracetamol (acetaminophen), counterfeit DHA-piperaquine containing sildenafil, counterfeit artemether-lumefantrine containing pyrimethamine, counterfeit halofantrine containing artemisinin, and substandard/counterfeit or degraded artesunate and artesunate+amodiaquine in eight countries are described. Pollen analysis was consistent with manufacture of counterfeits in eastern Asia. These data do not allow estimation of the frequency of poor quality anti-malarials in Africa. Conclusions Criminals are producing diverse harmful anti-malarial counterfeits with important public health consequences. The presence of artesunate monotherapy, substandard and/or degraded and counterfeit medicines containing sub-therapeutic amounts of unexpected anti-malarials will engender drug resistance. With the threatening spread of artemisinin resistance to Africa, much greater investment is required to ensure the quality of ACTs and removal of artemisinin monotherapies. The International Health Regulations may need to be invoked to counter these serious public health problems. PMID:22152094

  5. Conservation strategies for Africa's large mammals.

    PubMed

    Hanks, J

    2001-01-01

    Africa's large mammals are conserved for their aesthetic, scientific and economic values. Many of these species face a gloomy future precipitated by a combination of factors directly and indirectly influenced by the activities of man, including habitat loss, overexploitation, poor management of designated protected areas, and the vulnerability of small isolated populations. Africa's designated protected areas and biodiversity hotspots are also under threat, highlighting the importance of embracing community participation to address accelerating poverty and malnutrition. Innovative strategies are required for the conservation of Africa's mammals, such as the integration of a wide range of species in the production landscape, including the farming community. Transfrontier conservation areas (TFCAs) have been established with the combined objectives of conserving biodiversity, creating new jobs in the tourism and wildlife industry, and promoting a culture of peace. These areas extend far beyond traditional national parks, providing opportunities for integrating large mammals into sustainable land-use practices, at the same time as addressing some of the continent's more pressing socioeconomic needs. Research on African mammals will inevitably have to change direction to accommodate the growing threats and changed circumstances. Priorities will include the identification of corridors associated with TFCA establishment, the determination of the economic value of certain species in consumptive use programmes, research on contraception as a management option in restricted areas, and further work on the indirect use value of species. There will also be worthwhile opportunities to be pursued with ex situ conservation programmes, but these need to be focussed more efficiently.

  6. [Malaria control in tropical Africa. 1956].

    PubMed

    Bernard, P M

    1998-01-01

    Although spraying with insecticides has caused a spectacular regression in malaria in many parts of Africa, it cannot be said that the transmission of the disease has been definitely interrupted in any large area on the mainland. There is therefore some uneasiness regarding the methods so far adopted and doubts as to whether the very considerable expenditure involved is justified. There is, moreover, acute anxiety about the possible development of resistance to insecticides by the vector anopheles. Fortunately, so far there does not appear to be any in Africa, and the author considers that logical aim should be complete eradication of malaria before resistance does appear to the powerful insecticides now available. Control measures must inevitably be continued indefinitely, but if the aim of eradication is achieved, operations could cease and it would be possible for anopheles to co-exist with man without transmitting malaria. The author points out that before any continent-wide campaign can be begun, there are, in addition to the problem of funds, a number of other problems which must be carefully studied. Among these are the lack of trained specialized staff at all levels, transport difficulties, shortage of water over vast areas in the dry season and floods during the rains, the differing habits of the various African populations, and the biology of the vector mosquitos. Despite these problems, however, the time for concerted action to achieve eradication in Africa draws nearer with each succeeding day. PMID:9615491

  7. Problem of hepatocellular carcinoma in West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Ladep, Nimzing G; Lesi, Olufunmilayo A; Mark, Pantong; Lemoine, Maud; Onyekwere, Charles; Afihene, Mary; Crossey, Mary ME; Taylor-Robinson, Simon D

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is known to be high in West Africa with an approximate yearly mortality rate of 200000. Several factors are responsible for this. Early acquisition of risk factors; with vertical or horizontal transmission of hepatitis B (HBV), environmental food contaminants (aflatoxins), poor management of predisposing risk factors and poorly-managed strategies for health delivery. There has been a low uptake of childhood immunisation for hepatitis B in many West African countries. Owing to late presentations, most sufferers of HCC die within weeks of their diagnosis. Highlighted reasons for the specific disease pattern of HCC in West Africa include: (1) high rate of risk factors; (2) failure to identify at risk populations; (3) lack of effective treatment; and (4) scarce resources for timely diagnosis. This is contrasted to the developed world, which generally has sufficient resources to detect cases early for curative treatment. Provision of palliative care for HCC patients is limited by availability and affordability of potent analgesics. Regional efforts, as well as collaborative networking activities hold promise that could change the epidemiology of HCC in West Africa. PMID:25429316

  8. Africa: addressing growing threats to food security.

    PubMed

    Rukuni, Mandivamba

    2002-11-01

    Africa remains the only region in the world where the number of hungry people will still be on the increase in 2020, and the number of malnourished children will have increased correspondingly. In this report I have acknowledged the general public policy trends across Africa in terms of macroeconomic policy reforms and political transitions. These welcome trends have to still produce stable nations and economies. Although economic development is the long-term solution to Africa's challenge on hunger and poverty, this will take time. And it follows therefore that African nations have to pursue policies and strategies that promote long-term growth while at the same time offering short-term safety nets for the poorest of the poor. The growth and development strategy will have at its core the need to increase significantly the levels of public-sector investment in agriculture and rural development and to give top priority to the commercialization of smallholder agriculture so as to increase productivity and competitiveness. But food security at the household level is ultimately a balance between availability and access, and in this regard governments need complementary food security policies that increase the probability of food access by the vulnerable groups. PMID:12421867

  9. Governance and poverty reduction in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Hyden, Goran

    2007-01-01

    A careful review of the literature in political science and neighboring social science disciplines shows that prevailing assumptions in the international development policy community about improved governance as a principal mechanism to reduce poverty in Africa rests more on faith than science. Conventional policy models for tackling poverty fail to take into account the peculiar socioeconomic and political conditions in Africa, where the vast majority of those living on one dollar a day or less are only marginally captured by market and state institutions and instead rely on solving their problems “outside the system.” Poverty reduction through formal institutions therefore becomes ineffective. Although political science and other neighboring social science disciplines offer insights into these peculiarities, these contributions have been largely ignored to date. One reason is that economists continue to dominate the international development policy agenda. Another is that political scientists have typically looked at how economic variables shape political ones, rather than the other way around, as implied in the current governance agenda. Governance remains an undertheorized area of research held back by two chasms, one between economists and other social scientists and another between the scientific and the policy communities, to the detriment of gaining a better understanding of how it may help reduce poverty in Africa. PMID:17942700

  10. Evolution of Neogene Dynamic Topography in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Jonathan; Roberts, Gareth; White, Nicky

    2013-04-01

    The characteristic basins and swells of Africa's surface topography probably reflect patterns of convective circulation in the sub-lithospheric mantle. We have interrogated drainage networks to determine the spatial and temporal pattern of convectively driven uplift. ~560 longitudinal river profiles were extracted from a digital elevation model of Africa. An inverse model is then used to minimise the misfit between observed and calculated river profiles as a function of uplift rate history. During inversion, the residual misfit decreases from ~22 to ~5. Our results suggest that Africa's topography began to grow most rapidly after ~30 Ma at peak uplift rates of 0.1-0.15 mm/yr. The algorithm resolves distinct phases of uplift which generate localized swells of high topography and relief (e.g. the Angolan Dome). Uplift rate histories are shown to vary significantly from swell to swell. The calculated magnitudes, timing, and location of uplift agree well with local independent geological constraints, such as intense volcanism at Hoggar (42-39 Ma) and Afar (31-29 Ma), uplifted marine terraces, and warped peneplains. We have also calculated solid sediment flux histories for major African deltas which have persisted through time. This onshore record provides an important indirect constraint on the history of vertical motions at the surface, and agrees well with the offshore flux record, obtained from mapping isopachs of deltaic sediments. Our modelling and reconstructed sedimentary flux histories indicate that the evolution of drainage networks may contain useful information about mantle convective processes.

  11. A survey of Simulium control in Africa.

    PubMed

    BROWN, A W

    1962-01-01

    It has become possible to control or even eradicate the Simulium fly vectors of Onchocerca volvulus, the causative organism of onchocerciasis. There are two vectors in Africa-namely, S. damnosum, characteristic of the rivers of West Africa, and S. neavei, which breeds on the carapaces of crabs in the streams of East Africa. The use of DDT applied to the water at a concentration as low as 0.1 p.p.m. for 30 minutes eliminates the larvae of Simulium. Such larvicidal methods have eradicated S. neavei from western Kenya and virtually eradicated S. damnosum from the Victoria Nile in Uganda. Excellent control sufficient to render the transmission of onchocerciasis almost negligible has been obtained at Léopoldville (Republic of the Congo) and in circumscribed areas in southern Chad, Northern Nigeria, and Sierra Leone. The following survey describes operational research on Simulium control carried out in Kenya, Uganda, the Congo, Chad, Nigeria, Ghana, Upper Volta and Sierra Leone. PMID:14015908

  12. The practice of pathology in Africa.

    PubMed

    Kaschula, Ronald Otto Christian

    2013-06-01

    In attempting to advance the health of women and children in Africa, practitioners should be cognizant of the history of health care delivery in the continent and the nature of the existing systems. Although autopsies began in Africa several millennia ago, traditional healers have held sway for many centuries and continue to do so for most of Africa's people. The role of laboratory medicine in advancing modern health care has been impeded by its ever-increasing high cost, lack of confidence in the system, lack of adequately trained personnel, and inadequate provision of facilities and training opportunities. This is partly caused by the continent having the highest proportion of young children in the world, an exceptionally heavy disease burden, and a low proportion of tax payers. For laboratory medicine to have its intended effect in making accurate diagnoses, national, minimal standards for certification and practice should be formulated. There should be periodic inspections, rewards for excellence, and opportunities for professional development. It is recommended that laboratory medicine be practiced in a 4-tier system, with the highest in teaching hospitals, and the lowest in primary health care clinics. For the practice of anatomic pathology to advance, an effective referral system and an equitable minimal and maximal workload for each pathologist are needed. The changing dynamics of urbanization, with massive unemployment rates, unhealthy life styles, and the continued role of traditional healers calls for gifted leaders to come to the fore and facilitate internal and external cooperation with diverse health care agencies. PMID:23721269

  13. Mapping Africa Biomass with MODIS Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laporte, N.; Baccini, A.; Houghton, R.

    2006-12-01

    Central Africa contains the second largest block of tropical forest remaining in the world, and is one of the largest carbon reservoirs on Earth. The carbon dynamics of the region differ substantially from other tropical forests because most deforestation and land use is associated with selective logging and small-scale landholders practicing traditional "slash-and-burn" agriculture. Despite estimates of 1-2 PgC/yr released to the atmosphere from tropical deforestation, the amount released from Central Africa is highly uncertain relative to the amounts released from other tropical forest areas. The uncertainty in carbon fluxes results from inadequate estimates of both rates of deforestation and standing stocks of carbon (forest biomass). Here we present new results mapping above-ground forest biomass for tropical Africa using machine learning techniques to integrate MODIS 1km spectral reflectance with forest inventory measurements to calibrate an empirical relationship. The derived forest biomass at each MODIS pixel shows the spatial distribution of forest biomass over the entire tropical forest region. The model has been tested in Uganda, Mali and part of Republic of Congo where field data were available. The regression tree model based on MODIS NBAR surface reflectance for Uganda, Mali and Republic of Congo explains 94 percent of the variance in above-ground biomass with a root mean square error (RMSE) of 27 Tons/ha. The approach shows promise for use of optical remote sensing data in mapping the spatial distribution of forest biomass across the region.

  14. Fires in South Africa, snow in Lesotho

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The precipitation that brought snow fall to the Drakensberg Mountains in Lesotho in southern Africa was not enough to quench the numerous fires (marked with red dots) burning throughout the Republic of South Africa. These Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) images from June 18, 2002, and July 2, 2002, show the snowfall in landlocked Lesotho contrasting sharply with the country's brown, mountainous terrain. (In the false-color image, vegetation is bright green, bare soil is brown, and burned areas are reddish-brown. In northeast Republic of South Africa, right along the border with Mozambique, the smooth, gray-brown terrain shows the boundaries of Kruger National Park. The Park was established in the late 1800s to protect game species, such as elephants, antelope, and bison, which were being hunted in great numbers. In this image, dark brown patches reveal the location of previous fires. The vegetation has yet to come back, and the landscape is virtually bare. NASA scientists study fire behavior in Kruger as part of the SAFARI field campaign. Running southward through Mozambique and into the Indian Ocean is the muddy Limpopo River--known to many through Rudyard Kipling's 'Just-so' story about how the elephant got its trunk. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  15. History of Sleeping Sickness in East Africa

    PubMed Central

    Hide, Geoff

    1999-01-01

    The history of human sleeping sickness in East Africa is characterized by the appearance of disease epidemics interspersed by long periods of endemicity. Despite the presence of the tsetse fly in large areas of East Africa, these epidemics tend to occur multiply in specific regions or foci rather than spreading over vast areas. Many theories have been proposed to explain this phenomenon, but recent molecular approaches and detailed analyses of epidemics have highlighted the stability of human-infective trypanosome strains within these foci. The new molecular data, taken alongside the history and biology of human sleeping sickness, are beginning to highlight the important factors involved in the generation of epidemics. Specific, human-infective trypanosome strains may be associated with each focus, which, in the presence of the right conditions, can be responsible for the generation of an epidemic. Changes in agricultural practice, favoring the presence of tsetse flies, and the important contribution of domestic animals as a reservoir for the parasite are key factors in the maintenance of such epidemics. This review examines the contribution of molecular and genetic data to our understanding of the epidemiology and history of human sleeping sickness in East Africa. PMID:9880477

  16. Sub-Saharan Africa's media and neocolonialism.

    PubMed

    Domatob, J K

    1988-01-01

    Given the heavy Western metropolitan bias of the media in sub-Saharan Africa, the ideology of neocolonialism continues to exert a dominant influence on economic, social, political, and cultural life. This neocolonial influence is further reinforced by advertising that champions a consumerist culture centered around Western goods. The capital of multinational firms plays a crucial role in the strategy of media imperialism. The dramatic growth of monopolies and the creation of military-industrial-information conglomerates in the 1970s and 1980s have been reflected in the international exchange of information and the interlinkage of mass communication systems in sub-Saharan Africa. Another media strategy that reinforces neocolonialism is the use of satellite communication. If cultural autonomy is defined as sub-Saharan Africa's capacity to decide on the allocation of its environmental resources, then cultural synchronization is a massive threat to that autonomy. Few African nations have the resources or expertise necessary to design, establish, or maintain communication systems that could accurately reflect their own culture. Nonetheless, there are some policy options. Personnel can be trained to respect African values and to recognize the dangers of neocolonial domination. The production of indigenous programs could reduce the media's foreign content. The incorporation of traditional drama and dance in the media could enhance this process. Above all, a high degree of planning is necessary if sub-Saharan African states intend to tackle the media and its domination by neocolonialist ideology. PMID:12281808

  17. A Synchrotron Radiation Research Facility for Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winick, Herman

    2015-03-01

    Africa is the only habitable continent without a synchrotron light source. Dozens of African scientists use facilities abroad. Although South Africa has become a member of ESRF, the number of users is limited by distance and travel cost. A light source in Africa would give thousands of African scientists access to this tool. Momentum is now building for an African light source, as a collaboration involving several sub-Saharan African countries. An interim Steering Committee has been formed. SESAME, now nearing completion in Jordan as a collaboration of 9 countries in the Middle East (www.sesame.org.jo) may be the example followed. UNESCO became the umbrella organization for SESAME at its Executive Board 164th session, May 2002, as it did in the case of CERN in the 1950s. UNESCO's Executive Board described SESAME as ``a quintessential UNESCO project combining capacity building with vital peace-building through science'' and ``a model project for other regions''. It is likely that UNESCO, if asked, would play a similar role as a facilitator for an African light source.

  18. A Synchrotron Radiation Research Facility for Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans-Lutterodt, Kenneth; Mtingwa, Sekazi; Wague, Ahmadou; Tessema, Guebre; Winick, Herman

    2015-04-01

    Africa is the only habitable continent without a synchrotron light source. Dozens of African scientists use facilities abroad. Even though South Africa has become a member of ESRF, the number of users is limited by distance and travel cost. A light source in Africa would give many more African scientists access to this tool. Momentum is now building for an African light source, as a collaboration involving several African countries. An interim Steering Committee has been formed, with a mandate to plan a conference. SESAME, now nearing completion in Jordan, is a collaboration of 9 countries in the Middle East (www.sesame.org.jo) is an example to follow. UNESCO became the umbrella organization for SESAME at its Executive Board 164th session, May 2002, as it did in the case of CERN in the 1950s. UNESCO's Executive Board described SESAME as ``a quintessential UNESCO project combining capacity building with vital peace-building through science'' and ``a model project for other regions.'' It is likely that UNESCO, if asked, would play a similar role as a facilitator for an African light source.

  19. Wood energy in eastern and southern Africa

    SciTech Connect

    O'Keefe, P. ); Soussan, J. ); Munslow, B. ); Spence, D. )

    1989-01-01

    This paper has outlined a learning curve in dealing with the wood energy situation in eastern and southern Africa. The curve began in total ignorance when wood energy was not considered part of the energy problem. Dominance of wood fuel, throughout the region, became immediately apparent on calculation of national energy balances. The discovery of this other energy crisis'' was, again, to prove that a little knowledge is a dangerous thing, since the emphasis on project intervention was at a national, not local, level. In evaluating the success and failure of energy intervention strategies it was increasingly apparent that the wood energy problem was but another symptom of the problems of subsistence production in Africa. Wood energy, in effect, was simply the rubbish that was left from a wider utilization of biomass, and trying to grow woodfuel per se, especially as a full-price monetary good, was impossible so long as the major relationships and the subsistence system remained outside the market. The failures, however, have allowed the identification of a range of methods for woody biomass intervention in eastern and southern Africa, from which wood energy could be an offtake.

  20. Geography, demography, and economic growth in Africa.

    PubMed

    Bloom, D E; Sachs, J D

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents the effects of climate, topography, and natural ecology on public health, nutrition, demographics, technological diffusion, international trade and other determinants of economic development in Africa. The goal of this paper is to emphasize the need for intensified research on the issues at the intersection of ecology and human society. Geography was given emphasis because of three reasons: the minimal gain from another recitation of the damage caused by statism, protectionism and corruption to African economic performance; negligence of the role of natural forces in shaping economic performance; and tailoring of policies to geographical realities. The paper also discusses the general problems of tropical development and the focus of Africa's problems in worldwide tropical perspectives; demographic trends in Africa; use of standard cross-country growth equations with demographic and geographic variables, to account for the relative roles of geography; and the future growth strategies and the need for urban-based export growth in manufacturing and services. Lastly, the authors provide a summary of conclusions and discuss the agenda for future research.