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Sample records for africa east asia

  1. Hepatitis B epidemiology in Asia, the Middle East and Africa.

    PubMed

    André, F

    2000-02-18

    Asia and Africa have previously been classified as areas of high endemicity for hepatitis B virus (HBV), but in some countries highly effective vaccination programmes have shifted this pattern towards intermediate or low endemicity. Thus, China is now the only country in Asia where HBV endemicity is high. Countries with intermediate endemicity include India, Korea, the Philippines, Taiwan and Thailand, and those with low endemicity include Japan, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Singapore, Sri Lanka and Malaysia. Most countries in Africa have high HBV endemicity, with the exceptions of Tunisia and Morocco, which have intermediate endemicity. Zambia has borderline intermediate/high endemicity. In the Middle East, Bahrain, Iran, Israel and Kuwait are areas of low endemicity, Cyprus, Iraq and the United Arab Emirates have intermediate endemicity, and Egypt, Jordan, Oman, Palestine, Yemen and Saudi Arabia have high endemicity. All of these Middle East countries reach a large proportion of their population with hepatitis B vaccination, which is reducing the infection rate, particularly in Saudi Arabia. The vaccination programme in Taiwan has also greatly reduced the HBV infection rate. Future vaccination programmes must take into account the mode of transmission of HBV, the healthcare infrastructure to deliver vaccination, and the socioeconomic and political factors in each individual country, to determine the most cost-effective way of infection control. PMID:10683538

  2. World Directory of Energy Information. Volume 2: Middle East, Africa and Asia/Pacific

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Volume 2 of the four-part Directory includes a detailed review of energy resource development of 64 countries, 15 of which are in the Middle East, 30 in Africa, and 19 in the Asia and Pacific area. The volume is divided into four parts: (1) International Framework; (2) Country Reviews; (3) Energy Organizations; and (4) Energy Publications. The organizations and publications information covers both international and by country. Three indices list publications alphabetically, by subject and country, and publishing bodies. 6 figures, 2 tables. (DCK)

  3. Identifying important breast cancer control strategies in Asia, Latin America and the Middle East/North Africa

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is the most frequent cause of cancer death in women worldwide, but global disparities in breast cancer control persist, due to a lack of a comprehensive breast cancer control strategy in many countries. Objectives To identify and compare the need for breast cancer control strategies in Asia, Latin America and the Middle East/North Africa and to develop a common framework to guide the development of national breast cancer control strategies. Methods Data were derived from open-ended, semi-structured interviews conducted in 2007 with 221 clinicians, policy makers, and patient advocates; stratified across Asia (n = 97), Latin America (n = 46), the Middle East/North Africa (ME/NA) (n = 39) and Australia and Canada (n = 39). Respondents were identified using purposive and snowballing sampling. Interpretation of the data utilized interpretive phenomenological analysis where transcripts and field notes were coded and analyzed and common themes were identified. Analysis of regional variation was conducted based on the frequency of discussion and the writing of the manuscript followed the RATS guidelines. Results Analysis revealed four major themes that form the foundation for developing national breast cancer control strategies: 1) building capacity; 2) developing evidence; 3) removing barriers; and 4) promoting advocacy - each specified across five sub-ordinate dimensions. The propensity to discuss most dimensions was similar across regions, but managing advocacy was discussed more frequently (p = 0.004) and organized advocacy was discussed less frequently (p < 0.001) in Australia and Canada. Conclusions This unique research identified common themes for the development of breast cancer control strategies, grounded in the experience of local practitioners, policy makers and advocacy leaders across diverse regions. Future research should be aimed at gathering a wider array of experiences, including those of patients. PMID:21933435

  4. A GCM investigation of dust aerosol impact on the regional climate of North Africa and South/East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Y.; Xue, Y.; De Sales, F.; Liou, K. N.

    2016-04-01

    The climatic effects of dust aerosols in North Africa and South/East Asia have been investigated using an atmospheric general circulation model, NCEP/GCM/SSiB (Simplified Simple Biosphere Model) and the three-dimensional aerosol data simulated by the Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) model. GCM simulations show that due to the scattering and absorption of solar radiation by dust particles, surface temperature decreases over both regions, accompanied by a reduced sensible heat flux. However, precipitation responses are different in these two regions. Due to differences in dust location and the associated heating with respect to the rainfall band and circulation, the effect of dust could either enhance or suppress precipitation. Over the North Africa region where dust particles are mainly located to the north of rainfall band, heating of the air column by dust particles forces a stronger ascent motion over dust layers, which induces an anomalous subsidence (or a weakened upward motion) and suppressed cyclonic circulation to its south where precipitation reduces. Furthermore, both humidity and cloud decrease due to the heating in the middle troposphere (semi-direct effect). In South/East Asia, dust particles are located in the upper troposphere over the major rainfall band during the monsoon season, especially Southwest India and the coastal area of Bay of Bengal. Heating of the air column increases upward motion and strengthens cyclonic circulation. Humidity also increases due to the draw-in of the low level moist air. Therefore, cloud and precipitation increase over South/East Asia associated with dust effect. During the pre-monsoon season, when dust particles are located to the north of the monsoon rainfall band, the heating effect results in shifting precipitation northward. The heating of air column due to dust particles, not surface cooling, plays the major role in precipitation changes. The anomalous upward motion over dust regions will

  5. East Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This image shows the East African nations of Ethiopia, Eritrea, and Somalia, as well as portions of Kenya, Sudan, Yemen, and Saudi Arabia. Dominating the scene are the green Ethiopian Highlands. With altitudes as high as 4,620 meters (15,157 feet), the highlands pull moisture from the arid air, resulting in relatively lush vegetation. In fact, coffee-one of the world's most prized crops-originated here. To the north (above) the highlands is Eritrea, which became independent in 1993. East (right) of Ethiopia is Somalia, jutting out into the Indian Ocean. The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) captured this true-color image on November 29, 2000. Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  6. Tidal loading along a profile Europe-East Africa-South Asia-Australia and the Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melchior, P.; Moens, M.; Ducarme, B.; van Ruymbeke, M.

    1981-04-01

    Precision measurements of earth tides along a profile stretching from Europe to Polynesia through East Africa, Asia and Australia are used to characterize ocean tides in different basins and thus provide a check on proposed cotidal maps. Ocean tide information was extracted from tidal gravity profiles made with correctly intercalibrated gravimeters at 91 tidal gravity stations by the subtraction of electric earth tide model vectors from the observed tidal vector. Analysis of possible instrumental errors due to calibration, thermal, barometric and power supply interruption effects indicates the data observed at a level of 0.5 microgal cannot be ascribed to computational or instrumental errors. Calculations of the ocean load and attraction signal obtained from the earth tide measurements are observed to be in very good agreement with those obtained from the cotidal maps of Schwiderski (1979, 1980) for satellite altimetry reductions for the diurnal components of the tides, however, less satisfactory agreement is observed in some large areas for the semi-diurnal components. The maps of Hendershott (1973) and Parke (1979) are also found to provide good results in several large areas, but not everywhere. Regions where a more detailed investigation is required are indicated, including Iran-Pakistan, Malaysia, the South China Sea and the South Pacific.

  7. Inferring human history in East Asia from Y chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    East Asia harbors substantial genetic, physical, cultural and linguistic diversity, but the detailed structures and interrelationships of those aspects remain enigmatic. This question has begun to be addressed by a rapid accumulation of molecular anthropological studies of the populations in and around East Asia, especially by Y chromosome studies. The current Y chromosome evidence suggests multiple early migrations of modern humans from Africa via Southeast Asia to East Asia. After the initial settlements, the northward migrations during the Paleolithic Age shaped the genetic structure in East Asia. Subsequently, recent admixtures between Central Asian immigrants and northern East Asians enlarged the genetic divergence between southern and northern East Asia populations. Cultural practices, such as languages, agriculture, military affairs and social prestige, also have impacts on the genetic patterns in East Asia. Furthermore, application of Y chromosome analyses in the family genealogy studies offers successful showcases of the utility of genetics in studying the ancient history. PMID:23731529

  8. NASA's East and Southeast Asia Initiatives: BASE-ASIA and EAST-AIRE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsay, S.; Maring, H.

    2005-01-01

    Airborne dust from northern China influences air quality and regional climate in Asia during springtime. However, with the economic growth in China, increased emission of particulate air pollutants from industrial and vehicular sources will not only impact the earth's radiation balance, but also adversely affect human health year round. In addition, both of dust and aerosol pollutants can be transported swiftly across the Pacific affecting North America within a few days. Asian dust and pollutant aerosols can be detected by their colored appearance using current Earth observing satellites (e.g., MODIS, SeaWiFS, TOMS, etc.) and by sunphotometers deployed on the surface of the earth. Biomass burning has been a regular practice for land clearing and conversion in many countries, especially those in Africa, South America, and Southeast Asia. However, the climatology of Southeast Asia is very different than that of Africa and South America, such that large-scale biomass burning causes smoke to interact extensively with clouds during the peak-burning season of March to April. Globally significant sources of greenhouse gases (eg., CO2, CH4), chemically active gases (e.g., NO, CO, HC, CH3Br), and atmospheric aerosols are produced by biomass burning. These gases influence the Earth-atmosphere system, impacting both global climate and tropospheric chemistry. Some aerosols can serve as cloud condensation nuclei, which play a role in determining cloud lifetime and precipitation, altering the earth's radiation and water budgets. Biomass burning also affects the biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen and carbon compounds; the hydrological cycle; land surface reflectivity and emissivity; and ecosystem biodiversity and stability. Two NASA initiatives, EAST-AIRE (East Asian Study of Tropospheric Aerosols: an International Regional Experiment) and BASE-ASIA (Biomass-burning Aerosols in South East-Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment) will be presented. The objectives of these initiatives is to

  9. East and Southeast Asia assessment.

    PubMed

    Suyono, H

    1984-06-01

    The people of East and Southeast Asia, despite societal differences and varied economic successes, share 1 cultural value, i.e., the love of children and the importance of family. The small family norms espoused by family planning programs, the goal in some nations of 1- or 2-child families, the concept that 2 children are enough regardless of their sex -- all these ideas contradict the basic cultural appreciation for children in most countries and the preference for sons in many. Yet, demographic realities give Asia no alternative. It is necessary to work against cultural values to increase the opportunities for individuals, their families, their countries, and the region as a whole. All the countries of this region have had family planning programs since at least the 1970s, and some have been very successful. It may be well into the 21st century before the populations of most East and Southeast countries stabilize. Stabilization will take longer for those countries which are without successful family planning policies and programs. Each national family planning program requires the full and positive political and financial commitment of its government. Programs also need the freedom to try all new approaches. The appropriateness and acceptability of a particular mehtod should be decided by program managers and personnel in consultation with potential users, rather than by politicians. Future family planning programs will need to be even more innovative. Family planning service delivery must be brought closer to the client so it will be available in all communities and work places and at all potential public and private places. Other basic services such as nutrition, income-generating schemes, and general and maternal/child health must be integrated into the programs. The responsibility for managing programs must be assumed by the community in order to create a very strong and broad base of national commitment. PMID:12339633

  10. Natives or immigrants: modern human origin in east Asia.

    PubMed

    Jin, L; Su, B

    2000-11-01

    East Asia is one of the few regions in the world where a relatively large number of human fossils have been unearthed--a discovery that has been taken as evidence for an independent local origin of modern humans outside of Africa. However, genetic studies conducted in the past ten years, especially using Y chromosomes, have provided unequivocal evidence for an African origin of East Asian populations. The genetic signatures present in diverse East Asian populations mark the footsteps of prehistoric migrations that occurred tens of thousands of years ago. PMID:11253652

  11. Acid deposition in east Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Phadnis, M.J.; Carmichael, G.R.; Ichikawa, Y.

    1996-12-31

    A comparison between transport models was done to study the acid deposition in east Asia. The two models in question were different in the way the treated the pollutant species and the way simulation was carried out. A single-layer, trajectory model with simple (developed by the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), Japan) was compared with a multi-layered, eulerian type model (Sulfur Transport Eulerian Model - II [STEM-II]) treating the chemical processes in detail. The acidic species used in the simulation were sulfur dioxide and sulfate. The comparison was done for two episodes: each a month long in winter (February) and summer (August) of 1989. The predicted results from STEM-II were compared with the predicted results from the CRIEPI model as well as the observed data at twenty-one stations in Japan. The predicted values from STEM-II were similar to the ones from the CRIEPI results and the observed values in regards to the transport features. The average monthly values of SO{sub 2} in air, sulfate in air and sulfate in precipitation were in good agreement. Sensitivity studies were carried out under different scenarios of emissions, dry depositions velocities and mixing heights. The predicted values in these sensitivity studies showed a strong dependence on the mixing heights. The predicted wet deposition of sulfur for the two months is 0.7 gS/m2.mon, while the observed deposition is around 1.1 gS/m2.mon. It was also observed that the wet deposition on the Japan sea side of the islands is more than those on the Pacific side and the Okhotsk sea, mainly because of the continental outflow of pollutant air masses from mainland China and Korea. The effects of emissions from Russia and volcanoes were also evaluated.

  12. Yellow fever, Asia and the East African slave trade.

    PubMed

    Cathey, John T; Marr, John S

    2014-05-01

    Yellow fever is endemic in parts of sub-Saharan Africa and South America, yet its principal vectors--species of mosquito of the genus Aedes--are found throughout tropical and subtropical latitudes. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that yellow fever originated in Africa and that its spread to the New World coincided with the slave trade, but why yellow fever has never appeared in Asia remains a mystery. None of several previously proposed explanations for its absence there is considered satisfactory. We contrast the trans-Atlantic slave trade, and trade across the Sahara and to the Arabian Peninsula and Mesopotamia, with that to Far East and Southeast Asian ports before abolition of the African slave trade, and before the scientific community understood the transmission vector of yellow fever and the viral life cycle, and the need for shipboard mosquito control. We propose that these differences in slave trading had a primary role in the avoidance of yellow fever transmission into Asia in the centuries before the 20(th) century. The relatively small volume of the Black African slave trade between Africa and East and Southeast Asia has heretofore been largely ignored. Although focal epidemics may have occurred, the volume was insufficient to reach the threshold for endemicity. PMID:24743951

  13. East Africa continental margins

    SciTech Connect

    Bosellini, A.

    1986-01-01

    New well data from Somalia, together with the history of sea-floor spreading in the Indian Ocean derived from magnetic anomalies, show that the East African margins from latitude 15/sup 0/S into the Gulf of Aden comprise four distinct segments that formed successively by the southward drift of Madagascar from Somalia during the Middle to Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous, by the northeastward drift of India along the Owen Transform during the Late Cretaceous and Paleocene, and by the opening of the Gulf of Aden during the Neogene.

  14. Higher Education in South-East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online Submission, 2006

    2006-01-01

    South-East Asia is a region of vast development diversity but also many commonalities. And the development of higher education in the region, stemmed from its different historical background is changing rapidly towards their respective socio-economic needs. The publication is a joint research study by UNESCO Bangkok and Southeast Asian Ministers…

  15. Education Indicators for East Asia and Pacific.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acedo, Clementina; Uemura, Mitsue

    This set of education indicators for the World Bank's East Asia and Pacific Region is designed to provide key policy-oriented data for World Bank staff and clients. The framework is divided into six main chapters: (1) the demographic, social and economic context of education; (2) financial and human resources invested in education; (3) access to…

  16. An Islamic University in Cape Town Grows from Roots in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindow, Megan

    2007-01-01

    This article features the International Peace University South Africa in Cape Town. The university, which was established in 2004, resulted from the merger of two local "madrassas", or religious colleges, yet seeks to prepare its students for success in the secular world. Its Islamic roots are not in the Middle East, but in East Asia. Situated on…

  17. Who Is a Typical Patient with Visceral Leishmaniasis? Characterizing the Demographic and Nutritional Profile of Patients in Brazil, East Africa, and South Asia

    PubMed Central

    Harhay, Michael O.; Olliaro, Piero L.; Vaillant, Michel; Chappuis, François; Lima, María Angeles; Ritmeijer, Koert; Costa, Carlos Henrique; Costa, Dorcas Lamounier; Rijal, Suman; Sundar, Shyam; Balasegaram, Manica

    2011-01-01

    Drug-dosing recommendations for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) treatment are based on the patients' weight or age. A current lack of demographic and anthropometric data on patients hinders (1) the ability of health providers to properly prepare for patient management, (2) an informed drug procurement for disease control, and (3) the design of clinical trials and development of new drug therapies in the different endemic areas. We present information about the age, gender, weight, and height of 29,570 consecutive VL patients presenting to 20 locations in six geographic endemic regions of Brazil, East Africa, Nepal, and India between 1997 and 2009. Our compilation shows substantial heterogeneity in the types of patients seeking care for VL at the clinics within the different locations. This suggests that drug development, procurement, and perhaps even treatment protocols, such as the use of the potentially teratogenic drug miltefosine, may require distinct strategies in these geographic settings. PMID:21460007

  18. Early evidence of the genus Homo in East Asia.

    PubMed

    Zhu, R X; Potts, R; Pan, Y X; Yao, H T; Lü, L Q; Zhao, X; Gao, X; Chen, L W; Gao, F; Deng, C L

    2008-12-01

    The timing and route of the earliest dispersal from Africa to Eastern Asia are contentious topics in the study of early human evolution because Asian hominin fossil sites with precise age constraints are very limited. Here we report new high-resolution magnetostratigraphic results that place stringent age controls on excavated hominin incisors and stone tools from the Yuanmou Basin, southwest China. The hominin-bearing layer resides in a reverse polarity magnetozone just above the upper boundary of the Olduvai subchron, yielding an estimated age of 1.7Ma. The finding represents the age of the earliest documented presence of Homo, with affinities to Homo erectus, in mainland East Asia. This age estimate is roughly the same as for H. erectus in island Southeast Asia and immediately prior to the oldest archaeological evidence in northeast Asia. Mammalian fauna and pollen obtained directly from the hominin site indicate that the Yuanmou hominins lived in a varied habitat of open vegetation with patches of bushland and forest on an alluvial fan close to a lake or swamp. The age and location are consistent with a rapid southern migration route of initial hominin populations into Eastern Asia. PMID:18842287

  19. Archaic human ancestry in East Asia.

    PubMed

    Skoglund, Pontus; Jakobsson, Mattias

    2011-11-01

    Recent studies of ancient genomes have suggested that gene flow from archaic hominin groups to the ancestors of modern humans occurred on two separate occasions during the modern human expansion out of Africa. At the same time, decreasing levels of human genetic diversity have been found at increasing distance from Africa as a consequence of human expansion out of Africa. We analyzed the signal of archaic ancestry in modern human populations, and we investigated how serial founder models of human expansion affect the signal of archaic ancestry using simulations. For descendants of an archaic admixture event, we show that genetic drift coupled with ascertainment bias for common alleles can cause artificial but largely predictable differences in similarity to archaic genomes. In genotype data from non-Africans, this effect results in a biased genetic similarity to Neandertals with increasing distance from Africa. However, in addition to the previously reported gene flow between Neandertals and non-Africans as well as gene flow between an archaic human population from Siberia ("Denisovans") and Oceanians, we found a significant affinity between East Asians, particularly Southeast Asians, and the Denisova genome--a pattern that is not expected under a model of solely Neandertal admixture in the ancestry of East Asians. These results suggest admixture between Denisovans or a Denisova-related population and the ancestors of East Asians, and that the history of anatomically modern and archaic humans might be more complex than previously proposed. PMID:22042846

  20. Molecular epidemiology and type-specific detection of echovirus 11 isolates from the Americas, Europe, Africa, Australia, southern Asia and the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Oberste, M Steven; Nix, William A; Kilpatrick, David R; Flemister, Mary R; Pallansch, Mark A

    2003-02-01

    Echovirus 11 (E11) is among the most commonly isolated human enteroviruses. To examine the range of genetic variation within the E11 serotype, we determined the complete VP1 sequences for 53 geographically dispersed E11 strains isolated in 16 countries from 1953 to 2001. E11 sequences were monophyletic with respect to all other enterovirus serotypes. The sequences clustered into four monophyletic genogroups, A-D; members of each genogroup differed from one another by <20%. Isolates in different genogroups differed from one another by 19-28%. The E11 prototype strain, USA/CA53-Gregory, was the sole member of genogroup B. All recent US isolates were members of one of two discrete lineages within genogroup D. The well-characterized E11 antigenic variant, USA/CA63-Silva, was also a member of genogroup D. Members of genogroups A and C were antigenically similar to USA/CA53-Gregory, as measured by neutralization with anti-Gregory and anti-Silva antisera. Only USA/CA63-Silva was neutralized more efficiently by the anti-Silva antiserum; other genogroup D viruses were Gregory-like or intermediate in their neutralization phenotype. Recent non-US isolates were distributed in genogroups A, C and D. Sequence similarities among genogroup D isolates from North America, Europe, Asia, Australia and North Africa demonstrate that an E11 strain can spread rapidly over a wide geographic area. The aligned sequences were used to develop an E11-specific RT-PCR assay, using degenerate, inosine-containing primers, to amplify all members of all genogroups. PMID:12573503

  1. The East and Southeast Asia Initiatives: Aerosol Column Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsay, Si-Chee; Hsu, Christina N.; Li, Zhanqing

    2003-01-01

    Airborne dusts from northern China contribute a significant part of the air quality problem and, to some extent, regional climatic impact in Asia during spring- time. However, with the economical growth in China, increases in the emission of air pollutants generated from industrial and vehicular sources will not only impact the radiation balance, but adverse health effects to humans all year round. In addition, both of these dust and air pollution clouds can transport swiftly across the Pacific reaching North America within a few days, possessing an even larger scale effect. The Asian dust and air pollution aerosols can be detected by its colored appearance on current Earth observing satellites (e.g., MODIS, SeaWiFS, TOMS, etc.) and its evolution monitored by satellites and surface network. Biomass burning has been a regular practice for land clearing and land conversion in many countries, especially those in Africa, South America, and Southeast Asia. However, the unique climatology of Southeast Asia is very different than that of Africa and South America, such that large-scale biomass burning causes smoke to interact extensively with clouds during the peak-burning season of March to April. Significant global sources of greenhouse gases (e.g., CO2, CH4), chemically active gases (e.g., NO, CO, HC, CH3,Br), and atmospheric aerosols are produced by biomass burning processes. These gases influence the Earth- atmosphere system, impacting both global climate and tropospheric chemistry. Some aerosols can serve as cloud condensation nuclei, which play an important role in determining cloud lifetime and precipitation, hence, altering the earth's radiation and water budget. Biomass burning also affects the biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen and carbon compounds from the soil to the atmosphere; the hydrological cycle (i.e., run off and evaporation); land surface reflectivity and emissivity; as well as ecosystem biodiversity and stability. Two new initiatives, EAST-AIRE (East

  2. East Asia: Seismotectonics, magmatism and mantle dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Dapeng; Yu, Sheng; Ohtani, Eiji

    2011-02-01

    In this article, we review the significant recent results of geophysical studies and discuss their implications on seismotectonics, magmatism, and mantle dynamics in East Asia. High-resolution geophysical imaging revealed structural heterogeneities in the source areas of large crustal earthquakes, which may reflect magma and fluids that affected the rupture nucleation of large earthquakes. In subduction zone regions, the crustal fluids originate from the dehydration of the subducting slab. Magmatism in arc and back-arc areas is caused by the corner flow in the mantle wedge and dehydration of the subducting slab. The intraplate magmatism has different origins. The continental volcanoes in Northeast Asia (such as Changbai and Wudalianchi) seem to be caused by the corner flow in the big mantle wedge (BMW) above the stagnant slab in the mantle transition zone and the deep dehydration of the stagnant slab as well. The Tengchong volcano in Southwest China is possibly caused by a similar process in BMW above the subducting Burma microplate (or Indian plate). The Hainan volcano in southernmost China seems to be a hotspot fed by a lower-mantle plume associated with the Pacific and Philippine Sea slabs' deep subduction in the east and the Indian slab's deep subduction in the west down to the lower mantle. The occurrence of deep earthquakes under the Japan Sea and the East Asia margin may be related to a metastable olivine wedge in the subducting Pacific slab. The stagnant slab finally collapses down to the bottom of the mantle, which may trigger upwelling of hot mantle materials from the lower mantle to the shallow mantle beneath the subducting slabs and cause the slab-plume interactions. Some of these issues, such as the origin of intraplate magmatism, are still controversial, and so further detailed studies are needed from now.

  3. Ciguatera fish poisoning in East Asia and southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Chan, Thomas Y K

    2015-06-01

    In the coastal countries of East Asia and Southeast Asia, ciguatera should be common because of the extensive tropical and subtropical coral reefs along the coasts and in the neighboring seas with ciguatoxic fishes. An extensive search of journal databases, the Internet and the government websites was performed to identify all reports of ciguatera from the regions. Based on the official data and large published case series, the incidence of ciguatera was higher in the coastal cities (Hong Kong, Foshan, Zhongshan) of southern China than in Japan (Okinawa Prefecture). In Singapore, ciguatera appeared to be almost unknown. In other countries, only isolated cases or small case series were reported, but under-reporting was assumed to be common. Ciguatera may cause severe acute illness and prolonged neurological symptoms. Ciguatera represents an important public health issue for endemic regions, with significant socio-economic impact. Coordinated strategies to improve risk assessment, risk management and risk communication are required. The systematic collection of accurate data on the incidence and epidemiology of ciguatera should enable better assessment and management of its risk. Much more work needs to be done to define the size threshold for important coral reef fish species from different regions, above which the risk of ciguatera significantly increases. PMID:26042615

  4. Ciguatera Fish Poisoning in East Asia and Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Thomas Y. K.

    2015-01-01

    In the coastal countries of East Asia and Southeast Asia, ciguatera should be common because of the extensive tropical and subtropical coral reefs along the coasts and in the neighboring seas with ciguatoxic fishes. An extensive search of journal databases, the Internet and the government websites was performed to identify all reports of ciguatera from the regions. Based on the official data and large published case series, the incidence of ciguatera was higher in the coastal cities (Hong Kong, Foshan, Zhongshan) of southern China than in Japan (Okinawa Prefecture). In Singapore, ciguatera appeared to be almost unknown. In other countries, only isolated cases or small case series were reported, but under-reporting was assumed to be common. Ciguatera may cause severe acute illness and prolonged neurological symptoms. Ciguatera represents an important public health issue for endemic regions, with significant socio-economic impact. Coordinated strategies to improve risk assessment, risk management and risk communication are required. The systematic collection of accurate data on the incidence and epidemiology of ciguatera should enable better assessment and management of its risk. Much more work needs to be done to define the size threshold for important coral reef fish species from different regions, above which the risk of ciguatera significantly increases. PMID:26042615

  5. Tomgraphic Structure of East Asia: Geodynamic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y. J.; Pei, S.; Zhao, D.; Yin, A.; Ning, J.; Chen, X.

    2004-12-01

    P-wave arrival times of both regional and teleseismic earthquakes were inverted to obtain mantle structures of East Asia. Most important findings of this regional tomography are as follows. (1) No fast P-wave velocity anomalies can be related to subducted oceanic slabs beneath the 660-km discontinuity; instead the subducted oceanic slabs become flattened and stagnant in the transition zone. (2) The western end of the flat stagnant slabs is located ~ 1500 km west of the active trench in the western Pacific, which is correlated with the prominent surface topographic break in eastern China, between the Erdos Plateau to the west and the North China plain in the east, along the NNE-trending Taihang Mountain Range (~105¡aE). Based on these observations, we suggested that vigorous mantle convection is operating within this horizontally expanded ¡°mantle wedge¡± above both the active subducting slabs in the western Pacific and the stagnant flat slabs beneath much of the North China plain. This horizontally expanded convection was probably resulted from both rapid eastward migration of the western Pacific trench system and the sinking of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic slabs now trapped at the 660-km transition zone. Both the widespread Cenozoic volcanism and associated extensional basins in East Asia could have been the manifestation of this vigorous upper mantle convection. Finally negative thermal anomaly associated with the stagnant slabs above the 660-km discontinuity has not only caused a broad depression of the boundary due to its negative Clapeyron slope but also effectively shielded the asthenosphere and continental lithosphere above from any possible influence of mantle plumes in the lower mantle.

  6. Large-scale phytogeographical patterns in East Asia in relation to latitudinal and climatic gradients

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Qian, H.; Song, J.-S.; Krestov, P.; Guo, Q.; Wu, Z.; Shen, X.; Guo, X.

    2003-01-01

    Aim: This paper aims at determining how different floristic elements (e.g. cosmopolitan, tropical, and temperate) change with latitude and major climate factors, and how latitude affects the floristic relationships between East Asia and the other parts of the world. Location: East Asia from the Arctic to tropical regions, an area crossing over 50?? of latitudes and covering the eastern part of China, Korea, Japan and the eastern part of Russia. Methods: East Asia is divided into forty-five geographical regions. Based on the similarity of their world-wide distributional patterns, a total of 2808 indigenous genera of seed plants found in East Asia were grouped into fourteen geographical elements, belonging to three major categories (cosmopolitan, tropical and temperate). The 50??-long latitudinal gradient of East Asia was divided into five latitudinal zones, each of c. 10??. Phytogeographical relationships of East Asia to latitude and climatic variables were examined based on the forty-five regional floras. Results: Among all geographical and climatic variables considered, latitude showed the strongest relationship to phytogeographical composition. Tropical genera (with pantropical, amphi-Pacific tropical, palaeotropical, tropical Asia-tropical Australia, tropical Asia-tropical Africa and tropical Asia geographical elements combined) accounted for c. 80% of the total genera at latitude 20??N and for c. 0% at latitude 55-60??N. In contrast, temperate genera (including holarctic, eastern Asia-North America, temperate Eurasia, temperate Asia, Mediterranean, western Asia to central Asia, central Asia and eastern Asia geographical elements) accounted for 15.5% in the southernmost latitude and for 80% at 55-60??N, from where northward the percentage tended to level off. The proportion of cosmopolitan genera increased gradually with latitude from 5% at the southernmost latitude to 21% at 55-60??N, where it levelled off northward. In general, the genera present in a more

  7. Growing Typhoon Influence on East Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Liguang; Wang, BIn; Geng, Shuqin

    2005-01-01

    Numerical model studies have suggested that the ongoing global warming will likely affect tropical cyclone activity. But so far little observed evidence has been detected to support the projected future changes. Using satellite-supported best-track data from 1965 to 2003, we show for the first time that over the past four decades the two prevailing typhoon tracks in the western North Pacific (WNP) have shifted westward significantly; the typhoon activity over the South China Sea has considerably decreased; and East Asia has experienced increasing typhoon influence. Our trajectory model simulation indicates that the long-term shifts in the typhoon tracks result primarily from the changes in the mean translation velocity of typhoons or the large-scale steering flow, which is associated with the westward expansion and strengthening of the WNP subtropical high.

  8. East Asia Regionalization Based on Receiver Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larmat, C. S.; Maceira, M.; Romanowicz, B. A.; Chai, C.; Ammon, C. J.; Zhang, H.

    2015-12-01

    We present here a first step toward a model of the seismic velocity structure through stochastic full waveform tomography of East Asia. Such inversion typically requires exploring thousands of variations of each parameter that is inverted to ensure reliable probabilistic inferences. Here we explore regionalization in order to reduce the dimension of the parameter space and identify regions with similar seismic characteristics that can be treated as a common block in the subsequent stochastic inversion. We follow the approach of Lekic and Romanowicz (2011) in which regionalization is performed through a cluster analysis of tomographic velocity models. Our analysis is based on teleseismic P-wave Receiver Functions (RFTNs) instead. We apply a K-means algorithm minimizing a distance metrics defined in the vector space of RFTNs. Different metrics have been tested to optimize the clustering. Coherence and association with known tectonic and physiographic features and/or established geophysical information is also tested. We first validate our clustering analysis with two different receiver functions datasets from USArray stations. A first set was built by stacking EARS receiver functions for each available station across all azimuths and with a Gaussian filter width of 2.5 Hz and small ray parameters (0.038 to 0.05 s/km). The second dataset was built by interpolation of the receiver function wavefield (Chai et al, 2015). The agreement with geological and tectonic regions of western US is better for the latter dataset. Our future inversion region is East Asia where remarkable instrumentation efforts open the door to high-resolution tomography studies at the continental scale. Our collaborators provided teleseismic P-wave receiver functions for 785 stations. Clustering results show agreement with known tectonic features of the area, and we will show our attempts of regionalization based on this information.

  9. Biomass-burning Aerosols in South East-Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment(BASE-ASIA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsay, Si-Chee; Hsu, Christina N.; King, Michael D.; Shu, Peter K.

    2002-01-01

    Biomass burning has been a regular practice for land clearing and land conversion in many countries, especially in Africa, South America, and South East Asia. Significant global sources of greenhouse gases (e.g., CO2, CH4), chemically active gases (e.g., NO, CO, HC, CH3Br), and atmospheric aerosols are produced by biomass-burning processes, which influence the Earth-atmosphere energetics and hence impact both global climate and tropospheric chemistry. Some gases and aerosols can serve as active cloud condensation nuclei, which play important role in determining the net radiation budget, precipitation rate, and cloud lifetime. Biomass burning also affects the biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen and carbon compounds from the soil to the atmosphere; the hydrological cycle (i.e., run off and evaporation); the reflectivity and emissivity of the land; and the stability of ecosystems and ecosystem biodiversity. Compared to Africa and South America, the climatology in South East Asia reveals quite different characteristics, showing distinct large-scale smoke and cloud sources and interaction regimes. The fresh water distribution in this region is highly dependent on monsoon rainfall; in fact, the predictability of the tropical climate system is much reduced during the boreal spring, which is associated with the peak season of biomass burning activities. Estimating the burning fuel (e.g., bark, branches, and wood), an important part of studying regional carbon cycle, may rely on utilizing a wide range of distinctive spectral features in the shortwave and longwave regions. Therefore, to accurately assess the impact of smoke aerosols in this region requires continuous observations from satellites, aircraft, networks of ground-based instruments and dedicated field experiments. A new initiative will be proposed and discussed.

  10. Out of southern East Asia: the natural history of domestic dogs across the world.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guo-Dong; Zhai, Weiwei; Yang, He-Chuan; Wang, Lu; Zhong, Li; Liu, Yan-Hu; Fan, Ruo-Xi; Yin, Ting-Ting; Zhu, Chun-Ling; Poyarkov, Andrei D; Irwin, David M; Hytönen, Marjo K; Lohi, Hannes; Wu, Chung-I; Savolainen, Peter; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2016-01-01

    The origin and evolution of the domestic dog remains a controversial question for the scientific community, with basic aspects such as the place and date of origin, and the number of times dogs were domesticated, open to dispute. Using whole genome sequences from a total of 58 canids (12 gray wolves, 27 primitive dogs from Asia and Africa, and a collection of 19 diverse breeds from across the world), we find that dogs from southern East Asia have significantly higher genetic diversity compared to other populations, and are the most basal group relating to gray wolves, indicating an ancient origin of domestic dogs in southern East Asia 33 000 years ago. Around 15 000 years ago, a subset of ancestral dogs started migrating to the Middle East, Africa and Europe, arriving in Europe at about 10 000 years ago. One of the out of Asia lineages also migrated back to the east, creating a series of admixed populations with the endemic Asian lineages in northern China before migrating to the New World. For the first time, our study unravels an extraordinary journey that the domestic dog has traveled on earth. PMID:26667385

  11. Out of southern East Asia: the natural history of domestic dogs across the world

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guo-Dong; Zhai, Weiwei; Yang, He-Chuan; Wang, Lu; Zhong, Li; Liu, Yan-Hu; Fan, Ruo-Xi; Yin, Ting-Ting; Zhu, Chun-Ling; Poyarkov, Andrei D; Irwin, David M; Hytönen, Marjo K; Lohi, Hannes; Wu, Chung-I; Savolainen, Peter; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2016-01-01

    The origin and evolution of the domestic dog remains a controversial question for the scientific community, with basic aspects such as the place and date of origin, and the number of times dogs were domesticated, open to dispute. Using whole genome sequences from a total of 58 canids (12 gray wolves, 27 primitive dogs from Asia and Africa, and a collection of 19 diverse breeds from across the world), we find that dogs from southern East Asia have significantly higher genetic diversity compared to other populations, and are the most basal group relating to gray wolves, indicating an ancient origin of domestic dogs in southern East Asia 33 000 years ago. Around 15 000 years ago, a subset of ancestral dogs started migrating to the Middle East, Africa and Europe, arriving in Europe at about 10 000 years ago. One of the out of Asia lineages also migrated back to the east, creating a series of admixed populations with the endemic Asian lineages in northern China before migrating to the New World. For the first time, our study unravels an extraordinary journey that the domestic dog has traveled on earth. PMID:26667385

  12. Multicentre studies of insecticide-treated durable wall lining in Africa and South-East Asia: entomological efficacy and household acceptability during one year of field use

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Indoor residual spraying (IRS) is a primary method of malaria vector control, but its potential impact is constrained by several inherent limitations: spraying must be repeated when insecticide residues decay, householders can tire of the annual imposition and campaign costs are recurrent. Durable lining (DL) can be considered an advanced form of long-lasting IRS where insecticide is gradually released from an aesthetically attractive wall lining material to provide vector control for several years. A multicentre trial was carried out in Equatorial Guinea, Ghana, Mali, South Africa and Vietnam to assess the feasibility, durability, bioefficacy and household acceptability of DL, compared to conventional IRS or insecticide-treated curtains (LLITCs), in a variety of operational settings. Methods This study was conducted in 220 households in traditional rural villages over 12-15 months. In all sites, rolls of DL were cut to fit house dimensions and fixed to interior wall surfaces (usually with nails and caps) by trained teams. Acceptability was assessed using a standardized questionnaire covering such topics as installation, exposure reactions, entomology, indoor environment, aesthetics and durability. Bioefficacy of interventions was evaluated using WHO cone bioassay tests at regular intervals throughout the year. Results The deltamethrin DL demonstrated little to no decline in bioefficacy over 12-15 months, supported by minimal loss of insecticide content. By contrast, IRS displayed a significant decrease in bioactivity by 6 months and full loss after 12 months. The majority of participants in DL households perceived reductions in mosquito density (93%) and biting (82%), but no changes in indoor temperature (83%). Among those households that wanted to retain the DL, 73% cited protective reasons, 20% expressed a desire to keep theirs for decoration and 7% valued both qualities equally. In Equatorial Guinea, when offered a choice of vector control product at

  13. Very short-lived bromomethanes measured by the CARIBIC observatory over the North Atlantic, Africa and South-East Asia during 2009-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisher, A.; Oram, D. E.; Laube, J. C.; Mills, G. P.; van Velthoven, P.; Zahn, A.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.

    2013-11-01

    Short-lived organic brominated compounds make up a significant part (~20%) of the organic bromine budget in the atmosphere. Emissions of these compounds are highly variable and there are limited measurements, particularly in the extra-tropical upper troposphere/lower stratosphere and tropical troposphere. Measurements of five short-lived bromomethanes (VSLB) were made in air samples collected on the CARIBIC project aircraft over three flight routes; Germany to Venezuela/Columbia during 2009-2011, Germany to South Africa during 2010 and 2011 and Germany to Thailand/Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia during 2012 and 2013. In the tropical troposphere, as the most important entrance region to the stratosphere, we observe a total mean organic bromine derived from these compounds across all flights at 10-12 km altitude of 3.4 ± 1.5 ppt. Individual mean tropical tropospheric mixing ratios across all flights were 0.43, 0.74, 0.14, 0.23 and 0.11 ppt for CHBr3, CH2Br2, CHBr2Cl, CHBrCl2 and CH2BrCl respectively. The highest levels of VSLS-derived bromine (4.20 ± 0.56 ppt) were observed in flights between Bangkok and Kuala Lumpur indicating that the South China Sea is an important source region for these compounds. Across all routes, CHBr3 and CH2Br2 accounted for 34% (4.7-71) and 48% (14-73) respectively of total bromine derived from the analysed VSLB in the tropical mid-upper troposphere totalling 82% (54-89). In samples collected between Germany and Venezuela/Columbia, we find decreasing mean mixing ratios with increasing potential temperature in the extra-tropics. Tropical mean mixing ratios are higher than extra-tropical values between 340-350 K indicating that rapid uplift is important in determining mixing ratios in the lower tropical tropopause layer in the West Atlantic tropics. O3 was used as a tracer for stratospherically influenced air and we detect rapidly decreasing mixing ratios for all VSLB above ~100 ppb O3 corresponding to the extra-tropical tropopause layer.

  14. Late Cenozoic Moisture History of East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trauth, M. H.; Maslin, M. A.; Deino, A.; Strecker, M. R.

    2004-12-01

    Evidence from fluvio-lacustrine sediments in ten separate basins in the Ethiopian and Kenya rifts suggests there were three protracted humid periods during the Late Cenozoic; at 2.7 - 2.5, 1.9 - 1.7, and 1.1 - 0.9 million years before present. These wet periods are coeval with known increases of aridity in parts of North West and North East Africa, indicating significant regional shifts in African climate. These three East African wet periods correspond to major global climatic changes as well as maxima in eccentricity and thus precession, suggesting a combined global and local causation. These climatic changes were important for the speciation and dispersal of mammals and hominids in East Africa as it implies that key steps in human evolution occurred during relatively humid periods in a region containing extensive deep lakes.

  15. Characteristics of ionospheric storms in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiao; Wang, Guojun; Shi, Jiankui

       The ionosphere experiences intense response during the geomagnetic storm and it varies with latitude and longitude. The DPS-4 digisonde measurements and GPS-TEC data of ionospheric stations located at different latitudes in the longitudinal sector of 90-130E during 2002 to 2012 were analyzed to investigate the ionospheric effects in the different latitude of East Asia during geomagnetic storm. About 70 geomagnetic storms are selected according to the Dst index and observed data and they are in different seasons and different solar activity levels. A few quiet days’ averages of data before geomagnetic storm were used as the undisturbed level. Results show that for the middle and high latitude, the short-lived positive disturbance associated with the initial phase of the every storm was observed in each season and then the disturbances were negative till the termination of storm. At the low latitude, storm-time disturbances of foF2 have obvious diurnal, seasonal and solar cycle characteristics. Generally, geomagnetic activity will cause foF2 to increase at daytime and decrease at nighttime except for the summer in low solar activity period. The intensity of response of foF2 is stronger at nighttime than that at daytime. The negative ionospheric storm effect is the strongest in summer and the positive ionospheric storm effect is the strongest in winter. In high solar activity period, the diurnal variation of the response of foF2 is very pronounced in each season, and the strong ionospheric response can last several days. In low solar activity period, ionospheric response has very pronounced diurnal variation in winter only. It’s notable that geomagnetic activities occurred at local time nighttime can cause stronger and longer responses of foF2 at the low latitude. All in all, the obvious negative phase ionospheric storms often occurred at the low latitude. Moreover a notable phenomenon was observed for the low latitude, there are the intensive

  16. East Asia Review, 1973. To sum up.

    PubMed

    Keeny, S M

    1974-05-01

    Observations are made related to the review of family planning activities in East Asia in 1973. The number of new acceptors for the region increased from 2.7 million in 1972 to 3.4 million in 1973. The leaders were Indonesia, which almost doubled its achievement of calendar year 1972, the Philippines, and Korea. In Thailand, the number of new acceptors dropped by about 10%. South Vietnam is the only country in the region without an official policy. Most couples still think that the ideal number of children is 4, with at least 2 sons. Some religious opposition does exist, particularly with reference to sterlization and abortion. More attention is being paid to women in their 20s. Sterilization and condoms are becoming more popular. Korea reports a sharp increase in vasectomies. Better methods and continuation rates should be stressed. In Taiwan a couple who start with 1 method and continue to practice some method lower their reproduction rate by 80%. More responsibility is being delegated to nurses and midwives, but too slowly. In Indonesia, the number of field workers rose from 3774 in 1972 to 6275 in 1973. The Philippines and Thailand are experimenting to see what kind of workers get best results and under what kind of salary and incentive arrangements. In-service training tends to be neglected, but preservice training is improving. Costs, in general, have risen, though in Korea the cost per acceptor has dropped from US$8.00 to US$7.80. Korea and Taiwan have reduced their annual population growth rates by more than 1/3 in 10 years, from 30 to 19-20 per 1000 each. Singapore's rate is 17 and Hong Kong's 14 (exclusive of inmigration). The number of couples currently practicing contraception in Singapore is 71%. Target systems assigning quotas to clinics are generally used except in Thailand and Malaysia, where programs emphasize maternal and child health, rather than population planning. Most programs require about 10 years to get the annual growth rate down to 2% by

  17. Estimating the burden of paratyphoid a in Asia and Africa.

    PubMed

    Arndt, Michael B; Mosites, Emily M; Tian, Mu; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H; Mokhdad, Ali H; Meller, Margaret; Ochiai, Rion L; Walson, Judd L

    2014-06-01

    Despite the increasing availability of typhoid vaccine in many regions, global estimates of mortality attributable to enteric fever appear stable. While both Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) and serovar Paratyphi (S. Paratyphi) cause enteric fever, limited data exist estimating the burden of S. Paratyphi, particularly in Asia and Africa. We performed a systematic review of both English and Chinese-language databases to estimate the regional burden of paratyphoid within Africa and Asia. Distinct from previous reviews of the topic, we have presented two separate measures of burden; both incidence and proportion of enteric fever attributable to paratyphoid. Included articles reported laboratory-confirmed Salmonella serovar classification, provided clear methods on sampling strategy, defined the age range of participants, and specified the time period of the study. A total of 64 full-text articles satisfied inclusion criteria and were included in the qualitative synthesis. Paratyphoid A was commonly identified as a cause of enteric fever throughout Asia. The highest incidence estimates in Asia came from China; four studies estimated incidence rates of over 150 cases/100,000 person-years. Paratyphoid A burden estimates from Africa were extremely limited and with the exception of Nigeria, few population or hospital-based studies from Africa reported significant Paratyphoid A burden. While significant gaps exist in the existing population-level estimates of paratyphoid burden in Asia and Africa, available data suggest that paratyphoid A is a significant cause of enteric fever in Asia. The high variability in documented incidence and proportion estimates of paratyphoid suggest considerable geospatial variability in the burden of paratyphoid fever. Additional efforts to monitor enteric fever at the population level will be necessary in order to accurately quantify the public health threat posed by S. Paratyphi A, and to improve the prevention and treatment of

  18. Estimating the Burden of Paratyphoid A in Asia and Africa

    PubMed Central

    Arndt, Michael B.; Mosites, Emily M.; Tian, Mu; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H.; Mokhdad, Ali H.; Meller, Margaret; Ochiai, Rion L.; Walson, Judd L.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the increasing availability of typhoid vaccine in many regions, global estimates of mortality attributable to enteric fever appear stable. While both Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) and serovar Paratyphi (S. Paratyphi) cause enteric fever, limited data exist estimating the burden of S. Paratyphi, particularly in Asia and Africa. We performed a systematic review of both English and Chinese-language databases to estimate the regional burden of paratyphoid within Africa and Asia. Distinct from previous reviews of the topic, we have presented two separate measures of burden; both incidence and proportion of enteric fever attributable to paratyphoid. Included articles reported laboratory-confirmed Salmonella serovar classification, provided clear methods on sampling strategy, defined the age range of participants, and specified the time period of the study. A total of 64 full-text articles satisfied inclusion criteria and were included in the qualitative synthesis. Paratyphoid A was commonly identified as a cause of enteric fever throughout Asia. The highest incidence estimates in Asia came from China; four studies estimated incidence rates of over 150 cases/100,000 person-years. Paratyphoid A burden estimates from Africa were extremely limited and with the exception of Nigeria, few population or hospital-based studies from Africa reported significant Paratyphoid A burden. While significant gaps exist in the existing population-level estimates of paratyphoid burden in Asia and Africa, available data suggest that paratyphoid A is a significant cause of enteric fever in Asia. The high variability in documented incidence and proportion estimates of paratyphoid suggest considerable geospatial variability in the burden of paratyphoid fever. Additional efforts to monitor enteric fever at the population level will be necessary in order to accurately quantify the public health threat posed by S. Paratyphi A, and to improve the prevention and treatment of

  19. Directory of Engineering Education Institutions: Africa, Asia, Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    This directory presents data on 458 degree-awarding engineering education institutions in countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Data include the general educational pattern of the country and specific institutional information such as: structure, staff, enrollment, research, specializations offered, address, academic period, admissions…

  20. South-East Asia's Trembling Rainforests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, John

    1991-01-01

    This discussion focuses on potential solutions to the degradation of rainforests in Southeast Asia caused by indiscriminate logging, inappropriate road-construction techniques, forest fires, and the encroachment upon watersheds by both agricultural concerns and peasant farmers. Vignettes illustrate the impact of this degradation upon the animals,…

  1. Africa, Asia, Europe, and Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loh, Eudora I.

    1992-01-01

    This annotated bibliography lists 30 government documents published between 1988 and 1991 by Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Burundi, Chile, China, Columbia, Denmark, France, Gambia, Guinea Bissau, Hong Kong, India, Italy, Luxembourg, Mexico, Nepal, Nigeria, Portugal, Rwanda, South Africa, and Thailand. Topics addressed include the environment,…

  2. Africa, Asia, Europe, and Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loh, Eudora I.

    1994-01-01

    Annotates 25 publications from 19 countries: Bolivia, Brazil, Cape Verde, Chile, Dominican Republic, Hungary, India, Ireland, Jamaica, Malaysia, Mexico, Morocco, Mozambique, Netherlands, Niger, Nigeria, Peru, South Africa, and Venezuela. Topics include the environment, women's role, and household consumption and expenditures. The publication of an…

  3. Collaboration in Cultural Heritage Digitisation in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hyuk-Jin

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review the current status of collaboration in cultural heritage preservation in East Asia, including digital projects, and to suggest practical improvements based on a cultural structuralism perspective. Design/methodology/approach: Through exploratory research, the paper addresses aspects for successful…

  4. History Education and Reconciliation: Comparative Perspectives on East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Un-suk, Ed.; Kondo, Takahiro, Ed.; Yang, Biao, Ed.; Pingel, Falk, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The legacy of crimes committed during the Second World War in East Asia is still a stumbling block for reconciliation and trustful cultural relations between South Korea, China and Japan. The presentation of this issue in history school books is in the focus of a heated public and academic debate. This book written by historians and pedagogues…

  5. The Progress of Globalization and Educational Reforms in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shimbo, Atsuko

    2009-01-01

    The symposium entitled "Social Changes in East Asia and Educational reforms: China, Korea, and Singapore" suggested that these countries are carrying out rather drastic educational reforms in the context of rapid social changes. The knowledge gained from the symposium also has important suggestions for Japanese educational reform. In addition, as…

  6. An evaluation of ozone dry deposition simulations in East Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Park, R.; Hong, Seungkyu K.; Kwon, Hyoung-Ahn; Kim, Saewung; Guenther, Alex B.; Woo, Jung-Hun; Loughner, C. P.

    2014-08-11

    We used a 3-D regional atmospheric chemistry transport model (WRF-Chem) to examine processes that determine O3 in East Asia; in particular, we focused on O3 dry deposition, which is an uncertain research area due to insufficient observation and numerical studies in East Asia. Here, we compare two widely used dry deposition parameterization schemes, Wesely and M3DRY, which are used in the WRF-Chem and CMAQ models, respectively. The O3 dry deposition velocities simulated using the two aforementioned schemes under identical meteorological conditions show considerable differences (a factor of 2) due to surface resistance parameterization discrepancies. The O3 concentration differed by up to 10 ppbv for the monthly mean. The simulated and observed dry deposition velocities were compared, which showed that the Wesely scheme model is consistent with the observations and successfully reproduces the observed diurnal variation. We conduct several sensitivity simulations by changing the land use data, the surface resistance of the water and the model’s spatial resolution to examine the factors that affect O3 concentrations in East Asia. As shown, the model was considerably sensitive to the input parameters, which indicates a high uncertainty for such O3 dry deposition simulations. Observations are necessary to constrain the dry deposition parameterization and input data to improve the East Asia air quality models.

  7. University Restructuring in East Asia: Trends, Challenges and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, David; Lo, William

    2008-01-01

    This concluding article aims to pull together the analysis undertaken in the preceding articles in this special issue. By sketching an overview of the university reforms and developments revealed in the sectoral articles, it draws out the trends of university restructuring in East Asia. It then projects the significances of these trends in terms…

  8. Education and Development in East Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Paul, Ed.; Sweeting, Anthony, Ed.

    This book examines the specific role that formal education has played in the development process of the East Asian regions since World War II. The essays emphasize education's role as a source of growth and analyze its links with economic, social, and political domains in the post-war period. The writers hope to demonstrate both the changing…

  9. COPD in Asia: where East meets West.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wan C; Ng, Tze P

    2008-02-01

    COPD is a global health concern, and is a major cause of chronic morbidity and mortality worldwide. According to the World Health Organization, it is currently the sixth leading cause of death in the world, and further increases in the prevalence and mortality of the disease is predicted for the coming decades. These increases are mainly linked to the epidemic of tobacco exposure and indoor and outdoor air pollution in Asian countries. The burden of COPD in Asia is currently greater than that in developed Western countries, both in terms of the total number of deaths and the burden of disease, as measured in years of life lost and years spent living with disability. The types of health-care policies and the practice of medicine vary considerably among the regions of Asia and have an impact on the burden of disease. Treatment aims in Asian countries are based on evidence-based management guidelines. Barriers to the implementation of disease management guidelines are related to issues of resource conflict and lack of organizational support rather than cultural differences in medical practice. To reduce this burden of COPD in Asian countries, there is a need for a multifaceted approach in improving awareness of prevalence and disease burden, in facilitating accurate diagnosis of COPD among chronic respiratory diseases, in championing health policies that reduce the burden of the main risk factors for COPD and in the wider use of evidence-based management for COPD. PMID:18252918

  10. Late Cenozoic Moisture History of East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trauth, Martin H.; Maslin, Mark A.; Deino, Alan; Strecker, Manfred R.

    2005-09-01

    Lake sediments in 10 Ethiopian, Kenyan, and Tanzanian rift basins suggest that there were three humid periods at 2.7 to 2.5 million years ago (Ma), 1.9 to 1.7 Ma, and 1.1 to 0.9 Ma, superimposed on the longer-term aridification of East Africa. These humid periods correlate with increased aridity in northwest and northeast Africa and with substantial global climate transitions. These episodes could have had important impacts on the speciation and dispersal of mammals and hominins, because a number of key events, such as the origin of the genus Homo and the evolution of the species Homo erectus, took place in this region during that time.

  11. Antenatal Depression in East Asia: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Schatz, David Beck; Liu, Chia-Yih

    2012-01-01

    This current study's goal is to summarize the literature regarding Antenatal Depression (AD) in the East Asian countries of Taiwan, China (including Hong Kong and Macau), Japan, and Korea. The main search utilized a Pub med Chinese Electronic Periodical Service (CEPS) literature review using keywords 'AD', and 'Prenatal Depression' with searches for 'Japan', 'Korea', 'Taiwan', 'Hong Kong' and Macau'. The rates of AD in East Asia appear to be relatively close to those in the Western literature, although certain studies showed slightly decreased rates. Many of the risk factors for AD were the same in the Eastern and Western literature. These risk factors included demographic factors such as younger age, smoking, low education and income, and unemployment. Other risk factors were physical symptoms such as menstrual pains and nausea. Finally, psychological factors such as a poor response to the pregnancy, poor spousal support, and poor family support were associated with AD. With regard to treatment, there were no studies examining the administration of psychotropic medications for AD. The literature from East Asia both confirmed many Western findings and made unique contributions to the literature on AD. The treatment of AD in East Asia appears to be an entity which, despite its morbidity, has not been adequately studied. PMID:22707960

  12. Antenatal depression in East Asia: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Schatz, David Beck; Hsiao, Mei-Chun; Liu, Chia-Yih

    2012-06-01

    This current study's goal is to summarize the literature regarding Antenatal Depression (AD) in the East Asian countries of Taiwan, China (including Hong Kong and Macau), Japan, and Korea. The main search utilized a Pub med Chinese Electronic Periodical Service (CEPS) literature review using keywords 'AD', and 'Prenatal Depression' with searches for 'Japan', 'Korea', 'Taiwan', 'Hong Kong' and Macau'. The rates of AD in East Asia appear to be relatively close to those in the Western literature, although certain studies showed slightly decreased rates. Many of the risk factors for AD were the same in the Eastern and Western literature. These risk factors included demographic factors such as younger age, smoking, low education and income, and unemployment. Other risk factors were physical symptoms such as menstrual pains and nausea. Finally, psychological factors such as a poor response to the pregnancy, poor spousal support, and poor family support were associated with AD. With regard to treatment, there were no studies examining the administration of psychotropic medications for AD. The literature from East Asia both confirmed many Western findings and made unique contributions to the literature on AD. The treatment of AD in East Asia appears to be an entity which, despite its morbidity, has not been adequately studied. PMID:22707960

  13. Country watch: South-East Asia.

    PubMed

    Bagasao, T M

    1996-01-01

    Nongovernmental organizations (NGO) and community-based groups working on HIV/AIDS in Thailand, Sri Lanka, the Philippines, Malaysia, and other countries participated in a February 1991 workshop during which they recognized that human rights are inextricably linked with HIV prevention, the provision of services, and improving the quality of life of people living with HIV/AIDS and other vulnerable, marginalized groups. They also noted how rarely environments were supportive with respect to either legal structures or sociocultural norms. The groups resolved to act as a watchdog, an advocacy and lobbying group to monitor legislation, provide public information, and empower people with HIV/AIDS as visible and active partners. Meeting again in 1993 to assess progress, the groups found few gains in addressing human rights violations such as the denial of medical services to people with HIV/AIDS and the deportation of HIV-positive migrant workers. The Asia Pacific Council of AIDS Service Organizations (APCASO) responded by developing a pilot documentation, monitoring, and reporting system in the region to record HIV-related human rights violations. That system is described. PMID:12347180

  14. Marine incursion into East Asia: a forgotten driving force of biodiversity

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lu; Hou, Zhonge; Li, Shuqiang

    2013-01-01

    Episodic marine incursion has been a major driving force in the formation of present-day diversity. Marine incursion is considered to be one of the most productive ‘species pumps’ particularly because of its division and coalescence effects. Marine incursion events and their impacts on diversity are well documented from South America, North America and Africa; however, their history and impacts in continental East Asia largely remain unknown. Here, we propose a marine incursion scenario occurring in East Asia during the Miocene epoch, 10–17 Ma. Our molecular phylogenetic analysis of Platorchestia talitrids revealed that continental terrestrial populations (Platorchestia japonica) form a monophyletic group that is the sister group to the Northwest Pacific coastal species Platorchestia pacifica. The divergence time between the two species coincides with Middle Miocene high global sea levels. We suggest that the inland form arose as a consequence of a marine incursion event. This is the first solid case documenting the impact of marine incursion on extant biodiversity in continental East Asia. We believe that such incursion event has had major impacts on other organisms and has played an important role in the formation of biodiversity patterns in the region. PMID:23446524

  15. Food in health security in South East Asia.

    PubMed

    Tuyen, Le Danh

    2009-01-01

    With a global economic crisis, undernourished peoples in South East Asia, as elsewhere, face even greater food insecurity. Future challenges to food availability include increasing food prices, increasing population size and climate change. National policies are required which emphasise improved intersectoral coordination, enhanced government credibility and accountability, as well as a shift in food aid to investment in agriculture and the empowerment of independent institutions. PMID:19965337

  16. Biogeography of Drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in East and Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Robert Liu, Fu-Guo; Tsaur, Shun-Chern; Huang, Hsiao-Ting

    2015-01-01

    The causes of high biological diversity in biodiversity hotspots have long been a major subject of study in conservation biology. To investigate this matter, we conducted a phylogeographic study of five Drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae) species from East and Southeast Asia: Drosophila albomicans Duda, D. formosana Duda, D. immigrans Sturtevant, D. melanogaster Meigen, and D. simulans Sturtevant. We collected 185 samples from 28 localities in eight countries. From each collected individual, we sequenced the autosomal extra sex comb gene (esc) and seven mitochondrial genes, including nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrate-reductase dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4), ND4L, tRNA-His, tRNA-Pro, tRNA-Thr, partial ND5, and partial ND6. Phylogenetic analyses using maximum- likelihood and Bayesian methods revealed interesting population structure and identified the existence of two distinct D. formosana lineages (Southeast Asian and Taiwanese populations). Genetic differentiation among groups of D. immigrans suggests the possibility of endemic speciation in Taiwan. In contrast, D. melanogaster remained one extensively large population throughout East and Southeast Asia, including nearby islets. A molecular clock was used to estimate divergence times, which were compared with past geographical events to infer evolutionary scenarios. Our findings suggest that interglacial periods may have caused population isolation, thus enhancing population differentiation more strongly for some of the Drosophila species. The population structure of each Drosophila species in East and Southeast Asia has been influenced by past geographic events. PMID:26078303

  17. The Precambrian crustal structure of East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tugume, Fred Alex

    In this thesis, the Precambrian crustal structure of East African is investigated along with the crustal structures of three Cenozoic rift basins located in the western branch of the East African Rift System (EARS). In the first part of the thesis, P-wave receiver functions are modeled using the H-k method to obtain new insights about the bulk composition and thickness of the crust for Precambrian terrains throughout East Africa. The average crustal thickness for all but one of the terrains is between 37 and 39 km. An exception is the Ubendian terrain, which has an average crustal thickness 42 km. In all terrains, the average Poisson's ratio is similar, ranging from 0.25 to 0.26, indicating a bulk crustal composition that is felsic to intermediate. The main finding of this study is that crustal structure is similar across all terrains, which span more than 4.0 Ga of earth history. There is no discernable difference in the crustal thicknesses and Poisson's ratios between the Archean and Proterozoic terrains, or between the Proterozoic terrains, unlike the variability in Precambrian crustal structure found in many other continents. In the second part of the thesis, a joint inversion of Rayleigh wave phase and group velocities and receiver functions was used to investigate the shear wave velocity structure of the crust and uppermost mantle beneath the Precambrian terrains of East Africa. In comparison with other areas of similar age in southern and western Africa where the same joint inversion method has been applied, I find that while there is little difference in the mean shear wave velocities for the entire crust across all of the Precambrian terrains, and also few differences in the thickness of the crust, there exists substantial variability in lower crustal structure. This variability is reflected primarily in the thickness of the lower crustal layers with shear wave velocities ≥ 4.0 km/s. This variability is found both within terrains of the same age (i

  18. Somalian Earthquakes of May, 1980, East Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Ruegg, J.C.; Lepine, J.C.; Tarantola, A.; Leveque, J.J.

    1981-04-01

    A seismic crisis, with a m/sub b/ = 5.3 main shock, occured in the Somali Republic East Africa (10 /sup 0/N, 43 /sup 0/E) from April to November 1980. Up to 2000 earthquakes with M/sub L/>2 have been recorded during this period. This earthquake sequence is of particular interest because it occurred in a seismically inactive zone and include a rather long aftershock sequence. Two groups of epicenters were identified using a relative location procedure. Aftershocks observed during the first two weeks fall very close to the Borama City, while latter shocks are situated 10km west. This may suggest that the second group of earthquakes has been induced continental margin between the Somalian Plateau shield and the quasi-oceanic crust of the Afar-Gulf of Aden region, remains active to day and is relevant to intraplate seismicity.

  19. Pastoral and environmental security in East Africa.

    PubMed

    Ornas, A H

    1990-06-01

    The most vulnerable people in Third World countries are often accused of destroying forests and fragile ecosystems and of practising destructive forms of agriculture and animal husbandry. The key to environmental sustainability, however, lies in more reliable production and food security at the local level. This article focuses on individual and household security amongst dryland herders in East Africa. The most crucial aspect of pastoral viability is the maintenance of a balance between family herd and size of household. Risk-spreading, through dependence on relatives, the borrowing of animals, redistribution through marriage etc. is a general principle of social behaviour amongst these peoples. Consideration of local-level security, furthermore, reveals the connection between ecological stress and political conflict. Only by establishing secure access to food for individuals and families can sustainable development and political security, not only at the local but also at the national and international levels, be achieved. PMID:20958697

  20. Aerosol impacts on climate and environment over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakata, M.; Sano, I.; Mukai, S.

    2014-12-01

    It is well known that the aerosol distribution in East Asia is complex due to both the increasing emissions of the anthropogenic aerosols associated with economic growth and the behavior of natural dusts. Therefore, detailed observations of atmospheric particles in East Asian are important. It is concerned about the change of concentration of aerosols causes various effects on the climate by directly and indirectly modifying the optical properties and lifetimes of cloud. In addition to radiation budget change, aerosol has a significant potential to change cloud and precipitation. These circulation fields change influence on emission of natural aerosols such as dust aerosols and sea salt aerosols. Also, air pollution in megacities in East Asia has become a serious problem. Especially problematic are fine particles called PM2.5, whose diameter is 2.5 mm or less. Particulate matter (PM) pollution as indicated by high PM2.5 readings will cause a spike in the mortality rate of patients suffering from heart and lung diseases. Because fine particles are much smaller than inhalable coarse particles, the can penetrate deeper into the lungs and cause more severe effects on human health. Anthropogenic sources of PM2.5 include automobiles, factories, coal-burning power plants, and heaters in homes. It is well known that the size of dust particles decreases during long-range transport via westerly winds, and the resulting dust storms can contain high concentrations of fine particles. Accordingly, PM2.5 concentrations correspond well to both anthropogenic and dust aerosols. This work intends to investigate impacts of aerosol on regional climate change and environment over East Asia using observations and model simulations.

  1. Global warming threatens agricultural productivity in Africa and South Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sultan, Benjamin

    2012-12-01

    The Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC; Christensen et al 2007) has, with greater confidence than previous reports, warned the international community that the increase in anthropogenic greenhouse gases emissions will result in global climate change. One of the most direct and threatening impacts it may have on human societies is the potential consequences on global crop production. Indeed agriculture is considered as the most weather-dependent of all human activities (Hansen 2002) since climate is a primary determinant for agricultural productivity. The potential impact of climate change on crop productivity is an additional strain on the global food system which is already facing the difficult challenge of increasing food production to feed a projected 9 billion people by 2050 with changing consumption patterns and growing scarcity of water and land (Beddington 2010). In some regions such as Sub-Saharan Africa or South Asia that are already food insecure and where most of the population increase and economic development will take place, climate change could be the additional stress that pushes systems over the edge. A striking example, if needed, is the work from Collomb (1999) which estimates that by 2050 food needs will more than quintuple in Africa and more than double in Asia. Better knowledge of climate change impacts on crop productivity in those vulnerable regions is crucial to inform policies and to support adaptation strategies that may counteract the adverse effects. Although there is a growing literature on the impact of climate change on crop productivity in tropical regions, it is difficult to provide a consistent assessment of future yield changes because of large uncertainties in regional climate change projections, in the response of crops to environmental change (rainfall, temperature, CO2 concentration), in the coupling between climate models and crop productivity functions, and in the adaptation of

  2. Uncertainties in calculating precipitation climatology in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J.; Park, S. K.

    2016-02-01

    This study examines the uncertainty in calculating the fundamental climatological characteristics of precipitation in the East Asia region from multiple fine-resolution gridded analysis data sets based on in situ rain gauge observations and data assimilations. Five observation-based gridded precipitation data sets are used to derive the long-term means, standard deviations in lieu of interannual variability and linear trends over the 28-year period from 1980 to 2007. Both the annual and summer (June-July-August) mean precipitation is examined. The agreement amongst these precipitation data sets is examined using two metrics including the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) defined as the ratio between long-term means and the corresponding standard deviations, and Taylor diagrams, which allow examinations of the pattern correlation, the standard deviation, and the centered root mean square error. It is found that the five gauge-based precipitation analysis data sets agree well in the long-term mean and interannual variability in most of the East Asia region including eastern China, Manchuria, South Korea, and Japan, which are densely populated and have fairly high-density observation networks. The regions of large inter-data-set variations include Tibetan Plateau, Mongolia, northern Indo-China, and North Korea. The regions of large uncertainties are typically lightly populated and are characterized by severe terrain and/or extremely high elevations. Unlike the long-term mean and interannual variability, agreement between data sets in the linear trend is weak, both for the annual and summer mean values. In most of the East Asia region, the SNR for the linear trend is below 0.5: the inter-data-set variability exceeds the multi-data ensemble mean. The uncertainty in the spatial distribution of long-term means among these data sets occurs both in the spatial pattern and variability, but the uncertainty for the interannual variability and time trend is much larger in the

  3. Uncertainties in calculating precipitation climatology in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J.; Park, S. K.

    2015-08-01

    This study examines the uncertainty in calculating the fundamental climatological characteristics of precipitation in the East Asia region from multiple fine-resolution gridded analysis datasets based on in-situ rain gauge observations. Five observation-based gridded precipitation datasets are used to derive the long-term means, standard deviations in lieu of interannual variability and linear trends over the 28-year period from 1980 to 2007. Both the annual and summer (June-July-August) mean precipitation is examined. The agreement amongst these precipitation datasets are examined using multiple metrics including the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) defined as the ratio between long-term means and the corresponding standard deviations, and Taylor diagrams which allows examinations of the pattern correlation, the standard deviation, and the centered root mean square error. It is found that the five gauge-based precipitation analysis datasets agree well in the long-term mean and interannual variability in most of the East Asia region including eastern China, Manchuria, South Korea, and Japan, which are densely populated and have fairly high density observation networks. The regions of large inter-dataset variations include Tibetan Plateau, Mongolia, northern Indo-China, and North Korea. The regions of large uncertainties are typically lightly populated and are characterized by severe terrain and/or extreme high elevations. Unlike the long-term mean and interannual variability, agreements between datasets in the linear trend is weak, both for the annual and summer mean values. In most of the East Asia region, the SNR for the linear trend is below 0.5, i.e., the inter-dataset variability exceeds the multi-data ensemble mean. The uncertainty in the spatial distribution of long-term means among these datasets occurs both in the spatial pattern and variability, but the uncertainty for the interannual variability and time trend is much larger in the variability than in the

  4. Analysis of human infectious avian influenza virus: hemagglutinin genetic characteristics in Asia and Africa from 2004 to 2009.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jirong; Lei, Fumin

    2010-09-01

    In the present study, we used nucleotide and protein sequences of avian influenza virus H5N1, which were obtained in Asia and Africa, analyzed HA proteins using ClustalX1.83 and MEGA4.0, and built a genetic evolutionary tree of HA nucleotides. The analysis revealed that the receptor specificity amino acid of A/HK/213/2003, A/Turkey/65596/2006 and etc mutated into QNG, which could bind with á-2, 3 galactose and á-2, 6 galactose. A mutation might thus take place and lead to an outbreak of human infections of avian influenza virus. The mutations of HA protein amino acids from 2004 to 2009 coincided with human infections provided by the World Health Organization, indicating a "low-high-highest-high-low" pattern. We also found out that virus strains in Asia are from different origins: strains from Southeast Asia and East Asia are of the same origin, whereas those from West Asia, South Asia and Africa descend from one ancestor. The composition of the phylogenetic tree and mutations of key site amino acids in HA proteins reflected the fact that the majority of strains are regional and long term, and virus diffusions exist between China, Laos, Malaysia, Indonesia, Azerbaijan, Turkey and Iraq. We would advise that pertinent vaccines be developed and due attention be paid to the spread of viruses between neighboring countries and the dangers of virus mutation and evolution. PMID:21392344

  5. Night Pass over Central Africa and the Middle East

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video over Central Africa and the Middle East was taken by the crew of Expedition 29 aboard the International Space Station. This sequence of shots was taken on Oct. 1, 2011, from 21:20:24 to ...

  6. Ozone export from East Asia: The role of PAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhe; Worden, John R.; Payne, Vivienne H.; Zhu, Liye; Fischer, Emily; Walker, Thomas; Jones, Dylan B. A.

    2016-06-01

    Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) is an important ozone (O3) precursor. The lifetime of PAN is approximately 1 month in the free troposphere, and this allows O3 production to occur in pollution plumes at intercontinental distances from its source. In this study we use the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS)-Chem global chemical transport model, new satellite measurements of PAN from the Aura Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES), and data from the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) field campaign over North America, to study the role of natural and anthropogenic Asian emissions on free tropospheric (900-400 hPa) PAN distributions and subsequent O3 production. Using the ARCTAS data with GEOS-Chem, we show that while GEOS-Chem is unbiased with respect to the aircraft data, TES version 7 PAN data are biased high for regions with surface temperatures colder than 285 K. However, GEOS-Chem and TES measurements provide a consistent representation (within 15% difference) of PAN abundance over East Asia. Because of the good agreement between model and observations, we use the GEOS-Chem model to evaluate the sources of PAN precursors and the effect of free tropospheric PAN on the export of O3 from Asia to North America. The GEOS-Chem model results show that the largest contributors to free tropospheric PAN over Asia and the northern Pacific are anthropogenic and soil NOx emissions. Biomass burning emissions have important contributions to free tropospheric PAN over northern Pacific (25% in April), while the contribution from lightning over northern Pacific is significant in July (40%). Strong springtime transport in April results in more export of free tropospheric PAN and O3 from East Asian emissions. This free tropospheric PAN contributes about 35% to the abundance of free tropospheric O3 over western North America in spring and 25% in summer.

  7. Biomass-Burning Aerosols in South East-Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment (BASE-ASIA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsay, S.-C.; Hsu, N. C.; King, M. D.; Sun, W.-Y.

    2004-01-01

    Biomass burning has been a regular practice for land clearing and land conversion in many countries, especially those in Africa, South America, and Southeast Asia. However, the unique climatology of Southeast Asia is very different than that of Africa and South America, such that large-scale biomass burning causes smoke to interact extensively with clouds during the peak-burning season of March to April. Significant global sources of greenhouse gases (e.g., CO2, CH4), chemically active gases (e.g., NO, CO, HC, CH3Br), and atmospheric aerosols are produced by biomass burning processes. These gases influence the Earth- atmosphere system, impacting both global climate and tropospheric chemistry. Some aerosols can serve as cloud condensation nuclei, which play an important role in determining cloud lifetime and precipitation, hence, altering the earth s radiation and water budget. Analyses from satellite measurements reveal the reflected solar (emitted thermal) radiation from clouds due to smoke aerosols can be reduced (enhanced) by 100 (20) Watts per square meter over the month of March 2000. In addition, the reduction in cloud spectral reflectance is large enough to lead to significant errors in satellite retrievals of cloud properties (e.g., optical thickness and effective radius). The fresh water distribution in this region is highly dependent on monsoon rainfall; in fact, the predictability of the tropical climate system is much reduced during the boreal spring. Therefore, to accurately assess the impact of smoke aerosols in this region requires continuous observations from satellites, aircraft, ground-based networks and dedicated field experiments. BASE-ASIA initiative has been proposed and will be discussed.

  8. Simulated seasonal variations in wet acid depositions over East Asia.

    PubMed

    Ge, Cui; Zhang, Meigen; Zhu, Lingyun; Han, Xiao; Wang, Jun

    2011-11-01

    The air quality modeling system Regional Atmospheric Modeling System-Community Multi-scale Air Quality (RAMS-CMAQ) was applied to analyze temporospatial variations in wet acid deposition over East Asia in 2005, and model results obtained on a monthly basis were evaluated against extensive observations, including precipitation amounts at 704 stations and SO4(2-), NO3-, and NH4+ concentrations in the atmosphere and rainwater at 18 EANET (the Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia) stations. The comparison shows that the modeling system can reasonably reproduce seasonal precipitation patterns, especially the extensive area of dry conditions in northeast China and north China and the major precipitation zones. For ambient concentrations and wet depositions, the simulated results are in reasonable agreement (within a factor of 2) with observations in most cases, and the major observed features are mostly well reproduced. The analysis of modeled wet deposition distributions indicates that East Asia experiences noticeable variations in its wet deposition patterns throughout the year. In winter, southern China and the coastal areas of the Japan Sea report higher S04(2-) and NO3- wet depositions. In spring, elevated SO4(2-) and NO3-wet depositions are found in northeastern China, southern China, and around the Yangtze River. In summer, a remarkable rise in precipitation in northeastern China, the valleys of the Huaihe and Yangtze rivers, Korea, and Japan leads to a noticeable increase in SO4(2-) and NO3- wet depositions, whereas in autumn, higher SO4(2-) and NO3-wet depositions are found around Sichuan Province. Meanwhile, due to the high emission of SO2, high wet depositions of SO4(2-) are found throughout the entire year in the area surrounding Sichuan Province. There is a tendency toward decreasing NO3- concentrations in rainwater from China through Korea to Japan in both observed and simulated results, which is a consequence of the influence of the continental

  9. Impacts of global warming on climate change over East Asia as simulated by 15 GCMs

    SciTech Connect

    Zong-ci Zhao; Xiaodong Li

    1997-12-31

    About 15 GCMs (GFDL1, GISS, LLNL, MPI, OSU, UKMOL, UKMOH, GCMs90-92, GFDL2, NCAR, OPYC, LSG, HADL, GCMs95) obtained from the IPCC WG 1 1990, 1992 and 1995 reports have been chosen to examine the impacts of global warming, on the climate chance over East Asia. Although the models scenarios of the human activities were different for the different GCMs, the climate change over East Asia (70E-140E, 15N-60N) for tile doubled CO{sub 2} as simulated by about 15 GCMs have been analysed. The Simulations shown that the temperature might increased by about 0.5 - 1.5 C over East Asia, especially in winter and northwestern parts of East Asia. The precipitation might increase in northwestern and northeastern parts of East Asia and decrease in the central part of East Asia. The evaluations and assessments of the GCMs over East Asia have indicated that the GCMs have the abilities to simulate the climate change over East Asia, especially for the temperature and the winter season. There are some uncertainties for the simulations to compare with the observations, especially for tile precipitation and tile summer season.

  10. Aerosol remote sensing in East Asia : Motivation for NASA/AERONET/DRAGON-Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukai, S.; Nakata, M.; Sano, I.; Holben, B. N.

    2013-12-01

    It is known that the air pollution in East Asia becomes to be severe due to both the increasing emissions of the anthropogenic aerosols associated with economic growth and the complicated behavior of natural aerosols. Furthermore, air quality in the big cities is worse in comparison with that in remote area because of the industries and auto mobiles. Then high resolved measurements of atmospheric aerosols in spatial- and temporal- scale are desired in Asian urban cities. NASA/Dragon-Asia practiced in the spring of 2012 is really meaningful accordingly. In recent years, heavy air pollutants as well as Asian dusts, i.e. yellow dust storm, transport to neighbor countries from the continent of China throughout year. These aerosol episodes, which mean dense concentrations of aerosols in the atmosphere, severely influence for the environment and human health. This work focuses on the aerosol remote sensing in the case of serious aerosol episodes detected by both satellite and ground measurements in East Asia. It is reasonable to consider for aerosol remote sensing that precise simulations of multiple light scattering processes ( cslled radiative transfer hereafter) in coupled Earth-atmosphere-surface model are necessary and need a long computational time especially for an optically thick atmosphere model such as an aerosol episode. Thus efficient and practical algorithms for radiative transfer are indispensable to retrieve aerosol properties from space. It is shown here that dense aerosol episodes can be well simulated by a semi-infinite radiation model composed of the proposed aerosol models, which are compiled from the accumulated measurements during more than ten years provided with the world wide aerosol monitoring network (NASA/AERONET). In addition the efficient procedure to solve the radiative transfer problem for semi-infinite medium named MSOS (Method of Successive Order of Scattering) is examined in practice around Beijing by using Aqua/MODIS data.

  11. The Culex pipiens fatigans problem in South-East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Singh, D.

    1967-01-01

    In South-East Asia in recent years urbanization has proceeded rapidly. Because of limited financial resources it has seldom been possible to provide sufficient sanitation; this has led to conditions favourable to the breeding of Culex pipiens fatigans. The density of C. p. fatigans is higher in urban areas than in rural ones. Differences in infection and infectivity rates in C. p. fatigans seem to be due to differences in infection rates in the human population rather than to differences in the life-span of the mosquito. Precipitin tests have shown that the species feeds predominantly on man. It breeds in almost any type of stagnant water with organic contamination. Filariasis problems in India have been classified according to the duration of established transmission. PMID:5300060

  12. Abrupt post-glacial climate events in West Asia and North Africa monsoon domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasse, Françoise; Van Campo, Elise

    1994-09-01

    Regions beyond the present or past penetration of the Indian and African monsoons have experienced several large and abrupt climatic fluctuations over the past 13 14C kyr. Pollen and lake records from West Asia (Western Tibet and Rajasthan), East Africa (Ethiopia) and West Africa (Western Sahara, Sahel and subequatorial Africa) were selected on the basis of chronological control, sensitivity of both site and environmental indicators to climate change, the continuity of the record, and interdisciplinary control of the palaeoclimatic interpretation. Conditions wetter than those of today prevailed during the early-mid-Holocene period, but major dry spells are recorded at all sites during the intervals ˜ 11.0-9.5 kyr BP, ˜ 8-7 kyr BP and 3-4 kyr BP. Several records also suggest dry events of minor amplitude around 6 kyr BP. Potential boundary forcings of insolation and sea surface and tropical land surface conditions are discussed. The solar radiation accounts for the general envelop of the post-glacial monsoon fluctuations, but explains neither the timing nor the amplitude of the short-term changes. In spite of apparent covariation between fluctuations in sea surface conditions in the North Atlantic and the monsoon record, no direct mechanism could be found relating the intensity of the oceanic thermohaline conveyor belt to the monsoon strength. Changes in tropical land surface conditions (soil moisture negative feedback, and changes in CH 4 production from wetlands) provide a more satisfactory hypothesis for explaining abrupt reversal events.

  13. Aerosol types and radiative forcing estimates over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhawar, Rohini L.; Lee, Woo-Seop; Rahul, P. R. C.

    2016-09-01

    Using the CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations) and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) satellite data sets along with the CSIRO-MK 3.6.0 model simulations, we analyzed the aerosol optical depth (AOD) variability during March-May (MAM), June-August (JJA) along with their annual mean variability over East Asia for the period 2006-2012. The CALIPSO measurements correlated well with the MODIS measurements and the CSIRO-MK 3.6.0 model simulations over the spatial distribution patterns of the aerosols, but CALIPSO underestimated the magnitudes of the AOD. Maximum smoke aerosol loading is observed to occur during JJA, as a result of wind transport from Southern China while dust loading dominated during MAM via the transport from desert region. The vertical distribution profiles revealed that there is uniform distribution of smoke aerosols during both MAM and JJA, only differing at the altitude at which they peak; while the dust aerosols during MAM showed a significant distribution from the surface to 10 km altitude and JJA was marked with lower dust loading at the same altitudes. Both dust and smoke aerosols warm the atmosphere in MAM but due to the absorbing nature of smoke aerosols, they cause considerable cooling at the surface which is double when compared to the dust aerosols. The top of the atmosphere aerosol radiative forcing (ARF) due to smoke and dust aerosols is positive in MAM which indicates warming over East Asia. During MAM a consistent declining trend of the surface ARF due to smoke aerosols persisted over the last three decades as conspicuously evidenced from model analysis; the decline is ∼10 W/m2 from 1980 to 2012.

  14. LLNL Middle East and North Africa research database

    SciTech Connect

    Dodge, D; Hauk, T; Moore, R M; O'Boyle, J; Ruppert, S

    1999-07-23

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Research and Development (CTBT R and D) program has made significant progress populating a comprehensive seismic research database (RDB) for seismic events and derived research products in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). Our original ME/NA study region has enlarged and is now defined as an area including the Middle East, Africa, Europe, Southwest Asia, the Former Soviet Union and the Scandinavian/Arctic region. The LLNL RDB will facilitate calibration of all International Monitoring System (IMS) stations (primary and auxiliary) or their surrogates (if not yet installed) as well as a variety of gamma stations. The RDB provides not only a coherent framework in which to store and organize large volumes of collected seismic waveforms and associated event parameter information, but also provides an efficient data processing/research environment for deriving location and discrimination correction sur faces and capabilities. In order to accommodate large volumes of data from many sources with diverse formats the RDB is designed to be flexible and extensible in addition to maintaining detailed quality control information and associated metadata. Station parameters, instrument responses, phase pick information, and event bulletins were compiled and made available through the RDB. For seismic events in the MENA region occurring between 1976 and 1999, we have systematically assembled, quality checked and organized event waveforms; continuous seismic data from 1990 to present are archived for many stations. Currently, over 11,400 seismic events and 1.2 million waveforms are maintained in the RDB and made readily available to researchers. In addition to open sources of seismic data, we have established collaborative relationships with several ME/NA countries that have yielded additional ground truth and broadband waveform data essential for regional calibration and capability

  15. Holocene paleomagnetic secular variation from East China Sea and a PSV stack of East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yan; Zheng, Hongbo; Deng, Chenglong; Liu, Qingsong

    2014-11-01

    Paleomagnetic secular variation (PSV) provides information on the mechanisms of the geodynamo and can also be used for stratigraphic correlation on a regional scale. In this study, we constructed PSV curves of relative rapidly deposited Holocene marine sequence from East China Sea. Results show that the dominant magnetic carriers are pseudo-single domain (PSD) to multidomain (MD) magnetites. Paleomagnetic directions are preserved by coarse-grained magnetite, even affected by post-depositional diagenetic alteration. The PSV record of core MD06-3040 exhibits six major inclination peaks and five declination swings during the Holocene. The periodicities for inclination are about 2000 and 550 years, and for declination are about 1400 and 500 years. The PSV of MD06-3040 is comparable to archeomagnetic and historic results for the last 2500 years and to PSV results from lake sediments in southern China and Japan during the Holocene. A PSV stack of East Asia is constructed by sedimentary and archeological PSV results, which can be used as an important reference curve for a large region, and the PSV correlation between sites can be applied for relative dating of East Asia.

  16. Sensitivity of summer precipitation to tropical sea surface temperatures over East Asia in the GRIMs GMP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Eun-Chul; Yeh, Sang-Wook; Hong, Song-You; Wu, Renguang

    2013-05-01

    In this study, uncoupled atmospheric general circulation model experiments are conducted to examine the sensitivity of tropical Ocean basins from the Indian Ocean to the tropical Pacific Ocean on the summer precipitation variability over East Asia. It is remarkable that the Indian Ocean basin sea surface temperature (SST) and the tropical Pacific basin SST act on summer precipitation variability over Northeast Asia and southern China quite differently. That is, SST warming in the Indian Ocean largely contributes to the increase in the amount of summer precipitation over East Asia, which is in contrast to the warming of the western tropical Pacific Ocean. Our further analysis indicates that an altered large-scale atmospheric circulation over the western tropical Pacific contributes to contrasting atmospheric motion over East Asia due to the tropics-East Asia teleconnections, which results in changes in the amount of summer precipitation due to the warming of the Indian and western tropical Pacific Oceans.

  17. Genetic structure of wild boar (Sus scrofa) populations from East Asia based on microsatellite loci analyses

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Wild boar, Sus scrofa, is an extant wild ancestor of the domestic pig as an agro-economically important mammal. Wild boar has a worldwide distribution with its geographic origin in Southeast Asia, but genetic diversity and genetic structure of wild boar in East Asia are poorly understood. To characterize the pattern and amount of genetic variation and population structure of wild boar in East Asia, we genotyped and analyzed microsatellite loci for a total of 238 wild boar specimens from ten locations across six countries in East and Southeast Asia. Results Our data indicated that wild boar populations in East Asia are genetically diverse and structured, showing a significant correlation of genetic distance with geographic distance and implying a low level of gene flow at a regional scale. Bayesian-based clustering analysis was indicative of seven inferred genetic clusters in which wild boars in East Asia are geographically structured. The level of genetic diversity was relatively high in wild boars from Southeast Asia, compared with those from Northeast Asia. This gradient pattern of genetic diversity is consistent with an assumed ancestral population of wild boar in Southeast Asia. Genetic evidences from a relationship tree and structure analysis suggest that wild boar in Jeju Island, South Korea have a distinct genetic background from those in mainland Korea. Conclusions Our results reveal a diverse pattern of genetic diversity and the existence of genetic differentiation among wild boar populations inhabiting East Asia. This study highlights the potential contribution of genetic variation of wild boar to the high genetic diversity of local domestic pigs during domestication in East Asia. PMID:25034725

  18. Phylogeographical Structure in Mitochondrial DNA of Legume Pod Borer (Maruca vitrata) Population in Tropical Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Periasamy, Malini; Schafleitner, Roland; Muthukalingan, Krishnan; Ramasamy, Srinivasan

    2015-01-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the genetic diversity and host plant races of M. vitrata population in South and Southeast Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. The cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene was used to understand the phylogenetic relationship of geographically different M. vitrata population, but previous studies did not include population from Southeast Asia, the probable center of origin for Maruca, and from east Africa. Extensive sampling was done from different host plant species in target countries. Reference populations from Oceania and Latin America were used. An amplicon of 658 bp was produced by polymerase chain reaction, and 64 haplotypes were identified in 686 M. vitrata individuals. Phylogenetic analysis showed no difference among the M. vitrata population from different host plants. However, the results suggested that M. vitrata has formed two putative subspecies (which cannot be differentiated based on morphological characters) in Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, as indicated by the high pairwise FST values (0.44–0.85). The extremely high FST values (≥0.93) of Maruca population in Latin America and Oceania compared to Asian and African population seem to indicate a different species. On the continental or larger geographical region basis, the genetic differentiation is significantly correlated with the geographical distance. In addition, two putative species of Maruca, including M. vitrata occur in Australia, Indonesia and Papua New Guinea. The negative Tajima’s D and Fu’s FS values showed the recent demographic expansion of Maruca population. The haplotype network and Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery analyses confirmed the results of phylogenetic analysis. Thus, this study confirmed the presence of three putative Maruca species, including one in Latin America, one in Oceania (including Indonesia) and M. vitrata in Asia, Africa and Oceania. Hence, the genetic differences in Maruca population should be carefully considered while

  19. Reconciling Past and Future Rainfall Trends over East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowell, Dave; Booth, Ben; Nicholson, Sharon; Good, Peter

    2016-04-01

    It is well known that rainfall during the East African Long Rains season has declined over recent decades, whereas the majority of climate models predict an increase due to anthropogenic carbon emissions. This raises questions about either the reliability of the model projections, or when we might expect this drought to turn to more abundant rainfall and perhaps more frequent flooding. We first list all hypotheses that may conceivably explain this paradox, our aim being to include all possibilities regardless of preconceptions as to their likelihood: • A: The recent observed trend is due to poor quality data. • B: The projected trend arises from poor modelling of key processes. • C: Trends are due to natural variability. • D: The balance between competing forcings is changing, with the past trend driven by aerosol emissions and the future trend driven by carbon emissions. • E: The past trend has been driven by land-use changes. • F: The mechanistic response to CO2 emissions is non-linear. • Some combination of the above. Regarding A, there is good observational evidence for a recent downward trend in rainfall. Regarding B, careful and substantial further research is essential to confidently refute or accept this idea. The possibility that the observed trend is due to natural variability (C) is assessed using two approaches. Both suggest that the recent Long Rains droughts are either due to a very unusual natural event of the climate system, or (more likely) are at least partly due to anthropogenic forcing. Hypothesis D, that the recent observed rainfall trend may be due to anthropogenic aerosol emissions, eg. from Asia, is investigated using CMIP5 sensitivity experiments. These reveal a sometimes significant, but highly model-dependent, impact on SST trends over the Indian and Pacific Oceans, which are thought to have caused the recent Long Rains droughts. Other CMIP5 experiments suggest that land-use changes are unlikely to have caused the recent

  20. Biomass-burning Aerosols in South East-Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment (BASE-ASIA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsay, Si-Chee; Hsu, Christina N.; King, Michael D.; Sun, Wen-Yih

    2003-01-01

    Biomass burning has been a regular practice for land clearing and land conversion in many countries, especially those in Africa, South America, and Southeast Asia. However, the unique climatology of Southeast Asia is very different than that of Africa and South America, such that large-scale biomass burning causes smoke to interact extensively with clouds during the peak-burning season of March to April. Significant global sources of greenhouse gases (e.g., CO2, CH4), chemically active gases (e.g., NO, CO, HC, CH3Br), and atmospheric aerosols are produced by biomass burning processes. These gases influence the Earth-atmosphere system, impacting both global climate and tropospheric chemistry. Some aerosols can serve as cloud condensation nuclei, which play an important role in determining cloud lifetime and precipitation, hence, altering the earth's radiation and water budget. Biomass burning also affects the biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen and carbon compounds from the soil to the atmosphere; the hydrological cycle (i.e., run off and evaporation); land surface reflectivity and emissivity; as well as ecosystem biodiversity and stability. Analyses from satellite measurements reveal that smoke is frequently present solar (emitted thermal) radiation from clouds due to smoke aerosols can be reduced (enhanced) by as much as 100 (20) W/sq m over the month of March 2000. In addition, the reduction in cloud spectral reflectance at 670 run is large enough to lead to significant errors in retrieving cloud properties (e.g., optical thickness and effective radius) from satellite measurements. The fresh water distribution in this region is highly dependent on monsoon rainfall; in fact, the predictability of the tropical climate system is much reduced during the boreal spring. Estimating the burning fuel (e.g., bark, branches, and wood), an important part of studying regional carbon cycle, may rely on utilizing a wide range of distinctive spectral features in the shortwave and

  1. Compulsory drug detention centers in East and Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; McBrayer, John L

    2015-02-01

    Over the last three decades in response to a rise in substance use in the region, many countries in East and Southeast Asia responded by establishing laws and policies that allowed for compulsory detention in the name of treatment for people who use drugs. These centers have recently come under international scrutiny with a call for their closure in a Joint Statement from United Nations entities in March 2012. The UN's response was a result of concern for human rights violations, including the lack of consent for treatment and due process protections for compulsory detention, the lack of general healthcare and evidence based drug dependency treatment and in some centers, of forced labor and physical and sexual abuse (United Nations, 2012). A few countries have responded to this call with evidence of an evolving response for community-based voluntary treatment; however progress is likely going to be hampered by existing laws and policies, the lack of skilled human resource and infrastructure to rapidly establish evidence based community treatment centers in place of these detention centers, pervasive stigmatization of people who use drugs and the ongoing tensions between the abstinence-based model of treatment as compared to harm reduction approaches in many of these affected countries. PMID:25727259

  2. Ocular palsies of obscure origin in South East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Tay, C. H.; Tan, Y. T.; Cheah, J. S.; Ransome, G. A.

    1974-01-01

    The clinical and laboratory findings are presented of 14 patients who were recently found to have an obscure form of ocular palsy during a three year study in Singapore. The disease, which has no predilection for any age groups, races, occupations, or sex, often manifests with acute onset of unilateral or bilateral cranial nerve paralysis involving the 3rd, 4th, 6th, first two branches of the 5th, and sometimes, the 2nd cranial nerve in various combinations. Major symptoms were diplopia, ptosis, giddiness, headache, facial numbness, proptosis, retro-orbital pain, chemosis, conjunctival irritation, blurred vision, and/or progressive blindness. Systemic complications were rare. Except for a raised erythrocyte sedimentation rate during the acute phase, exhaustive investigations—but short of a surgical exploration—were essentially noncontributory. All cleared up within two to four weeks, nine patients had spontaneous remission, while five improved only after a course of systemic corticosteroids. Two cases were left with some residual neurological deficits and one in this series had a relapse two years later. The relationship of this condition to those described outside South East Asia is discussed.

  3. Women's cardiovascular health: perspectives from South-East Asia.

    PubMed

    Rajadurai, Jeyamalar; Lopez, Eleanor A; Rahajoe, Anna Ulfah; Goh, Ping Ping; Uboldejpracharak, Yingnoi; Zambahari, Robaayah

    2012-08-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is an under-recognized major health problem among women in South-East Asia. The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, physical inactivity, and being overweight or obese has shown a significantly increasing trend among women in the region, with the exception of Singapore. The problem is compounded by low awareness that CVD is a health problem for women as well as for men, by misconceptions about the disease, and by the lack of suitable, locally available health literature. Efforts have been made by the national heart associations and other organizations to increase heart health awareness and promote healthy lifestyles. Singapore initiated these prevention programs in the early 1990s and has been successful in reducing the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors. The governments of the region, in accordance with the Noncommunicable Disease Alliance, have begun implementing appropriate preventive strategies and improving health-delivery systems. However, psychological, social, and cultural barriers to cardiovascular health awareness in women need to be addressed before these programs can be fully and successfully implemented. PMID:22525668

  4. Aspects of Education in the Middle East and North Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Colin, Ed.; Levers, Lila Zia

    2007-01-01

    The chapters in this volume do not represent the whole of the Middle East and North Africa, as such a collection would have been too large for one volume. Rather, the selection here is intended to present different perspectives on a range of educational issues, relevant to a particular focus or country, or common to a number of countries in the…

  5. Reducing the Burden of Cancer in East Africa

    Cancer.gov

    The mission of CGH is to advance global cancer research, build expertise, and leverage resources across nations to reduce cancer deaths worldwide. To carry out that mission, we facilitate the sharing of knowledge and expertise. CGH's latest effort, the East Africa Cancer Control Leadership Forum, carried out this mission by helping African partners develop their own individual cancer control programs.

  6. A solar box cooker for mass production in East Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Funk, P.A.; Wilcke, W.F.

    1992-12-31

    A solar box cooker produced in Tanzania, East Africa with indigenous materials is described. When compared to a commercially produced glass and cardboard one, it was found to perform as well. Heat transfer through each major component of the cooker is presented. The smallest losses were through the walls of the box. The greatest losses were observed in the cover system.

  7. Towards an integrated soil moisture drought monitor for East Africa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drought in East Africa is a recurring phenomenon with significant humanitarian impacts. Given the steep climatic gradients, topographic contrasts, general data scarcity, and, in places, political instability that characterize the region, there is a need for spatially distributed, remotely derived mo...

  8. Women of the World: Near East and North Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamie, Mary

    The third in a series of five handbooks designed to present and analyze statistical data on women in various regions of the world, this handbook focuses on women in 14 countries in the Near East and North Africa. Beginning with an overview of population distribution and changes in the region, the analysis continues with a description of women's…

  9. Does Family Background Matter for Learning in East Africa?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Sam; Schipper, Youdi

    2015-01-01

    The extent to which differences in family background characteristics explain differences in learning outcomes between children captures the extent of equality in educational opportunities. This study uses large-scale data on literacy and numeracy outcomes for children of school age across East Africa (Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda) to investigate the…

  10. Spatiotemporal characteristics of regional drought occurrence in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Su-Bin; Byun, Hi-Ryong; Kim, Do-Woo

    2014-07-01

    Droughts in the East Asian region (105-150°E, 20-50°N) are quantified using the effective drought index (EDI) over a period of 43 years, from 1962 to 2004, and the East Asian region was classified into six subregions on the basis of similarity in drought climate: (D1) South China; (D2) lower region of the Yangtze River, South Korea, and Central/South Japan; (D3) Central China and North Korea; (D4) Northwest China and middle region of the Yangtze River; (D5) North China; and (D6) Northeast China and North Japan. The EDI time series was then summarized for the different drought subregions and a drought map was created that shows the spatiotemporal characteristics of regional drought occurrence in East Asia. The map shows that in subregions, D1, D2, D3, D4, D5, and D6, there were 50 (11.63 per decade), 36 (8.37 per decade), 30 (6.98 per decade), 28 (6.51 per decade), 29 (6.74 per decade), and 33 (7.67 per decade) drought occurrences, respectively. The most common characteristic of droughts in the subregions is that short-term droughts (<200 days) which mainly occur in spring and summer, whereas long-term droughts (≥200 days) mainly occur in autumn and winter. D1 shows the highest frequency of short-term droughts. Short-term droughts occur more frequently than long-term droughts in D2 and D3, but D4 and D6 showed a higher frequency of long-term droughts than short-term droughts. D5 showed a similar frequency of short- and long-term droughts. Drought onset dates are evenly distributed throughout the year for D1, D2, and D3, but distributed mostly in spring and summer in D4, D5, and D6. All the differences are linked to variations in the precipitation cycle of each subregion. In terms of annual variations in drought occurrence, D2 showed weakening droughts (the annual lowest EDI shows a positive trend), whereas the other subregions showed intensifying droughts (the annual lowest EDI shows a negative trend). The greatest intensifying trend was observed in D5, followed

  11. Combined effect of the Arctic Oscillation and the Western Pacific pattern on East Asia winter temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hye-Jin; Ahn, Joong-Bae

    2016-05-01

    The combined effect of the Arctic Oscillation (AO) and Western Pacific (WP) teleconnection pattern on the temperature variation during the winter in the northern hemisphere and East Asia over the last 56 years (1958/1959-2013/2014) was investigated using NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data. The study results revealed that the effect of the AO on winter temperature in East Asia could be changed depending on the phase of the WP pattern in the North Pacific. The negative relationship between the temperature of East Asia (25-45°N, 110-145°E) and the AO increased when the AO and WP were in-phase with each other. Hence, when winter negative (positive) AO was accompanied by negative (positive) WP, negative (positive) temperature anomalies were dominant across the entire East Asia region. Conversely, when the AO and WP were out-of-phase, the winter temperature anomaly in East Asia did not show distinct changes. Furthermore, from the perspective of stationary planetary waves, the zonal wavenumber-2 patterns of sea level pressure and geopotential height at 500 hPa related to the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) circulation strengthened when the AO and WP were in-phase but were not significant for the out-of-phase condition. An index considering the effect of both AO and WP on East Asia winter temperature was proposed. The correlation between the index and the East Asia winter temperature was statistically significant at the 99 % confidence level. The index was correlated with synoptic characteristics of the EAWM, including the Siberian High, East Asian trough, East Asian jet stream and surface air temperature.

  12. CD4+ T cell recovery during suppression of HIV replication: an international comparison of the immunological efficacy of antiretroviral therapy in North America, Asia and Africa

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Elvin H; Neilands, Torsten B; Thièbaut, Rodolphe; Bosco Bwana, Mwebesa; Nash, Denis; Moore, Richard D; Wood, Robin; Marcel Zannou, Djimon; Althoff, Keri N; Lian Lim, Poh; Nachega, Jean B; Easterbrook, Philippa J; Kambugu, Andrew; Little, Francesca; Nakigozi, Gertrude; Nakanjako, Damalie; Kiggundu, Valerian; Chung Ki Li, Patrick; Bangsberg, David R; Fox, Matthew P; Prozesky, Hans W; Hunt, Peter W; Davies, Mary-Ann; Reynolds, Steven J; Egger, Matthias; Yiannoutsos, Constantin T; Vittinghoff, Eric V; Deeks, Steven G; Martin, Jeffrey N

    2015-01-01

    Background: Even among HIV-infected patients who fully suppress plasma HIV RNA replication on antiretroviral therapy, genetic (e.g. CCL3L1 copy number), viral (e.g. tropism) and environmental (e.g. chronic exposure to microbial antigens) factors influence CD4 recovery. These factors differ markedly around the world and therefore the expected CD4 recovery during HIV RNA suppression may differ globally. Methods: We evaluated HIV-infected adults from North America, West Africa, East Africa, Southern Africa and Asia starting non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based regimens containing efavirenz or nevirapine, who achieved at least one HIV RNA level <500/µl in the first year of therapy and observed CD4 changes during HIV RNA suppression. We used a piecewise linear regression to estimate the influence of region of residence on CD4 recovery, adjusting for socio-demographic and clinical characteristics. We observed 28 217 patients from 105 cohorts over 37 825 person-years. Results: After adjustment, patients from East Africa showed diminished CD4 recovery as compared with other regions. Three years after antiretroviral therapy initiation, the mean CD4 count for a prototypical patient with a pre-therapy CD4 count of 150/µl was 529/µl [95% confidence interval (CI): 517–541] in North America, 494/µl (95% CI: 429–559) in West Africa, 515/µl (95% CI: 508–522) in Southern Africa, 503/µl (95% CI: 478–528) in Asia and 437/µl (95% CI: 425–449) in East Africa. Conclusions: CD4 recovery during HIV RNA suppression is diminished in East Africa as compared with other regions of the world, and observed differences are large enough to potentially influence clinical outcomes. Epidemiological analyses on a global scale can identify macroscopic effects unobservable at the clinical, national or individual regional level. PMID:25859596

  13. Light-absorption properties of aerosols observed in East and South Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S.; Yoon, S.; Lee, H.

    2011-12-01

    We compared light-absorption properties of aerosols observed in East and South Asia from black carbon (BC) mass concentration, aerosol scattering and absorption coefficients measurements at four sites: Korea Climate Observatory-Gosan (KCO-G), Korea Climate Observatory-Anmyeon (KCO-A), Maldives Climate Observatory-Hanimaadhoo (MCO-H) and Nepal Climate Observatory-Pyramid (NCO-P). No significant seasonal variations of BC mass concentration, aerosol scattering and absorption coefficients, except for summer due to wet scavenging by rainfall, were observed in East Asia, whereas dramatic changes of light-absorbing aerosol properties were observed in South Asia between dry and wet monsoon periods. Although BC mass concentration in East Asia is generally higher than that observed in South Asia, BC mass concentration at MCO-H during winter dry monsoon is similar to that of East Asia. The observed solar absorption efficiency (absorption coefficient/extinction coefficient) at 550 nm at KCO-G and KCO-A is higher than that in MCO-H due to large portions of BC emission from fossil fuel combustion. Interestingly, solar absorption efficiency at NCO-P is 0.14, which is two times great than that in MCO-H and is about 40% higher than that in East Asia, though BC mass concentration at NCO-P is the lowest among four sites. Consistently, the highest elemental carbon to sulfate ratio is found at NCO-P.

  14. Vitamin D status in recently arrived immigrants from Africa and Asia: a cross-sectional study from Norway of children, adolescents and adults

    PubMed Central

    Eggemoen, Åse R; Knutsen, Kirsten V; Dalen, Ingvild; Jenum, Anne K

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D) <50 nmol/L among recently arrived immigrants from Africa and Asia in Oslo, and to explore 25(OH)D levels according to origin, gender and age. Design A cross-sectional study. Setting Primary healthcare unit in Oslo, Norway, offering family immigrants, asylum seekers, United Nations (UN) refugees or individuals granted asylum a free medical examination on arrival. Participants All individuals from African and Asian countries (n=591) referred to the Centre of Migrant Health, Health Agency, Oslo, Norway in 2010, estimated to cover 60% of the targeted population. Results 25(OH)D <50 nmol/L was very prevalent in immigrants from the Middle East (81% (95% CI 75.4% to 86.6%)), South Sahara Africa (73% (CI 67.5% to 78.5%)) and South Asia (75% (CI 64.0% to 86.0%)), in contrast to East Asians (24% (CI 12.6% to 35.4%)), p<0.001 for differences. The prevalence of 25(OH)D<25 nmol/L was lower but followed the same pattern (Middle East: 38% (CI 31.1% to 45.0%), South Sahara Africa: 24% (CI 18.7% to 29.3%) and South Asia: 35% (CI 22.9% to 47.1%), although it was not observed in East Asians (p<0.001 for differences)). The ethnic differences persisted after adjusting for the duration of residence, seasonality and residence status in multiple linear regression analyses. Female adolescents from South Asia, the Middle East and South Sahara Africa had the lowest levels of 25(OH)D. Further, country-specific median levels of 25(OH)D were low (24–38 nmol/L) among groups from Somalia, Eritrea, Afghanistan and Iraq, the countries with the largest number of immigrants in our study. Conclusions The majority of recently settled immigrant groups from the Middle East, South Asia and Africa had 25(OH)D <50 nmol/L, in contrast to East Asians. Female adolescents from these regions had the lowest levels of 25(OH)D. PMID:24157818

  15. Chemical ecology: studies from East Africa.

    PubMed

    Meinwald, J; Prestwich, G D; Nakanishi, K; Kubo, I

    1978-03-17

    The International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology (ICIPE), in Nairobi, provides a laboratory at which a multinational group of scientists pursues interdisciplinary research. In collaboration with their colleagues in biology, ICIPE chemists have characterized the sex pheromones of the tick which serves as a vector of East Coast fever and have identified a termite queen-cell-building pheromone. The structure of many anthropod defensive chemicals have been determined; most interesting of these are the trinervitenes, structurally novel diterpenoids from nasute termites. Several highly active insect antifeedants were discovered using a simple bioassay to screen selected East African plants. These antifeedants may provide leads for the development of new insect-control techniques. PMID:17745589

  16. FOREWORD: Focus on innovation in ceramics research in East Asia Focus on innovation in ceramics research in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Akio; Hishita, Shunichi; Osada, Minoru; Haneda, Hajime

    2010-10-01

    Ceramics, as broadly defined, include all materials other than organic substances and metals, either crystalline or amorphous. They have been used by humans since early history and have contributed considerably to improving the quality of our life. In most cases, however, high-temperature treatment is necessary to prepare ceramics. This burdens the environment and there is therefore a great need for new ceramics processing methods. Recent technologically advanced ceramics are often composed of nanocrystallites, which have great potential for innovation in terms of exploring practical applications of nanomaterials and, consequently, reducing the environmental load. The ceramics industry had long flourished in Asia, particularly in East Asia, and even today, this region is leading the development of related materials. In line with these traditions, Japanese and Korean ceramics societies have been co-sponsoring seminars on ceramics since the 1980s. Having become more international in scope and context, a series of these seminars is now known as the International Japan-Korea Seminar on Ceramics. This focus issue contains eight key articles presented at the 26th International Japan-Korea Seminar on Ceramics held on 24-26 November 2010 at the Tsukuba International Congress Center. In particular, Fabbri et al review electrode materials for protonic solid-oxide fuel cells, and Kamiya et al outline the present situation and future prospects for transparent transistors, particularly those based on amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O films. Eitel et al discuss the progress in engineering high-strain lead-free piezoelectric ceramics. Kim and Kumar review a simple processing method for producing porous ceramics using polysiloxane precursors, Kamiya and Iijima focus on surface modification and characterization of nanomaterials, and Wan et al briefly review the strategy of reducing lattice thermal conductivity of thermoelectric materials and propose new materials for thermoelectric devices

  17. Decoupled warming and monsoon precipitation in East Asia over the last deglaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterse, Francien; Prins, Maarten A.; Beets, Christiaan J.; Troelstra, Simon R.; Zheng, Hongbo; Gu, Zhaoyan; Schouten, Stefan; Damsté, Jaap S. Sinninghe

    2011-01-01

    Our understanding of the continental climate development in East Asia is mainly based on loess-paleosol sequences and summer monsoon precipitation reconstructions based on oxygen isotopes (δ18O) of stalagmites from several Chinese caves. Based on these records, it is thought that East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM) precipitation generally follows Northern Hemisphere (NH) summer insolation. However, not much is known about the magnitude and timing of deglacial warming on the East Asian continent. In this study we reconstruct continental air temperatures for central China covering the last 34,000 yr, based on the distribution of fossil branched tetraether membrane lipids of soil bacteria in a loess-paleosol sequence from the Mangshan loess plateau. The results indicate that air temperature varied in phase with NH summer insolation, and that the onset of deglacial warming at ~ 19 kyr BP is parallel in timing with other continental records from e.g. Antarctica, southern Africa and South-America. The air temperature increased from ~ 15 °C at the onset of the warming to a maximum of ~ 27 °C in the early Holocene (~ 12 kyr BP), in agreement with the temperature increase inferred from e.g. pollen and phytolith data, and permafrost limits in central China. Comparison of the tetraether membrane lipid-derived temperature record with loess-paleosol proxy records and stalagmite δ18O records shows that the strengthening of EASM precipitation lagged that of deglacial warming by ca. 3 kyr. Moreover, intense soil formation in the loess deposits, caused by substantial increases in summer monsoon precipitation, only started around 12 kyr BP (ca. 7 kyr lag). Our results thus show that the intensification of EASM precipitation unambiguously lagged deglacial warming and NH summer insolation, and may contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms controlling ice age terminations.

  18. The Ideological Construction of English: A Critical Review on the Discourse of English in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Han-Yi

    2014-01-01

    This research investigates the ideological character of the English language in East Asia. It focuses on the prevailing beliefs, values and propositions relating to English as a global language and the spread of English in the non-English East Asian countries, namely China, Japan, South Korea and Taiwan. By analyzing how English is presented in…

  19. Education in South-East Asia. Oxford Studies in Comparative Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Colin, Ed.; Symaco, Lorraine Pe, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This book on education in South-East Asia is the very first of its kind to comprehensively cover and discuss the education systems and issues in all the countries in the region--the ten member nations of the Association of South-East Asian nations (ASEAN) plus Timor Leste. The eleven chapters on country case studies are written by education…

  20. Embedding Research on International Development in the Discourse of Comparative Education in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, I-Hsuan

    2010-01-01

    In the wake of the recent ASEAN-China Free Trade Area (ACFTA) launch in 2010, this paper argues for the greater scholarly contribution of international development studies in the discourse of comparative education in East Asia. The argument is based on three premises. The first acknowledges the growing relations of East Asian countries to…

  1. The oldest Mahonia (Berberidaceae) fossil from East Asia and its biogeographic implications.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jian; Su, Tao; Lebereton-Anberrée, Julie; Zhang, Shi-Tao; Zhou, Zhe-Kun

    2016-03-01

    Interpretation of the biogeography of the genus Mahonia (Berberidaceae) is limited by the lack of fossil records in East Asia. Compressed fossil foliage, described here as Mahonia mioasiatica sp. nov., were collected from the Upper Miocene Xiaolongtan Formation in Wenshan, Yunnan, southwest China. These specimens represent the oldest reliable fossil record of Mahonia in East Asia. This new fossil species shows a general similarity to Group Orientales and is most similar to the extant eastern Asian Mahonia conferta. Considering other fossil evidence of Mahonia, we propose a migration route of this genus to Asia over the North Atlantic Land Bridge rather than the Bering Land Bridge. Our results also suggest that North America, Europe and East Asia have been successive centers of diversity for the genus, as a consequence of diversification in Group Orientales potentially related to historical climate change. PMID:26691316

  2. One Health: Lessons Learned from East Africa.

    PubMed

    Travis, Dominic A; Chapman, David W; Craft, Meggan E; Deen, John; Farnham, MacDonald W; Garcia, Carolyn; Hueston, William D; Kock, Richard; Mahero, Michael; Mugisha, Lawrence; Nzietchueng, Serge; Nutter, Felicia B; Olson, Debra; Pekol, Amy; Pelican, Katharine M; Robertson, Cheryl; Rwego, Innocent B

    2014-02-01

    Africa is faced with many of the most daunting challenges of our time. It comprises roughly 15% of the world's human population, and most of its countries are perpetually ranked "Low" on the United Nations' Human Development Index. On the other hand, Africa has arguably the largest proportion of intact natural ecosystems, biodiversity, and sociocultural capital and the lowest impact on global warming of any continent. Thus, African leaders are faced with competing demands and values among a multitude of complex issues, such as high human population growth, extreme poverty, food insecurity, land use policy, climate change, and biodiversity conservation. In this context, building sustainable national systems for human and/or animal health is one of the grand challenges of this generation. Today's complex global health and development challenges require long-term commitment and a range of approaches that are too broad for any one discipline, institution, or country to implement on its own. The One Health concept recognizes the interconnectedness of global health issues and, as such, promotes the importance of and need for international, interdisciplinary, and cross-sectoral communication and collaboration at local, national, and international levels. By taking advantage of natural cultural tendencies for shared leadership, resource allocation, and community values, African leaders are currently proactively demonstrating the principles of One Health, and thus becoming a model for this global vision. And by focusing on partnerships rather than donor-recipient relationships, they are fostering the development of shared priorities and are increasingly driving their own health agenda to fulfill their own needs. PMID:26082115

  3. Assessment of prediction and predictability of short rains over equatorial East Africa using a multi-model ensemble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahaga, T. K.; Kucharski, F.; Tsidu, G. Mengistu; Yang, Hongwei

    2016-02-01

    In this study, the performance of dynamical seasonal forecast systems is evaluated for the prediction of short rain anomalies over equatorial East Africa. The evaluation is based on observational datasets and the Asia-Pacific Climate Center (APCC) Ocean-Atmosphere coupled multi-model ensemble (MME) retrospective forecasts (hindcasts). These forecast systems have different hindcast periods; here, we have selected common years from 1982 to 2005. The ensembles of individual models and their MME mean are evaluated. Hindcasts initialized on the 1st of August from each year alone are considered, as these are the most relevant to short rain predictions. The coupled climate model ensemble reproduces the spatial distribution of mean September-October-November (SON) rainfall and seasonal climate variations over equatorial East Africa with further improvement in MME mean. Individual coupled models and MME mean also show statistically significant skill in forecasting sea surface temperatures anomalies (SSTAs) over the western and eastern parts of the equatorial Indian Ocean, giving significant correlation at 99 % confidence level for Indian Ocean dipole (IOD). Moreover, five out of ten coupled models and MME mean show statistically significant skill in predicting equatorial East Africa short rains. The fidelity of hindcasts is further measured by anomaly correlation coefficient (ACC) and four models as well as MME mean show significant skill over East Africa. It is shown that the reproduction of the observed variability in the East African region is mainly due to a realistic relationship of East African rainfall with the Indian Ocean dipole. Overall, the skill of the dynamical models is attributed to the fact that slowly evolving SSTs are the primary source of predictability and to the fact that coupled climate models produce skillful predictions of SON SST anomalies over the tropical Indian Ocean. This information opens the possibility of using readily available seasonal

  4. Sustainability Issues of the Association for Engineering Education in Southeast Asia, East Asia and the Pacific (AEESEAP) Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahim, Nasrudin Abdul; Said, Suhana Mohd

    The Association for Engineering Education in Southeast Asia, East Asia and the Pacific was established with the aim to improve the education of engineers and technologists in its member countries. This paper will give an overview of AEESEAP objectives and its current activities, coordinated by the current secretariat based in Malaysia. The main issue being dealt with throughout the existence of AEESEAP is the issue of sustainability of the association. This paper will highlight the objectives and current activities of AEESEAP, with regards to sustaining this association.

  5. Protected areas: mixed success in conserving East Africa's evergreen forests.

    PubMed

    Pfeifer, Marion; Burgess, Neil D; Swetnam, Ruth D; Platts, Philip J; Willcock, Simon; Marchant, Robert

    2012-01-01

    In East Africa, human population growth and demands for natural resources cause forest loss contributing to increased carbon emissions and reduced biodiversity. Protected Areas (PAs) are intended to conserve habitats and species. Variability in PA effectiveness and 'leakage' (here defined as displacement of deforestation) may lead to different trends in forest loss within, and adjacent to, existing PAs. Here, we quantify spatial variation in trends of evergreen forest coverage in East Africa between 2001 and 2009, and test for correlations with forest accessibility and environmental drivers. We investigate PA effectiveness at local, landscape and national scales, comparing rates of deforestation within park boundaries with those detected in park buffer zones and in unprotected land more generally. Background forest loss (BFL) was estimated at -9.3% (17,167 km(2)), but varied between countries (range: -0.9% to -85.7%; note: no BFL in South Sudan). We document high variability in PA effectiveness within and between PA categories. The most successful PAs were National Parks, although only 26 out of 48 parks increased or maintained their forest area (i.e. Effective parks). Forest Reserves (Ineffective parks, i.e. parks that lose forest from within boundaries: 204 out of 337), Nature Reserves (six out of 12) and Game Parks (24 out of 26) were more likely to lose forest cover. Forest loss in buffer zones around PAs exceeded background forest loss, in some areas indicating leakage driven by Effective National Parks. Human pressure, forest accessibility, protection status, distance to fires and long-term annual rainfall were highly significant drivers of forest loss in East Africa. Some of these factors can be addressed by adjusting park management. However, addressing close links between livelihoods, natural capital and poverty remains a fundamental challenge in East Africa's forest conservation efforts. PMID:22768074

  6. China-Africa and China-Asia Collaboration on Schistosomiasis Control: A SWOT Analysis.

    PubMed

    Xu, J; Bergquist, R; Qian, Y-J; Wang, Q; Yu, Q; Peeling, R; Croft, S; Guo, J-G; Zhou, X-N

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomiasis, a disease caused by a trematode, parasitic worm, is a worldwide public health problem. In spite of great progress with regard to morbidity control, even elimination of this infection in recent decades, there are still challenges to overcome in sub-Saharan Africa and endemic areas in Southeast Asia. Regarded as one of the most successful countries with respect to schistosomiasis control, The People's Republic of China has accumulated considerable experience and learnt important lessons in various local settings that could benefit schistosomiasis control in other endemic countries. Based on an analysis of conceived strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) of potential collaborative activities with regard to schistosomiasis in Africa and Asia, this article addresses the importance of collaborative efforts and explores the priorities that would be expected to facilitate the transfer of Chinese experience to low- and middle-income countries in Africa and Asia. PMID:27137455

  7. Coping With Lake Kivu, East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Thomas C.; Scholz, Christopher A.

    2010-07-01

    Workshop on Tropical Rift Lake Systems: Integrated Volcanogenic, Tectonic, Biogeochemical, and Geohazard Assessment of Lake Kivu; Gisenyi, Rwanda, 13-15 January 2010; Situated in the volcanic highlands of the East African Rift Valley's western branch, Lake Kivu contains one of the most unusual and fascinating aquatic ecosystems on the planet. Bottom waters in the 480-meter-deep lake are warmer and saltier than its surface waters. The concentrations of dissolved carbon dioxide and methane are so high in the deep water that catastrophic overturn, an abrupt upwelling of deep water and gas driven by the buoyancy of expanding gas bubbles as they rise from the depths, could well happen in the coming century. Were this to occur, human fatalities would likely number in the hundreds of thousands—a disaster similar to what occurred when Lake Nyos (Cameroon) in 1986 emitted a large amount of carbon dioxide, causing hundreds of local residents to suffocate—but with orders-of-magnitude more gas release.

  8. Impact of the Dominant Large-scale Teleconnections on Winter Temperature Variability over East Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, Young-Kwon; Kim, Hae-Dong

    2013-01-01

    Monthly mean geopotential height for the past 33 DJF seasons archived in Modern Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications reanalysis is decomposed into the large-scale teleconnection patterns to explain their impacts on winter temperature variability over East Asia. Following Arctic Oscillation (AO) that explains the largest variance, East Atlantic/West Russia (EA/WR), West Pacific (WP) and El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) are identified as the first four leading modes that significantly explain East Asian winter temperature variation. While the northern part of East Asia north of 50N is prevailed by AO and EA/WR impacts, temperature in the midlatitudes (30N-50N), which include Mongolia, northeastern China, Shandong area, Korea, and Japan, is influenced by combined effect of the four leading teleconnections. ENSO impact on average over 33 winters is relatively weaker than the impact of the other three teleconnections. WP impact, which has received less attention than ENSO in earlier studies, characterizes winter temperatures over Korea, Japan, and central to southern China region south of 30N mainly by advective process from the Pacific. Upper level wave activity fluxes reveal that, for the AO case, the height and circulation anomalies affecting midlatitude East Asian winter temperature is mainly located at higher latitudes north of East Asia. Distribution of the fluxes also explains that the stationary wave train associated with EA/WR propagates southeastward from the western Russia, affecting the East Asian winter temperature. Investigation on the impact of each teleconnection for the selected years reveals that the most dominant teleconnection over East Asia is not the same at all years, indicating a great deal of interannual variability. Comparison in temperature anomaly distributions between observation and temperature anomaly constructed using the combined effect of four leading teleconnections clearly show a reasonable consistency between

  9. Regional scale modeling of atmospheric CO2 over East Asia and comparison with satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, C.

    2012-12-01

    East Asia is now the most important regions in terms of CO2 emissions and the analyzing accurate CO2 budget is critical issue for low-carbon policy. He we show the simulated regional scale CO2 distribution. The regional scale chemical transport model (WRF-Chem) was used with 50km x 50km resolution. The lateral boundary conditions were from GEOS-Chem CO2 simulations (with 2x2.5 degree resolution) where the chemical CO2 production and 3-D emissions from aviation were included. It is clear that the seasonal changes in north-south gradient of CO2 concentration over East Asia is shown by the model. In spring, the westerly transport of CO2 from north-east China is dominant, which increases the higher CO2 concentration in northern part of East Asia in the lower troposphere (< 2km). In contrast, the strong CO2 sink of vegetation from northern part of Asia and Siberia reduces CO2 concentration significantly in northern part of East Asia. The modeling results represent that the seasonal CO2 changes in the spatial distribution are affected by both the Chinese CO2 emissions and CO2 sinks from the vegetation. The modeling results are compared with the recent GOSAT CO2 column observations and stationary data. The regional CO2 modeling study will help the global low carbon policy for responding to recent climate change.

  10. Mobility, Formation and Development of the Academic Profession in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics in East and South East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yonezawa, Akiyoshi; Horta, Hugo; Osawa, Aki

    2016-01-01

    The academic profession contributes to shaping the capacity and identity of higher education systems. In East and Southeast Asia, there is a need for further discussion on the regional identity characteristics of the academic profession to account for its multiple origins and national and international dimensions. Data from two large-scale…

  11. Teaching East Asia in Middle Schools: Lesson Plans Contributed at the 1998 East Asian Studies Center Summer Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana Univ., Bloomington. East Asian Studies Center.

    This document contains five middle school lesson plans that teach about East Asia, focusing on Japan, China, and Korea. Lessons deal with geography, history, cultural comparisons, and trade relations. Lesson plans include background information, materials needed, extension and enrichment ideas, a lesson script, a rubric, a list of resources, and…

  12. Prostate cancer in East Asia: evolving trend over the last decade

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yao; Wang, Hong-Kai; Qu, Yuan-Yuan; Ye, Ding-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer is now becoming an emerging health priority in East Asia. Most of our current knowledge on Prostate cancer has been generated from studies conducted in Western population; however, there is considerable heterogeneity of Prostate cancer between East and West. In this article, we reviewed epidemiologic trends, risk factors, disease characteristics and management of Prostate cancer in East Asian population over the last decade. Growing evidence from East Asia suggests an important role of genetic and environmental risk factors interactions in the carcinogenesis of Prostate cancer. Exposure to westernized diet and life style and improvement in health care in combination contribute substantially to the increasing epidemic in this region. Diagnostic and treatment guidelines in East Asia are largely based on Western knowledge. Although there is a remarkable improvement in the outcome over the last decade, ample evidence suggests an inneglectable difference in diagnostic accuracy, treatment efficacy and adverse events between different populations. The knowledge from western countries should be calibrated in the Asian setting to provide a better race-based treatment approach. In this review, we intend to reveal the evolving trend of Prostate cancer in the last decade, in order to gain evidence to improve Prostate cancer prevention and control in East Asia. PMID:25080928

  13. Cancer Control Programs in East Asia: Evidence From the International Literature

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Malcolm A.

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is a major cause of mortality and morbidity throughout the world, including the countries of North-East and South-East Asia. Assessment of burden through cancer registration, determination of risk and protective factors, early detection and screening, clinical practice, interventions for example in vaccination, tobacco cessation efforts and palliative care all should be included in comprehensive cancer control programs. The degree to which this is possible naturally depends on the resources available at local, national and international levels. The present review concerns elements of cancer control programs established in China, Taiwan, Korea, and Japan in North-East Asia, Viet Nam, Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia as representative larger countries of South-East Asia for comparison, using the published literature as a guide. While major advances have been made, there are still areas which need more attention, especially in South-East Asia, and international cooperation is essential if standard guidelines are to be generated to allow effective cancer control efforts throughout the Far East. PMID:25139165

  14. Cancer control programs in East Asia: evidence from the international literature.

    PubMed

    Moore, Malcolm A

    2014-07-01

    Cancer is a major cause of mortality and morbidity throughout the world, including the countries of North-East and South-East Asia. Assessment of burden through cancer registration, determination of risk and protective factors, early detection and screening, clinical practice, interventions for example in vaccination, tobacco cessation efforts and palliative care all should be included in comprehensive cancer control programs. The degree to which this is possible naturally depends on the resources available at local, national and international levels. The present review concerns elements of cancer control programs established in China, Taiwan, Korea, and Japan in North-East Asia, Viet Nam, Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia as representative larger countries of South-East Asia for comparison, using the published literature as a guide. While major advances have been made, there are still areas which need more attention, especially in South-East Asia, and international cooperation is essential if standard guidelines are to be generated to allow effective cancer control efforts throughout the Far East. PMID:25139165

  15. A modeling study of the effects of aerosols on clouds and precipitation over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaodong; Xie, Xiaoning; Yin, Zhi-Yong; Liu, Changhai; Gettelman, Andrew

    2011-12-01

    The National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Atmosphere Model (version 3.5) coupled with the Morrison-Gettelman two-moment cloud microphysics scheme is employed to simulate the aerosol effects on clouds and precipitation in two numerical experiments, one representing present-day conditions (year 2000) and the other the pre-industrial conditions (year 1750) over East Asia by considering both direct and indirect aerosol effects. To isolate the aerosol effects, we used the same set of boundary conditions and only altered the aerosol emissions in both experiments. The simulated results show that the cloud microphysical properties are markedly affected by the increase in aerosols, especially for the column cloud droplet number concentration (DNC), liquid water path (LWP), and the cloud droplet effective radius (DER). With increased aerosols, DNC and LWP have been increased by 137% and 28%, respectively, while DER is reduced by 20%. Precipitation rates in East Asia and East China are reduced by 5.8% and 13%, respectively, by both the aerosol's second indirect effect and the radiative forcing that enhanced atmospheric stability associated with the aerosol direct and first indirect effects. The significant reduction in summer precipitation in East Asia is also consistent with the weakening of the East Asian summer monsoon, resulting from the decreasing thermodynamic contrast between the Asian landmass and the surrounding oceans induced by the aerosol's radiative effects. The increase in aerosols reduces the surface net shortwave radiative flux over the East Asia landmass, which leads to the reduction of the land surface temperature. With minimal changes in the sea surface temperature, hence, the weakening of the East Asian summer monsoon further enhances the reduction of summer precipitation over East Asia.

  16. Intraplate volcanism and mantle dynamics in East Asia: Big mantle wedge (BMW) model (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, D.

    2009-12-01

    In the East Asia continent there are many Cenozoic volcanoes, but only a few are still active now, such as the Changbai, Wudalianchi, and Tengchong volcanoes which have erupted several times in the past 1000 years. Although many studies have been made by using various approaches, the origin of the intraplate volcanoes in East Asia is still not very clear. Recently we used regional and global seismic tomography to determine high-resolution 3-D mantle structure under Western Pacific to East Asia (Zhao, 2004; Huang and Zhao, 2006; Zhao et al., 2009). Our results show prominent low-velocity anomalies from the surface down to 410 km depth beneath the intraplate volcanoes and a broad high-velocity anomaly in the mantle transition zone under East Asia. Focal-mechanism solutions of deep earthquakes indicate that the subducting Pacific slab under the Japan Sea and the East Asia margin is subject to compressive stress regime. These results suggest that the Pacific slab meets strong resistance at the 660-km discontinuity and so it becomes stagnant in the mantle transition zone under East Asia. The Philippine Sea slab has also subducted down to the mantle transition zone under western Japan and the Ryukyu back-arc region. The western edge of the stagnant slab is generally parallel with the Japan trench and the Ryukyu trench and roughly coincides with a prominent surface topography and gravity boundary in East China, which is located approximately 1800 km west of the trenches. The upper mantle under East Asia has formed a big mantle wedge (BMW) above the stagnant slab. The BMW exhibits low seismic-velocity and high electrical-conductivity, which is hot and wet because of the deep dehydration reactions of the stagnant slab and the convective circulation process in the BMW. These processes lead to the upwelling of hot and wet asthenospheric materials and thinning and fracturing of the continental lithosphere, leading to the formation of the active intraplate volcanoes in East

  17. How prevalent are Plasmodium ovale and P. malariae in East Asia?

    PubMed

    Kawamoto, F; Liu, Q; Ferreira, M U; Tantular, I S

    1999-10-01

    Plasmodium ovale and Plasmodium malariae, two of the four human malaria parasites, are usually found at very low prevalence in East Asia, even in areas with intense malaria transmission. In this article, Fumihiko Kawamoto, Qing Liu, Marcelo Ferreira and Indah Tantular review data obtained in recent field surveys, using alternative diagnostic methods such as acridine orange staining and PCR-based methods, to evaluate the prevalence of these two malaria species in East Asia. They argue that these species might be much more prevalent in East Asia than reported previously. In addition, they discuss the implications of sequence variations found in the small subunit ribosomal RNA genes of the two species targeted by diagnostic PCR and compare morphological criteria for speciation of malaria parasites stained with Giemsa and acridine orange. PMID:10481157

  18. Asia-Pacific Africa-Middle East petroleum directory 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This directory contains the names of over 40,000 people in over 100 countries including addresses, phone, cable and telex numbers for companies in drilling, refining, exploration, pipelines, engineering, field services, and construction. Over 10,000 companies are featured. This country-by-country listing includes onshore and offshore fields.

  19. BVOC fluxes from oil palm canopies in South East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misztal, P. K.; Cape, J. N.; Langford, B.; Nemitz, E.; Helfter, C.; Owen, S.; Heal, M. R.; Hewitt, C. N.; Fowler, D.

    2009-04-01

    Fluxes by virtual disjunct eddy covariance were measured for the first time in South-East Asia in 2008 from an oil palm plantation. Malaysia and Indonesia account for more than 80% of world oil palm production. Our in situ findings suggest much higher isoprene emissions from oil palms than from rainforest, which is consistent with earlier lab-based predictions of emissions from oil palms (Wilkinson et al., 2006). 50% of global biogenic VOC emissions are estimated to derive from tropical rainforests (Guenther et al., 1995) although in fact a large portion of the emission may derive from oil palms in the tropics. Isoprene and monoterpenes are regarded as the most important biogenic VOCs for the atmospheric chemistry. Overall, maximum isoprene emissions from oil palms were recorded at 11:00 local time, with a mean value of 13 mg m-2 h-1. At the rainforest, the maximum fluxes of isoprene were observed later in the day, at about 13:00 with an average of 2.5 mg m-2 h-1. Initial flux results for total monoterpenes indicate that their mass emission ratio with respect to isoprene was about 1:9 at the rainforest and 1:18 at the oil palm plantation. The results are presented with reference to temperature, photosynthetic radiation and meteorological drivers as well as in comparison with CO2 and H2O fluxes. Empirical parameters in the Guenther algorithm for MEGAN (Guenther et al, 2006), which was originally designed for the Amazon region, have been optimised for this oil palm study. The emission factor obtained from eddy covariance measurements was 18.8 mg m-2 h-1, while the one obtained from leaf level studies at the site was 19.5 mg m-2 h-1. Isoprene fluxes from both Amazonia (Karl et al., 2007) and from rainforest in Borneo 2008 seem to be much lower than from oil palms. This can have consequences for atmospheric chemistry of land use change from rainforest to oil palm plantation, including formation of ozone, SOA and particles and indirect effects on the removal rate of

  20. Regional Modeling of Dust Mass Balance and Radiative Forcing over East Asia using WRF-Chem

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Siyu; Zhao, Chun; Qian, Yun; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Huang, J.; Huang, Zhongwei; Bi, Jianrong; Zhang, Wu; Shi, Jinsen; Yang, Lei; Li, Deshuai; Li, Jinxin

    2014-12-01

    The Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) is used to investigate the seasonal and annual variations of mineral dust over East Asia during 2007-2011, with a focus on the dust mass balance and radiative forcing. A variety of measurements from in-stu and satellite observations have been used to evaluate simulation results. Generally, WRF-Chem reproduces not only the column variability but also the vertical profile and size distribution of mineral dust over and near the dust source regions of East Asia. We investigate the dust lifecycle and the factors that control the seasonal and spatial variations of dust mass balance and radiative forcing over the seven sub-regions of East Asia, i.e. source regions, the Tibetan Plateau, Northern China, Southern China, the ocean outflow region, and Korea-Japan regions. Results show that, over the source regions, transport and dry deposition are the two dominant sinks. Transport contributes to ~30% of the dust sink over the source regions. Dust results in a surface cooling of up to -14 and -10 W m-2, atmospheric warming of up to 20 and 15 W m-2, and TOA cooling of -5 and -8 W m-2 over the two major dust source regions of East Asia, respectively. Over the Tibetan Plateau, transport is the dominant source with a peak in summer. Over identified outflow regions, maximum dust mass loading in spring is contributed by the transport. Dry and wet depositions are the comparably dominant sinks, but wet deposition is larger than dry deposition over the Korea-Japan region, particularly in spring (70% versus 30%). The WRF-Chem simulations can generally capture the measured features of dust aerosols and its radaitve properties and dust mass balance over East Asia, which provides confidence for use in further investigation of dust impact on climate over East Asia.

  1. International energy outlook. Volume 1. Mideast, Far East, and Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Jablonski, D.M.

    1982-01-01

    The developing nations of the Mideast, Far East, and Africa face a bleaker - and more-complicated - energy picture than that of the West. Rapid industrial and agricultural expansion in the region severely drains already-inadequate energy systems. Energy-importing countries find they must diversify and develop indigenous resources, but often lack the technical known-how to do so. Volume 1 is a compilation of official US government intelligence reports examining the way 22 countries in the Mideast, Far East, and Africa are responding to the energy problems. The countries covered are: Algeria, Australia, Burma, China, Egypt, Gabon, India, Indonesia, Ivory Coast, Japan, Korea, Kuwait, Lebanon, Morocco, Mozambique, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Sudan, Taiwan, Tunisia and Turkey. The range and detail of country reports vary, due to availability of reports. Although the book details current energy situations, its main emphasis is on the future, including estimates of future production and consumption, and descriptions of energy development plans. Some of the countries in this region are fortunate to have petrochemical resources, while electric energy expansion is crucial to national development in all. Coal will be filling the gap left by diminishing oil supplies. 61 tables.

  2. Terrestrial heat flow in east and southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyblade, Andrew A.; Pollack, Henry N.; Jones, D. L.; Podmore, Francis; Mushayandebvu, Martin

    1990-10-01

    We report 26 new heat flow and 13 radiogenic heat production measurements from Zimbabwe, Zambia and Tanzania, together with details and some revisions of 18 previous heat flow measurements by other investigators from Kenya and Tanzania. These measurements come from Archean cratons, Proterozoic mobile belts, and Mesozoic and Cenozoic rifts. Heat flow data from eight new sites in the Archean Zimbabwe Craton are consistent with previous measurements in the Archean Kaapvaal-Zimbabwe Craton and Limpopo Belt (Kalahari Craton) and do not change the mean heat flow of 47±2 mW m-2 (standard error of the mean) in the Kalahari Craton based on 53 previous measurements. Eight new sites in the Archean Tanzania Craton give a mean heat flow of 34±4 mW m-2. The mean heat flow from nine sites in the Proterozoic Mozambique Belt to the east of the Tanzania Craton in Kenya and Tanzania is 47±4 mW m-2. Twelve measurements in the Mesozoic rifted continental margin in east Africa give a mean heat flow of 68±4 mW m-2; four measurements in the Mesozoic Luangwa and Zambezi Rifts range from 44 to 110 mW m-2 with a mean of 76±14 mW m-2. In comparing heat flow in east and southern Africa, we observe a common heat flow pattern of increasing heat flow away from the centers of the Archean cratons. This pattern suggests a fundamental difference in lithospheric thermal structure between the Archean cratons and the Proterozoic and early Paleozoic mobile belts which surround them. Superimposed on this common pattern are two regional variations in heat flow. Heat flow in the Tanzania Craton is lower by about 13 mW m-2 than in the Kalahari Craton, and in the Mozambique Belt in east Africa heat flow is somewhat lower than in the southern African mobile belts at similar distances from the Archean cratonic margin. The two regional variations can be explained in several ways, none of which can as yet be elevated to a preferred status: (1) by variations in crustal heat production, (2) by thin

  3. Emission trends and mitigation options for air pollutants in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S. X.; Zhao, B.; Cai, S. Y.; Klimont, Z.; Nielsen, C.; McElroy, M. B.; Morikawa, T.; Woo, J. H.; Kim, Y.; Fu, X.; Xu, J. Y.; Hao, J. M.; He, K. B.

    2014-01-01

    Emissions of air pollutants in East Asia play an important role in the regional and global atmospheric environment. In this study we evaluated the recent emission trends of sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matters (PM), and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) in East Asia, and projected their future emissions up to 2030 with six emission scenarios. The results will provide future emission projections for the modeling community of the model inter-comparison program for Asia (MICS-Asia). During 2005-2010, the emissions of SO2 and PM2.5 in East Asia decreased by 15 % and 11%, respectively, mainly attributable to the large scale deployment of FGD for China's power plants, and the promotion of high-efficient PM removal technologies in China's power plants and cement industry. During this period, the emissions of NOx and NMVOC increased by 25% and 15%, driven by the rapid increase in the emissions from China owing to inadequate control strategies. In contrast, the NOx and NMVOC emissions in East Asia except China decreased by 13-17% mainly due to the implementation of tight vehicle emission standards in Japan and South Korea. Under current legislation and current implementation status, NOx, SO2, and NMVOC emissions in East Asia are estimated to increase by about one quarter by 2030 from the 2010 levels, while PM2.5 emissions are expected to decrease by 7%. Assuming enforcement of new energy-saving policies, emissions of NOx, SO2, PM2.5 and NMVOC in East Asia are expected to decrease by 28%, 36%, 28%, and 15% respectively compared with the baseline case. The implementation of the "progressive" end-of-pipe control measures is expected to lead to another one third reduction of the baseline emissions of NOx, and about one quarter reduction for SO2, PM2.5, and NMVOC. With the full implementation of maximum feasible reduction measures, the emissions of NOx, SO2, and PM2.5 in East Asia are expected to account for only about one quarter and

  4. Emission trends and mitigation options for air pollutants in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S. X.; Zhao, B.; Cai, S. Y.; Klimont, Z.; Nielsen, C. P.; Morikawa, T.; Woo, J. H.; Kim, Y.; Fu, X.; Xu, J. Y.; Hao, J. M.; He, K. B.

    2014-07-01

    Emissions of air pollutants in East Asia play an important role in the regional and global atmospheric environment. In this study we evaluated the recent emission trends of sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter (PM), and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) in East Asia, and projected their future emissions up until 2030 with six emission scenarios. The results will provide future emission projections for the modeling community of the model inter-comparison program for Asia (MICS-Asia). During 2005-2010, the emissions of SO2 and PM2.5 in East Asia decreased by 15 and 12%, respectively, mainly attributable to the large-scale deployment of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) at China's power plants, and the promotion of highly efficient PM removal technologies in China's power plants and cement industry. During this period, the emissions of NOx and NMVOC increased by 25 and 15%, driven by rapid increase in the emissions from China due to inadequate control strategies. In contrast, the NOx and NMVOC emissions in East Asia except China decreased by 13-17%, mainly due to the implementation of stringent vehicle emission standards in Japan and South Korea. Under current regulations and current levels of implementation, NOx, SO2, and NMVOC emissions in East Asia are projected to increase by about one-quarter over 2010 levels by 2030, while PM2.5 emissions are expected to decrease by 7%. Assuming enforcement of new energy-saving policies, emissions of NOx, SO2, PM2.5 and NMVOC in East Asia are expected to decrease by 28, 36, 28, and 15%, respectively, compared with the baseline case. The implementation of "progressive" end-of-pipe control measures would lead to another one-third reduction of the baseline emissions of NOx, and about one-quarter reduction of SO2, PM2.5, and NMVOC. Assuming the full application of technically feasible energy-saving policies and end-of-pipe control technologies, the emissions of NOx, SO2, and PM2.5 in East Asia

  5. [Gestational diabetes in East Africa: a mostly disregarded disease?].

    PubMed

    Zeck, W; Lang, U; Panzitt, T; Oneko, O; Obure, J; McIntyre, H D

    2009-01-01

    The majority of all deliveries worldwide take place in the so-called developing world. Most recent epidemiological data have shown that the number of cases of type 2 diabetes mellitus and diabetes in pregnancy is steadily increasing worldwide. However, little is known about the prevalence of gestational diabetes in East Africa. Intrauterine exposure to the metabolic environment of maternal diabetes increases the risk of altered glucose homeostasis in the offspring, producing a higher prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus in the next generation. Our preliminary results from an East African tertiary referral center show that in the year 2007 3.1% of all newborns had a birth weight of more than 4,000 g (mean 4,300 g, range 4,000- 5,600 g). During the same time period, the mean birth weight in the general population was only 3,046 g (range 600-3,200 g). Hence, personal experience in East Africa has convinced the authors that diabetes in pregnancy is grossly neglected. Besides infectious diseases like HIV/AIDS, the African continent is increasingly facing metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus and diabetes in pregnancy. PMID:20530939

  6. Challenging Educational Injustice: "Grassroots" Privatisation in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tooley, James

    2013-01-01

    The phenomenon of low-cost private schools "mushrooming" in poor areas of sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, and elsewhere, is now well-documented. Findings from research by the author's teams and others show that these schools are serving a majority (urban and peri-urban) or significant minority (rural) of the poor, including…

  7. Perceived Professional Development Needs of English-Speaking Evangelical Academic Deans in Africa and Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Leslie J.

    2013-01-01

    This study identified the perceived professional development needs of English-speaking evangelical theological school deans in Africa and Asia, as a basis for evaluating or creating professional development programs for these regions. It answered the question: What are the perceptions of the need for professional development prior to and after…

  8. Monitoring the Quality of Medicines: Results from Africa, Asia, and South America

    PubMed Central

    Hajjou, Mustapha; Krech, Laura; Lane-Barlow, Christi; Roth, Lukas; Pribluda, Victor S.; Phanouvong, Souly; El-Hadri, Latifa; Evans, Lawrence; Raymond, Christopher; Yuan, Elaine; Siv, Lang; Vuong, Tuan-Anh; Boateng, Kwasi Poku; Okafor, Regina; Chibwe, Kennedy M.; Lukulay, Patrick H.

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring the quality of medicines plays a crucial role in an integrated medicines quality assurance system. In a publicly available medicines quality database (MQDB), the U.S. Pharmacopeial Convention (USP) reports results of data collected from medicines quality monitoring (MQM) activities spanning the period of 2003–2013 in 17 countries of Africa, Asia, and South America. The MQDB contains information on 15,063 samples collected and tested using Minilab® screening methods and/or pharmacopeial methods. Approximately 71% of the samples reported came from Asia, 23% from Africa, and 6% from South America. The samples collected and tested include mainly antibiotic, antimalarial, and antituberculosis medicines. A total of 848 samples, representing 5.6% of total samples, failed the quality test. The failure proportion per region was 11.5%, 10.4%, and 2.9% for South America, Africa, and Asia, respectively. Eighty-one counterfeit medicines were reported, 86.4% of which were found in Asia and 13.6% in Africa. Additional analysis of the data shows the distribution of poor-quality medicines per region and by therapeutic indication as well as possible trends of counterfeit medicines. PMID:25897073

  9. Developing Curriculum Materials on East Asia for Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menton, Linda K.

    2007-01-01

    The Curriculum Research & Development Group (CRDG) is a research unit of the College of Education at the University of Hawai'i. Part of its mission is to develop curriculum materials for students in grades K-12. The social studies section of CRDG has been developing curriculum materials on Asia since the early 1990s. As part of a project entitled…

  10. A sub-decadal trend of diacids in atmospheric aerosols in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, S.; Kawamura, K.; Kobayashi, M.; Tachibana, E.; Lee, M.; Fu, P. Q.; Jung, J.

    2015-08-01

    The change of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) has been predicted to be highly uncertain in the future atmosphere in Asia. To better quantify the SOA change, we study a sub-decadal (2001-2008) trend of major surrogate compounds (C2-C10 diacids) of SOA in atmospheric aerosols from Gosan site in Jeju Island, South Korea. Gosan site is influenced by the pollution-outflows from East Asia. The molecular distribution of diacids was characterized by the predominance of oxalic (C2) acid followed by malonic (C3) and succinic (C4) acids in each year. The seasonal variations of diacids in each year were characterized by the highest concentrations of saturated diacids in spring and unsaturated diacids in winter. The consistent molecular distribution and seasonal variations are indicative of similar pollution sources for diacids in East Asia over a sub-decadal scale. However, the intensity of the pollution sources has increased as evidenced by the increases of major diacids at the rate of 3.9-47.4 % year-1 particularly in April. The temporal variations of atmospheric tracer compounds (CO, levoglucosan, 2-methyltetrols, pinic acid, glyoxylic acid, glyoxal and methylglyoxal) suggest that the increases of diacids are due to an enhanced precursor emissions associated with more anthropogenic than biogenic activities followed by their chemical processing in the atmosphere. The trends of diacids are opposite to the reported decreases of sulfate, nitrate and ammonium in the recent years in East Asia. This study demonstrates that recent pollution control strategies in East Asia could not decrease organic acidic species in the atmosphere. If the current rates of increases continue, the organic acid- and water-soluble fractions of SOA could increase significantly in the future atmosphere in East Asia.

  11. The Quest for an Entrepreneurial University in East Asia: Impact on Academics and Administrators in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mok, Ka Ho

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, universities in East Asia have taken knowledge transfer more seriously, especially when the state funding for higher education was reduced while other private funding sources were diversified. Universities in East Asia collaborate with the industrial and business sectors on projects related to research, development, and…

  12. Analysis of Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Sesame Accessions from Africa and Asia as Major Centers of Its Cultivation.

    PubMed

    Dossa, Komivi; Wei, Xin; Zhang, Yanxin; Fonceka, Daniel; Yang, Wenjuan; Diouf, Diaga; Liao, Boshou; Cissé, Ndiaga; Zhang, Xiurong

    2016-01-01

    Sesame is an important oil crop widely cultivated in Africa and Asia. Understanding the genetic diversity of accessions from these continents is critical to designing breeding methods and for additional collection of sesame germplasm. To determine the genetic diversity in relation to geographical regions, 96 sesame accessions collected from 22 countries distributed over six geographic regions in Africa and Asia were genotyped using 33 polymorphic SSR markers. Large genetic variability was found within the germplasm collection. The total number of alleles was 137, averaging 4.15 alleles per locus. The accessions from Asia displayed more diversity than those from Africa. Accessions from Southern Asia (SAs), Eastern Asia (EAs), and Western Africa (WAf) were highly diversified, while those from Western Asia (WAs), Northern Africa (NAf), and Southeastern Africa (SAf) had the lowest diversity. The analysis of molecular variance revealed that more than 44% of the genetic variance was due to diversity among geographic regions. Five subpopulations, including three in Asia and two in Africa, were cross-identified through phylogenetic, PCA, and STRUCTURE analyses. Most accessions clustered in the same population based on their geographical origins. Our results provide technical guidance for efficient management of sesame genetic resources in breeding programs and further collection of sesame germplasm from these different regions. PMID:27077887

  13. Analysis of Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Sesame Accessions from Africa and Asia as Major Centers of Its Cultivation

    PubMed Central

    Dossa, Komivi; Wei, Xin; Zhang, Yanxin; Fonceka, Daniel; Yang, Wenjuan; Diouf, Diaga; Liao, Boshou; Cissé, Ndiaga; Zhang, Xiurong

    2016-01-01

    Sesame is an important oil crop widely cultivated in Africa and Asia. Understanding the genetic diversity of accessions from these continents is critical to designing breeding methods and for additional collection of sesame germplasm. To determine the genetic diversity in relation to geographical regions, 96 sesame accessions collected from 22 countries distributed over six geographic regions in Africa and Asia were genotyped using 33 polymorphic SSR markers. Large genetic variability was found within the germplasm collection. The total number of alleles was 137, averaging 4.15 alleles per locus. The accessions from Asia displayed more diversity than those from Africa. Accessions from Southern Asia (SAs), Eastern Asia (EAs), and Western Africa (WAf) were highly diversified, while those from Western Asia (WAs), Northern Africa (NAf), and Southeastern Africa (SAf) had the lowest diversity. The analysis of molecular variance revealed that more than 44% of the genetic variance was due to diversity among geographic regions. Five subpopulations, including three in Asia and two in Africa, were cross-identified through phylogenetic, PCA, and STRUCTURE analyses. Most accessions clustered in the same population based on their geographical origins. Our results provide technical guidance for efficient management of sesame genetic resources in breeding programs and further collection of sesame germplasm from these different regions. PMID:27077887

  14. Uncertainty in biogenic isoprene emissions and its impacts on tropospheric chemistry in East Asia.

    PubMed

    Han, K M; Park, R S; Kim, H K; Woo, J H; Kim, J; Song, C H

    2013-10-01

    In this study, the accuracy of biogenic isoprene emission fluxes over East Asia during two summer months (July and August) was examined by comparing two tropospheric HCHO columns (ΩHCHO) obtained from the SCIAMACHY sensor and the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ v4.7.1) model simulations, using three available biogenic isoprene emission inventories over East Asia: i) GEIA, ii) MEGAN and iii) MOHYCAN. From this comparative analysis, the tropospheric HCHO columns from the CMAQ model simulations, using the MEGAN and MOHYCAN emission inventories (Ω(CMAQ, MEGAN) and Ω(CMAQ, MOHYCAN)), were found to agree well with the tropospheric HCHO columns from the SCIAMACHY observations (Ω(SCIA)). Secondly, the propagation of such uncertainties in the biogenic isoprene emission fluxes to the levels of atmospheric oxidants (e.g., OH and HO2) and other atmospheric gaseous/particulate species over East Asia during the two summer months was also investigated. As the biogenic isoprene emission fluxes decreased from the GEIA to the MEGAN emission inventories, the levels of OH radicals increased by factors of 1.39 and 1.75 over Central East China (CEC) and South China, respectively. Such increases in the OH radical mixing ratios subsequently influence the partitioning of HO(y) species. For example, the HO2/OH ratios from the CMAQ model simulations with GEIA isoprene emissions were 2.7 times larger than those from the CMAQ model simulations based on MEGAN isoprene emissions. The large HO2/OH ratios from the CMAQ model simulations with the GEIA biogenic emission were possibly due to the overestimation of GEIA biogenic isoprene emissions over East Asia. It was also shown that such large changes in HO(x) radicals created large differences on other tropospheric compounds (e.g., NO(y) chemistry) over East Asia during the summer months. PMID:23867846

  15. Reconstruction of the East Africa and Antarctica continental margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, L. C.; Hall, S. A.; Ball, P.; Bird, D. E.

    2015-12-01

    The Early Jurassic separation of Antarctica from Africa plays an important role in our understanding of the dispersal of Gondwana. Previously proposed reconstruction models often contain overlaps and gaps in the restored margins that reflect difficulties in accurately delineating the continent-ocean boundary (COB) and determining the amount and distribution of extended continental crust. This study focuses on the evolution of the African margin adjacent to the Mozambique Basin and the conjugate margin of Antarctica near the Riiser Larsen Sea. New satellite-derived gravity data have been used to trace the orientations and landward limits of fracture zones in the study area. A 3-D gravity inversion has produced a crustal thickness model that reliably quantifies the extent and amount of stretched crust. Information on crustal thickness along with the identification of fracture zones reveal the COBs that are located significantly closer to the coasts of Africa and Antarctica than previously recognized. Correlation of both fracture zone azimuths and the identified COBs over the conjugate margins suggest Antarctica began drifting away from Africa at approximately 171 Ma in a roughly SSE direction. Of several scenarios examined, the Beira High is most likely oceanic and may be a conjugate feature of the southern Astrid Ridge. An areal-balancing method that involves restoring the crust to a uniform pre-rift thickness has been used to perform the non-rigid reconstruction for both non-volcanic and volcanic margin with magmatic underplating. Based on the results, Africa underwent extension of 65-105 km while Antarctic crust was stretched by 90-190 km. Both margins reveal a trend of increasing extension from east to west. Various models tested to determine the direction of extension during rifting suggest that Antarctica underwent a counter-clockwise rotation with respect to Africa between 186-171 Ma prior to the onset of seafloor spreading.

  16. Energetics and dynamics associated with two typical mobile trough pathways over East Asia in boreal winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Marco Yu-Ting; Cheung, Hoffman Ho-Nam; Zhou, Wen

    2015-03-01

    Two dominant types of East Asian mobile trough (EAMT) are identified by a novel mobile trough detection algorithm. The two major EAMTs likely pass through to the north and the south of Lake Baikal. In this study, both of synoptic and planetary time scales influences on East Asia are studied. For synoptic scale, southern path of mobile trough shows a higher rate of intensification that of northern path. Southern path has stronger impact on Southeast Asia temperature fluctuation because of more southern pathway and stronger magnitude of wave train. But duration of fluctuation is shorter in southern due to the downstream development. For planetary scale, the northern path shows a large warm anomaly over Southeast Asia and a cold anomaly over Northeast Asia, which is associated with the northward shift of the jet stream. The southern path shows a cold anomaly over East Asia due to a northwesterly anomaly. The forcing of high frequency eddy on low frequency eddy is estimated in terms of momentum and energy. The reinforcement of high frequency eddy flux on low frequency variation can be observed in northern path, but not in southern path. The energy difference for two paths is also caused by the variations of barotropic and baroclinic conversion. The energy tendency of interaction between two frequency eddies is only responsible for sustention of energy anomaly over southwestern Japan.

  17. Studies in Family Planning, Volume 5 Number 5. East Asia Review, 1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeny, S. M., Ed.

    An annual review, third in a series, covers developments in the field of population and family planning in East Asia. For each of the 10 countries involved (Hong Kong, Indonesia, South Korea, Laos, Malaysia, Phillipines, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, and South Vietnam) there is an article written by the agent responsible for the family planning…

  18. The Quest for Innovation and Entrepreneurship: The Changing Role of University in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mok, Ka Ho

    2012-01-01

    This article critically reviews the national innovation systems of the four little tigers in East Asia, namely Hong Kong, Singapore, Taiwan and South Korea, in fostering R&D and technological research. A national innovation system is characterised by the interactions between the state, industries and universities in promoting innovation. This…

  19. Promoting Learner Autonomy: Student Perceptions of Responsibilities in a Language Classroom in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakai, Shien; Takagi, Akiko; Chu, Man-Ping

    2010-01-01

    With the advent of communicative language teaching in East Asia, the idea of learner autonomy has become a topic of discussion and a goal among language teachers. The idea of autonomy raises important questions that need to be further explored, particularly in terms of students taking responsibility for learning. While examining the English…

  20. Japanese Comic Illustrations and Children's Picture/Illustrated Books of East Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Laina

    This paper examines the influence of Japanese comic illustrations on children's books in countries in East Asia. It has become increasingly obvious that recent children's books in countries like Hong Kong, Taiwan, Singapore, as well as China and Malaysia/Indonesia contain illustrations with some features of the Japanese comic illustrations. This…

  1. Controls of Climate Anomalies on Terrestrial Carbon Assimilation in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, G.; Kang, S.

    2010-12-01

    Understanding of feedback between climate system and terrestrial ecosystems is of importance to an accurate estimation of global carbon partitioning and cycles in the warmer climate with more anthropogenic carbon in the atmosphere. In this study, a method to improve terrestrial carbon assimilation data, estimated from cloud-contaminated Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) imagery, is suggested and potential associations between inter-annual or intra-annual climate anomalies and carbon assimilation by terrestrial ecosystems in East Asia are examined based on the improved MODIS data. The negative anomalies of Net Primary Productivity (NPP) in 2004 are attributable to reduced solar radiation in northern East Asia, while droughts are responsible for the similar reduction in the NPP in subtropical East Asia. The impacts of seasonal climate anomalies and extreme climatic events on intra-annual variations of terrestrial carbon assimilation in monsoonal East Asia will also be discussed. Acknowledgement: This work was funded by the Korea Meteorological Administration Research and Development Program under Grant RACS 2010-4014.

  2. Early Learning and Development Standards in East Asia and the Pacific: Experiences from Eight Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miyahara, Junko; Meyers, Cliff

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses how countries in UNICEF's East Asia and Pacific Region (EAPR) have engaged in the Early Learning and Development Standards (ELDS) process. ELDS has been developed by the governments of Cambodia, China, Fiji, Lao PDR, Mongolia, Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam over the last 3 years with technical and financial support from…

  3. Attitudes of International Music Students from East Asia toward U.S. Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Jin Ho

    2009-01-01

    Nine universities in the United States with the greatest number of international students and having an accredited music program through the National Association of Schools of Music (NASM) were selected. Survey research methodologies were used to identify the status of the international music students from East Asia in U.S. higher education…

  4. A Synthesis of Reviews of Research on Principal Leadership in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Allan; Hallinger, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to synthesize findings from five systematic reviews of research on principal leadership in East Asia contained in this special issue. The goal is to identify commonalities as well as differences concerning both approaches to research and the enactment of school leadership within this rapidly developing and…

  5. Teaching East Asia: China, Japan, Korea. Lesson Plans for Middle School Teachers. Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beville, Francie; Boone, Mark; Chapman, Kelly; Crump, Claudia; Curtis, Lonnie; Erickson, Stacy; Kaiser-Polge, Tami; Klus, John A.; Luebbehusen, Mary Lou; Rea, Patrick S.; Ward, Mary E.

    This volume contains 23 lesson plans that were written for middle school teachers to help students learn about East Asia. The lessons are organized across six themes: (1) "People, Places & Environment"; (2) "Technology, Production, Distribution & Consumption"; (3) "Cultures, Continuity, and Change"; (4) "Aesthetics, Celebrations and Values"; (5)…

  6. Training Rural Youth for Farming in the Asia and Far East Region. Report No. RAFE 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bamford, G. N.

    In response to the Tenth Food and Agricultural Regional Conference for Asia and the Far East (August/September 1970), a comparative study of the different approaches already tried in the Region was conducted, and as the product of that study, this report briefly describes projects currently operating in India; Ceylon; Thailand; Malaysia;…

  7. A Study of XML in the Library Science Curriculum in Taiwan and South East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Naicheng; Huang, Yuhui; Hopkinson, Alan

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate the current XML-related courses available in 96 LIS schools in South East Asia and Taiwan's 9 LIS schools. Also, this study investigates the linkage of library school graduates in Taiwan who took different levels of XML-related education (that is XML arranged as an individual course or XML arranged as a section unit…

  8. Globalisation and the Changing Nature of the State in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Andy

    2007-01-01

    Economic globalisation is the defining characteristic of our age and a process which is transforming the parameters of the national state and global power relations. However, it is also a contradictory, uneven and unpredictable phenomenon. East Asia has been at the epicenter of globalisation for the past 30 years and will continue to be so with…

  9. Distance Education Regulatory Frameworks: Readiness for Openness in Southwest Pacific/South East Asia Region Nations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tynan, Belinda; James, Rosalind

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports in brief the pilot study, Distance Education Regulatory Frameworks, undertaken by the International Council for Open and Distance Education (ICDE) in 2010-2012 and the implications for openness for higher education in Southwest Pacific/South East Asia region nations. The project developed a methodological approach to…

  10. History Didactics in the Post Cold War World: Central Asia, the Middle East, and China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsyth, Louise; Gould, David; Lawrence, David

    2000-01-01

    Examines three key geographical regions, Central Asia, the Middle East, and China, discussing how the political changes resulting from the end of the Cold War have affected each area. Attempts to demonstrate how teachers can address these changes in their classrooms. (CMK)

  11. New ecology education: Preparing students for the complex human-environmental problems of dryland East Asia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Present-day environmental problems of Dryland East Asia are serious, and future prospects look especially disconcerting owing to current trends in population growth and economic development. Land degradation and desertification, invasive species, biodiversity losses, toxic waste and air pollution, a...

  12. Higher Education and Development in South-East Asia. Volume II, Country Profiles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Howard; And Others

    This document, the second of three volumes concerned with the role of institutions of higher education in the development of countries in South-East Asia, presents country profiles for Burma, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Viet-Nam, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, and the Philippines. The profile emphasizes background, higher education, educational…

  13. Higher Education and Development in South-East Asia. Volume I, Director's Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Howard

    This document reports a study of the role of institutions of higher education in the development of countries in South-East Asia covering Burma, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Viet-Nam. Emphasis is placed on the geographical, historical and social background; patterns of education within the region;…

  14. University Outreach Programs on East Asia: Linkages with School and Community. Wingspread Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oxnam, Robert B.

    The Wingspread conference was convened by the National Committee on United States-China Relations, Inc. and the Asia Society to consider how universities and centers for East Asian studies might make knowledge of Asian affairs more available. The intended audiences were secondary schools, the business community, persons interested in world affairs…

  15. Teaching East Asia: China, Japan, Korea. Lesson Plans for Middle School Teachers. Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiken, Geoff; Benton, Susan; Duvall, James; Eltzroth, Diane; Hooyberg, Astrid; Keim, Marilee; Norris, Elizabeth; Smith, Peggy; Vogel, Kathy; Williams, Steven

    This volume contains 40 lesson plans that were written for middle school teachers to help students learn about East Asia. The lessons are organized across five themes: (1) "People, Places & Environment"; (2) "Technology, Production, Distribution & Consumption"; (3) "Cultures, Continuity, Change"; (4) Institutions, Power & Government"; and (5)…

  16. Learner Centered Higher Education in East Asia: Assessing the Effects on Student Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallinger, Philip; Lu, Jiafang

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The global expansion of higher education has brought about more ambitious educational goals that require new approaches to curriculum, teaching, and learning. While higher education in East Asia is no exception to this trend, it has been observed that both teachers and learners in the region have adhered to a strong tradition of…

  17. Mapping the Terrain of Educational Leadership and Management in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallinger, Philip; Bryant, Darren

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to gain perspective on the extent to which the vision for knowledge production in East Asia set forth by Bajunid, Cheng, Hallinger, Walker, Dimmock and others almost 20 years ago has been fulfilled. The authors undertook an effort to map the terrain of knowledge production in educational leadership and…

  18. Trading on the West's Strength: The Dilemmas of Transnational Higher Education in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiang, Li-chuan

    2012-01-01

    Responding to the impacts of globalization and the knowledge economy, the increasing demand for higher education in East Asia is not only met by domestic higher education, but also by importing transnational higher education (TNHE). Importing TNHE becomes an export strategy to attract international students to contribute to capacity building for…

  19. Developing a Knowledge Base for Educational Leadership and Management in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallinger, Philip

    2011-01-01

    The role of school leadership in educational reform has reached the status of a truism, and led to major changes in school leader recruitment, selection, training and appraisal. While similar policy trends are evident in East Asia, the empirical knowledge base underlying these measures is distorted and lacking in validation. This paper begins by…

  20. Old Borrowings and New Models of the University in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Terri

    2007-01-01

    This paper illustrates the transfer of university models from Europe and America to East Asia and will consider how international power relations in different times transform ideas about the university, in the process of global transfer. These relations will be identified with different forms of the state: imperial, colonial, welfare and market…

  1. Radial-Velocity Searches for Exoplanets in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Bun'ei

    2014-04-01

    Hundreds of extrasolar planets have been discovered around various types of stars by various techniques during the past decade. Among them precise radial velocity measurements for stars are fundamental technique to detect and confirm exoplanets. In this paper activities in East-Asian region in this research field are introduced: East-Asian Planet Search Network, which is a network searching for planets around evolved intermediate-mass stars, and Subaru/IRD project, which will search for habitable planets around M-type dwarfs using infrared radial-velocity method.

  2. Evaluating Downscaling Methods for Seasonal Climate Forecasts over East Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, J. Brent; Robertson, Franklin R.; Bosilovich, Michael; Lyon, Bradfield; Funk, Chris

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. National Multi-Model Ensemble seasonal forecasting system is providing hindcast and real-time data streams to be used in assessing and improving seasonal predictive capacity. The NASA / USAID SERVIR project, which leverages satellite and modeling-based resources for environmental decision making in developing nations, is focusing on the evaluation of NMME forecasts specifically for use in impact modeling within hub regions including East Africa, the Hindu Kush-Himalayan (HKH) region and Mesoamerica. One of the participating models in NMME is the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS5). This work will present an intercomparison of downscaling methods using the GEOS5 seasonal forecasts of temperature and precipitation over East Africa. The current seasonal forecasting system provides monthly averaged forecast anomalies. These anomalies must be spatially downscaled and temporally disaggregated for use in application modeling (e.g. hydrology, agriculture). There are several available downscaling methodologies that can be implemented to accomplish this goal. Selected methods include both a non-homogenous hidden Markov model and an analogue based approach. A particular emphasis will be placed on quantifying the ability of different methods to capture the intermittency of precipitation within both the short and long rain seasons. Further, the ability to capture spatial covariances will be assessed. Both probabilistic and deterministic skill measures will be evaluated over the hindcast period

  3. Evaluating Downscaling Methods for Seasonal Climate Forecasts over East Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Franklin R.; Roberts, J. Brent; Bosilovich, Michael; Lyon, Bradfield

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. National Multi-Model Ensemble seasonal forecasting system is providing hindcast and real-time data streams to be used in assessing and improving seasonal predictive capacity. The NASA / USAID SERVIR project, which leverages satellite and modeling-based resources for environmental decision making in developing nations, is focusing on the evaluation of NMME forecasts specifically for use in impact modeling within hub regions including East Africa, the Hindu Kush-Himalayan (HKH) region and Mesoamerica. One of the participating models in NMME is the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS5). This work will present an intercomparison of downscaling methods using the GEOS5 seasonal forecasts of temperature and precipitation over East Africa. The current seasonal forecasting system provides monthly averaged forecast anomalies. These anomalies must be spatially downscaled and temporally disaggregated for use in application modeling (e.g. hydrology, agriculture). There are several available downscaling methodologies that can be implemented to accomplish this goal. Selected methods include both a non-homogenous hidden Markov model and an analogue based approach. A particular emphasis will be placed on quantifying the ability of different methods to capture the intermittency of precipitation within both the short and long rain seasons. Further, the ability to capture spatial covariances will be assessed. Both probabilistic and deterministic skill measures will be evaluated over the hindcast period.

  4. Inter-annual changes of Biomass Burning and Desert Dust and their impact over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DONG, X.; Fu, J. S.; Huang, K.

    2014-12-01

    Impact of mineral dust and biomass burning aerosols on air quality has been well documented in the last few decades, but the knowledge about their interactions with anthropogenic emission and their impacts on regional climate is very limited (IPCC, 2007). While East Asia is greatly affected by dust storms in spring from Taklamakan and Gobi deserts (Huang et al., 2010; Li et al., 2012), it also suffers from significant biomass burning emission from Southeast Asia during the same season. Observations from both surface monitoring and satellite data indicated that mineral dust and biomass burning aerosols may approach to coastal area of East Asia simultaneously, thus have a very unique impact on the local atmospheric environment and regional climate. In this study, we first investigated the inter-annual variations of biomass burning and dust aerosols emission for 5 consecutive years from 2006-2010 to estimate the upper and lower limits and correlation with meteorology conditions, and then evaluate their impacts with a chemical transport system. Our preliminary results indicated that biomass burning has a strong correlation with precipitation over Southeast Asia, which could drive the emission varying from 542 Tg in 2008 to 945 Tg in 2010, according to FLAMBE emission inventory (Reid et al., 2009). Mineral dust also demonstrated a strong dependence on wind filed. These inter-annual/annual variations will also lead to different findings and impacts on air quality in East Asia. Reference: Huang, K., et al. (2010), Mixing of Asian dust with pollution aerosol and the transformation of aerosol components during the dust storm over China in spring 2007, Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 115. IPCC (2007), Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, New York. Li, J., et al. (2012), Mixing of Asian mineral dust with anthropogenic pollutants over East Asia: a model case study of a super-duststorm in

  5. English Language Education in East Asia: Some Recent Developments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Guangwei; McKay, Sandra Lee

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the perceived importance and accelerated spread of English language education, both formal and informal, in three East Asian countries (i.e. China, Japan and South Korea) against the backdrop of globalisation and emergent ideological, sociocultural and educational trends. It begins with a review of the recent…

  6. Publicly-funded biobanks and networks in East Asia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sunhee; Jung, Paul Eunil; Lee, Yeonhee

    2016-01-01

    With the enactment of the Nagoya Protocol, international competitions to secure biological resources are intensifying. Biobanking is one of the many attempts to preserve biological resources and their information for the use in future research and development. Asian countries, especially China, Japan, and Korea are very active in biobanking activities under the strategic plans coordinated by their governments. They also proactively established networks for biobanks of Asia to facilitate resource and expertise sharing. Biobanks of these countries should furthermore standardize operating procedures and diversify funding sources for establishing stable operation systems. PMID:27462528

  7. Geomorphology and Geodynamics at Crustal Boundaries within Asia and Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The release of SRTM images by NASA over the past two years year has been greeted by foreign Earth scientist's as "NASA's gift to the World". The goodwill that this has engendered in parts of Africa. India, Pakistan and Bangladesh, as scientists in those countries contemplated what many of them considered an unprovoked and unjustifiable US invasion of Iraq, cannot be underestimated. We have used SRTM images from Africa and India and elsewhere to examine aspects of tectonism, geodynamics and tsunami and earthquake hazards. Highlights of this research are itemized in this final report. One difficulty that has arisen is , of course, that the funding for the science lead the availability of the data by more than a year. and as a result many of the findings are as yet unpublished.

  8. Reconstructing the origin and dispersal patterns of village chickens across East Africa: insights from autosomal markers

    PubMed Central

    Mwacharo, J M; Nomura, K; Hanada, H; Han, J L; Amano, T; Hanotte, O

    2013-01-01

    Unravelling the genetic history of any livestock species is central to understanding the origin, development and expansion of agricultural societies and economies. Domestic village chickens are widespread in Africa. Their close association with, and reliance on, humans for long-range dispersal makes the species an important biological marker in tracking cultural and trading contacts between human societies and civilizations across time. Archaezoological and linguistic evidence suggest a complex history of arrival and dispersion of the species on the continent, with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop analysis revealing the presence of five distinct haplogroups in East African village chickens. It supports the importance of the region in understanding the history of the species and indirectly of human interactions. Here, through a detailed analysis of 30 autosomal microsatellite markers genotyped in 657 village chickens from four East African countries (Kenya, Uganda, Ethiopia and Sudan), we identify three distinct autosomal gene pools (I, II and III). Gene pool I is predominantly found in Ethiopia and Sudan, while II and III occur in both Kenya and Uganda. A gradient of admixture for gene pools II and III between the Kenyan coast and Uganda's hinterland (P = 0.001) is observed, while gene pool I is clearly separated from the other two. We propose that these three gene pools represent genetic signatures of separate events in the history of the continent that relate to the arrival and dispersal of village chickens and humans across the region. Our results provide new insights on the history of chicken husbandry which has been shaped by terrestrial and maritime contacts between ancient and modern civilizations in Asia and East Africa. PMID:23611649

  9. Prevalence of dementia in East Asia: a synthetic review of time trends

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yu-Tzu; Brayne, Carol; Matthews, Fiona E

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aims to synthesise evidence on time trends of dementia prevalence in East Asian countries including Japan, China, South Korea and Taiwan and assess the impact of the societal changes on future prevalence. Method Relevant reviews and recent nationwide studies in East Asia were identified to investigate changes in prevalence of dementia over time taking into account the potential impact of methodological factors and study designs. Results The robust evidence that has been interpreted to suggest a substantial increasing trend over time is less compelling once fundamental differences in study methods and populations across individual surveys are considered. In Japan, longitudinal studies in small areas suggest the potential increase of prevalence after 2000. Increasing trends in China, South Korea and Taiwan over the last 20–30 years are based on the literature review without adjustment for methodological differences. Economic development and huge societal changes alongside the rise of non-communicable disease in East Asia could lead to increasing prevalence of dementia in the future once those cohorts with high risk of dementia reached their older age. Conclusion Current evidence is not sufficient to suggest increasing trends of dementia prevalence in East Asia. Longitudinal studies with representative samples and stable methodology are needed to provide fundamental information of the epidemiology of dementia and identify important risk factors in East Asian societies. © 2015 The Authors. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:25963138

  10. Health and Climate Impacts of Ocean-Going Vessels in East Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Huan; Fu, Mingliang; Jin, Xinxin; Shang, Yi; Shindell, Drew; Faluvegi, Greg; Shindell, Cary; He, Kebin

    2016-01-01

    East Asia has the most rapidly growing shipping emissions of both CO2 and traditional air pollutants, but the least in-depth analysis. Full evaluation of all pollutants is needed to assess the impacts of shipping emissions. Here, using an advanced method based on detailed dynamic ship activity data, we show that shipping emissions in East Asia accounted for 16% of global shipping CO2 in 2013, compared to only 4-7% in 2002-2005. Increased emissions lead to large adverse health impacts, with 14,500-37,500 premature deaths per year. Global mean radiative forcing from East Asian shipping is initially negative, but would become positive after approximately eight years for constant current emissions. As a large fraction of vessels are registered elsewhere, joint efforts are necessary to reduce emissions and mitigate the climate and health impacts of shipping in the region.

  11. Reconstruction of the East Africa and Antarctica continental margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Luan C.; Hall, Stuart A.; Bird, Dale E.; Ball, Philip J.

    2016-06-01

    The Early Jurassic separation of Antarctica from Africa plays an important role in our understanding of the dispersal of Gondwana and Pangea. Previous reconstruction models contain overlaps and gaps in the restored margins that reflect difficulties in accurately delineating the continent-ocean-boundary (COB) and determining the amount and distribution of extended continental crust. This study focuses on the evolution of the African margin adjacent to the Mozambique Basin and the conjugate Antarctic margin near the Riiser-Larsen Sea. Satellite-derived gravity data have been used to trace the orientations and landward limits of fracture zones. A 3-D gravity inversion has produced a crustal thickness model that reliably quantifies the extent and amount of stretched crust. Crustal thicknesses together with fracture zone terminations reveal COBs that are significantly closer to the African and Antarctic coasts than previously recognized. Correlation of fracture zone azimuths and identified COBs suggests Antarctica began drifting away from Africa at approximately 171 Ma in a roughly SSE direction. An areal-balancing method has been used to restore the crust to a uniform prerift thickness so as to perform a nonrigid reconstruction for both nonvolcanic and volcanic margins. Both margins reveal a trend of increasing extension from east to west. Our results suggest Africa underwent extension of 60-120 km, while Antarctic crust was stretched by 105-180 km. Various models tested to determine the direction of extension during rifting suggest that Antarctica moved away from Africa in a WNW-ESE direction during the period between 184 and 171 Ma prior to the onset of seafloor spreading.

  12. Macrophysical and optical properties of clouds over East Asia measured by CALIPSO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Zengxin; Gong, Wei; Mao, Feiyue; Li, Jun; Wang, Wei; Li, Chen; Min, Qilong

    2015-11-01

    The macrophysical and optical properties of clouds over East Asia (18°N-54°N, 73°E-145°E) from 1 March 2007 to 28 February 2015 are investigated using Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization data. Data analysis determines the macrophysical properties, such as cloud fraction, cloud vertical structure, cloud top height (CTH), cloud base height, and cloud geometrical depth (CGD), as well as the optical properties of clouds. Statistical analysis shows that the annual cloud fractions of single-layer (SL), multilayer (ML), and total clouds over East Asia are 41.4 ± 0.7%, 25.1 ± 0.9%, and 66.5 ± 1.6%, respectively, with a slight interannual variation. The maximum annual cloud fraction that appeared over the Sichuan Basin is mainly attributed to unique occlusive topographic features. Moreover, the annual vertical distribution of cloud occurrence frequency over East Asia presents a multipeak structure. Furthermore, at a height below 2 km, cloud frequency distribution exhibits a large peak over the south, north, northeast, eastern sea, and East Asia, a small peak over the northwest, and the smallest peak over Tibet, which is mainly ascribed to terrain topographies. For the average uppermost CTH and cloud fraction, the same seasonal characteristic is demonstrated; that is, CTH and cloud fraction are highest in summer and lowest in winter, except in the northwest. This seasonal characteristic mainly results from the East Asian summer monsoon circulation. Overall, the annual cloud optical depths (CODs) of SL, ML, and total cloud over East Asia are 0.98 ± 0.02, 0.83 ± 0.09, and 1.81 ± 0.12, respectively. Moreover, the COD of each layer is mainly below 0.5 (52.3%), and the second peak of probability (10.4%) exists from 2.5 to 3.0. The two crests of probability are caused by clouds of different types. Overall, the annual cloud layer over East Asia mainly consists of cirrus (44.4%), which indicates that cirrus clouds play a leading role. Most geometrically thick

  13. Globalisation and inequality in urban South-east Asia.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, J D

    1998-05-01

    Malaysia, Singapore, and Vietnam are the only countries in southeast Asia with binding and well-functioning social contracts. The legitimacy of the governments and state bureaucracies in Thailand and Indonesia, and to a certain extent also of those in the Philippines, has been based upon nationalism, high economic growth, and the promotion of social order through coercion or cooptation. However, in order for the management of a city to be successful, its policies need to be conducive to social sustainability, defined as development compatible with the emergence of a social contract which both fosters an environment which will help to harmonize relations between the city's culturally and socially diverse groups, yet encourages social integration and an improvement in the lives of all of its citizens. These concerns are discussed with regard to Jakarta, Bangkok, Manila, and Kuala Lumpur. PMID:12295213

  14. On mobility and fertility transitions in east and southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Skeldon, R

    1992-01-01

    The relationship between fertility and mobility is examined with reference to Zelinsky's [1971] mobility transition hypothesis. Five Asian countries (Japan, South Korea, Thailand, Malaysia, China) at different stages of development and mobility transition are compared with respect to shifting sectoral patterns of migration and changing levels of fertility. National trends suggest that the development sequence proposed by Zelinsky on the basis of the European experience does not generally apply to Asia. In four out of five cases examined, fertility declined before substantial urbanization took place. Zelinsky's sequence of mobility change should be modified to fit the experience of developing countries, but the importance of the interrelations hip between fertility decline and mobility change remains PMID:12343909

  15. Celiac disease screening in southern and East Asia.

    PubMed

    Makharia, Govind K

    2015-01-01

    Until 1970s, celiac disease (CD) was considered to be an uncommon disease except in Western Europe. The global epidemiology of CD continues to evolve with improvement in the diagnostic tests, simplification of the diagnostic criteria and increase in awareness about the disease. The Asian region is currently at the crossroads of the frontier of knowledge and awareness of CD. In many Asian nations, CD is still considered to be either nonexistent or very rare. A notable exception is India, where CD has been well recognized, especially in the northern part, and 2 population-based studies have revealed a prevalence of 0.3-1.04%. Initial reports from Malaysia, China, Japan and Singapore suggest the existence of CD in these countries. Furthermore, a meta-analysis of the predisposing factors predicts a high probability of occurrence of CD in fair numbers in China. There are no formal reports on CD from Malaysia, Indonesia, Korea, Taiwan and many other nations in this region. With the impending CD epidemic in Asia, there are many challenges. Some of the efforts which are required include determination of prevalence of CD across the region, spreading of awareness among physicians and patients, training of dieticians for proper counseling and supervision of patients, creation of gluten-free food infrastructure in the food supply and creation of patient advocacy organizations. Although the absolute number of patients with CD at present is not very large, this number is expected to increase over the next few years/decades. It is thus appropriate that the medical community across Asia define the extent of the problem and get prepared to handle the impending CD epidemic. PMID:25925919

  16. Peak-summer East Asian rainfall predictability and prediction part II: extratropical East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yim, So-Young; Wang, Bin; Xing, Wen

    2015-10-01

    The part II of the present study focuses on northern East Asia (NEA: 26°N-50°N, 100°-140°E), exploring the source and limit of the predictability of the peak summer (July-August) rainfall. Prediction of NEA peak summer rainfall is extremely challenging because of the exposure of the NEA to midlatitude influence. By examining four coupled climate models' multi-model ensemble (MME) hindcast during 1979-2010, we found that the domain-averaged MME temporal correlation coefficient (TCC) skill is only 0.13. It is unclear whether the dynamical models' poor skills are due to limited predictability of the peak-summer NEA rainfall. In the present study we attempted to address this issue by applying predictable mode analysis method using 35-year observations (1979-2013). Four empirical orthogonal modes of variability and associated major potential sources of variability are identified: (a) an equatorial western Pacific (EWP)-NEA teleconnection driven by EWP sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies, (b) a western Pacific subtropical high and Indo-Pacific dipole SST feedback mode, (c) a central Pacific-El Nino-Southern Oscillation mode, and (d) a Eurasian wave train pattern. Physically meaningful predictors for each principal component (PC) were selected based on analysis of the lead-lag correlations with the persistent and tendency fields of SST and sea-level pressure from March to June. A suite of physical-empirical (P-E) models is established to predict the four leading PCs. The peak summer rainfall anomaly pattern is then objectively predicted by using the predicted PCs and the corresponding observed spatial patterns. A 35-year cross-validated hindcast over the NEA yields a domain-averaged TCC skill of 0.36, which is significantly higher than the MME dynamical hindcast (0.13). The estimated maximum potential attainable TCC skill averaged over the entire domain is around 0.61, suggesting that the current dynamical prediction models may have large rooms to improve

  17. Peak-summer East Asian rainfall predictability and prediction part II: extratropical East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yim, So-Young; Wang, Bin; Xing, Wen

    2016-07-01

    The part II of the present study focuses on northern East Asia (NEA: 26°N-50°N, 100°-140°E), exploring the source and limit of the predictability of the peak summer (July-August) rainfall. Prediction of NEA peak summer rainfall is extremely challenging because of the exposure of the NEA to midlatitude influence. By examining four coupled climate models' multi-model ensemble (MME) hindcast during 1979-2010, we found that the domain-averaged MME temporal correlation coefficient (TCC) skill is only 0.13. It is unclear whether the dynamical models' poor skills are due to limited predictability of the peak-summer NEA rainfall. In the present study we attempted to address this issue by applying predictable mode analysis method using 35-year observations (1979-2013). Four empirical orthogonal modes of variability and associated major potential sources of variability are identified: (a) an equatorial western Pacific (EWP)-NEA teleconnection driven by EWP sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies, (b) a western Pacific subtropical high and Indo-Pacific dipole SST feedback mode, (c) a central Pacific-El Nino-Southern Oscillation mode, and (d) a Eurasian wave train pattern. Physically meaningful predictors for each principal component (PC) were selected based on analysis of the lead-lag correlations with the persistent and tendency fields of SST and sea-level pressure from March to June. A suite of physical-empirical (P-E) models is established to predict the four leading PCs. The peak summer rainfall anomaly pattern is then objectively predicted by using the predicted PCs and the corresponding observed spatial patterns. A 35-year cross-validated hindcast over the NEA yields a domain-averaged TCC skill of 0.36, which is significantly higher than the MME dynamical hindcast (0.13). The estimated maximum potential attainable TCC skill averaged over the entire domain is around 0.61, suggesting that the current dynamical prediction models may have large rooms to improve

  18. Predictability of rainy season onset and cessation in east Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, B.-M.

    2012-04-01

    PREDICTABILITY OF RAINY SEASONS ONSET AND CESSATION IN EAST AFRICA Boyard-Micheau Joseph, joseph.boyard-micheau@u-bourgogne.fr Camberlin Pierre, Kenya and northern Tanzania mainly display bimodal rainfall regimes, which are controlled by the annual migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone on both sides of the equator. In the low-income, semi-arid areas, food security is highly dependent on cereal yields (maize, millet and sorghum). Vulnerability is aggravated by the fact that these crops are mostly rainfed, and rely on the performance of the two, relatively brief rainy seasons. This performance depends on a combination of several rainy season characteristics, or rainfall descriptors, such as the onset and cessation dates of the rains, the frequency of rainy days, their intensity and the occurrence of wet/dry spells. The prediction of these descriptors some time (>15 days) before the real onset of the rainy season can be seen as a useful tool to help in the establishment of agricultural adaptation strategies. The main objective consists to understand linkages between regional variability of these rainfall descriptors and global modes of the climate system, in order to set up efficient predictive tools based on Model Output Statistics (MOS). The rainfall descriptors are computed from daily rainfall data collected for the period 1961-2001 from the Kenya Meteorological Department, the IGAD Climate Prediction and Application Center and the Tanzania Meteorological Agency. An initial spatial coherence analysis assesses the potential predictability of each descriptor, permitting eventually to eliminate those which are not spatially coherent, on the assumption that low spatial coherence denotes low potential predictability. Rainfall in East Africa simulated by a 24-ensemble member of the ECHAM 4.5 atmospheric general circulation model is compared with observations, to test the reproducibility of the rainfall descriptors. Canonical Correlation Analysis is next used to

  19. Holocene cultural history of Red jungle fowl (Gallus gallus) and its domestic descendant in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Joris; Lebrasseur, Ophélie; Deng, Hui; Larson, Greger

    2016-06-01

    Nearly three decades ago, zooarchaeologists postulated that chicken husbandry was practiced in Northern China by ∼8.0 ka calBP. Recently, ancient mitogenome analyses of galliform remains suggested that Red jungle fowl (Gallus gallus) was already present in the Yellow River basin several millennia earlier, shortly after the onset of the Holocene. If these conclusions are correct, the origins of chicken domestication and husbandry in the region may have been spurred by agricultural innovations in the lower Yellow River basin including millet cultivation, pig husbandry, and dog breeding. In addition, the dispersal of poultry farming from East Asia to Asia Minor and Europe could therefore date to the Neolithic along ancient trade routes across Central Asia rather than via South Asia and Mesopotamia. For this scenario to be plausible, the post-Pleistocene climatic conditions must have been favourable to allow for a northward extension of the native distribution of tropical Red jungle fowl currently not found north of ∼25°N. This study combines Holocene palaeoclimate and archaeofaunal archives with new zooarchaeological insights alongside a discussion of methodological issues and cultural aspects in order to revisit the hypothesis of an early Holocene Gallus domestication and Neolithic poultry husbandry in Northern China. Our results regarding the natural and cultural history of Red jungle fowl and domestic chickens in East Asia, and the timing of chicken dispersal across the Old World suggest that an early Holocene domestication of chickens is problematic at best. We conclude by postulating an alternative model for the early exploitation of a key domestic species in present-day East Asia.

  20. Paternal Population History of East Asia: Sources, Patterns, and Microevolutionary Processes

    PubMed Central

    Karafet, Tatiana; Xu, Liping; Du, Ruofu; Wang, William; Feng, Shi; Wells, R. S.; Redd, Alan J.; Zegura, Stephen L.; Hammer, Michael F.

    2001-01-01

    Asia has served as a focal point for human migration during much of the Late Pleistocene and Holocene. Clarification of East Asia’s role as a source and/or transit point for human dispersals requires that this region’s own settlement history be understood. To this end, we examined variation at 52 polymorphic sites on the nonrecombining portion of the Y chromosome (NRY) in 1,383 unrelated males, representing 25 populations from southern East Asia (SEAS), northern East Asia (NEAS), and central Asia (CAS). The polymorphisms defined 45 global haplogroups, 28 of which were present in these three regions. Although heterozygosity levels were similar in all three regions, the average pairwise difference among haplogroups was noticeably smaller in SEAS. Multidimensional scaling analysis indicated a general separation of SEAS versus NEAS and CAS populations, and analysis of molecular variance produced very different values of ΦST in NEAS and SEAS populations. In spatial autocorrelation analyses, the overall correlogram exhibited a clinal pattern; however, the NEAS populations showed evidence of both isolation by distance and ancient clines, whereas there was no evidence of structure in SEAS populations. Nested cladistic analysis demonstrated that population history events and ongoing demographic processes both contributed to the contrasting patterns of NRY variation in NEAS and SEAS. We conclude that the peopling of East Asia was more complex than earlier models had proposed—that is, a multilayered, multidirectional, and multidisciplinary framework is necessary. For instance, in addition to the previously recognized genetic and dental dispersal signals from SEAS to NEAS populations, CAS has made a significant contribution to the contemporary gene pool of NEAS, and the Sino-Tibetan expansion has left traces of a genetic trail from northern to southern China. PMID:11481588

  1. Oroclines and paleomagnetism in Borneo and South-East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchison, Charles S.

    2010-12-01

    Oroclinal bending of Borneo is interpreted to result from indentation and collision by the continental promontory of the Miri Zone-Central Luconia Province of northern Sundaland into southern Sundaland. The collision caused strong compression and uplift of the intervening Sibu Zone Upper Cretaceous-Eocene Rajang-Embaluh Group turbidite basin that was floored by oceanic crust of the Proto South China Sea. Timing of the collision is indicated by uplift of turbidite formations to be overlain by Upper Eocene-Lower Oligocene carbonates and intrusion of tin-mineralised granites into the turbidites at the south-east maximum inflexion of the orocline, a region complicated by juxtaposition of both shallow and deep water formations. The oroclinal model, requiring clockwise rotation of the north-west limb, is given no support from the paleomagnetic data that instead demonstrate about 50° of Cenozoic anti-clockwise rotation. Unfortunately not a single outcrop of the strongly oroclinally bent Sibu Zone rocks was measured for paleomagnetism in the north-west limb. Limited support was given for the required anti-clockwise rotation in the north-east limb. Previous syntheses emphasised anti-clockwise rotation, or stable non-rotation of the greater Borneo region as a coherent entity, without any internal deformation. Such models have ignored the oroclinal shape defined by the areal geology of the island, known since early Dutch publications. The northern Thailand-Myanmar north-south-trending geology fabric results from indentation by a promontory of continental India at the Assam-Yunnan oroclinal syntaxis, resulting in paleomagnetically-determined clockwise rotation. The bend of Peninsular Malaysia and Sumatra, from north-south changing to west-east towards Borneo in the south, remains difficult to model because of widespread remagnetisation.

  2. Regimes of Diurnal Variation of Summer Rainfall over Subtropical East Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan W.; Lin W.; Yu, R.; Zhang, M.; Chen, H.; Li, J.

    2012-05-01

    Using hourly rain gauge records and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission 3B42 from 1998 to 2006, the authors present an analysis of the diurnal characteristics of summer rainfall over subtropical East Asia. The study shows that there are four different regimes of distinct diurnal variation of rainfall in both the rain gauge and the satellite data. They are located over the Tibetan Plateau with late-afternoon and midnight peaks, in the western China plain with midnight to early-morning peaks, in the eastern China plain with double peaks in late afternoon and early morning, and over the East China Sea with an early-morning peak. No propagation of diurnal phases is found from the land to the ocean across the coastlines. The different diurnal regimes are highly correlated with the inhomogeneous underlying surface, such as the plateau, plain, and ocean, with physical mechanisms consistent with the large-scale 'mountain-valley' and 'land-sea' breezes and convective instability. These diurnal characteristics over subtropical East Asia can be used as diagnostic metrics to evaluate the physical parameterization and hydrological cycle of climate models over East Asia.

  3. Colorectal cancer screening of the general population in East Asia.

    PubMed

    Sano, Yasushi; Byeon, Jeong-Sik; Li, Xiao-Bo; Wong, Martin C S; Chiu, Han-Mo; Rerknimitr, Rungsun; Utsumi, Takahiro; Hattori, Santa; Sano, Wataru; Iwatate, Mineo; Chiu, Philip; Sung, Joseph

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, the incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) has been increasing, and CRC has been becoming the major cause of cancer deaths in Asian countries. Therefore, an organized screening program to reduce CRC incidence and mortality is currently implemented in each country. In the present review, we summarize the current status and future perspectives of CRC screening of the general population in East Asian and South-East Asian countries. The fecal occult blood test is widely used for CRC screening in these countries, and its effectiveness in reducing CRC incidence and mortality has been demonstrated; however, the low participation rate in CRC screening programs is a problem to be solved in every country. Improvement in the public awareness of CRC and promotion of CRC screening by physicians will help to raise the participation rate and reduce the number of deaths caused by CRC. Regarding screening colonoscopy, several studies have recently demonstrated its effectiveness in reducing CRC incidence and mortality. However, at present, CRC screening colonoscopy is not adopted as a primary population-based screening tool because of staffing constraints in relation to large population sizes, increased medical costs, and potential adverse events (e.g. perforation and drug-induced anaphylaxis). Further study is required to consider colonoscopy as CRC screening that is established in Western countries. PMID:26595883

  4. Source apportionment of carbonaceous aerosols over South and East Asia using dual carbon isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustafsson, O.; Kirillova, E. N.; Andersson, A.-; Kruså, M.; Sheesley, R. J.; Tiwari, S.-; Lee, M.; Chen, B.; Du, K.

    2012-12-01

    Emissions of black carbon (BC) and other components of carbonaceous aerosols affect both climate and health in South and East Asia, yet substantial uncertainties exist regarding their sources. The relative contribution to atmospheric BC from fossil fuel versus biomass combustion is important to constrain both to direct mitigation and as their different properties make their effects on climate forcing and respiratory health different. This study approached the sourcing challenge by applying microscale radiocarbon measurements to aerosol particles collected in both source regions and at regional receptor observatories of both S Asia (New Delhi and the Maldives Climate Observatory) and of E Asia (Beijing, Shanghai, South China Coastal Observatory and the Korea Climate Observatory - Gosan, KCO-G, Jeju Island). The radiocarbon approach is ideally suited to this task as fossil sources are void of 14C whereas biomass combustion products hold a contemporary 14C signal. For S Asia, the 14C-based observations suggest that biomass combustion contributes half to two-thirds of the BC loading. In contrast, for E Asia, fossil fuel combustion account for four-fifths of the BC emitted from China. This source-diagnostic radiocarbon signal in the ambient aerosol over East Asia establishes a much larger role for fossil fuel combustion than suggested by all fifteen BC emission inventory models. There are also poor constraints on the sources of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), a large hydrophilic component of carbonaceous aerosols that enhances the propensity of aerosols to form clouds. In a 15-mo continuous campaign in S Asia, radiocarbon-based source apportionment of WSOC shows the dominance of biogenic/biomass combustion sources but also a substantial anthropogenic fossil-fuel contribution (about 20%). WSOC in E Asia reaching KCO-G were 50% from fossil sources. Aerosols reaching the Maldives after long-range over-ocean transport were enriched by 3-4‰ in δ13C-WSOC. This is

  5. Sulfur dioxide emissions in China and sulfur trends in East Asia since 2000.

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Z.; Streets, D. G.; Zhang, Q.; Wang, S.; Carmichael, G. R.; Cheng, Y. F.; Wei, C.; Chin, M.; Diehl, T.; Tan, Q.; Decision and Information Sciences; Tsinghua Univ.; Univ. of Iowa; NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

    2010-01-01

    With the rapid development of the economy, the sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emission from China since 2000 is of increasing concern. In this study, we estimate the annual SO{sub 2} emission in China after 2000 using a technology-based methodology specifically for China. From 2000 to 2006, total SO{sub 2} emission in China increased by 53%, from 21.7 Tg to 33.2 Tg, at an annual growth rate of 7.3%. Emissions from power plants are the main sources of SO{sub 2} in China and they increased from 10.6 Tg to 18.6 Tg in the same period. Geographically, emission from north China increased by 85%, whereas that from the south increased by only 28%. The emission growth rate slowed around 2005, and emissions began to decrease after 2006 mainly due to the wide application of flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) devices in power plants in response to a new policy of China's government. This paper shows that the trend of estimated SO{sub 2} emission in China is consistent with the trends of SO{sub 2} concentration and acid rain pH and frequency in China, as well as with the increasing trends of background SO{sub 2} and sulfate concentration in East Asia. A longitudinal gradient in the percentage change of urban SO{sub 2} concentration in Japan is found during 2000-2007, indicating that the decrease of urban SO{sub 2} is lower in areas close to the Asian continent. This implies that the transport of increasing SO{sub 2} from the Asian continent partially counteracts the local reduction of SO{sub 2} emission downwind. The aerosol optical depth (AOD) products of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) are found to be highly correlated with the surface solar radiation (SSR) measurements in East Asia. Using MODIS AOD data as a surrogate of SSR, we found that China and East Asia excluding Japan underwent a continuous dimming after 2000, which is in line with the dramatic increase in SO{sub 2} emission in East Asia. The trends of AOD from both satellite retrievals and model over

  6. Sulfur dioxide emissions in China and sulfur trends in East Asia since 2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Z.; Streets, D. G.; Zhang, Q.; Wang, S.; Carmichael, G. R.; Cheng, Y. F.; Wei, C.; Chin, M.; Diehl, T.; Tan, Q.

    2010-04-01

    With the rapid development of the economy, the sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission from China since 2000 is of increasing concern. In this study, we estimate the annual SO2 emission in China after 2000 using a technology-based methodology specifically for China. From 2000 to 2006, total SO2 emission in China increased by 53%, from 21.7 Tg to 33.2 Tg, at an annual growth rate of 7.3%. Emissions from power plants are the main sources of SO2 in China and they increased from 10.6 Tg to 18.6 Tg in the same period. Geographically, emission from north China increased by 85%, whereas that from the south increased by only 28%. The emission growth rate slowed around 2005, and emissions began to decrease after 2006 mainly due to the wide application of Flue-Gas Desulfurization (FGD) devices in power plants in response to a new policy of China's government. This paper shows that the trend of estimated SO2 emission in China is consistent with the trends of SO2 concentration and acid rain pH and frequency in China, as well as with the increasing trends of background SO2 and sulfate concentration in East Asia. A longitudinal gradient in the percentage change of urban SO2 concentration in Japan is found during 2000-2007, indicating that the decrease of urban SO2 is lower in areas close to the Asian continent. This implies that the transport of increasing SO2 from the Asian continent partially counteracts the local reduction of SO2 emission downwind. The Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) products of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) are found to be highly correlated with the Surface Solar Radiation (SSR) measurements in East Asia. Using MODIS AOD data as a surrogate of SSR, we found that China and East Asia excluding Japan underwent a continuous dimming after 2000, which is in line with the dramatic increase in SO2 emission in East Asia. The trends of AOD from both satellite retrievals and model over East Asia are also consistent with the trend of SO2 emission in China

  7. Sulfur dioxide emissions in China and sulfur trends in East Asia since 2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Z.; Streets, D. G.; Zhang, Q.; Wang, S.; Carmichael, G. R.; Cheng, Y. F.; Wei, C.; Chin, M.; Diehl, T.; Tan, Q.

    2010-07-01

    With the rapid development of the economy, the sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission from China since 2000 is of increasing concern. In this study, we estimate the annual SO2 emission in China after 2000 using a technology-based methodology specifically for China. From 2000 to 2006, total SO2 emission in China increased by 53%, from 21.7 Tg to 33.2 Tg, at an annual growth rate of 7.3%. Emissions from power plants are the main sources of SO2 in China and they increased from 10.6 Tg to 18.6 Tg in the same period. Geographically, emission from north China increased by 85%, whereas that from the south increased by only 28%. The emission growth rate slowed around 2005, and emissions began to decrease after 2006 mainly due to the wide application of flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) devices in power plants in response to a new policy of China's government. This paper shows that the trend of estimated SO2 emission in China is consistent with the trends of SO2 concentration and acid rain pH and frequency in China, as well as with the increasing trends of background SO2 and sulfate concentration in East Asia. A longitudinal gradient in the percentage change of urban SO2 concentration in Japan is found during 2000-2007, indicating that the decrease of urban SO2 is lower in areas close to the Asian continent. This implies that the transport of increasing SO2 from the Asian continent partially counteracts the local reduction of SO2 emission downwind. The aerosol optical depth (AOD) products of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) are found to be highly correlated with the surface solar radiation (SSR) measurements in East Asia. Using MODIS AOD data as a surrogate of SSR, we found that China and East Asia excluding Japan underwent a continuous dimming after 2000, which is in line with the dramatic increase in SO2 emission in East Asia. The trends of AOD from both satellite retrievals and model over East Asia are also consistent with the trend of SO2 emission in China

  8. Astronomy in the Middle East and North Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athem Alsabti, Abdul

    2015-08-01

    Recent turbulent events in the Middle East and North Africa have influenced all aspects of life. Education in general, including astronomy, teaching and research has all been greatly affected. In this presentation, the current situation regarding astronomy in this region is reviewed in detail. This is based on visits made to Tunisia and Algeria recently on behalf of the IAU and other visits to Iraq, Qatar, Egypt and Jordan in recent years, as well as on discussions and communications with astronomers, officials and astronomical and educational institutes in the region. Discussions have also been established with astronomers from Iran, Oman and Morocco. Ideas and proposals will be presented on the best ways for the IAU and the international academic community to help under these circumstances.

  9. Remote sensing of geobotanical trends in East Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, Timothy A.; Evans, Carla S.; Heirtzler, James R.

    1989-01-01

    The spatial and phenological distribution of vegetation was examined in a remote sensing geobotanical study of the East Africa Rift region. Six normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) AVHRR (advanced very high resolution radiometer) scenes (February, June, and September of both 1984 and 1987) were used as a measure of vegetation presence. NOAA ETOPO-5 elevation and geographic coordinate data were coregistered with the multitemporal NDVI images. Univariate and multivariate statistics indicate that the NDVI values are significantly associated with elevation, latitude, and longitude. This supports the concept of quantifiable, regional gradients that affect large-scale geobotanical studies. A quadratic regression line was fitted to the NDVI, elevation, latitude, and longitudinal data. In this way a regional trend, as affected by elevation, was determined. The deviation of the actual data from this regional trend was displayed as an image, and shows the local climatic and geological influences.

  10. AgMIP: New Results from Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia Regional Integrated Assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenzweig, C.

    2014-12-01

    AgMIP conducted the first set of comprehensive regional integrated assessments of climate change impacts on smallholder farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia led by researchers from the regions themselves. The project developed new methods integrating climate, crop, livestock and economic models to conduct climate change impact assessments that characterize impacts on smallholder groups. AgMIP projections of climate change impacts on agriculture are more realistic than previous assessments because they take agricultural development into account. Using the best available data and models, the assessments directly evaluated yield, income, and poverty outcomes including the effects of adaptation packages and development pathways. Results show that even with agricultural development, climate change generally will exert negative pressure on yields of smallholder farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. Without adaptation, climate change leads to increased poverty in some locations in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia compared to a future in which climate change does not occur. Adaptation can significantly improve smallholder farmer responses to climate change. AgMIP expert teams identified improved varieties, sowing practices, fertilizer application, and irrigation applications as prioritized adaptation strategies. These targeted adaptation packages were able to overcome a portion of detrimental impacts but could not compensate completely in many locations. Even in cases where average impact is near zero, vulnerability (i.e., those at risk of loss) can be substantial even when mean impacts are positive.

  11. Climate change impacts on crop productivity in Africa and South Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knox, Jerry; Hess, Tim; Daccache, Andre; Wheeler, Tim

    2012-09-01

    Climate change is a serious threat to crop productivity in regions that are already food insecure. We assessed the projected impacts of climate change on the yield of eight major crops in Africa and South Asia using a systematic review and meta-analysis of data in 52 original publications from an initial screen of 1144 studies. Here we show that the projected mean change in yield of all crops is - 8% by the 2050s in both regions. Across Africa, mean yield changes of - 17% (wheat), - 5% (maize), - 15% (sorghum) and - 10% (millet) and across South Asia of - 16% (maize) and - 11% (sorghum) were estimated. No mean change in yield was detected for rice. The limited number of studies identified for cassava, sugarcane and yams precluded any opportunity to conduct a meta-analysis for these crops. Variation about the projected mean yield change for all crops was smaller in studies that used an ensemble of > 3 climate (GCM) models. Conversely, complex simulation studies that used biophysical crop models showed the greatest variation in mean yield changes. Evidence of crop yield impact in Africa and South Asia is robust for wheat, maize, sorghum and millet, and either inconclusive, absent or contradictory for rice, cassava and sugarcane.

  12. Social policy and population growth in South-East Asia.

    PubMed

    You Poh Seng Rao, B; Shantakumar, G

    1974-01-01

    Social and population policies are considered for the 10 countries comprising Southeast Asia--Burma, Indonesia, the Khmer Republic, Laos, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, North Vietnam, and South Vietnam. All but Singapore have high fertility rates and Burma, Indonesia, the Khmer Republic, Laos and the two Vietnams have high mortality rates also. Government expenditures for education and social security systems is expanding throughout the region and it is hoped that their continued growth will contribute substantially to the effective implementation of population policies. Population policies in the 5 countries which have them are discussed. These are Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. It is noted, however, that declaration of policy is but the first step. Strategies and programs differ from one country to the next and depend very much on the stage of development, level of literacy, degree of urbanization, and other factors. Family planning activities generally are endogenous to urban social systems but exogenous to rural social systems. Thus, the rural elite has a large role to play in making population policies an integral part of rural life. The possibility is considered of developing workable incentive packages integrating health, education, and social security benefits with suitable emphasis on fertility reduction. PMID:12307191

  13. Climatic mapping to identify high-risk areas for Cylindrocladium quinqueseptatum leaf blight on eucalypts in mainland South East Asia and around the world.

    PubMed

    Booth, T H; Jovanovic, T; Old, K M; Dudzinski, M J

    2000-06-01

    Cylindrocladium quinqueseptatum is a pathogen on a wide range of hosts. It affects at least 20 species of eucalypts and is an important causal agent of leaf blight of Eucalyptus camaldulensis in central and southern Vietnam. Results from previous studies and observations of broadscale infection patterns in mainland South East Asia were used to derive simple rules (i.e. mean minimum temperature of coldest month > or =16 degrees C and mean annual precipitation > or =1400 mm) to identify locations which are likely to have a high risk of C. quinqueseptatum leaf blight (CqLB). Climatic mapping programs, which include interpolated climatic data estimated for numerous locations, were used to map these high risk areas in Africa, Australia and Latin America as well as in South East Asia. The predicted high-risk areas included several regions where CqLB has already been reported and the maps generated suggested other areas which may be at risk under present climatic conditions given the presence of C. quinqueseptatum and susceptible hosts. Some simple climate change scenarios were also used to suggest areas in mainland South East Asia which may become vulnerable to CqLB over the next 50 years. It is concluded that climatic mapping programs can assist the broadscale evaluation of risk of CqLB infections, although it is recognised that more detailed models and survey information are also needed. PMID:15092931

  14. Gender, ageing & carework in East and Southern Africa: A review

    PubMed Central

    Seeley, Janet

    2016-01-01

    An estimated 58 million persons aged 60-plus live in sub-Saharan Africa; by 2050 that number will rise sharply to 215 million. Older Africans traditionally get care in their old age from the middle generation. But in East and Southern Africa, HIV has hollowed out that generation, leaving many older persons to provide care for their children’s children without someone to care for him or herself in old age. Simultaneously, the burden of disease among older persons is changing in this region. The result is a growing care deficit. This article examines the existing literature on care for and by older persons in this region, highlighting understudied aspects of older persons’ experiences of ageing and care – including the positive impacts of carework, variation in the region, and the role of resilience and pensions. We advance a conceptual framework of gendered identities – for both men and women – and intergenerational social exchange to help focus and understand the complex interdependent relationships around carework, which are paramount in addressing the needs of older persons in the current care deficit in this region, and the Global South more generally. PMID:25947225

  15. A Spring Forward for Hominin Evolution in East Africa

    PubMed Central

    Cuthbert, Mark O.; Ashley, Gail M.

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater is essential to modern human survival during drought periods. There is also growing geological evidence of springs associated with stone tools and hominin fossils in the East African Rift System (EARS) during a critical period for hominin evolution (from 1.8 Ma). However it is not known how vulnerable these springs may have been to climate variability and whether groundwater availability may have played a part in human evolution. Recent interdisciplinary research at Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania, has documented climate fluctuations attributable to astronomic forcing and the presence of paleosprings directly associated with archaeological sites. Using palaeogeological reconstruction and groundwater modelling of the Olduvai Gorge paleo-catchment, we show how spring discharge was likely linked to East African climate variability of annual to Milankovitch cycle timescales. Under decadal to centennial timescales, spring flow would have been relatively invariant providing good water resource resilience through long droughts. For multi-millennial periods, modelled spring flows lag groundwater recharge by 100 s to 1000 years. The lag creates long buffer periods allowing hominins to adapt to new habitats as potable surface water from rivers or lakes became increasingly scarce. Localised groundwater systems are likely to have been widespread within the EARS providing refugia and intense competition during dry periods, thus being an important factor in natural selection and evolution, as well as a vital resource during hominin dispersal within and out of Africa. PMID:25207544

  16. Gestational diabetes in rural East Africa: a call to action.

    PubMed

    Zeck, Willibald; McIntyre, H David

    2008-04-01

    The number of cases of diabetes worldwide has increased significantly in the last decade. Characteristically, the incidence of gestational diabetes (GDM) reflects the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the background population, which is a warning that a rapid increase in the incidence is to be expected concomitant with the already observed increase in the incidence of T2DM. Although the majority of all deliveries worldwide take place in the so-called developing world, little is known about the prevalence of diabetes in pregnancy in rural areas of East Africa. Diabetes in pregnancy has effects on prospects for marriage, motherhood, and the role of women in East African society. Furthermore, intrauterine exposure to the metabolic environment of maternal diabetes, or GDM, is associated with increased risk of altered glucose homeostasis in the offspring, beginning in childhood and producing a higher prevalence of GDM in the next generation with all burdens and complications being associated with this disease. It is reasonable to conclude that more newborn infants each year are being exposed to the metabolic environment of diabetes during intrauterine development as a result of changing incidence and demographics of diabetes and pregnancy. We believe that programs and policies have to be established, including organization of the health system to provide care, medicines, and other tools necessary for diabetes in pregnancy management, consideration of accessibility and affordability of care, education for healthcare workers, and education of pregnant and nonpregnant women of reproductive age. PMID:18328010

  17. An Andean ice-core record of a Middle Holocene mega-drought in North Africa and Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Mary E.; Thompson, Lonnie G.

    An ice core from the Nevado Huascarán col in the Cordillera Blanca of northern Peru contains high-resolution time series of dust concentrations and size distributions since the end of the last glacial stage. A large dust peak, dated ˜4500 years ago, is contemporaneous with a widespread and prolonged drought that apparently extended from North Africa to eastern China, evidence of which occurs in historical, archeological and paleoclimatic records. This event may have been associated with several centuries of weak Asian/Indian/African monsoons, possibly linked with a protracted cooling in the North Atlantic. During the second half of the 20th century, high austral-summer dust concentrations in the Huascarán record are significantly correlated with atmospheric conditions, such as sea-level pressure and zonal wind velocities that are consistent with El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and positive North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) indices, and with aridity in North Africa, southwest Asia and the Middle East. Therefore, the dominant submicron fraction of the dust may have been transported by more intense northeasterly trade winds from the African dry regions across the tropical Atlantic during a period of frequent and/or intense ENSO activity. The proposed ENSO conditions that may have been linked with drought in the monsoon region may also have contributed to aridity in tropical South America, including the Cordillera Blanca.

  18. Phylogenetic relationships among Neoechinorhynchus species (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae) from North-East Asia based on molecular data.

    PubMed

    Malyarchuk, Boris; Derenko, Miroslava; Mikhailova, Ekaterina; Denisova, Galina

    2014-02-01

    Phylogenetic and statistical analyses of DNA sequences of two genes, cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (cox 1) of the mitochondrial DNA and 18S subunit of the nuclear ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA), was used to characterize Neoechinorhynchus species from fishes collected in different localities of North-East Asia. It has been found that four species can be clearly recognized using molecular markers-Neoechinorhynchus tumidus, Neoechinorhynchus beringianus, Neoechinorhynchus simansularis and Neoechinorhynchus salmonis. 18S sequences ascribed to Neoechinorhynchus crassus specimens from North-East Asia were identical to those of N. tumidus, but differed substantially from North American N. crassus. We renamed North-East Asian N. crassus specimens to N. sp., although the possibility that they represent a subspecies of N. tumidus cannot be excluded, taking into account a relatively small distance between cox 1 sequences of North-East Asian specimens of N. crassus and N. tumidus. Maximum likelihood, maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference analyses were performed for phylogeny reconstruction. All the phylogenetic trees showed that North-East Asian species of Neoechinorhynchus analyzed in this study represent independent clades, with the only exception of N. tumidus and N. sp. for 18S data. Phylogenetic analysis has shown that the majority of species sampled (N. tumidus+N. sp., N. simansularis and N. beringianus) are probably very closely related, while N. salmonis occupies separate position in the trees, possibly indicating a North American origin of this species. PMID:24064255

  19. New Mycomya species from South-East Asia (Diptera, Mycetophilidae) .

    PubMed

    Väisänen, Rauno

    2014-01-01

    Mycomya Rondani specimens from the islands of South-East Asia, i.e. Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines, are revised. The paper includes a key to the Mycomya species of the South-East Asian islands. The following six new species are described: M. shimai sp. n. from Java, Indonesia, M. pongo sp. n. from Sabah, Malaysia, and M. apoensis sp. n., M. nakanishii sp. n., M. paraklossi sp. n. and M. yatai sp. n. from Mindanao, the Philippines. The holotypes of M. klossi Edwards from Borneo, Malaysia, and M. minutata Edwards from Sumatra, Indonesia, were examined and their genitalia are described. M. occultans (Winnertz) is recorded from Java, Indonesia. PMID:24943632

  20. Cancer in the global health era: opportunities for the Middle East and Asia.

    PubMed

    Dey, Subhojit; Soliman, Amr S

    2010-07-01

    The global burden of cancer is rising with almost 70% of cancer cases being in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs).The Middle East and Asia have two thirds of the world's population and the largest regional concentration of LMICs. Because of massive demographic and epidemiologic transitions, cancer mortality is projected to increase substantially in these populations. Lung cancer among men and breast cancer among women are the most prominent cancer sites in both the Middle East and Asia. Enhanced tobacco control and managing obesity are the most important measures for effective control of most cancers. However, detailed research is required within each population to best identify risk factors and to develop evidence-based methods for cancer prevention. International collaborations are an essential step in facilitating this process, because it can improve cancer registries, create robust infrastructure, improve skills of personnel and lead to effective cancer control and prevention. PMID:20566537

  1. Prospects for emerging infections in East and southeast Asia 10 years after severe acute respiratory syndrome.

    PubMed

    Horby, Peter W; Pfeiffer, Dirk; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2013-06-01

    It is 10 years since severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) emerged, and East and Southeast Asia retain a reputation as a hot spot of emerging infectious diseases. The region is certainly a hot spot of socioeconomic and environmental change, and although some changes (e.g., urbanization and agricultural intensification) may reduce the probability of emerging infectious diseases, the effect of any individual emergence event may be increased by the greater concentration and connectivity of livestock, persons, and products. The region is now better able to detect and respond to emerging infectious diseases than it was a decade ago, but the tools and methods to produce sufficiently refined assessments of the risks of disease emergence are still lacking. Given the continued scale and pace of change in East and Southeast Asia, it is vital that capabilities for predicting, identifying, and controlling biologic threats do not stagnate as the memory of SARS fades. PMID:23738977

  2. Prospects for Emerging Infections in East and Southeast Asia 10 Years after Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Pfeiffer, Dirk; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2013-01-01

    It is 10 years since severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) emerged, and East and Southeast Asia retain a reputation as a hot spot of emerging infectious diseases. The region is certainly a hot spot of socioeconomic and environmental change, and although some changes (e.g., urbanization and agricultural intensification) may reduce the probability of emerging infectious diseases, the effect of any individual emergence event may be increased by the greater concentration and connectivity of livestock, persons, and products. The region is now better able to detect and respond to emerging infectious diseases than it was a decade ago, but the tools and methods to produce sufficiently refined assessments of the risks of disease emergence are still lacking. Given the continued scale and pace of change in East and Southeast Asia, it is vital that capabilities for predicting, identifying, and controlling biologic threats do not stagnate as the memory of SARS fades. PMID:23738977

  3. Current Status of Substance Abuse in East Asia and Therapeutic Prospects.

    PubMed

    Ren, Q; Ma, M; Hashimoto, K

    2016-06-01

    The abuse of drugs, including opioids and stimulants, is a major public health problem worldwide, including in East Asia. Nonetheless, there are no pharmacological treatments for many psychiatric or neurological symptoms associated with that abuse. Abused drugs exert several detrimental effects on structural plasticity in brain regions associated with reward circuits. Understanding the molecular mechanisms that underlie this structural plasticity in brain neurons will aid in the development of novel therapeutic drugs for substance abuse. In this review, we discuss recent topics in substance abuse in East Asia and the therapeutic drugs available. Finally, we discuss potential therapeutic signalling pathways involved in long-term changes to structural plasticity in the brain after repeated administration of opioids and stimulants. PMID:27377485

  4. Energy inefficiency in the Asia/Near East region and its environmental implications. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-06-01

    The report assesses the current and projected energy situation and needs in the Asia/Near East region and describes the status of energy efficiency. It examines the environmental implications of energy supply and use, with specific focus on energy infrastructure and fossil fuel combustion. Energy efficiency activities and achievements are described for Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Pakistan, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Egypt, Jordan, Morocco, and Tunisia, as well as for two other countries, Costa Rica and Singapore, which have recently implemented energy efficiency activities that could be replicated in Asia/Near East countries. In conclusion, the report recommends that, in addition to energy efficiency, complementary efforts need to be made to promote the use of cleaner fuels and encourage the incorporation of environmental considerations into all major energy decisions.

  5. Sociocultural factors and local customs related to taeniasis in east Asia.

    PubMed

    Fan, P C; Chung, W C

    1997-11-01

    Taeniasis is an important medical and economic problem in many countries in East Asia. According to our estimation, there is an annual loss of US$18,673,495, US$13,641,021, and US$2,425,500 due to taeniasis in the mountainous areas of Taiwan, Cheju Island of Korea, and Samosir Island of Indonesia, respectively. Although taeniasis and cysticercosis due to Taenia solium have been reported, T. saginata asiatica is the dominate species in part of the world, especially in the mountainous and remote areas where the inhabitants are fond of eating raw or undercooked meat and/or viscera of domestic or wild animals. Therefore, sociocultural factors and local customs are the determinants in the transmission of taeniasis. In this paper, local customs and sociocultural factors including local dishes, accidental infection during dish preparation, and treatment for anaemia of children in the countries of East Asia were reviewed. PMID:9425862

  6. Noncommunicable Diseases In East Africa: Assessing The Gaps In Care And Identifying Opportunities For Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Siddharthan, Trishul; Ramaiya, Kaushik; Yonga, Gerald; Mutungi, Gerald N.; Rabin, Tracy L.; List, Justin M.; Kishore, Sandeep P.; Schwartz, Jeremy I.

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of some noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) in East Africa is beginning to match that in high-income countries. Though the epidemiologic, demographic, and nutritional transitions are well under way in low-income countries, investment and attention in these countries remain focused largely on communicable diseases. We discuss existing infrastructure in communicable disease management as well as linkages between noncommunicable and communicable diseases in East Africa. We describe gaps in NCD management within the health systems in East Africa. We also discuss deficiencies in addressing NCDs from basic science research and medical training to health service delivery, public health initiatives and access to essential medications in East Africa. Finally, we highlight the role of collaboration among East African governments and civil society in addressing NCDs and advocate for a robust primary healthcare system that focuses on the social determinants of health. PMID:26355052

  7. Contracting private hospitals: experiences from Southeast and East Asia.

    PubMed

    Herberholz, Chantal; Supakankunti, Siripen

    2015-03-01

    In resource-scarce settings governments have increasingly looked at ways of engaging the private sector in achieving national health system goals. This study is a comparative analysis of institutional contracting for hospital services in three southeast and east Asian countries, namely Thailand, the Philippines and South Korea. In addition, the case of Singapore, where public hospitals are corporatized, is reviewed. Primary data were collected through in-depth-interviews and analysed under a triangulation approach. Institutional contracting is only used in three out of four countries. In these three countries, institutional contracting inter alia aims at increasing access to hospital services, although the scale of private hospital participation depends on contextual factors. Neither strategic provider selection mechanisms nor a preferred provider system is part of the institutional contracting models reviewed. In Thailand and the Philippines, performance-based rewards or sanctions have played a limited role so far and there is relatively little dialogue between contract parties, indicating that the contracting tool has not been used to the fullest extent possible and suggesting that capacity development especially regarding contract and relationship management is needed. Although there is virtually no information available about the cost of contracting, the findings of this study suggest that the potential of institutional contracting arrangements should be explored further to improve health system outcomes and thereby support countries in their quest for universal health coverage. PMID:25576007

  8. Impacts of Aerosol-Cloud Interactions on Climate Change in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, S.; Jung, Y.; Baek, H.; Cho, C.

    2013-12-01

    Climate impact by anthropogenic drivers gives high concerns in climate change simulation. IPCC AR4 emphasized the role of aerosol on climate besides the GHGs due to its negative significant radiative forcing. We find that climate feedback of anthropogenic aerosols over East Asia through direct and indirect (aerosol-cloud interaction) radiative process using HadGEM2-AO developed by the UK Met office. Due to the industrial revolution and population growth, total anthropogenic aerosol emissions have grown dramatically over East Asia; sulfate aerosol is the dominant component accounting for about 50% of total aerosol optical depth at 550nm (Figure 1). An increased amount of aerosols might increase the CCN number concentration and lead to more, but smaller, cloud droplets for fixed liquid water content. This increases the albedo of the cloud, resulting in enhance reflection and a cooling effect. And smaller drops require longer growth times to reach size at which they easily fall as precipitation. This effect called the cloud lifetime effect may enhance the cloud cover (Figure 2), with a persistent positive correlation between cloud cover and aerosol optical depth. Particularly, aerosols have an influence on the amount of cloud cover (SC, ST, and NS) through the interaction with precipitation efficiency of low level clouds. As a result of perturbations of East Asia aerosols from preindustrial to present day, a net radiative flux at the top of atmosphere is estimated to be -4 W/m2, with a regional mean surface cooling of 1.2 K. More detailed analysis will be shown at the conference. Fig. 1. (a) Total AOD distributions (b) Changes in decadal mean AOD over East Asia. Fig 2. Cloud cover distributions classified by ISCCP cloud types.

  9. Model analysis of influences of aerosol mixing state upon its optical properties in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xiao; Zhang, Meigen; Zhu, Lingyun; Xu, Liren

    2013-07-01

    The air quality model system RAMS (Regional Atmospheric Modeling System)-CMAQ (Models-3 Community Multi-scale Air Quality) coupled with an aerosol optical/radiative module was applied to investigate the impact of different aerosol mixing states (i.e., externally mixed, half externally and half internally mixed, and internally mixed) on radiative forcing in East Asia. The simulation results show that the aerosol optical depth (AOD) generally increased when the aerosol mixing state changed from externally mixed to internally mixed, while the single scattering albedo (SSA) decreased. Therefore, the scattering and absorption properties of aerosols can be significantly affected by the change of aerosol mixing states. Comparison of simulated and observed SSAs at five AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network) sites suggests that SSA could be better estimated by considering aerosol particles to be internally mixed. Model analysis indicates that the impact of aerosol mixing state upon aerosol direct radiative forcing (DRF) is complex. Generally, the cooling effect of aerosols over East Asia are enhanced in the northern part of East Asia (Northern China, Korean peninsula, and the surrounding area of Japan) and are reduced in the southern part of East Asia (Sichuan Basin and Southeast China) by internal mixing process, and the variation range can reach ±5 W m-2. The analysis shows that the internal mixing between inorganic salt and dust is likely the main reason that the cooling effect strengthens. Conversely, the internal mixture of anthropogenic aerosols, including sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, black carbon, and organic carbon, could obviously weaken the cooling effect.

  10. Land response to atmosphere at different resolutions in the common land model over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Daeun; Lim, Yoon-Jin; Kang, Minseok; Choi, Minha

    2016-03-01

    Towards a better understanding of hydrological interactions between the land surface and atmosphere, land surface models are routinely used to simulate hydro-meteorological fluxes. However, there is a lack of observations available for model forcing, to estimate the hydro-meteorological fluxes in East Asia. In this study, Common Land Model (CLM) was used in offline-mode during the summer monsoon period of 2006 in East Asia, with different forcings from Asiaflux, Korea Land Data Assimilation System (KLDAS), and Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS), at point and regional scales, separately. The CLM results were compared with observations from Asiaflux sites. The estimated net radiation showed good agreement, with r =0.99 for the point scale and 0.85 for the regional scale. The estimated sensible and latent heat fluxes using Asiaflux and KLDAS data indicated reasonable agreement, with r = 0.70. The estimated soil moisture and soil temperature showed similar patterns to observations, although the estimated water fluxes using KLDAS showed larger discrepancies than those of Asiaflux because of scale mismatch. The spatial distribution of hydro-meteorological fluxes according to KLDAS for East Asia were compared to the CLM results with GLDAS, and the GLDAS provided online. The spatial distributions of CLM with KLDAS were analogous to CLM with GLDAS, and the standalone GLDAS data. The results indicate that KLDAS is a good potential source of high spatial resolution forcing data. Therefore, the KLDAS is a promising alternative product, capable of compensating for the lack of observations and low resolution grid data for East Asia.

  11. GOSAT CO2 retrieval results using TANSO-CAI aerosol information over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    KIM, M.; Kim, W.; Jung, Y.; Lee, S.; Kim, J.; Lee, H.; Boesch, H.; Goo, T. Y.

    2015-12-01

    In the satellite remote sensing of CO2, incorrect aerosol information could induce large errors as previous studies suggested. Many factors, such as, aerosol type, wavelength dependency of AOD, aerosol polarization effect and etc. have been main error sources. Due to these aerosol effects, large number of data retrieved are screened out in quality control, or retrieval errors tend to increase if not screened out, especially in East Asia where aerosol concentrations are fairly high. To reduce these aerosol induced errors, a CO2 retrieval algorithm using the simultaneous TANSO-CAI aerosol information is developed. This algorithm adopts AOD and aerosol type information as a priori information from the CAI aerosol retrieval algorithm. The CO2 retrieval algorithm based on optimal estimation method and VLIDORT, a vector discrete ordinate radiative transfer model. The CO2 algorithm, developed with various state vectors to find accurate CO2 concentration, shows reasonable results when compared with other dataset. This study concentrates on the validation of retrieved results with the ground-based TCCON measurements in East Asia and the comparison with the previous retrieval from ACOS, NIES, and UoL. Although, the retrieved CO2 concentration is lower than previous results by ppm's, it shows similar trend and high correlation with previous results. Retrieved data and TCCON measurements data are compared at three stations of Tsukuba, Saga, Anmyeondo in East Asia, with the collocation criteria of ±2°in latitude/longitude and ±1 hours of GOSAT passing time. Compared results also show similar trend with good correlation. Based on the TCCON comparison results, bias correction equation is calculated and applied to the East Asia data.

  12. Sensitivity analysis of photochemical ozone to its precursor emissions over East Asia by CMAQ-DDM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itahashi, S.; Uno, I.; Kim, S.

    2011-12-01

    In the past three decades, anthropogenic emissions in East Asia have increased dramatically in parallel with the economic growth, and the trans-boundary air pollution arose as a concerning issue. For instance, high photochemical oxidant (over 120 ppbv) was observed at the remote clean island in Japan during 2007 springtime. In this event, many studies concluded that the high possibility of the impact of Asian-scale trans-boundary pollutants. To investigate the source-receptor relationships, modeling study is useful, however, if the chemical reaction involves the nonlinear response (e.g., ozone), to estimate its S-R relationships is quite difficult. The decoupled direct method (DDM) which was implemented in CMAQ ver. 4.7.1 is an efficient and accurate way of performing sensitivity analysis to model inputs. CMAQ-DDM has been extended to higher-order (HDDM) for gas-phase, and calculates first and second-order sensitivity coefficients representing the responsiveness of atmospheric chemical concentrations to perturbations in a model input or parameter (e.g., emission, reaction rate, initical condition, or boundary condition). This applications are well conducted in the U.S., whereas it is not fully examined in East Asia. In this study, we apply CMAQ-DDM technique for ozone and its precursor pollutants in East Asia. In the case of trans-boundary air pollution episode occurred on 7-9 May, 2007, the 1st order ozone sensitivity to the anthropogenic NOx emissions from China show the positive value in almost part over East Asia, namely represent the NOx-sensitive region, whereas in the large-point sources in China (e.g., Beijing and Shanghai), it shows the negative value due to the ozone titration by NO. We will also report more detailed region specified S-R analysis and cross-sensitivity analysis between NOx and VOC over China, Korea and Japan.

  13. WRF-Chem Simulations of Aerosols and Anthropogenic Aerosol Radiative Forcing in East Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Yi; Zhao, Chun; Liu, Xiaohong; Zhang, Meigen; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2014-08-01

    This study aims to provide a first comprehensive evaluation of WRF-Chem for modeling aerosols and anthropogenic aerosol radiative forcing (RF) over East Asia. Several numerical experiments were conducted from November 2007 to December 2008. Comparison between model results and observations shows that the model can generally reproduce the observed spatial distributions of aerosol concentration, aerosol optical depth (AOD) and single scattering albedo (SSA) from measurements at different sites, including the relatively higher aerosol concentration and AOD over East China and the relatively lower AOD over Southeast Asia, Korean, and Japan. The model also depicts the seasonal variation and transport of pollutions over East Asia. Particulate matter of 10 um or less in the aerodynamic diameter (PM10), black carbon (BC), sulfate (SO42-), nitrate (NO3-) and ammonium (NH4+) concentrations are higher in spring than other seasons in Japan due to the pollutant transport from polluted area of East Asia. AOD is high over Southwest and Central China in winter, spring and autumn and over North China in summer while is low over South China in summer due to monsoon precipitation. SSA is lowest in winter and highest in summer. The model also captures the dust events at the Zhangye site in the semi-arid region of China. Anthropogenic aerosol RF is estimated to range from -5 to -20 W m-2 over land and -20 to -40 W m-2 over ocean at the top of atmosphere (TOA), 5 to 30 W m-2 in the atmosphere (ATM) and -15 to -40 W m-2 at the bottom (BOT). The warming effect of anthropogenic aerosol in ATM results from BC aerosol while the negative aerosol RF at TOA is caused by scattering aerosols such as SO4 2-, NO3 - and NH4+. Positive BC RF at TOA compensates 40~50% of the TOA cooling associated with anthropogenic aerosol.

  14. Occurrence of and risk factors for Strongyloides stercoralis infection in South-East Asia.

    PubMed

    Schär, Fabian; Giardina, Federica; Khieu, Virak; Muth, Sinuon; Vounatsou, Penelope; Marti, Hanspeter; Odermatt, Peter

    2016-07-01

    The soil-transmitted nematode, Strongyloides stercoralis is one of the most-neglected of all neglected tropical diseases. It is globally distributed, favouring the humid, wet climates of the tropics and subtropics. Inadequate sanitary conditions promote the spread of S. stercoralis infection. In South-East Asia, many countries provide the ideal ecological and economic setting for high S. stercoralis infection rates. Yet, in most of these countries, little is known about the actual prevalence and distribution of S. stercoralis. One reason for this lack of knowledge pertains to the time- and resource-intensive diagnostic methods used to detect S. stercoralis infection. The Koga Agar culture method and the Baermann method are considered to be the best coprological diagnostic methods for field settings today. Both detect the parasite with high sensitivity. This sensitivity can be increased further by examining stool samples for several consecutive days, thereby increasing the chances of detecting low-intensity chronic infections. Diagnostic challenges, however, lead to the omission of S. stercoralis in studies of soil-transmitted helminths and few studies focus on S. stercoralis, specifically. These factors lead to an underreporting of the nematode's prevalence, not only in South-East Asia but worldwide. We have reviewed the scientific literature of the last 25 years and estimated country-wide prevalence rates for South-East Asia. We aim to summarise what is known today about the prevalence of S. stercoralis in South-East Asia, as well as to ascertain the risk factors and diagnostic methods most commonly applied. PMID:25795619

  15. How predictable is the winter extremely cold days over temperate East Asia?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xiao; Wang, Bin

    2016-07-01

    Skillful seasonal prediction of the number of extremely cold day (NECD) has considerable benefits for climate risk management and economic planning. Yet, predictability of NECD associated with East Asia winter monsoon remains largely unexplored. The present work estimates the NECD predictability in temperate East Asia (TEA, 30°-50°N, 110°-140°E) where the current dynamical models exhibit limited prediction skill. We show that about 50 % of the total variance of the NECD in TEA region is likely predictable, which is estimated by using a physics-based empirical (P-E) model with three consequential autumn predictors, i.e., developing El Niño/La Niña, Eurasian Arctic Ocean temperature anomalies, and geopotential height anomalies over northern and eastern Asia. We find that the barotropic geopotential height anomaly over Asia can persist from autumn to winter, thereby serving as a predictor for winter NECD. Further analysis reveals that the sources of the NECD predictability and the physical basis for prediction of NECD are essentially the same as those for prediction of winter mean temperature over the same region. This finding implies that forecasting seasonal mean temperature can provide useful information for prediction of extreme cold events. Interpretation of the lead-lag linkages between the three predictors and the predictand is provided for stimulating further studies.

  16. Plate tectonic reconstruction of South and East Asia since 43 Ma using seismic tomographic constraints: role of the subducted ';East Asia Sea' (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, J. E.; Suppe, J.; Renqi, L.; Kanda, R. V.

    2013-12-01

    Lithosphere that subducts at convergent plate boundaries provides a potentially decipherable plate tectonic record. In this study we use global seismic tomography to map subducted slabs in the upper and lower mantle under South and East Asia to constrain plate reconstructions. The mapped slabs include the Pacific, the Indian Ocean and Banda Sea, the Molucca Sea, Celebes Sea, the Philippine Sea and Eurasia, New Guinea and other lower mantle detached slabs. The mapped slabs were restored to the earth surface and used with Gplates software to constrain a globally-consistent, fully animated plate reconstruction of South and East Asia. Three principal slab elements dominate possible plate reconstructions: [1] The mapped Pacific slabs near the Izu-Bonin and the Marianas trenches form a subvertical slab curtain or wall extending down to 1500 km in the lower mantle. The ';slab curtain' geometry and restored slabs lengths indicate that the Pacific subduction zone has remained fixed within +/- 250 km of its present position since ~43 Ma. In contrast, the Tonga Pacific slab curtain records at least 1000 km trench rollback associated with expansion of back-arc basins. [2] West of the Pacific slab curtain, a set of flat slabs exist in the lower mantle and record a major 8000km by 2500-3000km ocean that existed at ~43 Ma. This now-subducted ocean, which we call the ';East Asian Sea', existed between the Ryukyu Asian margin and the Lord Howe hotspot, present-day eastern Australia, and fills a major gap in Cenozoic plate reconstructions between Indo-Australia, the Pacific Ocean and Asia. [3] An observed ';picture puzzle' fit between the restored edges of the Philippine Sea, Molucca Sea and Indian Ocean slabs suggests that the Philippine Sea was once part of a larger Indo-Australian Ocean. Previous models of Philippine Sea plate motions are in conflict with the location of the East Asian Sea lithosphere. Using the mapped slab constraints, we propose the following 43 Ma to 0 plate

  17. Multiannual top-down estimate of HFC-23 emissions in East Asia.

    PubMed

    Fang, X; Stohl, A; Yokouchi, Y; Kim, J; Li, S; Saito, T; Park, S; Hu, J

    2015-04-01

    Trifluoromethane (CHF3, HFC-23), with a 100-year global warming potential (GWP) of 12400, is regulated under the Kyoto Protocol. HFC-23 emissions in East Asia, especially in China, are currently thought to represent the majority of global HFC-23 emissions. This study provides both a bottom-up emission inventory and the multiannual top-down estimate of HFC-23 emissions in East Asia during 2007-2012. The new bottom-up inventory yields improved simulated HFC-23 mixing ratios compared to previous bottom-up inventories. The top-down estimate uses inverse modeling to further improve the model-measurement agreement. Results show that China contributed 94-98% of all HFC-23 emissions in East Asia. Annual a posteriori emissions from China were around 6.3 Gg/yr during the period 2007-2010 after which they increased to 7.1 ± 0.7 Gg/yr in 2011 and 8.8 ± 0.8 Gg/yr in 2012. For the first time, this study also provides a top-down estimate of HFC-23/HCFC-22 (chlorodifluoromethane, CHClF2) coproduction ratios in non-CDM (Clean Development Mechanism) HCFC-22 production plants as well as in all HCFC-22 production plants in China. PMID:25785483

  18. Emissions of halogenated compounds in East Asia determined from measurements at Jeju Island, Korea.

    PubMed

    Li, Shanlan; Kim, Jooil; Kim, Kyung-Ryul; Mühle, Jens; Kim, Seung-Kyu; Park, Mi-Kyung; Stohl, Andreas; Kang, Dong-Jin; Arnold, Tim; Harth, Christina M; Salameh, Peter K; Weiss, Ray F

    2011-07-01

    High-frequency in situ measurements at Gosan (Jeju Island, Korea) during November 2007 to December 2008 have been combined with interspecies correlation analysis to estimate national emissions of halogenated compounds (HCs) in East Asia, including the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), halons, hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), sulfur hexafluoride (SF(6)), and other chlorinated and brominated compounds. Our results suggest that overall China is the dominant emitter of HCs in East Asia, however significant emissions are also found in South Korea, Japan and Taiwan for HFC-134a, HFC-143a, C(2)F(6), SF(6), CH(3)CCl(3), and HFC-365mfc. The combined emissions of CFCs, halon-1211, HCFCs, HFCs, PFCs, and SF(6) from all four countries in 2008 are 25.3, 1.6, 135, 42.6, 3.6, and 2.0 kt/a, respectively. They account for approximately 15%, 26%, 29%, 16%, 32%, and 26.5% of global emissions, respectively. Our results show signs that Japan has successfully phased out CFCs and HCFCs in compliance with the Montreal Protocol (MP), Korea has started transitioning from HCFCs to HFCs, while China still significantly consumes HCFCs. Taiwan, while not directly regulated under the MP, is shown to have adapted the use of HFCs. Combined analysis of emission rates and the interspecies correlation matrix presented in this study proves to be a powerful tool for monitoring and diagnosing changes in consumption of HCs in East Asia. PMID:21649439

  19. Ancient inland human dispersals from Myanmar into interior East Asia since the Late Pleistocene.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu-Chun; Wang, Hua-Wei; Tian, Jiao-Yang; Liu, Li-Na; Yang, Li-Qin; Zhu, Chun-Ling; Wu, Shi-Fang; Kong, Qing-Peng; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Given the existence of plenty of river valleys connecting Southeast and East Asia, it is possible that some inland route(s) might have been adopted by the initial settlers to migrate into the interior of East Asia. Here we analyzed mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) HVS variants of 845 newly collected individuals from 14 Myanmar populations and 5,907 published individuals from 115 populations from Myanmar and its surroundings. Enrichment of basal lineages with the highest genetic diversity in Myanmar suggests that Myanmar was likely one of the differentiation centers of the early modern humans. Intriguingly, some haplogroups were shared merely between Myanmar and southwestern China, hinting certain genetic connection between both regions. Further analyses revealed that such connection was in fact attributed to both recent gene flow and certain ancient dispersals from Myanmar to southwestern China during 25-10 kya, suggesting that, besides the coastal route, the early modern humans also adopted an inland dispersal route to populate the interior of East Asia. PMID:25826227

  20. Model intra-comparison of transboundary sulfate loadings over springtime east Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, D.; Ohara, T.; Nakajima, T.; Takemura, T.; Kajino, M.; Dai, T.; Matsui, H.; Takami, A.; Hatakeyama, S.; Aoki, K.; Sugimoto, N.; Shimizu, A.

    2013-12-01

    Over east Asia, a spatial gradient of sulfate aerosols from source to outflow regions has not fully evaluated by simulations. In the present study, we executed a global aerosol-transport model (SPRINTARS) during April 2006 to investigate the spatial gradient of sulfate aerosols using multiple measurements including surface mass concentration, aerosol optical thickness, and vertical profiles of extinction coefficients for spherical particles. We also performed sensitivity experiments to estimate possible uncertainties of sulfate mass loadings caused by macrophysical processes; emission inventory, dynamic core, and spatial resolution. Among the experiments, although a difference in the surface sulfate mass concentrations over east Asia was large, none of the simulations in the present study as well as regional models reproduced the spatial gradient of the surface sulfate from the source over China to the outflow regions in Japan. The sensitivity of different macrophysical factors to the surface sulfate differs from that to sulfate loadings in the column especially in the marine boundary layers (MBL). Therefore, to properly simulate the transboundary air pollution over east Asia is required to use multiple measurements in both the source and outflow regions especially in the MBL during the polluted days.

  1. Ancient inland human dispersals from Myanmar into interior East Asia since the Late Pleistocene

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yu-Chun; Wang, Hua-Wei; Tian, Jiao-Yang; Liu, Li-Na; Yang, Li-Qin; Zhu, Chun-Ling; Wu, Shi-Fang; Kong, Qing-Peng; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Given the existence of plenty of river valleys connecting Southeast and East Asia, it is possible that some inland route(s) might have been adopted by the initial settlers to migrate into the interior of East Asia. Here we analyzed mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) HVS variants of 845 newly collected individuals from 14 Myanmar populations and 5,907 published individuals from 115 populations from Myanmar and its surroundings. Enrichment of basal lineages with the highest genetic diversity in Myanmar suggests that Myanmar was likely one of the differentiation centers of the early modern humans. Intriguingly, some haplogroups were shared merely between Myanmar and southwestern China, hinting certain genetic connection between both regions. Further analyses revealed that such connection was in fact attributed to both recent gene flow and certain ancient dispersals from Myanmar to southwestern China during 25–10 kya, suggesting that, besides the coastal route, the early modern humans also adopted an inland dispersal route to populate the interior of East Asia. PMID:25826227

  2. Modeling study of surface ozone source-receptor relationships in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jie; Yang, Wenyi; Wang, Zifa; Chen, Huansheng; Hu, Bo; Li, Jianjun.; Sun, Yele.; Fu, Pingqing; Zhang, Yuqia

    2016-01-01

    Ozone source-receptor relationships over East Asia have been quantitatively investigated using a chemical transport model including an on-line tracer-tagged procedure, with a particular focus on the source regions of different daily ozone mixing ratios. Comparison with observations showed that the model reproduced surface ozone and tropospheric nitrogen dioxide column densities. Long-range transport from outside East Asia contributed the greatest fraction to annual surface ozone over remote regions, the Korean peninsula, and Japan, reaching 50%-80% of total ozone. Self-contributions accounted for 5%-20% ozone in the Korean peninsula and Japan, whereas the contribution of trans-boundary transport from photochemical production in China was less than 5%-10%. At extra-high ozone levels, self-contributions reached 50%-60% in the Korean peninsula. Ozone source-receptor relationships showed high seasonal variability over East Asia. Significant transport was also found between sub-regions in China, which presents a great challenge to policy-makers because most current control strategies are confined to specific regions.

  3. Tomographic structure of East Asia: II. Stagnant slab above 660 km discontinuity and its geodynamic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yongshun John; Pei, Shunping

    2010-12-01

    P-wave arrival times of both regional and teleseismic earthquakes were inverted to obtain mantle structures of East Asia. No fast (slab) velocity anomalies was not find beneath the 660-km discontinuity through tomography besides a stagnant slab within the transition zone. Slow P-wave velocity anomalies are present at depths of 100-250 km below the active volcanic arc and East Asia. The western end of the flat stagnant slab is about 1 500 km west to active trench and may also be correlated with prominent surface topographic break in eastern China. We suggested that active mantle convection might be operating within this horizontally expanded "mantle wedge" above both the active subducting slabs and the stagnant flat slabs beneath much of the North China plain. Both the widespread Cenozoic volcanism and associated extensional basins in East Asia could be the manifestation of this vigorous upper mantle convection. Cold or thermal anomalies associated with the stagnant slabs above the 660-km discontinuity have not only caused a broad depression of the boundary due to its negative Clapeyron slope but also effectively shielded the asthenosphere and continental lithosphere above from any possible influence of mantle plumes in the lower mantle.

  4. Diarrhea and respiratory symptoms among travelers to Asia, Africa, and South and Central America from Scotland.

    PubMed

    Redman, Christopher Allan; Maclennan, Alice; Wilson, Eleanor; Walker, Eric

    2006-01-01

    Surveillance using admissions to hospital, while being useful, is a poor indicator of the real incidence of disease encountered by travelers. An alternative is self-reported illness among those who attended at a pretravel clinic prior to their travels. Estimates of incidence and risk factors were determined for attendees at a travel clinic in Scotland using a questionnaire. Analysis for risk factors was carried out for those travelers visiting countries in Africa, Asia, or South and Central America, who had traveled for 1 week or more and had returned between 1997 and 2001 (N= 4,856). Multivariate logistic regression was used to test the hypotheses that time abroad and age-group would be significant for both respiratory and diarrheal symptoms regardless of which of the three geographical areas are visited. From 2006 returned questionnaires (response rate = 41.3%), diarrhea and respiratory symptoms were reported by 44.2 and 16.8% of respondents, respectively; the incidence was significantly greater among travelers to Asia for both diarrheal (55.5%) and respiratory (23.7%) symptoms than among travelers to Africa (36.6 and 12.2%, respectively) or South and Central America (39.5 and 16.2%, respectively). For diarrhea, age was a highly significant risk factor for travelers to Asia, South and Central America, and Africa. Being a self-organized tourist/backpacker, traveling to Asia was associated with increased risk, while for Africa and South and Central America visiting family or friends was associated with a lower risk. For travelers to Asia, traveling to the Indian subcontinent was significantly associated with increased risk. The majority of travelers had an adverse event while traveling abroad, with diarrhea and respiratory conditions being especially common despite attending a travel clinic for advice prior to departure. However, the limitations of this surveillance-based strategy have highlighted the requirement for more research to understand more fully the

  5. Evaluation of Multiple Regional Climate Models for Summer Extremes of Temperature and Precipitation over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Changyong; Min, Seung-Ki

    2014-05-01

    The regional climate models (RCMs) have been widely used to generate more detailed information in space and time of climate patterns produced by the global climate models (GCMs). Recently the international collaborative effort has been set up as the CORDEX (Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment) project which covers several regional domains including East Asia. In this study, five RCMs (HadGEM3-RA, RegCM4, SNU-MM5, SNU-WRF, and YSU-RSM) participating in the CORDEX-East Asia project are evaluated in terms of their skills at simulating climatology of summer extremes. We examine bias and RMSE and conduct a Taylor diagram analysis using seasonal maxima of daily mean temperature and daily precipitation amount over the East Asia land area from 'historical' experiments of individual RCMs and their multi-model ensemble means (MME). The APHRODITE (Asian Precipitation-Highly-Resolved Observational Data Integration Toward Evaluation) datasets on 0.5° x 0.5° grids are used as observations. Results show similar systematic bias patterns between seasonal means and extremes. A cold bias is found along the coast while a warm bias occurs in the northern China. Overall wet bias appears in East Asia but there is a substantial dry bias in South Korea. This dry bias appears related to be a cold SST (sea surface temperature) around South Korea, positioning the monsoonal front (Changma) further south than observations. Taylor diagram analyses show that temperature has better skill in means than in extremes because of higher spatial correlation whereas precipitation exhibits better skill in extremes than in means due to better spatial variability. The latter implies that extreme rainfall events may be better captured although seasonal mean precipitation tends to be overestimated by RCMs. The model performances between mean and extreme are found to be closely related, but not clearly between temperature and precipitation. Temperatures are always better simulated than

  6. The episode of genetic drift defining the migration of humans out of Africa is derived from a large east African population size.

    PubMed

    Elhassan, Nuha; Gebremeskel, Eyoab Iyasu; Elnour, Mohamed Ali; Isabirye, Dan; Okello, John; Hussien, Ayman; Kwiatksowski, Dominic; Hirbo, Jibril; Tishkoff, Sara; Ibrahim, Muntaser E

    2014-01-01

    Human genetic variation particularly in Africa is still poorly understood. This is despite a consensus on the large African effective population size compared to populations from other continents. Based on sequencing of the mitochondrial Cytochrome C Oxidase subunit II (MT-CO2), and genome wide microsatellite data we observe evidence suggesting the effective size (Ne) of humans to be larger than the current estimates, with a foci of increased genetic diversity in east Africa, and a population size of east Africans being at least 2-6 fold larger than other populations. Both phylogenetic and network analysis indicate that east Africans possess more ancestral lineages in comparison to various continental populations placing them at the root of the human evolutionary tree. Our results also affirm east Africa as the likely spot from which migration towards Asia has taken place. The study reflects the spectacular level of sequence variation within east Africans in comparison to the global sample, and appeals for further studies that may contribute towards filling the existing gaps in the database. The implication of these data to current genomic research, as well as the need to carry out defined studies of human genetic variation that includes more African populations; particularly east Africans is paramount. PMID:24845801

  7. Observations of Light-Absorbing Carbonaceous Aerosols in East and South Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, S.; Kim, S.; Choi, W.

    2013-05-01

    Light-absorbing aerosols, such as black carbon (BC), brown carbon and mineral dust, typically constitute a small fraction of ambient particle mass but can contribute to solar radiative forcing through absorption of solar radiation and heating of the absorbing aerosol layer. Besides the direct radiative effect, the heating can evaporate clouds and change the atmospheric dynamics. In this study, we investigate the optical and radiative properties of light-absorbing aerosols from ground-based and aircraft measurements in East and South Asia within the framework of UNEP Atmospheric Brown Cloud-Asia (ABC-Asia) project and Sustainable Atmosphere for the Kathmandu Valley (SusKat) campaign (December 2012 ~ February 2013). BC mass concentration, aerosol scattering and absorption coefficients measurements and radiative forcing calculations were performed at four sites: Gosan (Korea), Anmyeon (Korea), Hanimaadhoo (Maldives) and Pyramid (Nepal). No significant seasonal variations of aerosol properties, except for summer due to wet scavenging by rainfall, were observed in East Asia, whereas dramatic changes of light-absorbing aerosol properties were observed in South Asia between dry and wet monsoon periods. Although BC mass concentration in East Asia is generally higher than that observed in South Asia, BC mass concentration at Hanimaadhoo during winter dry monsoon is similar to that of East Asia. The observed solar absorption efficiency (absorption coefficient/extinction coefficient) at 550 nm at Gosan and Anmyeon is higher than that in Hanimaadhoo due to large portions of BC emission from fossil fuel combustion. Interestingly, solar absorption efficiency at Pyramid is 0.14, which is two times great than that in Hanimaadhoo and is about 40% higher than that in East Asia, though BC mass concentration at Pyramid is the lowest among four sites. Throughout the unmanned aerial vehicle experiment in Jeju, Korea during August-September 2008, long-range transport of aerosols from

  8. A Spring Forward for Human Evolution in East Africa?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuthbert, M. O.; Ashley, G. M.

    2014-12-01

    The current consensus is that humans evolved in Africa and then migrated in waves to other parts of the world starting as early as 2 Ma. The climate was both cooling and drying. One of the major unknowns connected with human survival in this climatically turbulent environment is the availability of resources, particularly water. A growing body of geological evidence shows an association between springs, stone tools and hominin fossils at a number of sites in the East African Rift System (EARS) during a critical period for hominin evolution (from 1.8 Ma). The springs may have been vulnerable to climate variability, thus the role that groundwater availability may have played in human evolution and migration to other continents is not known. Using palaeogeological reconstruction and groundwater modelling of the paleo-catchment of one such EARS site, Olduvai Gorge (3°S), we show how spring discharge was likely linked to climate variability of annual to Milankovitch cycle timescales. Under decadal to centennial timescales, spring flow would have been relatively invariant providing good water resource resilience through long droughts. For multi-millennial periods, modelled spring flows lag groundwater recharge by 100s to 1000 years. Our results show how groundwater would have provided 'drought proof' water supply and habitats during arid phases as potable surface water from rivers or lakes became increasingly scarce. Localized groundwater systems are likely to have been widespread within the EARS providing refugia and intense competition during dry periods. Thus, springs and associated wetlands may have been important factors in natural selection and evolution, as well as a vital resource during dispersal within and out of Africa. While further exploration is needed to test the geographical extent of groundwater use by early humans, we propose that groundwater flow systems produced in the EARS played a significant role in the evolution and dispersal of early humans.

  9. Holocene TEX86 temperature reconstructions from Lake Turkana, East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berke, M. A.; Johnson, T. C.; Werne, J. P.; Schouten, S.; Sinninghe Damsté, J. S.

    2009-12-01

    We present new high resolution Holocene lake surface temperature records from Lake Turkana, East Africa. These two TEX86 reconstructions, from the northern and southern basins of the lake, capture ~90 year resolution of climate patterns seen in this closed-basin system, as well as the thermal water dynamics between the two basins. The modern lake experiences surface temperatures in the northern basin ~1-3 °C warmer than the southern basin, due to upwelling in the southern basin induced by the predominant southerly winds. The paleotemperature records show parallel trends to this modern basinal temperature gradient, averaging ~1.5 °C warmer in the northern basin than the southern during the ~2000 years of record overlap (~450-2500 ybp). Some temperature intervals with coverage in both basins show strong agreement (i.e. ~2600-2000 Cal ybp), whereas increased wind-generated upwelling events may be responsible for periods that appear strongly antiphased (i.e. 2000-1600 Cal ybp) between basins. There does not appear to be any evidence of warming into the Medieval Warm Period (MWP, ~800-1200AD) or cooling at the start of the Little Ice Age (LIA, ~600 ybp). The southern basin temperature record indicates a substantial ~5 °C warming culminating in a thermal maximum ~5ka, immediately followed by ~3 °C cooling. This supports previous observations of an anomalously warm interval ~5ka documented in lake surface temperature records from Lakes Malawi and Tanganyika. A similar Holocene thermal maximum ~5ka has also been described from the Indian Ocean off the coast of Somalia (3°11’N, 50°26’E) (Bard et al., 1997). The abundance of these records now point to this being the warmest or one of the warmest intervals in the Holocene in tropical East Africa and indicates this may be a widespread regional climate response. Although these temperature trends appear reasonable, overall TEX86 temperatures for Lake Turkana are considerably lower than modern surface water temperatures

  10. Regional precipitation variability in East Asia related to climate and environmental factors during 1979-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Yinyin; Gao, Tao; Gao, Huiwang; Yao, Xiaohong; Xie, Lian

    2014-07-01

    This paper studies the inter-annual precipitation variations in different regions of East Asia from oceans to interior areas in China during 1979 - 2012. The results computed by Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF) demonstrate that the annual precipitation changes are mainly related to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, East Asian summer monsoon and aerosols. We also found that the increased Sea surface temperature (SST) could explain the precipitation changes over the Northwest Pacific in the dry season (Oct. - May) and the East China Sea and the South China Sea in the rainy season (Jun. - Sep.). The precipitation changes over the ocean unexplained by SST were likely due to the water vapor transport dominated by dynamic factors. With the increased SST, the moisture transported from oceans to interior land was likely redistributed and caused the complicated regional variability of precipitation. Moreover, the impacts of aerosols on cloud and precipitation varied with different pollution levels and different seasons.

  11. Regional precipitation variability in East Asia related to climate and environmental factors during 1979-2012.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yinyin; Gao, Tao; Gao, Huiwang; Yao, Xiaohong; Xie, Lian

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the inter-annual precipitation variations in different regions of East Asia from oceans to interior areas in China during 1979 - 2012. The results computed by Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF) demonstrate that the annual precipitation changes are mainly related to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, East Asian summer monsoon and aerosols. We also found that the increased Sea surface temperature (SST) could explain the precipitation changes over the Northwest Pacific in the dry season (Oct. - May) and the East China Sea and the South China Sea in the rainy season (Jun. - Sep.). The precipitation changes over the ocean unexplained by SST were likely due to the water vapor transport dominated by dynamic factors. With the increased SST, the moisture transported from oceans to interior land was likely redistributed and caused the complicated regional variability of precipitation. Moreover, the impacts of aerosols on cloud and precipitation varied with different pollution levels and different seasons. PMID:25033387

  12. Event location in the Middle East and North Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, C.A.; Myers, S.C.; Ruppert, S.D.

    1997-07-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) CTBT R{ampersand}D program has made significant progress towards improving the ability of the IMS seismic network to locate small-magnitude events in the Middle East and North Africa (MIYNA). Given that high-grade ground truth (such as known explosions) has been difficult to obtain in these regions, we have placed a significant effort towards the development of a teleseismically constrained seismic database that provides event locations good to within 20m km. This data set is used to make an initial evaluation of the effectiveness of calibration on the proposed seismic IMS network in the MWNA. Utilizing a surrogate IMS regional network in the Middle East we find that when a seismic event lies within the footprint of the recording network the uncalibrated event locations are good to within about 25 km of the teleseismically constrained (TC) location. Using region-specific static station corrections further reduces this difference to about 20 km. To obtain further improvement in location accuracy we have used the modified kriging technique developed by SNL to interpolate new travel-time corrections. We compare this technique withe other robust linear interpolation techniques with the goal of enhancing the estimation of travel-time corrections. This is important to TC events which we find can have large uncorrelated uncertainties. Finally, we are making a large effort to incorporate LLNL analyst picks on primary and secondary phases and develop azimuth and slownsess estimates horn current IMS arrays to improve/supplement the NEIC picks.

  13. Mesozoic and early Tertiary rift tectonics in East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosworth, William

    1992-08-01

    A complex history of crustal extension occurred in east and central Africa during the Mesozoic and early Tertiary. Beginning in the Late Jurassic, this resulted in a large system of rifts, the Central African rift system, that spanned from central Sudan to southern Kenya. Late Jurassic rifting is best documented in the White and Blue Nile rifts of the Sudan, and records east-west extension in half-graben that were connected by large-scale shear zones and pull-apart basins. Early Cretaceous rifting re-activated Jurassic basins and spread to the large South Sudan rifts and Anza rift in Kenya. By the Late Cretaceous, the extension direction shifted to the NE-SW, and the presently observed large-scale rift geometry was established. In the early Tertiary, some Mesozoic basins were again reactivated, while other regions underwent wrench faulting and basin inversion. The large number of basins preserved in the Central African rift system can be used to construct an evolutionary model of continental rift tectonics. Early phases of extension at low strains produced alternating half-graben/accommodation zone geometries similar to those observed in most young and active continental rifts. At higher strains, some border faults were abandoned so that through-going, simpler active fault systems could evolve. This is interpreted as representing a switch from complex, oppositely dipping detachment structures, with strike dimensions of 50-150 km, to regional detachment structures that continue for hundreds of kilometers parallel to the rift. This change in the type of detachment was accompanied by a shift in the position of the subsidence away from the breakaway to a position focused further within the regional upper plate. Non-rotational, high angle, normal faulting dominates in the development of these late basin geometries. Deciphering similar rift basin histories from passive continental margins may, in many cases, exceed the limits of available reflection seismic data. East

  14. Evaluating ESA CCI soil moisture in East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNally, Amy; Shukla, Shraddhanand; Arsenault, Kristi R.; Wang, Shugong; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Verdin, James P.

    2016-06-01

    To assess growing season conditions where ground based observations are limited or unavailable, food security and agricultural drought monitoring analysts rely on publicly available remotely sensed rainfall and vegetation greenness. There are also remotely sensed soil moisture observations from missions like the European Space Agency (ESA), Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) and NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP); however, these time series are still too short to conduct studies that demonstrate the utility of these data for operational applications, or to provide historical context for extreme wet or dry events. To promote the use of remotely sensed soil moisture in agricultural drought and food security monitoring, we evaluate the quality of a 30+ year time series of merged active-passive microwave soil moisture from the ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI-SM) over East Africa. Compared to the Normalized Difference Vegetation index (NDVI) and modeled soil moisture products, we find substantial spatial and temporal gaps in the early part of the CCI-SM record, with adequate data coverage beginning in 1992. From this point forward, growing season CCI-SM anomalies are well correlated (R > 0.5) with modeled soil moisture, and in some regions, NDVI. We use pixel-wise correlation analysis and qualitative comparisons of seasonal maps and time series to show that remotely sensed soil moisture can inform remote drought monitoring that has traditionally relied on rainfall and NDVI in moderately vegetated regions.

  15. LLNL Middle East and North Africa research database

    SciTech Connect

    Ruppert, S.D.; Hauk, T.F.; Leach, R.

    1997-07-15

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) CTBT R{ampersand}D program has made significant progress assembling a comprehensive seismic database (DB) for events and derived parameters in the Middle East and North Africa (ME/NA). The LLNL research DB provides not only a coherent framework in which store and organize large volumes of collected seismic waveforms and associated event parameter information but also provides an efficient data processing/research environment. The DB is designed to be flexible and extensible in order to accommodate the large volumes of data in diverse formats from many sources in addition to maintaining detailed quality control and metadata. Researchers can make use of the relational nature of the DB and interactive analysis tools to quickly and efficiently process large volumes of data. Seismic waveforms have been systematically collected form a wide range of local and regional networks using numerous earthquake bulletins and converted a common format based on CSS3.O while undergoing quality control and corrections of errors. By combining traveltime observations, event characterization studies, and regional wave-propagation studies of the LLNL CTBT team, we are assembling a library of ground truth information and event location correction surfaces required to support the ME/NA regionalization program. Corrections and parameters distilled from the LLNL research DB will provide needed contributions to the DOE knowledge base for the ME/NA region and enable the USNDC and IDC to effectively verify CTBT compliance.

  16. Recent outbreaks of rift valley Fever in East Africa and the middle East.

    PubMed

    Himeidan, Yousif E; Kweka, Eliningaya J; Mahgoub, Mostafa M; El Rayah, El Amin; Ouma, Johnson O

    2014-01-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an important neglected, emerging, mosquito-borne disease with severe negative impact on human and animal health. Mosquitoes in the Aedes genus have been considered as the reservoir, as well as vectors, since their transovarially infected eggs withstand desiccation and larvae hatch when in contact with water. However, different mosquito species serve as epizootic/epidemic vectors of RVF, creating a complex epidemiologic pattern in East Africa. The recent RVF outbreaks in Somalia (2006-2007), Kenya (2006-2007), Tanzania (2007), and Sudan (2007-2008) showed extension to districts, which were not involved before. These outbreaks also demonstrated the changing epidemiology of the disease from being originally associated with livestock, to a seemingly highly virulent form infecting humans and causing considerably high-fatality rates. The amount of rainfall is considered to be the main factor initiating RVF outbreaks. The interaction between rainfall and local environment, i.e., type of soil, livestock, and human determine the space-time clustering of RVF outbreaks. Contact with animals or their products was the most dominant risk factor to transfer the infection to humans. Uncontrolled movement of livestock during an outbreak is responsible for introducing RVF to new areas. For example, the virus that caused the Saudi Arabia outbreak in 2000 was found to be the same strain that caused the 1997-98 outbreaks in East Africa. A strategy that involves active surveillance with effective case management and diagnosis for humans and identifying target areas for animal vaccination, restriction on animal movements outside the affected areas, identifying breeding sites, and targeted intensive mosquito control programs has been shown to succeed in limiting the effect of RVF outbreak and curb the spread of the disease from the onset. PMID:25340047

  17. Recent Outbreaks of Rift Valley Fever in East Africa and the Middle East

    PubMed Central

    Himeidan, Yousif E.; Kweka, Eliningaya J.; Mahgoub, Mostafa M.; El Rayah, El Amin; Ouma, Johnson O.

    2014-01-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an important neglected, emerging, mosquito-borne disease with severe negative impact on human and animal health. Mosquitoes in the Aedes genus have been considered as the reservoir, as well as vectors, since their transovarially infected eggs withstand desiccation and larvae hatch when in contact with water. However, different mosquito species serve as epizootic/epidemic vectors of RVF, creating a complex epidemiologic pattern in East Africa. The recent RVF outbreaks in Somalia (2006–2007), Kenya (2006–2007), Tanzania (2007), and Sudan (2007–2008) showed extension to districts, which were not involved before. These outbreaks also demonstrated the changing epidemiology of the disease from being originally associated with livestock, to a seemingly highly virulent form infecting humans and causing considerably high-fatality rates. The amount of rainfall is considered to be the main factor initiating RVF outbreaks. The interaction between rainfall and local environment, i.e., type of soil, livestock, and human determine the space-time clustering of RVF outbreaks. Contact with animals or their products was the most dominant risk factor to transfer the infection to humans. Uncontrolled movement of livestock during an outbreak is responsible for introducing RVF to new areas. For example, the virus that caused the Saudi Arabia outbreak in 2000 was found to be the same strain that caused the 1997–98 outbreaks in East Africa. A strategy that involves active surveillance with effective case management and diagnosis for humans and identifying target areas for animal vaccination, restriction on animal movements outside the affected areas, identifying breeding sites, and targeted intensive mosquito control programs has been shown to succeed in limiting the effect of RVF outbreak and curb the spread of the disease from the onset. PMID:25340047

  18. Rural Development in Africa: A Bibliography. (Part I: General, Central, East). Training & Methods Series Number 16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Teresa, Comp.; And Others

    Compiled in July, 1971, this bibliography lists approximately 1,950 books, journal articles, and unpublished manuscripts dealing with rural development in Africa generally and in central and east Africa specifically. General entries appear under the following headings: agriculture; economic affairs; bibliography; law; economic and technical…

  19. United States security strategy for the East Asia-Pacific region

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    The three years since release of the last East Asia Strategy Report (EASR) have produced important development in the security environment of the Asia-Pacific region. The 1998 EASR outlines a multifaceted regional security strategy, including: maintenance of comprehensive US engagement, including not only the presence of approximately 100,000 US military personnel in Asia but also a variety of other public and private interaction with the region; continued enhancement of the alliance relationships with Japan, Korea, Australia, Thailand and the Philippines; comprehensive engagement with China to build the foundation for a long-term relationship based on cooperation and mutual interest; broadening of cooperation with the nations of Southeast Asia on security and confidence building; expansion of regional cooperation with Russia; support for the development of security pluralism, including expansion of multilateral, minilateral and bilateral dialogue in the region; promotion of democracy; stemming and countering proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD): and increased attention to terrorism, environmental degradation, emerging infectious diseases, drug trafficking and other transnational challenges as critical elements of `comprehensive security.`

  20. Complete Genome Sequences of Lineage III Peste des Petits Ruminants Viruses from the Middle East and East Africa.

    PubMed

    Muniraju, Murali; Munir, Muhammad; Banyard, Ashley C; Ayebazibwe, Chrisostom; Wensman, Jonas; Zohari, Siamak; Berg, Mikael; Parthiban, AravindhBabu R; Mahapatra, Mana; Libeau, Geneviève; Batten, Carrie; Parida, Satya

    2014-01-01

    For the first time, complete genome sequences of four lineage III peste des petits ruminants (PPR) viruses (Oman 1983, United Arab Emirates 1986, Ethiopia 1994, and Uganda 2012) originated from the Middle East and East Africa are reported here. The availability of complete genome sequences from all four lineages (I to IV) of the PPR virus (PPRV) would greatly help in a comprehensive understanding of the molecular evolution and emergence of PPRV. PMID:25342675

  1. Velocity structure of the uppermost mantle beneath East Asia from Pn tomography and its dynamic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Suyun; Niu, Fenglin; Zhang, Guomin

    2013-01-01

    Abstract<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> is one of the most tectonically active regions on Earth's surface due to the collision from the India plate and the suctions induced by the subduction of the Pacific and Philippine plates. To better understand the complicated deformation and active seismicity of the area, we conducted a Pn traveltime tomography to estimate the compressive wave speed of the uppermost mantle beneath <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. We collected a total of 296,334 Pn arrivals recorded by 1354 stations from 27,777 earthquakes in a rectangular area from 60°E to 145°E in longitude, 15°N to 60°N in latitude. The data set was carefully integrated from three different catalogs after examining potential systematic biases in the catalogs. The inversion results revealed a large-scale velocity perturbation in the study area. Pn velocity in the region west to ~108°E is approximately 10% higher than that in the <span class="hlt">east</span>. In each region, stable blocks tend to have high Pn velocity while the boundary regions, which show a high level of seismicity and surface deformation, appear to have low Pn velocity. We further computed the Benioff strain rate in the two regions and found it correlates negatively with the averaged Pn velocity. Our observations here suggest that Pn velocity, which is predominantly determined by Moho temperature, is a good indicator of lithosphere strength.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23152818','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23152818"><span id="translatedtitle">Tracing the origin of the <span class="hlt">east</span>-west population admixture in the Altai region (Central <span class="hlt">Asia</span>).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>González-Ruiz, Mercedes; Santos, Cristina; Jordana, Xavier; Simón, Marc; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Gigli, Elena; Aluja, Maria Pilar; Malgosa, Assumpció</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>A recent discovery of Iron Age burials (Pazyryk culture) in the Altai Mountains of Mongolia may shed light on the mode and tempo of the generation of the current genetic <span class="hlt">east</span>-west population admixture in Central <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Studies on ancient mitochondrial DNA of this region suggest that the Altai Mountains played the role of a geographical barrier between West and <span class="hlt">East</span> Eurasian lineages until the beginning of the Iron Age. After the 7th century BC, coinciding with Scythian expansion across the Eurasian steppes, a gradual influx of <span class="hlt">East</span> Eurasian sequences in Western steppes is detected. However, the underlying events behind the genetic admixture in Altai during the Iron Age are still unresolved: 1) whether it was a result of migratory events (eastward firstly, westward secondly), or 2) whether it was a result of a local demographic expansion in a 'contact zone' between European and <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian people. In the present work, we analyzed the mitochondrial DNA lineages in human remains from Bronze and Iron Age burials of Mongolian Altai. Here we present support to the hypothesis that the gene pool of Iron Age inhabitants of Mongolian Altai was similar to that of western Iron Age Altaians (Russia and Kazakhstan). Thus, this people not only shared the same culture (Pazyryk), but also shared the same genetic <span class="hlt">east</span>-west population admixture. In turn, Pazyryks appear to have a similar gene pool that current Altaians. Our results further show that Iron Age Altaians displayed mitochondrial lineages already present around Altai region before the Iron Age. This would provide support for a demographic expansion of local people of Altai instead of westward or eastward migratory events, as the demographic event behind the high population genetic admixture and diversity in Central <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. PMID:23152818</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3494716','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3494716"><span id="translatedtitle">Tracing the Origin of the <span class="hlt">East</span>-West Population Admixture in the Altai Region (Central <span class="hlt">Asia</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>González-Ruiz, Mercedes; Santos, Cristina; Jordana, Xavier; Simón, Marc; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Gigli, Elena; Aluja, Maria Pilar; Malgosa, Assumpció</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>A recent discovery of Iron Age burials (Pazyryk culture) in the Altai Mountains of Mongolia may shed light on the mode and tempo of the generation of the current genetic <span class="hlt">east</span>-west population admixture in Central <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Studies on ancient mitochondrial DNA of this region suggest that the Altai Mountains played the role of a geographical barrier between West and <span class="hlt">East</span> Eurasian lineages until the beginning of the Iron Age. After the 7th century BC, coinciding with Scythian expansion across the Eurasian steppes, a gradual influx of <span class="hlt">East</span> Eurasian sequences in Western steppes is detected. However, the underlying events behind the genetic admixture in Altai during the Iron Age are still unresolved: 1) whether it was a result of migratory events (eastward firstly, westward secondly), or 2) whether it was a result of a local demographic expansion in a ‘contact zone’ between European and <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian people. In the present work, we analyzed the mitochondrial DNA lineages in human remains from Bronze and Iron Age burials of Mongolian Altai. Here we present support to the hypothesis that the gene pool of Iron Age inhabitants of Mongolian Altai was similar to that of western Iron Age Altaians (Russia and Kazakhstan). Thus, this people not only shared the same culture (Pazyryk), but also shared the same genetic <span class="hlt">east</span>-west population admixture. In turn, Pazyryks appear to have a similar gene pool that current Altaians. Our results further show that Iron Age Altaians displayed mitochondrial lineages already present around Altai region before the Iron Age. This would provide support for a demographic expansion of local people of Altai instead of westward or eastward migratory events, as the demographic event behind the high population genetic admixture and diversity in Central <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. PMID:23152818</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.6128K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.6128K"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimation of terrestrial carbon fluxes over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> through <span class="hlt">Asia</span>Flux and improved MODIS gross primary production data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kim, Miae; Im, Jungho; Lee, Junghee; Shin, Minso; Lee, Sanggyun</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p> data, upstream data of MODIS land cover use, FPAR, LAI, and model parameters. MODIS GPP data was improved using enhanced input variables by using Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) meteorological data with high spatial resolution instead of DAO data, reflecting topographic characteristics over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. GPP estimated using the enhanced input variables was compared with original MODIS GPP and in situ GPP to analyze the degree of improvements. Finally, improved GPP data were incorporated into the machine learning empirical models to estimate NEE. The spatiotemporal patterns of terrestrial carbon fluxes (GPP and NEE) over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> were also examined considering vegetation type and topography.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=225925','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=225925"><span id="translatedtitle">Forecast and Validation of the Rift Valley fever outbreak in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Africa</span>: 2006-2007</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Background The instantaneous occurrence of El Nino / Southern Oscillation (ENSO) warm events and anomalous warming of the equatorial western Indian Ocean (WIO) are associated with elevated and widespread rainfall over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Africa</span>. Such, sustained, heavy rainfall in <span class="hlt">East</span> is associated with the emerg...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=poverty+AND+africa&pg=5&id=ED550020','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=poverty+AND+africa&pg=5&id=ED550020"><span id="translatedtitle">Smart Boards to Chalkboards: Professional Development for Early Childhood Teachers in Rural <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Africa</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Williams, Jeanne</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to examine the teaching strategies of early childhood development teachers in rural <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Africa</span>. Teams of early childhood educators from the United States presented professional development conferences for <span class="hlt">East</span> African Early Childhood Development teachers during the summers of 2007 and 2008. The conferences introduced…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ThApC.121..445L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ThApC.121..445L"><span id="translatedtitle">Past and future direct radiative forcing of nitrate aerosol in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Jiandong; Wang, Wei-Chyung; Liao, Hong; Chang, Wenyuan</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Nitrate as a rapidly increasing aerosol species in recent years affects the present climate and potentially has large implications on the future climate. In this study, the long-term direct radiative forcing (DRF) of nitrate aerosol is investigated using State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics (LASG) atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) and the aerosol dataset simulated by a chemical transport model with focus on <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. The DRF due to other aerosols, especially sulfate, is also evaluated for comparisons. Although the chemical transport model underestimates the magnitudes of nitrate and sulfate aerosols when compared with Chinese site observations, some insights into the significances of nitrate climate effects still emerge. The present-day global annual mean all-sky DRF of nitrate is calculated to be -0.025 W m-2 relative to the preindustrial era, which is much weaker than -0.37 W m-2 for sulfate. However, nitrate DRF may become increasingly important in the future especially over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, given the expectation that decreasing trend in global sulfate continues while the projected nitrate maintains at the present level for a mid-range forcing scenario and even be a factor of two larger by the end of the 21st century for high emission scenarios. For example, the anthropogenic nitrate DRF of -2.0 W m-2 over eastern China could persist until the 2050s, and nitrate is projected to account for over 60 % of total anthropogenic aerosol DRF over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> by 2100. In addition, we illustrate that the regional nitrate DRF and its seasonal variation are sensitive to meteorological parameters, in particular the relative humidity and cloud amount. It thus remains a need for climate models to include more realistically nitrate aerosol in projecting future climate changes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy...46.2469P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy...46.2469P"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of multiple regional climate models for summer climate extremes over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Park, Changyong; Min, Seung-Ki; Lee, Donghyun; Cha, Dong-Hyun; Suh, Myoung-Seok; Kang, Hyun-Suk; Hong, Song-You; Lee, Dong-Kyou; Baek, Hee-Jeong; Boo, Kyung-On; Kwon, Won-Tae</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>In this study, five regional climate models (RCMs) participating in the CORDEX-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> project (HadGEM3-RA, RegCM4, SNU-MM5, SNU-WRF, and YSU-RSM) are evaluated in terms of their performances in simulating the climatology of summer extremes in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Seasonal maxima of daily mean temperature and precipitation are analyzed using the generalized extreme value method. RCMs show systematic bias patterns in both seasonal means and extremes. A cold bias is located along the coast, whereas a warm bias occurs in northern China. Overall, wet bias occurs in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, but with a substantial dry bias centered in South Korea. This dry bias appears to be related to the colder ocean surface around South Korea, positioning the monsoonal front further south compared to observations. Taylor diagram analyses reveal that the models simulate temperature means more accurately compared to extremes because of the higher spatial correlation, whereas precipitation extremes are simulated better than their means because of the higher spatial variability. The latter implies that extreme rainfall events can be captured more accurately by RCMs compared to the driving GCM despite poorer simulation of mean rainfall. Inter-RCM analysis indicates a close relationship between the means and extremes in terms of model skills, but it does not show a clear relationship between temperature and precipitation. Sub-regional analysis largely supports the mean-extreme skill relationship. Analyses of frequency and intensity distributions of daily data for three selected sub-regions suggest that overall shifts of temperature distribution and biases in moderate-heavy precipitations contribute importantly to the seasonal mean biases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015EGUGA..1711567A&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015EGUGA..1711567A&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> summer blocking on the atmospheric circulation over the region</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ahn, Joong-Bae; Park, Yong-Jun</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The influence of the boreal summer blocking on atmospheric circulation in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> was examined. The summer blocking occurred mostly in North Europe, Ural region, Sea of Okhotsk (OK), and northeastern Pacific. The summer blocking was the major mode in these four regions according to principal component analysis using 500 hPa geopotential heights. Among the four blocking regions, OK blocking frequencies (OK BFs) showed negative and positive correlations with summer temperature and precipitation of Northeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span> centered around the <span class="hlt">East</span> Sea/Sea of Japan, respectively. In particular, the OK BF had a statistically significant correlation coefficient of -0.54 with summer temperatures in the Korean Peninsula. This indicates that the summer temperature and precipitation in this region were closely related to the OK blocking. According to the composite analysis for the years of higher-than-average BF (positive BF years), the OK High became stronger and expanded, while the North Pacific High was weakened over the Korean Peninsula and Japan and an anomalously deep trough was developed in the upper layer (200 hPa). As the cool OK High expanded, the temperature decreased over Northeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span> centered around the <span class="hlt">East</span> Sea/Sea of Japan and the lower level (850 hPa) air converged cyclonically, resulting in the increased precipitation, which induced the divergence in the upper layer and thereby strengthened the jet stream. Thus, the boreal summer OK blocking systematically influencing the area as the most dominant mode. Acknowledgements This work was carried out with the support of Rural Development Administration Cooperative Research Program for Agriculture Science and Technology Development under grant project PJ009353 and Korea Meteorological Administration Research and Development Program under grant CATER 2012-3100, Republic of Korea.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRD..121.4691K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRD..121.4691K"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of wet deposition on the abundance and size distribution of black carbon in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kondo, Y.; Moteki, N.; Oshima, N.; Ohata, S.; Koike, M.; Shibano, Y.; Takegawa, N.; Kita, K.</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>An improved understanding of the variations in the mass concentration and size distribution of black carbon (BC) in the free troposphere (FT) over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, where BC emissions are very high, is needed to reliably estimate the radiative forcing of BC in climate models. We measured these parameters and the carbon monoxide (CO) concentration by conducting the Aerosol Radiative Forcing in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> (A-FORCE) 2013W aircraft campaign in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> in winter 2013 and compared these data with measurements made in the same region in spring 2009. The median BC concentrations in the FT originating from North China (NC) and South China (SC) showed different seasonal variations, which were primarily caused by variations in meteorological conditions. CO concentrations above the background were much higher in SC than in NC in both seasons, suggesting a more active upward transport of CO. In SC, precipitation greatly increased from winter to spring, leading to an increased wet deposition of BC. As a result, the median BC concentration in the FT was highest in SC air in winter. This season and region were optimal for the effective transport of BC from the planetary boundary layer to the FT. The count median diameters of the BC size distributions generally decreased with altitude via wet removal during upward transport. The altitude dependence of the BC size distributions was similar in winter and spring, in accord with the similarity in the BC mixing state. The observed BC concentrations and microphysical properties will be useful for evaluating the performance of climate models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JGRD..11524215S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JGRD..11524215S"><span id="translatedtitle">Aerosol variability over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> as seen by POLDER space-borne sensors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Su, X.; Goloub, P.; Chiapello, I.; Chen, H.; Ducos, F.; Li, Z.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>This paper is devoted to analysis of aerosol distribution and variability over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> based on PARASOL/POLDER-3 aerosol products over land. We first compared POLDER-3 Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) with fine mode AOD (particles radius ≤ 0.30 μm) computed from AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network) inversions over 14 sites. The rather good correlation (R ≈ 0.92) observed over land demonstrates the remarkable sensitivity of POLDER-3 retrievals to the smaller fraction of fine particles, mostly originating from anthropogenic sources. We analyzed the characteristics and seasonal variation of aerosol distribution over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> by considering 4 years of POLDER-3 Level 2 data (March 2005 to February 2009). Our study shows that the spatial distribution of fine-mode aerosols over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, as retrieved from POLDER-3, is highly associated with human activities. Our work also evidenced a strong variability of seasonal fine-mode AOD patterns with geographical locations. Finally, the interannual variation during 2003-2009 periods of summer fine-mode AOD over North China, in particular the Beijing City region, was analyzed for the contribution to evaluating the regional impact of emission reduction enforced in Beijing during the 2008 Olympic Summer Games. We found that the summer average of fine-mode AOD exhibited relatively higher values in 2003, 2007, and 2008. The interannual variation patterns of monthly averaged AOD (June to August) shows that June generally exhibits the strongest variation and varies similarly to July, but differs from August. As a reference point, measured total AOD and fine-mode AOD computed from AERONET inversions in summer are also discussed for the Beijing City region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AtmEn.106..318K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AtmEn.106..318K"><span id="translatedtitle">Improvement of PM10 prediction in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> using inverse modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Koo, Youn-Seo; Choi, Dae-Ryun; Kwon, Hi-Yong; Jang, Young-Kee; Han, Jin-Seok</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Aerosols from anthropogenic emissions in industrialized region in China as well as dust emissions from southern Mongolia and northern China that transport along prevailing northwestern wind have a large influence on the air quality in Korea. The emission inventory in the <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> region is an important factor in chemical transport modeling (CTM) for PM10 (particulate matters less than 10 ㎛ in aerodynamic diameter) forecasts and air quality management in Korea. Most previous studies showed that predictions of PM10 mass concentration by the CTM were underestimated when comparing with observational data. In order to fill the gap in discrepancies between observations and CTM predictions, the inverse Bayesian approach with Comprehensive Air-quality Model with extension (CAMx) forward model was applied to obtain optimized a posteriori PM10 emissions in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. The predicted PM10 concentrations with a priori emission were first compared with observations at monitoring sites in China and Korea for January and August 2008. The comparison showed that PM10 concentrations with a priori PM10 emissions for anthropogenic and dust sources were generally under-predicted. The result from the inverse modeling indicated that anthropogenic PM10 emissions in the industrialized and urbanized areas in China were underestimated while dust emissions from desert and barren soil in southern Mongolia and northern China were overestimated. A priori PM10 emissions from northeastern China regions including Shenyang, Changchun, and Harbin were underestimated by about 300% (i.e., the ratio of a posteriori to a priori PM10 emission was a factor of about 3). The predictions of PM10 concentrations with a posteriori emission showed better agreement with the observations, implying that the inverse modeling minimized the discrepancies in the model predictions by improving PM10 emissions in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992GPC.....5..241S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992GPC.....5..241S"><span id="translatedtitle">Development of grasslands and savannas in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Africa</span> during the Neogene</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Serling, T. E.</p> <p>1992-03-01</p> <p>The development of savanna-type grasslands is a relatively recent phenomena in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Africa</span>. The stable carbon isotopic composition of paleosol carbonates from fossil localities in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Africa</span> show that C 4 vegetation was present by amout 8-9 Ma but made up only a relatively small proportion of the total biomass. Although the proportion of C 4 vegetation increased in the Pliocene and Pleistocene there is no evidence for the development of virtually pure C 4 grasslands, as is characterized by tropical grasslands today, until Middle Pleistocene times. This has important implications concerning the evolution of mammals in <span class="hlt">Africa</span>, including hominids.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014EGUGA..1612819C&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014EGUGA..1612819C&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Understanding the nature of mantle upwelling beneath <span class="hlt">East-Africa</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Civiero, Chiara; Hammond, James; Goes, Saskia; Ahmed, Abdulhakim; Ayele, Atalay; Doubre, Cecile; Goitom, Berhe; Keir, Derek; Kendall, Mike; Leroy, Sylvie; Ogubazghi, Ghebrebrhan; Rumpker, Georg; Stuart, Graham</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The concept of hot upwelling material - otherwise known as mantle plumes - has long been accepted as a possible mechanism to explain hotspots occurring at Earth's surface and it is recognized as a way of removing heat from the deep Earth. Nevertheless, this theory remains controversial since no one has definitively imaged a plume and over the last decades several other potential mechanisms that do not require a deep mantle source have been invoked to explain this phenomenon, for example small-scale convection at rifted margins, meteorite impacts or lithospheric delamination. One of the best locations to study the potential connection between hotspot volcanism at the surface and deep mantle plumes on land is the <span class="hlt">East</span> African Rift (EAR). We image seismic velocity structure of the mantle below EAR with higher resolution than has been available to date by including seismic data recorded by stations from many regional networks ranging from Saudi Arabia to Tanzania. We use relative travel-time tomography to produce P- velocity models from the surface down into the lower mantle incorporating 9250 ray-paths in our model from 495 events and 402 stations. We add smaller earthquakes (4.5 < mb < 5.5) from poorly sampled regions in order to have a more uniform data coverage. The tomographic results allow us to image structures of ~ 100-km length scales to ~ 1000 km depth beneath the northern <span class="hlt">East-Africa</span> rift (Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti, Yemen) with good resolution also in the transition zone and uppermost lower mantle. Our observations provide evidence that the shallow mantle slow seismic velocities continue trough the transition zone and into the lower mantle. In particular, the relatively slow velocity anomaly beneath the Afar Depression extends up to depths of at least 1000 km depth while another low-velocity anomaly beneath the Main Ethiopian Rift seems to be present in the upper mantle only. These features in the lower mantle are isolated with a diameter of about 400 km</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1813147C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1813147C"><span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of satellite precipitation over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Africa</span> during last decades</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cattani, Elsa; Wenhaji Ndomeni, Claudine; Merino, Andrés; Levizzani, Vincenzo</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Daily accumulated precipitation time series from satellite retrieval algorithms (e.g., ARC2 and TAMSAT) are exploited to extract the spatial and temporal variability of <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Africa</span> (EA - 5°S-20°N, 28°E-52°E) precipitation during last decades (1983-2013). The Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis is applied to precipitation time series to investigate the spatial and temporal variability in particular for October-November-December referred to as the short rain season. Moreover, the connection among EA's precipitation, sea surface temperature, and soil moisture is analyzed through the correlation with the dominant EOF modes of variability. Preliminary results concern the first two EOF's modes for the ARC2 data set. EOF1 is characterized by an inter-annual variability and a positive correlation between precipitation and El Niño, positive Indian Ocean Dipole mode, and soil moisture, while EOF2 shows a dipole structure of spatial variability associated with a longer scale temporal variability. This second dominant mode is mostly linked to sea surface temperature variations in the North Atlantic Ocean. Further analyses are carried out by computing the time series of the joint CCI/CLIVAR/JCOMM Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI, http://etccdi.pacificclimate.org/index.shtml), i.e. RX1day, RX5day, CDD, CDD, CWD, SDII, PRCPTOT, R10, R20. The purpose is to identify the occurrenes of extreme events (droughts and floods) and extract precipitation temporal variation by trend analysis (Mann-Kendall technique). Results for the ARC2 data set demonstrate the existence of a dipole spatial pattern in the linear trend of the time series of PRCPTOT (annual precipitation considering days with a rain rate > 1 mm) and SDII (average precipitation on wet days over a year). A negative trend is mainly present over West Ethiopia and Sudan, whereas a positive trend is exhibited over <span class="hlt">East</span> Ethiopia and Somalia. CDD (maximum number of consecutive dry days) and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19394085','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19394085"><span id="translatedtitle">Mitigation of arsenic contamination in irrigated paddy soils in South and South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Brammer, Hugh</p> <p>2009-08-01</p> <p>It has recently become apparent that arsenic-contaminated groundwater used for irrigation in several countries of South and South-<span class="hlt">east</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> is adding arsenic to soils and rice, thus posing a serious threat to sustainable agricultural production and to the health and livelihoods of affected people in those countries. This paper describes the many environmental, agricultural and social factors that determine practical mitigation strategies and research needs, and describes possible mitigation measures that need to be tested. These measures include providing alternative irrigation sources, various agronomic measures, use of soil amendments, growing hyperaccumulator plants, removing contaminated soil and using alternative cooking methods. PMID:19394085</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AtmEn..92..250G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AtmEn..92..250G"><span id="translatedtitle">WRF-Chem simulations of aerosols and anthropogenic aerosol radiative forcing in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gao, Yi; Zhao, Chun; Liu, Xiaohong; Zhang, Meigen; Leung, L. Ruby</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>This study aims to provide a first comprehensive evaluation of WRF-Chem for modeling aerosols and anthropogenic aerosol radiative forcing (RF, including direct, semi-direct and indirect forcing) over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Several numerical experiments were conducted from November 2007 to December 2008. Comparison between model results and observations shows that the model can generally reproduce the observed spatial distributions of aerosol concentration, aerosol optical depth (AOD) and single scattering albedo (SSA) from measurements at many sites, including the relatively higher aerosol concentration and AOD over <span class="hlt">East</span> China and the relatively lower AOD over Southeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, Korea, and Japan. The model also depicts the seasonal variation and transport of pollutions over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Particulate matter of 10 μm or less in the aerodynamic diameter (PM10), black carbon (BC), sulfate (SO42-), nitrate (NO3-) and ammonium (NH4+) concentrations are higher in spring than other seasons in Japan, which indicates the possible influence of pollutant transport from polluted area of <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. The model underestimates SO42- and organic carbon (OC) concentrations over mainland China by about a factor of 2, while overestimates NO3- concentration in autumn along the Yangtze River. The model captures the dust events at the Zhangye site in the semi-arid region of China. AOD is high over Southwest and Central China in winter and spring and over North China in winter, spring and summer while is low over South China in summer due to monsoon precipitation. SSA is lowest in winter and highest in summer. Anthropogenic aerosol RF is estimated to range from -5 to -20 W m-2 over land and -20 to -40 W m-2 over adjacent oceans at the top of atmosphere (TOA), 5-30 W m-2 in the atmosphere (ATM) and -15 to -40 W m-2 at the bottom (BOT). The warming effect of anthropogenic aerosol in ATM results from BC aerosol while the negative aerosol RF at TOA is caused by scattering aerosols such as SO42-, NO3- and NH4</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2820001','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2820001"><span id="translatedtitle">Biogeography and evolution of the Carassius auratus-complex in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Background Carassius auratus is a primary freshwater fish with bisexual diploid and unisexual gynogenetic triploid lineages. It is distributed widely in Eurasia and is especially common in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Although several genetic studies have been conducted on C. auratus, they have not provided clear phylogenetic and evolutionary descriptions of this fish, probably due to selection bias in sampling sites and the DNA regions analysed. As the first step in clarifying the evolutionary entity of the world's Carassius fishes, we attempted to clarify the phylogeny of C. auratus populations distributed in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Results We conducted a detailed analysis of a large dataset of mitochondrial gene sequences [CR, 323 bp, 672 sequences (528 sequenced + 144 downloaded); CR + ND4 + ND5 + cyt b, 4669 bp in total, 53 sequences] obtained from C. auratus in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Our phylogeographic analysis revealed two superlineages, one distributed mainly among the Japanese main islands and the other in various regions in and around the Eurasian continent, including the Ryukyus and Taiwan. The two superlineages include seven lineages with high regional specificity that are composed of endemic populations indigenous to each region. The divergence time of the seven lineages was estimated to be 0.2 million years ago (Mya) by a fossil-based method and 1.0-1.9 Mya by the molecular clock method. The antiquity and endemism of these lineages suggest that they are native to their respective regions, although some seem to have been affected by the artificial introduction of C. auratus belonging to other lineages. Triploids of C. auratus did not form a monophyletic lineage but were clustered mostly with sympatric diploids. Conclusions The results of the present study revealed the existence of two superlineages of C. auratus in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> that include seven lineages endemic to each of the seven regions examined. The lack of substantial genetic separation between triploids and diploids indicates that</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24553081','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24553081"><span id="translatedtitle">Phylogenetic relationship of Hepatozoon blood parasites found in snakes from <span class="hlt">Africa</span>, America and <span class="hlt">Asia</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Haklová, B; Majláthová, V; Majláth, I; Harris, D J; Petrilla, V; Litschka-Koen, T; Oros, M; Peťko, B</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>The blood parasites from the genus Hepatozoon Miller, 1908 (Apicomplexa: Adeleida: Hepatozoidae) represent the most common intracellular protozoan parasites found in snakes. In the present study, we examined 209 individuals of snakes, from different zoogeographical regions (<span class="hlt">Africa</span>, America, <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and Europe), for the occurrence of blood parasites using both molecular and microscopic examination methods, and assess phylogenetic relationships of all Hepatozoon parasites from snakes for the first time. In total, 178 blood smears obtained from 209 individuals, representing 40 species, were examined, from which Hepatozoon unicellular parasites were found in 26 samples (14·6% prevalence). Out of 180 samples tested by molecular method polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the presence of parasites was observed in 21 individuals (prevalence 11·6%): 14 snakes from <span class="hlt">Africa</span> belonging to six genera (Dendroaspis, Dispholidus, Mehelya, Naja, Philothamnus and Python), five snakes from <span class="hlt">Asia</span> from the genus Morelia and two snakes from America, from two genera (Coluber and Corallus). The intensity of infection varied from one to 1433 infected cells per 10 000 erythrocytes. Results of phylogenetic analyses (Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood) revealed the existence of five haplotypes divided into four main lineages. The present data also indicate neither geographical pattern of studied Hepatozoon sp., nor congruency in the host association. PMID:24553081</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3772916','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3772916"><span id="translatedtitle">Hypovitaminosis D in the Middle <span class="hlt">East</span> and North <span class="hlt">Africa</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bassil, Darina; Rahme, Maya; Hoteit, Maha; Fuleihan, Ghada El-Hajj</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Background: The Middle <span class="hlt">East</span> and North <span class="hlt">Africa</span> (MENA) region registers some of the highest rates of hypovitaminosis D worldwide.   Aim: We systematically reviewed the prevalence of hypovitaminosis D, rickets and osteomalacia, their predictors and impact on major outcomes, in the region. Methods: Medline, Pubmed and Embase search engines, entering keywords and concepts, combined with individual countries of interest, were used. Search was limited years 2000–2012; and review articles were used for the period preceding year 2000. Results: Rickets and osteomalacia still occur in this sunny region. Hypovitaminosis D prevails, with rates varying 30–90%, considering a desirable serum 25 hydroxy-vitamin D [25(OH)D] of 20 ng/ml. Advancing age, female gender, multi-parity, clothing style, season, socio-economic status and urban living are recognized predictors of hypovitaminosis D in adults. Prolonged breastfeeding without vitamin D supplementation and low dietary calcium intake are the recognized risk factors for rickets and hypovitaminosis D in children.. Associations with pain score and disease activity in rheumatologic disorders, viral load and interleukins in hepatitis C, BMI, lipids and insulin sensitivity, blood pressure, heart failure and mortality are described. Sun exposure in adults decreased prevalence of metabolic syndrome in one study. Few randomized vitamin D trials revealed that the majority of mothers or children failed to achieve a desirable 25(OH)D level, even with doses by far exceeding current recommendations. A trial in adolescent girls reveals substantial bone and lean mass increments. Conclusion: Hypovitaminosis D is prevalent in MENA. The lack of populations based studies, gaps in studies in infants, pre-pubertal children and pregnant women, hinder the development of region specific guidelines and constitute a major obstacle to impact this chronic and most often subclinical disease. PMID:24194968</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3547688','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3547688"><span id="translatedtitle">Public health in pre-colonial <span class="hlt">east</span>-central <span class="hlt">Africa</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Waite, G</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>This study is the first of its kind to suggest that a rich public health tradition existed in <span class="hlt">east</span>-central <span class="hlt">Africa</span> before the twentieth century, and that the tradition can be reconstructed historically. It breaks with earlier studies of public health history for the region in that it does not define public health on the basis of western institutions and activities. The definition of public health that is used in this study makes a simple equation between politics and medicine. It includes all activities that ruling authorities undertake to promote the well-being of the societies over which they have charge. Thus rainmaking and sorcery control, the principal services in traditional African societies, are the focus of this study. Evidence is presented here of the control exercised by kings, chiefs, priests over these services in various societies located in southeastern Zaire, southern Tanzania, Zambia, Malawi, northern Mozambique, and Zimbabwe. The cases are all set in the pre-colonial period, before the twentieth century and the beginning of most written records. The evidence is derived primarily, though not exclusively, from non-written sources, such as archaeology, linguistic, and ethnographic records. The best data are those that come from cultural exchanges between people, for historical records are created in this way. Therefore, the cases discussed here all involve contacts between immigrant and autochthonous groups. The political histories of these contacts are already known. What this study does is link up those traditions with independently-acquired evidence of change in medical traditions. Political change often, but not always, led to change in public health institutions. The control of ruling elites over health services is thus made apparent by the manner in which new medical institutions were implanted when new political authorities arose. PMID:3547688</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGP31A1368J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGP31A1368J"><span id="translatedtitle">Optimization of Paleogeography of <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> for the Past 150 Ma</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jeong, D.; Yu, Y.; Pan, Y.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Construction of paleogeography relies on the credibility of paleomagnetic investigation. One big potential obstacle in using paleomagnetic results acquired from sedimentary rocks is a bias towards shallow magnetic inclination. Contrary to sedimentary rocks, volcanic rocks are known to preserve faithful ancient geomagnetic record. We have tested the lithologic dependence of magnetic inclination in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> for the 150 Ma. Influence of magnetic inclination shallowing results in significant modification of paleolatitude for South China Craton, but was insignificant for North China Craton. We also estimated relative rotation with time by converting shallowing-corrected magnetic poles to representative geographic locations. Then, the relative longitudinal swing was incorporated in constructing paleogeography in addition to absolute longitudinal motions. We propose that a newly defined apparent polar wander path (APWP) with magnetic inclination shallowing treatment would be of help in rigorous construction of <span class="hlt">East</span> Laurasia.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006cosp...36.2863Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006cosp...36.2863Y"><span id="translatedtitle">The non-migrating Tides in the Middle Atmosphere over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> Observed by HRDI/UARS Data Set</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yonggang, P.; Zeyu, C.; Hongbin, C.; Zhenhui, W.</p> <p></p> <p>In this paper the long term mean characteristics of the zonal winds in the middle atmosphere over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> were studied by using the HRDI UARS measurements The investigation revealed the presence of considerable regional scale disturbances in the whole of the middle to upper atmosphere over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> except the situations in mid-latitudes in summer In mid-latitudes very few zonal fluctuation can bee seen in the zonal winds from 55km to 115 km altitude range in the summer season however the winter mesospheric and lower thermospheric zonal winds are disturbed prominently in the zonal Furthermore in winter the tropical lower thermospheric zonal winds fluctuate significantly in zonal direction and this kind of the zonal disturbances extend downward to 55 km altitude the lower limit of the observation mode of the satellite instrument in summer According the correlative study results there is significant non-migrating tides in the thermosphere over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> LSo that non-migrating tides controlled the disturbances in midlle and upper atmosphere over tropical region observed by the HRDI UARS data set and HRDI UARS data set have observed that these is significant non-migrating tides in midlle atmosphere over tropical region in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> Key words Middle atmosphere <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> Zonal winds HRDI UARS</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26355052','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26355052"><span id="translatedtitle">Noncommunicable Diseases In <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Africa</span>: Assessing The Gaps In Care And Identifying Opportunities For Improvement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Siddharthan, Trishul; Ramaiya, Kaushik; Yonga, Gerald; Mutungi, Gerald N; Rabin, Tracy L; List, Justin M; Kishore, Sandeep P; Schwartz, Jeremy I</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>The prevalence of noncommunicable diseases in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Africa</span> is rising rapidly. Although the epidemiologic, demographic, and nutritional transitions are well under way in low-income countries, investment and attention in these countries remain focused largely on communicable diseases. We discuss existing infrastructure in communicable disease management as well as linkages between noncommunicable and communicable diseases in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Africa</span>. We describe gaps in noncommunicable disease management within the health systems in this region. We also discuss deficiencies in addressing noncommunicable diseases from basic science research and medical training to health services delivery, public health initiatives, and access to essential medications in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Africa</span>. Finally, we highlight the role of collaboration among <span class="hlt">East</span> African governments and civil society in addressing noncommunicable diseases, and we advocate for a robust primary health care system that focuses on the social determinants of health. PMID:26355052</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AdAtS..33..644A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AdAtS..33..644A"><span id="translatedtitle">The impact of boreal autumn SST anomalies over the South Pacific on boreal winter precipitation over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ao, Juan; Sun, Jianqi</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>The possible mechanism behind the variability in the dipole pattern of boreal winter precipitation over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> is analyzed in this study. The results show that the SST anomalies (SSTAs) over the South Pacific Ocean (SPO) in boreal autumn are closely related to the variability in the dipole pattern of boreal winter precipitation over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. The physical link between the boreal autumn SPO SSTAs and the boreal winter <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian precipitation dipole pattern is shown to mainly be the seasonal persistence of the SPO SSTAs themselves. The seasonal persistence of the SPO SSTAs can memorize and transport the signal of the boreal autumn SSTAs to the following winter, and then stimulates a meridional teleconnection pattern from the SH to the NH, resulting in a meridional dipole pattern of atmospheric circulation over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> in boreal winter. As a major influencing factor, this dipole pattern of the atmospheric circulation can finally lead to the anomalous precipitation dipole pattern over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> in boreal winter. These observed physical processes are further confirmed in this study through numerical simulation. The evidence from this study, showing the impact of the SPO SSTAs in boreal autumn, not only deepens our understanding of the variability in <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian boreal winter precipitation, but also provides a potentially useful predictor for precipitation in the region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4121128','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4121128"><span id="translatedtitle">Cardiovascular Risk Factor Burden in <span class="hlt">Africa</span> and the Middle <span class="hlt">East</span>: The <span class="hlt">Africa</span> Middle <span class="hlt">East</span> Cardiovascular Epidemiological (ACE) Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Alsheikh-Ali, Alawi A.; Omar, Mohamed I.; Raal, Frederick J.; Rashed, Wafa; Hamoui, Omar; Kane, Abdoul; Alami, Mohamed; Abreu, Paula; Mashhoud, Walid M.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Background Increased urbanization in the developing world parallels a rising burden of chronic diseases. Developing countries account for ∼80% of global cardiovascular (CV) deaths, but contribute a paucity of systematic epidemiological data on CV risk factors. Objective To estimate the prevalence of CV risk factors in rural and urban cohorts attending general practice clinics in the <span class="hlt">Africa</span> and Middle <span class="hlt">East</span> (AfME) region. Methods In a cross-sectional epidemiological study, the presence of CV risk factors (hypertension, diabetes mellitus (diabetes), dyslipidemia, obesity, smoking and abdominal obesity) were evaluated in stable adult outpatients attending general practice primary care clinics. A rural population was defined as isolated (>50 km or lack of easy access to commuter transportation) from urban centers. Results 4,378 outpatients were systematically recruited from 94 clinics across 14 AfME countries. Mean age was 46±14 years and 52% of outpatients were female. A high prevalence of dyslipidemia (70%) and abdominal obesity (68%) were observed, followed by hypertension (43%) and diabetes (25%). The vast majority of outpatients (92%) had at least one modifiable CV risk factor, many (74%) had more than one, and half (53%) had 3 or more. These findings were observed in both genders and across urban and rural centers. Among outpatients with pre-existing hypertension or dyslipidemia, many were not at their target blood pressure or LDL-cholesterol goals. Conclusion Cardiovascular risk factors are highly prevalent among relatively young, stable outpatients attending general practice clinics across AfME. The findings support opportunistic screening for CV risk factors whenever outpatients visit a general practitioner and provide an opportunity for early identification and management of CV risk factors, including lifestyle interventions. PMID:25090638</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ERL.....7a5202Q','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ERL.....7a5202Q"><span id="translatedtitle">Understanding the coupled natural and human systems in Dryland <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Qi, Jiaguo; Chen, Jiquan; Wan, Shiqian; Ai, Likun</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>Stressors including regional climate change, economic development effects upon land use and an increasing demand for food production have resulted in significant impacts on the dryland ecosystems in the <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> (DEA) region. Ecosystem services, such as its provisional services in providing forage for grazing as well as its functional services in regulating water and carbon fluxes, have been significantly altered over the past three decades. Conversely, changes in the landscape, particularly land cover types, have also been blamed for intensified climatic events such as dust storms and severe and frequent droughts within the region. The interactive nature of climate, ecosystems and society is complex and not fully understood, making it difficult, if not impossible, to develop effective adaptation strategies for the region. A special synthesis workshop on ‘Dryland Ecosystems in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>: State, Changes, Knowledge Gaps, and Future’ was held from 18-20 July 2011 in Kaifeng, Henan Province, China, with the aim of identifying knowledge gaps, quantifying impacts and developing a future research agenda for the region. The specific objectives of this workshop were to answer some key socio-environmental questions, including the following. (1) What do we know about the drylands in DEA? (2) What are the knowledge gaps? (3) What are the solutions to these issues? This paper provides a synthesis of the workshop consensus and findings on the state of knowledge and challenges in addressing these science issues for the DEA region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23354135','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23354135"><span id="translatedtitle">Progress in health-related millennium development goals in the WHO South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> Region.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Singh, Poonam Khetrapal</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Home to 25% of the world's population and bearing 30% of the Global disease burden, the South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> Region [1] of the World Health Organization has an important role in the progress of global health. Three of the eight million development goal (MDG) goals that relate to health are MDG 4, 5, and 6. There is progress in all three goals within the countries of the region, although the progress varies across countries and even within countries. With concerted and accelerated efforts in some countries and certain specific areas, the region will achieve the targets of the three health MDGs. The key challenges are in sustainable scaling up of evidence-based interventions to improve maternal and child health and controlling communicable diseases. This will require continued focus and investments in strengthening health systems that provide individual and family centered comprehensive package of interventions with equitable reach and that which is provided free at the point of service delivery. Important lessons that have been learnt in implementing the MDG agenda in the past two decades will inform setting up of the post MDG global health agenda. This article provides a snap shot of progress thus far, key challenges and opportunities in WHO South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> Region and lays down the way forward for the global health agenda post 2015. PMID:23354135</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.1572H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.1572H"><span id="translatedtitle">Regional Climate Simulations of Summer Diurnal Rainfall Variations over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and Southeast China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huang, W.-R.; Chan, J. C. L.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>This study evaluates the simulations of summer (June-August) precipitation over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> by the Regional Climate Model Version 3 (RegCM3), with emphasis on the diurnal variations of precipitation over Southeast China (PSEC) during the 1998-2002 summer seasons. The evaluation focuses on the maintenance mechanisms of the diurnal variations in PSEC as proposed by previous observational studies. It is found that the diurnal variations of PSEC are sensitive to the choice of cumulus parameterization schemes (CPSs). In particular, the Grell scheme with the Frisch-Chappell convective closure assumption (GFC) produces reasonable diurnal variations of PSEC. Other CPSs such as the Emanuel scheme produces a weaker late-afternoon maximum of PSEC, and the Kuo scheme as well as the Grell scheme with the Arakawa-Schubert closure assumption (GAS) is unable to simulate the occurrence of the late-afternoon maximum of PSEC. The simulations show that the adoption of the GFC scheme reproduces the large-scale land-sea breeze circulation and the moisture flux convergence that have been documented by previous studies as the maintenance mechanisms of the diurnal variations of PSEC. This feature illustrates the importance of convective cloud feedback at the diurnal timescale in maintaining the large-scale circulation. Furthermore, when the simulation domain covers the entire Tibetan Plateau, the diurnal variations of precipitation over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> are found to exhibit a noticeable improvement without changes in the physics schemes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A33J0327L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A33J0327L"><span id="translatedtitle">Impact of Land Surface Parameters on the Evaluation of <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> Monsoon Precipitation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Y.; Xue, Y.; Guo, W.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Land surface has crucial impact on air movement through momentum, energy and mass exchange. Leaf area index (LAI), one of important variable in the land surface processes, involves in canopy radiative transfer, momentum transfer, precipitation interception loss, and transpiration, which affect on land surface energy and water partition processes. Therefore, it crucially affects the ability of models to adequately simulate land-surface interaction. In this study, Long-term Global Mapping LAI (GLOBMAP LAI) and its corresponding land cover and greenness fraction are introduced into WRF_NMM/SSiB2. Compared with the control simulation based on the original specified LAI that is based on limited survey. The simulation with GLOBMAP LAI produced better precipitation distribution and rain belt movement. The improvements of the <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> monsoon precipitation simulation are mainly attributed to the correction of the position of subtropical high. The north edge of subtropical high is related to the position of <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> Westerly Jet. In the control simulation, weak westerlies lead subtropical high to move northward. Therefore compared with observations, more precipitation is in high latitudes. With imposed remote sensing LAI, the model produces larger meridional temperature gradient in surface and upper air, leading to stronger thermal westerlies. The Southward of Westerly Jet blocks the subtropical high, which amends the position of monsoon rain belt. This study directly takes advantage of recently available remote sensing products, and attributes the improved regional model simulation to proper LAI specification, which leads to adequate land/atmosphere interactions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/979193','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/979193"><span id="translatedtitle">The Effects of Black Carbon and Sulfate Aerosols in ChinaRegions on <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> Monsoons</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Yang, Bai; Liu, Yu; Sun, Jiaren</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>In this paper we examine the direct effects of sulfate and black carbon aerosols in China on <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> monsoons and its precipitation processes by using the CAM3.0 model. It is demonstrated that sulfate and black carbon aerosols in China both have the effects to weaken <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> monsoons in both summer and winter seasons. However, they certainly differ from each other in affecting vertical structures of temperature and atmospheric circulations. Their differences are expected because of their distinct optical properties, i.e., scattering vs. absorbing. Even for a single type of aerosol, its effects on temperature structures and atmospheric circulations are largely season-dependent. Applications of T-test on our results indicate that forcing from black carbon aerosols over China is relatively weak and limited. It is also evident from our results that the effects of synthetic aerosols (sulfate and black carbon together) on monsoons are not simply a linear summation between these two types of aerosols. Instead, they are determined by their integrated optical properties. Synthetic aerosols to a large degree resemble effects of sulfate aerosols. This implies a likely scattering property for the integration of black carbon and sulfate aerosols in China.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A31B0036L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A31B0036L"><span id="translatedtitle">Observationally-constrained estimates of aerosol optical depths (AODs) over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> via data assimilation techniques</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lee, K.; Lee, S.; Song, C. H.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Not only aerosol's direct effect on climate by scattering and absorbing the incident solar radiation, but also they indirectly perturbs the radiation budget by influencing microphysics and dynamics of clouds. Aerosols also have a significant adverse impact on human health. With an importance of aerosols in climate, considerable research efforts have been made to quantify the amount of aerosols in the form of the aerosol optical depth (AOD). AOD is provided with ground-based aerosol networks such as the Aerosol Robotic NETwork (AERONET), and is derived from satellite measurements. However, these observational datasets have a limited areal and temporal coverage. To compensate for the data gaps, there have been several studies to provide AOD without data gaps by assimilating observational data and model outputs. In this study, AODs over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> simulated with the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model and derived from the Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) observation are interpolated via different data assimilation (DA) techniques such as Cressman's method, Optimal Interpolation (OI), and Kriging for the period of the Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Networks (DRAGON) Campaign (March - May 2012). Here, the interpolated results using the three DA techniques are validated intensively by comparing with AERONET AODs to examine the optimal DA method providing the most reliable AODs over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A13D3210K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A13D3210K"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of trend between aerosol optical depth and PM in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>KIM, S. H.; Kim, J.; Choi, M.; KIM, M.; Jeong, U.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> is one of major source region of aerosol emission. For decades, vast amount of aerosol, which is emitted and transported from emission region such as desert and industrialized area, has significant effect in the air quality and public health. Moreover, by scattering solar radiation and moderating cloud microphysical system, aerosol plays an important role in climate system. As the Korean peninsula is located in the downwind side of <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, the distribution of aerosol in this region is affected by continental outflow and local emission, This study shows the long-term trend and regional distribution of PM10 concentration over 28 Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) sites and aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrieved from Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) at 550nm channel during the period from March 2011 to March 2014. Though AOD is a good indicator of PM10 concentration, there are some uncertainties in AOD caused largely by aerosol type, surface reflectance, and those in PM by relative humidity (RH), boundary layer height (BLH) and so on. In this study, retrieved AODs were compared with the observed PM10, and trends and correlations between AOD and PM10 have been calculated for different region and season over the Korean peninsula.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25850395','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25850395"><span id="translatedtitle">Predicting the potential distribution of the amphibian pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in <span class="hlt">East</span> and Southeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Moriguchi, Sachiko; Tominaga, Atsushi; Irwin, Kelly J; Freake, Michael J; Suzuki, Kazutaka; Goka, Koichi</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is the pathogen responsible for chytridiomycosis, a disease that is associated with a worldwide amphibian population decline. In this study, we predicted the potential distribution of Bd in <span class="hlt">East</span> and Southeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span> based on limited occurrence data. Our goal was to design an effective survey area where efforts to detect the pathogen can be focused. We generated ecological niche models using the maximum-entropy approach, with alleviation of multicollinearity and spatial autocorrelation. We applied eigenvector-based spatial filters as independent variables, in addition to environmental variables, to resolve spatial autocorrelation, and compared the model's accuracy and the degree of spatial autocorrelation with those of a model estimated using only environmental variables. We were able to identify areas of high suitability for Bd with accuracy. Among the environmental variables, factors related to temperature and precipitation were more effective in predicting the potential distribution of Bd than factors related to land use and cover type. Our study successfully predicted the potential distribution of Bd in <span class="hlt">East</span> and Southeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. This information should now be used to prioritize survey areas and generate a surveillance program to detect the pathogen. PMID:25850395</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NatGe...7..792R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NatGe...7..792R"><span id="translatedtitle">Decreasing emissions of NOx relative to CO2 in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> inferred from satellite observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Reuter, M.; Buchwitz, M.; Hilboll, A.; Richter, A.; Schneising, O.; Hilker, M.; Heymann, J.; Bovensmann, H.; Burrows, J. P.</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>At present, global CO2 emission inventories are mainly based on bottom-up estimates that rely, for example, on reported fossil fuel consumptions and fuel types. The associated uncertainties propagate into the CO2-to-NOx emission ratios that are used in pollution prediction and monitoring, as well as into biospheric carbon fluxes derived by inverse models. Here we analyse simultaneous and co-located satellite retrievals from SCIAMACHY (ref. ; SCanning Imaging Absorption SpectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY) of the column-average dry-air mole fraction of CO2 (refs , ) and NO2 (refs , , ) for the years 2003-2011 to provide a top-down estimate of trends in emissions and in the ratio between CO2 and NOx emissions. Our analysis shows that the CO2-to-NOx emission ratio has increased by 4.2 +/- 1.7% yr-1 in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. In this region, we find a large positive trend of CO2 emissions (9.8 +/- 1.7% yr-1), which we largely attribute to the growing Chinese economy. This trend exceeds the positive trend of NOx emissions (5.8 +/- 0.9% yr-1). Our findings suggest that the recently installed and renewed technology in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, such as power plants, transportation and so on, is cleaner in terms of NOx emissions than the old infrastructure, and roughly matches relative emission levels in North America and Europe.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26499508','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26499508"><span id="translatedtitle">Phylogeographic breaks within Asian butternuts indicate the existence of a phytogeographic divide in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bai, Wei-Ning; Wang, Wen-Ting; Zhang, Da-Yong</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> has been hypothesized to be subdivided into two distinct northern and southern areas, separated by a band of dry climate that was far more severe in the early Tertiary but still exists today. However, this biogeographic hypothesis has rarely been tested using a molecular phylogeographic approach. We genotyped 70 populations throughout the distributional range of Asian butternuts (Juglans section Cardiocaryon) using eight chloroplast DNA regions, one single-copy nuclear gene, and 17 nuclear microsatellite loci, supplemented with paleodistribution modeling of the major genetic clades. The genetic data consistently identified two clades, one northern, comprising Juglans mandshurica and Juglans ailantifolia, and one southern, comprising Juglans cathayensis. The two clades diverged through climate-induced vicariance of an ancestral northern range during the mid-Miocene and remained mostly separate thereafter, with geographical isolation of the Japanese Islands and refugial isolation or secondary contacts in the late Pleistocene producing further subdivision within the northern clade. But beyond all that, we also discovered a role of environmental adaptation in maintaining and/or reinforcing the north-south divergence. Asian butternuts offer a strong case for the existence of a biogeographic divide between the northern and southern parts of <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> during the Neogene and into the Pleistocene. PMID:26499508</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AGUFM.S33A2753W&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AGUFM.S33A2753W&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Building a risk-targeted regional seismic hazard model for South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Woessner, J.; Nyst, M.; Seyhan, E.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The last decade has tragically shown the social and economic vulnerability of countries in South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> to earthquake hazard and risk. While many disaster mitigation programs and initiatives to improve societal earthquake resilience are under way with the focus on saving lives and livelihoods, the risk management sector is challenged to develop appropriate models to cope with the economic consequences and impact on the insurance business. We present the source model and ground motions model components suitable for a South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> earthquake risk model covering Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines and Indochine countries. The source model builds upon refined modelling approaches to characterize 1) seismic activity from geologic and geodetic data on crustal faults and 2) along the interface of subduction zones and within the slabs and 3) earthquakes not occurring on mapped fault structures. We elaborate on building a self-consistent rate model for the hazardous crustal fault systems (e.g. Sumatra fault zone, Philippine fault zone) as well as the subduction zones, showcase some characteristics and sensitivities due to existing uncertainties in the rate and hazard space using a well selected suite of ground motion prediction equations. Finally, we analyze the source model by quantifying the contribution by source type (e.g., subduction zone, crustal fault) to typical risk metrics (e.g.,return period losses, average annual loss) and reviewing their relative impact on various lines of businesses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.3599K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.3599K"><span id="translatedtitle">Influence of orbital forcing on the ENSO-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> winter monsoon relationship</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kim, Hyo-Jeong; An, Soon-Il; Park, Wonsun</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Two latest interglacial periods, Holocene and Eemian went through similar evolvement of orbital forcing. Presently, the earth's obliquity decreases and precessional index (ω) increases. Such changes in orbital configurations lead to increase in the incoming insolation over the tropical and mid-latitude area during wintertime. Here, the relationship between El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> winter monsoon (EAWM) was examined using Kiel Climate Model (KCM) simulations with fixed orbital forcing at the Eemian (126kyr, 122kyr, 115kyr before present) and the Holocene (9.5kyr, 6kyr before present and preindustrial time). Model results showed that orbital forcing modulates the influence of ENSO on EAWM through changes in the mean state. With decreased obliquity and increased precessional index, the tropical mean state becomes warmer and ENSO variability grows so that its influence is enhanced. Atmospheric sensitivity to the SST forcing also increases because of nonlinear relationship represented by Clausius-Clapeyron equation. In addition, the intensity of winter monsoon over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> is reduced since there is less seasonal contrast and it becomes relatively vulnerable state. Overall, such changes in the mean field can enhance the leverage of ENSO and make its relationship with EAWM tight.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2984215','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2984215"><span id="translatedtitle">Human remains from Zhirendong, South China, and modern human emergence in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Liu, Wu; Jin, Chang-Zhu; Zhang, Ying-Qi; Cai, Yan-Jun; Xing, Song; Wu, Xiu-Jie; Cheng, Hai; Edwards, R. Lawrence; Pan, Wen-Shi; Qin, Da-Gong; An, Zhi-Sheng; Trinkaus, Erik; Wu, Xin-Zhi</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The 2007 discovery of fragmentary human remains (two molars and an anterior mandible) at Zhirendong (Zhiren Cave) in South China provides insight in the processes involved in the establishment of modern humans in eastern Eurasia. The human remains are securely dated by U-series on overlying flowstones and a rich associated faunal sample to the initial Late Pleistocene, >100 kya. As such, they are the oldest modern human fossils in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and predate by >60,000 y the oldest previously known modern human remains in the region. The Zhiren 3 mandible in particular presents derived modern human anterior symphyseal morphology, with a projecting tuber symphyseos, distinct mental fossae, modest lateral tubercles, and a vertical symphysis; it is separate from any known late archaic human mandible. However, it also exhibits a lingual symphyseal morphology and corpus robustness that place it close to later Pleistocene archaic humans. The age and morphology of the Zhiren Cave human remains support a modern human emergence scenario for <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> involving dispersal with assimilation or populational continuity with gene flow. It also places the Late Pleistocene Asian emergence of modern humans in a pre-Upper Paleolithic context and raises issues concerning the long-term Late Pleistocene coexistence of late archaic and early modern humans across Eurasia. PMID:20974952</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015ACPD...1522975G&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015ACPD...1522975G&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Role of radiatively forced temperature changes in enhanced semi-arid warming over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Guan, X.; Huang, J.; Guo, R.; Lin, P.; Zhang, Y.</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>As the climate change occurred over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> since 1950s, intense interest and debate have arisen concerning the contribution of human activities to the warming observed in previous decades. In this study, we investigate surface temperature change using a recently developed methodology that can successfully identify and separate the dynamically induced temperature (DIT) and radiatively forced temperature (RFT) changes in raw surface air temperature (SAT) data. For regional averages, DIT and RFT make 43.7 and 56.3 % contributions to the SAT over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, respectively. The DIT changes dominate the SAT decadal variability and are mainly determined by internal climate variability, such as the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation (AMO). The radiatively forced SAT changes made major contribution to the global-scale warming trend and the regional-scale enhanced semi-arid warming (ESAW). Such enhanced warming is also found in radiatively forced daily maximum and minimum SAT. The long-term global-mean SAT warming trend is mainly related to radiative forcing produced by global well-mixed greenhouse gases. The regional anthropogenic radiative forcing, however, caused the enhanced warming in the semi-arid region, which may be closely associated with local human activities. Finally, the relationship between global warming hiatus and regional enhanced warming is discussed.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22642816','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22642816"><span id="translatedtitle">Source contributions of sulfate aerosol over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> estimated by CMAQ-DDM.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Itahashi, Syuichi; Uno, Itsushi; Kim, Soontae</p> <p>2012-06-19</p> <p>We applied the decoupled direct method (DDM), a sensitivity analysis technique for computing sensitivities accurately and efficiently, to determine the source-receptor relationships of anthropogenic SO(2) emissions to sulfate aerosol over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. We assessed source contributions from <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> being transported to Oki Island downwind from China and Korea during two air pollution episodes that occurred in July 2005. The contribution from China, particularly that from central eastern China (CEC), was found to dominate the sulfate aerosols. To study these contributions in more detail, CEC was divided into three regions, and the contributions from each region were examined. Source contributions exhibited both temporal and vertical variability, largely due to transport patterns imposed by the Asian summer monsoon. Our results are consistent with backward trajectory analyses. We found that anthropogenic SO(2) emissions from China produce significant quantities of summertime sulfate aerosols downwind of source areas. We used a parametric scaling method for estimating anthropogenic SO(2) emissions in China. Using column amounts of SO(2) derived from satellite data, and relationships between the column amounts of SO(2) and anthropogenic emissions, 2009 emissions were diagnosed. The results showed that 2009 emissions of SO(2) from China were equivalent to 2004 levels. PMID:22642816</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26068565','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26068565"><span id="translatedtitle">Progress Toward Measles Elimination - South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> Region, 2003-2013.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Thapa, Arun; Khanal, Sudhir; Sharapov, Umid; Swezy, Virginia; Sedai, Tika; Dabbagh, Alya; Rota, Paul; Goodson, James L; McFarland, Jeffrey</p> <p>2015-06-12</p> <p>In 2013, the 66th session of the Regional Committee of the World Health Organization (WHO) South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> Region adopted the goal of measles elimination and rubella and congenital rubella syndrome control by 2020 after rigorous prior consultations. The recommended strategies include 1) achieving and maintaining ≥95% coverage with 2 doses of measles- and rubella-containing vaccine in every district through routine or supplementary immunization activities (SIAs); 2) developing and sustaining a sensitive and timely case-based measles surveillance system that meets recommended performance indicators; 3) developing and maintaining an accredited measles laboratory network; and 4) achieving timely identification, investigation, and response to measles outbreaks. This report updates previous reports and summarizes progress toward measles elimination in the South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> Region during 2003-2013. Within the region, coverage with the first dose of a measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) increased from 67% to 78%; an estimated 286 million children (95% of the target population) were vaccinated in SIAs; measles incidence decreased 73%, from 59 to 16 cases per million population; and estimated measles deaths decreased 63%. To achieve measles elimination in the region, additional efforts are needed in countries with <95% 2-dose routine MCV coverage, particularly in India and Indonesia, to strengthen routine immunization services, conduct periodic high-quality SIAs, and strengthen measles case-based surveillance and laboratory diagnosis of measles. PMID:26068565</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A41I0085Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A41I0085Z"><span id="translatedtitle">The role of subsurface soil temperature feedbacks in summer surface air temperature variability over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, J.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Soil temperature, an important component of land surface, can influence the climate through its effects on surface energy and water budgets and resulted changes in regional atmospheric circulation. However, the effects of soil temperature on climate variations have been less discussed. This study investigates the role of subsurface soil temperature feedbacks in influencing summer surface air temperature variability over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> by means of regional climate model (RCM) simulations. For this aim, two long-term simulations with and without subsurface soil temperature feedbacks are performed with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. From our investigation, it is evident that subsurface soil temperature feedbacks make a dominant contribution to amplifying summer surface air temperature variability over the arid/semi-arid regions. Further analysis reveals that subsurface soil temperature exhibits an asymmetric effect on summer daytime and nighttime surface air temperature variability, with a stronger effect on daily minimum temperature variability than that of daily maximum temperature variability. This study provides the first RCM-based demonstration that subsurface soil temperature feedbacks play an important role in influencing climate variability over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, such as summer surface air temperature. In the meanwhile, the model bias should be recognized. The results achieved by this study thus need to be further confirmed in a multi-model framework to eliminate the model dependence.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20553072','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20553072"><span id="translatedtitle">Cancer epidemiology and control in north-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> - past, present and future.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Long, Ne; Moore, Malcolm A; Chen, Wanqing; Gao, Chao-Ming; Lai, Mei-Shu; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Oyunchimeg, Dondov; Park, Sohee; Shin, Hai-Rim; Tajima, Kazuo; Yoo, Keun-Young; Sobue, Tomotaka</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>China, Mongolia, Korea and Japan constitute North-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. For reasons of largely shared ethnicity and culture, with various degress of mixed Chinese and Altaic elements, as well as geographical contiguity, they can be usefully grouped together for studies of chronic disease prevalence and particularly cancer. The fact of problems shared in common, with increasing disease rates, underlines the necessity for a coordinated approach to research and development of control measures. To provide a knowledge base, the present review of cancer registration and epidemiology data was conducted. The most frequent cancers in males of North-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> are in the lung, liver and stomach, with considerable geographical and temporal variation in their respective prevalences. However, colorectal cancer is also of increasing importance. In females the breast, together with the lung in China, the liver in Mongolia and the stomach in Korea and Japan, are most frequent. Variation in risk factors depends to a large extent on the local level of economic development but overall the countries of the region face similar challenges in achieving effective cancer control. PMID:20553072</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AtmEn..40.2360H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AtmEn..40.2360H"><span id="translatedtitle">Model study on acidifying wet deposition in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> during wintertime</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Han, Zhiwei; Ueda, Hiromasa; Sakurai, Tatsuya</p> <p></p> <p>A regional air quality model (RAQM) has been developed and applied together with an aerosol model to investigate the states and characteristics of wet deposition in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> in December 2001. Model simulation is performed with monthly based emission inventory [Streets, D.G., Bond, T.C., Carmichael, G.R., Fernandes, S.D., Fu, Q., He, D., Klimont, Z., Nelson, S. M., Tsai, N.Y., Wang, M.Q., Woo, J.-H., Yarber, K.F., 2003. An inventory of gaseous and primary emissions in <span class="hlt">Asia</span> in the year 2000. Journal of Geophysical Research 108(D21), 8809] and meteorological fields derived from MM5. Model results are compared with extensive monitoring data including relevant gaseous species and ions in precipitation. The validation demonstrates that this model system is able to represent most of the major physical and chemical processes involved in acid deposition and reproduces concentrations reasonably well, within a factor of 2 of observations in general. The study shows that the regions with pH less than 4.5 are mainly located in southwestern China, parts of the Yangtze Delta, the Yellow Sea and the Korean peninsula, indicating wide regions of acid precipitation in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> in wintertime. Japan islands mainly exhibit pH values of 4.5-5.0, whereas over wide areas of northern China, pH values are relatively high (⩾5.0) due to neutralization by alkaline materials such as calcium-laden particles and ammonia, which are more abundant in northern China than that in southern China. While acid rain over most of China is still characterized by sulfur-induced type, considerable areas of eastern China and the western Pacific Rim are found to be more affected by nitric acid than sulfuric acid in acidification of precipitation, which is supposed to result from a combined effect of variations in photochemistry and emission, suggesting the increasing importance of NO x emission in these regions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.3118L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.3118L"><span id="translatedtitle">Time scale of riverine sediment transfer in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>: from source to sink</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Chao; Yang, Shouye; Zhao, Jianxin; Bi, Lei</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>River on the earth surface is like the blood vessel for human body, which transports huge nutrients from the vast continent to the deep ocean. The knowledge of the river transit process leads to better understanding of the continent weathering and earth surface evolution. However, this process, particularly its timescale, is rarely studied due to the poor geological tracer. In this regard, our work aims to reconstruct the sediment transport time in Changjiang (Yangtze River) and Taiwan rivers by mean of "Comminution Age" based on 234U/238U in the lithogenic fraction. As the largest river in <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, Changjiang is characterized by "Large river/delta + wide shelf + huge input + slower sediment transfer + strong anthropogenic impact", while the Taiwan rivers are featured for "Mountainous river + narrow shelf + huge and rapid sediment transfer + extreme climate event". The distinct geological and topographical features in both river systems result in different sediment "source to sink" processes in terms of time scale. Our calculation shows that the sediment transport time, which is largely depended on basin topography and its weathering condition, in Changjiang basin is much longer (400 ky) than that in Taiwan river basin (120 ky). This work provides the first quantitative constraint on time scale of sediment source to sink process in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, which probably sheds a new insight into weathering regime and sediment recycling in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and northwest Pacific. Acknowledgments This work was supported by the Foundation of Key Laboratory of Yangtze River Water Environment (YRWEF201305), Key Laboratory of Marine Hydrocarbon Resources and Environmental Geology (MRE201402) and the Natural Science Foundation of China (41306040; 41225020).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A21A0102K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A21A0102K"><span id="translatedtitle">Development of Future Scenario Emission Inventories for <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> in Support of Multiple Modeling Studies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kim, Y.; Woo, J. H.; Choi, K. C.; Lee, J. B.; Song, C. K.; Kim, S. K.; Hong, J.; Hong, S. C.; Zhang, Q.; Hong, C.; Tong, D.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Future emission scenarios based on up-to-date regional socio-economic and control policy information were developed in support of climate-air quality integrated modeling research over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Two IPCC-participated Integrated Assessment Models(IAMs) were used to developed those scenario pathways. The two emission processing systems, KU-EPS and SMOKE-<span class="hlt">Asia</span>, were used to convert these future scenario emissions to comprehensive chemical transport model-ready form. The NIER/KU-CREATE (Comprehensive Regional Emissions inventory for Atmospheric Transport Experiment) served as the regional base-year emission inventory. For anthropogenic emissions, it has 54 fuel classes, 201 sub-sectors and 13 pollutants, including CO2, CH4, N2O, SO2, NOx, CO, NMVOC, NH3, OC, BC, PM10, PM2.5, and mercury. Fast energy growth and aggressive penetration of the control measures make emissions projection very active for <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Despite of more stringent air pollution control policies by the governments, however, air quality over the region seems not been improved as much - even worse in many cases. The needs of more scientific understanding of inter-relationship among emissions, transport, chemistry over the region are very high to effectively protect public health and ecosystems against ozone, fine particles, and other toxic pollutants in the air. After developing these long-term future emissions, therefore, we also tried to apply our future scenarios to develop the present emissions inventory for chemical weather forecasting and aircraft field campaign. On site, we will present; 1) the future scenario development framework and process methodologies, 2) initial development results of the future emission pathways, 3) present emission inventories from short-term projection, and 4) air quality modeling performance improvements over the region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AtmEn.107..244P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AtmEn.107..244P"><span id="translatedtitle">Spatial distributions of aerosol loadings and depositions in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> during the year 2010</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Park, Soon-Ung</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Aerosol Modeling System (AMS) that is consisted of the Asian Dust Aerosol Model2 (ADAM2) and the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system has been employed to document the geographical distributions of both the annual averaged Asian dust aerosol and the anthropogenic aerosols concentrations and their total depositions in the <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> region for the year 2010. It is found that AMS simulates quite well the monitored PM10 concentration with a root mean square error (RMSE) of 9.2 μg m-3 and a normalized mean square error (NMSE) of 5.5% in South Korea and the RMSE of less than 33 μg m-3 with a NMSE of less than 7.8% at the monitoring sites in China. The annual mean surface (column integrated) aerosol concentrations in the <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> region affect in a wide region as a complex mixture of the Asian dust (AD) aerosol and the anthropogenic aerosol (AA), more predominated by the AD aerosol in the Asian dust source region of northern China and Mongolia with the annual mean (column integrated) PM10 concentration of more than 200 μg m-3 (350 mg m-2). Whereas AA is dominated in the high pollutant emission regions of southern and eastern China and northern India with the annual mean surface (column integrated) concentration of more than 110 μg m-3 (140 mg m-2) in eastern China. On the other hand the mixed aerosols (AD + AA) are dominated in the downwind regions of the Yellow Sea, the <span class="hlt">East</span> China Sea, the Korean peninsula, Japan, and the Northwest Pacific Ocean. It is also found that the annual total deposition of aerosols in the model domain is 4.9 × 108 t (3.7 × 108 t by AD aerosol and 1.2 × 108 t by AA), of which 66% (3.2 × 108 t) is found to be contributed by the dry deposition (3.1 × 108 t by AD aerosol and 1.3 × 107 t by AA) and 34% (1.7 × 108 t) by the wet deposition (1.0 × 108 t by AA and 6.6 × 107 t by AD aerosol), suggesting significant impacts of aerosols on environment and the terrestrial and marine eco-systems in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A13C3182K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A13C3182K"><span id="translatedtitle">Decadal increase of organic compounds in winter and spring atmospheric aerosols in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kundu, S.; Kawamura, K.; Kobayashi, M.; Tachibana, E.; Lee, M.; Jung, J.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>A rapid economic growth in China and other <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian countries may have changed molecular level organic composition of atmospheric aerosols in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Molecular level composition is required to better evaluate the roles of organic aersols on climate, air quality and public health. Diacids and oxoacids account for a significant fraction of atmospheric organic matter and their secondary sources are more important than their primary sources. Atmospheric aerosol samples (n = 698) were collected during 2001-2008 at Gosan site in Jeju Island, South Korea. They were analyzed for saturated (C2-C10), unsaturated aliphatic (C4-C5), multifunctional (C3-C7) and aromatic (C8) diacids and oxoacids (C2-C9). According to monthly average concentration, oxalic acid (C2) is the most abundant followed by malonic acid (C3) and succinic acid (C4) in the homologous series of saturated diacids (C2-C10) whereas glyoxylic acid (ωC2) is most abundant in the homologous series of oxoacids (C2-C9). The monthly median, 25th percentile and 75th percentile concentrations of saturated and multifunctional diacids and oxoacids showed the highest in spring (March-May). In contrast, those concentrations for unsaturated aliphatic and aromatic diacids were observed the highest in winter (December-February). The monthly median and percentile (25th and 75th) concentrations of all diacids and oxoacids showed the second peak in the autumn (September-November) while those concentrations were recorded lowest in summer (June-August). A steady increment or decrement was not found in the monthly median and percentile (25th and 75th) concentrations of diacids and oxoacids in any month. However, the curve fitting of those concentrations over the study period shows an incremental trend for major diacids and oxoacids in winter and spring. For example, the monthly median, 25th percentile and 75th percentile concentrations of all major diacids and oxoacids increased up to 3 times from 2001 to 2008 in winter and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20090034992&hterms=pollution&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dpollution','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20090034992&hterms=pollution&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dpollution"><span id="translatedtitle">The Influence of European Pollution on Ozone in the Near <span class="hlt">East</span> and Northern <span class="hlt">Africa</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Duncan, B. N.; West, J. J.; Yoshida, Y.; Fiore, A. M.; Ziemke, J. R.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>We present a modeling study of the long-range transport of pollution from Europe, showing that European emissions regularly elevate surface ozone by as much as 20 ppbv in summer in northern <span class="hlt">Africa</span> and the Near <span class="hlt">East</span>. European emissions cause 50-150 additional violations per year (i.e. above those that would occur without European pollution) of the European health standard for ozone (8-h average greater than 120 micrograms per cubic meters or approximately 60 ppbv) in northern <span class="hlt">Africa</span> and the Near <span class="hlt">East</span>. We estimate that European ozone pollution is responsible for 50 000 premature mortalities globally each year, of which the majority occurs outside of Europe itself, including 37% (19 000) in northern <span class="hlt">Africa</span> and the Near <span class="hlt">East</span>. Much of the pollution from Europe is exported southward at low altitudes in summer to the Mediterranean Sea, northern <span class="hlt">Africa</span> and the Near <span class="hlt">East</span>, regions with favorable photochemical environments for ozone production. Our results suggest that assessments of the human health benefits of reducing ozone precursor emissions in Europe should include effects outside of Europe, and that comprehensive planning to improve air quality in northern <span class="hlt">Africa</span> and the Near <span class="hlt">East</span> likely needs to address European emissions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/195171','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/195171"><span id="translatedtitle">United States security strategy for the <span class="hlt">east</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>-Pacific region</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>1995-02-01</p> <p>The United States National Security Strategy published in July 1994 is based on enlarging the community of market democracies while deterring and containing a range of threats to our nation, our allies and our interests. Focusing on new threats and new opportunities, its central goals are: to enhance security by maintaining a strong defense capability and promoting cooperative security measures; to open foreign markets and spur global economic growth; and to promote democracy abroad. In accordance with the National Security Strategy, this document explains United States defense policy toward furthering these goals in the <span class="hlt">Asia</span>-Pacific region. It builds upon the Strategy`s emphasis on maintaining a strong defense capability to enhance U.S. security and to provide a foundation for regional stability through mutually beneficial security partnerships. As the Strategy states, <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> is a region of growing importance to American goals: nowhere are the strands of our three-part strategy more intertwined; nowhere is the need for continued engagement more evident. In thinking about the <span class="hlt">Asia</span>-Pacific region, security comes first, and a committed United States military presence will continue to serve as a bedrock for America`s security role in this dynamic area of the world. The regional security strategy for the <span class="hlt">Asia</span>-Pacific region emphasizes strengthening the bilateral alliances that have been at the heart of United States strategy for more than forty years. The United States is also committed to contribute to regional security through active participation in new multi-lateral fora like the ASEAN Regional Forum. Through such multi-lateral mechanisms the countries of the region seek to develop new cooperative approaches to achieve greater stability and security. Additionally, the Pacific Command sponsors multi-national military activities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15013225','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15013225"><span id="translatedtitle">LLNL Middle <span class="hlt">East</span>, North <span class="hlt">Africa</span> and Western Eurasia Knowledge Base</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>O'Boyle, J; Ruppert, S D; Hauk, T F; Dodge, D A; Ryall, F; Firpo, M A</p> <p>2001-07-12</p> <p>The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Ground-Based Nuclear Event Monitoring (GNEM) program has made significant progress populating a comprehensive Seismic Research Knowledge Base (SRKB) and deriving calibration parameters for the Middle <span class="hlt">East</span>, North <span class="hlt">Africa</span> and Western Eurasia (ME/NA/WE) regions. The LLNL SRKB provides not only a coherent framework in which to store and organize very large volumes of collected seismic waveforms, associated event parameter information, and spatial contextual data, but also provides an efficient data processing/research environment for deriving location and discrimination correction surfaces. The SRKB is a flexible and extensible framework consisting of a relational database (RDB), Geographical Information System (GIS), and associated product/data visualization and data management tools. This SRKB framework is designed to accommodate large volumes of data (almost 3 million waveforms from 57,000 events) in diverse formats from many sources (both LLNL derived research and integrated contractor products), in addition to maintaining detailed quality control and metadata. We have developed expanded look-up tables for critical station parameter information (including location and response) and an integrated and reconciled event catalog data set (including specification of preferred origin solutions and associated phase arrivals) for the PDE, CMT, ISC, REB and selected regional catalogs. Using the SRKB framework, we are combining traveltime observations, event characterization studies, and regional tectonic models to assemble a library of ground truth information and phenomenology (e.g. travel-time and amplitude) correction surfaces required for support of the ME/NA/WE regionalization program. We also use the SRKB to integrate data and research products from a variety of sources, such as contractors and universities, to merge and maintain quality control of the data sets. Corrections and parameters distilled from the LLNL SRKB</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMPP53A1991V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMPP53A1991V"><span id="translatedtitle">A Revised Holocene History of Lake Kivu, <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Africa</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Votava, J. E.; Johnson, T. C.; Hecky, R. E.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>The great lakes of the <span class="hlt">East</span> African Rift valley are a vast chain of lakes formed in a region of active tectonics. These large, deep lakes are relatively old and many (e.g. Tanganyika, Malawi, and Turkana) have greatly influenced our understanding of terrestrial, tropical <span class="hlt">East</span> African paleoclimate. Lake Kivu (max depth, 485m) sits at the heart of these rift lakes, north of Lake Tanganyika between the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Rwanda (roughly 250 km west of Lake Victoria). At over 1,400 meters in elevation, this 2,060 km2 mesotrophic lake has a complex stratification regime imposed by hydrothermal springs and deep waters supersaturated at STP in CO2 and CH4 gasses. The active Virunga Volcanoes to the north of the lake supply heated, high-salinity waters below 280 meters water depth maintaining the modern crenogenic meromixis. Based on detailed studies of diatom assemblages and bulk sedimentology, previous workers have suggested this hydrothermal activity began roughly 5,000 years BP. Unfortunately, dating and stratigraphic correlations of these original cores from the 1970 Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution's expedition have been problematic. Here we offer an improved chronology and new carbonate analyses from cores recovered in 2012 and 2013. Our AMS radiocarbon ages come from six terrigeneous macrofossils spanning the last 9,100 years (cal BP). These ages suggest a rather high sedimentation rate on the order of 70cm/kyr, and hence, our 8 m-long core provides us with a high-resolution lake history for the past 10,000 years. Most notable over the past 5,000 years in the lake history is the repeated onset and cessation of carbonate deposition, punctuated by organic-rich intervals. Earlier studies of the Woods Hole cores placed the onset of carbonate deposition at ca. 11,000 years BP suggesting changes in lake hydrology (i.e. closed to open), while the abrupt cessation of carbonate was dated at ca. 5,000 years BP and attributed to the beginning of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27256745','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27256745"><span id="translatedtitle">Heart Failure Clinical Trials in <span class="hlt">East</span> and Southeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span>: Understanding the Importance and Defining the Next Steps.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mentz, Robert J; Roessig, Lothar; Greenberg, Barry H; Sato, Naoki; Shinagawa, Kaori; Yeo, Daniel; Kwok, Bernard W K; Reyes, Eugenio B; Krum, Henry; Pieske, Burkert; Greene, Stephen J; Ambrosy, Andrew P; Kelly, Jacob P; Zannad, Faiez; Pitt, Bertram; Lam, Carolyn S P</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Heart failure (HF) is a major and increasing global public health problem. In <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, aging populations and recent increases in cardiovascular risk factors have contributed to a particularly high burden of HF, with outcomes that are poorer than those in the rest of the world. Representation of Asians in landmark HF trials has been variable. In addition, HF patients from <span class="hlt">Asia</span> demonstrate clinical differences from patients in other geographic regions. Thus, the generalizability of some clinical trial results to the Asian population remains uncertain. In this article, we review differences in HF phenotype, HF management, and outcomes in patients from <span class="hlt">East</span> and Southeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. We describe lessons learned in <span class="hlt">Asia</span> from recent HF registries and clinical trial databases and outline strategies to improve the potential for success in future trials. This review is based on discussions among scientists, clinical trialists, industry representatives, and regulatory representatives at the CardioVascular Clinical Trialist <span class="hlt">Asia</span> Forum in Singapore on July 4, 2014. PMID:27256745</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2011AtmEn..45.6576H&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2011AtmEn..45.6576H&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Simulation of aerosol direct radiative forcing with RAMS-CMAQ in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Han, Xiao; Zhang, Meigen; Han, Zhiwei; Xin, Jinyuan; Liu, Xiaohong</p> <p>2011-11-01</p> <p>The air quality modeling system RAMS-CMAQ is developed to assess aerosol direct radiative forcing by linking simulated meteorological parameters and aerosol mass concentration with the aerosol optical properties/radiative transfer module in this study. The module is capable of accounting for important factors that affect aerosol optical properties and radiative effect, such as incident wave length, aerosol size distribution, water uptake, and internal mixture. Subsequently, the modeling system is applied to simulate the temporal and spatial variations in mass burden, optical properties, and direct radiative forcing of diverse aerosols, including sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, black carbon, organic carbon, dust, and sea salt over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> throughout 2005. Model performance is fully evaluated using various observational data, including satellite monitoring of MODIS and surface measurements of EANET (Acid Deposition Monitoring Network), AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network), and CSHNET (Chinese Sun Hazemeter Network). The correlation coefficients of the comparisons of daily average mass concentrations of sulfate, PM2.5, and PM10 between simulations and EANET measurements are 0.70, 0.61, and 0.64, respectively. It is also determined that the modeled aerosol optical depth (AOD) is in congruence with the observed results from the AERONET, the CSHNET, and the MODIS. The model results suggest that the high AOD values ranging from 0.8 to 1.2 are mainly distributed over the Sichuan Basin as well as over central and southeastern China, in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. The aerosol direct radiative forcing patterns generally followed the AOD patterns. The strongest forcing effect ranging from -12 to -8 W m -2 was mainly distributed over the Sichuan Basin and the eastern China's coastal regions in the all-sky case at TOA, and the forcing effect ranging from -8 to -4 W m -2 could be found over entire eastern China, Korea, Japan, <span class="hlt">East</span> China Sea, and the sea areas of Japan</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2011AGUFM.A34A..06Z&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2011AGUFM.A34A..06Z&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Simulation of aerosol direct radiative forcing with RAMS-CMAQ in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, M.; Han, X.; Liu, X.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>The air quality modeling system RAMS-CMAQ is developed to assess aerosol direct radiative forcing by linking simulated meteorological parameters and aerosol mass concentration with the aerosol optical properties/radiative transfer module in this study. The module is capable of accounting for important factors that affect aerosol optical properties and radiative effect, such as incident wave length, aerosol size distribution, water uptake, and internal mixture. Subsequently, the modeling system is applied to simulate the temporal and spatial variations in mass burden, optical properties, and direct radiative forcing of diverse aerosols, including sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, black carbon, organic carbon, dust, and sea salt over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> throughout 2005. Model performance is fully evaluated using various observational data, including satellite monitoring of MODIS and surface measurements of EANET (Acid Deposition Monitoring Network), AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network), and CSHNET (Chinese Sun Hazemeter Network). The correlation coefficients of the comparisons of daily average mass concentrations of sulfate, PM2.5, and PM10 between simulations and EANET measurements are 0.70, 0.61, and 0.64, respectively. It is also determined that the modeled aerosol optical depth (AOD) is in congruence with the observed results from the AERONET, the CSHNET, and the MODIS. The model results suggest that the high AOD values ranging from 0.8 to 1.2 are mainly distributed over the Sichuan Basin as well as over central and southeastern China, in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. The aerosol direct radiative forcing patterns generally followed the AOD patterns. The strongest forcing effect ranging from -12 to -8 W/m2 was mainly distributed over the Sichuan Basin and the eastern China's coastal regions in the all-sky case at TOA, and the forcing effect ranging from -8 to -4 W/m2 could be found over entire eastern China, Korea, Japan, <span class="hlt">East</span> China Sea, and the sea areas of Japan.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMGC53E..03X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMGC53E..03X"><span id="translatedtitle">A New Automatic Method of Urban Areas Mapping in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> from LANDSAT Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>XU, R.; Jia, G.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Cities, as places where human activities are concentrated, account for a small percent of global land cover but are frequently cited as the chief causes of, and solutions to, climate, biogeochemistry, and hydrology processes at local, regional, and global scales. Accompanying with uncontrolled economic growth, urban sprawl has been attributed to the accelerating integration of <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> into the world economy and involved dramatic changes in its urban form and land use. To understand the impact of urban extent on biogeophysical processes, reliable mapping of built-up areas is particularly essential in eastern cities as a result of their characteristics of smaller patches, more fragile, and a lower fraction of the urban landscape which does not have natural than in the West. Segmentation of urban land from other land-cover types using remote sensing imagery can be done by standard classification processes as well as a logic rule calculation based on spectral indices and their derivations. Efforts to establish such a logic rule with no threshold for automatically mapping are highly worthwhile. Existing automatic methods are reviewed, and then a proposed approach is introduced including the calculation of the new index and the improved logic rule. Following this, existing automatic methods as well as the proposed approach are compared in a common context. Afterwards, the proposed approach is tested separately in cities of large, medium, and small scale in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> selected from different LANDSAT images. The results are promising as the approach can efficiently segment urban areas, even in the presence of more complex eastern cities. Key words: Urban extraction; Automatic Method; Logic Rule; LANDSAT images; <span class="hlt">East</span> AisaThe Proposed Approach of Extraction of Urban Built-up Areas in Guangzhou, China</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015JGRD..120.4352T&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015JGRD..120.4352T&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Methane emissions in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> for 2000-2011 estimated using an atmospheric Bayesian inversion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Thompson, R. L.; Stohl, A.; Zhou, L. X.; Dlugokencky, E.; Fukuyama, Y.; Tohjima, Y.; Kim, S.-Y.; Lee, H.; Nisbet, E. G.; Fisher, R. E.; Lowry, D.; Weiss, R. F.; Prinn, R. G.; O'Doherty, S.; Young, D.; White, J. W. C.</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>We present methane (CH4) emissions for <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> from a Bayesian inversion of CH4 mole fraction and stable isotope (δ13C-CH4) measurements. Emissions were estimated at monthly resolution from 2000 to 2011. A posteriori, the total emission for <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> increased from 43 ± 4 to 59 ± 4 Tg yr-1 between 2000 and 2011, owing largely to the increase in emissions from China, from 39 ± 4 to 54 ± 4 Tg yr-1, while emissions in other <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian countries remained relatively stable. For China, South Korea, and Japan, the total emissions were smaller than the prior estimates (i.e., Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research 4.2 FT2010 for anthropogenic emissions) by an average of 29%, 20%, and 23%, respectively. For Mongolia, Taiwan, and North Korea, the total emission was less than 2 Tg yr-1 and was not significantly different from the prior. The largest reductions in emissions, compared to the prior, occurred in summer in regions important for rice agriculture suggesting that this source is overestimated in the prior. Furthermore, an analysis of the isotope data suggests that the prior underestimates emissions from landfills and ruminant animals for winter 2010 to spring 2011 (no data available for other times). The inversion also found a lower average emission trend for China, 1.2 Tg yr-1 compared to 2.8 Tg yr-1 in the prior. This trend was not constant, however, and increased significantly after 2005, up to 2.0 Tg yr-1. Overall, the changes in emissions from China explain up to 40% of the increase in global emissions in the 2000s.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4078676','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4078676"><span id="translatedtitle">Tobacco control challenges in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>: proposals for change in the world's largest epidemic region</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Katanoda, Kota; Jiang, Yuan; Park, Sohee; Lim, Min Kyung; Qiao, You-Lin; Inoue, Manami</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> is one of the world's largest tobacco epidemic regions. Although several international studies have evaluated the status of tobacco control in this region, the findings have not been integrated with knowledge on domestic activities at the national and municipal levels. We analysed the current tobacco control situation in three <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian countries, Japan, China and the Republic of Korea, using both international and domestic data sources. We collected data between 2008 and 2011 in each country according to the framework of WHO's MPOWER (Monitoring, Protect, Offer, Warn, Enforcement and Raise) approach for guiding implementation of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Analysis revealed that 37–53% of adult men were current smokers and that smoking prevalence among middle-aged men reached 63%. Less than 20% of male smokers plan to quit and the use of nicotine replacement drugs was 14% at maximum. Forty-six percent or more of men and 20% or more of women were exposed to passive smoking at workplaces and at home, respectively. Many tobacco industry activities remain unrestricted and prevalent. Our findings indicate an urgent need for the following set of policies: raise cigarette prices to increase the quit attempt rate, particularly among adult men; develop a multi-component quitting assistance system to provide adequate assistance for smoking cessation; implement effective smoke-free policies in workplaces and public places to reduce exposure to passive smoking; and rebuild the administrative structure to denormalise tobacco industry activities. The importance of these standard approaches should be reaffirmed by all tobacco control policymakers in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. PMID:23596197</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24449274','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24449274"><span id="translatedtitle">HLA variation reveals genetic continuity rather than population group structure in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Di, Da; Sanchez-Mazas, Alicia</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>Genetic differences between Northeast Asian (NEA) and Southeast Asian (SEA) populations have been observed in numerous studies. At the among-population level, despite a clear north-south differentiation observed for many genetic markers, debates were led between abrupt differences and a continuous pattern. At the within-population level, whether NEA or SEA populations have higher genetic diversity is also highly controversial. In this study, we analyzed a large set of HLA data from <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> in order to map the genetic variation among and within populations in this continent and to clarify the distribution pattern of HLA lineages and alleles. We observed a genetic differentiation between NEA and SEA populations following a continuous pattern from north to south, and we show a significant and continuous decrease of HLA diversity by the same direction. This continuity is shaped by clinal distributions of many HLA lineages and alleles with increasing or decreasing frequencies along the latitude. These results bring new evidence in favor of the "overlapping model" proposed previously for <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian peopling history, whereby modern humans migrated eastward from western Eurasia via two independent routes along each side of the Himalayas and, later, overlapped in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> across open land areas. Our study strongly suggests that intensive gene flow between NEA and SEA populations occurred and shaped the latitude-related continuous pattern of genetic variation and the peculiar HLA lineage and allele distributions observed in this continent. Probably for a very long period, the exact duration of these events remains to be estimated. PMID:24449274</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003GPC....37..219F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003GPC....37..219F"><span id="translatedtitle">Potential impacts of human-induced land cover change on <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> monsoon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fu, Congbin</p> <p>2003-06-01</p> <p>As one major performance of anthropogenic activities, human-induced land use and land cover changes in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> have been one of the largest regions in the world. In the past 3000 years, more than 60% of the region has been affected by conversion of various categories of natural vegetation into farmland, conversion of grassland into semidesert and widespread land degradation. Such human-induced land cover changes result in significant changes of surface dynamic parameters, such as albedo, surface roughness, leaf area index and fractional vegetation coverage, etc. The results of a pair of numerical experiments in this paper have shown that by altering the complex exchanges of water and energy from surface to atmosphere, the changes in land cover have brought about significant changes to the <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian monsoon. These include weakening of the summer monsoon and enhancement of winter monsoon over the region and a commensurate increase in anomalous northerly flow. These changes result in the reduction of all components of surface water balance such as precipitation, runoff, and soil water content. The consequent diminution of northward and inland moisture transfer may be a significant factor in explaining the decreasing of atmospheric and soil humidity and thus the trend in aridification observed in many parts of the region, particularly over Northern China during last 3000 years. The variation of <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> monsoon presented here is the result of land cover changes only. It is very likely that the anthropogenic modification of monsoon system would have been occurred in the long history of civilization.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ERL....10c4002S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ERL....10c4002S"><span id="translatedtitle">A new urban landscape in <span class="hlt">East</span>-Southeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, 2000-2010</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schneider, A.; Mertes, C. M.; Tatem, A. J.; Tan, B.; Sulla-Menashe, D.; Graves, S. J.; Patel, N. N.; Horton, J. A.; Gaughan, A. E.; Rollo, J. T.; Schelly, I. H.; Stevens, F. R.; Dastur, A.</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">East</span>-Southeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span> is currently one of the fastest urbanizing regions in the world, with countries such as China climbing from 20 to 50% urbanized in just a few decades. By 2050, these countries are projected to add 1 billion people, with 90% of that growth occurring in cities. This population shift parallels an equally astounding amount of built-up land expansion. However, spatially-and temporally-detailed information on regional-scale changes in urban land or population distribution do not exist; previous efforts have been either sample-based, focused on one country, or drawn conclusions from datasets with substantial temporal/spatial mismatch and variability in urban definitions. Using consistent methodology, satellite imagery and census data for >1000 agglomerations in the <span class="hlt">East</span>-Southeast Asian region, we show that urban land increased >22% between 2000 and 2010 (from 155 000 to 189 000 km2), an amount equivalent to the area of Taiwan, while urban populations climbed >31% (from 738 to 969 million). Although urban land expanded at unprecedented rates, urban populations grew more rapidly, resulting in increasing densities for the majority of urban agglomerations, including those in both more developed (Japan, South Korea) and industrializing nations (China, Vietnam, Indonesia). This result contrasts previous sample-based studies, which conclude that cities are universally declining in density. The patterns and rates of change uncovered by these datasets provide a unique record of the massive urban transition currently underway in <span class="hlt">East</span>-Southeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span> that is impacting local-regional climate, pollution levels, water quality/availability, arable land, as well as the livelihoods and vulnerability of populations in the region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23596197','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23596197"><span id="translatedtitle">Tobacco control challenges in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>: proposals for change in the world's largest epidemic region.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Katanoda, Kota; Jiang, Yuan; Park, Sohee; Lim, Min Kyung; Qiao, You-Lin; Inoue, Manami</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> is one of the world's largest tobacco epidemic regions. Although several international studies have evaluated the status of tobacco control in this region, the findings have not been integrated with knowledge on domestic activities at the national and municipal levels. We analysed the current tobacco control situation in three <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian countries, Japan, China and the Republic of Korea, using both international and domestic data sources. We collected data between 2008 and 2011 in each country according to the framework of WHO's MPOWER (Monitoring, Protect, Offer, Warn, Enforcement and Raise) approach for guiding implementation of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Analysis revealed that 37-53% of adult men were current smokers and that smoking prevalence among middle-aged men reached 63%. Less than 20% of male smokers plan to quit and the use of nicotine replacement drugs was 14% at maximum. Forty-six percent or more of men and 20% or more of women were exposed to passive smoking at workplaces and at home, respectively. Many tobacco industry activities remain unrestricted and prevalent. Our findings indicate an urgent need for the following set of policies: raise cigarette prices to increase the quit attempt rate, particularly among adult men; develop a multi-component quitting assistance system to provide adequate assistance for smoking cessation; implement effective smoke-free policies in workplaces and public places to reduce exposure to passive smoking; and rebuild the administrative structure to denormalise tobacco industry activities. The importance of these standard approaches should be reaffirmed by all tobacco control policymakers in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. PMID:23596197</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1031413','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1031413"><span id="translatedtitle">Simulation of aerosol direct radiative forcing with RAMS-CMAQ in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Han, Xiao; Zhang, Meigen; Han, Zhiewi; Xin, Jin-Yuan; Liu, Xiaohong</p> <p>2011-11-14</p> <p>The air quality modeling system RAMS-CMAQ is developed to assess aerosol direct radiative forcing by linking simulated meteorological parameters and aerosol mass concentration with the aerosol optical properties/radiative transfer module in this study. The module is capable of accounting for important factors that affect aerosol optical properties and radiative effect, such as incident wave length, aerosol size distribution, water uptake, and internal mixture. Subsequently, the modeling system is applied to simulate the temporal and spatial variations in mass burden, optical properties, and direct radiative forcing of diverse aerosols, including sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, black carbon, organic carbon, dust, and sea salt over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> throughout 2005. Model performance is fully evaluated using various observational data, including satellite monitoring of MODIS and surface measurements of EANET (Acid Deposition Monitoring Network), AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network), and CSHNET (Chinese Sun Hazemeter Network). The correlation coefficients of the comparisons of daily average mass concentrations of sulfate, PM2.5, and PM10 between simulations and EANET measurements are 0.70, 0.61, and 0.64, respectively. It is also determined that the modeled aerosol optical depth (AOD) is in congruence with the observed results from the AERONET, the CSHNET, and the MODIS. The model results suggest that the high AOD values ranging from 0.8 to 1.2 are mainly distributed over the Sichuan Basin as well as over central and southeastern China, in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. The aerosol direct radiative forcing patterns generally followed the AOD patterns. The strongest forcing effect ranging from -12 to -8 W m-2 was mainly distributed over the Sichuan Basin and the eastern China's coastal regions in the all-sky case at TOA, and the forcing effect ranging from -8 to -4 W m-2 could be found over entire eastern China, Korea, Japan, <span class="hlt">East</span> China Sea, and the sea areas of Japan</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A41C0076Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A41C0076Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Connections between Eurasian teleconnection and concurrent variation of the upper-level jets over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Y.; Wang, N.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The variation of <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian jet streams (EAJS) associated with the Eurasian teleconnection (EU) pattern is investigated using 60-yr NCEP/NCAR daily reanalysis dataset over the period (1951-2010). The EAJS consists of three components: the polar front jet (PFJ), the plateau subtropical jet (PSJ), and the ocean subtropical jet (OSJ). Of the three jets over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, the EU pattern exhibits significant influence on the PFJ and OSJ. There is a simultaneous negative correlation between the EU pattern and PFJ. A significant positive correlation is found between the EU pattern and OSJ with the EU leads the OSJ by about 5 days. There is no obvious correlation between the EU pattern and PSJ. The positive EU phase is accompanied by a weakened and poleward shifted PFJ, which coincides with an intensified OSJ. Meanwhile, the PFJ also moves westward while the OSJ migrates eastward. In negative EU phase, the PFJ is unusually strong and moves more southward, merging with the PSJ. A possible mechanism for the variation of EAJS during different EU phases is explored via analyzing the effects of 10-day high- and low-frequency eddy forcing. The zonal wind tendency due to high-frequency eddy forcing contributes to the simultaneous negative correlation between the EU and PFJ as well as the northward/southward shift of PFJ. Low-frequency eddy forcing is responsible for the westward/eastward shift of PFJ in company with the evolution of EU. High- and low-frequency eddy forcing are both responsible for the positive correlation between the EU and OSJ but only high-frequency eddy contributes to the lagged variation of the OSJ relative to EU. The negative correlation between the EU and temperature/precipitation anomalies in northern/eastern China sustains only when the PFJ and OSJ are out of phase with each other. Thus, the EAJS plays an important role in transmitting the EU signal to temperature and precipitation anomalies in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Islam&pg=3&id=EJ1021706','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Islam&pg=3&id=EJ1021706"><span id="translatedtitle">Orientalism(s), World Geography Textbooks, and Temporal Paradox: Questioning Representations of Southwest <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and North <span class="hlt">Africa</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Zagumny, Lisa; Richey, Amanda B.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>In this critical discourse analysis of six high-school world geography textbooks, we explore how constructions and representations of North <span class="hlt">Africa</span> and Southwest <span class="hlt">Asia</span> have served to reinforce Orientalist discourse in formal curriculum. Visual and written representations in these textbooks were overwhelmingly confounded by a traditional/modern…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000JGR...10517361K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000JGR...10517361K"><span id="translatedtitle">Outflow patterns of pollutants from <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> to the North Pacific in the winter monsoon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kaneyasu, Naoki; Takeuchi, Koji; Hayashi, Masayasu; Fujita, Shin-Ichi; Uno, Itsushi; Sasaki, Hidetaka</p> <p>2000-07-01</p> <p>Outflow patterns of air pollutants, and mechanisms associated with a "monsoon" condition that is peculiar to the <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian region in winter, have been studied. To capture the continental outflow, airborne and shipboard measurements of aerosols and trace gases were conducted over the northern part of the <span class="hlt">East</span> China Sea and the western part of the Sea of Japan on January 17-26, 1991 (airborne), January 28-29, 1992 (airborne), January 22-31, 1993 (shipboard), and January 29-30, 1993 (airborne). At least two types of highly polluted air masses were found at different times of the monsoon. Type 1 polluted air mass, which contained more than 10 μg m-3 of non-sea-salt SO42- and more than 5 μgC m-3 of black carbon aerosols, typically appeared over the <span class="hlt">East</span> China Sea at the beginning of the monsoon period. Chemical and microphysical characteristics suggest that the type 1 polluted air mass is chemically aged. Type 2 air mass appeared in the later half of the monsoon period and had characteristics of freshly emitted pollutants. It consisted of several high concentrations of SO2 (>10 ppbv) confined in narrow horizontal width (10 to 30 km wide). Analyses using an Eulerian chemical transport model and detailed backward trajectories indicate that the type 1 polluted air mass was subcontinental in extent and its formation and the transport were dominated by a synoptic-scale weather cycle; it was formed over the Asian continent under anticyclonic conditions that persisted for 3-4 days, and transported intermittently to the <span class="hlt">east</span> over the Pacific Ocean by the passage and the development of traveling cyclones. This study suggests that aerosols that flow out from <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> are enriched with carbonaceous materials and consequently have low single-scattering albedo, which may affect the direct radiative forcing by aerosols over the North Pacific.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1811345J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1811345J"><span id="translatedtitle">Influence of the <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian winter monsoon on interannual variations of wintertime aerosol concentrations over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> during 1980-2013</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jeong, Jaein; Park, Rokjin</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The monsoon circulation influence the spatial and temporal variations of aerosol concentrations. In this study, we examine the effect of the <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) on wintertime aerosol concentrations in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> during 1980-2013 using observed PM10 concentrations and a global 3-D chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) driven by the assimilated MERRA meteorological data. We find that the observed and simulated surface aerosol concentrations have strong negative (positive) correlations with the EAWM over the northeast (southeast) <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Differences in aerosol concentrations between the strong and weak monsoon years are up to 25% over the northeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span> (30°-55°N, 110°-160°E), where the strong monsoon years show much lower aerosol concentrations than those of the weak monsoon years. On the other hand, the opposite patterns are found over the southeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span> (20°-30°N, 110°-160°E). The EAWM appears to play a significant role in the inter-annual variability of aerosol concentrations and thus its change would be crucial to predict wintertime aerosol concentrations and their future changes over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21817050','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21817050"><span id="translatedtitle">Reduced interannual rainfall variability in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Africa</span> during the last ice age.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wolff, Christian; Haug, Gerald H; Timmermann, Axel; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S; Brauer, Achim; Sigman, Daniel M; Cane, Mark A; Verschuren, Dirk</p> <p>2011-08-01</p> <p>Interannual rainfall variations in equatorial <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Africa</span> are tightly linked to the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), with more rain and flooding during El Niño and droughts in La Niña years, both having severe impacts on human habitation and food security. Here we report evidence from an annually laminated lake sediment record from southeastern Kenya for interannual to centennial-scale changes in ENSO-related rainfall variability during the last three millennia and for reductions in both the mean rate and the variability of rainfall in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Africa</span> during the Last Glacial period. Climate model simulations support forward extrapolation from these lake sediment data that future warming will intensify the interannual variability of <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Africa</span>'s rainfall. PMID:21817050</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2557734','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2557734"><span id="translatedtitle">Quality of vaccination services and social demand for vaccinations in <span class="hlt">Africa</span> and <span class="hlt">Asia</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Streefland, P. H.; Chowdhury, A. M.; Ramos-Jimenez, P.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>For immunization to be effective in the long run as a major global disease control intervention it is important to provide good quality vaccination services. Studies carried out in three countries in <span class="hlt">Asia</span> (Bangladesh, India, and the Philippines) and two countries in <span class="hlt">Africa</span> (Ethiopia and Malawi), and reported on in this article, document the fact that parents are willing to invest considerable effort in having their children vaccinated; however, there are a number of serious shortcomings in the quality of the routine vaccination services and strains are apparent at the interface between the vaccination providers and the users. These shortcomings are detracting from the sustainability of routine vaccination programmes and are promoting the growth of pools of nonimmunized and partially immunized children. To safeguard the continued operation and to enhance the coverage of routine vaccination programmes it is crucial that these difficulties be addressed. PMID:10534895</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AdSpR..51.1990A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AdSpR..51.1990A"><span id="translatedtitle">Testing baseline stability of some neutron monitors in Europe, <span class="hlt">Africa</span>, and <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ahluwalia, H. S.; Ygbuhay, R. C.</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>For six decades, the global network of neutron monitors (NMs) has provided a continuous stream of very valuable data to the heliophysics community, leading to many insights into the myriad modes of charged particle transport in the tangled magnetic fields that permeate the 3D heliosphere. Earlier, Ahluwalia and Ygbuhay (2012) reported on the drifts in some high latitude NM counting rates in the American zone. We continue our enquiry by testing the stability of the counting rate baselines of some NMs operating in Europe, <span class="hlt">Africa</span>, and <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. The data from these detectors have been extremely valuable for the short-term time variation studies, but caution is advised in using the data for long-term studies from NMs with baselines that are drifting for cause(s) unknown.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24298975','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24298975"><span id="translatedtitle">Source identification and apportionment of halogenated compounds observed at a remote site in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Shanlan; Kim, Jooil; Park, Sunyoung; Kim, Seung-Kyu; Park, Mi-Kyung; Mühle, Jens; Lee, Gangwoong; Lee, Meehye; Jo, Chun Ok; Kim, Kyung-Ryul</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The sources of halogenated compounds in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> associated with stratospheric ozone depletion and climate change are relatively poorly understood. High-precision in situ measurements of 18 halogenated compounds and carbonyl sulfide (COS) made at Gosan, Jeju Island, Korea, from November 2007 to December 2011 were analyzed by a positive matrix factorization (PMF). Seven major industrial sources were identified from the enhanced concentrations of halogenated compounds observed at Gosan and corresponding concentration-based source contributions were also suggested: primary aluminum production explaining 37% of total concentration enhancements, solvent usage of which source apportionment is 25%, fugitive emissions from HCFC/HFC production with 11%, refrigerant replacements (9%), semiconductor/electronics industry (9%), foam blowing agents (6%), and fumigation (3%). Statistical trajectory analysis was applied to specify the potential emission regions for seven sources using back trajectories. Primary aluminum production, solvent usage and fugitive emission sources were mainly contributed by China. Semiconductor/electronics sources were dominantly located in Korea. Refrigerant replacement, fumigation and foam blowing agent sources were spread throughout <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian countries. The specified potential source regions are consistent with country-based consumptions and emission patterns, verifying the PMF analysis results. The industry-based emission sources of halogenated compounds identified in this study help improve our understanding of the <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian countries' industrial contributions to halogenated compound emissions. PMID:24298975</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4102078','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4102078"><span id="translatedtitle">Regional precipitation variability in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> related to climate and environmental factors during 1979-2012</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Deng, Yinyin; Gao, Tao; Gao, Huiwang; Yao, Xiaohong; Xie, Lian</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This paper studies the inter-annual precipitation variations in different regions of <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> from oceans to interior areas in China during 1979 – 2012. The results computed by Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF) demonstrate that the annual precipitation changes are mainly related to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian summer monsoon and aerosols. We also found that the increased Sea surface temperature (SST) could explain the precipitation changes over the Northwest Pacific in the dry season (Oct. – May) and the <span class="hlt">East</span> China Sea and the South China Sea in the rainy season (Jun. – Sep.). The precipitation changes over the ocean unexplained by SST were likely due to the water vapor transport dominated by dynamic factors. With the increased SST, the moisture transported from oceans to interior land was likely redistributed and caused the complicated regional variability of precipitation. Moreover, the impacts of aerosols on cloud and precipitation varied with different pollution levels and different seasons. PMID:25033387</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.A21B0060W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.A21B0060W"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> Dust Source Location Using the Naval Research Laboratory's 1-km Dust Enhancement Product</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Walker, A. L.; Curtis, C. A.; Miller, S. D.; Richardson, K.; Westphal, D. L.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>In the effort to predict dust storms and their effects on local, regional and global scales an often cited uncertainty is the precise location of dust sources. Many approaches have been used to identify major dust source regions in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. These approaches include analysis of station data for frequency of dust storms, drifting dust, dusty day, wind speed, and PM10 total suspended particulates. Some approaches emphasize the location of land surface type (Gobi, sandy desert, and loess) and geomorphological setting/features (basins, plateaus, alluvial fans, dry rivers, or oases). Other approaches use remote sensing to locate areas of high dust activity using the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer Aerosol Index (TOMS AI) data, to correlate Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) vegetation cover with dust storm frequency, or to track dust storm event origination by analyzing Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) images. It is also customary for researchers to combine two or more of these approaches to identify dust source regions. In this paper we use a novel approach to locate dust sources in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Utilizing the Naval Research Laboratory's satellite derived 1-km Dust Enhancement Product (DEP) imagery we can readily distinguish elevated dust over land from other components of the scene and individual dust plumes are readily seen. The high resolution of the DEP allows the many small, eroding point sources (measuring 1-10s km across) that form individual plumes to be located. Five years (2007 - 2011) of <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> DEP imagery have been analyzed. Dust source frequency plots will be shown highlighting the most active dust source areas in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Our results show the most active point sources are located along the slopes and around the rim of large basins. Within basins, on plateaus and in valleys point sources are concentrated in smaller depressions relative to the surrounding topography. Point sources are also associated with the action of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20837606','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20837606"><span id="translatedtitle">Extended Y chromosome investigation suggests postglacial migrations of modern humans into <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> via the northern route.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhong, Hua; Shi, Hong; Qi, Xue-Bin; Duan, Zi-Yuan; Tan, Ping-Ping; Jin, Li; Su, Bing; Ma, Runlin Z</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Genetic diversity data, from Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA as well as recent genome-wide autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms, suggested that mainland Southeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span> was the major geographic source of <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian populations. However, these studies also detected Central-South <span class="hlt">Asia</span> (CSA)- and/or West Eurasia (WE)-related genetic components in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, implying either recent population admixture or ancient migrations via the proposed northern route. To trace the time period and geographic source of these CSA- and WE-related genetic components, we sampled 3,826 males (116 populations from China and 1 population from North Korea) and performed high-resolution genotyping according to the well-resolved Y chromosome phylogeny. Our data, in combination with the published <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian Y-haplogroup data, show that there are four dominant haplogroups (accounting for 92.87% of the <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian Y chromosomes), O-M175, D-M174, C-M130 (not including C5-M356), and N-M231, in both southern and northern <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian populations, which is consistent with the proposed southern route of modern human origin in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. However, there are other haplogroups (6.79% in total) (E-SRY4064, C5-M356, G-M201, H-M69, I-M170, J-P209, L-M20, Q-M242, R-M207, and T-M70) detected primarily in northern <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian populations and were identified as Central-South Asian and/or West Eurasian origin based on the phylogeographic analysis. In particular, evidence of geographic distribution and Y chromosome short tandem repeat (Y-STR) diversity indicates that haplogroup Q-M242 (the ancestral haplogroup of the native American-specific haplogroup Q1a3a-M3) and R-M207 probably migrated into <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> via the northern route. The age estimation of Y-STR variation within haplogroups suggests the existence of postglacial (∼18 Ka) migrations via the northern route as well as recent (∼3 Ka) population admixture. We propose that although the Paleolithic migrations via the southern route played a major role in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10330595','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10330595"><span id="translatedtitle">Sexually transmitted disease (STD) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in South <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ismail, R</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>This article reports on the prevalence of AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in Southeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. The spread of HIV infection in this region has been predicted to be worse than that of <span class="hlt">Africa</span>. The high-prevalence countries are Thailand, Cambodia, and Myanmar, where prevalence rates in the population at risk (15-49 year olds) are up to 2%; while low prevalence countries with rates of 0.1% include the Philippines, Indonesia, Laos, Brunei, and Singapore. Heterosexual transmission in Southeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span> is the main mode of spread of HIV. Another route is through migration, rural-to-urban or international migration of people seeking jobs; with concurrent loneliness and anonymity, they become vulnerable to STDs and HIV infection. Intravenous drug use poses an increasing risk of transmission. The unavailability of data in some countries makes it difficult to evaluate the extent of the epidemic or if there's an impending epidemic. There are a number of caveats to the data compilation from various countries. These include the following: under-reporting of cases; underdiagnosis; missed diagnosis; and differences in the time of data collection. It is clear that poverty, illiteracy, and poor access to educational information in most countries in this region facilitate the rapid spread of HIV. These coupled with lack of primary health care services, and in most instances, enormously high cost of drugs make the pain and suffering due to the HIV/AIDS epidemic a human disaster far worse than the ravages of war. PMID:10330595</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22089683','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22089683"><span id="translatedtitle">Social, economic and legal dimensions of tobacco and its control in South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> region.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kyaing, Nyo Nyo; Islam, Md Ashadul; Sinha, Dhirendra N; Rinchen, Sonam</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This paper examines the social, cultural, economic and legal dimensions of tobacco control in the South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> Region in a holistic view through the review of findings from various studies on prevalence, tobacco economics, poverty alleviation, women and tobacco and tobacco control laws and regulations. Methods were Literature review of peer reviewed publications, country reports, WHO publications, and reports of national and international meetings on tobacco and findings from national level surveys and studies. Tobacco use has been a social and cultural part of the people of South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> Region. Survey findings show that 30% to 60% of men and 1.8% to 15.6% of women in the Region use one or the other forms of tobacco products. The complex nature of tobacco use with both smoking and smokeless forms is a major challenge for implementing tobacco control measures. Prevalence of tobacco use is high among the poor and the illiterate. It is higher among males than females but studies show a rising trend among girls and women due to intensive marketing of tobacco products by the tobacco industry. Tobacco users spend a huge percent of their income on tobacco which deprives them and their families of proper nutrition, good education and health care. Some studies of the Region show that cost of treatment of diseases attributable to tobacco use was more than double the revenue that governments received from tobacco taxation. Another challenge the Region faces is the application of uniform tax to all forms of tobacco, which will reduce not only the availability of tobacco products in the market but also control people switching over to cheaper tobacco products. Ten out of eleven countries are Parties to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and nine countries have tobacco control legislation. Enforcement of control measures is weak, particularly in areas such as smoke-free environments, advertisement at the point of sale and sale of tobacco to minors. Socio</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AdAtS..23..375Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AdAtS..23..375Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Simulations of the 100-hPa South Asian High and precipitation over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> with IPCC coupled GCMs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhou, Ningfang; Yu, Yongqiang; Qian, Yongfu</p> <p>2006-05-01</p> <p>The South Asian High (SAH) and precipitation over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> simulated by 11 coupled GCMs associated with the forthcoming Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s (IPCC) 4th Assessment Report are evaluated. The seasonal behavior of the SAH is presented for each model. Analyses of the results show that all models are able to reproduce the seasonal cycle of the SAH. Locations of the SAH center are also basically reproduced by these models. All models underestimate the intensity and the extension of coverage in summer. The anomalous SAH can be divided into <span class="hlt">east</span> and west modes according to its longitudinal position in summer on the interannual timescale, and the composite anomalies of the observed precipitation for these two modes tend to have opposite signs over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. However, only several coupled GCMs can simulate the relationship between rainfall and SAH similar to the observed one, which may be associated with the bias in simulation of the subtropical anticyclone over the West Pacific (SAWP) at 500 hPa. In fact, it is found that any coupled GCM, that can reproduce the reasonable summer mean state of SAWP and the southward (northward) withdrawal (extension) for the <span class="hlt">east</span> (west) mode of SAH as compared to the observed, will also simulate similar rainfall anomaly patterns for the <span class="hlt">east</span> and west SAH modes over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Further analysis indicates that the observed variations in the SAH, SAWP and rainfall are closely related to the sea surface temperature (SST) over the equatorial tropical Pacific. Particularly, some models cannot simulate the SAWP extending northward in the west mode and withdrawing southward in the <span class="hlt">east</span> mode, which may be related to weak major El Niño or La Niña events. The abilities of the coupled GCMs to simulate the SAWP and ENSO events are associated partly with their ability to reproduce the observed relationship between SAH and the rainfall anomaly over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2554471','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2554471"><span id="translatedtitle">Ticks (Ixodidae) on birds migrating from Europe and <span class="hlt">Asia</span> to <span class="hlt">Africa</span>, 1959-61*</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hoogstraal, Harry; Kaiser, Makram N.; Traylor, Melvin A.; Guindy, Ezzat; Gaber, Sobhy</p> <p>1963-01-01</p> <p>The need for imaginative thinking and research in the epidemiology of diseases transmitted by arthropods is made manifest by new views of the longevity and host ranges of arthropod-borne viruses, as well as by other biological and medical phenomena. Among these is the intercontinental transport of ticks by migrating birds. During the fall migration periods of 1959, 1960 and 1961, 32 086 birds (comprising 72 forms) were examined for ticks in Egypt while en route from <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and eastern Europe to tropical <span class="hlt">Africa</span>. Of these, 40 forms, represented by 31 434 birds, were tick-infested. The bird hosts, numbering 1040 (3.31% of the tick-infested bird forms examined), bore 1761 ticks, or 1.69 ticks per host. Common ticks taken were Hyalomma m. marginatum, Haemaphysalis punctata, and Ixodes ricinus. Ixodes frontalis and Hyalomma aegyptium were less common and Haemaphysalis sulcata, H. otophila, and H. pavlovskyi were rare. The common tick species are known to be reservoirs and vectors of pathogens causing a number of human and animal diseases in Europe and <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Several of the bird hosts have also been incriminated as reservoirs in their summer ranges. Over 20 strains of pathogenic viruses were isolated from these birds and their ticks in Egypt in the 1961 fall migration period. The most difficult problems in investigations such as this in many parts of the world are taxonomic ones: the correct identification of bird hosts, of immature stages of ticks and of viruses. PMID:13961632</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10224921','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10224921"><span id="translatedtitle">[The characteristics of the macro- and trace element composition of the hair in the peoples of <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, <span class="hlt">Africa</span> and Latin America].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pavlov, Iu V; Alisievich, V I</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Macro- and trace element composition of hairs on the head, chest, in the armpits, and on the pubis in the population of <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, <span class="hlt">Africa</span>, and Latin America adapted and not to the climate, geographic and ecological conditions of the Russian Federation (Moscow) is studied by spectrography (DPS-13 spectrograph). Element composition of residents of 16 countries is analyzed by variation statistics methods using PC: Lebanon, Syria, Yemen, Bahrain, India, Sierra Leone, Côte d'Ivoire, Rwanda, Kenya, Sudan, Mexico, Ecuador, Bolivia, Brasilia, Columbia, and Chile. Hairs from residents of <span class="hlt">East</span> Europe (Russians, Byelorussians, Ukrainians) living in Moscow for 6-8 years (adapted) were the reference for comparison. A total of 371 specimens of hairs were examined. Hairs from adapted and not adapted residents of the above-listed countries and continents differ significantly from each other and from the hairs of Russians, Byelorussians, and Ukrainians living in Moscow. PMID:10224921</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AdAtS..32.1016Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AdAtS..32.1016Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Causes of mid-Pliocene strengthened summer and weakened winter monsoons over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Ran; Jiang, Dabang; Zhang, Zhongshi</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>The mid-Pliocene warm period was the most recent geological period in Earth's history that featured long-term warming. Both geological evidence and model results indicate that <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian summer winds (EASWs) strengthened in monsoonal China, and that <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian winter winds (EAWWs) weakened in northern monsoonal China during this period, as compared to the pre-industrial period. However, the corresponding mechanisms are still unclear. In this paper, the results of a set of numerical simulations are reported to analyze the effects of changed boundary conditions on the mid-Pliocene <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian monsoon climate, based on PRISM3 (Pliocene Research Interpretation and Synoptic Mapping) palaeoenvironmental reconstruction. The model results showed that the combined changes of sea surface temperatures, atmospheric CO2 concentration, and ice sheet extent were necessary to generate an overall warm climate on a large scale, and that these factors exerted the greatest effects on the strengthening of EASWs in monsoonal China. The orographic change produced significant local warming and had the greatest effect on the weakening of EAWWs in northern monsoonal China in the mid-Pliocene. Thus, these two factors both had important but different effects on the monsoon change. In comparison, the effects of vegetational change on the strengthened EASWs and weakened EAWWs were relatively weak. The changed monsoon winds can be explained by a reorganization of the meridional temperature gradient and zonal thermal contrast. Moreover, the effect of orbital parameters cannot be ignored. Results showed that changes in orbital parameters could have markedly affected the EASWs and EAWWs, and caused significant short-term oscillations in the mid-Pliocene monsoon climate in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15004123','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15004123"><span id="translatedtitle">Middle <span class="hlt">East</span>, North <span class="hlt">Africa</span> and Western Eurasia Seismic Research Database</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>O'Boyle, J L; Ruppert, S D; Hauk, T F; Dodge, D A; Ganzberger, M D; Ryall, F</p> <p>2003-07-14</p> <p>The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Research and Engineering (GNEM R&E) Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has made significant progress populating a comprehensive Seismic Research Database (SRDB) used for deriving seismic calibration parameters for the Middle <span class="hlt">East</span>, North <span class="hlt">Africa</span> and Western Eurasia (ME/NA/WE) regions. In addition to an overview of select individual information products, we present an overview of our visualization, integration, validation, and organizational processes. Development of these processes and the LLNL SRDB was necessitated by both the very large amount of data and information involved (over 15 terabytes) and the varied data and research result formats utilized. The LLNL SRDB allows for the collection of raw and contextual seismic data used in research, provides an interface for researchers to access data, provides a framework to store research results and integrate datasets, and supports assembly, integration and dissemination of datasets to the NNSA Knowledge Base (KB). The LLNL SRDB is a flexible and extensible framework consisting of a relational database (RDB), Geographical Information System (GIS), and associated product/data visualization and data management tools. This framework is designed to accommodate large volumes of data in diverse formats from many sources (both in-house-derived research and integrated contractor products), in addition to maintaining detailed quality control and metadata. In order to efficiently organize information within the LLNL SRDB, it was necessary to automate procedures needed to create and update database tables, but a large effort is still required by technicians and scientists to load special datasets, review results of automated processing and resolve quality issues. The LLNL SRDB currently has 3 million reconciled event origins and arrivals from several global, regional and local seismic bulletins and 30 million</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1811038B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1811038B"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling drought variability in the water scarce Middle <span class="hlt">East</span> and Southwest <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Barlow, Mathew; Hoell, Andrew; Schubert, Siegfried; Wang, Hailan</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The ability to simulate drought variability across the water scarce Middle <span class="hlt">East</span> and Southwest <span class="hlt">Asia</span> [40-80E,10-45N] is examined in terms of the seasonal precipitation variability simulated in a suite of different atmospheric models forced with observed sea surface temperatures. Several, but not all, of the models are able to capture key circulation changes known to be associated with large-scale forcing of severe drought in the region. Simulation skill also varies across the region. The model differences and skill areas have important implications for seasonal prediction of regional drought, which is explored both in general and for specific regional drought events, including 1999-2001, 2007-2008, and 2014-2015. The societal impact of the drought variability is considered in terms of the occurrence of drought disasters, as recorded in the CRED EM-DAT database.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20566559','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20566559"><span id="translatedtitle">The next generation of public health approaches to asthma in <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and the Middle <span class="hlt">East</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Van Sickle, David</p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>Chronic respiratory diseases now affect more than half a billion people worldwide and their importance as a global health problem has risen dramatically in recent years, prompting intense epidemiological investigation and the launch of numerous initiatives. Across <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and the Middle <span class="hlt">East</span>, a variety of environmental exposures increase the risk for the onset or exacerbation of chronic respiratory disease, resulting in a considerable burden of morbidity and mortality. This article outlines new possibilities for public health surveillance of environmental exposures and chronic respiratory disease built around an emerging model of participatory public health: a decentralized approach that involves citizens in the collection and analysis of data, harnesses pervasive technology such as mobile phones and distributed sensors, and provides an open platform for public-private collaboration. PMID:20566559</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12523687','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12523687"><span id="translatedtitle">Recent outbreaks of foot and mouth disease in countries of <span class="hlt">east</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sakamoto, K; Yoshida, K</p> <p>2002-12-01</p> <p>Japan regained the status of freedom from foot and mouth disease (FMD) without vaccination in September 2000 and the Republic of Korea likewise obtained this status in September 2001. However, new outbreaks of FMD caused by the pan-Asian topotype have occurred in pigs in the Republic of Korea since May 2002. Taipei China has not experienced an outbreak of FMD since February 2001 and the country is currently implementing an eradication programme. These countries had been free from FMD for many decades when in 1997, the FMD virus (FMDV) once again invaded the region, particularly in 2000; this resulted in widespread occurrence of the disease. The types of FMDV were investigated by genome analysis, and in each case the virus concerned was found to be a member of the pan-Asian O lineage. The authors present the recent situations and the characteristics of FMD in countries of <span class="hlt">east</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. PMID:12523687</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoRL..42.2789K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoRL..42.2789K"><span id="translatedtitle">Impact of soil moisture on dust outbreaks in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>: Using satellite and assimilation data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kim, Hyunglok; Choi, Minha</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>This study is the first assessment of the effects of soil moisture on dust outbreaks using satellite-derived aerosol optical depth (AOD) and global assimilation data on the sand regions across <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. The relationships among dust outbreaks, soil moisture, and wind speed were estimated using data sets of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer and Global Land Data Assimilation System collected over 11 years (2003-2013). The mean AOD exponentially decreased with increasing soil moisture under different wind speed conditions (average determination coefficient = 0.95). As the wind speed conditions became stronger, the probability of a dust outbreak became greatly affected by soil moisture. The threshold soil moisture for dust outbreaks increased with increasing wind speed and decreased with increasing dust-outbreak criteria of AOD. Our results have the capability to be applied to satellite-based dust-outbreak prediction and global-scale dust-emission studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..43.3509S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..43.3509S"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of climate change on surface ozone over North America, Europe, and <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schnell, Jordan L.; Prather, Michael J.; Josse, Beatrice; Naik, Vaishali; Horowitz, Larry W.; Zeng, Guang; Shindell, Drew T.; Faluvegi, Greg</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The effect of future climate change on surface ozone over North America, Europe, and <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> is evaluated using present-day (2000s) and future (2100s) hourly surface ozone simulated by four global models. Future climate follows RCP8.5, while methane and anthropogenic ozone precursors are fixed at year 2000 levels. Climate change shifts the seasonal surface ozone peak to earlier in the year and increases the amplitude of the annual cycle. Increases in mean summertime and high-percentile ozone are generally found in polluted environments, while decreases are found in clean environments. We propose that climate change augments the efficiency of precursor emissions to generate surface ozone in polluted regions, thus reducing precursor export to neighboring downwind locations. Even with constant biogenic emissions, climate change causes the largest ozone increases at high percentiles. In most cases, air quality extreme episodes become larger and contain higher ozone levels relative to the rest of the distribution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1450178','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1450178"><span id="translatedtitle">Impact of aerosol indirect effect on surface temperature over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Huang, Yan; Dickinson, Robert E.; Chameides, William L.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>A regional coupled climate–chemistry–aerosol model is developed to examine the impacts of anthropogenic aerosols on surface temperature and precipitation over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Besides their direct and indirect reduction of short-wave solar radiation, the increased cloudiness and cloud liquid water generate a substantial downward positive long-wave surface forcing; consequently, nighttime temperature in winter increases by +0.7°C, and the diurnal temperature range decreases by −0.7°C averaged over the industrialized parts of China. Confidence in the simulated results is limited by uncertainties in model cloud physics. However, they are broadly consistent with the observed diurnal temperature range decrease as reported in China, suggesting that changes in downward long-wave radiation at the surface are important in understanding temperature changes from aerosols. PMID:16537432</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18399180','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18399180"><span id="translatedtitle">[Tsunami in South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>--rapid response deployment in Banda Aceh].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Streuli, Rolf A</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>On December 26, 2004 the second largest earthquake ever seismographically registered occurred in South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. It had a magnitude of 9.3 on Richter's scale and its epicentre was located on sea ground 160 km West of Banda Aceh, the capital of the province of Aceh on the island of Sumatra. The earthquake resulted in a tsunami which almost completely destroyed the city of Banda Aceh. Its death toll on the island of Sumatra was 168,000. The Swiss Humanitarian Aid Unit was deployed within a few days after the catastrophe with an advance team, which had to evaluate the need for supplies and personal in Banda Aceh. In close collaboration with relief forces of the Australian armed forces the team was able to deliver efficient medical and technical support. The most prevalent medical problems were: (1) Tsunami associated aspiration pneumonia; (2) Infected wounds of lower extremities; (3) Open bone fractures of lower extremities; (4) Tetanus infection. PMID:18399180</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22966930','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22966930"><span id="translatedtitle">Resilience and well-being among children of migrant parents in South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jordan, Lucy P; Graham, Elspeth</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>There has been little systematic empirical research on the well-being of children in transnational households in South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>-a major sending region for contract migrants. This study uses survey data collected in 2008 from children aged 9, 10, and 11 and their caregivers in Indonesia, the Philippines, and Vietnam (N=1,498). Results indicate that while children of migrant parents, especially migrant mothers, are less likely to be happy compared to children in nonmigrant households, greater resilience in child well-being is associated to longer durations of maternal absence. There is no evidence for a direct parental migration effect on school enjoyment and performance. The analyses highlight the sensitivity of results to the dimension of child well-being measured and who makes the assessment. PMID:22966930</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15002004','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15002004"><span id="translatedtitle">Science and Technology to Advance Regional Security in the Middle <span class="hlt">East</span> and Central <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Tompson, A F B; Richardson, J H; Ragaini, R C; Knapp, R B; Rosenberg, N D; Smith, D K; Ball, D Y</p> <p>2002-10-09</p> <p>This paper is concerned with the promotion and advancement of regional security in the Middle <span class="hlt">East</span> and Central <span class="hlt">Asia</span> through the development of bilateral and multilateral cooperation on targeted scientific and technical projects. It is widely recognized that increasing tensions and instability in many parts of the world emphasize--or reemphasize--a need to seek and promote regional security in these areas. At the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), a national security research facility operated for the US Department of Energy, we are pursuing an effort to use science and technology as a ''low risk'' means of engagement in regions of strategic importance to the United States. In particular, we are developing collaborations and cooperative projects among (and between) national laboratory scientists in the US and our various counterparts in the countries of interest.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995JATP...57.1503H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995JATP...57.1503H"><span id="translatedtitle">Solar cycle variation of the total electron content around equatorial anomaly crest region in <span class="hlt">east</span> <span class="hlt">asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huang, Yinn-Nien; Cheng, Kang</p> <p>1995-10-01</p> <p>The monthly mean hourly values of total electron content data obtained at Lunping Observatory (geographic coordinates 25.00°N, 121.17°E; geomagnetic coordinates 14.3°N, 191.3°E) by using the ETS2 satellite beacon signal during the period from March 1977 to December 1990 have been used to analyze the solar cycle variations of total electron content (TEC) around equatorial anomaly crest region in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Positive, correlations were found between the 12 month running average of monthly mean TECs and sunspot numbers. By using the linear regression analysis method, the contour charts for real diurnal and seasonal variations of TEC at certain sunspot numbers were constructed and described. The diurnal variation of TEC was represented by the sum of its diurnal mean and first three harmonic components. The solar cycle variations of these components have also been discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4837485','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4837485"><span id="translatedtitle">Transnational migration, changing care arrangements and left-behind children's responses in South-<span class="hlt">east</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hoang, Lan Anh; Lam, Theodora; Yeoh, Brenda S.A.; Graham, Elspeth</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Recent increases in the volume of labour migration from South-<span class="hlt">east</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> – and in particular the feminisation of these movements – suggest that millions of children are growing up in transnational families, separated from their migrant parents. Drawing on both quantitative and qualitative data collected in Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam, the study seeks to elucidate care arrangements for left-behind children and to understand the ways in which children respond to shifts in intimate family relations brought about by (re)configurations of their care. Our findings emphasise that children, through strategies of resistance, resilience and reworking, are conscious social actors and agents of their own development, albeit within constrained situations resulting from their parents’ migration. PMID:27134570</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRD..120.8658C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRD..120.8658C"><span id="translatedtitle">Long-term trend and variability of soil moisture over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cheng, Shanjun; Guan, Xiaodan; Huang, Jianping; Ji, Fei; Guo, Ruixia</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>The variability of soil moisture over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> was analyzed using a long-term data set from the Global Land Data Assimilation System. Overall, a clear decreasing trend occurred over a period of 63 years, with pronounced drying over northeast China, north China, part of Mongolia, and Russia near lake Baikal. Statistical analyses show that decreasing precipitation and global warming have different effects on the decrease in soil moisture. The qualitative analysis and quantitative contributions illustrated that soil drying is driven primarily by decreasing precipitation and is enhanced almost twofold by increasing temperatures. As soil moisture decreases, the positive feedback between soil moisture and temperature may result in future water shortages. Following the Representative Concentration Pathways 8.5 (RCP8.5) and 4.5 (RCP4.5) simulation scenarios of Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5, the model-predicted soil moisture demonstrated a continuously decreasing trend during the 21st century.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4350086','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4350086"><span id="translatedtitle">The Plasmodium vivax in China: decreased in local cases but increased imported cases from Southeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and <span class="hlt">Africa</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Feng, Jun; Xiao, Huihui; Zhang, Li; Yan, He; Feng, Xinyu; Fang, Wen; Xia, Zhigui</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Currently the local P. vivax was sharply decreased while the imported vivax malaria increased in China. Despite Southeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span> was still the main import source of vivax malaria, the trend of <span class="hlt">Africa</span> become serious, especially for west and central <span class="hlt">Africa</span>. Herein we have clarified the trend of P. vivax in China from 2004–2012, and made some analysis for the differences of imported vivax back from different regions. There are significantly different of P. vivax between Southeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and <span class="hlt">Africa</span>, also the difference was observed for different regions in <span class="hlt">Africa</span>. Additionally, we have explored the possibility for the difference of the P. vivax between migrant workers back from west and central <span class="hlt">Africa</span> and the prevalence of local population. This reminds us that surveillance and training should be strengthened by medical staffs on the imported P. vivax cases reported especially from west and central <span class="hlt">Africa</span>, in order to reduce the risk of malaria reintroduction and, specific tools should be developed, as well as the epidemiological study to avoid the misdiagnosis such as P. ovale and P. vivax. PMID:25739365</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25757367','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25757367"><span id="translatedtitle">The burden of child maltreatment in the <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and Pacific region.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fang, Xiangming; Fry, Deborah A; Brown, Derek S; Mercy, James A; Dunne, Michael P; Butchart, Alexander R; Corso, Phaedra S; Maynzyuk, Kateryna; Dzhygyr, Yuriy; Chen, Yu; McCoy, Amalee; Swales, Diane M</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>This study estimated the health and economic burden of child maltreatment in the <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and Pacific region, addressing a significant gap in the current evidence base. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses were conducted to estimate the prevalence of child physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, neglect, and witnessing parental violence. Population Attributable Fractions were calculated and Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) lost from physical and mental health outcomes and health risk behaviors attributable to child maltreatment were estimated using the most recent comparable Global Burden of Disease data. DALY losses were converted into monetary value by assuming that one DALY is equal to the sub-region's per capita GDP. The estimated economic value of DALYs lost to violence against children as a percentage of GDP ranged from 1.24% to 3.46% across sub-regions defined by the World Health Organization. The estimated economic value of DALYs (in constant 2000 US$) lost to child maltreatment in the EAP region totaled US $151 billion, accounting for 1.88% of the region's GDP. Updated to 2012 dollars, the estimated economic burden totaled US $194 billion. In sensitivity analysis, the aggregate costs as a percentage of GDP range from 1.36% to 2.52%. The economic burden of child maltreatment in the <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and Pacific region is substantial, indicating the importance of preventing and responding to child maltreatment in this region. More comprehensive research into the impact of multiple types of childhood adversity on a wider range of putative health outcomes is needed to guide policy and programs for child protection in the region, and globally. PMID:25757367</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20905842','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20905842"><span id="translatedtitle">Atmospheric outflow of anthropogenic semivolatile organic compounds from <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> in Spring 2004</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Toby Primbs; Staci Simonich; David Schmedding; Glenn Wilson; Dan Jaffe; Akinori Takami; Shungo Kato; Shiro Hatakeyama; Yoshizumi Kajii</p> <p>2007-05-15</p> <p>To estimate the emissions of anthropogenic semivolatile organic compounds (SOCs) from <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and to identify unique SOC molecular markers in Asian air masses, high-volume air samples were collected on the island of Okinawa, Japan between 22 March and 2 May 2004. Contributions from different source regions (China, Japan, the Koreas, Russia, and ocean/local) were estimated by use of source region impact factors (SRIFs). Elevated concentrations of hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorcyclohexanes (HCHs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), and particulate-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were attributed to air masses from China. A large proportion of the variation in the current-use pesticides, gas-phase PAHs, and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations was explained by meteorology. Chlordanes showed a technical mixture profile and similar concentrations regardless of source region. {alpha}/{gamma} HCH and trans/cis chlordane ratios did not vary significantly with different source regions and had regional averages of 2.5 {+-} 1.0 and 1.2 {+-} 0.3, respectively. Particulate-phase PAH concentrations were significantly correlated (p value {lt} 0.05) with other incomplete combustion byproduct concentrations, including elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}), CO, NOx{asterisk}, black carbon, submicrometer aerosols, and SO{sub 2}. By use of measured PAH, CO, and black carbon concentrations and estimated CO and black carbon emission inventories, the emission of six carcinogenic particulate-phase PAHs was estimated to be 1518-4179 metric tons/year for <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and 778-1728 metric tons/year for China, respectively. These results confirm that <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian outflow contains significant emissions of carcinogenic particulate-phase PAHs. 39 refs., 3 figs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012Tectp.560...22C&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012Tectp.560...22C&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Metamorphic Core Complex dynamics and structural development: Field evidences from the Liaodong Peninsula (China, <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Charles, Nicolas; Gumiaux, Charles; Augier, Romain; Chen, Yan; Faure, Michel; Lin, Wei; Zhu, Rixiang</p> <p>2012-08-01</p> <p>Metamorphic Core Complexes (MCC) constitute remarkable features within wide rifts. Based on analogue and numerical modelling, MCC dynamics and structural development are mainly controlled by first geothermal gradient, second the compositional layering, and after the strain rate and partial melting. In the Late Mesozoic, continental extension occurred in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> leading to the development of MCC, magmatism and extensional sedimentary basins. Based on an integrated study (i.e. structural and finite strain analysis, petrofabrics, Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility (AMS) and U/Pb on zircon dating), this paper aims at constraining the tectonic evolution and deformation mechanisms in the South Liaodong Peninsula (NE China). The Gudaoling massif is identified as a "migmatitic" MCC developed from Upper Jurassic (ca. 157-154 Ma) to Early Cretaceous (ca. 128-113 Ma). Intrusion of the Yinmawanshan synkinematic pluton (Early Cretaceous) to the south of the dome marks out the final stages of shearing along the Gudaoling detachment zone and of exhumation of the MCC into the upper crust. The Gudaoling MCC and the Yinmawanshan pluton stay in line with the coeval South Liaodong MCC, to the south, all making a ~ 140 × 30 km wide extensional band formed during a regional E-W to NW-SE crustal stretching. The area shows a bi-phased development with a "slow" and a "fast" stage which corresponds to (1) crustal necking and (2) dome amplification/exhumation stages according to published thermo-mechanical modelling results. Finally, the Gudaoling MCC lower unit almost exclusively displays migmatites and anatectic granitoids of Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous, respectively. Occurrence of partial melting during earlier stages of extension seems controlling the initiation of MCC (as a soft anomaly within the lower crust). In <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, a regional-scale thermal event, during Jurassic-Cretaceous times, may have significantly reduced the bulk lithosphere strength and locally induced</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A41H0188L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A41H0188L"><span id="translatedtitle">Inter-Annual Variability of Aerosol Optical Depth over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> during 2000-2011 summers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, J.; Liu, Y.; Tao, S.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Aerosols degrade air quality, perturb atmospheric radiation, and impact regional and global climate. Due to a rapid increase of anthropogenic emissions, aerosol loading over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> (EA) is markedly higher than other industrialized regions, motivating a need to characterize the evolution of aerosols and understand the associated drivers. Based on the MISR satellite data during 2000-2011, a wave-like inter-annual variation of summertime aerosol optical depth (SAOD) is observed over the highly populated North China Plain (NCP) in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Specifically, the peak to trough ratio of SAOD ranges from 1.4 to 1.6, with a period of 3-4y. This variation pattern differs apparently from what has been seen in EA emissions, indicating a periodic change in regional climate pattern during the past decade. Investigations on meteorological fields over the region reveal that the high SAOD is generally associated with enhanced Philippine Sea Anticyclone Anomaly (PSAA), which weakens southeasterlies over northeastern EA and depresses air ventilation. Alternatively, a higher temperature or lower relative humidity is found to be coincident with reduced SAOD. The behavior of PSAA has been found previously to be modulated by the El Niño southern oscillations (ENSO), which thereby could disturb the EA SAOD as well. Rather than changing coherently with the ENSO activity, SAOD peaks over the NCP are found to be accompanied by the rapid transition of El Niño warm to cold phases developed four months ahead. An index measuring the ENSO development during January-April is able to capture the inter-annual variability of NCP SAOD during 2000-2011. This indicates a need to integrate the consideration of large-scale periodic climate variability in the design of regional air quality policy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4682665','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4682665"><span id="translatedtitle">The burden of child maltreatment in the <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and Pacific region☆</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Fang, Xiangming; Fry, Deborah A.; Brown, Derek S.; Mercy, James A.; Dunne, Michael P.; Butchart, Alexander R.; Corso, Phaedra S.; Maynzyuk, Kateryna; Dzhygyr, Yuriy; Chen, Yu; McCoy, Amalee; Swales, Diane M.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This study estimated the health and economic burden of child maltreatment in the <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and Pacific region, addressing a significant gap in the current evidence base. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses were conducted to estimate the prevalence of child physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, neglect, and witnessing parental violence. Population Attributable Fractions were calculated and Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) lost from physical and mental health outcomes and health risk behaviors attributable to child maltreatment were estimated using the most recent comparable Global Burden of Disease data. DALY losses were converted into monetary value by assuming that one DALY is equal to the sub-region’s per capita GDP. The estimated economic value of DALYs lost to violence against children as a percentage of GDP ranged from 1.24% to 3.46% across sub-regions defined by the World Health Organization. The estimated economic value of DALYs (in constant 2000 US$) lost to child maltreatment in the EAP region totaled US $151 billion, accounting for 1.88% of the region’s GDP. Updated to 2012 dollars, the estimated economic burden totaled US $194 billion. In sensitivity analysis, the aggregate costs as a percentage of GDP range from 1.36% to 2.52%. The economic burden of child maltreatment in the <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and Pacific region is substantial, indicating the importance of preventing and responding to child maltreatment in this region. More comprehensive research into the impact of multiple types of childhood adversity on a wider range of putative health outcomes is needed to guide policy and programs for child protection in the region, and globally. PMID:25757367</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..18.1336S&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..18.1336S&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Summer insolation is the primary driver for orbital-scale dust storm variability in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Serno, Sascha; Winckler, Gisela; Anderson, Robert F.; Jaccard, Samuel L.; Kienast, Stephanie S.; Haug, Gerald H.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Eolian dust plays an important role in the global climate system through its influence on radiation, albedo and precipitation properties, and through delivering micronutrients like iron to the oceans. Glacial periods of Earth's climate are recognized to be dustier than interglacials, but the conditions leading to greater dust mobilization are poorly defined. We present a high-resolution dust flux record based on 230Th-normalised 4He flux from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) site 882 in the Subarctic North Pacific covering the last 170,000 years. Today, dust storms in the vast dry regions of <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> are almost exclusively springtime phenomena, due to a specific set of climate conditions driven by the seasonal evolution of the meridional temperature gradient between high and low latitudes. The dust flux record points to high dust storm activity in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> during cold periods, with highest dust flux during Marine Isotope Stages 4 and 5d. We interpret periods of higher dust supply as the result of an expansion of the dust season into the summer, primarily controlled by reduced summer insolation at high latitudes and resulting lower air temperatures in Siberia over orbital timescales. Changes in the extent of the large Northern Hemisphere ice sheets in North America and Fennoscandinavia, and atmospheric teleconnections, act as a secondary control. On millennial timescales, the occurrence of Heinrich Stadials 1 and 11 signals during the last two terminations in Subarctic North Pacific dust records indicates that dust flux variability over millennial timescales was influenced by climate changes in the North Atlantic.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4267871','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4267871"><span id="translatedtitle">Evolutionary history of a widespread tree species Acer mono in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Guo, Xi-Di; Wang, Hong-Fang; Bao, Lei; Wang, Tian-Ming; Bai, Wei-Ning; Ye, Jun-Wei; Ge, Jian-Ping</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> has the most diverse temperate flora in the world primarily due to the lack of Pleistocene glaciation and the geographic heterogeneity. Although increasing phylogeography studies in this region provided more proofs in this issue, discrepancies and uncertainty still exist, especially in northern temperate deciduous broad-leaved and coniferous mixed forest region (II). And a widespread plant species could reduce the complexity to infer the relationship between diversity and physiographical pattern. Hence, we studied the evolution history of a widespread temperate tree, Acer mono, populations in region II and the influence of physiographic patterns on intraspecific genetic diversity. Analyses of chloroplast sequences and nuclear microsatellites indicated high levels of genetic diversity. The diversity distribution was spatially heterogeneous and a latitudinal cline existed in both markers. The spatial distribution pattern between genetic diversity within A. mono and the diversity at species level was generally consistent. Western subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest subregion (IVb) had a unique ancient chloroplast clade (CP3) and a nuclear gene pool (GP5) with dominance indicating the critical role of this area in species diversification. Genetic data and ecological niche model results both suggested that populations in region II disappeared during the last glacial maximum (LGM) and recovered from south of Changbai Mt. and the Korean Peninsula. Two distribution centers were likely during the LGM, one in the north edge of warm temperate deciduous broad-leaved forest region (III) and another in the south edge of region III. This was reflected by the genetic pattern with two spatially independent genetic groups. This study highlights the key role of region III in sustaining genetic diversity in the northern range and connecting diversity between southern and northern range. We elucidated the diversity relationship between vegetation regions which could</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20553069','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20553069"><span id="translatedtitle">Cancer epidemiology in mainland South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> - past, present and future.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Moore, Malcolm A; Attasara, Pattarawin; Khuhaprema, Thiravud; Le, Tran Ngoan; Nguyen, Thi Hoai Nga; Raingsey, Prak Piseth; Sriamporn, Supannee; Sriplung, Hutcha; Srivanatanakul, Petcharin; Bui, Duc Tung; Wiangnon, Surapon; Sobue, Tomotaka</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The countries of mainland South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia and Viet Nam, share a long history of interactions and many cultural similarities, as well as geographical contiguity. They therefore can be usefully examined as a group when considering measures for control of cancer and other non-communicable diseases. Liver cancer is consistently found at higher incidence than most other parts of <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, with lung cancer as the other most important neoplasm in males. In females cervical and breast cancer about equally predominate, throughout. However, there are also major differences, particularly with regard to stomach and nasopharyngeal cancer, only found at relatively high incidence in Viet Nam. The present review was conducted to gather together registry data on cancer prevalence and epidemiological findings cited in PubMed in order to obtain as comprehensive picture as possible of the present status. It is hoped that future cooperation across the region will facilitate development of coordinated cancer control programs to reduce the burden. PMID:20553069</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12293729','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12293729"><span id="translatedtitle">Women are key players in the economies of <span class="hlt">East</span> and Southeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Westley, S B; Mason, A</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>In 1996, the <span class="hlt">East</span>-West Center's Program on Population investigated the links between population change and economic growth in Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, Thailand, and Indonesia. This document discusses the findings pertaining to women's changing marriage and childbearing patterns, education attainment, and labor force participation as well as changes in family life. In eastern and southeastern <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, women are delaying marriage and having fewer children as a result of their overwhelming acceptance of modern contraception. Concurrently, women's secondary school enrollment has increased dramatically since 1960, and women have accounted for steadily increasing proportions of total labor force growth. Economic development has led to fewer women employed in agriculture and more in clerical positions. Women continue to be marginalized in low-paying manufacturing jobs and to lose these jobs more frequently than do men. Women's labor force participation continues to be dependent upon their child care responsibilities, but women are beginning to combine both activities with the help of live-in grandparents. Women have made an important contribution to economic growth in <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Policies should address job discrimination against married women, wage discrimination, the problems faced by young women who leave home for employment in the manufacturing and service sectors, and the lack of child care facilities. PMID:12293729</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AtmEn..44.1414P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AtmEn..44.1414P"><span id="translatedtitle">A contribution of brown carbon aerosol to the aerosol light absorption and its radiative forcing in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Park, Rokjin J.; Kim, Minjoong J.; Jeong, Jaein I.; Youn, Daeok; Kim, Sangwoo</p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>Brown carbon aerosols were recently found to be ubiquitous and effectively absorb solar radiation. We use a 3-D global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) together with aircraft and ground based observations from the TRACE-P and the ACE-<span class="hlt">Asia</span> campaigns to examine the contribution of brown carbon aerosol to the aerosol light absorption and its climatic implication over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> in spring 2001. We estimated brown carbon aerosol concentrations in the model using the mass ratio of brown carbon to black carbon (BC) aerosols based on measurements in China and Europe. The comparison of simulated versus observed aerosol light absorption showed that the model accounting for brown carbon aerosol resulted in a better agreement with the observations in <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian-Pacific outflow. We then used the model results to compute the radiative forcing of brown carbon, which amounts up to -2.4 W m -2 and 0.24 W m -2 at the surface and at the top of the atmosphere (TOA), respectively, over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Mean radiative forcing of brown carbon aerosol is -0.43 W m -2 and 0.05 W m -2 at the surface and at the TOA, accounting for about 15% of total radiative forcing (-2.2 W m -2 and 0.33 W m -2) by absorbing aerosols (BC + brown carbon aerosol), having a significant climatic implication in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=myanmar&pg=4&id=ED415134','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=myanmar&pg=4&id=ED415134"><span id="translatedtitle">Counting the Full Cost: Parental and Community Financing of Education in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Directions in Development Series.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bray, Mark</p> <p></p> <p>This collaborative report focuses on nine countries in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>: Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Mongolia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam. While acknowledging that these countries share some common features, the report also highlights each country's particular characteristics and the implications of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=teaching+AND+salaries&id=EJ986242','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=teaching+AND+salaries&id=EJ986242"><span id="translatedtitle">Strategies to Improve Teacher Retention in American Overseas Schools in the Near <span class="hlt">East</span> South <span class="hlt">Asia</span> Region: A Qualitative Analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Mancuso, Steven V.; Roberts, Laura; White, George P.; Yoshida, Roland K.; Weston, David</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Using a qualitative analysis and drawing from sociological theory, this study examined reasons for teacher turnover and retention from a representative sample of 248 teachers in American overseas schools in the Near <span class="hlt">East</span> South <span class="hlt">Asia</span> region. Results suggested that the most important reasons to stay or move pertained to supportive leadership,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED082627.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED082627.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Higher Education and Development in South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Volume III, Part 2, Language Policy and Higher Education.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Noss, Richard</p> <p></p> <p>This document, the second part of the third volume of a study concerned with the role of institutions of higher education in the development of countries in South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, discusses the problems aroused by language in the region. Chapters I-IV cover assumptions of the study, common problems of the region, current solutions, and future outlook.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=thailand&id=EJ1021673','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=thailand&id=EJ1021673"><span id="translatedtitle">Synthesis of Findings from 15?years of Educational Reform in Thailand: Lessons on Leading Educational Change in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hallinger, Philip; Bryant, Darren A.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The past two decades have been a period of active education reform throughout much of the world, and <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> is no exception. This paper synthesizes findings from a series of empirical studies of educational reform in Thailand where an ambitious educational reform law was adopted in 1999. The purpose is to identify lessons learned about…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACPD...14.9517C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACPD...14.9517C"><span id="translatedtitle">Photochemical roles of rapid economic growth and potential abatement strategies on tropospheric ozone over South and <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> in 2030</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chatani, S.; Amann, M.; Goel, A.; Hao, J.; Klimont, Z.; Kumar, A.; Mishra, A.; Sharma, S.; Wang, S. X.; Wang, Y. X.; Zhao, B.</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>A regional air quality simulation framework including the Weather Research and Forecasting modelling system (WRF), the Community Multi-scale Air Quality modeling system (CMAQ), and precursor emissions to simulate tropospheric ozone over South and <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> is introduced. Concentrations of tropospheric ozone and related species simulated by the framework are validated by comparing with observation data of surface monitorings, ozone zondes, and satellites obtained in 2010. The simulation demonstrates acceptable performance on tropospheric ozone over South and <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> at regional scale. Future energy consumption, carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions in 2030 under three future scenarios are estimated. One of the scenarios assumes a business-as-usual (BAU) pathway, and other two scenarios consider implementation of additional energy and environmental strategies to reduce energy consumption, CO2, NOx, and VOC emissions in China and India. Future surface ozone under these three scenarios is predicted by the simulation. The simulation indicates future surface ozone significantly increases around India for a whole year and around north eastern China in summer. NOx is a main driver on significant seasonal increase of surface ozone, whereas VOC as well as increasing background ozone and methane is also an important factor on annual average of surface ozone in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Warmer weather around India is also preferable for significant increase of surface ozone. Additional energy and environmental strategies assumed in future scenarios are expected to be effective to reduce future surface ozone over South and <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACP....14.9259C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACP....14.9259C"><span id="translatedtitle">Photochemical roles of rapid economic growth and potential abatement strategies on tropospheric ozone over South and <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> in 2030</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chatani, S.; Amann, M.; Goel, A.; Hao, J.; Klimont, Z.; Kumar, A.; Mishra, A.; Sharma, S.; Wang, S. X.; Wang, Y. X.; Zhao, B.</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>A regional air quality simulation framework including the Weather Research and Forecasting modeling system (WRF), the Community Multi-scale Air Quality modeling system (CMAQ), and precursor emissions to simulate tropospheric ozone over South and <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> is introduced. Concentrations of tropospheric ozone and related species simulated by the framework are validated by comparing with observation data of surface monitoring, ozonesondes, and satellites obtained in 2010. The simulation demonstrates acceptable performance on tropospheric ozone over South and <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> at regional scale. Future energy consumption, carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions in 2030 under three future scenarios are estimated. One of the scenarios assumes a business-as-usual (BAU) pathway, and other two scenarios consider implementation of additional energy and environmental strategies to reduce energy consumption, CO2, NOx, and VOC emissions in China and India. Future surface ozone under these three scenarios is predicted by the simulation. The simulation indicates future surface ozone significantly increases around India for a whole year and around northeastern China in summer. NOx is a main driver on significant seasonal increase of surface ozone, whereas VOC as well as increasing background ozone and methane is also an important factor on annual average of surface ozone in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Warmer weather around India is also preferable for significant increase of surface ozone. Additional energy and environmental strategies assumed in future scenarios are expected to be effective to reduce future surface ozone over South and <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=manufacturing+OR+%22new+opportunities+in+manufacturing%22++OR+%22+south+korea%22+&pg=6&id=EJ1067934','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=manufacturing+OR+%22new+opportunities+in+manufacturing%22++OR+%22+south+korea%22+&pg=6&id=EJ1067934"><span id="translatedtitle">English Language Education among Young Learners in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>: A Review of Current Research (2004-2014)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Butler, Yuko Goto</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The teaching of foreign languages to young learners is growing in popularity around the world. Research in this field, particularly of English as a second/foreign language education in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, is a relatively new area of empirical inquiry, and it has the potential to make significant contributions to child second-language acquisition…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED082647.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED082647.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Higher Education and Development in South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Volume III, Part 1, High-level Manpower for Development.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hunter, Guy</p> <p></p> <p>This document, the first part of the third volume of a study concerned with the role of institutions of higher education in the development of countries in South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, appraises the high-level manpower needs of the region. The report is divided into two sections: the first includes the major comments on the position of high-level manpower in…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED503954.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED503954.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Policy Coherence towards <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>: Development Challenges for OECD Countries. OECD Development Centre Policy Brief No. 26</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Fukasaku, K.; Kawai, M.; Plummer, M. G.; Trzeciak-Duval, A.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Coherence issues drawn from specific country and regional cases can provide the most concrete information on the development implications of OECD-country policies. A first regional case study focused on <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, with financial support from the Policy Research Institute of the Japanese Ministry of Finance. The links between the region's…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=joint&id=EJ1097893','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=joint&id=EJ1097893"><span id="translatedtitle">Quality Assurance of Joint Degree Programs from the Perspective of Quality Assurance Agencies: Experience in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hou, Yung-Chi; Ince, Martin; Tsai, Sandy; Wang, Wayne; Hung, Vicky; Lin Jiang, Chung; Chen, Karen Hui-Jung</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Joint degree programs have gained popularity in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, due to the growth of transnational higher education in the region since 2000. However, the external quality assurance (QA) and accreditation of joint degree programs is a challenge for QA agencies, as it normally involves the engagement of several institutions and multiple national…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4859006','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4859006"><span id="translatedtitle">Scientific publications in critical care medicine journals from <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>: A 10-year survey of the literature</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cao, Zhenyu; Ou, Chongyang; Teng, Hongfei; Liu, Xiguang; Tang, Hongxin</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Objective: The quantity and quality of publications in critical care medicine from <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> haven’t been reported. This study aimed to investigate the contribution of publications from <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Methods: Articles from China, Japan and South Korea in 2005 to 2014 were retrieved from Web of Science and Pubmed. The number of publications, impact factor, citation, and article types were analyzed. Results: There were 3076 publications from <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> (1720 from China, 913 from Japan, and 443 from South Korea). There were a significant decrease in publications from Japan (p = 0.024) and significant increases from China (p = 0.000) and South Korea (p = 0.009). From 2006, the number of articles from China exceed Japan. China had the highest total impact factor (6618.48) and citation (18416), followed by Japan (4566.03; 15440) and South Korea (1998.19; 5599). Japan had the highest mean impact factor (5.00) and citations (16.91), followed by South Korea (4.51; 12.64) and China (3.85; 10.71). Conclusions: China and South Korea`s contributions to critical care medicine had significant increases during the past 10 years, while Japan had a significant decrease. China was the most productive region in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> since 2006. Japan had the highest quality research output. PMID:27182223</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Whaling&pg=2&id=ED446161','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Whaling&pg=2&id=ED446161"><span id="translatedtitle">Endangered Peoples of Southeast & <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>: Struggles To Survive and Thrive. Endangered Peoples of the World Series.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Sponsel, Leslie E., Ed.</p> <p></p> <p>This volume introduces 14 endangered cultures from Southeast and <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and describes the most pressing issues facing these marginalized groups, such as the impact of tourism, prohibition against whaling, or dislocation due to nuclear testing. The chapters are: (1) "Identities, Ecologies, Rights, and Features: All Endangered" (Leslie E.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70147555','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70147555"><span id="translatedtitle">Dispersal of H9N2 influenza A viruses between <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and North America by wild birds</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Ramey, Andy M.; Reeves, Andrew B.; Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Teslaa, Joshua L.; Nashold, Sean W.; Donnelly, Tyrone F.; Casler, Bruce; Hall, Jeffrey S.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Samples were collected from wild birds in western Alaska to assess dispersal of influenza A viruses between <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and North America. Two isolates shared nearly identical nucleotide identity at eight genomic segments with H9N2 viruses isolated from China and South Korea providing evidence for intercontinental dispersal by migratory birds.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26211507','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26211507"><span id="translatedtitle">South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> study alliance guidelines on the management of acne vulgaris in South-<span class="hlt">East</span> Asian patients.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Goh, Chee Leok; Abad-Casintahan, Flordeliz; Aw, Derrick Chen Wee; Baba, Roshidah; Chan, Lee Chin; Hung, Nguyen Thanh; Kulthanan, Kanokvalai; Leong, Hoe Nam; Medina-Oblepias, Marie Socouer; Noppakun, Nopadon; Sitohang, Irma Bernadette; Sugito, Titi Lestari; Wong, Su-Ni</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>The management of acne in South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> is unique, as Asian skin and local variables require a clinical approach unlike that utilized in other parts of the world. There are different treatment guidelines per country in the region, and a group of leading dermatologists from these countries convened to review these guidelines, discuss current practices and recent advances, and formulate consensus guidelines to harmonize the management of acne vulgaris in the region. Emphasis has been placed on formulating recommendations to impede the development of antibiotic resistance in Propionibacterium acnes. The group adopted the Acne Consensus Conference system for grading acne severity. The group recommends that patients may be treated with topical medications including retinoids, benzoyl peroxide (BPO), salicylic acid, a combination of retinoid and BPO, or a combination of retinoids and BPO with or without antibiotics for mild acne; topical retinoid with topical BPO and a oral antibiotic for moderate acne; and oral isotretinoin if the patient fails first-line treatment (a 6- or 8-week trial of combined oral antibiotics and topical retinoids with BPO) for severe acne. Maintenance acne treatment using topical retinoids with or without BPO is recommended. To prevent the development of antibiotic resistance, topical antibiotics should not be used as monotherapy or used simultaneously with oral antibiotics. Skin care, comprised of cleansing, moisturizing and sun protection, is likewise recommended. Patient education and good communication is recommended to improve adherence, and advice should be given about the characteristics of the skin care products patients should use. PMID:26211507</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26606709','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26606709"><span id="translatedtitle">Maternal Death Surveillance and Response in <span class="hlt">East</span> and Southern <span class="hlt">Africa</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Scott, Heather; Dairo, Akinyele</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Maternal death surveillance and response (MDSR) is one of several low cost, high impact strategies to reduce maternal mortality. This initiative is supported in eastern and southern <span class="hlt">Africa</span> by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and other partners. Currently, South <span class="hlt">Africa</span> is the leading country in the institutionalization of MDSR through the Confidential Enquiry into Maternal Deaths (CEMD). With the support of UNFPA and other partners, at least 15 countries in the region have introduced MDSR into maternal and newborn health care programs. The report from the knowledge-sharing meeting and the findings of the evaluation of the South African MDSR show that MDSR is still not at an optimal level in most countries in sub-Saharan <span class="hlt">Africa</span>, despite the efforts of national authorities and support from a number of development partners. Additional work is required on the part of national authorities, communities, and development organizations, and the challenges being faced were highlighted at the knowledge-sharing meeting. PMID:26606709</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A13C3184K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A13C3184K"><span id="translatedtitle">Inverse Modeling to Improve Emission Inventory for PM10 Forecasting in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> Region Focusing on Korea.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Koo, Y. S.; Choi, D.; Kwon, H. Y.; Han, J.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The aerosol transports from China and Mongolia along the Northwestern wind have large influence on the air quality in Korea and the assessment of the emission in the <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> region is an important factor in air quality forecasting in Korea. In order to obtain working PM10 emission inventory for the PM10 forecast modeling over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, the Bayesian approach with CAMx (Comprehensive Air-quality Model with extension) forward model was applied. The surface observations of PM10 from EANET (Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>), API (Air Pollution Index) sites over China and AAQMS (Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Stations) in Korea were used for the inverse modelling. The predicted PM10 concentrations with a priori emission were compared with observations at monitoring sites in China and Korea. The comparison showed that PM10 concentrations with a priori emissions were generally under-predicted. The result also indicated that anthropogenic PM10 emissions in the industrialized and urbanized areas in China were under-estimated in particular. Optimized a posteriori PM10 emissions over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> from inverse modelling analysis ware proposed. A posteriori PM10 emissions were much lower than the a priori emission where the soil dust emissions were prevailing. This implied that the dust emission module still had large uncertainty and it was necessary to further research on the improvement of in-line emission modelling for the soil dust. In contrast, a posteriori anthropogenic emissions from industrialized areas such as Beijing and Shenyang sites were slightly higher than a priori emission at regions. Especially, a posteriori PM10 emissions increased in Korea and in Northeast region of China. The predictions of PM10 with proposed a posteriori emission showed better agreement with the observations, implying that the inverse modelling minimized the discrepancies in the model estimation by improving PM10 emissions in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Further details of inverse modeling</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A12B..06C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A12B..06C"><span id="translatedtitle">Natural and Anthropogenically Perturbed Biogenic Aerosol over Tropical South <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Coe, H.; Robinson, N.; Allan, J. D.; Hewitt, C. N.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Tropical forested regions are of interest as sources of atmospheric aerosol since they cover very large areas of the tropics and are a source of a large amount of volatile organic compounds which act as precursors for particle formation. Natural forest regions offer the potential to study the background state of the tropics and so potentially gain some insight into the pre-perturbed atmosphere. However, over the last decade in South <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, a considerable fraction of the native tropical deciduous forest has been deforested and replanted with palm oil plantations. This changes the range of volatile organic compounds that are emitted and act as sources of secondary organic aerosol. A suite of intensive ground and airborne measurements were made over both tropical forest and oil palm plantations in Sabah, Malaysia as part of the "Oxidant and Particle Photochemical Processes above a South <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian tropical rainforest (OP3) during 2008. These data will be used together with recent improvements in our understanding of aerosol formation from biogenic compounds to discuss aerosol formation in tropical regions and the influence of human influence through widespread palm oil agriculture.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ClDy...40.1625H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ClDy...40.1625H"><span id="translatedtitle">Regional climate simulations of summer diurnal rainfall variations over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and Southeast China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huang, Wan-Ru; Chan, Johnny C. L.; Au-Yeung, Andie Y. M.</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>This study evaluates the performance of RegCM3 (Regional Climate Model Version 3) in simulating the <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian rainfall, with emphasis on the diurnal variations of rainfall over Southeast China during the 1998-2002 summer (June-August) seasons. The evaluation focuses on the sensitivity of the choice of cumulus parameterizations and model domain. With the right setup, the spatial and temporal evolution of diurnal rainfall over Southeast China, which has not been well simulated by past studies, can be accurately simulated by RegCM3. Results show that the Emanuel cumulus scheme has a more realistic simulation of summer mean rainfall in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, while the GFC (Grell scheme with the Frisch-Chappell convective closure assumption) scheme is better in simulating the diurnal variations of rainfall over Southeast China. The better performance of these two schemes [relative to the other two schemes in RegCM3: the Kuo scheme and the GAS (Grell scheme with the Arakawa-Schubert closure assumption) scheme] can be attributed to the reasonable reproduction of the major formation mechanism of rainfall—the moisture flux convergence—over Southeast China. Furthermore, when the simulation domain covers the entire Tibetan Plateau, the diurnal variations of rainfall over Southeast China are found to exhibit a noticeable improvement without changes in the physics schemes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21286009','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21286009"><span id="translatedtitle">Clinical characteristics and etiology of travelers' diarrhea among Korean travelers visiting South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ahn, Ji Yong; Chung, Jin-Won; Chang, Kyu-Jin; You, Myung Hwan; Chai, Jin Sung; Kang, Young A; Kim, Seong-Han; Jeoung, Hyesook; Cheon, Doosung; Jeoung, Ahyong; Choi, Eun Suk</p> <p>2011-02-01</p> <p>The morbidity of travelers' diarrhea (TD) is still high. This study examined the incidence of common pathogens and characteristics of TD among Korean travelers who visited South-<span class="hlt">East</span> Asian countries. We performed a prospective study involving 479 Korean travelers with diarrheal disease from February 2009 to April 2009 and stool samples were examined and questionnaire surveys were done after arrival. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) was found in 36.0% of TD cases, as were the following: Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) in 27.0%, Vibrio parahaemolyticus in 13.1%, and Norovirus in 11.5%. The detected rate of classic TD was higher in men (P = 0.007), in patients who had a shorter duration trip (P = 0.023) and in patients who drank more than 1 liter of water per day (P = 0.037). Positive stool culture rates were higher in men (P = 0.005), in hospitalized patients (P = 0.013). and in those who consumed impure water or raw foods (P = 0.033). A higher severity of disease corresponded to a significantly higher culture positivity rate (P = 0.029). We should consider the possibility of other pathogens in addition to ETEC in patients with TD who visit South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Travelers need to educate about risk factors associated with TD. PMID:21286009</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005SPIE.5976..243T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005SPIE.5976..243T"><span id="translatedtitle">Verification of deforestation in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> by spatial logit models due to population and relief energy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tanaka, Shojiro; Nishii, Ryuei</p> <p>2005-10-01</p> <p>Deforestation is a result of complex causality chains in most cases. But identification of limited number of factors shall provide comprehensive general understanding of the vital phenomenon at a broad scale, as well as projection for the future. Only two factors -- human population size (N) and relief energy (R: difference of minimum altitude from the maximum in a sampled area) -- were found to give sufficient elucidation of deforestation by nonlinear logit regression models, whose functional forms were suggested by step functions fitted to one-kilometer square high precision grid-cell data in Japan (n=6825). Likelihood with spatial dependency was derived, and several deforestation models were selected for the application to <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> by calculating relative appropriateness to data. For the measure of appropriateness, Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) was used. Logit model is employed so as to avoid anomaly in asymptotic lower and upper bounds. Therefore the forest areal rate, 0 < F < 1. To formulate <span class="hlt">East</span>-Asian dataset, landcover dataset estimated from NOAA observations available at UNEP, Tsukuba for F, gridded population of the world of CIESIN, US for N, and GTOPO30 of USGS for R, were used. The resolutions were matched by taking their common multiple of 20 minutes square. It was suggested that data of full forest coverage, F=1.0, which were not dealt in calculations due to logit transformation this time, should give important role in stabilizing parameter estimations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989STIN...9030166T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989STIN...9030166T"><span id="translatedtitle">Re-analysis of data on the space radiation environment above south-<span class="hlt">east</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Truscott, P. R.</p> <p>1989-11-01</p> <p>A new analysis was performed on the hand held HRM 3 gamma ray detector data collected from Shuttle missions STS-41B, 41C, 41D, 41G, and 51A. The new analysis shows no evidence for the existence of enhanced levels of radiation in low Earth orbit over South <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> (i.e., in the area bounded by longitudes 100 to 190 deg <span class="hlt">east</span> and latitudes 10 deg south to 15 deg north) as previously suggested. Variation in the detector count rates with geographical location are shown to be consistent with the variation of the cosmic ray flux with geomagnetic latitude, and also show expected increases due to the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) and outer belt electrons. However, at times poor quantitative agreement is found between the expected positions of the SAA or outer electron belt, and the Shuttle's geographical location on the occasions when high count rates were observed. It is believed that this lack of correlation is a result of the sensitivity of the trapped particle environment to geographical position and magnetospheric activity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22888982','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22888982"><span id="translatedtitle">A comparative evaluation of the glycaemic potential of commercial breads consumed in South <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ranawana, Viren; Henry, C Jeya K</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>Bread has become a widely consumed staple food in South-<span class="hlt">east</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. However, there is very little data on the glycaemic potential of local commercial breads. The objective of this study was to comparatively assess the glycaemic potential of some commonly consumed commercial breads using a validated in vitro model. Sixteen types of breads representing the most popular brands and types were evaluated. The results showed that white and enriched white breads had a greater glycaemic potential than wholemeal breads (rapidly digestible starch (RDS) content >450 mg of glucose/g of sample). The lowest glycaemic potential was observed for wholegrain breads (RDS content < 375 mg of glucose/g of sample). The glycaemic impact of some specialty breads such as pandan bread, milk bread and corn loaf was also examined. Whist the data show that South-<span class="hlt">east</span> Asian breads have notably differential effects on glycaemia, it highlights the need to formulate Asian dietary guidelines for bread which will enable better food choice and glycaemic control. PMID:22888982</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16447491','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16447491"><span id="translatedtitle">Epidemiology and ecology of highly pathogenic avian influenza with particular emphasis on South <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Martin, V; Sims, L; Lubroth, J; Pfeiffer, D; Slingenbergh, J; Domenech, J</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) has been recognised as a serious viral disease of poultry since 1878. The number of recorded outbreaks of HPAI has increased globally in the past 10 years culminating in 2004 with the unprecedented outbreaks of H5N1 HPAI involving at least nine countries in <span class="hlt">East</span> and South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Apart from the geographical extent of these outbreaks and apparent rapid spread, this epidemic has a number of unique features, among which is the role that asymptomatic domestic waterfowl and more particularly free-ranging ducks play in the transmission of highly pathogenic H5N1. Field epidemiological studies have been conducted by the Food and Agriculture Organization and several collaborative centres to explore the factors that could have led to a change from infection to the emergence of widespread disease in 2003-2004 and 2005. Domestic waterfowl, specific farming practices and agro-ecological environments have been identified to play a key role in the occurrence, maintenance and spread of HPAI. Although there are some questions that remain unanswered regarding the origins of the 2004 outbreaks, the current understanding of the ecology and epidemiology of the disease should now lead to the development of adapted targeted surveillance studies and control strategies. PMID:16447491</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23830970','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23830970"><span id="translatedtitle">Compulsory drug detention in <span class="hlt">East</span> and Southeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span>: evolving government, UN and donor responses.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Amon, Joseph J; Pearshouse, Richard; Cohen, Jane E; Schleifer, Rebecca</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>According to official accounts, more than 235,000 people are detained in over 1000 compulsory drug detention centers in <span class="hlt">East</span> and South <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Individuals in such centers are held for periods of months to years, and can experience a wide range of human rights abuses, including violation of the rights to freedom from torture and cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment; freedom from arbitrary arrest and detention; a fair trial; privacy; the highest attainable standard of health; and freedom from forced labor. Since 2010, an increasing number of United Nations agencies, human rights experts, and others have expressed concerns about rights abuses associated with compulsory drug detention centers, and since 2012, called for their closure. Although they do not represent a complete break from the past, these calls mark a significant shift from past engagement with drug detention, which included direct and indirect funding of detention centers and activities in detention centers by some donors. However, the lack of transparent governance, restrictions on free speech and prohibitions on monitoring by independent, international human rights organizations make assessing the evolving laws, policies and practices, as well as the attitudes of key governments officials, difficult. Looking specifically at publicly announced reforms and statements by government officials in China, Cambodia, Vietnam and Lao PDR reveals possible improvements in respect for the rights of drug users, and on-going challenges. PMID:23830970</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20553070','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20553070"><span id="translatedtitle">Cancer epidemiology and control in peninsular and island South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> - past, present and future.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Moore, Malcolm A; Manan, Azizah Ab; Chow, Khuan Yew; Cornain, Santoso F; Devi, C R Beena; Triningsih, F X Ediati; Laudico, Adriano; Mapua, Cynthia A; Mirasol-Lumague, Maria Rica; Noorwati, S; Nyunt, Kan; Othman, Nor Hayati; Shah, Shamsul Azhar; Sinuraya, Evlina Suzanna; Yip, Cheng Har; Sobue, Tomotaka</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Malaysia, Brunei, Singapore, Indonesia, <span class="hlt">East</span> Timor and the Philippines constitute peninsular and island South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. For reasons of largely shared ethnicity, with Chinese elements added to the basic Austromalaysian populations, as well as geographical contiguity, they can be usefully grouped together for studies of chronic disease prevalence and underlying risk factors. The fact of problems are shared in common, particularly regarding increasing cancer rates, underlines the necessity for a coordinated approach to research and development of control measures. To provide a knowledge base, the present review of available data for cancer registration, epidemiology and control was conducted. The most prevalent cancer site in males is the lung, followed by the liver, colon or the prostate in the majority of cases, while breast and cervical cancers predominate in most female populations. However, there are interesting differences among the racial groups, particularly regarding the stomach. General tendencies for increase in adenocarcinomas but decrease in squamous cell carcinomas and gastric cancer, point to change in environmental influence over time. Variation in risk factors depends to some extent on the level of economic development but overall the countries of the region face similar challenges in achieving effective cancer control. A major task is persuading the general populace of the efficacy of early detection and clinical treatment. PMID:20553070</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..18.5344D&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..18.5344D&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Uplifting of carbon monoxide from biomass burning and anthropogenic sources to the free troposphere in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ding, Ke; Liu, Jane; Ding, Aijun; Liu, Qiang; Zhao, Tianliang; Shi, Jiancheng; Han, Yong; Wang, Hengmao; Jiang, Fei</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> has experienced rapid development with increasing carbon monoxide (CO) emission in the past decades. Therefore, uplifting CO from the boundary layer to the free troposphere in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> can have great implications on regional air quality around the world. It can also influence global climate due to the longer lifetime of CO at higher altitudes. In this study, three cases of high CO episodes in the <span class="hlt">East</span> China Sea and the Sea of Japan from 2003 to 2005 are examined with spaceborne Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) data, in combination with aircraft measurements from the Measurement of Ozone and Water Vapor by Airbus In-Service Aircraft (MOZAIC) program. Through analyses of the simulations from a chemical transport model GEOS-Chem and a trajectory dispersion model FLEXPART, we found different CO signatures in the elevated CO and distinct transport pathways and mechanisms for these cases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Africa&pg=3&id=EJ1020569','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Africa&pg=3&id=EJ1020569"><span id="translatedtitle">Traditional Music of <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Africa</span>: Experiencing "Ngoma" in Tanzania</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Howard, Karen</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The concept of ngoma is present throughout Eastern and Southern <span class="hlt">Africa</span>. Ngoma refers to the tradition of expression via music, drumming, dance, and storytelling. History, values, education, and even identity can be transmitted between generations. This article traces the experiences of a music teacher from the United States traveling and studying…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1059061.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1059061.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Investigating Students' Behavioural Intention to Adopt and Use Mobile Learning in Higher Education in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Africa</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Mtebe, Joel S.; Raisamo, Roope</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Recent penetration of mobile technologies and its services in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Africa</span> has provided a new platform for institutions to widen access to education through mobile learning. Mobile technologies provide learners with flexibility and ubiquity to learn anytime and anywhere via wireless Internet. However, far too little research has been conducted to…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=banana%5d&pg=4&id=ED450011','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=banana%5d&pg=4&id=ED450011"><span id="translatedtitle">Lessons from Mount Kilimanjaro: Schooling, Community, and Gender in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Africa</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Stambach, Amy</p> <p></p> <p>This book presents an ethnographic study of a school and community in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Africa</span>. It focuses on the role school plays in the development of the children's identity and relationships to their parents and community, and in the development of the region. At issue here are the competing influences of Western modernity and the cultural traditions of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=242330','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=242330"><span id="translatedtitle">A Scientific note on Varroa mites found in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Africa</span>; Threat or Opportunity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Varroa mites have devastated Apis mellifera L. honeybee populations wherever they co-occur around the world, yet in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Africa</span> these mites may have finally met their match. Varroa destructor Anderson and Truman (Acari:Varroidae) was found in Kenya and Tanzania for the first time in early 2009, but...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=mcculloch&id=EJ812409','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=mcculloch&id=EJ812409"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluating the Madrasa Preschool Programme in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Africa</span>: A Quasi-Experimental Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Mwaura, Peter A. M.; Sylva, Kathy; Malmberg, Lars-Erik</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>This study investigated the effect of preschool experience (two types of preschool: Madrasa and non-Madrasa) on the cognitive development of children in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Africa</span>. In the three countries studied (Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania/Zanzibar) preschool education is burgeoning and government standards are being set. This quasi experimental evaluation used…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED079195.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED079195.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Near <span class="hlt">East</span> and North <span class="hlt">Africa</span>: A Question Syllabus. Center for Area and Country Studies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Howard, Harry N.</p> <p></p> <p>This study syllabus on the Near <span class="hlt">East</span> and North <span class="hlt">Africa</span> is divided into twelve units. Designed to familiarize government personnel assigned to the area with the region and people, each unit consists of a statement of the main objectives to be studied, questions for consideration, and a list of suggested readings from books and periodicals. Units…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ThApC.111..437Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ThApC.111..437Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Volcanoes and ENSO in millennium simulations: global impacts and regional reconstructions in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Dan; Blender, Richard; Fraedrich, Klaus</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>The impacts and cooperative effects of volcanic eruptions and ENSO (El Niño/Southern Oscillation) are analyzed in a millennium simulation for 800-2005 AD using the earth system model (ESM) ECHAM5/MPIOM/JSBACH subject to anthropogenic and natural forcings. The simulation comprises two ensembles, a first with weak (E1, five members) and a second with strong (E2, three members) variability total solar irradiance. In the analysis, the 21 most intense eruptions are selected in each ensemble member. Volcanoes with neutral ENSO states during two preceding winters cause a global cooling in the year after eruptions up to -2.5°C. The nonsignificant positive values in the tropical Pacific Ocean indicate an El Niño-like warming. In the winter after an eruption, warming is mainly found in the Arctic Ocean and the Bering Sea in E2 warming extends to Siberia and central <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. The recovery times for the volcano-induced cooling (average for 31 eruptions) vary globally between 1 and 12 years. There is no significant increase of El Niño events after volcanic eruptions in both ensembles. The simulated temperature and the drought indices are compared with corresponding reconstructions in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Volcanoes cause a dramatic cooling in west China (-2°C) and a drought in <span class="hlt">East</span> China during the year after the eruption. The reconstructions show similar cooling patterns with smaller magnitudes and confirm the dryness in <span class="hlt">East</span> China. Without volcanoes, El Niño events reduce summer precipitation in the North, while South China becomes wetter; La Niña events cause opposite effects. El Niño events in the winters after eruptions compensate the cooling caused by volcanoes in most regions of China (consistent with reconstructions), while La Niña events intensify the cooling (up to -2.5°C). The simulated and reconstructed drought indices show tripole patterns which are altered by El Niño events. The simulated impact of the Tambora eruption in 1815, which caused the "year without summer</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2010EGUGA..1215694Z&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2010EGUGA..1215694Z&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">February 27, 2010 Chilean Tsunami in Pacific and its Arrival to North <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zaytsev, Andrey; Pelinovsky, EfiM.; Yalciner, Ahmet C.; Ozer, Ceren; Chernov, Anton; Kostenko, Irina; Shevchenko, Georgy</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>The outskirts of the fault plane broken by the strong earthquake on February 27, 2010 in Chili with a magnitude 8.8 at the 35km depth of 35.909°S, 72.733°W coordinates generated a moderate size tsunami. The initial amplitude of the tsunami source is not so high because of the major area of the plane was at land. The tsunami waves propagated far distances in South and North directions to <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and Wet America coasts. The waves are also recorded by several gauges in Pacific during its propagation and arrival to coastal areas. The recorded and observed amplitudes of tsunami waves are important for the potential effects with the threatening amplitudes. The event also showed that a moderate size tsunami can be effective even if it propagates far distances in any ocean or a marginal sea. The far <span class="hlt">east</span> coasts of Russia at North <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> (Sakhalin, Kuriles, Kamchatka) are one of the important source (i.e. November 15, 2006, Kuril Island Tsunami) and target (i.e. February, 27, 2010 Chilean tsunami) areas of the Pacific tsunamis. Many efforts have been spent for establishment of the monitoring system and assessment of tsunamis and development of the mitigation strategies against tsunamis and other hazards in the region. Development of the computer technologies provided the advances in data collection, transfer, and processing. Furthermore it also contributed new developments in computational tools and made the computer modeling to be an efficient tool in tsunami warning systems. In this study the tsunami numerical model NAMI DANCE Nested version is used. NAMI-DANCE solves Nonlinear form of Long Wave (Shallow water) equations (with or without dispersion) using finite difference model in nested grid domains from the source to target areas in multiprocessor hardware environment. It is applied to 2010 Chilean tsunami and its propagation and coastal behavior at far distances near Sakhalin, Kuril and Kamchatka coasts. The main tide gauge records used in this study are from</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AtmEn..70..204I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AtmEn..70..204I"><span id="translatedtitle">Seasonal source contributions of tropospheric ozone over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> based on CMAQ-HDDM</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Itahashi, Syuichi; Uno, Itsushi; Kim, Soontae</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>Determining the source contributions of tropospheric ozone concentration is an important issue for <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, due to the dramatic and rapid increase in emissions of atmospheric pollutants. To achieve this, the higher-order decoupled direct method (HDDM), a technique for efficient calculation of sensitivities, was applied in this study. Tropospheric ozone concentrations at observation sites located in remote areas of Japan were well-reproduced by Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model simulations, and exhibited a maximum peak in spring, a relatively small peak in autumn and a summer minimum. This seasonal pattern is a reflection of long-range transport and chemical processes, coupled with continental-oceanic air mass exchanges forced by the <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian monsoon. For the HDDM simulation, we focused on episodic pollution events during each season of 2007 to clarify the seasonal characteristics, and then assessed source contributions paying attention to both precursor emissions (NOx and VOC) and source regions (China, central eastern China, Korea, and Japan). An ozone-sensitive regime (NOx- or VOC-sensitive regime) was also determined based on the HDDM results. This suggested a regime over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> that was NOx sensitive in summer, VOC sensitive in winter, and either NOx or VOC sensitive during spring and autumn. At observation sites in remote areas of Japan, by separating the precursor contribution into NOx and VOC components of ozone production, it was found that the contribution of NOx emissions was larger than that of VOC emissions in spring, autumn, and especially summer, therefore, a reduction in NOx emissions could reduce the severity of episodes of tropospheric ozone pollution in downwind areas. Due to the strong VOC-sensitive conditions in winter, NOx emissions enabled a reduction in surface ozone concentrations. In terms of the contributions attributed to source regions, the source contribution of China was relatively high during spring, but local</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2008AGUFM.S14C..06Z&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2008AGUFM.S14C..06Z&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Seismic imaging of the stagnant Pacific slab in the mantle transition zone under <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhao, D.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>We used regional and global seismic tomography to determine high-resolution 3-D P-wave velocity structure of the crust and mantle down to 1200 km depth under Western Pacific to <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> (Zhao, 2004, 2007; Huang and Zhao, 2006). A large number of arrival times of P, pP, PP and PcP waves recorded by many seismic stations in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> are used in the tomographic inversions. The subducting Pacific slab is imaged clearly as a high-velocity zone from the oceanic trenches down to 670-km depth, and intermediate-depth and deep earthquakes are located within the slab. The Pacific slab becomes stagnant in the mantle transition zone under eastern China. The western edge of the stagnant slab is generally parallel with the Japan trench and the Ryukyu trench and roughly coincides with a prominent surface topographic boundary in <span class="hlt">East</span> China. Although there are some discrepancies between the topographic boundary and the western edge of the stagnant slab, both of them are located approximately 1800 km west of the trenches. The entire Pacific slab is stagnant in the mantle transition zone under Northeast China (53-37 degree north latitude). Under 37-28 degree north latitude, however, some of the slab materials are visible below the 670-km discontinuity, though most of the slab materials are still in the transition zone, suggesting that part of the slab materials have started to drop down to the lower mantle. Under the Mariana arc, the Pacific slab penetrates directly down to the lower mantle. It is also visible that the Philippine Sea slab has subducted down to the mantle transition zone depth under western Japan and the Ryukyu back-arc region (Abdelwahed and Zhao, 2007). There are three active intraplate volcanoes in China. The Changbai and Wudalianchi volcanoes in Northeast China are underlain by significant slow anomalies in the upper mantle, above the stagnant Pacific slab, suggesting that the two active volcanoes are not hot spots but a kind of back-arc volcanoes associated with</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ACPD...1317519M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ACPD...1317519M"><span id="translatedtitle">Regional nitrogen oxides emission trends in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> observed from space</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mijling, B.; van der A, R. J.; Zhang, Q.</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>Due to changing economic activity, emissions of air pollutants in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> change rapidly in space and time. Monthly emission estimates of nitrogen oxides derived from satellite observations provide valuable insight in the evolution of anthropogenic activity on a regional scale. We present the first results of a new emission estimation algorithm, specifically designed to use daily satellite observations of column concentrations for fast updates of emissions of short-lived atmospheric constituents on a~mesoscopic scale (~ 0.25° × 0.25°). The algorithm is used to construct a monthly NOx emission time series for 2007-2011 from tropospheric NO2 observations of GOME-2 for <span class="hlt">East</span> Chinese provinces and surrounding countries. The new emission estimates correspond well with the bottom-up inventory of EDGAR v4.2, but are smaller than the inventories of INTEX-B and MEIC. They reveal a strong positive trend during 2007-2011 for almost all Chinese provinces, related to the country's economic development. We find a 41% increment of NOx emissions in <span class="hlt">East</span> China during this period, which shows the need to update emission inventories in this region on a regular basis. Negative emission trends are found in Japan and South Korea, which can be attributed to a combined effect of local environmental policy and global economic crises. Analysis of seasonal variation distinguishes between regions with dominant anthropogenic or biogenic emissions. For regions with a mixed anthropogenic and biogenic signature, the opposite seasonality can be used for an estimation of the separate emission contributions. Finally, the non-local concentration/emission relationships calculated by the algorithm are used to quantify the direct effect of regional NOx emissions on tropospheric NO2 concentrations outside the region. For regions such as North Korea and Beijing province, a substantial part of the tropospheric NO2 originates from emissions elsewhere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ACP....1312003M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ACP....1312003M"><span id="translatedtitle">Regional nitrogen oxides emission trends in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> observed from space</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mijling, B.; van der A, R. J.; Zhang, Q.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Due to changing economic activity, emissions of air pollutants in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> are changing rapidly in space and time. Monthly emission estimates of nitrogen oxides derived from satellite observations provide valuable insight into the evolution of anthropogenic activity on a regional scale. We present the first results of a new emission estimation algorithm, specifically designed to use daily satellite observations of column concentrations for fast updates of emissions of short-lived atmospheric constituents on a mesoscopic scale (~ 0.25° × 0.25°). The algorithm is used to construct a monthly NOx emission time series for the period 2007-2011 from tropospheric NO2 observations of GOME-2 for <span class="hlt">East</span> Chinese provinces and surrounding countries. The new emission estimates correspond well with the bottom-up inventory of EDGAR v4.2, but are smaller than the inventories of INTEX-B and MEIC. They reveal a strong positive trend during 2007-2011 for almost all Chinese provinces, related to the country's economic development. We find a 41% increment of NOx emissions in <span class="hlt">East</span> China during this period, which shows the need to update emission inventories in this region on a regular basis. Negative emission trends are found in Japan and South Korea, which can be attributed to a combined effect of local environmental policy and global economic crises. Analysis of seasonal variation distinguishes between regions with dominant anthropogenic or biogenic emissions. For regions with a mixed anthropogenic and biogenic signature, the opposite seasonality can be used for an estimation of the separate emission contributions. Finally, the non-local concentration/emission relationships calculated by the algorithm are used to quantify the direct effect of regional NOx emissions on tropospheric NO2 concentrations outside the region. For regions such as North Korea and the Beijing municipality, a substantial part of the tropospheric NO2 originates from emissions elsewhere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013ACPD...1321003F&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013ACPD...1321003F&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) emissions in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> determined by inverse modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fang, X.; Thompson, R. L.; Saito, T.; Yokouchi, Y.; Kim, J.; Li, S.; Kim, K. R.; Park, S.; Graziosi, F.; Stohl, A.</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) has a global warming potential of around 22 800 over a 100 yr time horizon and is one of the greenhouse gases regulated under the Kyoto Protocol. Around circa 2000 there was a reversal in the global SF6 emission trend, from a decreasing to an increasing trend, which was likely caused by increasing emissions in countries that are not obligated to report their annual emissions to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. In this study, SF6 emissions during the period 2006-2012 for all <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian countries, including Mongolia, China, the Taiwan region, North Korea, South Korea and Japan, were determined by using inverse modeling and in-situ atmospheric measurements. We found that the most important sources of uncertainty associated with these inversions are related to the choice of a priori emissions and their assumed uncertainty, the station network as well as the meteorological input data. Much lower uncertainties are due to seasonal variability in the emissions, inversion geometry and resolution, and the measurement calibration scale. Based on the results of these sensitivity tests, we estimate that the total SF6 emission in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> increased rapidly from 2437 ± 329 Mg yr-1 in 2006 to 3787 ± 512 Mg yr-1 in 2009 and stabilized thereafter. China contributed 58-72 % to the total <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian emission for the different years, followed by South Korea (9-19%), Japan (5-16%) and the Taiwan region (4-7%), while the contributions from North Korea and Mongolia together were less than 3% of the total. The per-capita SF6 emissions are highest in South Korea and the Taiwan region, while the per-capita emissions for China, North Korea and Japan are close to global average. During the period 2006-2012, emissions from China increased rapidly and emissions from South Korea increased slightly, while emissions from the Taiwan region and Japan decreased overall.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014ACP....14.4779F&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014ACP....14.4779F&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) emissions in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> determined by inverse modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fang, X.; Thompson, R. L.; Saito, T.; Yokouchi, Y.; Kim, J.; Li, S.; Kim, K. R.; Park, S.; Graziosi, F.; Stohl, A.</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) has a global warming potential of around 22 800 over a 100-year time horizon and is one of the greenhouse gases regulated under the Kyoto Protocol. Around the year 2000 there was a reversal in the global SF6 emission trend, from a decreasing to an increasing trend, which was likely caused by increasing emissions in countries that are not obligated to report their annual emissions to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. In this study, SF6 emissions during the period 2006-2012 for all <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian countries - including Mongolia, China, Taiwan, North Korea, South Korea and Japan - were determined by using inverse modeling and in situ atmospheric measurements. We found that the most important sources of uncertainty associated with these inversions are related to the choice of a priori emissions and their assumed uncertainty, the station network as well as the meteorological input data. Much lower uncertainties are due to seasonal variability in the emissions, inversion geometry and resolution, and the measurement calibration scale. Based on the results of these sensitivity tests, we estimate that the total SF6 emission in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> increased rapidly from 2404 ± 325 Mg yr-1 in 2006 to 3787 ± 512 Mg yr-1 in 2009 and stabilized thereafter. China contributed 60-72% to the total <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian emission for the different years, followed by South Korea (8-16%), Japan (5-16%) and Taiwan (4-7%), while the contributions from North Korea and Mongolia together were less than 3% of the total. The per capita SF6 emissions are highest in South Korea and Taiwan, while the per capita emissions for China, North Korea and Japan are close to global average. During the period 2006-2012, emissions from China and from South Korea increased, while emissions from Taiwan and Japan decreased overall.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1616345S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1616345S"><span id="translatedtitle">Arctic-Asian Mobile Belt - Global Structure in the North, Central, and <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shokalsky, Sergey; Petrov, Oleg; Pospelov, Igor; Kashubin, Sergey; Sobolev, Nikolay; Petrov, Evgeny</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Over the last decade under the international project of five countries, the geological surveys of Russia, China, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, and the Republic of Korea, with the participation of national academies of sciences in these countries compiled a set of digital maps at 1:2.5 M scale. It includes geological, tectonic, metallogenic maps and map of energy resources with databases for North, Central, and <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, area of more than 30 million km2. Map compilation was supervised by the Subcommission for Northern Eurasia and Subcommission for Tectonic Maps of the Commission for the Geological Map of the World under the auspices of UNESCO (CGMW). The set of maps was displayed at the 33rd IGC (Oslo, 2008) and 34th IGC (Brisbane, 2012). One of the largest accretion collages of orogenic belts of different ages on the planet (from the Neoproterozoic to Early Mesozoic) is clearly shown in the tectonic map compiled under the joint project. Extended polychronous mobile belt is bounded in the west by the <span class="hlt">East</span> European Craton, in the <span class="hlt">east</span>, by the Siberian Craton, in the south, by a chain of Gondwana cratonic blocks - North China, Tarim, Tajik. In the north it can be traced as a broad band within the Circumpolar Region, where it is limited by the North American Craton. The central part of the accretionary belt is hidden under the Meso-Cenozoic sediments of Western Siberia. Analysis of vast geological material shows that the Arctic-Asian mobile belt was formed on place of an extensive paleo-ocean, which closed with a successive rejuvenation of suture ophiolite zones from the marginal to axial zone and along strike to the north and <span class="hlt">east</span> of the South Siberian segment towards Paleopacific. Arctic-Asian mobile belt is characterized by a complex combination of accretionary and riftogenic tectonic-magmatic processes. At its early stages, accretionary tectonics with a wide development of volcanic belts dominated; at the late ones (in the Late Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19656507','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19656507"><span id="translatedtitle">Lead levels in new enamel household paints from <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, <span class="hlt">Africa</span> and South America.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Clark, C Scott; Rampal, Krishna G; Thuppil, Venkatesh; Roda, Sandy M; Succop, Paul; Menrath, William; Chen, Chin K; Adebamowo, Eugenious O; Agbede, Oluwole A; Sridhar, Mynepalli K C; Adebamowo, Clement A; Zakaria, Yehia; El-Safty, Amal; Shinde, Rana M; Yu, Jiefei</p> <p>2009-10-01</p> <p>In 2006 a report on the analysis for lead in 80 new residential paints from four countries in <span class="hlt">Asia</span> revealed high levels in three of the countries (China, India and Malaysia) and low levels in a fourth country (Singapore) where a lead in paint regulation was enforced. The authors warned of the possible export of lead-painted consumer products to the United States and other countries and the dangers the lead paint represented to children in the countries where it was available for purchase. The need for a worldwide ban on the use of lead in paints was emphasized to prevent an increase in exposure and disease from this very preventable environmental source. Since the earlier paper almost 300 additional new paint samples have been collected from the four initial countries plus 8 additional countries, three from <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, three from <span class="hlt">Africa</span> and two from South America. During the intervening time period two million toys and other items imported into the United States were recalled because the lead content exceeded the United States standard. High lead paints were detected in all 12 countries. The average lead concentration by country ranged from 6988 (Singapore) to 31,960ppm (Ecuador). One multinational company sold high lead paint in one country through January 2007 but sold low lead paint later in 2007 indicating that a major change to cease adding lead to their paints had occurred. However, the finding that almost one-third of the samples would meet the new United States standard for new paint of 90ppm, suggests that the technology is already available in at least 11 of the 12 countries to produce low lead enamel paints for domestic use. The need remains urgent to establish effective worldwide controls to prevent the needless poisoning of millions of children from this preventable exposure. PMID:19656507</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016E%26PSL.450..306C&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016E%26PSL.450..306C&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Middle to Late Pleistocene vegetation and climate change in subtropical southern <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Africa</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Castañeda, Isla S.; Caley, Thibaut; Dupont, Lydie; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Malaizé, Bruno; Schouten, Stefan</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>In this study we investigate Pleistocene vegetation and climate change in southern <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Africa</span> by examining plant leaf waxes in a marine sediment core that receives terrestrial runoff from the Limpopo River. The plant leaf wax records are compared to a multi-proxy sea surface temperature (SST) record and pollen assemblage data from the same site. We find that Indian Ocean SST variability, driven by high-latitude obliquity, exerted a strong control on the vegetation of southern <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Africa</span> during the past 800,000 yr. Interglacial periods were characterized by relatively wetter and warmer conditions, increased contributions of C3 vegetation, and higher SST, whereas glacial periods were marked by cooler and arid conditions, increased contributions of C4 vegetation, and lower SST. We find that Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 5e, 11c, 15e and 7a-7c are strongly expressed in the plant leaf wax records but MIS 7e is absent while MIS 9 is rather weak. Our plant leaf wax records also record the climate transition associated with the Mid-Brunhes Event (MBE) suggesting that the pre-MBE interval (430-800 ka) was characterized by higher inputs from grasses in comparison to relatively higher inputs from trees in the post-MBE interval (430 to 0 ka). Differences in vegetation and SST of southern <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Africa</span> between the pre- and post-MBE intervals appear to be related to shifts in the location of the Subtropical Front. Comparison with vegetation records from tropical <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Africa</span> indicates that the vegetation of southern <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Africa</span>, while exhibiting glacial-interglacial variability and notable differences between the pre- and post-MBE portions of the record, likely did not experience such dramatic extremes as occurred to the north at Lake Malawi.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26750105','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26750105"><span id="translatedtitle">A burrowing frog from the late Paleocene of Mongolia uncovers a deep history of spadefoot toads (Pelobatoidea) in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chen, Jianye; Bever, Gaberiel S; Yi, Hong-Yu; Norell, Mark A</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Fossils are indispensible in understanding the evolutionary origins of the modern fauna. Crown-group spadefoot toads (Anura: Pelobatoidea) are the best-known fossorial frog clade to inhabit arid environments, with species utilizing a characteristic bony spade on their foot for burrowing. Endemic to the Northern Hemisphere, they are distributed across the Holarctic except <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Here we report a rare fossil of a crown-group spadefoot toad from the late Paleocene of Mongolia. The phylogenetic analysis using both morphological and molecular information recovered this Asian fossil inside the modern North American pelobatoid clade Scaphiopodidae. The presence of a spade and the phylogenetic position of the new fossil frog strongly support its burrowing behavior. The late Paleocene age and other information suggestive of a mild climate cast doubt on the conventional assertion that burrowing evolved as an adaptation to aridity in spadefoot toads. Temporally and geographically, the new fossil provides the earliest record of Scaphiopodidae worldwide, and the only member of the group in <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Quantitative biogeographic analysis suggests that Scaphiopodidae, despite originating in North America, dispersed into <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> via Beringia in the Early Cenozoic. The absence of spadefoot toads in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> today is a result of extinction. PMID:26750105</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4707494','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4707494"><span id="translatedtitle">A burrowing frog from the late Paleocene of Mongolia uncovers a deep history of spadefoot toads (Pelobatoidea) in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Chen, Jianye; Bever, Gaberiel S.; Yi, Hong-Yu; Norell, Mark A.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Fossils are indispensible in understanding the evolutionary origins of the modern fauna. Crown-group spadefoot toads (Anura: Pelobatoidea) are the best-known fossorial frog clade to inhabit arid environments, with species utilizing a characteristic bony spade on their foot for burrowing. Endemic to the Northern Hemisphere, they are distributed across the Holarctic except <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Here we report a rare fossil of a crown-group spadefoot toad from the late Paleocene of Mongolia. The phylogenetic analysis using both morphological and molecular information recovered this Asian fossil inside the modern North American pelobatoid clade Scaphiopodidae. The presence of a spade and the phylogenetic position of the new fossil frog strongly support its burrowing behavior. The late Paleocene age and other information suggestive of a mild climate cast doubt on the conventional assertion that burrowing evolved as an adaptation to aridity in spadefoot toads. Temporally and geographically, the new fossil provides the earliest record of Scaphiopodidae worldwide, and the only member of the group in <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Quantitative biogeographic analysis suggests that Scaphiopodidae, despite originating in North America, dispersed into <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> via Beringia in the Early Cenozoic. The absence of spadefoot toads in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> today is a result of extinction. PMID:26750105</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18453238','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18453238"><span id="translatedtitle">Study of the genetic heterogeneity of SAT-2 foot-and-mouth disease virus in sub-Saharan <span class="hlt">Africa</span> with specific focus on <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Africa</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sahle, M; Dwarka, R M; Venter, E H; Vosloo, W</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>The epidemiology of serotype SAT-2 foot-and-mouth disease was investigated in sub-Saharan <span class="hlt">Africa</span> by phylogenetic analysis using the 1D gene encoding the major antigenic determinant. Fourteen genotypes were identified of which three are novel and belong to <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Africa</span>, bringing the total number of genotypes for that region to eight. The genotypes clustered into three lineages that demonstrated surprising links between <span class="hlt">East</span>, southern and south-western <span class="hlt">Africa</span>. One lineage was unique to West <span class="hlt">Africa</span>. These results established numerous incursions across country borders in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Africa</span> and long term conservation of sequences for periods up to 41 years. Ethiopia, Kenya and Uganda have all experienced outbreaks from more than one unrelated strain, demonstrating the potential for new introductions. The amount of variation observed within this serotype nearly equalled that which was found between serotypes; this has severe implications for disease control using vaccination. PMID:18453238</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16057189','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16057189"><span id="translatedtitle">Plate tectonics of the Red Sea and <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Africa</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>McKenzie, D P; Davies, D; Molnar, P</p> <p>1970-04-18</p> <p>The relative motion between the plates on each side of the <span class="hlt">East</span> African Rift Valley can be obtained from the opening of the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden. The calculated direction of relative motion agrees well with fault plane solutions for earthquakes north of the equator. PMID:16057189</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT.........1Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT.........1Y"><span id="translatedtitle">The Hydroclimate of <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Africa</span>: Seasonal cycle, Decadal Variability, and Human-induced Climate Change</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yang, Wenchang</p> <p></p> <p>The hydroclimate of <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Africa</span> shows distinctive variabilities on seasonal to decadal time scales and poses a great challenge to climatologists attempting to project its response to anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Increased frequency and intensity of droughts over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Africa</span> in recent decades raise the question of whether the drying trend will continue into the future. To address this question, we first examine the decadal variability of the <span class="hlt">East</span> African rainfall during March--May (MAM, the major rainy season in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Africa</span>) and assess how well a series of models simulate the observed features. Observational results show that the drying trend during MAM is associated with decadal natural variability of sea surface temperature (SST) variations over the Pacific Ocean. The multimodel mean of the SST-forced, Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) AMIP experiment models reproduces both the climatological annual cycle and the drying trend in recent decades. The fully coupled models from the CMIP5 historical experiment, however, have systematic errors in simulating the <span class="hlt">East</span> African rainfall annual cycle by underestimating the MAM rainfall while overestimating the October--December (OND, the second rainy season in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Africa</span>) rainfall. The multimodel mean of the historical coupled runs of the MAM rainfall anomalies, which is the best estimate of the radiatively-forced change, shows a weak wetting trend associated with anthropogenic forcing. However, the SST anomaly pattern associated with the MAM rainfall has large discrepancies with the observations. The errors in simulating the <span class="hlt">East</span> African hydroclimate with coupled models raise questions about how reliable model projections of future <span class="hlt">East</span> African climate are. This motivates a fundamental study of why <span class="hlt">East</span> African climate is the way it is and why coupled models get it wrong. <span class="hlt">East</span> African hydroclimate is characterized by a dry annual mean climatology compared to other deep tropical</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4369734','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4369734"><span id="translatedtitle">Assembly of forest communities across <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> – insights from phylogenetic community structure and species pool scaling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Feng, Gang; Mi, Xiangcheng; Eiserhardt, Wolf L.; Jin, Guangze; Sang, Weiguo; Lu, Zhijun; Wang, Xihua; Li, Xiankun; Li, Buhang; Sun, Ifang; Ma, Keping; Svenning, Jens-Christian</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Local communities are assembled from larger-scale species pools via dispersal, environmental filtering, biotic interactions, and local stochastic demographic processes. The relative importance, scaling and interplay of these assembly processes can be elucidated by comparing local communities to variously circumscribed species pools. Here we present the first study applying this approach to forest tree communities across <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, focusing on community phylogenetic structure and using data from a global network of tropical, subtropical and temperate forest plots. We found that Net Relatedness Index (NRI) and Nearest Taxon Index (NTI) values were generally lower with geographically broad species pools (global and Asian species pools) than with an <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian species pool, except that global species pool produced higher NTI than the <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian species pool. The lower NRI for the global relative to the <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian species pool may indicate an important role of intercontinental migration during the Neogene and Quaternary and climatic conservatism in shaping the deeper phylogenetic structure of tree communities in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. In contrast, higher NTI for the global relative to the <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian species pool is consistent with recent localized diversification determining the shallow phylogenetic structure. PMID:25797420</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25797420','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25797420"><span id="translatedtitle">Assembly of forest communities across <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>--insights from phylogenetic community structure and species pool scaling.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Feng, Gang; Mi, Xiangcheng; Eiserhardt, Wolf L; Jin, Guangze; Sang, Weiguo; Lu, Zhijun; Wang, Xihua; Li, Xiankun; Li, Buhang; Sun, Ifang; Ma, Keping; Svenning, Jens-Christian</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Local communities are assembled from larger-scale species pools via dispersal, environmental filtering, biotic interactions, and local stochastic demographic processes. The relative importance, scaling and interplay of these assembly processes can be elucidated by comparing local communities to variously circumscribed species pools. Here we present the first study applying this approach to forest tree communities across <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, focusing on community phylogenetic structure and using data from a global network of tropical, subtropical and temperate forest plots. We found that Net Relatedness Index (NRI) and Nearest Taxon Index (NTI) values were generally lower with geographically broad species pools (global and Asian species pools) than with an <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian species pool, except that global species pool produced higher NTI than the <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian species pool. The lower NRI for the global relative to the <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian species pool may indicate an important role of intercontinental migration during the Neogene and Quaternary and climatic conservatism in shaping the deeper phylogenetic structure of tree communities in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. In contrast, higher NTI for the global relative to the <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian species pool is consistent with recent localized diversification determining the shallow phylogenetic structure. PMID:25797420</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4220124','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4220124"><span id="translatedtitle">Mortality from external causes in <span class="hlt">Africa</span> and <span class="hlt">Asia</span>: evidence from INDEPTH Health and Demographic Surveillance System Sites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Streatfield, P. Kim; Khan, Wasif A.; Bhuiya, Abbas; Hanifi, Syed M.A.; Alam, Nurul; Diboulo, Eric; Niamba, Louis; Sié, Ali; Lankoandé, Bruno; Millogo, Roch; Soura, Abdramane B.; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Kone, Siaka; Ngoran, Eliezer K.; Utzinger, Juerg; Ashebir, Yemane; Melaku, Yohannes A.; Weldearegawi, Berhe; Gomez, Pierre; Jasseh, Momodou; Azongo, Daniel; Oduro, Abraham; Wak, George; Wontuo, Peter; Attaa-Pomaa, Mary; Gyapong, Margaret; Manyeh, Alfred K.; Kant, Shashi; Misra, Puneet; Rai, Sanjay K.; Juvekar, Sanjay; Patil, Rutuja; Wahab, Abdul; Wilopo, Siswanto; Bauni, Evasius; Mochamah, George; Ndila, Carolyne; Williams, Thomas N.; Khaggayi, Christine; Nyaguara, Amek; Obor, David; Odhiambo, Frank O.; Ezeh, Alex; Oti, Samuel; Wamukoya, Marylene; Chihana, Menard; Crampin, Amelia; Collinson, Mark A.; Kabudula, Chodziwadziwa W.; Wagner, Ryan; Herbst, Kobus; Mossong, Joël; Emina, Jacques B.O.; Sankoh, Osman A.; Byass, Peter</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Background Mortality from external causes, of all kinds, is an important component of overall mortality on a global basis. However, these deaths, like others in <span class="hlt">Africa</span> and <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, are often not counted or documented on an individual basis. Overviews of the state of external cause mortality in <span class="hlt">Africa</span> and <span class="hlt">Asia</span> are therefore based on uncertain information. The INDEPTH Network maintains longitudinal surveillance, including cause of death, at population sites across <span class="hlt">Africa</span> and <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, which offers important opportunities to document external cause mortality at the population level across a range of settings. Objective To describe patterns of mortality from external causes at INDEPTH Network sites across <span class="hlt">Africa</span> and <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, according to the WHO 2012 verbal autopsy (VA) cause categories. Design All deaths at INDEPTH sites are routinely registered and followed up with VA interviews. For this study, VA archives were transformed into the WHO 2012 VA standard format and processed using the InterVA-4 model to assign cause of death. Routine surveillance data also provide person-time denominators for mortality rates. Results A total of 5,884 deaths due to external causes were documented over 11,828,253 person-years. Approximately one-quarter of those deaths were to children younger than 15 years. Causes of death were dominated by childhood drowning in Bangladesh, and by transport-related deaths and intentional injuries elsewhere. Detailed mortality rates are presented by cause of death, age group, and sex. Conclusions The patterns of external cause mortality found here generally corresponded with expectations and other sources of information, but they fill some important gaps in population-based mortality data. They provide an important source of information to inform potentially preventive intervention designs. PMID:25377327</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AGUFM.A11G0149G&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AGUFM.A11G0149G&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Deriving High Resolution UV Aerosol Optical Depth over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> using CAI-OMI Joint Retrieval</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Go, S.; Kim, J.; KIM, M.; Lee, S.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Monitoring aerosols using near UV spectral region have been successfully performed over decades by Ozong Monitoring Instruments (OMI) with benefit of strong aerosol signal over continuous dark surface reflectance, both land and ocean. However, because of big foot print of OMI, the cloud contamination error was a big issue in the UV aerosol algorithm. In the present study, high resolution UV aerosol optical depth (AOD) over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> was derived by collaborating the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite/Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation (GOSAT/TANSO)-Cloud and Aerosol Imager (CAI) and OMI together. AOD of 0.1 degree grid resolution was retrieved using CAI band 1 (380nm) by bring OMI lv.2 aerosol type, single scattering albedo, and aerosol layer peak height in 1 degree grid resolution. Collocation of the two dataset within the 0.5 degree grid with time difference of OMI and CAI less than 5 minute was selected. Selected region becomes wider as it goes to the higher latitude. Also, calculated degradation factor of 1.57 was applied to CAI band1 (380nm) by comparing normalized radiance and Lambertian Equivalent Reflectivity (LER) of both sensors. The calculated degradation factor was reasonable over dark scene, but inconsistent over cirrus cloud and bright area. Then, surface reflectance was developed by compositing CAI LER minimum data over three month period, since the infrequent sampling rate associated with the three-day recursion period of GOSAT and the narrow CAI swath of 1000 km. To retrieve AOD, look up table (LUT) was generated using radiative transfer model VLIDORT NGST. Finally, the retrieved AOD was validated with AERONET ground based measurement data during the Dragon-NE <span class="hlt">Asia</span> campaign in 2012.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGRD..119.2574L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGRD..119.2574L"><span id="translatedtitle">Transport of NOx in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> identified by satellite and in situ measurements and Lagrangian particle dispersion model simulations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lee, H.-J.; Kim, S.-W.; Brioude, J.; Cooper, O. R.; Frost, G. J.; Kim, C.-H.; Park, R. J.; Trainer, M.; Woo, J.-H.</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) columns observed from space have been useful in detecting the increase of nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, particularly China, coinciding with rapid economic growth during the past several decades. NO2 columns retrieved above a particular location reflect a combination of local NOx emissions and transported NOx from upwind sources. In this study, we demonstrate the transport of NOx emitted in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> using satellite and surface in situ measurements and Lagrangian particle dispersion model simulations. Enhanced satellite NO2 columns in the Yellow Sea (between China and South Korea) and the <span class="hlt">East</span> Sea (between South Korea and Japan), and different seasonal variations of NO2 in China, North and South Korea, and Japan, suggest the importance of NOx transport in understanding the local NOx budget. Lagrangian transport model simulations with tracers of different chemical lifetimes identify source-receptor relationships that explain high NO2 over the oceans and springtime peaks in Korea and Japan, with China being the most likely source region. Our results have important implications for studies using satellite NO2 retrievals to derive NOx emissions at local scales in regions adjacent to large sources, such as in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, Europe, and the Eastern U.S.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12184826','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12184826"><span id="translatedtitle">A molecular phylogeny of ichthyophiid caecilians (Amphibia: Gymnophiona: Ichthyophiidae): out of India or out of South <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gower, David J; Kupfer, Alex; Oommen, Oommen V; Himstedt, Werner; Nussbaum, Ronald A; Loader, Simon P; Presswell, Bronwen; Müller, Hendrik; Krishna, Sharath B; Boistel, Renaud; Wilkinson, Mark</p> <p>2002-08-01</p> <p>Recent molecular phylogenetic studies indicate that the rafting Indian plate harboured several isolated vertebrate lineages between ca. 130 and 56 Myr ago that dispersed and diversified 'out of India' following accretion with Eurasia. A single family of the amphibian order Gymnophiona, the Ichthyophiidae, presently occurs on the Indian plate and across much of South <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Ichthyophiid phylogeny is investigated in order to test competing out of India and out of South <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> hypotheses for their distribution. Partial sequences of mitochondrial 12S and 16S rRNA and cytochrome b genes for 20 ichthyophiids and proximate outgroups were assembled. Parsimony, maximum-likelihood and distance analyses all recover optimum trees in which uraeotyphlids plus Ichthyophis cf. malabarensis are the sister taxa to all other Ichthyophis, among which the South <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian taxa are monophyletic. Tree topology and branch lengths indicate that the Indian lineages are more basal and older, and thus are more consistent with the hypothesis that ichthyophiids dispersed from the Indian subcontinent into South <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. The estimated relationships also support monophyly of Sri Lankan Ichthyophis, and non-monophyly of striped and unstriped Ichthyophis species groups. Mitochondrial DNA sequences provide evidence that should assist current problematic areas of caecilian taxonomy. PMID:12184826</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016AtmRe.169..377Y&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016AtmRe.169..377Y&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Variability of lightning flash and thunderstorm over <span class="hlt">East</span>/Southeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span> on the ENSO time scales</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yuan, Tie; Di, Yuelun; Qie, Kai</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>The variability of lightning flash and thunderstorm on the ENSO time scales over <span class="hlt">East</span>/Southeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span> was investigated by using 17-year (1995-2011) lightning data from the Optical Transient Detector (OTD) and Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS), and 14-year (1998-2011) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite (TRMM) precipitation feature data. In addition, ERA-Interim reanalysis data of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) were used to present related environmental characteristics. It was found that the response of lightning flash to ENSO events shows remarkable seasonal and regional variations. The regions of positive (negative) lightning anomaly are mainly located at both sides of 5°-20°N (5°-15°N) in El Niño (La Niña) spring and winter, and located north of the equator in summer and autumn. There is a significantly positive correlation between lightning anomaly and the Oceanic Niño Index (ONI) over both <span class="hlt">East</span> China and Indonesia during El Niño episodes, but no obvious correlation during La Niña episodes. The positive thunderstorm anomalies during El Niño periods are dispersed. The distribution of thunderstorm anomalies in La Niña summer and autumn is almost opposite to that in spring and winter. The correlation between thunderstorm anomaly and ONI is better over <span class="hlt">East</span> China than that over Indonesia. In general, lightning variation follows thunderstorm intensity (number) variation over <span class="hlt">East</span> China during El Niño (La Niña) episodes, and follows a combination of thunderstorm intensity and number variations over Indonesia on ENSO time scales. During ENSO time scales, variations of surface wind can be considered as one of the key factors to LAs. More lightning flashes present in the regions where warm moist flows intersection, and less in the regions where surface wind changes slightly or diverges. Dramatic lightning increases also occur with higher values of convective available potential energy (CAPE). In addition, higher (lower</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/574947','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/574947"><span id="translatedtitle">Muslim oil and gas periphery; the future of hydrocarbons in <span class="hlt">Africa</span>, southeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and the Caspian. Master`s thesis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Crockett, B.D.</p> <p>1997-12-01</p> <p>This thesis is a study of the contemporary political, economic, and technical developments and future prospects of the Muslim hydrocarbon exporters of <span class="hlt">Africa</span>, Southeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, and the Caspian. The established Muslim oil and gas periphery of <span class="hlt">Africa</span> and Southeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span> has four members in the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) and is systemically increasing its production of natural gas. I analyze US government and corporate policies regarding the countries and the major dilemmas of the Muslim hydrocarbon periphery. The first chapter provides a selective overview of global energy source statistics; the policies, disposition and composition of the major hydrocarbon production and consumption players and communities; a selective background of OPEC and its impact on the globe; and a general portrait of how the Muslim periphery piece fits into the overall Muslim oil and gas puzzle. Chapter two analyzes the established Muslim oil and gas periphery of <span class="hlt">Africa</span> and Southeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span> asking the following questions: What are the major political, economic, and technical trends and dilemmas affecting these producer nations. And what are the United States` policies and relationships with these producers. Chapter three asks the same questions as chapter two, but with regard to the newly independent states of the Caspian Sea. I probe the regional petroleum exploration and transportation dilemmas in some detail.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.T31C4626W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.T31C4626W"><span id="translatedtitle">Gravity Derived Moho Depths of <span class="hlt">East</span>/Southeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and Western Pacific</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, J.; Li, C. F.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">East</span> and Southeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and Western Pacific have extreme topography and both the youngest and oldest oceanic basins in the world, and are ideal places to understand oceanic basin evolution and continent-ocean interactions. Crustal structure is critical to understand the regional geodynamic processes. We present our recent inversion of Moho depths of <span class="hlt">East</span>/Southeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and Western Pacific from satellite gravity data. Because the marginal basins have experienced different cooling histories, we perform thermal correction after the simple Bouguer correction based on the plate cooling model. The model parameters are tested by varying the input plate thickness and mantle temperature with 5 km and 50°C steps, respectively. The evaluation criteria of thermal correction is that the regions with similar water depths have similar Moho depths. We find the best-fit plate thickness and mantle temperature are 95 km and 1300°C, respectively. The Moho undulations are then estimated from residual Bouguer gravity based on the Parker-Oldenburg algorithm. Because the study area convers distinct geological settings, we implement two gravity inversion strategies. In the first strategy, we use a constant density contrast of 0.38 g/cm3 across the Moho and a reference depth of 25 km for the entire study area. Using just one density contrast results in an obvious shallow Moho in continental region. In the second strategy, the study area is divided into four blocks, each covering either the continents or oceans mainly. Moho depths range approximately between 5 and 65 km. The average Moho depths of continental and continental shelf domains are about 35 and 23 km, respectively. Moho depths beneath the marginal basins are averaged at about 16 km. This large mean Moho depth is attributed to numerous seamounts, volcanic chains and ridges, where the Moho depths can be up to ~35 km. We find that the density contrast across the Moho varies between 0.33 and 0.40 g/cm3, approximately 0.40 g/cm3 in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Africa&pg=5&id=EJ1003208','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Africa&pg=5&id=EJ1003208"><span id="translatedtitle">Institutional Research in Emerging Countries of Southern <span class="hlt">Africa</span>, Latin America, and the Middle <span class="hlt">East</span> and North <span class="hlt">Africa</span>: Global Frameworks and Local Practices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lange, Lis; Saavedra, F. Mauricio; Romano, Jeanine</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>This chapter presents a synthesis of the conceptualization and practice of institutional research (IR) in higher education (HE) in emerging countries across Southern <span class="hlt">Africa</span>, Latin America and the Middle <span class="hlt">East</span> and North <span class="hlt">Africa</span> (MENA) regions. The chapter contextualizes the growing need for IR in these regions, identifies problems and challenges…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19747601','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19747601"><span id="translatedtitle">Rich nutrition from the poorest - cereal fermentations in <span class="hlt">Africa</span> and <span class="hlt">Asia</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nout, M J Rob</p> <p>2009-10-01</p> <p>Cereal fermentations in <span class="hlt">Africa</span> and <span class="hlt">Asia</span> involve mainly the processing of maize, rice, sorghum and the millets. Lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus, Pediococcus), Enterobacter spp., yeasts (Candida, Debaryomyces, Endomycopsis, Hansenula, Pichia, Saccharomyces and Trichosporon spp.) and filamentous fungi (Amylomyces, Aspergillus, Mucor, and Rhizopus spp.) contribute to desirable modifications of taste, flavour, acidity, digestibility, and texture in non-alcoholic beverages (e.g., uji, and ben-saalga), porridges (e.g., mawè) and cooked gels (e.g., kenkey, idli, and mifen). In addition, alcoholic beverages (beers such as tchoukoutou and jnard; and spirits e.g. jiu) are obtained using malt, or using amylolytic mixed microbial starter cultures as generators of fermentable substrates. Wet processing, marketing of multi-purpose intermediate products, co-fermentation for texture and nutrition, and mixed culture fermentations as practiced in indigenous fermentation processes are of interest for industrial innovation and for better control of natural mixed culture fermentation systems. On the other hand, the nutritional properties of traditional cereal fermented products can be enhanced by increasing their nutrient and energy density, as well as by increasing their mineral status by combining mineral fortification and dephytinization. PMID:19747601</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17881834','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17881834"><span id="translatedtitle">Status analysis and strategic framework for sanitation management in <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and <span class="hlt">Africa</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kim, Y K; Seo, I S; Jung, N C; Kim, J Y; Byun, J H</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Following rapid population increase and industrial development, the ever increasing environmental pollution and the associated sanitation-related problem are no longer regional or local but have become an issue requiring global-dimensional concern and the provision of problem-solving alternatives. Especially, since most problems result from inappropriate sewerage and the lack of sewage treatment system are in a serious state occurring in economically underdeveloped regions, and as such, their significance is enormous. The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) has been making efforts to establish the technology selection methodology applicable in developing countries, through the accurate status, investigation and analysis of the wastewater management state in Asian and African regions, and the sanitation management guideline utilisable by political leaders or decision-makers. As part of this effort, the Korea Institute of Water Environment (KIWE), together with the UNEP, selected China and Vietnam (in <span class="hlt">Asia</span>) and Kenya and Ethiopia (in <span class="hlt">Africa</span>) as subject countries to investigate and perform on-site sanitation management investigations and analysis in this research. Results obtained from the on-site investigation were analysed, and in order to be helpful in establishing a strategy for sanitation management in underdeveloped countries, the strategic framework (SF) has been made based on characterised results. PMID:17881834</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4553536','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4553536"><span id="translatedtitle">Integrated Pest Management for Sustainable Intensification of Agriculture in <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and <span class="hlt">Africa</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Pretty, Jules; Pervez Bharucha, Zareen</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is a leading complement and alternative to synthetic pesticides and a form of sustainable intensification with particular importance for tropical smallholders. Global pesticide use has grown over the past 20 years to 3.5 billion kg/year, amounting to a global market worth $45 billion. The external costs of pesticides are $4–$19 (€3–15) per kg of active ingredient applied, suggesting that IPM approaches that result in lower pesticide use will benefit, not only farmers, but also wider environments and human health. Evidence for IPM’s impacts on pesticide use and yields remains patchy. We contribute an evaluation using data from 85 IPM projects from 24 countries of <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and <span class="hlt">Africa</span> implemented over the past twenty years. Analysing outcomes on productivity and reliance on pesticides, we find a mean yield increase across projects and crops of 40.9% (SD 72.3), combined with a decline in pesticide use to 30.7% (SD 34.9) compared with baseline. A total of 35 of 115 (30%) crop combinations resulted in a transition to zero pesticide use. We assess successes in four types of IPM projects, and find that at least 50% of pesticide use is not needed in most agroecosystems. Nonetheless, policy support for IPM is relatively rare, counter-interventions from pesticide industry common, and the IPM challenge never done as pests, diseases and weeds evolve and move. PMID:26463073</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27197837','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27197837"><span id="translatedtitle">Genetically Engineered Crops and Certified Organic Agriculture for Improving Nutrition Security in <span class="hlt">Africa</span> and South <span class="hlt">Asia</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pray, Carl; Ledermann, Samuel</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>In <span class="hlt">Africa</span> and South <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, where nutrition insecurity is severe, two of the most prominent production technologies are genetically modified (GM) crops and certified organic agriculture. We analyze the potential impact pathways from agricultural production to nutrition. Our review of data and the literature reveals increasing farm-level income from cash crop production as the main pathway by which organic agriculture and GM agriculture improve nutrition. Potential secondary pathways include reduced prices of important food crops like maize due to GM maize production and increased food production using organic technology. Potential tertiary pathways are improvements in health due to reduced insecticide use. Challenges to the technologies achieving their impact include the politics of GM agriculture and the certification costs of organic agriculture. Given the importance of agricultural production in addressing nutrition security, accentuated by the post-2015 sustainable development agenda, the chapter concludes by stressing the importance of private and public sector research in improving the productivity and adoption of both GM and organic crops. In addition, the chapter reminds readers that increased farm income and productivity require complementary investments in health, education, food access and women's empowerment to actually improve nutrition security. PMID:27197837</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22959390','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22959390"><span id="translatedtitle">Moving towards universal health coverage: health insurance reforms in nine developing countries in <span class="hlt">Africa</span> and <span class="hlt">Asia</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lagomarsino, Gina; Garabrant, Alice; Adyas, Atikah; Muga, Richard; Otoo, Nathaniel</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>We analyse nine low-income and lower-middle-income countries in <span class="hlt">Africa</span> and <span class="hlt">Asia</span> that have implemented national health insurance reforms designed to move towards universal health coverage. Using the functions-of-health-systems framework, we describe these countries' approaches to raising prepaid revenues, pooling risk, and purchasing services. Then, using the coverage-box framework, we assess their progress across three dimensions of coverage: who, what services, and what proportion of health costs are covered. We identify some patterns in the structure of these countries' reforms, such as use of tax revenues to subsidise target populations, steps towards broader risk pools, and emphasis on purchasing services through demand-side financing mechanisms. However, none of the reforms purely conform to common health-system archetypes, nor are they identical to each other. We report some trends in these countries' progress towards universal coverage, such as increasing enrolment in government health insurance, a movement towards expanded benefits packages, and decreasing out-of-pocket spending accompanied by increasing government share of spending on health. Common, comparable indicators of progress towards universal coverage are needed to enable countries undergoing reforms to assess outcomes and make midcourse corrections in policy and implementation. PMID:22959390</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10667789','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10667789"><span id="translatedtitle">Rainfall and drought in equatorial <span class="hlt">east</span> <span class="hlt">Africa</span> during the past 1,100 years.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Verschuren, D; Laird, K R; Cumming, B F</p> <p>2000-01-27</p> <p>Knowledge of natural long-term rainfall variability is essential for water-resource and land-use management in sub-humid regions of the world. In tropical <span class="hlt">Africa</span>, data relevant to determining this variability are scarce because of the lack of long instrumental climate records and the limited potential of standard high-resolution proxy records such as tree rings and ice cores. Here we present a decade-scale reconstruction of rainfall and drought in equatorial <span class="hlt">east</span> <span class="hlt">Africa</span> over the past 1,100 years, based on lake-level and salinity fluctuations of Lake Naivasha (Kenya) inferred from three different palaeolimnological proxies: sediment stratigraphy and the species compositions of fossil diatom and midge assemblages. Our data indicate that, over the past millennium, equatorial <span class="hlt">east</span> <span class="hlt">Africa</span> has alternated between contrasting climate conditions, with significantly drier climate than today during the 'Medieval Warm Period' (approximately AD 1000-1270) and a relatively wet climate during the 'Little Ice Age' (approximately AD 1270-1850) which was interrupted by three prolonged dry episodes. We also find strong chronological links between the reconstructed history of natural long-term rainfall variation and the pre-colonial cultural history of <span class="hlt">east</span> <span class="hlt">Africa</span>, highlighting the importance of a detailed knowledge of natural long-term rainfall fluctuations for sustainable socio-economic development. PMID:10667789</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3191364','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3191364"><span id="translatedtitle">Modelling malaria risk in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Africa</span> at high-spatial resolution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Omumbo, J. A.; Hay, S. I.; Snow, R. W.; Tatem, A. J.; Rogers, D. J.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Summary OBJECTIVES Malaria risk maps have re-emerged as an important tool for appropriately targeting the limited resources available for malaria control. In Sub-Saharan <span class="hlt">Africa</span> empirically derived maps using standardized criteria are few and this paper considers the development of a model of malaria risk for <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Africa</span>. METHODS Statistical techniques were applied to high spatial resolution remotely sensed, human settlement and land-use data to predict the intensity of malaria transmission as defined according to the childhood parasite ratio (PR) in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Africa</span>. Discriminant analysis was used to train environmental and human settlement predictor variables to distinguish between four classes of PR risk shown to relate to disease outcomes in the region. RESULTS Independent empirical estimates of the PR were identified from Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda (n = 330). Surrogate markers of climate recorded on-board earth orbiting satellites, population settlement, elevation and water bodies all contributed significantly to the predictive models of malaria transmission intensity in the sub-region. The accuracy of the model was increased by stratifying <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Africa</span> into two ecological zones. In addition, the inclusion of urbanization as a predictor of malaria prevalence, whilst reducing formal accuracy statistics, nevertheless improved the consistency of the predictive map with expert opinion malaria maps. The overall accuracy achieved with ecological zone and urban stratification was 62% with surrogates of precipitation and temperature being among the most discriminating predictors of the PR. CONCLUSIONS It is possible to achieve a high degree of predictive accuracy for Plasmodium falciparum parasite prevalence in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Africa</span> using high-spatial resolution environmental data. However, discrepancies were evident from mapped outputs from the models which were largely due to poor coverage of malaria training data and the comparable spatial resolution of predictor data. These</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140010539','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140010539"><span id="translatedtitle">Impact Assessment of Biomass Burning on Air Quality in Southeast and <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> During BASE-<span class="hlt">ASIA</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Huang, Kan; Fu, Joshua S.; Hsu, N. Christina; Gao, Yang; Dong, Xinyi; Tsay, Si-Chee; Lam, Yun Fat</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>A synergy of numerical simulation, ground-based measurement and satellite observation was applied to evaluate the impact of biomass burning originating from Southeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span> (SE <span class="hlt">Asia</span>) within the framework of NASA's 2006 Biomass burning Aerosols in Southeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span>: Smoke Impact Assessment (BASE-<span class="hlt">ASIA</span>). Biomass burning emissions in the spring of 2006 peaked in MarcheApril when most intense biomass burning occurred in Myanmar, northern Thailand, Laos, and parts of Vietnam and Cambodia. Model performances were reasonably validated by comparing to both satellite and ground-based observations despite overestimation or underestimation occurring in specific regions due to high uncertainties of biomass burning emission. Chemical tracers of particulate K(+), OC concentrations, and OC/EC ratios showed distinct regional characteristics, suggesting biomass burning and local emission dominated the aerosol chemistry. CMAQ modeled aerosol chemical components were underestimated at most circumstances and the converted AOD values from CMAQ were biased low at about a factor of 2, probably due to the underestimation of biomass emissions. Scenario simulation indicated that the impact of biomass burning to the downwind regions spread over a large area via the Asian spring monsoon, which included Southern China, South China Sea, and Taiwan Strait. Comparison of AERONET aerosol optical properties with simulation at multi-sites clearly demonstrated the biomass burning impact via longrange transport. In the source region, the contribution from biomass burning to AOD was estimated to be over 56%. While in the downwind regions, the contribution was still significant within the range of 26%-62%.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ThApC.tmp....6A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ThApC.tmp....6A"><span id="translatedtitle">How well do CORDEX models simulate extreme rainfall events over the <span class="hlt">East</span> Coast of South <span class="hlt">Africa</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Abba Omar, Sabina; Abiodun, Babatunde J.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This study assesses the capability of regional climate models (RCMs) in simulating the characteristics of widespread extreme rainfall events over the <span class="hlt">East</span> Coast of South <span class="hlt">Africa</span>. Simulations of nine RCMs from the Coordinated Regional Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX) were analyzed for the study. All the simulations cover 12 years (1996-2008). Using the 95th percentile of daily rainfall as the threshold of extreme events and the simultaneous occurrence of extreme events over 50 % of the <span class="hlt">East</span> Coast as widespread extreme events (WERE), we compared the characteristics of simulated WERE with observations (GPCP and TRMM) and with the reanalysis (ERAINT) that forced the simulations. Most RCMs perform well in simulating the seasonal variation of WEREs over the <span class="hlt">East</span> Coast but perform poorly in simulating the interannual variability. Based on their rainfall synoptic patterns over Southern <span class="hlt">Africa</span>, the WEREs in the <span class="hlt">East</span> Coast can be generally classified into four groups. The first group connects the WEREs with tropical rainfall activities over the subcontinent. The second group links WEREs with frontal rainfall south of the subcontinent. The third group links the WEREs with both tropical and temperate rainfall activities while the fourth group represents isolated WEREs. The RCMs show different capabilities in simulating the frequency of WERE in each group, some perform better than ERAINT while some perform worse. Results of this study could provide information on the usability of RCMs in downscaling the impact of climate change on widespread extreme rainfall events over South <span class="hlt">Africa</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A23N..06K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A23N..06K"><span id="translatedtitle">Impact of synoptic patterns on <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> pollutant transport pathways observed from satellites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kim, H. C.; Lee, P.; Kim, S.; Ngan, F.; Bae, C.; Kim, B. U.; Kim, E.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>This study presents that wintertime pollutant transport patterns in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> are visible from multiple satellite observations when inspected with corresponding synoptic weather analysis. Transport pathways of pollutants and anthropogenic emissions are investigated using satellite images, surface weather chart, and chemical transport model simulation in the context of conceptual categorization of synoptic weather pattern. We combined daily distributions of MODIS AOD and CMAQ simulated PM to represent aerosol distribution; and GOME-2 and OMI NO2 column density as a proxy for fresh anthropogenic emission flux; and Korean Meteorological Administration surface weather analysis chart to understand synoptic weather pattern using GIS geo-referencing technique. We identified a periodic extension of the Siberian high to south China and its associated migratory systems are important to understand transport patterns in this region. Based on the relative location and strength of high pressure system over south China, we classified three types of synoptic patterns that might affect high surface PM events: (1) Expansion of Siberian high as a result of cold surge, (2) Cold front passage associated with migratory northern low pressure system, and (3) Stagnant high pressure system near Yellow Sea. In all cases, the development of high pressure system in south China is essential for development of pollutant event. We demonstrate that observed and simulated surface PM show good agreement, not only with MODIS AOD but also with NO2 column density, implying the possible contributions of transported anthropogenic emissions. We also demonstrate many of these PM plumes are originated from northeastern China, pushed southward by cold front passage, generating unique narrow-band-shape PM plumes. All 3 types of transport patterns are shown to be important, in terms of intensity, frequency, and vertical lifting. These transport pathways are crucial to understand not only local pollutant events</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ClDy...45.2469P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ClDy...45.2469P"><span id="translatedtitle">A new dynamical index for classification of cold surge types over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Park, Tae-Won; Ho, Chang-Hoi; Jeong, Jee-Hoon; Heo, Jin-Woo; Deng, Yi</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The cold surges over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> can be classified into wave-train type and blocking type according to their dynamic origins. In the present study, two dynamic indices are proposed to objectively identify cold surge types using potential temperature ( θ) on the dynamic tropopause at 2-potential vorticity units (2-PVU) surface. The two indices are designed to represent primary characteristics of the two types of cold surge. The wave-train index ( WI) is defined as a difference of anomalous θ on the 2-PVU surface between the western North Pacific and northeast China, which captures a southward (northward) intrusion of cold (warm) air mass related to the trough-ridge pattern. The blocking index ( BI) is defined as a difference of anomalous θ between the subarctic region and northeast China, which indicates air mass overturning related to a reversal of the usual meridional θ gradient commonly observed in the occurrence of blocking type cold surge. Composite analyses based on the distribution of the WI and BI clearly demonstrate the dynamic evolutions of corresponding cold surge types. The wave-train cold surge is associated with a southeastward expansion of the Siberian High and northerly wind near surface, which is caused by growing baroclinic waves. During the blocking cold surge, a geopotential height dipole indicating the subarctic blocking and deepening of <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian coastal trough induces a southward expansion of the Siberian High and northeasterly wind. Compared to the wave-train type, the blocking cold surge exhibits a longer duration and stronger intensity. In the new framework of these dynamic indices, we can detect a third type of cold surge when both the wave-train and the blocking occur together. In addition, we can exclude the events that do not have the essential features of the upper tropospheric disturbances or the subarctic anticyclonic circulation, which are responsible for cold surge occurrence, using the new indices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26350937','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26350937"><span id="translatedtitle">The Low FODMAP Diet and Its Application in <span class="hlt">East</span> and Southeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Iacovou, Marina; Tan, Victoria; Muir, Jane G; Gibson, Peter R</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>There is growing interest in using food choice/dietary change to influence clinical outcomes in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The low fermentable oligo-, di-, mono-saccharides, and polyols (FODMAPs) diet is an evidence-based approach that is gaining popularity in many Western countries. The low FODMAP diet is based on restricting dietary intake of short chain carbohydrates that are slowly absorbed or indigestible and not absorbed during passage through the small intestine. These are collectively described as "FODMAPs" and comprise oligosaccharides (mostly fructans, galacto-oligosaccharides), sugar polyols, fructose in excess of glucose, and lactose in lactose malabsorbers. The general strategy of the diet is to avoid foods high in FODMAPs and replace them with foods low in FODMAPs, with long-term restriction limited to what is required to control symptoms. The likely mechanism of action is minimisation of the stimulation of mechanoreceptors exerted by distension of the intestinal lumen with water from osmotic effects and gases from bacterial fermentation in those with visceral hypersensitivity. The success of this dietary approach greatly depends on detailed knowledge about the FODMAP composition of food com - monly consumed in that country. While the content of foods associated with <span class="hlt">East</span> and Southeast Asian cuisines has not been fully explored, major high FODMAP sources are frequently used and include onion, garlic, shallots, legumes/pulses, and wheat-based products. Thus, this dietary approach holds great promise in treating IBS patients in <span class="hlt">East</span> and Southeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. The aim of this review is to highlight how the diet is implemented, its efficacy, and troublesome ingredients frequently used in Asian dishes. PMID:26350937</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4622128','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4622128"><span id="translatedtitle">The Low FODMAP Diet and Its Application in <span class="hlt">East</span> and Southeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Iacovou, Marina; Tan, Victoria; Muir, Jane G; Gibson, Peter R</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>There is growing interest in using food choice/dietary change to influence clinical outcomes in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The low fermentable oligo-, di-, mono-saccharides, and polyols (FODMAPs) diet is an evidence-based approach that is gaining popularity in many Western countries. The low FODMAP diet is based on restricting dietary intake of short chain carbohydrates that are slowly absorbed or indigestible and not absorbed during passage through the small intestine. These are collectively described as “FODMAPs” and comprise oligosaccharides (mostly fructans, galacto-oligosaccharides), sugar polyols, fructose in excess of glucose, and lactose in lactose malabsorbers. The general strategy of the diet is to avoid foods high in FODMAPs and replace them with foods low in FODMAPs, with long-term restriction limited to what is required to control symptoms. The likely mechanism of action is minimisation of the stimulation of mechanoreceptors exerted by distension of the intestinal lumen with water from osmotic effects and gases from bacterial fermentation in those with visceral hypersensitivity. The success of this dietary approach greatly depends on detailed knowledge about the FODMAP composition of food commonly consumed in that country. While the content of foods associated with <span class="hlt">East</span> and Southeast Asian cuisines has not been fully explored, major high FODMAP sources are frequently used and include onion, garlic, shallots, legumes/pulses, and wheat-based products. Thus, this dietary approach holds great promise in treating IBS patients in <span class="hlt">East</span> and Southeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. The aim of this review is to highlight how the diet is implemented, its efficacy, and troublesome ingredients frequently used in Asian dishes. PMID:26350937</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26896161','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26896161"><span id="translatedtitle">Recent decline of DDTs among several organochlorine pesticides in background air in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Takazawa, Yoshikatsu; Takasuga, Takumi; Doi, Kenji; Saito, Mick; Shibata, Yasuyuki</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), chlordanes (CHLs), and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) in air-mass outflows from <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> were recorded monthly from April 2009 to March 2014 at Cape Hedo in Japan. These organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were collected by a high volume air sampler equipped with a quartz fiber filter, a polyurethane foam plug, and activated carbon fiber and analyzed by using a gas chromatograph-high resolution mass spectrometer. The overall (and geometric mean ± SD) concentration over the period was 4.9-43 pg m(-3) (15 ± 7.8 pg m(-3)) in HCHs (sum of α-/β-/γ-/δ-HCH), 1.5-83 pg m(-3) (8.8 ± 11 pg m(-3)) in CHLs (sum of cis-/trans-chlordane, cis-/trans-nonachlor, and oxychlordane), and 0.71-16 pg m(-3) (2.5 ± 2.0 pg m(-3)) in DDTs (sum of o,p'-/p,p'-DDD, o,p'-/p,p'-DDE, and o,p'-/p,p'-DDT). Clear seasonal changes, i.e. higher in summer and lower in winter, were observed in HCHs and CHLs, suggesting the dominant effect of temperature-dependence, secondary sources in these OCPs. DDT concentration as well as the ratio of (o,p'-DDT + p,p'-DDT) to total DDTs, on the other hand, showed clear a declining trend during the five year sampling period, suggesting the decrease of input of newly produced DDTs in the regional environment by reflecting recent activities in the <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian region to eliminate production and use of DDTs under the Stockholm Convention. PMID:26896161</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMNH43C..08H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMNH43C..08H"><span id="translatedtitle">Recent destructive earthquakes and international collaboration for seismic hazard assessment in the <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> region</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hao, K.; Fujiwara, H.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Recent destructive earthquakes in <span class="hlt">East-Asia</span> claimed one third of million of people's lives. People learned from the lessons but forgotten after generations even one sculpted on stones. Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (SHA) is considered as a scientific way to define earthquake zones and to guide urban plan and construction. NIED promoted SHA as a national mission of Japan over 10 years and as an international cooperation to neighbor countries since the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. We initiated China-Japan-Korea SHA strategic cooperative program for the next generation map supported by MOST-JST-NRF in 2010. We also initiated cooperative program with Taiwan Earthquake Model from 2012, as well many other parties in the world. Consequently NIED proudly joined Global Earthquake Model (GEM) since its SHA's methodologies and technologies were highly valuated. As a representative of Japan, NIED will continue to work closely with all members of GEM not only for the GEM global components, also for its regional programs. Seismic hazard assessment has to be carrying out under existed information with epistemic uncertainty. We routinely improve the existed models to carefully treat active faults, earthquake records, and magnitudes under the newest authorized information provided by Earthquake Research Committee, Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion. After the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, we have been re-considering the national SHA maps in even long-term and low probabilities. We have setup a platform of http://www.j-shis.bosai.go.jp/en to exchange the SHA information and share our experiences, lessons and knowledge internationally. Some probabilistic SHA concepts, seismic risk mitigation issues need constantly to be promoted internationally through outreach and media. Major earthquakes in <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian region which claimed one third of million of people's lives (slab depth with contour (Hayes et al., 2011)).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1034966','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1034966"><span id="translatedtitle">Model analysis of the anthropogenic aerosol effect on clouds over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gao, Yi; Zhang, Meigen; Liu, Xiaohong; Zhao, Chun</p> <p>2012-01-16</p> <p>A coupled meteorology and aerosol/chemistry model WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecast model coupled with Chemistry) was used to conduct a pair of simulations with present-day (PD) and preindustrial (PI) emissions over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> to examine the aerosol indirect effect on clouds. As a result of an increase in aerosols in January, the cloud droplet number increased by 650 cm{sup -3} over the ocean and <span class="hlt">East</span> China, 400 cm{sup -3} over Central and Southwest China, and less than 200 cm{sup -3} over North China. The cloud liquid water path (LWP) increased by 40-60 g m{sup -2} over the ocean and Southeast China and 30 g m{sup -2} over Central China; the LWP increased less than 5 g m{sup -2} or decreased by 5 g m{sup -2} over North China. The effective radius (Re) decreased by more than 4 {mu}m over Southwest, Central, and Southeast China and 2 {mu}m over North China. In July, variations in cloud properties were more uniform; the cloud droplet number increased by approximately 250-400 cm{sup -3}, the LWP increased by approximately 30-50 g m{sup -2}, and Re decreased by approximately 3 {mu}m over most regions of China. In response to cloud property changes from PI to PD, shortwave (SW) cloud radiative forcing strengthened by 30 W m{sup -2} over the ocean and 10 W m{sup -2} over Southeast China, and it weakened slightly by approximately 2-10 W m{sup -2} over Central and Southwest China in January. In July, SW cloud radiative forcing strengthened by 15 W m{sup -2} over Southeast and North China and weakened by 10 W m{sup -2} over Central China. The different responses of SW cloud radiative forcing in different regions was related to cloud feedbacks and natural variability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AGUFMSA31D2372S&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AGUFMSA31D2372S&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">The ionospheric response to the Saint Patrick storm over South <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Spogli, L.; Alfonsi, L.; Di Mauro, D.; Pezzopane, M.; Cesaroni, C.; Povero, G., Sr.; Pini, M., Sr.; Dovis, F., Sr.; Romero, R.; Linty, N.; Abadi, P.; Nuraeni, F.; Husin, A.; Huy Le, M.; La The, V.; Pillat, V. G.; Floury, N.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>ERICA, a project funded by the European Space Agency, aims at characterizing the ionospheric variability of the Equatorial Ionospheric Anomaly in the South <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. In particular, ERICA focuses on the variation of the plasma electron density in the southern and northern crests of the anomaly and over the dip equator identified by the Equatorial Ionospheric Trough. To achieve this goal, an ad hoc measurements campaign is on-going with ground-based instruments located in the footprints of the Equatorial Ionospheric Anomaly and of the Equatorial Ionospheric Trough in Vietnam and Indonesia.The campaign started on the 1st of March 2015, timing to monitor the Saint Patrick storm effects on the ionosphere by means of ionosondes, double frequency hardware and software defined radio GNSS receivers, ground based and spaceborne magnetometers and Langmuir probe. Such multi-instrumental and multi-parametric observations of the region enables an in-depth investigation of the ionospheric response to the largest geomagnetic storm of the current solar cycle. The observations record positive and negative ionospheric storms, sporadic E layer and spread F conditions, scintillations enhancement and inhibition, TEC gradients. The ancillary information on the local magnetic field allows to highlight the variety of ionospheric perturbations happened during the main and the long recovery phase of the storm.The paper presents the outcomes of the investigation evidencing the peculiarities of a region not yet extensively reported in the open literature.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1692695','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1692695"><span id="translatedtitle">Hydrological investigations of forest disturbance and land cover impacts in South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>: a review.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Douglas, I</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Investigations of land management impacts on hydrology are well developed in South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, having been greatly extended by national organizations in the last two decades. Regional collaborative efforts, such as the ASEAN-US watershed programme, have helped develop skills and long-running monitoring programmes. Work in different countries is significant for particular aspects: the powerful effects of both cyclones and landsliding in Taiwan, the significance of lahars in Java, of small-scale agriculture in Thailand and plantation establishment in Malaysia. Different aid programmes have contributed specialist knowledge such as British work on reservoir sedimentation, Dutch, Swedish and British work on softwood plantations and US work in hill-tribe agriculture. Much has been achieved through individual university research projects, including PhD and MSc theses. The net result is that for most countries there is now good information on changes in the rainfall-run-off relationship due to forest disturbance or conversion, some information on the impacts on sediment delivery and erosion of hillslopes, but relatively little about the dynamics and magnitude of nutrient losses. Improvements have been made in the ability to model the consequences of forest conversion and of selective logging and exciting prospects exist for the development of better predictions of transfer of water from the hillslopes to the stream channels using techniques such as multilevel modelling. Understanding of the processes involved has advanced through the detailed monitoring made possible at permanent field stations such as that at Danum Valley, Sabah. PMID:11605617</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27442110','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27442110"><span id="translatedtitle">Relationships between Changes in Urban Characteristics and Air Quality in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> from 2000 to 2010.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Larkin, Andrew; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Geddes, Jeffrey A; Martin, Randall V; Hystad, Perry</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Characteristics of urban areas, such as density and compactness, are associated with local air pollution concentrations. The potential for altering air pollution through changing urban characteristics, however, is less certain, especially for expanding cities within the developing world. We examined changes in urban characteristics from 2000 to 2010 for 830 cities in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> to evaluate associations with changes in nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution. Urban areas were stratified by population size into small (100 000-250 000), medium, (250 000-1 000 000), and large (>1 000 000). Multivariate regression models including urban baseline characteristics, meteorological variables, and change in urban characteristics explained 37%, 49%, and 54% of the change in NO2 and 29%, 34%, and 37% of the change in PM2.5 for small, medium and large cities, respectively. Change in lights at night strongly predicted change in NO2 and PM2.5, while urban area expansion was strongly associated with NO2 but not PM2.5. Important differences between changes in urban characteristics and pollutant levels were observed by city size, especially NO2. Overall, changes in urban characteristics had a greater impact on NO2 and PM2.5 change than baseline characteristics, suggesting urban design and land use policies can have substantial impacts on local air pollution levels. PMID:27442110</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3484744','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3484744"><span id="translatedtitle">Systematic review of birth cohort studies in South <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and Eastern Mediterranean regions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>McKinnon, Rachel; Campbell, Harry</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Background Few longitudinal studies of children have taken place in the developing world, despite child mortality being concentrated there. This review summarises the methodologies and main outcomes of longitudinal studies of pre-school children (0 to 59 months) in the World Health Organization’s South <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> (SEA) and Eastern Mediterranean (EM) Regions. Methods A systematic search of literature using pre-defined criteria revealed 7863 papers. After application of quality criteria, 120 studies were selected for analysis. Results The search revealed 83 studies in the SEA region and 37 in the EM region, of which 92 were community-based and 8 facility-based. Objectives were diverse but topics included growth (n = 49 studies), mortality (n = 28), nutrition (n = 24), and infectious diseases (n = 33). Only 12 studies focused on non-communicable diseases. Duration ranged from 7 to 384 months. Measurements included anthropometric (n = 56 studies), socioeconomic (n = 50) and biological sampling (n = 25), but only one study was DNA-based. Conclusion Biobanks have emerged as the most successful approach to generating knowledge about disease causes and mechanisms. Little of this is possible to undertake in the in SEA or EM regions, however. Further longitudinal studies of young children with DNA sampling should be set up to better understand determinants of diseases in low-income countries. PMID:23198103</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ERL....11c4021G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ERL....11c4021G"><span id="translatedtitle">Age and climate contribution to observed forest carbon sinks in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gao, Shan; Zhou, Tao; Zhao, Xiang; Wu, Donghai; Li, Zheng; Wu, Hao; Du, Ling; Luo, Hui</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>The observed forest carbon sink, i.e. positive net ecosystem productivity (NEP), in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> reported by the eddy covariance flux tower network is an integrated result of forests themselves (e.g. age) and abiotic factors such as climate. However the relative contribution of climate alone to that sink is highly uncertain and has been in debate. In this study we de-trended a primary effect of forest age on carbon sinks by a statistical regression model between NEP and forest ages. Then, modeled residual NEP was regressed against climate factors again so that its relative contribution could be evaluated appropriately in the region. The analysis for data from the 2000s showed that forest age appeared to be the primary impact factor on the carbon sink of the region (R 2 = 0.347), and the mean annual temperature (MAT) was the second (R 2 = 0.23), while the mean annual precipitation effect might not be as apparent as MAT. Particularly for forests in China, climate might contribute to about 31.7% of the total NEP of 0.540 Pg C yr-1. Given that forests in China are relatively young under current climate conditions, we predicted that they would be capable of atmospheric carbon sequestration in the near future.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006SPIE.6411E..23L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006SPIE.6411E..23L"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessment and monitoring of desertification using satellite imagery of MODIS in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lin, Meng-Lung; Chu, Chieh-Ming; Shih, Jyh-Yi; Wang, Qiu-Bing; Chen, Cheng-Wu; Wang, Shin; Tao, Yi-Huang; Lee, Yung-Tan</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>The desertification in Northwestern China and Mongolia shows the result of conflicts between economic development and natural conservation. Many researches have proven the desert areas are growing in these regions. The variations of bi-weekly NDVI satellite images are used as one of the parameters to evaluate the vegetation dynamics over large scale studies. In this study, remotely sensed satellite images are conducted to provide multi-temporal vegetated and non-vegetated areas in order to assess the status of desertification in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Spatial data derived from these satellite images are applied to evaluate vegetation dynamics at regional scale to find out the hot spot areas vulnerable to desertification. The results show that the desert areas are mainly distributed over southern Mongolia, central and western Inner-Mongolia, western China (the Taklimakan desert). The desert areas were expanded from 2000 to 2002, were shrunk in 2003, and were expanded from 2003 to 2005 again. The hot spot areas of desertification are mainly distributed over southeastern Mongolia and eastern Inner-Mongolia. The results will help administrators to refine the planning processes in defining the boundaries of protected areas and will facilitate to take decision of the priority areas for conservation of desertification.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25000779','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25000779"><span id="translatedtitle">Drivers for animal welfare policies in <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, the Far <span class="hlt">East</span> and Oceania.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Murray, G; Ashley, K; Kolesar, R</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>The complex and diverse nature of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) region for <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, the Far <span class="hlt">East</span> and Oceania presents both challenges and opportunities in implementing improved approaches to animal welfare. Drivers for improvements include social values, culture, religion, political interest, trade, an increasing global awareness of animal welfare issues, an increasing demand for meat and dairy products, the interest of non-governmental organisations, and the mandate given to the OIE to develop science-based standards for animal welfare. The outcomes-based OIE standards can be amended in the light of new scientific knowledge and implemented by countries in a manner best suited to meet their needs. A number of regional initiatives are described, including a regional strategy, examples of national activities, projects run by the OIE Collaborating Centre for Animal Welfare Science and Bioethical Analysis, and trade measures. Although the overall outlook for improvements in the region looks promising, implementation of standards over the longer-term will require ongoing political commitment, resources and cultural change to ensure sustained improvements. PMID:25000779</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AdAtS..23..474A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AdAtS..23..474A"><span id="translatedtitle">Derivation of regression coefficients for sea surface temperature retrieval over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ahn, Myoung-Hwan; Sohn, Eun-Ha; Hwang, Byong-Jun; Chung, Chu-Yong; Wu, Xiangqian</p> <p>2006-05-01</p> <p>Among the regression-based algorithms for deriving SST from satellite measurements, regionally optimized algorithms normally perform better than the corresponding global algorithm. In this paper, three algorithms are considered for SST retrieval over the <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> region (15° 55°N, 105° 170°E), including the multi-channel algorithm (MCSST), the quadratic algorithm (QSST), and the Pathfinder algorithm (PFSST). All algorithms are derived and validated using collocated buoy and Geostationary Meteorological Satellite (GMS-5) observations from 1997 to 2001. An important part of the derivation and validation of the algorithms is the quality control procedure for the buoy SST data and an improved cloud screening method for the satellite brightness temperature measurements. The regionally optimized MCSST algorithm shows an overall improvement over the global algorithm, removing the bias of about -0.13°C and reducing the root-mean-square difference (rmsd) from 1.36°C to 1.26°C. The QSST is only slightly better than the MCSST. For both algorithms, a seasonal dependence of the remaining error statistics is still evident. The Pathfinder approach for deriving a season-specific set of coefficients, one for August to October and one for the rest of the year, provides the smallest rmsd overall that is also stable over time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140005405','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140005405"><span id="translatedtitle">Combined Dust Detection Algorithm by Using MODIS Infrared Channels over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Park, Sang Seo; Kim, Jhoon; Lee, Jaehwa; Lee, Sukjo; Kim, Jeong Soo; Chang, Lim Seok; Ou, Steve</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>A new dust detection algorithm is developed by combining the results of multiple dust detectionmethods using IR channels onboard the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Brightness Temperature Difference (BTD) between two wavelength channels has been used widely in previous dust detection methods. However, BTDmethods have limitations in identifying the offset values of the BTDto discriminate clear-sky areas. The current algorithm overcomes the disadvantages of previous dust detection methods by considering the Brightness Temperature Ratio (BTR) values of the dual wavelength channels with 30-day composite, the optical properties of the dust particles, the variability of surface properties, and the cloud contamination. Therefore, the current algorithm shows improvements in detecting the dust loaded region over land during daytime. Finally, the confidence index of the current dust algorithm is shown in 10 × 10 pixels of the MODIS observations. From January to June, 2006, the results of the current algorithm are within 64 to 81% of those found using the fine mode fraction (FMF) and aerosol index (AI) from the MODIS and Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). The agreement between the results of the current algorithm and the OMI AI over the non-polluted land also ranges from 60 to 67% to avoid errors due to the anthropogenic aerosol. In addition, the developed algorithm shows statistically significant results at four AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) sites in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2626648','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2626648"><span id="translatedtitle">Mapping tobacco industry strategies in South <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> for action planning and surveillance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Stillman, F; Hoang, M; Linton, R; Ritthiphakdee, B; Trochim, W</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Objective: To develop a comprehensive conceptual framework of tobacco industry tactics in four countries in South <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> for the purpose of: (1) generating consensus on key areas of importance and feasibility for regional and cross country tobacco industry monitoring and surveillance; (2) developing measures to track and monitor the effects of the tobacco industry and to design counterstrategies; and (3) building capacity to improve tobacco control planning in the participating countries. Design: A structured conceptualisation methodology known as concept mapping was used. The process included brainstorming, sorting and rating of statements describing industry activities. Statistical analyses used multidimensional scaling and cluster analysis. Interpretation of the maps was participatory, using regional tobacco control researchers, practitioners, and policy makers during a face to face meeting. Participants: 31 participants in this study come from the four countries represented in the project along with six people from the Johns Hopkins Blomberg School of Public Health. Conclusions: The map shows eight clusters of industry activities within the four countries. These were arranged into four general sectors: economics, politics, public relations and deception. For project design purposes, the map indicates areas of importance and feasibility for monitoring tobacco industry activities and serves as a basis for an initial discussion about action planning. Furthermore, the development of the map used a consensus building process across different stakeholders or stakeholder agencies and is critical when developing regional, cross border strategies for tracking and surveillance. PMID:18218787</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4789298','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4789298"><span id="translatedtitle">New Sources for Comparative Social Science: Historical Population Panel Data From <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Dong, Hao; Campbell, Cameron; Kurosu, Satomi; Yang, Wenshan; Lee, James Z.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Comparison and comparability lie at the heart of any comparative social science. Still, precise comparison is virtually impossible without using similar methods and similar data. In recent decades, social demographers, historians, and economic historians have compiled and made available a large number of micro-level data sets of historical populations for North America and Europe. Studies using these data have already made important contributions to many academic disciplines. In a similar spirit, we introduce five new microlevel historical panel data sets from <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, including the China Multi-Generational Panel Dataset–Liaoning (CMGPD-LN) 1749–1909, the China Multi-Generational Panel Dataset– Shuangcheng (CMGPD-SC) 1866–1913, the Japanese Ninbetsu-Aratame-Cho Population Register Database–Shimomoriya and Niita (NAC-SN) 1716–1870, the Korea Multi-Generational Panel Dataset–Tansung (KMGPD-TS) 1678–1888, and the Colonial Taiwan Household Registration Database (CTHRD) 1906–1945. These data sets in total contain more than 3.7 million linked observations of 610,000 individuals and are the first such Asian data to be made available online or by application. We discuss the key features and historical institutions that originally collected these data; the subsequent processes by which the data were reconstructed into individual-level panels; their particular data limitations and strengths; and their potential for comparative social scientific research. PMID:26001625</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22937641','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22937641"><span id="translatedtitle">[Relationships between summer drought and strong typhoon events and pine wilt disease occurrence in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Fei</p> <p>2012-06-01</p> <p>The occurrence and prevalence of pine wilt disease cause huge losses to Japan, China, and South Korea in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, and have received concerns from many countries. By the methods of field observation and meteorological data analysis, this paper studied the characteristics of the occurrence and prevalence of pine wilt disease and their relations to the meteorological disaster events. In Japan, China and South Korea, the meteorological extreme events of persistent summer drought and strong typhoon could trigger the occurrence of pine wilt. In extremely dry and hot environment, pine trees often appeared energy metabolism imbalance and entire tree wilt. However, in the years with lower temperature and more rainfall, less or nearly no pine wilt event occurred. It was suggested that before the attack by pine wood nematode and its vectors, the vigor of the pines had already declined, and thus, pine wilt disease could be confined in the areas often hit by summer drought and strong typhoon events. In the areas with suitable natural environment characterized by less summer drought and strong typhoon events and no improperly enlarged pine planting, there would be little possibility of widespread occurrence of pine wilt disease. PMID:22937641</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11605617','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11605617"><span id="translatedtitle">Hydrological investigations of forest disturbance and land cover impacts in South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>: a review.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Douglas, I</p> <p>1999-11-29</p> <p>Investigations of land management impacts on hydrology are well developed in South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, having been greatly extended by national organizations in the last two decades. Regional collaborative efforts, such as the ASEAN-US watershed programme, have helped develop skills and long-running monitoring programmes. Work in different countries is significant for particular aspects: the powerful effects of both cyclones and landsliding in Taiwan, the significance of lahars in Java, of small-scale agriculture in Thailand and plantation establishment in Malaysia. Different aid programmes have contributed specialist knowledge such as British work on reservoir sedimentation, Dutch, Swedish and British work on softwood plantations and US work in hill-tribe agriculture. Much has been achieved through individual university research projects, including PhD and MSc theses. The net result is that for most countries there is now good information on changes in the rainfall-run-off relationship due to forest disturbance or conversion, some information on the impacts on sediment delivery and erosion of hillslopes, but relatively little about the dynamics and magnitude of nutrient losses. Improvements have been made in the ability to model the consequences of forest conversion and of selective logging and exciting prospects exist for the development of better predictions of transfer of water from the hillslopes to the stream channels using techniques such as multilevel modelling. Understanding of the processes involved has advanced through the detailed monitoring made possible at permanent field stations such as that at Danum Valley, Sabah. PMID:11605617</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3238047','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3238047"><span id="translatedtitle">Review of subtribe Singilina Jeannel, 1949, of the Middle <span class="hlt">East</span> and Central <span class="hlt">Asia</span> (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Lebiini)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Anichtchenko, Alexander</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Abstract Species of the genus Singilis Rambur, 1837 (Phloeozeteus Peyron, 1856, syn. n., Agatus Motschulsky, 1845, syn. n.), occurring in the Middle <span class="hlt">East</span> and Central <span class="hlt">Asia</span> are reviewed, with 24 species now recognized in the region, including ten species described as new: Singilis makarovi sp. n. (Tajikistan), Singilis jedlickai sp. n. (Afghanistan), Singilis kolesnichenkoi sp. n. (Iran), Singilis kabakovi sp. n. (Afghanistan, Iran), Singilis timuri sp. n. (Uzbekistan), Singilis klimenkoi sp. n. (Iran), Singilis saeedi sp. n. (Iran), Singilis felixi sp. n. (UAE), Singilis kryzhanovskii sp. n. (Iran, Turkmenistan), and Singilis timidus sp. n. (Iran); Singilis libani (Sahlberg, 1913) is recognized as a valid species; and Singilis solskyi nom. n. is proposed as a replacement name for Agatus bicolor (Solsky, 1874, not Rambur 1837), now placed in Singilis as junior homonym. New synonymies include: Singilis cingulatus (Gebler, 1843) = Singilis jakeschi Jedlička, 1967, syn. n.; Singilis mesopotamicus Pic, 1901 = Singilis apicalis Jedlička, 1956, syn. n. A key to species is provided. Habitus and aedeagal illustrations are provided for all species. Distributional data include many new country records. PMID:22291510</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3179628','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3179628"><span id="translatedtitle">The conservation value of South <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>'s highly degraded forests: evidence from leaf-litter ants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Woodcock, Paul; Edwards, David P.; Fayle, Tom M.; Newton, Rob J.; Khen, Chey Vun; Bottrell, Simon H.; Hamer, Keith C.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>South <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> is widely regarded as a centre of threatened biodiversity owing to extensive logging and forest conversion to agriculture. In particular, forests degraded by repeated rounds of intensive logging are viewed as having little conservation value and are afforded meagre protection from conversion to oil palm. Here, we determine the biological value of such heavily degraded forests by comparing leaf-litter ant communities in unlogged (natural) and twice-logged forests in Sabah, Borneo. We accounted for impacts of logging on habitat heterogeneity by comparing species richness and composition at four nested spatial scales, and examining how species richness was partitioned across the landscape in each habitat. We found that twice-logged forest had fewer species occurrences, lower species richness at small spatial scales and altered species composition compared with natural forests. However, over 80 per cent of species found in unlogged forest were detected within twice-logged forest. Moreover, greater species turnover among sites in twice-logged forest resulted in identical species richness between habitats at the largest spatial scale. While two intensive logging cycles have negative impacts on ant communities, these degraded forests clearly provide important habitat for numerous species and preventing their conversion to oil palm and other crops should be a conservation priority. PMID:22006966</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4171880','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4171880"><span id="translatedtitle">Challenges in Type 1 diabetes management in South <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>: Descriptive situational assessment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kesavadev, Jothydev; Sadikot, Shaukat M.; Saboo, Banshi; Shrestha, Dina; Jawad, Fatema; Azad, Kishwar; Wijesuriya, Mahendra Arunashanthi; Latt, Tint Swe; Kalra, Sanjay</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Treatment of type 1 diabetes is a challenging issue in South <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Unlike in the developed countries, patients have to procure insulin, glucometer strips and other treatment facilities from their own pockets. Coupled with poor resources are the difficulties with diagnosis, insulin initiation, insulin storage, marital and emotional challenges. Being a disease affecting only a minority of people, it is largely ignored by the governments and policy makers. Comprehensive diagnostic, treatment and team based educational facilities are available only in the speciality diabetes centers in the private sector whereas majority of the subjects with type 1 diabetes are from a poor socio-economic background. Unlike in the Western world, being known as a diabetes patient is a social sigma and poses huge emotional burden living with the disease and getting married. Even with best of the resources, long-term treatment of type 1 diabetes still remains a huge challenge across the globe. In this review, authors from India, Pakistan, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Myanmar and Bangladesh detail the country-specific challenges and discuss the possible solutions. PMID:25285274</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014E%26ES...17a2081D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014E%26ES...17a2081D"><span id="translatedtitle">Response of Vegetation to Climate Change in the Drylands of <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dai, L.; Zhang, L.; Wang, K.; Wang, R. L.</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>Over the past 25 years, global climate and environmental changes have caused an unprecedented rate of vegetation change, as exemplified in the drylands of <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. In this study, we investigated the spatio-temporal changes of vegetation in this region and analysed their relationship with climate data. Our results show that vegetation productivity significantly increased from 1982 to 2006. This increasing trend was observed for most of the region, particularly for northwest Mongolia and central Inner Mongolia. Grasslands, croplands, forests, and shrublands, all exhibited this trend. The annual growth rate of the grasslands determined using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was the largest observed change; reaching 0.07% p.a, followed by shrublands (0.06%), croplands (0.03%), and forests (0.02%). In the different geographic regions, the roles of temperature and precipitation on vegetation growth were shown to be different. Temperature was the dominant factor for the observed NDVI increase in northwest Mongolia and the centre of Inner Mongolia. The combined influences of temperature and precipitation changes have resulted in the promotion of vegetation growth, as seen in eastern GanSu. Temperature change is the primary factor for initiating vegetation growth in spring and autumn because warmer temperatures increase the length of the growing season, and are thus evaluated as an increased NDVI value. Increased precipitation has been shown to play a positive role on vegetation growth during summer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AtmEn..42.8674S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AtmEn..42.8674S"><span id="translatedtitle">Model estimate of mercury emission from natural sources in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shetty, Suraj K.; Lin, Che-Jen; Streets, David G.; Jang, Carey</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> is one of the largest source regions that release mercury into the atmosphere. Although extensive studies have been devoted to estimating the anthropogenic mercury emission, little is known about mercury emission from natural sources in the region. In this study, we adapt the algorithms developed previously, coupled with detailed GIS data and satellite LAI products, to estimate mercury emission from natural sources including vegetation, soil, and water surfaces in an <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian domain containing 164 × 97 grid cells at a spatial resolution of 36 km. Seasonal simulations were performed to project the annual emission quantity. The simulated emission shows strong diurnal and seasonal variations due to meteorology and vegetation coverage. The annual emission in the form of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) from the domain in 2001 is estimated to be 834 Mg, with 462 Mg contributed from China. The estimated GEM emission is comparable to the reported anthropogenic emission of 575 ± 261 Mg (56% GEM, 32% reactive gaseous mercury, 12% particulate mercury; Wu, Y., Wang, S., Streets, D.G., Hao, J., Chan, M., Jiang, J., 2006. Trends in anthropogenic mercury emissions in China from 1995 to 2003. Environmental Science & Technology 40, 5312-5318) in China for the year 2001, and dominates the anthropogenic emission during the warm season. Combining the anthropogenic and natural emission estimates, the total mercury emission from China is 776-1298 Mg, with GEM being in the range of 660-1000 Mg. The latter is similar to the GEM emission quantity inferred from aircraft measurement (765 Mg; Friedli, H.R., Radke, L.F., Prescott, R., Li, P., Woo, J.-H., Carmichael, G.R., 2004. Mercury in the atmosphere around Japan, Korea and China as observed during the 2001 ACE <span class="hlt">Asia</span> field campaign: measurements, distributions, sources, and implications. Journal of Geophysical Research 109, D19 S25) and modeling estimate (1140 Mg; Pan, L., Chai, T., Carmichael, G.R., Tang, Y., Streets, G</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A13B3151O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A13B3151O"><span id="translatedtitle">Vertical transport and removal of black carbon over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> in spring during the A-FORCE aircraft campaign</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Oshima, N.; Koike, M.; Kondo, Y.; Nakamura, H.; Moteki, N.; Matsui, H.; Takegawa, N.; Kita, K.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The Aerosol Radiative Forcing in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> (A-FORCE) aircraft campaign was conducted at 0-9 km in altitude over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> in March-April 2009 to investigate transport and removal processes of aerosols, their physical and chemical properties, and cloud microphysical properties in Asian outflow. In this study, mechanisms of vertical transport of black carbon (BC) aerosols and their three-dimensional transport pathways over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> in spring were examined through numerical simulations for the A-FORCE campaign using a modified version of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system. The simulations reproduced the spatial distributions of mass concentration of BC and its transport efficiency observed by the A-FORCE campaign reasonably well, including its vertical and latitudinal gradients and dependency on precipitation amount that air parcels experienced during the transport. During the A-FORCE period, two types of pronounced upward BC mass fluxes from the planetary boundary layer (PBL) to the free troposphere (FT) were found over northeastern and inland-southern China. Over northeastern China, cyclones with modest precipitation were the primary uplifting mechanism of BC. Over inland-southern China, both cumulus convection and orographic uplifting along the slopes of the Tibetan Plateau played important roles in the upward transport of BC, despite its efficient wet deposition due to a large amount of precipitation supported by an abundant moisture supply by the low-level southerlies. In addition to the midlatitude (35-45°N) eastward outflow within the PBL (21% BC removal by precipitation during transport), the uplifting of BC over northeastern and inland-southern China and the subsequent BC transport by the midlatitude lower tropospheric (50% BC removal) and subtropical (25-35°N) midtropospheric westerlies (67% BC removal), respectively, provided the major transport pathways for BC export from continental <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> to the Pacific.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.T41F..07W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.T41F..07W"><span id="translatedtitle">Cenozoic <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> plate tectonic reconstructions using constraints of mapped and unfolded slabs from mantle seismic tomography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wu, J. E.; Suppe, J.; Kanda, R. V.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Subducted slabs were mapped in the mantle under <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> using MITP08 global seismic tomography (Li et al., 2008), Benioff zone seismicities and published local tomography. 3D gridded slab surfaces were constructed by manually picking and correlating the midpoint of fast seismic anomalies along variable cross-section orientations. The mapped slabs were structurally 'unfolded' and restored to the spherical Earth surface to assess their pre-subduction geometries. Gplates software was used to constrain plate tectonic reconstructions using the unfolded slabs. The unfolded SE <span class="hlt">Asia</span> upper mantle slabs reveal a 'picture puzzle' fit along their edges that suggests a larger NE Indo-Australian ocean once existed that included the Philippine Sea, Molucca Sea and Celebes Sea. Deeper lower mantle detached slabs indicate an early to mid-Cenozoic '<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> Sea' between <span class="hlt">east</span> Sundaland and the Pacific that stretched from the Ryukyu Islands north of present-day Taiwan southward to Sulawesi. The unfolded slab constraints produced gap and overlap incompatibilities when used in published plate tectonic reconstructions. Here a plate tectonic reconstruction incorporating the unfolded slab constraints is proposed that has the Philippine Sea, Molucca Sea and Celebes Sea clustered at the northern margin of Australia during the early Cenozoic. At the mid-Cenozoic these plates moved NNE with 'Australia-like' plate motions and overrode the '<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> Sea'. Plate motions were accommodated by N-S transforms at the eastern margin of Sundaland. Between 25 to 15 Ma the Philippine Sea, Molucca Sea and Celebes Sea plates were fragmented from the greater Indo-Australian ocean. The Philippine Sea was captured by the Pacific plate and now has Pacific-like westward motions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUSM...A52C08W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUSM...A52C08W"><span id="translatedtitle">Alkalization of yellow sand and its long-term effects on acid rain in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>: Observed Evidence and Simulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Z.; Uno, I.; Akimoto, H.</p> <p>2001-05-01</p> <p>Acid rain has been one of the serious environmental problems in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> for the rapid industrialization in the last two decades. The contour line of pH value less than 5 has come up to the Yellow River region (35 deg N) from the southern China bounded by the Yangtze River (25 deg N) during these ten years. The objective of EANET ( Acid Deposition Moniroring Network in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>) is to create a common understanding of the state of the acid deposition problems in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. There are 38 monitoring sites for wet deposition monitoring and data was collected since January 1999. The analysis of datasets in 1999 shows that aerosol has alkalization effects on pH of rain, especially in spring. An Air Quality Prediction Modeling System (AQPMS) was used to investigate the neutralization of acid rain by the yellow-sand in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. The AQPMS includes all the major processes such as emission, advection, diffusion, chemistry, dry deposition, wet deposition and micro-physical processes. A new deflation module for the dust uptake is designed to estimate the dust loading (Wang et. al.,2000). The gas-phase chemical reaction scheme is a slightly modified version of the CBM-IV. Changes in trace species concentrations due to chemical reactions of soluble and reactive gases in in-cloud and below-cloud droplets are computed using a box aqueous chemical model. Numerical simulation was performed for two cases, that is, with and without the neutralization effects of Kosa in 1999. The predicted pH values and sulfate- and nitrate-ion levels of precipitation, together with the surface concentrations of gaseous pollutants, were compared with measured datasets of EANET and a reasonable agreement was obtained. The simulation results of 1999 exhibited a strong neutralization of the precipitation by the yellow-sand in the spring. The aerosol has alkalization effects on pH of rain, which reduces the H+ of rain.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995IREdu..41..177B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995IREdu..41..177B"><span id="translatedtitle">Cultural conditionally and aid to education in <span class="hlt">east</span> <span class="hlt">Africa</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brock-Utne, Birgit</p> <p>1995-05-01</p> <p>Aid to African education often involves the imposition of conditions that create dependency and undermine indigenous educational patterns. Such conditions can include the insistence on textbooks written and published abroad, the use of examination systems devised in Europe or North America, and the neglect of African culture and languages. In the first part of this article the author examines the attempts at educational reform after the African states had achieved independence. The second part highlights the renewed dangers of educational dependency following the 1990 World Conference on Education for All, held in Jomtien, Thailand. The last part of the article discusses whether there is such a thing as "educational aid for empowerment" and gives some examples of good educational aid projects in <span class="hlt">Africa</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACPD...1428019D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACPD...1428019D"><span id="translatedtitle">Uplifting of carbon monoxide from biomass burning and anthropogenic sources to the free troposphere in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ding, K.; Liu, J.; Ding, A.; Liu, Q.; Zhao, T. L.; Shi, J.; Han, Y.; Wang, H.; Jiang, F.</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> has experienced rapid development with increasing CO emission in the past decades. Therefore, uplifting CO from the boundary layer to the free troposphere in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> can have great implications on regional air quality. It can also influence global climate due to the longer lifetime of CO at higher altitudes. In this study, three cases of high CO episodes in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> from 2003 to 2005 are examined with spaceborne Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) data, in combination with aircraft measurements from the Measurement of Ozone and Water Vapor by Airbus In-Service Aircraft (MOZAIC) program. High CO abundances of 300-550 ppbv were observed in MOZAIC data in the free troposphere during these episodes. These are among the highest CO abundances documented at these altitudes. Correspondingly, elevated CO was shown in MOPITT daytime data in the middle to upper troposphere in the 2003 case, mostly in the lower to middle troposphere in the 2004 case, and in the upper troposphere in the 2005 case. Through analyses of the simulations from a chemical transport model GEOS-Chem and a trajectory dispersion model FLEXPART, we found different CO signatures in the elevated CO and distinct transport pathways and mechanisms for these cases. In the 2003 case, CO from large forest fires near Lake Baikal dominated the elevated CO, which had been rapidly transported upward by a~frontal system from the fire plumes. In the 2004 case, anthropogenic CO from the North China Plain experienced frontal lifting and mostly reached ~ 700 hPa near the <span class="hlt">East</span> China Sea, while CO from biomass burning from Indochina experienced orographic lifting, leeside-trough induced convection, and frontal lifting through two separate transport pathways, leading to two distinct CO enhancements around 700 hPa and 300 hPa. In the 2005 case, high CO of ~ 300 ppbv, observed in the MOZAIC data around 350 hPa, originated from the anthropogenic source over the vicinity of the Sichuan basin and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.A13C0232L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.A13C0232L"><span id="translatedtitle">Preliminary results from measurement of methane at Gosan, Jeju Island, Korea for understanding emissions in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lee, E.; Kim, J.; Ahn, K.; Park, M.; Kim, K.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Importance of methane (CH4) to the global biogeochemical cycle and climate change has been well documented, and while the total global methane emissions are relatively well known, the strength of each source component and their trends are not, due to the varied biological and anthropogenic sources of emissions. This is especially true in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, where strong expected emissions of CH4 from fossil fuel mining and burning as well as rice agriculture remain less understood. In this study, we present atmospheric measurements of methane and preliminary analysis of the results. Measurement site for this study is at Gosan, a remote background site located on Jeju Island, Korea. Due to its central location in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, monitoring of both background and pollution from the surrounding regions is possible, thus ideal for monitoring methane emissions in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. To facilitate high-quality continuous measurements, an automated measurement system with a GC-FID has been created and tested at Seoul National University. Identification of the dominant CH4 emission sources could be better understood by analyzing correlation with other anthropogenically and biogenically emitted compounds such as CO (important indicator for fossil fuel burning) and chlorinated compounds (emitted from biomass burning and the use of coal). Advanced air mass transport modeling will also be used to analyze different emission patterns by region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010GPC....72..451I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010GPC....72..451I"><span id="translatedtitle">Climate change as a draw bridge between <span class="hlt">Africa</span> and the Middle <span class="hlt">East</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Issar, Arie S.</p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>Since the very beginning of the human race, the Middle <span class="hlt">East</span> served as a bridge between <span class="hlt">Africa</span>-where our species first evolved-and the rest of the world. The passage over this bridge opened and closed with the global fluctuations of climate. The first glacial periods at the beginning of the Quaternary caused the greenhouse of equatorial <span class="hlt">Africa</span> to become less hospitable, while making the desert belt of the Middle <span class="hlt">East</span> more humid, green, and thus passable. Flint tools found along the shores of dried up lakes and swamps in the Negev Desert provide evidence that members of the first wave, Homo erectus, as well as the last wave, Homo sapiens, camped there en route to all the other continents.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGC11E..06S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGC11E..06S"><span id="translatedtitle">Food and water security scenarios for <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Africa</span> over next 20 years</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shukla, S.; Funk, C. C.; Verdin, J. P.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Broad areas of <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Africa</span> face chronic water and agricultural insecurity. Over the last decade, the region has experienced frequent drought events leading to food security emergencies and even famine in Somalia in 2011. The impact of these drought events, associated with recent declines in rainfall during major growing seasons, has been particularly severe due to the high vulnerability of subsistence agricultural and pastoralist livelihoods, rapid population growth, and the limited availability of resources for agricultural development and climate change adaptation. The Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) is a United States Agency for International Development (USAID) funded activity that brings together international, regional and national partners to provide timely and rigorous early warning and food security information in <span class="hlt">Africa</span> and other regions of the developing world. To assist USAID with planning agricultural development strategies over the next ten years in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Africa</span>, FEWS NET is partnering with climate scientists and adaptation specialists at regional institutions to study and assess future changes in precipitation and temperature in light of global climate change, natural climate variability, and their related impacts on agricultural and water security in the region. The overarching objective of this study is to provide future scenarios of food and water security (as estimated by trends in soil moisture, evapotranspiration, and runoff) for <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Africa</span>. We do so by following two approaches: Constructed Analogs and the Composite Delta Method. In the first approach we downscaled climate projections (precipitation and temperature projections) of long-term Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase-5 (CMIP5) experiments over (a) historical (1850-2005) and (b) Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 (2006-2030) periods. Current climate is characterized by two ENSO modes, the intensity of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, and the strength</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.3629C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.3629C"><span id="translatedtitle">Investigation on the variability of <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> Boreal Summer Front Frequency and Linkage between Tropical Air Temperature</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Choi, Eunho; Lim, Gyu-Ho</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Summer time front is one of the most significant phenomena over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> including China, Korea and Japan. Many efforts have been established to understand the nature of front. However, there was no research conducting identifying <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> summer time fronts objectively. We have established objective front recognition method. The method follows next procedures : 1) We calculate vorticity on 850-hPa surface. 2) Any grid point that have horizontal gradient of equivalent potential temperature (EPT hereafter) on 850-hPa surface less than 4 'c / 100km set to zero. 3) Next, we smooth this field using 9-point smoothing technique. 4) Finally we extract the main axis of closed contour correspond to vorticity of 1.5 10-5s-5. Voronoi diagram used to extract this axis. We define this axis as front on 850-hPa pressure surface. We have applied the method on 1981-2010 ERA-Interim dataset. From the result, front frequency maximums are in around of <span class="hlt">East</span> China Sea (34N, 122E), north (38N, 136E) and south (34N, 140E) of main island of Japan. Below 30N and above 40N, front frequency tends to decrease maybe due to decrease in the magnitude of gradient of EPT and the frequency of cyclonic weather disturbance. Two main regions affect the variability of <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> Front Frequency. One is equatorial positive region especially over Taiwan (25N, 120E). The other one is <span class="hlt">East</span> Sea next to Korea (40N, 135E). Humid warm air transported from southern China (20N-30N, 100E-110E) and dry cold air transported from northern China (30N-40N, 100E-110E) compressed by clockwise high system over Taiwan and counter-clockwise low system over <span class="hlt">East</span> Sea). This compressed precipitation-making system or front moves by extratropical westerly and transported out to north-western Pacific. It looks like geopotential over Taiwan affected by tropical activity, especially vertical integration of temperature (VIT hereafter) over tropical region (30S-30N). When VIT is higher than normal, geopotential over Taiwan also</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=STS055-93-037&hterms=origin+lakes&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dorigin%2Blakes','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=STS055-93-037&hterms=origin+lakes&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dorigin%2Blakes"><span id="translatedtitle">STS-55 Earth observation of Lake Natron, Tanzania, <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Africa</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>STS-55 Earth observation taken aboard Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, shows Lake Natron in Tansania, in the 35-mile-wide <span class="hlt">East</span> African Rift Valley. This lake is surrounded by sodium carbonate volcanoes. Through erosion, these salts of volcanic origin are transported into the rift valley lakes. The various shades of bright red reflecting from the lake result from the water chemistry and biotic blooms. The white spots in the lakebed are drying soda salts. The depth and circulation of the water in the southern end of the lake cause it to appear dark blue rather than bright red. In the repeated photographs of this lake from orbit, we have seen the extent and intensity of its colors fluctuate seasonally. In this photograph, the biotic activity appears to be at a peak. Such a large extent of red-colored water was not present in the photos taken from STS-56, just a few days before (04-10-93).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A11A0022C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A11A0022C"><span id="translatedtitle">Simulation of the Dust Aerosol and its Climatic Effect over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> using WRF-Chem model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, S.; Huang, J.; Zhao, C.; Qian, Y.; Ruby, L.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>WRF-Chem model is used to investigate the seasonal and inter-annual variations of mineral dust over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> during 2007-2011, with a focus on the dust mass balance and its direct radiative forcing and climatic impact. A variety of in-situ measurements and satellite observations have been used to evaluate the simulation results. Generally, WRF-Chem reasonably reproduces not only the column variability but also the vertical profile and size distribution of mineral dust over and near the dust source regions. In addition, the dust lifecycle and processes that control the seasonal and spatial variations of dust mass balance are investigated in seven sub-regions. Dust direct radiative forcing in a surface cooling of up to -14 and -10 W m-2, atmospheric warming of up to 9 and 2 W m-2, and TOA cooling of -5 and -8 W m-2, respectively. The ability of WRF-Chem to capture the measured features of dust optical and radiative properties and dust mass balance over <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian provides confidence for future investigation of <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> dust impact on regional or global climate. Over the Tibetan Plateau, dust modifies the atmospheric heating profiles and cloud properties, leading to a decrease of snowfall and hence snow coverage on the ground. These results are from a reduction of surface albedo and increased surface temperature, further accelerating snowmelt. This impact is smallest in summer, when the snow coverage is relative low. Over the <span class="hlt">East</span> China-Korea-Japan regions, dust modifies the atmospheric heating profiles and cloud properties. Dust induces significant changes in the magnitudes and diurnal variations of surface temperature. Cloud liquid water content is also significantly impacted, as reflected in changes of cloud forcing at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) with a maximum in summer. The dust impacts on spatial distribution of precipitation and wind circulation are also investigated, showing distinct seasonality of dust impact on the regional climate over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AGUFMOS53A2002K&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AGUFMOS53A2002K&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">New Index for Winter Temperature of the Korean Peninsula and the <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> based on the atmospheric teleconnection patterns</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kim, S. T.; Sohn, S. J.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>This study proposes a new index for monitoring and predicting winter temperature of the Korean Peninsula based on dominant atmospheric winter teleconnection modes and the utilization of the index is extended further to representing the <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> Winter Monsoon (EAWM). Among the teleconnection modes it is found that both <span class="hlt">East</span> Atlantic (EA) and Western Pacific (WP) modes are most strongly correlated with the Korean winter temperature in a way that the modes are partly associated with change in sea level pressure (SLP) around the Korean Peninsula. Particularly, the EA and WP modes are related with SLP variation over both Siberian High region and the Kuroshio extension region to the <span class="hlt">east</span> of Japan, respectively. Based on this relationship, the two boxed regions representing the northeast-southwest SLP gradients are determined for the new index, which is found to be related with the EAWM circulation. The SLP gradients control the intensity of surface winds blowing into the Korean Peninsula from the Siberian regions which can transport cold air. The index shows the best performance in representing winter climate not only for the Korean Peninsula but also for the <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> among the SLP-based EAWM indices. Furthermore, the new index maintains a better correlation with the winter temperature of both the <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and Korea over a certain period of years (i.e., running 30 year periods) than other SLP based EAWM indices and also shows good performance in delineating extreme cold/warm winters. The predictability of the new index and its usable potential for winter temperature prediction in coupled climate models are assessed and discussed further.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014AGUFMGC23D0665H&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014AGUFMGC23D0665H&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Developing High-resolution Soil Database for Regional Crop Modeling in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Africa</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Han, E.; Ines, A. V. M.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The most readily available soil data for regional crop modeling in <span class="hlt">Africa</span> is the World Inventory of Soil Emission potentials (WISE) dataset, which has 1125 soil profiles for the world, but does not extensively cover countries Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Africa</span>. Another dataset available is the HC27 (Harvest Choice by IFPRI) in a gridded format (10km) but composed of generic soil profiles based on only three criteria (texture, rooting depth, and organic carbon content). In this paper, we present a development and application of a high-resolution (1km), gridded soil database for regional crop modeling in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Africa</span>. Basic soil information is extracted from <span class="hlt">Africa</span> Soil Information Service (AfSIS), which provides essential soil properties (bulk density, soil organic carbon, soil PH and percentages of sand, silt and clay) for 6 different standardized soil layers (5, 15, 30, 60, 100 and 200 cm) in 1km resolution. Soil hydraulic properties (e.g., field capacity and wilting point) are derived from the AfSIS soil dataset using well-proven pedo-transfer functions and are customized for DSSAT-CSM soil data requirements. The crop model is used to evaluate crop yield forecasts using the new high resolution soil database and compared with WISE and HC27. In this paper we will present also the results of DSSAT loosely coupled with a hydrologic model (VIC) to assimilate root-zone soil moisture. Creating a grid-based soil database, which provides a consistent soil input for two different models (DSSAT and VIC) is a critical part of this work. The created soil database is expected to contribute to future applications of DSSAT crop simulation in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Africa</span> where food security is highly vulnerable.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ofr75136','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ofr75136"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Africa</span> seminar and workshop of remote sensing of natural resources and environment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Deutsch, Morris</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>Report on total program covering <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Africa</span> Seminar and Workshop on remote sensing of natural resources and the environment held in Nairobi, Kenya, March 21 April 3, 1974, attended by participants from 10 English-speaking African nations. Appendices are included for Seminar proceedings, workshop lectures and outlines, field trip reports and critiques by participants, and reports on potential applications of an operational earth resources satellite for the participating countries.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2012/3039/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2012/3039/"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of four <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Africa</span> Geologic Provinces</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Brownfield, Michael E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Cook, Troy A.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Four geologic provinces along the <span class="hlt">east</span> coast of <span class="hlt">Africa</span> recently were assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids resources as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) World Oil and Gas Assessment. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the USGS estimated mean volumes of 27.6 billion barrels of oil, 441.1 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 13.77 billion barrels of natural gas liquids.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.H32C..06S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.H32C..06S"><span id="translatedtitle">Skill Assessment of National Multi-Model Ensemble Forecasts for Seasonal Drought Prediction in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Africa</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shukla, S.; Hoell, A.; Roberts, J. B.; Funk, C. C.; Robertson, F. R.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The increasing food and water demands of <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Africa</span>'s growing population are stressing the region's inconsistent water resources and rain-fed agriculture. As recently as 2011, part of this region underwent one of the worst famine events in its history. Timely and skillful drought forecasts at a seasonal scale for this region can inform better water and agro-pastoral management decisions, support optimal allocation of the region's water resources, and mitigate socio-economic losses incurred by droughts. However, seasonal drought prediction in this region faces several challenges including lack of skillful seasonal rainfall forecasts. The National Multi-model Ensemble (NMME); a state-of-the-art dynamical climate forecast system is potentially a promising tool for drought prediction in this region. The NMME incorporates climate forecasts from 6+ fully coupled dynamical models resulting in 100+ forecasts ensemble members. Recent studies have indicated that in general NMME offers improvement over forecasts from any of the individual model. However, thus far the skill of NMME for forecasting rainfall in a vulnerable region like <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Africa</span> has largely been unexplored. In this presentation we report findings of a comprehensive analysis that examines the strength and weakness of NMME in forecasting rainfall at seasonal scale in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Africa</span> for all three of the prominent seasons of the region. (i.e. March-April-May, July-August-September, and October-November-December). Additionally we describe a hybrid approach that combines statistical method with NMME forecasts to improve rainfall forecast skill in the region when raw NMME forecasts skill is lacking. This approach uses constructed analog method to improve NMME's March-April-May rainfall forecast skill in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Africa</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.2456S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.2456S"><span id="translatedtitle">Seasonal drought forecast system for food-insecure regions of <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Africa</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shukla, Shraddhanand; McNally, Amy; Husak, Greg; Funk, Chris</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>In <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Africa</span>, agriculture is mostly rainfed and hence sensitive to interannual rainfall variability, and the increasing food and water demands of a growing population place further stresses on the water resources of this region. Skillful seasonal agricultural drought forecasts for this region can inform timely water and agricultural management decisions, support the proper allocation of the region's water resources, and help mitigate socio-economic losses. Here we describe the development and implementation of a seasonal drought forecast system that is being used for providing seasonal outlooks of agricultural drought in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Africa</span>. We present a test case of the evaluation and applicability of this system for March-April-May growing season over equatorial <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Africa</span> (latitude 20 south to 80 North and 360 E to 460E) that encompasses one of the most food insecure and climatically and socio-economically vulnerable regions in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Africa</span>. This region experienced famine as recently as in 2011. The system described here combines advanced satellite and re-analysis as well as station-based long term and real-time observations (e.g. NASA's TRMM, Infra-red remote sensing, Climate Forecast System Reanalysis), state-of-the-art dynamical climate forecast system (NCEP's Climate Forecast System Verison-2) and large scale land surface models (e.g. Variable Infiltration Capacity, NASA's Land Information System) to provide forecasts of seasonal rainfall, soil moisture and Water Requirement Satisfaction Index (WRSI) throughout the season - with an emphasis on times when water is the most critical: start of season/planting and the mid-season/crop reproductive phase. Based on the hindcast assessment of this system, we demonstrate the value of this approach to the US Agency for International Development (USAID)'s efforts to mitigate future losses of lives and economic losses by allowing a proactive approach of drought management that includes early warning and timely action.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1236949','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1236949"><span id="translatedtitle">The rise of injecting drug use in <span class="hlt">east</span> <span class="hlt">Africa</span>: a case study from Kenya</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Beckerleg, Susan; Telfer, Maggie; Hundt, Gillian Lewando</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Studies on injecting drug use in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Africa</span> are reviewed. The existingstudies document the spread of heroin injection in Kenya and Tanzania, both countries where HIV rates are high. No data from Uganda on injecting drug use was found by the authors. A case study of the growth of heroin injection in a Kenyan coastal town is presented. The need for needle-exchange programmes and other prevention services is discussed. PMID:16122382</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.B31E0058F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.B31E0058F"><span id="translatedtitle">Vegetation Change in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Africa</span> Under the Influence of Tectonic Uplift</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fer, I.; Tietjen, B.; Jeltsch, F.; Trauth, M. H.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Today, when we look at the tropical latitudes all around the world, we see rainforests more or less everywhere, except the easternmost parts of tropical <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Africa</span>. Why do the environmental conditions elsewhere in the tropics support the rainforest biomes but not in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Africa</span>? The suggested explanation for this is the progressive tectonic uplift of the region. The uplift of eastern African topography, together with the changes in Earth's orbital forcing, resulted in the aridification of the region over the past 10 million years. It follows that there must have been rainforest environments in tropical <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Africa</span> before the uplift began and there is evidence to support this claim. Then, it raises the questions about how extensive these forests were, when and under which environmental conditions they started to fragment and grasslands took over. To address these questions we ran a dynamic vegetation model under experimental scenarios with varying precipitation, temperature and atmospheric CO2 concentration values. Our results show that even an increase of rainfall by 100% with respect to present-day conditions is not enough by itself for sustaining forest biomes at the easternmost parts of tropical <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Africa</span>. Within the range of atmospheric CO2 concentrations estimated for the late Miocene (9 Ma) [250-320 ppmv], decrease in temperature must also accompany the increase in rainfall to support the woody vegetation. Although an increase in arboreal cover at the expense of herbaceous vegetation could clearly be simulated all over the region, a continuous forest cover was only established at the south of the equator which fragmented with the decreasing rainfall and increasing temperatures in the region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED457083.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED457083.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Water Uses and Children's Lives in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Africa</span>. Water in <span class="hlt">Africa</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Maher, Robert</p> <p></p> <p>The Water in <span class="hlt">Africa</span> Project was realized over a 2-year period by a team of Peace Corps volunteers, World Wise Schools (WWS) classroom teachers, and WWS staff members. As part of an expanded, detailed design, resources were collected from over 90 volunteers serving in African countries, photos and stories were prepared, and standards-based learning…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ACPD...10..109L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ACPD...10..109L"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantifying pollution inflow and outflow over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> through coupling regional and global models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lin, M.; Holloway, T.; Carmichael, G. R.; Fiore, A. M.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Understanding the exchange processes between the atmospheric boundary layer and the free troposphere is crucial for estimating hemispheric transport of air pollution. Most studies of hemispheric air pollution transport have taken a large-scale perspective: using global chemical transport models and focusing on synoptic-scale export events. These global models have fairly coarse spatial and temporal resolutions, and thus have a limited ability to represent boundary layer processes and urban photochemistry. In support of United Nations Task Force on Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution (TF HTAP; <a href="http://www.htap.org"target="_blank">http://www.htap.org</a>), this study employs two high-resolution atmospheric chemistry models (WRF-Chem and CMAQ; 36×36 km) coupled with a global model (MOZART; 1.9×1.9°) to examine the importance of fine-scale transport and chemistry processes in controlling pollution export and import over the Asian continent. We find that the vertical lifting and outflow of Asian pollution is enhanced in the regional models throughout the study period (March 2001) as contrast to the global model. Episodic outflow of CO, PAN, and O3 to the upper troposphere during cold frontal passages is twice as great in the WRF-Chem model as compared with the MOZART model. The TRACE-P aircraft measurements indicate that the pollution plumes in MOZART are too weak and too low in the altitude, which we attribute to the global model's inability to capture rapid deep convection that develops along the leading edge of the convergence band during frontal events. In contrast to pollution export from <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, we find little difference in the regional vs. global model transport of European (EU) pollution into surface air over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> (EA). Instead, the local surface characteristics - sensitivity - strongly influence surface O3 responses. For instance, the O3 response to 20% decreases in EU emissions imported into our regional model domain is strongest (0.4-0.6 ppbv</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016ClDy...47....1X&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016ClDy...47....1X&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Peak-summer <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian rainfall predictability and prediction part I: Southeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xing, Wen; Wang, Bin; Yim, So-Young</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>The interannual variation of <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> summer monsoon (EASM) rainfall exhibits considerable differences between early summer [May-June (MJ)] and peak summer [July-August (JA)]. The present study focuses on peak summer. During JA, the mean ridge line of the western Pacific subtropical High (WPSH) divides EASM domain into two sub-domains: the tropical EA (5°N-26.5°N) and subtropical-extratropical EA (26.5°N-50°N). Since the major variability patterns in the two sub-domains and their origins are substantially different, the Part I of this study concentrates on the tropical EA or Southeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span> (SEA). We apply the predictable mode analysis approach to explore the predictability and prediction of the SEA peak summer rainfall. Four principal modes of interannual rainfall variability during 1979-2013 are identified by EOF analysis: (1) the WPSH-dipole sea surface temperature (SST) feedback mode in the Northern Indo-western Pacific warm pool associated with the decay of eastern Pacific El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), (2) the central Pacific-ENSO mode, (3) the Maritime continent SST-Australian High coupled mode, which is sustained by a positive feedback between anomalous Australian high and sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTA) over Indian Ocean, and (4) the ENSO developing mode. Based on understanding of the sources of the predictability for each mode, a set of physics-based empirical (P-E) models is established for prediction of the first four leading principal components (PCs). All predictors are selected from either persistent atmospheric lower boundary anomalies from March to June or the tendency from spring to early summer. We show that these four modes can be predicted reasonably well by the P-E models, thus they are identified as the predictable modes. Using the predicted PCs and the corresponding observed spatial patterns, we have made a 35-year cross-validated hindcast, setting up a bench mark for dynamic models' predictions. The P-E hindcast</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFM.A11A0023G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFM.A11A0023G"><span id="translatedtitle">Fine Particulate Pollution and Source Apportionment in the Urban Centers for <span class="hlt">Africa</span>, <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and Latin America</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Guttikunda, S. K.; Johnson, T. M.; Procee, P.</p> <p>2004-12-01</p> <p>Fossil fuel combustion for domestic cooking and heating, power generation, industrial processes, and motor vehicles are the primary sources of air pollution in the developing country cities. Over the past twenty years, major advances have been made in understanding the social and economic consequences of air pollution. In both industrialized and developing countries, it has been shown that air pollution from energy combustion has detrimental impacts on human health and the environment. Lack of information on the sectoral contributions to air pollution - especially fine particulates, is one of the typical constraints for an effective integrated urban air quality management program. Without such information, it is difficult, if not impossible, for decision makers to provide policy advice and make informed investment decisions related to air quality improvements in developing countries. This also raises the need for low-cost ways of determining the principal sources of fine PM for a proper planning and decision making. The project objective is to develop and verify a methodology to assess and monitor the sources of PM, using a combination of ground-based monitoring and source apportionment techniques. This presentation will focus on four general tasks: (1) Review of the science and current activities in the combined use of monitoring data and modeling for better understanding of PM pollution. (2) Review of recent advances in atmospheric source apportionment techniques (e.g., principal component analysis, organic markers, source-receptor modeling techniques). (3) Develop a general methodology to use integrated top-down and bottom-up datasets. (4) Review of a series of current case studies from <span class="hlt">Africa</span>, <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and Latin America and the methodologies applied to assess the air pollution and its sources.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1390785','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1390785"><span id="translatedtitle">Positive approaches to education for sexual health with examples from <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and <span class="hlt">Africa</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Senanayake, P</p> <p>1992-07-01</p> <p>Some approaches to health education are presented based on experiences in <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and <span class="hlt">Africa</span>. Consideration in project design should be given to methodology, location, timing, and target group. There is no one correct approach. Qualitative evaluations are possible. Outreach to a larger population such as the out-of-school unemployed is an important goal, as well as directing Family Life Education (FLE) to the primary school level, when children are still in school. Sexual health is defined as state of physical and psychological well being including sexuality. FLE is a culturally sensitive approach to sexual health education. The avoidance of sexual terms promotes acceptance in countries such as Sri Lanka. The problem of sexuality and adolescence and the current protracted period is that adults view this period as an inconvenience rather than an inevitability. The needs of youth need to be recognized in spite of the resistance some cultures may feel about sex education encouraging promiscuity. The example is given of the government of Mali, which in conjunction with the International Planned Parenthood Federation, trained 150 workers to mobilize youth and introduce them to FLE. The prerequisite is mental preparation of the adult population through training programs. An example of an effective method of role play presentation by youth of major youth issues was used in creating a positive feeling for youth among World Health Assembly delegates, who are Ministers of Health and Senior Government Health Officials. The Youth Counseling Services and Family Education Project in Ethiopia is described. It was a youth-designed and youth-implemented project which took into consideration working hours, staff attitude, and hospitality toward youths. Other methods described are: 1) drama, 2) songs, 3) role play, 4) literature, 5) videos and film shows, 6) radio, and 7) telephone. Integration of FLE can be positive when it is combined with youth centers, income-generation projects</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013AGUFMGC33A1101D&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013AGUFMGC33A1101D&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Examining the impact of climate change and variability on sweet potatoes in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Africa</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ddumba, S. D.; Andresen, J.; Moore, N. J.; Olson, J.; Snapp, S.; Winkler, J. A.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Climate change is one of the biggest challenges to food security for the rapidly increasing population of <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Africa</span>. Rainfall is becoming more variable and temperatures are rising, consequently leading to increased occurrence of droughts and floods, and, changes in the timing and length of growing seasons. These changes have serious implications on crop production with the greatest impact likely to be on C4 crops such as cereals compared to C3 crops such as root tubers. Sweet potatoes is one the four most important food crops in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Africa</span> owing to its high nutrition and calorie content, and, high tolerance to heat and drought, but little is known about how the crop will be affected by climate change. This study identifies the major climatic constraints to sweet potato production and examines the impact of projected future climates on sweet potato production in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Africa</span> during the next 10 to 30 years. A process-based Sweet POTato COMputer Simulation (SPOTCOMS) model is used to assess four sweet potato cultivars; Naspot 1, Naspot 10, Naspot 11 and SPK 004-Ejumula. This is work in progress but preliminary results from the crop modeling experiments and the strength and weakness of the crop model will be presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.6136C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.6136C"><span id="translatedtitle">Analysis and simulation of recent climate variability in the high-mountain regions of <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Africa</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Collier, Emily; Mölg, Thomas</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Kilimanjaro is the highest free-standing mountain in the world, and the glaciers at its summit represent regionally unique high-altitude sampling points in the troposphere. The region is influenced by, among other phenomena, the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the Indian Ocean Zonal Mode, and the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation. However, the impacts of these phenomena as well as interactions between them on climate conditions in the high-mountain regions of <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Africa</span> are poorly constrained. Here we analyze recent high-altitude climate variability in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Africa</span> using a combination of atmospheric reanalysis data, convection permitting (~1 km grid spacing) numerical simulations with the regional atmospheric model WRF, and multi-year in-situ weather station data at the summits of Mount Kenya and Kilimanjaro. We utilize these datasets to elucidate the impact of modes of internal climate variability, with a particular emphasis on ENSO, on both the large- and local-scale atmospheric conditions. Our analysis is compared with a ten-year record of glacier surface-height-change measurements on Kilimanjaro to elucidate the drivers of recent glacier response in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Africa</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998Natur.395..788E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998Natur.395..788E"><span id="translatedtitle">Cenozoic magmatism throughout <span class="hlt">east</span> <span class="hlt">Africa</span> resulting from impact of a single plume</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ebinger, C. J.; Sleep, N. H.</p> <p>1998-10-01</p> <p>The geology of northern and central <span class="hlt">Africa</span> is characterized by broad plateaux, narrower swells and volcanism occurring from ~45Myr ago to the present. The greatest magma volumes occur on the >1,000-km-wide Ethiopian and <span class="hlt">east</span> African plateaux, which are transected by the Red Sea, Gulf of Aden and <span class="hlt">east</span> African rift systems, active since the late Oligocene epoch. Evidence for one or more mantle plumes having impinged beneath the plateaux comes from the dynamic compensation inferred from gravity studies, the generally small degrees of extension observed and the geochemistry of voluminous eruptive products. Here we present a model of a single large plume impinging beneath the Ethiopian plateau that takes into account lateral flow and ponding of plume material in pre-existing zones of lithospheric thinning. We show that this single plume can explain the distribution and timing of magmatism and uplift throughout <span class="hlt">east</span> <span class="hlt">Africa</span>. The thin lithosphere beneath the Mesozoic-Palaeogene rifts and passive margins of <span class="hlt">Africa</span> and Arabia guides the lateral flow of plume material west to the Cameroon volcanic line and south to the Comoros Islands. Our results demonstrate the strong control that the lithosphere exerts on the spatial distribution of plume-related melting and magmatism.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H52A..05S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H52A..05S"><span id="translatedtitle">Seasonal Scale Water Deficit Forecasting in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Africa</span> and the Middle <span class="hlt">East</span> Region Using the NMME Models Forecasts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shukla, S.; Funk, C. C.; Zaitchik, B. F.; Narapusetty, B.; Arsenault, K. R.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>In this presentation we report on our ongoing efforts to provide seasonal scale water deficit forecasts in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Africa</span> and the Middle <span class="hlt">East</span> regions. First, we report on the skill of the seasonal climate forecasts from the North American Multimodel Ensemble (NMME) models over this region. We evaluated deterministic (anomaly correlation), categorical (the equitable threat score) and probabilistic (the ranked probabilistic skill score) skill of the NMME models forecasts over the hindcast period of 1982-2010, focusing on the primary rainy seasons of March-May (MAM), July-September (JAS) and October-December (OND). We also examined the potential predictability of the NMME models using the anomaly correlation between the ensemble mean forecasts from a given model against a single ensemble member of the same model (homogenous predictability) and rest of the models (heterogeneous predictability), and observations (forecast skill). Overall, we found precipitation forecast skill in this region to be sparse and limited (up to three month of lead) to some locations and seasons, and temperature forecast skill to be much more skillful than the precipitation forecast skill. Highest level of skill exists over equatorial <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Africa</span> (OND season) and over parts of northern Ethiopia and southern Sudan (JAS season). Categorical and probabilistic forecast skills are also higher in those regions. We found the homogeneous predictability to be greater than the forecast skill indicating potential for forecast skill improvement. In the rest of the presentation we describe implementation and evaluation of a hybrid approach (that combines statistical and dynamical approaches) of downscaling climate forecasts to improve the precipitation forecast skill in this region. For this part of the analysis we mainly focus on two of the NMME models (NASA's GMAO and NCEP's CFSv2). Past research on a hybrid approach focusing only over equatorial <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Africa</span> has shown promising results. We found that MAM</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.8773G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.8773G"><span id="translatedtitle">Persistence of Rift Valley fever virus in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Africa</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gachohi, J.; Hansen, F.; Bett, B.; Kitala, P.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Rift Valley fever virus (RVFv) is a mosquito-borne pathogen of livestock, wildlife and humans that causes severe outbreaks in intervals of several years. One of the open questions is how the virus persists between outbreaks. We developed a spatially-explicit, individual-based simulation model of the RVFv transmission dynamics to investigate this question. The model, is based on livestock and mosquito population dynamics. Spatial aspects are explicitly represented by a set of grid cells that represent mosquito breeding sites. A grid cell measures 500 by 500m and the model considers a grid of 100 by 100 grid cells; the model thus operates on the regional scale of 2500km2. Livestock herds move between grid cells, and provide connectivity between the cells. The model is used to explore the spatio-temporal dynamics of RVFv persistence in absence of a wildlife reservoir in an <span class="hlt">east</span> African semi-arid context. Specifically, the model assesses the importance of local virus persistence in mosquito breeding sites relative to global virus persistence mitigated by movement of hosts. Local persistence is determined by the length of time the virus remains in a mosquito breeding site once introduced. In the model, this is a function of the number of mosquitoes that emerge infected and their lifespan. Global persistence is determined by the level of connectivity between isolated grid cells. Our work gives insights into the ecological and epidemiological conditions under which RVFv persists. The implication for disease surveillance and management are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.H51S..07N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.H51S..07N"><span id="translatedtitle">An evaluation of GRACE groundwater estimates over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Africa</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nanteza, J.; Thomas, B. F.; de Linage, C.; Famiglietti, J. S.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">East</span> African (EA) region, comprised of five countries (Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Rwanda and Burundi), is among those regions characterized as vulnerable to water stress. The region's freshwater resources, both surface and groundwater, are impacted due to increased pressure from changes in climate and human activities. Better management approaches are required to ensure that these pressures do not significantly impact water availability and accessibility. However, the lack of adequate ground-based observation networks to monitor freshwater resources - especially groundwater (the major source of freshwater in EA), limits effective management of the available water resources. In this study, we explore the potential of using remotely sensed data to monitor freshwater resources over EA. The study uses data from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite to estimate groundwater storage variations over EA during the last decade. The satellite's performance in accurately observing changes in groundwater storage is examined by evaluating the GRACE groundwater estimates against spatially interpolated in-situ groundwater observations using goodness of fit criteria including linear regression coefficient, coefficient of determination and root mean square errors. The results demonstrate that GRACE performs well in observing the behavior of groundwater storage. These results can be useful in improving land surface model simulations - a basis for better decision making in water resources management in the region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12..754W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12..754W"><span id="translatedtitle">Aerosol fluxes and dynamics within and above a tropical rainforest in South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Whitehead, James; Gallagher, Martin; Robinson, Niall; Gabey, Andrew; Dorsey, James; Coe, Hugh; McFiggans, Gordon; Ryder, James; Nemitz, Eiko; Davies, Fay</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>Atmospheric aerosol measurements over tropical rainforests are important in order to understand their sources and sinks, and hence the rainforests' influence on local and regional climate. To date, there have been no published studies in South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, which, compared to the African and South American continents, represents a unique mixture of tropical seas and islands. Aerosol measurements were conducted near Danum Valley, in the Malaysian state of Sabah, North-<span class="hlt">east</span> Borneo, as part of the OP3 and ACES projects, in April and June/July 2008. Ultrafine particle fluxes were calculated by eddy covariance from measurements above the rainforest canopy on the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) tower. Upward fluxes were seen on most mornings between 09:00 and 11:00 local time and this could be attributed to entrainment of particles into the growing mixed layer. In-canopy measurements were conducted at a nearby site. Profiles in aerosol number concentrations were investigated using GRIMM Optical Particle Counters (OPCs) at various levels within the rainforest canopy as well as a single OPC on a vertically moving platform. These showed an overnight increase in larger particles (1 - 20 µm) at all levels, but much more prominently near the top of the canopy, which could be attributed to fog formation. Number concentrations in this size range in the canopy understory correlated with enhancements in biological aerosol concentrations, measured using a Wide Issue Bioaerosol Spectrometer (WIBS) located near the forest floor, suggesting that coarse particle number concentrations were dominated by biological aerosols. A comparison of particle number concentrations (in the size range 0.5 - 1.0 µm) between above and below canopy showed correlations, despite turbulence data suggesting persistent decoupling between the two measurement sites. These correlations often relied on a shift of the particle time-series against each other, implying a time delay in observations between the sites</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A31B3025C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A31B3025C"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of PM forecasting model using Lidar and satellite data over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>CHOI, S. Y.; Koo, Y. S.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">East</span> Asian economies have experienced rapid growth over three decades, and the region is one of the world's most populated places. Asian dust and anthropogenic aerosols are considerable over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. They are frequently transported to Korea during the late winter and spring. Trans-boundary dust is transported either as isolated or mixed with anthropogenic aerosols. Consequently, Asian dust and atmospheric aerosols have become an emerging issue resulting in high particulate matter (PM) episode in Korea. The PM forecasting model which has been developed and opened to public since 2007 is an effective tool to protect the public health by detecting the PM episode event and notifying it to the public in advance. Validation of forecasting models using measurements such as surface observations is necessary to assess their reliability, but they are not able to detect spatial and vertical distribution. Vertical profile is crucial to understand the long-range transport of PM. In this study, long-range transports of aerosols were investigated by a integrated analysis of ground-based / space-borne Lidar observations and a numerical forecasting model for the PM episode in 2013. The numerical forecasting using the CMAQ model (Community Multiscale Air Quality) was compared with LIDAR (LIght Detection and Ranging) which is located in Seoul National University (37.46°N, 126.95°E) and CALIOP onboard CALIPSO satellite. Vertical profiles of CALIOP which are the Attenuated backscatter coefficient(532nm), the Depolarization ratio (532nm) and Ratio of attenuated backscatter coefficients (1064nm/532nm) were compared with those calculated from CMAQ output. Altitudinal distribution of extinction coefficient from CMAQ was also compared with vertical distribution of LIDAR extinction coefficient at Seoul. Results showed that long-range transports of aerosols originated from China to Korea were observed by the CALIOP and the CMAQ model could depict the long-range transport of PM to identify</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17066428','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17066428"><span id="translatedtitle">Health systems in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>: what can developing countries learn from Japan and the Asian Tigers?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wagstaff, Adam</p> <p>2007-05-01</p> <p>The health systems of Japan and the Asian Tigers (Hong Kong, Korea, Singapore and Taiwan), and the recent reforms to them, provide many potentially valuable lessons to <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>'s developing countries. All five systems have managed to keep a check on health spending despite their different approaches to financing and delivery. These differences are reflected in the progressivity of health finance, but the precise degree of progressivity of individual sources and the extent to which households are vulnerable to catastrophic health payments depend on the design features of the system - the height of any ceilings on social insurance contributions, the fraction of health spending covered by the benefit package, the extent to which the poor face reduced copayments, whether there are caps on copayments, and so on. On the delivery side, too, Japan and the Tigers offer some interesting lessons. Singapore's experience with corporatizing public hospitals - rapid cost and price inflation, a race for the best technology, and so on - illustrates the difficulties of corporatization. Korea's experience with a narrow benefit package illustrates the danger of providers shifting demand from insured services with regulated prices to uninsured services with unregulated prices. Japan, in its approach to rate setting for insured services, has managed to combine careful cost control with fine-tuning of profit margins on different types of care. Experiences with DRGs in Korea and Taiwan point to cost-savings but also to possible knock-on effects on service volume and total health spending. Korea and Taiwan both offer important lessons for the separation of prescribing and dispensing, including the risks of compensation costs outweighing the cost savings caused by more 'rational' prescribing, and cost-savings never being realized because of other concessions to providers, such as allowing them to have onsite pharmacists. PMID:17066428</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA.....4506H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA.....4506H"><span id="translatedtitle">Springtime trans-pacific atmospheric transport from <span class="hlt">east</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>: a transit-time-pdf approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Holzer, M.; McKendry, I.; Jaffe, D.</p> <p>2003-04-01</p> <p>The atmosphere is known to episodically transport aerosols, dust, and gaseous pollutants from industrialized south-<span class="hlt">east</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, the Gobi desert, and Siberian wild fires to western North America. We give a novel characterization of the ever-present background transport from these regions and of the probability of transport ``events", that is, long-range transport of high concentrations with minimal dispersion. Our primary transport diagnostic is the transit-time probability density function (pdf), {\\cal G}, which is a tracer-independent measure of the flow that allows us to isolate the role of transport from other factors such as source variability and chemistry. The pdf approach, unlike typical back-trajectory analyses, captures transport due to all possible paths and accounts for both resolved advection and subgrid processes. We use a numerical model of the global atmosphere (MATCH), driven by NCEP reananlysis data, to establish the springtime statistics of daily averages of {\\cal G}. A suitably defined average of {\\cal G} quantifies the mass fraction of background air of a given transit time, or age, from the source regions. An analysis of the variability of {\\cal G} at fixed transit time allows us to identify transport events and to estimate their probability of occurrence. This is illustrated for transport events to the ``Pacific-North-West" (PNW) region of North America, defined as (43.8o-53.3o{N}) × (115.3o-124.7o{W}). Correlations between {\\cal G} averaged over the PNW and the winds at any point in the atmosphere identify large-scale anomaly structures of the flow that correspond to favorable transport to the PNW.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26934707','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26934707"><span id="translatedtitle">Variation of Soil Organic Carbon and Its Major Constraints in <span class="hlt">East</span> Central <span class="hlt">Asia</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lee, Xinqing; Huang, Yimin; Huang, Daikuan; Hu, Lu; Feng, Zhaodong; Cheng, Jianzhong; Wang, Bing; Ni, Jian; Shurkhuu, Tserenpil</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Variation of soil organic carbon (SOC) and its major constraints in large spatial scale are critical for estimating global SOC inventory and projecting its future at environmental changes. By analyzing SOC and its environment at 210 sites in uncultivated land along a 3020km latitudinal transect in <span class="hlt">East</span> Central <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, we examined the effect of environmental factors on the dynamics of SOC. We found that SOC changes dramatically with the difference as high as 5 times in north China and 17 times in Mongolia. Regardless, C:N remains consistent about 12. Path analysis indicated that temperature is the dominant factor in the variation of SOC with a direct effect much higher than the indirect one, the former breaks SOC down the year round while the latter results in its growth mainly via precipitation in the winter half year. Precipitation helps accumulate SOC, a large part of the effect, however, is taken via temperature. NH4+-N and topography also affect SOC, their roles are played primarily via climatic factors. pH correlates significantly with SOC, the effect, however, is taken only in the winter months, contributing to the decay of SOC primarily via temperature. These factors explained as much as 79% of SOC variations, especially in the summer months, representing the major constraints on the SOC stock. Soil texture gets increasingly fine southward, it does not, however, constitute an apparent factor. Our results suggested that recent global warming should have been adversely affecting SOC stock in the mid-latitude as temperature dominates other factors as the constraint. PMID:26934707</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMOS23D1247C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMOS23D1247C"><span id="translatedtitle">Lead concentration and isotope chronology in two coastal environments in Western and South <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Carrasco, G. G.; Chen, M.; Boyle, E. A.; Zhao, N.; Nurhati, I. S.; Gevao, B.; al Ghadban, A.; Switzer, A.; Lee, J. M.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Lead is a trace metal that is closely related to anthropogenic activity, mainly via leaded gasoline and coal combustion. The study of lead concentrations and isotopes in seawater, sediments, corals and aerosols allows for a systematic look at its sources and their time evolution in a natural environment. We will discuss results from two projects in Western and South <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, regions that have seen dramatic socio-economical changes over the past half-century that may have left environmental signals. These results highlight the usefulness of the method, indicate the degree of complexity of these systems, and point to the need for a continuous monitoring of anthropogenic trace metals in the small-medium coastal scale to be able to asses the larger scale effects of human activity. On the one hand, coastal Kuwait is heavily influenced by the Shat al-Arab river and shows a clear anthropogenic signature from Kuwait city. A mix of two sources can be tracked through the coral and sediment chronological records, with Pb206/Pb207 ratios (1.202 and 1.151) that approach the suspected source values (1.21 and 1.12) and eliminate the possibility of other sources. Through a wide sediment geographic distribution, the strength of the anthropogenic signature is modulated. On the other hand, Singapore offers a more complex system, where an apparent mix of two sources (extreme isotope ratios 1.215 and ~1.14) occurs also, but where either an unresolved potentially important third source (isotope ratio ~1.18), or an isotope exchange process should be invoked. The sediment and coral records allows us to track the changes through time; however, there seems to be incongruence with the aerosol isotope record. Further potential sources are being explored currently and will be discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRD..121.1652J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRD..121.1652J"><span id="translatedtitle">Impact of model resolution on the simulation of diurnal variations of precipitation over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jin, Emilia Kyung; Choi, In-Jin; Kim, So-Young; Han, Ji-Young</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>The impact of model resolution on the simulation of diurnal variations of precipitation over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> during the summer monsoon period of 2006 is investigated by conducting a suite of ensemble simulations of three different cumulus parameterization schemes (CPS), which are Kain-Fritsch, Kain-Fritsch with a modified trigger function, and Simplified Arakawa-Schubert, and the convection-permitting (CP) setting with the Weather Research and Forecasting model. The horizontal resolutions of 50 km, 27 km, and 9 km are applied for each different representation of convection process. Model simulations as a whole are able to mimic the diurnal and semidiurnal cycles with 24 h and 12 h peaks in the morning and the afternoon. However, the simulated afternoon peaks over land are earlier in the CPS runs, while delayed in the CP runs, compared to those observed. The increase of resolution improves the phase and amplitude of diurnal variations in the CP runs due to the explicit representation of the realistic cloud system. In addition, the contribution of nonconvective precipitation from the microphysical process significantly improves the phase of diurnal variations in the CPS runs, especially the afternoon peak over land. The KFtr scheme outperforms other schemes in reproducing the diurnal variations due to the relatively dominant role of nonconvective precipitation. Phase does not change with increasing resolution in the diurnal variations of convective precipitation. Only the modification of the convection scheme, such as the alternative trigger function in the KFtr scheme distinguished from the KF scheme, can make fundamental changes in phase of diurnal variation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015JGRD..120.6247G&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015JGRD..120.6247G&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">An evaluation of simulated particulate sulfate over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> through global model intercomparison</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Goto, Daisuke; Nakajima, Teruyuki; Dai, Tie; Takemura, Toshihiko; Kajino, Mizuo; Matsui, Hitoshi; Takami, Akinori; Hatakeyama, Shiro; Sugimoto, Nobuo; Shimizu, Atsushi; Ohara, Toshimasa</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Sulfate aerosols simulated by an aerosol module coupled to the Nonhydrostatic Icosahedral Atmospheric Model (NICAM) at a spatial resolution (220 km) widely used by global climate models were evaluated by a comparison with in situ observations and the same aerosol module coupled to the Model for Interdisciplinary Research on Climate (MIROC) over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> for January, April, July, and October 2006. The results indicated that a horizontal gradient of sulfate from the source over China to the outflow over Korea-Japan was present in both the simulations and the observations. At the observation sites, the correlation coefficients of the sulfate concentrations between the simulations and the observations were high (NICAM: 0.49-0.89, MIROC: 0.61-0.77), whereas the simulated sulfate concentrations were lower than those obtained by the observation with the normalized mean bias of NICAM being -68 to -54% (all), -77 to -63% (source), and -67 to -30% (outflow) and that of MIROC being -61 to -28% (all), -77 to -63% (source), and -60 to +2% (outflow). Both NICAM and MIROC strongly underpredict surface SO2 over China source regions and Korea-Japan outflow regions, but the MIROC SO2 is much higher than NICAM SO2 over both regions. These differences between the models were mainly explained by differences in the sulfate formation within clouds and the dry deposition of SO2. These results indicated that the uncertainty of the meteorological and cloud fields as well as the vertical transport patterns between the different host climate models has a substantial impact on the simulated sulfate distribution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016JGRD..121..382Z&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016JGRD..121..382Z&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessment of OMI near-UV aerosol optical depth over Central and <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Wenhao; Gu, Xingfa; Xu, Hui; Yu, Tao; Zheng, Fengjie</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Several essential improvements have been made in recent Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) near-ultraviolet (UV) aerosol retrieval algorithm version (OMAERUV version 1.4.2), but few regional validations for its aerosol optical depth (AOD) product are conducted. This paper assessed the OMAERUV AOD product over Central and <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. The OMAERUV Level 2.0 AOD product was compared with Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) Level 2.0 direct Sun AOD measurement over 10 years (2005-2014) at 27 selected AERONET sites. A combined comparison of OMAERUV-AERONET AOD at 25 (2) sites was carried out and yielded correlation coefficient (ρ) of 0.63 (0.77), slope of 0.53 (0.57), y intercept of 0.18 (0.13), and 50.71% (57.24%) OMAERUV AOD fall within the expected uncertainty boundary (larger by 0.1 or ±30%) at 380 nm (440 nm). The more accurate (ρ > 0.70) OMAERUV retrievals are reported over eastern and northern China and South Korea. The two primary reasons for the underestimation of OMAERUV AOD over China are as follows: (1) the use of single-channel (388 nm) retrieval method retrieves scattering AOD and not total AOD, and (2) the spectral dependence of the imaginary part of the refractive index in the near-UV region assumed in the algorithm may not be representative of aerosols found over China. The comparisons for three predominant aerosol types indicate that smoke aerosol exhibits the best performance, followed by dust and nonabsorbing aerosol. It is consistent with the characteristic of near-UV wavelength that it is more sensitive to absorbent particles. The comprehensive yearly (2005-2014) comparison at 25 sites and comparison between two periods (2005-2006 and 2009-2014) at selected four sites show no discernible decrease of temporal trend, which indicates that the OMAERUV algorithm successfully maintains its quality of aerosol product despite post-2008 row anomaly instrument problem.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.B23A0369M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.B23A0369M"><span id="translatedtitle">Acupunctural Afforestation for Desertification Mitigation over Semi-Arid Regions in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Myoung, B.; Choi, Y.; Park, S. K.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Desertification over the arid/semi-arid regions in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and dust transports from the regions have been serious concerns for the societies not only in adjacent Asian countries but also in the western US. One of the strategies for desertification mitigation is tree planting over the semi-arid areas. However, unless the newly planted vegetation changes the feedback characteristics between land-surface and the atmosphere, the impact is not profound and effective for a long time. Here we show afforestation effects on the coupling strength between the land-surface and atmosphere, measured by the monthly anomalies of precipitation and evapotranspiration. The coupling strength is an important parameter to diagnose the aridity of a region since the stronger coupling strength is indicative of the higher vulnerability of the local climate to droughts. Simulations of a regional vegetation-climate coupled model reveal that afforestation substantially modulates local coupling strength mainly through controlling variability of evapotranspiration. The coupling strength decreases most significantly with an increase of unit vegetation fraction over the northern and central China including Manchurian Plains and highly populated areas of Beijing and Tianjin. The coupling characteristics of these regions are expected to reduce the occurrence of extreme weather events such as droughts by alleviating positive responses of the surface to precipitation deficit. Therefore, afforestation concentrated on these regions, which is called "acupunctural afforestation", may most effectively contribute to desertification mitigation than other regions by attenuating mechanisms maintaining warm season droughts. This study suggests that our attention should be paid to understanding the coupling strength between land and the atmosphere for desertification mitigation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23353604','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23353604"><span id="translatedtitle">Vitamin D status and food security in North-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wahlqvist, Mark L</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The functions of vitamin D are pleiotropic affecting all body organs and systems in some way. Its adequacy depends principally on sunshine for UV light to stimulate its synthesis in skin and on foods which contain it, either animal-derived or obtained from fungi or mushrooms, with the UV-responsive substrates dehydrocholesterol for vitamin D-3 or ergosterol for vitamin D-2, respectively. Thus, vitamin D health is very environmentally dependent. With ecosytem degradation, whether by atmospheric pollution or food systems which do not derive UV irradiation, as with fish farming or mushroom processing, then this nutrient input into human biology may falter. Vitamin D deficiency is now common and widespread in North-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> as elsewhere. When discovered early in the 20th century it was linked to rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults and, for a generation or so, children were given fish, usually cod, liver oil to prevent bone disease. Now cod as a species and many edible fish are threatened. Over-exposure to sun-light increases the risk of skin cancer. We may tackle this problem by vitamin D supplementation with an alternative to fish liver. But the demographic pressures of population size and ageing (when the skin is less UV responsive) make the clinical and public health decisions and strategies demanding. Vitamin D health has become indicative of food security whose usual indicator is food diversity; such diversity may allow lesser concentrations to be more effective in organ and system function, but we have little evidence to support this at present. PMID:23353604</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JGRD..11624306T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JGRD..11624306T"><span id="translatedtitle">Atmospheric observations of carbon monoxide and fossil fuel CO2 emissions from <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Turnbull, Jocelyn C.; Tans, Pieter P.; Lehman, Scott J.; Baker, David; Conway, Thomas J.; Chung, Y. S.; Gregg, Jay; Miller, John B.; Southon, John R.; Zhou, Ling-Xi</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Flask samples from two sites in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, Tae-Ahn Peninsula, Korea (TAP), and Shangdianzi, China (SDZ), were measured for trace gases including CO2, CO and fossil fuel CO2 (CO2ff, derived from Δ14CO2observations). The five-year TAP record shows high CO2ff when local air comes from the Korean Peninsula. Most samples, however, reflect air masses from Northeastern China with lower CO2ff. Our small set of SDZ samples from winter 2009/2010 have strongly elevated CO2ff. Biospheric CO2 contributes substantially to total CO2variability at both sites, even in winter when non-fossil CO2 sources (including photosynthesis, respiration, biomass burning and biofuel use) contribute 20-30% of the total CO2 enhancement. Carbon monoxide (CO) correlates strongly with CO2ff. The SDZ and TAP far-field (China influenced) samples have CO: CO2ff ratios (RCO:CO2ff) of 47 ± 2 and 44 ± 3 ppb/ppm respectively, consistent with recent bottom-up inventory estimates and other observational studies. Locally influenced TAP samples fall into