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Sample records for africa highland bananas

  1. Socioeconomic Importance of the Banana Tree (Musa Spp.) in the Guinean Highland Savannah Agroforests

    PubMed Central

    Mapongmetsem, Pierre Marie; Nkongmeneck, Bernard Aloys; Gubbuk, Hamide

    2012-01-01

    Home gardens are defined as less complex agroforests which look like and function as natural forest ecosystems but are integrated into agricultural management systems located around houses. Investigations were carried out in 187 households. The aim of the study was to identify the different types of banana home gardens existing in the periurban zone of Ngaoundere town. The results showed that the majority of home gardens in the area were very young (less than 15 years old) and very small in size (less than 1 ha). Eleven types of home gardens were found in the periurban area of Ngaoundere town. The different home garden types showed important variations in all their structural characteristics. Two local species of banana are cultivated in the systems, Musa sinensis and Musa paradisiaca. The total banana production is 3.57 tons per year. The total quantity of banana consumed in the periurban zone was 3.54 tons (93.5%) whereas 1.01 tons were sold in local or urban markets. The main banana producers belonged to home gardens 2, 4, 7, and 9. The quantity of banana offered to relatives was more than what the farmers received from others. Farmers, rely on agroforests because the flow of their products helps them consolidate friendship and conserve biodiversity at the same time. PMID:22629136

  2. Socioeconomic importance of the banana tree (Musa spp.) in the Guinean Highland Savannah agroforests.

    PubMed

    Mapongmetsem, Pierre Marie; Nkongmeneck, Bernard Aloys; Gubbuk, Hamide

    2012-01-01

    Home gardens are defined as less complex agroforests which look like and function as natural forest ecosystems but are integrated into agricultural management systems located around houses. Investigations were carried out in 187 households. The aim of the study was to identify the different types of banana home gardens existing in the periurban zone of Ngaoundere town. The results showed that the majority of home gardens in the area were very young (less than 15 years old) and very small in size (less than 1 ha). Eleven types of home gardens were found in the periurban area of Ngaoundere town. The different home garden types showed important variations in all their structural characteristics. Two local species of banana are cultivated in the systems, Musa sinensis and Musa paradisiaca. The total banana production is 3.57 tons per year. The total quantity of banana consumed in the periurban zone was 3.54 tons (93.5%) whereas 1.01 tons were sold in local or urban markets. The main banana producers belonged to home gardens 2, 4, 7, and 9. The quantity of banana offered to relatives was more than what the farmers received from others. Farmers, rely on agroforests because the flow of their products helps them consolidate friendship and conserve biodiversity at the same time.

  3. Banana bunchy top virus in sub-Saharan Africa: investigations on virus distribution and diversity.

    PubMed

    Kumar, P Lava; Hanna, R; Alabi, O J; Soko, M M; Oben, T T; Vangu, G H P; Naidu, R A

    2011-08-01

    Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) was first reported from sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) from Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) in the 1950s, has become invasive and spread into 11 countries in the region. To determine the potential threat of BBTV to the production of bananas and plantains (Musa spp.) in the sub-region, field surveys were conducted for the presence of banana bunchy top disease (BBTD) in the DRC, Angola, Cameroon, Gabon and Malawi. Using the DNA-S and DNA-R segments of the virus genome, the genetic diversity of BBTV isolates was also determined from these countries relative to virus isolates across the banana-growing regions around the world. The results established that BBTD is widely prevalent in all parts of DRC, Malawi, Angola and Gabon, in south and western part of Cameroon. Analysis of the nucleotide sequences of DNA-S and DNA-R indicate that BBTV isolates from these countries are genetically identical forming a unique clade within the 'South Pacific' phylogroup that includes isolates from Australia, Egypt, South Asia and South Pacific. These results imply that farmers' traditional practice of transferring vegetative propagules within and between countries, together with virus spread by the widely prevalent banana aphid vector, Pentalonia nigronervosa, could have contributed to the geographic expansion of BBTV in SSA. The results provided a baseline to explore sanitary measures and other 'clean' plant programs for sustainable management of BBTV and its vector in regions where the disease has already been established and prevent the spread of the virus to as yet unaffected regions in SSA.

  4. Late-Quaternary niche glaciation in the Lesotho highlands, southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Stephanie; Carr, Simon; Grab, Stefan; Rea, Brice

    2010-05-01

    Records of past climate data for southern Africa are predominantly restricted to arid, coastal or semi-arid environments (Karoo, Kalahari & Namib deserts, Western Cape). There is currently no reliable temperature or rainfall proxy data for climate change prior to the present interglacial for Lesotho. Consequently, there has been continued debate over the issue of whether this region in southern Africa experienced increased or reduced precipitation at and around the global Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Recent published work has applied a geomorphological, micromorphological and glaciological approach to demonstrate a glacial origin for various ‘moraine like' deposits in south-eastern Lesotho. This geomorphic evidence, dated to the LGM, implies that specific climatic conditions would have been required to sustain active glaciers. This paper presents results from two sites in the Lesotho highlands, which host linear ridges interpreted as glacial moraines. The application of a glacier reconstruction technique to determine whether these sites could have supported glaciers permits the calculation of palaeoglacier mass balance, total velocity and basal slip, which in turn may be compared to modern analogues. Reconstructed equilibrium line altitudes (ELAs) range from 3071 to 3074 m a.s.l. and palaeotemperatures during the summer months would have been around 2.7°C, whilst palaeoprecipitation would have approximated 1500 mm per annum. The results indicate that the mass balance characteristics for the palaeoglaciers are comparable with modern analogues, reflecting viable, if marginal glaciation. The importance of topographic shading on determining the location of the glaciers is reflected through insolation mapping and the potential of this shading on glacier mass balance is quantified from energy balance model calculations. The occurrence of small-scale glaciation in the Drakensberg during the LGM implies that precipitation was greater than at present, despite the general

  5. Multisensor monitoring of deforestation in the Guinea Highlands of West Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilruth, Peter T.; Hutchinson, Charles F.

    1990-01-01

    Multiple remote sensing systems were used to assess deforestation in the Guinea Highlands (Fouta Djallon) of West Africa. Sensor systems included: (1) historical (1953) and current (1989) aerial mapping photography; (2) current large-scale, small format (35mm) aerial photography; (3) current aerial video imagery; and (4) historical (1973) and recent (1985) LANDSAT MSS. Photographic and video data were manually interpreted and incorporated in a vector-based geographic information system (GIS). LANDSAT data were digitally classified. General results showed an increase in permanent and shifting agriculture over the past 35 years. This finding is consistent with hypothesized strategies to increase agricultural production through a shortening of the fallow period in areas of shifting cultivation. However, results also show that the total area of both permanent and shifting agriculture had expanded at the expense of natural vegetation and an increase in erosion. Although sequential LANDSAT MSS cannot be used in this region to accurately map land over, the location, direction and magnitude of changes can be detected in relative terms. Historical and current aerial photography can be used to map agricultural land use changes with some accuracy. Video imagery is useful as ancillary data for mapping vegetation. The most prudent approach to mapping deforestation would incorporate a multistage approach based on these sensors.

  6. Ex-Ante Economic Impact Assessment of Genetically Modified Banana Resistant to Xanthomonas Wilt in the Great Lakes Region of Africa

    PubMed Central

    Ainembabazi, John Herbert; Tripathi, Leena; Rusike, Joseph; Abdoulaye, Tahirou; Manyong, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Background Credible empirical evidence is scanty on the social implications of genetically modified (GM) crops in Africa, especially on vegetatively propagated crops. Little is known about the future success of introducing GM technologies into staple crops such as bananas, which are widely produced and consumed in the Great Lakes Region of Africa (GLA). GM banana has a potential to control the destructive banana Xanthomonas wilt disease. Objective To gain a better understanding of future adoption and consumption of GM banana in the GLA countries which are yet to permit the production of GM crops; specifically, to evaluate the potential economic impacts of GM cultivars resistant to banana Xanthomonas wilt disease. Data Sources The paper uses data collected from farmers, traders, agricultural extension agents and key informants in the GLA. Analysis We analyze the perceptions of the respondents about the adoption and consumption of GM crop. Economic surplus model is used to determine future economic benefits and costs of producing GM banana. Results On the release of GM banana for commercialization, the expected initial adoption rate ranges from 21 to 70%, while the ceiling adoption rate is up to 100%. Investment in the development of GM banana is economically viable. However, aggregate benefits vary substantially across the target countries ranging from US$ 20 million to 953 million, highest in countries where disease incidence and production losses are high, ranging from 51 to 83% of production. Conclusion The findings support investment in the development of GM banana resistant to Xanthomonas wilt disease. The main beneficiaries of this technology development are farmers and consumers, although the latter benefit more than the former from reduced prices. Designing a participatory breeding program involving farmers and consumers signifies the successful adoption and consumption of GM banana in the target countries. PMID:26414379

  7. Late Quaternary Biomass Changes from 13C Measurements in a Highland Peatbog from Equatorial Africa (Burundi)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aucour, Anne-Marie; Hillaire-Marcel, Claude; Bonnefille, Raymonde

    1994-03-01

    Stable carbon isotope ratios of total organic matter were measured in two cores collected from the Kashiru peatbog in Burundi, Equatorial Africa. The record, which spans at least the last 40,000 yr, documents the C 3-C 4 biomass balance in the organic sediment. Among the major modern peat formers, most plants are C 3 species and are characterized by δ 13C values of -25.5 ± 2.3% (vs PDB). The C 4 plants, which are characterized by higher δ 13C values (-11.3 ± 0.7%) belong to the Gramineae ( Miscanthidium sp.) and Cyperaceae families ( Cyperus latifolius, C. papyrus, Pycreus nigricans). In the fossil record, δ 13C values of total organic matter vary between -28 and -15% in response to the relative fluxes of C 3 and C 4 plants. Before 30,000 yr B.P., low δ 13C values (-23.5 ± 1.1%) match high arboreal pollen contents. From 30,000 to 15,000 yr B.P., higher δ 13C values (-17.6 ± 1.1%) correspond to a significant increase in percentages of grass pollen. During this episode, a short and sharp shift toward lighter carbon isotopic compositions at 21,000 yr B.P. is synchronous with higher input of arboreal pollen. From 15,000 to 12,000 yr B.P., the 13C content decreases (δ 13C = -22.9 ± 1.4%). This shift, which cannot be explained by an increase in the arboreal vegetation, could be explained by the spreading of C 3 Gramineae or C 3 Cyperaceae. The interval from 12,000 to 7000 yr B.P. is poorly documented in these cores due to much lower organic matter accumulation. Low δ 13C values (δ 13C = -25.2 ± 1.3%) are observed from 7000 to 5000 yr B.P., when the pollen data show development of C 3 mountain forest. The Late Holocene is characterized by a mixed C 3-C 4 organic matter accumulation (δ 13C = -20.9 ± 1.6%). This study depicts a change in the dominant photosynthetic pathway among the herbaceous components, notably at the glacial-interglacial transition, when C 3 plants were favored by increased water supply and/or higher atmospheric CO 2 concentration.

  8. Banana technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Amstel, Willem D.; Schellekens, E. P. A.; Walravens, C.; Wijlaars, A. P. F.

    1999-09-01

    With 'Banana Technology' an unconventional hybrid fabrication technology is indicated for the production of very large parabolic and hyperbolic cylindrical mirror systems. The banana technology uses elastic bending of very large and thin glass substrates and fixation onto NC milled metal moulds. This technology has matured during the last twenty years for the manufacturing of large telecentric flat-bed scanners. Two construction types, called 'internal banana' and 'external banana; are presented. Optical figure quality requirements in terms of slope and curvature deviations are discussed. Measurements of these optical specifications by means of a 'finishing rod' type of scanning deflectometer or slope tester are presented. Design constraints for bending glass and the advantages of a new process will be discussed.

  9. Multidisciplinary perspectives on banana (Musa spp.) domestication.

    PubMed

    Perrier, Xavier; De Langhe, Edmond; Donohue, Mark; Lentfer, Carol; Vrydaghs, Luc; Bakry, Frédéric; Carreel, Françoise; Hippolyte, Isabelle; Horry, Jean-Pierre; Jenny, Christophe; Lebot, Vincent; Risterucci, Ange-Marie; Tomekpe, Kodjo; Doutrelepont, Hugues; Ball, Terry; Manwaring, Jason; de Maret, Pierre; Denham, Tim

    2011-07-12

    Original multidisciplinary research hereby clarifies the complex geodomestication pathways that generated the vast range of banana cultivars (cvs). Genetic analyses identify the wild ancestors of modern-day cvs and elucidate several key stages of domestication for different cv groups. Archaeology and linguistics shed light on the historical roles of people in the movement and cultivation of bananas from New Guinea to West Africa during the Holocene. The historical reconstruction of domestication processes is essential for breeding programs seeking to diversify and improve banana cvs for the future.

  10. Multidisciplinary perspectives on banana (Musa spp.) domestication

    PubMed Central

    Perrier, Xavier; De Langhe, Edmond; Donohue, Mark; Lentfer, Carol; Vrydaghs, Luc; Bakry, Frédéric; Carreel, Françoise; Hippolyte, Isabelle; Horry, Jean-Pierre; Jenny, Christophe; Lebot, Vincent; Risterucci, Ange-Marie; Tomekpe, Kodjo; Doutrelepont, Hugues; Ball, Terry; Manwaring, Jason; de Maret, Pierre; Denham, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Original multidisciplinary research hereby clarifies the complex geodomestication pathways that generated the vast range of banana cultivars (cvs). Genetic analyses identify the wild ancestors of modern-day cvs and elucidate several key stages of domestication for different cv groups. Archaeology and linguistics shed light on the historical roles of people in the movement and cultivation of bananas from New Guinea to West Africa during the Holocene. The historical reconstruction of domestication processes is essential for breeding programs seeking to diversify and improve banana cvs for the future. PMID:21730145

  11. Let's Go Bananas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Helen; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents a hands-on primary science unit of activities designed to teach students concepts about bananas. Real bananas are used as students investigate and use the process skills of observation, measurement, and communication. Using bananas as a theme, science, mathematics, social studies, music, and writing are integrated into the curriculum of…

  12. Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martz, Carlton

    2001-01-01

    This publication explores issues related to Africa. It examines the U.S. response to the Barbary pirate states (Morocco, Algiers, Tunis, Tripoli) in the early 19th century; the current AIDS crisis in Africa; and 14th century Mali and other Islamic lands through the eyes of Ibn Battuta, who traveled throughout the Muslim world. Each article…

  13. Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Happel, Sue; Loeb, Joyce

    Although the activities in this unit are designed primarily for students in the intermediate grades, the document's text, illustrations, and bibliographic references are suitable for anyone interested in learning about Africa. Following a brief introduction and map work, the document is arranged into six sections. Section 1 traces Africa's history…

  14. I Remember Highlander

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams-Hawkins, Maria

    2016-01-01

    "I Remember Highlander" reflects on the life choices of Marion Barry and Herman Henning Jr., fraternity brothers who sought the same goal but took different paths. The essay examines cultural and family situations that shaped lives and decisions.

  15. Micropropagation of banana.

    PubMed

    Kaçar, Yıldız Aka; Faber, Ben

    2012-01-01

    Banana (Musa spp. AAA) is propagated vegetatively and can be rapidly and efficiently propagated by micropropagation. Conventional micropropagation techniques, however, may be too costly for commercial purposes. Our laboratory has found that depending on the combination of culture vessel and gelling agent more economic methods can be chosen for successfully micropropagating banana.

  16. The Banana Genome Hub

    PubMed Central

    Droc, Gaëtan; Larivière, Delphine; Guignon, Valentin; Yahiaoui, Nabila; This, Dominique; Garsmeur, Olivier; Dereeper, Alexis; Hamelin, Chantal; Argout, Xavier; Dufayard, Jean-François; Lengelle, Juliette; Baurens, Franc-Christophe; Cenci, Alberto; Pitollat, Bertrand; D’Hont, Angélique; Ruiz, Manuel; Rouard, Mathieu; Bocs, Stéphanie

    2013-01-01

    Banana is one of the world’s favorite fruits and one of the most important crops for developing countries. The banana reference genome sequence (Musa acuminata) was recently released. Given the taxonomic position of Musa, the completed genomic sequence has particular comparative value to provide fresh insights about the evolution of the monocotyledons. The study of the banana genome has been enhanced by a number of tools and resources that allows harnessing its sequence. First, we set up essential tools such as a Community Annotation System, phylogenomics resources and metabolic pathways. Then, to support post-genomic efforts, we improved banana existing systems (e.g. web front end, query builder), we integrated available Musa data into generic systems (e.g. markers and genetic maps, synteny blocks), we have made interoperable with the banana hub, other existing systems containing Musa data (e.g. transcriptomics, rice reference genome, workflow manager) and finally, we generated new results from sequence analyses (e.g. SNP and polymorphism analysis). Several uses cases illustrate how the Banana Genome Hub can be used to study gene families. Overall, with this collaborative effort, we discuss the importance of the interoperability toward data integration between existing information systems. Database URL: http://banana-genome.cirad.fr/ PMID:23707967

  17. The banana genome hub.

    PubMed

    Droc, Gaëtan; Larivière, Delphine; Guignon, Valentin; Yahiaoui, Nabila; This, Dominique; Garsmeur, Olivier; Dereeper, Alexis; Hamelin, Chantal; Argout, Xavier; Dufayard, Jean-François; Lengelle, Juliette; Baurens, Franc-Christophe; Cenci, Alberto; Pitollat, Bertrand; D'Hont, Angélique; Ruiz, Manuel; Rouard, Mathieu; Bocs, Stéphanie

    2013-01-01

    Banana is one of the world's favorite fruits and one of the most important crops for developing countries. The banana reference genome sequence (Musa acuminata) was recently released. Given the taxonomic position of Musa, the completed genomic sequence has particular comparative value to provide fresh insights about the evolution of the monocotyledons. The study of the banana genome has been enhanced by a number of tools and resources that allows harnessing its sequence. First, we set up essential tools such as a Community Annotation System, phylogenomics resources and metabolic pathways. Then, to support post-genomic efforts, we improved banana existing systems (e.g. web front end, query builder), we integrated available Musa data into generic systems (e.g. markers and genetic maps, synteny blocks), we have made interoperable with the banana hub, other existing systems containing Musa data (e.g. transcriptomics, rice reference genome, workflow manager) and finally, we generated new results from sequence analyses (e.g. SNP and polymorphism analysis). Several uses cases illustrate how the Banana Genome Hub can be used to study gene families. Overall, with this collaborative effort, we discuss the importance of the interoperability toward data integration between existing information systems. Database URL: http://banana-genome.cirad.fr/

  18. Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crofts, Marylee

    1986-01-01

    Reviews myths, misconceptions, and unintentional biases about Africa in United States K-12 social studies textbooks. Summarizes common topics and recommends additions. Provides the names, addresses and phone numbers of 10 university-based African Studies centers. Concludes that improvements to textbooks must continue. (JDH)

  19. Natural Radioactivity in Bananas

    SciTech Connect

    Zagatto, V. A. B.; Medina, N. H.; Okuno, E.; Umisedo, N. K.

    2008-08-07

    The content of {sup 40}K natural radionuclide in bananas (Musa sapientum) from the Vale do Ribeira region, Sao Paulo, Brazil, has been measured. We have collected several samples of bananas prata and nanica, its peels, leaves, and also different soils where the banana tree was planted, such as soil with a standard amount of fertilizer, the fertilizer itself and also soil without fertilizer for comparison. We have used the gamma-ray spectroscopy technique with a NaI(T1) crystal inside a 12 cm thick lead shield to detect the gamma-radiation. The results indicate that only part of the available potassium is absorbed by the plant, which is mainly concentrated in the banana peel.

  20. Going Bananas over The Rainforest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curriculum Review, 2005

    2005-01-01

    With a market of nearly $5 billion a year, the banana is the world's most popular fruit, and the most important food crop after rice, wheat, and maize. Banana businesses are economic pillars in many tropical countries, providing millions of jobs for rural residents. But, for much of its history, the banana industry was notorious for destructive…

  1. Transgenic banana expressing Pflp gene confers enhanced resistance to Xanthomonas wilt disease.

    PubMed

    Namukwaya, B; Tripathi, L; Tripathi, J N; Arinaitwe, G; Mukasa, S B; Tushemereirwe, W K

    2012-08-01

    Banana Xanthomonas wilt (BXW), caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum, is one of the most important diseases of banana (Musa sp.) and currently considered as the biggest threat to banana production in Great Lakes region of East and Central Africa. The pathogen is highly contagious and its spread has endangered the livelihood of millions of farmers who rely on banana for food and income. The development of disease resistant banana cultivars remains a high priority since farmers are reluctant to employ labor-intensive disease control measures and there is no host plant resistance among banana cultivars. In this study, we demonstrate that BXW can be efficiently controlled using transgenic technology. Transgenic bananas expressing the plant ferredoxin-like protein (Pflp) gene under the regulation of the constitutive CaMV35S promoter were generated using embryogenic cell suspensions of banana. These transgenic lines were characterized by molecular analysis. After challenge with X. campestris pv. musacearum transgenic lines showed high resistance. About 67% of transgenic lines evaluated were completely resistant to BXW. These transgenic lines did not show any disease symptoms after artificial inoculation of in vitro plants under laboratory conditions as well as potted plants in the screen-house, whereas non-transgenic control plants showed severe symptoms resulting in complete wilting. This study confirms that expression of the Pflp gene in banana results in enhanced resistance to BXW. This transgenic technology can provide a timely solution to the BXW pandemic.

  2. Banana (Musa sp.).

    PubMed

    Pérez Hernández, Juan B; Remy, Serge; Swennen, Rony; Sági, László

    2006-01-01

    Cultivated bananas are vegetatively propagating herbs, which are difficult to breed because of widespread male and female sterility. As a complementary gene transfer method in banana, the described Agrobacterium protocol relies on highly regenerable embryogenic cell cultures. Embryogenic cells are infected and co-cultivated in the presence of acetosyringone with Agrobacterium tumefaciens harboring a binary plasmid vector to obtain a mixed population of transformed and untransformed plant cells. Transformed plant cells are promoted to grow for 2 to 3 mo on a cell colony induction medium containing the antibiotics geneticin or hygromycin as selective agents, while agrobacteria are counterselected by timentin. The whole procedure, including plant regeneration, takes approx 6 mo and results in an average frequency of 25 to 50 independent transgenic plants per plate, which equals 50 mg of embryogenic cells. This method has been applied to a wide range of cultivars and to generate large populations of transgenic colonies and plants for tagging genes and promoters in banana.

  3. The Ozark Highlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ethridge, Max

    2009-01-01

    The Ozark Highlands include diverse topographic, geologic, soil, and hydrologic conditions that support a broad range of habitat types. The landscape features rugged uplands - some peaks higher than 2,500 feet above sea level - with exposed rock and varying soil depths and includes extensive areas of karst terrain. The Highlands are characterized by extreme biological diversity and high endemism (uniqueness of species). Vegetation communities are dominated by open oak-hickory and shortleaf pine woodlands and forests. Included in this vegetation matrix is an assemblage of various types of fens, forests, wetlands, fluvial features, and carbonate and siliceous glades. An ever-growing human population in the Ozark Highlands has become very dependent on reservoirs constructed on major rivers in the region and, in some cases, groundwater for household and public water supply. Because of human population growth in the Highlands and increases in industrial and agricultural activities, not only is adequate water quantity an issue, but maintaining good water quality is also a challenge. Point and nonpoint sources of excessive nutrients are an issue. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) partnership programs to monitor water quality and develop simulation tools to help stakeholders better understand strategies to protect the quality of water and the environment are extremely important. The USGS collects relevant data, conducts interpretive studies, and develops simulation tools to help stakeholders understand resource availability and sustainability issues. Stakeholders dependent on these resources are interested in and benefit greatly from evolving these simulation tools (models) into decision support systems that can be used for adaptive management of water and ecological resources. The interaction of unique and high-quality biological and hydrologic resources and the effects of stresses from human activities can be evaluated best by using a multidisciplinary approach that the USGS

  4. Nutritional status of Papua New Guinea highlanders.

    PubMed

    Okuda, T; Kajiwara, N; Date, C; Sugimoto, K; Rikimaru, T; Fujita, Y; Koishi, H

    1981-01-01

    A nutritional survey was held in August, 1978, at Kalugaluvi (altitude: 1,500m) near Lufa, which is 60 km from Goroka, in the Eastern Highland Province of Papua New Guinea. Anthropometric measurements were carried out on 55 males and 37 females aged from 7 to 64 years. whereas the physiques of the children looked as good as those of Japanese of a comparable age, the adult men were shorter than Japanese males, but body weight and chest girth were similar. The skinfold thickness was less than that of the Japanese. From the data collected, it was shown that the physique of the Highlanders was more muscular than that of the Japanese. The food intakes and energy balances of 18 healthy men (20-40 years old) were measured over 2 or 3 consecutive days. The average consumption of sweet potatoes, the staple food, was 956 +/- 305 g per day. The average consumption of taro and yam was 93 +/- 124 g/day and 36 +/- 99 g/day, respectively. Various green leaves, sugar canes, corn, bananas and other foods. (i.e., rice and tinned fish) purchased from trade stores were sometimes eaten. The mean daily energy intake was 2.390 +/- 540 kcal, which was about the same as the daily energy expenditure. The daily protein intake was 35.2 +/- 10.7 g. These results are probably exceptionally high, because the survey was unfortunately held during the yearly festival season of the village when the people often ate fatty port. Nevertheless, it is noteworthy that the growth of children and the physique of adults are normal in spite of the extremely low intake of protein. PMID:7328441

  5. Nutritional status of Papua New Guinea highlanders.

    PubMed

    Okuda, T; Kajiwara, N; Date, C; Sugimoto, K; Rikimaru, T; Fujita, Y; Koishi, H

    1981-01-01

    A nutritional survey was held in August, 1978, at Kalugaluvi (altitude: 1,500m) near Lufa, which is 60 km from Goroka, in the Eastern Highland Province of Papua New Guinea. Anthropometric measurements were carried out on 55 males and 37 females aged from 7 to 64 years. whereas the physiques of the children looked as good as those of Japanese of a comparable age, the adult men were shorter than Japanese males, but body weight and chest girth were similar. The skinfold thickness was less than that of the Japanese. From the data collected, it was shown that the physique of the Highlanders was more muscular than that of the Japanese. The food intakes and energy balances of 18 healthy men (20-40 years old) were measured over 2 or 3 consecutive days. The average consumption of sweet potatoes, the staple food, was 956 +/- 305 g per day. The average consumption of taro and yam was 93 +/- 124 g/day and 36 +/- 99 g/day, respectively. Various green leaves, sugar canes, corn, bananas and other foods. (i.e., rice and tinned fish) purchased from trade stores were sometimes eaten. The mean daily energy intake was 2.390 +/- 540 kcal, which was about the same as the daily energy expenditure. The daily protein intake was 35.2 +/- 10.7 g. These results are probably exceptionally high, because the survey was unfortunately held during the yearly festival season of the village when the people often ate fatty port. Nevertheless, it is noteworthy that the growth of children and the physique of adults are normal in spite of the extremely low intake of protein.

  6. Prototheca associated with banana.

    PubMed

    Pore, R S

    1985-06-01

    Prototheca stagnora was found to be a habitant of older harvested banana (Musa sapientum) and plantain (M. paradisiaca) stumps while P. wickerhamii colonized fresh Musa sp. stumps and flower bract water of Heliconia sp. While Prototheca sp. were known to habituate woody plants, this is the first evidence that herbaceous plants also serve as habitats.

  7. Creating Highlander Wherever You Are

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Susan; Mullett, Cathy

    2016-01-01

    Highlander Research and Education Center serves as a catalyst for grassroots organizing and movement building. This article focuses on an interview with education coordinator Susan Williams who has worked at Highlander for 26 years. We discuss how others can and do create powerful popular education experiences anywhere, whether they have a…

  8. Banana (Musa sp.).

    PubMed

    Pérez Hernández, Juan B; Remy, Serge; Swennen, Rony; Sági, László

    2006-01-01

    Cultivated bananas are vegetatively propagating herbs, which are difficult to breed because of widespread male and female sterility. As a complementary gene transfer method in banana, the described Agrobacterium protocol relies on highly regenerable embryogenic cell cultures. Embryogenic cells are infected and co-cultivated in the presence of acetosyringone with Agrobacterium tumefaciens harboring a binary plasmid vector to obtain a mixed population of transformed and untransformed plant cells. Transformed plant cells are promoted to grow for 2 to 3 mo on a cell colony induction medium containing the antibiotics geneticin or hygromycin as selective agents, while agrobacteria are counterselected by timentin. The whole procedure, including plant regeneration, takes approx 6 mo and results in an average frequency of 25 to 50 independent transgenic plants per plate, which equals 50 mg of embryogenic cells. This method has been applied to a wide range of cultivars and to generate large populations of transgenic colonies and plants for tagging genes and promoters in banana. PMID:17033061

  9. Banana Gold: Problem or Solution?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Garnet

    1992-01-01

    Since 1955, the British banana industry has dominated the lives of the Caribs and other peoples in Dominica. Banana growing supplants other economic activities, including local food production; toxic chemicals and fertilizers pollute the land; community is dwindling; suicide is common; and child labor diminishes school attendance. (SV)

  10. Combating the Sigatoka disease complex on banana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Banana is the fourth most important staple food in the world behind rice, wheat and maize, with more than 100 million tons produced annually. Although the majority of bananas produced are consumed locally, banana export is a multi-billion dollar business. Bananas are grown in more than 100 countri...

  11. Malaria in the African highlands: past, present and future.

    PubMed Central

    Lindsay, S. W.; Martens, W. J.

    1998-01-01

    Many of the first European settlers in Africa sought refuge from the heat and diseases of the plains by moving to the cool and salubrious highlands. Although many of the highlands were originally malaria free, there has been a progressive rise in the incidence of the disease over the last 50 years, largely as a consequence of agroforestry development, and it has been exacerbated by scarce health resources. In these areas of fringe transmission where the malaria pattern is unstable, epidemics may be precipitated by relatively subtle climatic changes. Since there is little immunity against the disease in these communities, outbreaks can be devastating, resulting in a substantial increase in morbidity and death among both children and adults. We present here the results obtained using a mathematical model designed to identify these epidemic-prone regions in the African highlands and the differences expected to occur as a result of projected global climate change. These highlands should be recognized as an area of special concern. We further recommend that a regional modelling approach should be adopted to assess the extent and severity of this problem and help improve disease surveillance and the quality of health care delivered in this unstable ecosystem. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:9615495

  12. Crater Highlands, Tanzania

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), flown aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour in February 2000, acquired elevation measurements for nearly all of Earth's landmass between 60oN and 56oS latitudes. For many areas of the world SRTM data provide the first detailed three-dimensional observation of landforms at regional scales. SRTM data were used to generate this view of the Crater Highlands along the East African Rift in Tanzania. Landforms are depicted with colored height and shaded relief, using a vertical exaggeration of 2X and a southwestwardly look direction.

    Lake Eyasi is depicted in blue at the top of the image, and a smaller lake occurs in Ngorongoro Crater. Near the image center, elevations peak at 3648 meters (11,968 feet) at Mount Loolmalasin, which is south of Ela Naibori Crater. Kitumbeine (left) and Gelai (right) are the two broad mountains rising from the rift lowlands. Mount Longido is seen in the lower left, and the Meto Hills are in the right foreground.

    Tectonics, volcanism, landslides, erosion and deposition -- and their interactions -- are all very evident in this view. The East African Rift is a zone of spreading between the African (on the west) and Somali (on the east) crustal plates. Two branches of the rift intersect here in Tanzania, resulting in distinctive and prominent landforms. One branch trends nearly parallel the view and includes Lake Eyasi and the very wide Ngorongoro Crater. The other branch is well defined by the lowlands that trend left-right across the image (below center, in green). Volcanoes are often associated with spreading zones where magma, rising to fill the gaps, reaches the surface and builds cones. Craters form if a volcano explodes or collapses. Later spreading can fracture the volcanoes, which is especially evident on Kitumbeine and Gelai Mountains (left and right, respectively, lower center).

    The Crater Highlands rise far above the adjacent savannas, capture moisture from passing air masses

  13. Ranks and relationships in Highland ponies and Highland Cows.

    PubMed

    Clutton-Brock, T H; Greenwood, P J; Powell, R P

    1976-06-01

    Recent studies of primates have questioned the importance of dominance hierarchies in groups living under natural conditions. In a herd of Highland ponies and one of Highland cattle grazing under free-range conditions on the Isle of Rhum (Inner Hebrides) well defined hierarchies were present. The provision of food produced a marked increase in the frequency of agonistic interactions but had no effect on the rank systems of the two herds. While rank was clearly important in affecting the distribution of agonistic interactions, it was poorly related to behaviour in non-agonistic situations. PMID:961125

  14. A High-Throughput Regeneration and Transformation Platform for Production of Genetically Modified Banana

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Jaindra N.; Oduor, Richard O.; Tripathi, Leena

    2015-01-01

    Banana (Musa spp.) is an important staple food as well as cash crop in tropical and subtropical countries. Various bacterial, fungal, and viral diseases and pests such as nematodes are major constraints in its production and are currently destabilizing the banana production in sub-Saharan Africa. Genetic engineering is a complementary option used for incorporating useful traits in banana to bypass the long generation time, polyploidy, and sterility of most of the cultivated varieties. A robust transformation protocol for farmer preferred varieties is crucial for banana genomics and improvement. A robust and reproducible system for genetic transformation of banana using embryogenic cell suspensions (ECS) has been developed in this study. Two different types of explants (immature male flowers and multiple buds) were tested for their ability to develop ECS in several varieties of banana locally grown in Africa. ECS of banana varieties “Cavendish Williams” and “Gros Michel” were developed using multiple buds, whereas ECS of “Sukali Ndiizi” was developed using immature male flowers. Regeneration efficiency of ECS was about 20,000–50,000 plantlets per ml of settled cell volume (SCV) depending on variety. ECS of three different varieties were transformed through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation using gusA reporter gene and 20–70 independent transgenic events per ml SCV of ECS were regenerated on selective medium. The presence and integration of gusA gene in transgenic plants was confirmed by PCR, dot blot, and Southern blot analysis and expression by histochemical GUS assays. The robust transformation platform was successfully used to generate hundreds of transgenic lines with disease resistance. Such a platform will facilitate the transfer of technologies to national agricultural research systems (NARS) in Africa. PMID:26635849

  15. A High-Throughput Regeneration and Transformation Platform for Production of Genetically Modified Banana.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Jaindra N; Oduor, Richard O; Tripathi, Leena

    2015-01-01

    Banana (Musa spp.) is an important staple food as well as cash crop in tropical and subtropical countries. Various bacterial, fungal, and viral diseases and pests such as nematodes are major constraints in its production and are currently destabilizing the banana production in sub-Saharan Africa. Genetic engineering is a complementary option used for incorporating useful traits in banana to bypass the long generation time, polyploidy, and sterility of most of the cultivated varieties. A robust transformation protocol for farmer preferred varieties is crucial for banana genomics and improvement. A robust and reproducible system for genetic transformation of banana using embryogenic cell suspensions (ECS) has been developed in this study. Two different types of explants (immature male flowers and multiple buds) were tested for their ability to develop ECS in several varieties of banana locally grown in Africa. ECS of banana varieties "Cavendish Williams" and "Gros Michel" were developed using multiple buds, whereas ECS of "Sukali Ndiizi" was developed using immature male flowers. Regeneration efficiency of ECS was about 20,000-50,000 plantlets per ml of settled cell volume (SCV) depending on variety. ECS of three different varieties were transformed through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation using gusA reporter gene and 20-70 independent transgenic events per ml SCV of ECS were regenerated on selective medium. The presence and integration of gusA gene in transgenic plants was confirmed by PCR, dot blot, and Southern blot analysis and expression by histochemical GUS assays. The robust transformation platform was successfully used to generate hundreds of transgenic lines with disease resistance. Such a platform will facilitate the transfer of technologies to national agricultural research systems (NARS) in Africa.

  16. Biochemical and molecular tools reveal two diverse Xanthomonas groups in bananas.

    PubMed

    Adriko, J; Aritua, V; Mortensen, C N; Tushemereirwe, W K; Mulondo, A L; Kubiriba, J; Lund, O S

    2016-02-01

    Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum (Xcm) causing the banana Xanthomonas wilt (BXW) disease has been the main xanthomonad associated with bananas in East and Central Africa based on phenotypic and biochemical characteristics. However, biochemical methods cannot effectively distinguish between pathogenic and non-pathogenic xanthomonads. In this study, gram-negative and yellow-pigmented mucoid bacteria were isolated from BXW symptomatic and symptomless bananas collected from different parts of Uganda. Biolog, Xcm-specific (GspDm), Xanthomonas vasicola species-specific (NZ085) and Xanthomonas genus-specific (X1623) primers in PCR, and sequencing of ITS region were used to identify and characterize the isolates. Biolog tests revealed several isolates as xanthomonads. The GspDm and NZ085 primers accurately identified three isolates from diseased bananas as Xcm and these were pathogenic when re-inoculated into bananas. DNA from more isolates than those amplified by GspDm and NZ085 primers were amplified by the X1623 primers implying they are xanthomonads, these were however non-pathogenic on bananas. In the 16-23 ITS sequence based phylogeny, the pathogenic bacteria clustered together with the Xcm reference strain, while the non-pathogenic xanthomonads isolated from both BXW symptomatic and symptomless bananas clustered with group I xanthomonads. The findings reveal dynamic Xanthomonas populations in bananas, which can easily be misrepresented by only using phenotyping and biochemical tests. A combination of tools provides the most accurate identity and characterization of these plant associated bacteria. The interactions between the pathogenic and non-pathogenic xanthomonads in bananas may pave way to understanding effect of microbial interactions on BXW disease development and offer clues to biocontrol of Xcm.

  17. Biochemical and molecular tools reveal two diverse Xanthomonas groups in bananas.

    PubMed

    Adriko, J; Aritua, V; Mortensen, C N; Tushemereirwe, W K; Mulondo, A L; Kubiriba, J; Lund, O S

    2016-02-01

    Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum (Xcm) causing the banana Xanthomonas wilt (BXW) disease has been the main xanthomonad associated with bananas in East and Central Africa based on phenotypic and biochemical characteristics. However, biochemical methods cannot effectively distinguish between pathogenic and non-pathogenic xanthomonads. In this study, gram-negative and yellow-pigmented mucoid bacteria were isolated from BXW symptomatic and symptomless bananas collected from different parts of Uganda. Biolog, Xcm-specific (GspDm), Xanthomonas vasicola species-specific (NZ085) and Xanthomonas genus-specific (X1623) primers in PCR, and sequencing of ITS region were used to identify and characterize the isolates. Biolog tests revealed several isolates as xanthomonads. The GspDm and NZ085 primers accurately identified three isolates from diseased bananas as Xcm and these were pathogenic when re-inoculated into bananas. DNA from more isolates than those amplified by GspDm and NZ085 primers were amplified by the X1623 primers implying they are xanthomonads, these were however non-pathogenic on bananas. In the 16-23 ITS sequence based phylogeny, the pathogenic bacteria clustered together with the Xcm reference strain, while the non-pathogenic xanthomonads isolated from both BXW symptomatic and symptomless bananas clustered with group I xanthomonads. The findings reveal dynamic Xanthomonas populations in bananas, which can easily be misrepresented by only using phenotyping and biochemical tests. A combination of tools provides the most accurate identity and characterization of these plant associated bacteria. The interactions between the pathogenic and non-pathogenic xanthomonads in bananas may pave way to understanding effect of microbial interactions on BXW disease development and offer clues to biocontrol of Xcm. PMID:26805624

  18. In vitro digestibility of banana starch cookies.

    PubMed

    Bello-Pérez, Luis A; Sáyago-Ayerdi, Sonia G; Méndez-Montealvo, Guadalupe; Tovar, Juscelino

    2004-01-01

    Banana starch was isolated and used for preparation of two types of cookies. Chemical composition and digestibility tests were carried out on banana starch and the food products, and these results were compared with corn starch. Ash, protein, and fat levels in banana starch were higher than in corn starch. The high ash amount in banana starch could be due to the potassium content present in this fruit. Proximal analysis was similar between products prepared with banana starch and those based on corn starch. The available starch content of the banana starch preparation was 60% (dmb). The cookies had lower available starch than the starches while banana starch had lower susceptibility to the in vitro alpha-amylolysis reaction. Banana starch and its products had higher resistant starch levels than those made with corn starch.

  19. Temperature and population density determine reservoir regions of seasonal persistence in highland malaria.

    PubMed

    Siraj, Amir S; Bouma, Menno J; Santos-Vega, Mauricio; Yeshiwondim, Asnakew K; Rothman, Dale S; Yadeta, Damtew; Sutton, Paul C; Pascual, Mercedes

    2015-12-01

    A better understanding of malaria persistence in highly seasonal environments such as highlands and desert fringes requires identifying the factors behind the spatial reservoir of the pathogen in the low season. In these 'unstable' malaria regions, such reservoirs play a critical role by allowing persistence during the low transmission season and therefore, between seasonal outbreaks. In the highlands of East Africa, the most populated epidemic regions in Africa, temperature is expected to be intimately connected to where in space the disease is able to persist because of pronounced altitudinal gradients. Here, we explore other environmental and demographic factors that may contribute to malaria's highland reservoir. We use an extensive spatio-temporal dataset of confirmed monthly Plasmodium falciparum cases from 1995 to 2005 that finely resolves space in an Ethiopian highland. With a Bayesian approach for parameter estimation and a generalized linear mixed model that includes a spatially structured random effect, we demonstrate that population density is important to disease persistence during the low transmission season. This population effect is not accounted for in typical models for the transmission dynamics of the disease, but is consistent in part with a more complex functional form of the force of infection proposed by theory for vector-borne infections, only during the low season as we discuss. As malaria risk usually decreases in more urban environments with increased human densities, the opposite counterintuitive finding identifies novel control targets during the low transmission season in African highlands.

  20. Phenotyping bananas for drought resistance

    PubMed Central

    Ravi, Iyyakkutty; Uma, Subbaraya; Vaganan, Muthu Mayil; Mustaffa, Mohamed M.

    2012-01-01

    Drought has emerged as one of the major constraints in banana production. Its effects are pronounced substantially in the tropics and sub-tropics of the world due to climate change. Bananas are quite sensitive to drought; however, genotypes with “B” genome are more tolerant to abiotic stresses than those solely based on “A” genome. In particular, bananas with “ABB” genomes are more tolerant to drought and other abiotic stresses than other genotypes. A good phenotyping plan is a prerequisite for any improvement program for targeted traits. In the present article, known drought tolerant traits of other crop plants are validated in bananas with different genomic backgrounds and presented. Since, banana is recalcitrant to breeding, strategies for making hybrids between different genomic backgrounds are also discussed. Stomatal conductance, cell membrane stability (CMS), leaf emergence rate, rate of leaf senescence, RWC, and bunch yield under soil moisture deficit stress are some of the traits associated with drought tolerance. Among these stress bunch yield under drought should be given top priority for phenotyping. In the light of recently released Musa genome draft sequence, the molecular breeders may have interest in developing molecular markers for drought resistance. PMID:23443573

  1. Fusarium Wilt of Banana.

    PubMed

    Ploetz, Randy C

    2015-12-01

    Banana (Musa spp.) is one of the world's most important fruits. In 2011, 145 million metric tons, worth an estimated $44 billion, were produced in over 130 countries. Fusarium wilt (also known as Panama disease) is one of the most destructive diseases of this crop. It devastated the 'Gros Michel'-based export trades before the mid-1900s, and threatens the Cavendish cultivars that were used to replace it; in total, the latter cultivars are now responsible for approximately 45% of all production. An overview of the disease and its causal agent, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense, is presented below. Despite a substantial positive literature on biological, chemical, or cultural measures, management is largely restricted to excluding F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense from noninfested areas and using resistant cultivars where the pathogen has established. Resistance to Fusarium wilt is poor in several breeding targets, including important dessert and cooking cultivars. Better resistance to this and other diseases is needed. The history and impact of Fusarium wilt is summarized with an emphasis on tropical race 4 (TR4), a 'Cavendish'-killing variant of the pathogen that has spread dramatically in the Eastern Hemisphere. PMID:26057187

  2. Fusarium Wilt of Banana.

    PubMed

    Ploetz, Randy C

    2015-12-01

    Banana (Musa spp.) is one of the world's most important fruits. In 2011, 145 million metric tons, worth an estimated $44 billion, were produced in over 130 countries. Fusarium wilt (also known as Panama disease) is one of the most destructive diseases of this crop. It devastated the 'Gros Michel'-based export trades before the mid-1900s, and threatens the Cavendish cultivars that were used to replace it; in total, the latter cultivars are now responsible for approximately 45% of all production. An overview of the disease and its causal agent, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense, is presented below. Despite a substantial positive literature on biological, chemical, or cultural measures, management is largely restricted to excluding F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense from noninfested areas and using resistant cultivars where the pathogen has established. Resistance to Fusarium wilt is poor in several breeding targets, including important dessert and cooking cultivars. Better resistance to this and other diseases is needed. The history and impact of Fusarium wilt is summarized with an emphasis on tropical race 4 (TR4), a 'Cavendish'-killing variant of the pathogen that has spread dramatically in the Eastern Hemisphere.

  3. Malaria in Highlands of Ecuador since 1900

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Fiona F.

    2012-01-01

    A recent epidemic of malaria in the highlands of Bolivia and establishment of multiple Anopheles species mosquitoes in the highlands of Ecuador highlights the reemergence of malaria in the Andes Mountains in South America. Because malaria was endemic to many highland valleys at the beginning of the 20th century, this review outlines the 20th century history of malaria in the highlands of Ecuador, and focuses on its incidence (e.g., geographic distribution) and elimination from the northern highland valleys of Pichincha and Imbabura and the role of the Guayaquil to Quito railway in creating highland larval habitat and inadvertently promoting transportation of the vector and parasite. Involvement of control organizations in combating malaria in Ecuador is also outlined in a historical context. PMID:22469234

  4. GPS Constraints on the Spatial Distribution of Extension in the Ethiopian Highlands and Main Ethiopian Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amere, Y. B.; Bendick, R. O.; Fisseha, S.; Lewi, E.; Reilinger, R. E.; King, R. W.; Kianji, G.

    2014-12-01

    27 campaign and 17 continuous GPS sites spanning the Ethiopian Highlands, Main Ethiopian Rift (MER), and Somali Platform in Ethiopia and Eritrea were measured for varying durations between 1995 and 2014. Velocities at these sites show that present day strain in NE Africa is not localized only in the Afar depression and MER system. Rather, velocities as high as 6 mm/yr relative to stable Nubia occur in the central Ethiopian highlands west of the rift bounding faults; the northern and southern Ethiopian highlands host velocities as high as 3 mm/yr. These approach the magnitude of Nubia-Somalia spreading accommodated within the rift itself of 6 + 1 mm/yr with an azimuth of N770E. The combination of distributed low strain rate deformation contiguous with higher strain rate plate boundary deformation is similar to that expressed in other tectonically active continental settings like Basin and Range and Tibetan Plateau.Keywords: deformation, localized, distributed, strain, stable Nubia.

  5. Malaria in East African highlands during the past 30 years: impact of environmental changes.

    PubMed

    Himeidan, Yousif E; Kweka, Eliningaya J

    2012-01-01

    East African highlands are one of the most populated regions in Africa. The population densities in the highlands ranged between 158 persons/km(2) in Ethiopia and 410 persons/km(2) in Rwanda. According to the United Nations Population Fund, the region has the world's highest population growth rate. These factors are likely behind the high rates of poverty among the populations. As there were no employment opportunities other than agricultural, this demographic pressure of poor populations have included in an extensive unprecedented land use and land cover changes such as modification of bushland, woodland, and grassland on hillsides to farmland and transformation of papyrus swamps in valley bottoms to dairy pastures and cropland and changing of fallows on hillsides from short or seasonal to longer or perennial. Areas harvested for food crops were therefore increased by more than 100% in most of the highlands. The lost of forest areas, mainly due to subsistence agriculture, between 1990 and 2010 ranged between 8000 ha in Rwanda and 2,838,000 ha in Ethiopia. These unmitigated environmental changes in the highlands led to rise temperature and optimizing the spread and survival of malaria vectors and development of malaria parasites. Malaria in highlands was initially governed by low ambient temperature, trend of malaria transmission was therefore increased and several epidemics were observed in late 1980s and early 2000s. Although, malaria is decreasing through intensified interventions since mid 2000s onwards, these environmental changes might expose population in the highlands of east Africa to an increase risk of malaria and its epidemic particularly if the current interventions are not sustained. PMID:22934065

  6. Malaria in East African highlands during the past 30 years: impact of environmental changes

    PubMed Central

    Himeidan, Yousif E.; Kweka, Eliningaya J.

    2012-01-01

    East African highlands are one of the most populated regions in Africa. The population densities in the highlands ranged between 158 persons/km2 in Ethiopia and 410 persons/km2 in Rwanda. According to the United Nations Population Fund, the region has the world's highest population growth rate. These factors are likely behind the high rates of poverty among the populations. As there were no employment opportunities other than agricultural, this demographic pressure of poor populations have included in an extensive unprecedented land use and land cover changes such as modification of bushland, woodland, and grassland on hillsides to farmland and transformation of papyrus swamps in valley bottoms to dairy pastures and cropland and changing of fallows on hillsides from short or seasonal to longer or perennial. Areas harvested for food crops were therefore increased by more than 100% in most of the highlands. The lost of forest areas, mainly due to subsistence agriculture, between 1990 and 2010 ranged between 8000 ha in Rwanda and 2,838,000 ha in Ethiopia. These unmitigated environmental changes in the highlands led to rise temperature and optimizing the spread and survival of malaria vectors and development of malaria parasites. Malaria in highlands was initially governed by low ambient temperature, trend of malaria transmission was therefore increased and several epidemics were observed in late 1980s and early 2000s. Although, malaria is decreasing through intensified interventions since mid 2000s onwards, these environmental changes might expose population in the highlands of east Africa to an increase risk of malaria and its epidemic particularly if the current interventions are not sustained. PMID:22934065

  7. The meteorology of the Western Indian Ocean, and the influence of the East African Highlands.

    PubMed

    Slingo, Julia; Spencer, Hilary; Hoskins, Brian; Berrisford, Paul; Black, Emily

    2005-01-15

    This paper reviews the meteorology of the Western Indian Ocean and uses a state-of-the-art atmospheric general circulation model to investigate the influence of the East African Highlands on the climate of the Indian Ocean and its surrounding regions. The new 44-year re-analysis produced by the European Centre for Medium range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) has been used to construct a new climatology of the Western Indian Ocean. A brief overview of the seasonal cycle of the Western Indian Ocean is presented which emphasizes the importance of the geography of the Indian Ocean basin for controlling the meteorology of the Western Indian Ocean. The principal modes of inter-annual variability are described, associated with El Nino and the Indian Ocean Dipole or Zonal Mode, and the basic characteristics of the subseasonal weather over the Western Indian Ocean are presented, including new statistics on cyclone tracks derived from the ECMWF re-analyses. Sensitivity experiments, in which the orographic effects of East Africa are removed, have shown that the East African Highlands, although not very high, play a significant role in the climate of Africa, India and Southeast Asia, and in the heat, salinity and momentum forcing of the Western Indian Ocean. The hydrological cycle over Africa is systematically enhanced in all seasons by the presence of the East African Highlands, and during the Asian summer monsoon there is a major redistribution of the rainfall across India and Southeast Asia. The implied impact of the East African Highlands on the ocean is substantial. The East African Highlands systematically freshen the tropical Indian Ocean, and act to focus the monsoon winds along the coast, leading to greater upwelling and cooler sea-surface temperatures.

  8. Production of ethyl alcohol from bananas

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.L.; Towns, T.

    1983-12-01

    The production of ethyl alcohol from waste bananas presents many special problems. During cooking, matting of the latex fibers from the banana peel recongeal when cooled and left untreated. This problem has been addressed by Alfaro by the use of CaC1/sub 2/. Separation of solids prior to distillation of the mashes in an economical fashion and use of the by product are also of concern to banana processors.

  9. Ion exchanger from chemically modified banana leaves.

    PubMed

    El-Gendy, Ahmed A; Mohamed, Samar H; Abd-Elkader, Amal H

    2013-07-25

    Cation exchangers from chemically modified banana leaves have been prepared. Banana leaves were treated with different molarities of KMnO4 and cross linked with epichlorohydrin and their effect on metal ion adsorption was investigated. Phosphorylation of chemically modified banana leaves was also studied. The metal ion uptake by these modified banana leaves was clarified. Effect of different varieties, e.g. activation of produced cation exchanger, concentration of metal ions was also investigated. Characterization of the prepared ion exchangers by using infrared and thermal analysis was also taken in consideration. PMID:23768590

  10. Generalized banana-drift transport

    SciTech Connect

    Mynick, H.E.

    1985-10-01

    The theory of tokamak ripple transport in the banana-drift and ripple-plateau regimes is extended in a number of directions. The theory is valid for small values of the toroidal periodicity number n of the perturbation, as well as for the moderate values (n approx. 10 to 20) previously assumed. It is shown that low-n perturbations can produce much greater transport than the larger-n perturbations usually studied. In addition, the ripple perturbation is allowed arbitrary values of poloidal mode number m and frequency ..omega.., making it applicable to the transport induced by MHD modes. Bounce averaging is avoided, so the theory includes the contributions to transport from all harmonics of the bounce frequency, providing a continuous description of the transition from the banana drift to the ripple-plateau regime. The implications of the theory for toroidal rotation in tokamaks are considered.

  11. Occurrence of Fusarium verticillioides and Fusarium musae on banana fruits marketed in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Molnár, Orsolya; Bartók, Tibor; Szécsi, Árpád

    2015-06-01

    Fusarium strains were isolated from rotten banana fruit imported into Hungary from some African and some Neotropical countries. The strains were identified using morphological features, 2-benzoxazolinone tolerance, translation elongation factor (EF-1α) sequences and inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) analysis. All strains from Africa proved to be F. verticillioides whereas the strains from the Neotropics are Fusarium musae. According to the PCR proof and the fumonisin toxin measurement F. musae strains cannot produce any fumonisins (FB1-4).

  12. Banana drift transport in tokamaks with ripple

    SciTech Connect

    Linsker, R.; Boozer, A.H.

    1981-04-01

    Ripple transport in tokamaks is discussed for the banana drift collisionality regime, which lies below the ripple plateau regime treated earlier. The physical mechanisms that dominate banana drift transport are found to differ from those considered in previous work on this regime, and the resulting transport coefficients can consequently differ by several orders of magnitude.

  13. Banana drift transport in tokamaks with ripple

    SciTech Connect

    Linsker, R.; Boozer, A.H.

    1982-01-01

    Ripple transport in tokamaks is discussed for the ''banana drift'' collisionality regime, which lies below the ripple plateau regime treated earlier. The physical mechanisms that dominate banana drift transport are found to differ from those considered in previous work on this regime, and consequently the resulting transport coefficients can differ by several orders of magnitude.

  14. 33 CFR 117.263 - Banana River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Banana River. 117.263 Section 117.263 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.263 Banana River. (a) The draw of the Mathers...

  15. 33 CFR 117.263 - Banana River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Banana River. 117.263 Section 117.263 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.263 Banana River. (a) The draw of the Mathers...

  16. 33 CFR 117.263 - Banana River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Banana River. 117.263 Section 117.263 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.263 Banana River. (a) The draw of the Mathers...

  17. 33 CFR 117.263 - Banana River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banana River. 117.263 Section 117.263 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.263 Banana River. (a) The draw of the Mathers...

  18. 33 CFR 117.263 - Banana River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Banana River. 117.263 Section 117.263 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.263 Banana River. (a) The draw of the Mathers...

  19. Deleterious effects of plant cystatins against the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus.

    PubMed

    Kiggundu, Andrew; Muchwezi, Josephine; Van der Vyver, Christell; Viljoen, Altus; Vorster, Juan; Schlüter, Urte; Kunert, Karl; Michaud, Dominique

    2010-02-01

    The general potential of plant cystatins for the development of insect-resistant transgenic plants still remains to be established given the natural ability of several insects to compensate for the loss of digestive cysteine protease activities. Here we assessed the potential of cystatins for the development of banana lines resistant to the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus, a major pest of banana and plantain in Africa. Protease inhibitory assays were conducted with protein and methylcoumarin (MCA) peptide substrates to measure the inhibitory efficiency of different cystatins in vitro, followed by a diet assay with cystatin-infiltrated banana stem disks to monitor the impact of two plant cystatins, oryzacystatin I (OC-I, or OsCYS1) and papaya cystatin (CpCYS1), on the overall growth rate of weevil larvae. As observed earlier for other Coleoptera, banana weevils produce a variety of proteases for dietary protein digestion, including in particular Z-Phe-Arg-MCA-hydrolyzing (cathepsin L-like) and Z-Arg-Arg-MCA-hydrolyzing (cathepsin B-like) proteases active in mildly acidic conditions. Both enzyme populations were sensitive to the cysteine protease inhibitor E-64 and to different plant cystatins including OsCYS1. In line with the broad inhibitory effects of cystatins, OsCYS1 and CpCYS1 caused an important growth delay in young larvae developing for 10 days in cystatin-infiltrated banana stem disks. These promising results, which illustrate the susceptibility of C. sordidus to plant cystatins, are discussed in the light of recent hypotheses suggesting a key role for cathepsin B-like enzymes as a determinant for resistance or susceptibility to plant cystatins in Coleoptera. PMID:20035549

  20. Deleterious effects of plant cystatins against the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus.

    PubMed

    Kiggundu, Andrew; Muchwezi, Josephine; Van der Vyver, Christell; Viljoen, Altus; Vorster, Juan; Schlüter, Urte; Kunert, Karl; Michaud, Dominique

    2010-02-01

    The general potential of plant cystatins for the development of insect-resistant transgenic plants still remains to be established given the natural ability of several insects to compensate for the loss of digestive cysteine protease activities. Here we assessed the potential of cystatins for the development of banana lines resistant to the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus, a major pest of banana and plantain in Africa. Protease inhibitory assays were conducted with protein and methylcoumarin (MCA) peptide substrates to measure the inhibitory efficiency of different cystatins in vitro, followed by a diet assay with cystatin-infiltrated banana stem disks to monitor the impact of two plant cystatins, oryzacystatin I (OC-I, or OsCYS1) and papaya cystatin (CpCYS1), on the overall growth rate of weevil larvae. As observed earlier for other Coleoptera, banana weevils produce a variety of proteases for dietary protein digestion, including in particular Z-Phe-Arg-MCA-hydrolyzing (cathepsin L-like) and Z-Arg-Arg-MCA-hydrolyzing (cathepsin B-like) proteases active in mildly acidic conditions. Both enzyme populations were sensitive to the cysteine protease inhibitor E-64 and to different plant cystatins including OsCYS1. In line with the broad inhibitory effects of cystatins, OsCYS1 and CpCYS1 caused an important growth delay in young larvae developing for 10 days in cystatin-infiltrated banana stem disks. These promising results, which illustrate the susceptibility of C. sordidus to plant cystatins, are discussed in the light of recent hypotheses suggesting a key role for cathepsin B-like enzymes as a determinant for resistance or susceptibility to plant cystatins in Coleoptera.

  1. Transgenic expression of the rice Xa21 pattern-recognition receptor in banana (Musa sp.) confers resistance to Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Jaindra N; Lorenzen, Jim; Bahar, Ofir; Ronald, Pamela; Tripathi, Leena

    2014-08-01

    Banana Xanthomonas wilt (BXW), caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum (Xcm), is the most devastating disease of banana in east and central Africa. The spread of BXW threatens the livelihood of millions of African farmers who depend on banana for food security and income. There are no commercial chemicals, biocontrol agents or resistant cultivars available to control BXW. Here, we take advantage of the robust resistance conferred by the rice pattern-recognition receptor (PRR), XA21, to the rice pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo). We identified a set of genes required for activation of Xa21-mediated immunity (rax) that were conserved in both Xoo and Xcm. Based on the conservation, we hypothesized that intergeneric transfer of Xa21 would confer resistance to Xcm. We evaluated 25 transgenic lines of the banana cultivar 'Gonja manjaya' (AAB) using a rapid bioassay and 12 transgenic lines in the glasshouse for resistance against Xcm. About 50% of the transgenic lines showed complete resistance to Xcm in both assays. In contrast, all of the nontransgenic control plants showed severe symptoms that progressed to complete wilting. These results indicate that the constitutive expression of the rice Xa21 gene in banana results in enhanced resistance against Xcm. Furthermore, this work demonstrates the feasibility of PRR gene transfer between monocotyledonous species and provides a valuable new tool for controlling the BXW pandemic of banana, a staple food for 100 million people in east Africa.

  2. Transgenic expression of the rice Xa21 pattern recognition receptor in banana (Musa sp.) confers resistance to Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Jaindra Nath; Lorenzen, Jim; Bahar, Ofir; Ronald, Pamela; Tripathi, Leena

    2014-01-01

    Summary Banana Xanthomonas wilt (BXW), caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum (Xcm), is the most devastating disease of banana in east and central Africa. The spread of BXW threatens the livelihood of millions of African farmers who depend on banana for food security and income. There are no commercial chemicals, bio-control agents or resistant cultivars available to control BXW. Here we take advantage of the robust resistance conferred by the rice pattern recognition receptor (PRR), XA21, to the rice pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo). We identified a set of genes required for activation of Xa21 mediated immunity (rax) that were conserved in both Xoo and Xcm. Based on the conservation, we hypothesized that intergeneric transfer of Xa21 would confer resistance to Xcm. We evaluated 25 transgenic lines of the banana cultivar ‘Gonja manjaya’ (AAB) using a rapid bioassay and 12 transgenic plants in the glass house for resistance against Xcm. About fifty percent of the transgenic lines showed complete resistance to Xcm in both assays. In contrast, all of the non-transgenic control plants showed severe symptoms that progressed to complete wilting. These results indicate that the constitutive expression of the rice Xa21 gene in banana results in enhanced resistance against Xcm. Furthermore this work demonstrates the feasibility of PRR gene transfer between monocotyledonous species and provides a valuable new tool for controlling the BXW pandemic of banana, a staple food for 100 million people in east Africa. PMID:24612254

  3. Quantitative digital imaging of banana growth suppression by plant parasitic nematodes.

    PubMed

    Roderick, Hugh; Mbiru, Elvis; Coyne, Danny; Tripathi, Leena; Atkinson, Howard J

    2012-01-01

    A digital camera fitted with a hemispherical lens was used to generate canopy leaf area index (LAI) values for a banana (Musa spp.) field trial with the aim of establishing a method for monitoring stresses on tall crop plants. The trial in Uganda consisted of two cultivars susceptible to nematodes, a plantain, Gonja manjaya and an East African Highland banana, Mbwazirume, plus a nematode resistant dessert banana, Yangambi km5. A comparative approach included adding a mixed population of Radopholus similis, Helicotylenchus multicinctus and Meloidogyne spp. to the soil around half the plants of each cultivar prior to field planting. Measurements of LAI were made fortnightly from 106 days post-planting over two successive cropping cycles. The highest mean LAI during the first cycle for Gonja manjaya was suppressed to 74.8±3.5% by the addition of nematodes, while for Mbwazirume the values were reduced to 71.1±1.9%. During the second cycle these values were 69.2±2.2% and 72.2±2.7%, respectively. Reductions in LAI values were validated as due to the biotic stress by assessing nematode numbers in roots and the necrosis they caused at each of two harvests and the relationship is described. Yield losses, including a component due to toppled plants, were 35.3% and 55.3% for Gonja manjaya and 31.4% and 55.8% for Mbwazirume, at first and second harvests respectively. Yangambi km5 showed no decrease in LAI and yield in the presence of nematodes at both harvests. LAI estimated by hemispherical photography provided a rapid basis for detecting biotic growth checks by nematodes on bananas, and demonstrated the potential of the approach for studies of growth checks to other tall crop plants caused by biotic or abiotic stresses. PMID:23285286

  4. Quantitative digital imaging of banana growth suppression by plant parasitic nematodes.

    PubMed

    Roderick, Hugh; Mbiru, Elvis; Coyne, Danny; Tripathi, Leena; Atkinson, Howard J

    2012-01-01

    A digital camera fitted with a hemispherical lens was used to generate canopy leaf area index (LAI) values for a banana (Musa spp.) field trial with the aim of establishing a method for monitoring stresses on tall crop plants. The trial in Uganda consisted of two cultivars susceptible to nematodes, a plantain, Gonja manjaya and an East African Highland banana, Mbwazirume, plus a nematode resistant dessert banana, Yangambi km5. A comparative approach included adding a mixed population of Radopholus similis, Helicotylenchus multicinctus and Meloidogyne spp. to the soil around half the plants of each cultivar prior to field planting. Measurements of LAI were made fortnightly from 106 days post-planting over two successive cropping cycles. The highest mean LAI during the first cycle for Gonja manjaya was suppressed to 74.8±3.5% by the addition of nematodes, while for Mbwazirume the values were reduced to 71.1±1.9%. During the second cycle these values were 69.2±2.2% and 72.2±2.7%, respectively. Reductions in LAI values were validated as due to the biotic stress by assessing nematode numbers in roots and the necrosis they caused at each of two harvests and the relationship is described. Yield losses, including a component due to toppled plants, were 35.3% and 55.3% for Gonja manjaya and 31.4% and 55.8% for Mbwazirume, at first and second harvests respectively. Yangambi km5 showed no decrease in LAI and yield in the presence of nematodes at both harvests. LAI estimated by hemispherical photography provided a rapid basis for detecting biotic growth checks by nematodes on bananas, and demonstrated the potential of the approach for studies of growth checks to other tall crop plants caused by biotic or abiotic stresses.

  5. 75 FR 60840 - Highland Capital Management, L.P. and Highland Funds I; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Highland Capital Management, L.P. and Highland Funds I; Notice of Application September 27, 2010. AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission (``Commission''). ACTION: Notice of an application under section 6(c) of the Investment Company Act...

  6. GPS constraints on broad scale extension in the Ethiopian Highlands and Main Ethiopian Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birhanu, Yelebe; Bendick, Rebecca; Fisseha, Shimeles; Lewi, Elias; Floyd, Michael; King, Robert; Reilinger, Robert

    2016-07-01

    Measurements from GPS sites spanning the Ethiopian Highlands, Main Ethiopian Rift, and Somali Platform in Ethiopia and Eritrea show that present-day finite strain rates throughout NE Africa can be approximated at the continent scale by opening on the MER. Most sites in the Ethiopian Highlands are consistent with the motion of the Nubian plate at the level of 1 mm/yr with 95% confidence. However, sites at least as far as 60 km west of the rift show higher velocities relative to the stable Nubian frame of 1-2 mm/yr, requiring a combination of localized and distributed deformation to accommodate the African extensional domain. Off-rift velocities are consistent with ongoing strain related to either high gravitational potential energy or intrusive magmatism away from midrift magmatic segments either on the western rift margin or within the Ethiopian Highlands, especially when combined with likely rheological differences between the Ethiopian Rift and Highlands. Velocities from the Somali Platform are less well determined with uncertainties and residuals from a Somali frame definition at the level of 2-3 mm/yr but without spatially correlated residuals.

  7. Space Curvature and the "Heavy Banana 'Paradox.'"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruber, Ronald P.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Two ways to visually enhance the concept of space curvature are described. Viewing space curvature as a meterstick contraction and the heavy banana "paradox" are discussed. The meterstick contraction is mathematically explained. (KR)

  8. Chemistry of the Apollo 11 highland component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laul, J. C.; Papike, J. J.; Simon, S. B.; Shearer, C. K.

    1983-01-01

    Thirty-eight Apollo 11 lunar highland fragments from coarse fines 10085 have been subjected to petrologic and chemical study. Six major chemical groups are identified: (a) high-K KREEP; (b) anorthosite with a 10X chondrite positive Eu anomaly and anorthosite with 30X positive Eu anomaly; (c) ANT; (d) LKFM; (e) anorthositic gabbro with no Eu anomaly, with a positive Eu anomaly, and with a negative Eu anomaly; and (f) dominant Highland component, 2X-10X chondrite with a positive 10X-14X Eu anomaly. Newly recognized groups are presented based on the REE patterns: (a) ANT group with 5X La and a 22X positive Eu anomaly; (b) 10X flat with 14X positive Eu anomaly; and (c) 2-3X flat with a 10X positive Eu anomaly. The highland suite is very low in K and REE, and is overall quite similar to the Apollo 16 suite.

  9. Rock types present in lunar highland soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, A. M.

    1974-01-01

    Several investigators have studied soils from the lunar highlands with the objective of recognizing the parent rocks that have contributed significant amounts of material to these soils. Comparing only major element data, and thus avoiding the problems induced by individual classifications, these data appear to converge on a relatively limited number of rock types. The highland soils are derived from a suite of highly feldspathic rocks comprising anorthositic gabbros (or norites), high alumina basalts, troctolites, and less abundant gabbroic (or noritic) anorthosites, anorthosites, and KREEP basalts.

  10. 27 CFR 9.115 - Ozark Highlands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.115 Ozark Highlands. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Ozark... viticultural area are three U.S.G.S. maps of the 1:250,000 series. They are titled: (1) Rolla,...

  11. 27 CFR 9.115 - Ozark Highlands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.115 Ozark Highlands. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Ozark... viticultural area are three U.S.G.S. maps of the 1:250,000 series. They are titled: (1) Rolla,...

  12. A Report on the Highlander Folk School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassara, Beverly B.

    The Highlander Folk School was founded as an alternative kind of education with no academic admission requirements, no examinations or grades, and no set curriculum. Hard times were caused by lack of funds and the radical nature of its purpose--to help poor people know their rights and stand up for them. As an undergraduate, Myles Horton, its…

  13. Highland Elementary School. Learning by Example Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fager, Jennifer

    As part of a series of stories about real-world schools that have achieved substantial success in school improvement over multiple-year periods, this report provides an in-depth look at one school's efforts to improve student learning. The school profiled is Highland Elementary School, located in Salem, Oregon, serving a student population of…

  14. 27 CFR 9.159 - Yorkville Highlands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Yorkville Highlands. 9.159 Section 9.159 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT..., California. The boundary is as follows: (1) The beginning point is Benchmark 680, located in Section 30,...

  15. 27 CFR 9.159 - Yorkville Highlands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Yorkville Highlands. 9.159 Section 9.159 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT..., California. The boundary is as follows: (1) The beginning point is Benchmark 680, located in Section 30,...

  16. 27 CFR 9.159 - Yorkville Highlands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Yorkville Highlands. 9.159 Section 9.159 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT..., California. The boundary is as follows: (1) The beginning point is Benchmark 680, located in Section 30,...

  17. 27 CFR 9.159 - Yorkville Highlands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Yorkville Highlands. 9.159 Section 9.159 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT..., California. The boundary is as follows: (1) The beginning point is Benchmark 680, located in Section 30,...

  18. 27 CFR 9.159 - Yorkville Highlands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Yorkville Highlands. 9.159 Section 9.159 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT..., California. The boundary is as follows: (1) The beginning point is Benchmark 680, located in Section 30,...

  19. [Research progress on banana functional genomics involved in fruit quality].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ju-Hua; Xu, Bi-Yu; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Jia-Shui; Jia, Cai-Hong; Zhang, Jian-Bin; Jin, Zhi-Qiang

    2012-04-01

    Banana is one of the most important tropical fruits and main economical resource for tropical people. Banana quality is always becoming a focus for people to follow with interest. Here, we reviewed recent research progresses on isolation and identification of banana genes involved in fruit quality such as ripening, softening, glycometabolism, and scent, which will help us explore their functions and facilitate banana quality improvement. PMID:22522158

  20. Bowel obstruction from wild bananas: a neglected health problem in Laos

    PubMed Central

    Slesak, Günther; Mounlaphome, Kaisouksavanh; Inthalad, Saythong; Phoutsavath, Ounheaun; Mayxay, Mayfong; Newton, Paul N

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the significance and risk factors of bowel obstruction caused by the consumption of wild bananas (BOWB) in Laos. Of six patients with BOWB in Luang Namtha, North Laos, five required enterotomy for phytobezoars. All had eaten wild banana (WB) seeds. Of 227 other patients/relatives: 91.2% had eaten WB; 46.3% had also eaten the seeds and 45.4% knew of complications resulting from eating WB; 42.3% were aware of the complications of ingesting the seeds (constipation [37.9%], appendicitis/abdominal pain/vomiting [2.6% each] and bloated stomach/death [1.3% each]). Middle/highland Lao ethnicity was associated with WB and seed consumption (odds ratio [OR] 9.91 and 2.33), male sex with WB consumption and unawareness (OR 4.31 and 1.78). At all surgically-equipped hospitals in Laos, 33/44 doctors knew of BOWB, describing patients as young adults (16/30), male (24/30) and from middleland Lao (18/30). Countrywide, 46/48 patients with BOWB required laparotomy in 2009 (incidence 0.8/100,000). All consumed WB seeds. BOWB is widespread in Laos, especially among young middleland Lao men consuming WB seeds on an empty stomach. PMID:21421885

  1. Bowel obstruction from wild bananas: a neglected health problem in Laos.

    PubMed

    Slesak, Günther; Mounlaphome, Kaisouksavanh; Inthalad, Saythong; Phoutsavath, Ounheaun; Mayxay, Mayfong; Newton, Paul N

    2011-04-01

    We investigated the significance and risk factors of bowel obstruction caused by the consumption of wild bananas (BOWB) in Laos. Of six patients with BOWB in Luang Namtha, North Laos, five required enterotomy for phytobezoars. All had eaten wild banana (WB) seeds. Of 227 other patients/relatives: 91.2% had eaten WB; 46.3% had also eaten the seeds and 45.4% knew of complications resulting from eating WB; 42.3% were aware of the complications of ingesting the seeds (constipation [37.9%], appendicitis/abdominal pain/vomiting [2.6% each] and bloated stomach/death [1.3% each]). Middle/highland Lao ethnicity was associated with WB and seed consumption (odds ratio [OR] 9.91 and 2.33), male sex with WB consumption and unawareness (OR 4.31 and 1.78). At all surgically-equipped hospitals in Laos, 33/44 doctors knew of BOWB, describing patients as young adults (16/30), male (24/30) and from middleland Lao (18/30). Countrywide, 46/48 patients with BOWB required laparotomy in 2009 (incidence 0.8/100,000). All consumed WB seeds. BOWB is widespread in Laos, especially among young middleland Lao men consuming WB seeds on an empty stomach.

  2. Bowel obstruction from wild bananas: a neglected health problem in Laos.

    PubMed

    Slesak, Günther; Mounlaphome, Kaisouksavanh; Inthalad, Saythong; Phoutsavath, Ounheaun; Mayxay, Mayfong; Newton, Paul N

    2011-04-01

    We investigated the significance and risk factors of bowel obstruction caused by the consumption of wild bananas (BOWB) in Laos. Of six patients with BOWB in Luang Namtha, North Laos, five required enterotomy for phytobezoars. All had eaten wild banana (WB) seeds. Of 227 other patients/relatives: 91.2% had eaten WB; 46.3% had also eaten the seeds and 45.4% knew of complications resulting from eating WB; 42.3% were aware of the complications of ingesting the seeds (constipation [37.9%], appendicitis/abdominal pain/vomiting [2.6% each] and bloated stomach/death [1.3% each]). Middle/highland Lao ethnicity was associated with WB and seed consumption (odds ratio [OR] 9.91 and 2.33), male sex with WB consumption and unawareness (OR 4.31 and 1.78). At all surgically-equipped hospitals in Laos, 33/44 doctors knew of BOWB, describing patients as young adults (16/30), male (24/30) and from middleland Lao (18/30). Countrywide, 46/48 patients with BOWB required laparotomy in 2009 (incidence 0.8/100,000). All consumed WB seeds. BOWB is widespread in Laos, especially among young middleland Lao men consuming WB seeds on an empty stomach. PMID:21421885

  3. Human malaria in the highlands of Yemen

    PubMed Central

    AL-Mekhlafi, A M; AL-Mekhlafi, H M; Mahdy, M A K; Azazy, A A; Fong, M Y

    2011-01-01

    Between June 2008 and March 2009, a cross-sectional study of human malaria was carried out in four governorates of Yemen, two (Taiz and Hodiedah) representing the country’s highlands and the others (Dhamar and Raymah) the country’s coastal plains/foothills. The main aims were to determine the prevalences of Plasmodium infection among 455 febrile patients presenting for care at participating health facilities and to investigate the potential risk factors for such infection. Malarial infection was detected in 78 (17·1%) of the investigated patients and was more likely to be detected among the febrile patients from the highlands than among those presenting in the coastal plains/foothills (22·6% v.13·9%; χ2 = 10·102; P = 0·018). Binary logistic-regression models identified low household income [odds ratio (OR) = 13·52; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2·62–69·67; P = 0·002], living in a household with access to a water pump (OR = 4·18; CI = 1·60–10·96; P = 0·004) and living in a household near a stream (OR = 4·43; CI = 1·35–14·56; P = 0·014) as significant risk factors for malarial infection in the highlands. Low household income was the only significant risk factor identified for such infection in the coastal plains and foothills (OR = 8·20; CI = 1·80–37·45; P = 0·007). It is unclear why febrile patients in the highlands of Yemen are much more likely to be found to have malarial infection than their counterparts from the coastal plains and foothills. Although it is possible that malarial transmission is relatively intense in the highlands, it seems more likely that, compared with those who live at lower altitudes, those who live in the highlands are less immune to malaria, and therefore more likely to develop febrile illness following malarial infection. Whatever the cause of the symptomatic malarial infection commonly found in the highlands of Yemen, it is a matter of serious

  4. Human malaria in the highlands of Yemen.

    PubMed

    Al-Mekhlafi, A M; Al-Mekhlafi, H M; Mahdy, M A K; Azazy, A A; Fong, M Y

    2011-04-01

    Between June 2008 and March 2009, a cross-sectional study of human malaria was carried out in four governorates of Yemen, two (Taiz and Hodiedah) representing the country's <span class="hlt">highlands</span> and the others (Dhamar and Raymah) the country's coastal plains/foothills. The main aims were to determine the prevalences of Plasmodium infection among 455 febrile patients presenting for care at participating health facilities and to investigate the potential risk factors for such infection. Malarial infection was detected in 78 (17·1%) of the investigated patients and was more likely to be detected among the febrile patients from the <span class="hlt">highlands</span> than among those presenting in the coastal plains/foothills (22·6% v.13·9%; χ(2)=10·102; P=0·018). Binary logistic-regression models identified low household income [odds ratio (OR)=13·52; 95% confidence interval (CI)=2·62-69·67; P=0·002], living in a household with access to a water pump (OR=4·18; CI=1·60-10·96; P=0·004) and living in a household near a stream (OR=4·43; CI=1·35-14·56; P=0·014) as significant risk factors for malarial infection in the <span class="hlt">highlands</span>. Low household income was the only significant risk factor identified for such infection in the coastal plains and foothills (OR = 8·20; CI=1·80-37·45; P=0·007). It is unclear why febrile patients in the <span class="hlt">highlands</span> of Yemen are much more likely to be found to have malarial infection than their counterparts from the coastal plains and foothills. Although it is possible that malarial transmission is relatively intense in the <span class="hlt">highlands</span>, it seems more likely that, compared with those who live at lower altitudes, those who live in the <span class="hlt">highlands</span> are less immune to malaria, and therefore more likely to develop febrile illness following malarial infection. Whatever the cause of the symptomatic malarial infection commonly found in the <span class="hlt">highlands</span> of Yemen, it is a matter of serious concern that should be addressed in the national strategy to control malaria.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title7-vol5/pdf/CFR-2014-title7-vol5-sec318-13-22.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title7-vol5/pdf/CFR-2014-title7-vol5-sec318-13-22.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">7 CFR 318.13-22 - <span class="hlt">Bananas</span> from Hawaii.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>...) and are inspected, after removal from the stalk, in Hawaii and found to be free of the <span class="hlt">banana</span> moth... scale (Coccus viridis) and the <span class="hlt">banana</span> moth (Opogona sacchari (Bojen)) before or after undergoing... found free of <span class="hlt">banana</span> moth if they are to be treated in accordance with the requirements of paragraph...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title7-vol5/pdf/CFR-2013-title7-vol5-sec318-13-22.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title7-vol5/pdf/CFR-2013-title7-vol5-sec318-13-22.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">7 CFR 318.13-22 - <span class="hlt">Bananas</span> from Hawaii.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>...) and are inspected, after removal from the stalk, in Hawaii and found to be free of the <span class="hlt">banana</span> moth... scale (Coccus viridis) and the <span class="hlt">banana</span> moth (Opogona sacchari (Bojen)) before or after undergoing... found free of <span class="hlt">banana</span> moth if they are to be treated in accordance with the requirements of paragraph...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title7-vol5/pdf/CFR-2012-title7-vol5-sec318-13-22.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title7-vol5/pdf/CFR-2012-title7-vol5-sec318-13-22.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">7 CFR 318.13-22 - <span class="hlt">Bananas</span> from Hawaii.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>...) and are inspected, after removal from the stalk, in Hawaii and found to be free of the <span class="hlt">banana</span> moth... scale (Coccus viridis) and the <span class="hlt">banana</span> moth (Opogona sacchari (Bojen)) before or after undergoing... found free of <span class="hlt">banana</span> moth if they are to be treated in accordance with the requirements of paragraph...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title7-vol5/pdf/CFR-2011-title7-vol5-sec318-13-22.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title7-vol5/pdf/CFR-2011-title7-vol5-sec318-13-22.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">7 CFR 318.13-22 - <span class="hlt">Bananas</span> from Hawaii.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>...) and are inspected, after removal from the stalk, in Hawaii and found to be free of the <span class="hlt">banana</span> moth... scale (Coccus viridis) and the <span class="hlt">banana</span> moth (Opogona sacchari (Bojen)) before or after undergoing... found free of <span class="hlt">banana</span> moth if they are to be treated in accordance with the requirements of paragraph...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title7-vol5/pdf/CFR-2010-title7-vol5-sec318-13-22.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title7-vol5/pdf/CFR-2010-title7-vol5-sec318-13-22.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">7 CFR 318.13-22 - <span class="hlt">Bananas</span> from Hawaii.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>..., after removal from the stalk, in Hawaii and found to be free of the <span class="hlt">banana</span> moth (Opogona sacchari (Bojen... <span class="hlt">banana</span> moth (Opogona sacchari (Bojen)) before or after undergoing irradiation treatment. (3) Untreated... Hawaii must be inspected prior to interstate movement from Hawaii and found free of <span class="hlt">banana</span> moth if...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Bananas&id=ED497570','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Bananas&id=ED497570"><span id="translatedtitle">I Have a <span class="hlt">Banana</span> Tree in My Classroom</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Williams, Patricia A.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>When the <span class="hlt">banana</span> is growing, the broadest part of the <span class="hlt">banana</span> is located at the bottom, while the tapered end points upward. It appears upside down, however, from the <span class="hlt">banana</span> tree's perspective, it is growing right side up. The author observes that the students in her classroom labeled by society as "at risk," are also, in a sense, "upside down."…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24797132','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24797132"><span id="translatedtitle">Remote quality monitoring in the <span class="hlt">banana</span> chain.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jedermann, Reiner; Praeger, Ulrike; Geyer, Martin; Lang, Walter</p> <p>2014-06-13</p> <p>Quality problems occurring during or after sea transportation of <span class="hlt">bananas</span> in refrigerated containers are mainly caused by insufficient cooling and non-optimal atmospheric conditions, but also by the heat generated by respiration activity. Tools to measure and evaluate these effects can largely help to reduce losses along the <span class="hlt">banana</span> supply chain. The presented green life model provides a tool to predict the effect of deviating temperature, relative humidity, and CO2 and O2 gas concentrations on the storage stability of <span class="hlt">bananas</span>. A second thermal model allows evaluation of the cooling efficiency, the effect of changes in packaging and stowage and the amount of respiration heat from the measured temperature curves. Spontaneous ripening causes higher respiration heat and CO2 production rate. The resulting risk for creation of hot spots increases in positions in which the respiration heat exceeds the available cooling capacity. In case studies on the transport of <span class="hlt">bananas</span> from Costa Rica to Europe, we validated the models and showed how they can be applied to generate automated warning messages for containers with reduced <span class="hlt">banana</span> green life or with temperature problems and also for remote monitoring of the ripening process inside the container. PMID:24797132</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4006168','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4006168"><span id="translatedtitle">Remote quality monitoring in the <span class="hlt">banana</span> chain</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Jedermann, Reiner; Praeger, Ulrike; Geyer, Martin; Lang, Walter</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Quality problems occurring during or after sea transportation of <span class="hlt">bananas</span> in refrigerated containers are mainly caused by insufficient cooling and non-optimal atmospheric conditions, but also by the heat generated by respiration activity. Tools to measure and evaluate these effects can largely help to reduce losses along the <span class="hlt">banana</span> supply chain. The presented green life model provides a tool to predict the effect of deviating temperature, relative humidity, and CO2 and O2 gas concentrations on the storage stability of <span class="hlt">bananas</span>. A second thermal model allows evaluation of the cooling efficiency, the effect of changes in packaging and stowage and the amount of respiration heat from the measured temperature curves. Spontaneous ripening causes higher respiration heat and CO2 production rate. The resulting risk for creation of hot spots increases in positions in which the respiration heat exceeds the available cooling capacity. In case studies on the transport of <span class="hlt">bananas</span> from Costa Rica to Europe, we validated the models and showed how they can be applied to generate automated warning messages for containers with reduced <span class="hlt">banana</span> green life or with temperature problems and also for remote monitoring of the ripening process inside the container. PMID:24797132</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24797132','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24797132"><span id="translatedtitle">Remote quality monitoring in the <span class="hlt">banana</span> chain.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jedermann, Reiner; Praeger, Ulrike; Geyer, Martin; Lang, Walter</p> <p>2014-06-13</p> <p>Quality problems occurring during or after sea transportation of <span class="hlt">bananas</span> in refrigerated containers are mainly caused by insufficient cooling and non-optimal atmospheric conditions, but also by the heat generated by respiration activity. Tools to measure and evaluate these effects can largely help to reduce losses along the <span class="hlt">banana</span> supply chain. The presented green life model provides a tool to predict the effect of deviating temperature, relative humidity, and CO2 and O2 gas concentrations on the storage stability of <span class="hlt">bananas</span>. A second thermal model allows evaluation of the cooling efficiency, the effect of changes in packaging and stowage and the amount of respiration heat from the measured temperature curves. Spontaneous ripening causes higher respiration heat and CO2 production rate. The resulting risk for creation of hot spots increases in positions in which the respiration heat exceeds the available cooling capacity. In case studies on the transport of <span class="hlt">bananas</span> from Costa Rica to Europe, we validated the models and showed how they can be applied to generate automated warning messages for containers with reduced <span class="hlt">banana</span> green life or with temperature problems and also for remote monitoring of the ripening process inside the container.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23179717','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23179717"><span id="translatedtitle">Thermotherapy, chemotherapy, and meristem culture in <span class="hlt">banana</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lassois, Ludivine; Lepoivre, Philippe; Swennen, Rony; van den Houwe, Ines; Panis, Bart</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Bananas</span> that provide a staple food to the millions of people are adversely affected by several viruses such as <span class="hlt">Banana</span> bunchy Top Virus (BBTV), <span class="hlt">Banana</span> Streak Virus (BSV), and Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV). These viruses are known to have a devastating effect on crop production and constraint to the international exchange and conservation of <span class="hlt">banana</span> germplasm-a cornerstone for breeding new cultivars. The viruses are particularly problematic in vegetative propagated crops, like <span class="hlt">bananas</span>, because of their transmission in the planting material. Different virus eradication techniques have been developed, such as thermotherapy, chemotherapy, and meristem culture for providing virus-free planting material. Meristem culture proved to be the most effective procedure to eradicate phloem-associated viruses. This method requires isolation of meristematic dome of plant under the aseptic conditions and culture in an appropriate nutrient medium to develop new virus-free plants. Thermotherapy is another widely used virus eradication technique, which is initially carried out on in vivo or in vitro plants and eventually combined with meristem culture technique. The plantlets are initially grown at 28°C day temperature and increase it by 2°C per day until reaches 40°C and the night temperature at 28°C; maintain plants at 40°C for 4 weeks; excise meristem and culture onto the regeneration medium. In chemotherapy technique, antiviral chemical compound Virazole(®) is applied on meristem culture. Combination of these techniques is also applied to improve the eradication rate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16222791','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16222791"><span id="translatedtitle">Olfactory responses of <span class="hlt">banana</span> weevil predators to volatiles from <span class="hlt">banana</span> pseudostem tissue and synthetic pheromone.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tinzaara, W; Gold, C S; Dicke, M; van Huis, A</p> <p>2005-07-01</p> <p>As a response to attack by herbivores, plants can emit a variety of volatile substances that attract natural enemies of these insect pests. Predators of the <span class="hlt">banana</span> weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) such as Dactylosternum abdominale (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae) and Pheidole megacephala (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), are normally found in association with weevil-infested rotten pseudostems and harvested stumps. We investigated whether these predators are attracted to such environments in response to volatiles produced by the host plant, by the weevil, or by the weevil plant complex. We evaluated predator responses towards volatiles from <span class="hlt">banana</span> pseudostem tissue (synomones) and the synthetic <span class="hlt">banana</span> weevil aggregation pheromone Cosmolure+ in a two-choice olfactometer. The beetle D. abdominale was attracted to fermenting <span class="hlt">banana</span> pseudostem tissue and Cosmolure+, whereas the ant P. megacephala was attracted only to fermented pseudostem tissue. Both predators were attracted to <span class="hlt">banana</span> pseudostem tissue that had been damaged by weevil larvae irrespective of weevil presence. Adding pheromone did not enhance predator response to volatiles from pseudostem tissue fed on by weevils. The numbers of both predators recovered with pseudostem traps in the field from <span class="hlt">banana</span> mats with a pheromone trap were similar to those in pseudostem traps at different distance ranges from the pheromone. Our study shows that the generalist predators D. abdominale and P. megacephala use volatiles from fermented <span class="hlt">banana</span> pseudostem tissue as the major chemical cue when searching for prey. PMID:16222791</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10552380','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10552380"><span id="translatedtitle">Isolation and partial characterization of <span class="hlt">banana</span> starches.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bello-Pérez, L A; Agama-Acevedo, E; Sánchez-Hernández, L; Paredes-López, O</p> <p>1999-03-01</p> <p>Two varieties of <span class="hlt">banana</span> green fruit growing in Guerrero, Mexico, were used for starch isolation. Chemical analysis and physicochemical and functional properties were studied in these starches. The "macho" variety presented higher starch yield than "criollo". In general, chemical compositions in both starches were similar, except in ash content, where the "criollo" variety showed a lower value than "macho". The results of freeze-thaw stability suggested that <span class="hlt">banana</span> starches cannot be used in frozen products. Both starches presented similar water retention capacity values that increased when temperature increased. Solubility profiles showed that at low temperature "criollo" had lower solubility than "macho", but at higher temperature an inverse behavior was evident; also the solubility increased when temperature increased. Behavior similar to that for solubility was obtained in the swelling test. The <span class="hlt">banana</span> starch studies indicate the "macho" and "criollo" varieties have different starch structures as evidenced by viscosity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20337259','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20337259"><span id="translatedtitle">Climate change and <span class="hlt">highland</span> malaria: fresh air for a hot debate.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chaves, Luis Fernando; Koenraadt, Constantianus J M</p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p>In recent decades, malaria has become established in zones at the margin of its previous distribution, especially in the <span class="hlt">highlands</span> of East <span class="hlt">Africa</span>. Studies in this region have sparked a heated debate over the importance of climate change in the territorial expansion of malaria, where positions range from its neglect to the reification of correlations as causes. Here, we review studies supporting and rebutting the role of climatic change as a driving force for <span class="hlt">highland</span> invasion by malaria. We assessed the conclusions from both sides of the argument and found that evidence for the role of climate in these dynamics is robust. However, we also argue that over-emphasizing the importance of climate is misleading for setting a research agenda, even one which attempts to understand climate change impacts on emerging malaria patterns. We review alternative drivers for the emergence of this disease and highlight the problems still calling for research if the multidimensional nature of malaria is to be adequately tackled. We also contextualize <span class="hlt">highland</span> malaria as an ongoing evolutionary process. Finally, we present Schmalhausen's law, which explains the lack of resilience in stressed systems, as a biological principle that unifies the importance of climatic and other environmental factors in driving malaria patterns across different spatio-temporal scales. PMID:20337259</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22614278','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22614278"><span id="translatedtitle">New microsatellite markers for <span class="hlt">bananas</span> (Musa spp).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Amorim, E P; Silva, P H; Ferreira, C F; Amorim, V B O; Santos, V J; Vilarinhos, A D; Santos, C M R; Souza Júnior, M T; Miller, R N G</p> <p>2012-04-27</p> <p>Thirty-four microsatellite markers (SSRs) were identified in EST and BAC clones from Musa acuminata burmannicoides var. Calcutta 4 and validated in 22 Musa genotypes from the <span class="hlt">Banana</span> Germplasm Bank of Embrapa-CNPMF, which includes wild and improved diploids. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 14. The markers were considered highly informative based on their polymorphism information content values; more than 50% were above 0.5. These SSRs will be useful for <span class="hlt">banana</span> breeding programs, for studies of genetic diversity, germplasm characterization and selection, development of saturated genetic linkage maps, and marker assisted selection.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19740040096&hterms=metamorphic+rock&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3D%2528metamorphic%2Brock%2529','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19740040096&hterms=metamorphic+rock&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3D%2528metamorphic%2Brock%2529"><span id="translatedtitle">Pyroxene poikiloblastic rocks from the lunar <span class="hlt">highlands</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bence, A. E.; Papike, J. J.; Sueno, S.; Delano, J. W.</p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p>The results of detailed petrographic, X-ray, electron microprobe, ion probe, and Ar-40/Ar-39 age studies of pyroxene poikiloblastic breccias, an important lunar <span class="hlt">highlands</span> lithology, are interpreted to indicate that high grade metamorphic recrystallization occurred over wide regions of the moon at about 4.0 G.y. This metamorphism was probably related to a period of high meteorite influx at that time. The temperatures achieved were highly variable but in some cases were sufficiently intense to cause varying degrees of partial melting of the precursor <span class="hlt">highlands</span> breccias. A complete spectrum of metamorphic grades from only slight recrystallization to virtually complete melting would be expected in such a model. Such a spectrum is observed in the Apollo 16 rocks.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050174655','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050174655"><span id="translatedtitle">Impact Crater Deposits in the Martian <span class="hlt">Highlands</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mest, S. C.; Crown, D. a.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>The martian <span class="hlt">highlands</span> of Noachis Terra (20-30 deg S, 20-50 deg E), Tyrrhena Terra (0-30 deg S, 50- 100 deg E) and Terra Cimmeria (0-60 deg S, 120-170 deg E) preserve long and complex histories of degradation, but the relative effects of such factors as fluvial, eolian, and mass wasting processes have not been well constrained. The effects of this degradation are best observed on large (D greater than 10 km) impact craters that characterize the ancient <span class="hlt">highlands</span>. Some craters exhibit distinct interior deposits, but precise origins of these deposits are enigmatic; infilling may occur by sedimentary (e.g., fluvial, lacustrine, eolian), mass wasting and (or) volcanic processes.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_5 --> <div id="page_6" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="101"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780057195&hterms=Gabbro&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DGabbro','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780057195&hterms=Gabbro&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DGabbro"><span id="translatedtitle">The lunar <span class="hlt">highland</span> melt-rock suite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Vaniman, D. T.; Papike, J. J.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>Size can be used as a criterion to select 18 large (larger than 1 cm) samples from among 148 melt-rock fragments of all sizes. This selection provides a suite of large samples which represent the important chemical variants among <span class="hlt">highland</span> melt rocks; each large sample has enough material for a number of sample-destructive studies, as well as for future reference. Cluster analysis of the total data base of 148 <span class="hlt">highland</span> melt rocks shows six distinct groups: anorthosite, gabbroic anorthosite, anorthositic gabbro ('<span class="hlt">highland</span> basalt'), low K Fra Mauro, intermediate-K Fra Mauro, and high-K. Large samples are available for four of the melt-rock groups (gabbroic anorthosite, anorthositic gabbro, low-K Fra Mauro, and intermediate-K Fra Mauro). This sample selection reveals two subgroups of anorthositic gabbro (one anorthite-poor with negative Eu anomaly and one anorthite-rich without Eu anomaly). There is a sharp distinction between those Apollo 16 melt rocks and glasses which have both been classified as 'gabbroic anorthosite'.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=356958','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=356958"><span id="translatedtitle">Association between climate variability and malaria epidemics in the East African <span class="hlt">highlands</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zhou, Guofa; Minakawa, Noboru; Githeko, Andrew K.; Yan, Guiyun</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>The causes of the recent reemergence of Plasmodium falciparum epidemic malaria in the East African <span class="hlt">highlands</span> are controversial. Regional climate changes have been invoked as a major factor; however, assessing the impact of climate in malaria resurgence is difficult due to high spatial and temporal climate variability and the lack of long-term data series on malaria cases from different sites. Climate variability, defined as short-term fluctuations around the mean climate state, may be epidemiologically more relevant than mean temperature change, but its effects on malaria epidemics have not been rigorously examined. Here we used nonlinear mixed-regression model to investigate the association between autoregression (number of malaria outpatients during the previous time period), seasonality and climate variability, and the number of monthly malaria outpatients of the past 10–20 years in seven <span class="hlt">highland</span> sites in East <span class="hlt">Africa</span>. The model explained 65–81% of the variance in the number of monthly malaria outpatients. Nonlinear and synergistic effects of temperature and rainfall on the number of malaria outpatients were found in all seven sites. The net variance in the number of monthly malaria outpatients caused by autoregression and seasonality varied among sites and ranged from 18 to 63% (mean = 38.6%), whereas 12–63% (mean = 36.1%) of variance is attributed to climate variability. Our results suggest that there was a high spatial variation in the sensitivity of malaria outpatient number to climate fluctuations in the <span class="hlt">highlands</span>, and that climate variability played an important role in initiating malaria epidemics in the East African <span class="hlt">highlands</span>. PMID:14983017</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14983017','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14983017"><span id="translatedtitle">Association between climate variability and malaria epidemics in the East African <span class="hlt">highlands</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhou, Guofa; Minakawa, Noboru; Githeko, Andrew K; Yan, Guiyun</p> <p>2004-02-24</p> <p>The causes of the recent reemergence of Plasmodium falciparum epidemic malaria in the East African <span class="hlt">highlands</span> are controversial. Regional climate changes have been invoked as a major factor; however, assessing the impact of climate in malaria resurgence is difficult due to high spatial and temporal climate variability and the lack of long-term data series on malaria cases from different sites. Climate variability, defined as short-term fluctuations around the mean climate state, may be epidemiologically more relevant than mean temperature change, but its effects on malaria epidemics have not been rigorously examined. Here we used nonlinear mixed-regression model to investigate the association between autoregression (number of malaria outpatients during the previous time period), seasonality and climate variability, and the number of monthly malaria outpatients of the past 10-20 years in seven <span class="hlt">highland</span> sites in East <span class="hlt">Africa</span>. The model explained 65-81% of the variance in the number of monthly malaria outpatients. Nonlinear and synergistic effects of temperature and rainfall on the number of malaria outpatients were found in all seven sites. The net variance in the number of monthly malaria outpatients caused by autoregression and seasonality varied among sites and ranged from 18 to 63% (mean=38.6%), whereas 12-63% (mean=36.1%) of variance is attributed to climate variability. Our results suggest that there was a high spatial variation in the sensitivity of malaria outpatient number to climate fluctuations in the <span class="hlt">highlands</span>, and that climate variability played an important role in initiating malaria epidemics in the East African <span class="hlt">highlands</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27571112','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27571112"><span id="translatedtitle">Phenylphenalenones Accumulate in Plant Tissues of Two <span class="hlt">Banana</span> Cultivars in Response to Herbivory by the <span class="hlt">Banana</span> Weevil and <span class="hlt">Banana</span> Stem Weevil.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hölscher, Dirk; Buerkert, Andreas; Schneider, Bernd</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Phenylphenalenone-type compounds accumulated in the tissues of two <span class="hlt">banana</span> cultivars-Musa acuminata cv. "Grande Naine" (AAA) and Musa acuminata × balbisiana Colla cv. "Bluggoe" (ABB)-when these were fed on by the <span class="hlt">banana</span> weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus (Germ.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)) and the <span class="hlt">banana</span> stem weevil (Odoiporus longicollis (Oliver) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)). The chemical constituents of the <span class="hlt">banana</span> material were separated by means of chromatographic techniques and identified by NMR spectroscopy. One new compound, 2-methoxy-4-phenylphenalen-1-one, was found exclusively in the corm material of "Bluggoe" that had been fed on by the weevils. PMID:27571112</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5039742','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5039742"><span id="translatedtitle">Phenylphenalenones Accumulate in Plant Tissues of Two <span class="hlt">Banana</span> Cultivars in Response to Herbivory by the <span class="hlt">Banana</span> Weevil and <span class="hlt">Banana</span> Stem Weevil</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hölscher, Dirk; Buerkert, Andreas; Schneider, Bernd</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Phenylphenalenone-type compounds accumulated in the tissues of two <span class="hlt">banana</span> cultivars—Musa acuminata cv. “Grande Naine” (AAA) and Musa acuminata × balbisiana Colla cv. “Bluggoe” (ABB)—when these were fed on by the <span class="hlt">banana</span> weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus (Germ.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)) and the <span class="hlt">banana</span> stem weevil (Odoiporus longicollis (Oliver) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)). The chemical constituents of the <span class="hlt">banana</span> material were separated by means of chromatographic techniques and identified by NMR spectroscopy. One new compound, 2-methoxy-4-phenylphenalen-1-one, was found exclusively in the corm material of “Bluggoe” that had been fed on by the weevils. PMID:27571112</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27571112','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27571112"><span id="translatedtitle">Phenylphenalenones Accumulate in Plant Tissues of Two <span class="hlt">Banana</span> Cultivars in Response to Herbivory by the <span class="hlt">Banana</span> Weevil and <span class="hlt">Banana</span> Stem Weevil.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hölscher, Dirk; Buerkert, Andreas; Schneider, Bernd</p> <p>2016-08-25</p> <p>Phenylphenalenone-type compounds accumulated in the tissues of two <span class="hlt">banana</span> cultivars-Musa acuminata cv. "Grande Naine" (AAA) and Musa acuminata × balbisiana Colla cv. "Bluggoe" (ABB)-when these were fed on by the <span class="hlt">banana</span> weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus (Germ.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)) and the <span class="hlt">banana</span> stem weevil (Odoiporus longicollis (Oliver) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)). The chemical constituents of the <span class="hlt">banana</span> material were separated by means of chromatographic techniques and identified by NMR spectroscopy. One new compound, 2-methoxy-4-phenylphenalen-1-one, was found exclusively in the corm material of "Bluggoe" that had been fed on by the weevils.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4370856','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4370856"><span id="translatedtitle">Ecuadorian <span class="hlt">Banana</span> Farms Should Consider Organic <span class="hlt">Banana</span> with Low Price Risks in Their Land-Use Portfolios</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Castro, Luz Maria; Calvas, Baltazar; Knoke, Thomas</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Organic farming is a more environmentally friendly form of land use than conventional agriculture. However, recent studies point out production tradeoffs that often prevent the adoption of such practices by farmers. Our study shows with the example of organic <span class="hlt">banana</span> production in Ecuador that economic tradeoffs depend much on the approach of the analysis. We test, if organic <span class="hlt">banana</span> should be included in economic land-use portfolios, which indicate how much of the land is provided for which type of land-use. We use time series data for productivity and prices over 30 years to compute the economic return (as annualized net present value) and its volatility (with standard deviation as risk measure) for eight crops to derive land-use portfolios for different levels of risk, which maximize economic return. We find that organic <span class="hlt">banana</span> is included in land-use portfolios for almost every level of accepted risk with proportions from 1% to maximally 32%, even if the same high uncertainty as for conventional <span class="hlt">banana</span> is simulated for organic <span class="hlt">banana</span>. A more realistic, lower simulated price risk increased the proportion of organic <span class="hlt">banana</span> substantially to up to 57% and increased annual economic returns by up to US$ 187 per ha. Under an assumed integration of both markets, for organic and conventional <span class="hlt">banana</span>, simulated by an increased coefficient of correlation of economic return from organic and conventional <span class="hlt">banana</span> (ρ up to +0.7), organic <span class="hlt">banana</span> holds significant portions in the land-use portfolios tested only, if a low price risk of organic <span class="hlt">banana</span> is considered. We conclude that uncertainty is a key issue for the adoption of organic <span class="hlt">banana</span>. As historic data support a low price risk for organic <span class="hlt">banana</span> compared to conventional <span class="hlt">banana</span>, Ecuadorian farmers should consider organic <span class="hlt">banana</span> as an advantageous land-use option in their land-use portfolios. PMID:25799506</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25799506','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25799506"><span id="translatedtitle">Ecuadorian <span class="hlt">banana</span> farms should consider organic <span class="hlt">banana</span> with low price risks in their land-use portfolios.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Castro, Luz Maria; Calvas, Baltazar; Knoke, Thomas</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Organic farming is a more environmentally friendly form of land use than conventional agriculture. However, recent studies point out production tradeoffs that often prevent the adoption of such practices by farmers. Our study shows with the example of organic <span class="hlt">banana</span> production in Ecuador that economic tradeoffs depend much on the approach of the analysis. We test, if organic <span class="hlt">banana</span> should be included in economic land-use portfolios, which indicate how much of the land is provided for which type of land-use. We use time series data for productivity and prices over 30 years to compute the economic return (as annualized net present value) and its volatility (with standard deviation as risk measure) for eight crops to derive land-use portfolios for different levels of risk, which maximize economic return. We find that organic <span class="hlt">banana</span> is included in land-use portfolios for almost every level of accepted risk with proportions from 1% to maximally 32%, even if the same high uncertainty as for conventional <span class="hlt">banana</span> is simulated for organic <span class="hlt">banana</span>. A more realistic, lower simulated price risk increased the proportion of organic <span class="hlt">banana</span> substantially to up to 57% and increased annual economic returns by up to US$ 187 per ha. Under an assumed integration of both markets, for organic and conventional <span class="hlt">banana</span>, simulated by an increased coefficient of correlation of economic return from organic and conventional <span class="hlt">banana</span> (ρ up to +0.7), organic <span class="hlt">banana</span> holds significant portions in the land-use portfolios tested only, if a low price risk of organic <span class="hlt">banana</span> is considered. We conclude that uncertainty is a key issue for the adoption of organic <span class="hlt">banana</span>. As historic data support a low price risk for organic <span class="hlt">banana</span> compared to conventional <span class="hlt">banana</span>, Ecuadorian farmers should consider organic <span class="hlt">banana</span> as an advantageous land-use option in their land-use portfolios.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Bananas&pg=4&id=EJ137391','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Bananas&pg=4&id=EJ137391"><span id="translatedtitle">Love Is Like a Squished <span class="hlt">Banana</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Brown, Stephen</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>An unemployed poet obtained a CETA public service job as a teacher's aide in Marin County, California, where he has guided elementary children's imaginative projects. His experiences are described. He has published a volume of the children's verse under the title "Love Is Like a Squished <span class="hlt">Banana</span>." (AJ)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18959407','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18959407"><span id="translatedtitle">Anthocyanin composition of wild <span class="hlt">bananas</span> in Thailand.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kitdamrongsont, Kasipong; Pothavorn, Pongsagon; Swangpol, Sasivimon; Wongniam, Siripope; Atawongsa, Kanokporn; Svasti, Jisnuson; Somana, Jamorn</p> <p>2008-11-26</p> <p>Anthocyanins were isolated from male bracts of 10 wild species of <span class="hlt">bananas</span> (Musa spp. and Ensete spp.) distributed in Thailand. Six major anthocyanin pigments were identified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), mass spectrometry (MS), and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). They are delphinidin-3-rutinoside (m/z 611.2), cyanidin-3-rutinoside (m/z 595.8), petunidin-3-rutinoside (m/z 624.9), pelargonidin-3-rutinoside (m/z 579.4), peonidin-3-rutinoside (m/z 608.7), and malvidin-3-rutinoside (m/z 638.8). On the basis of the types of pigment present, the wild <span class="hlt">bananas</span> can be divided into 5 groups. The first group comprises M. itinerans, Musa sp. one, Musa sp. two, and M. acuminata accessions, which contain almost or all anthocyanin pigments except for pelargonidin-3-rutinoside, including both nonmethylated and methylated anthocyanins. The second group, M. acuminata subsp. truncata, contains only malvidin-3-rutinoside while the third group, M. coccinea, contains cyanidin-3-rutinoside and pelargonidin-3-rutinoside. The forth group, M. acuminata yellow bract and E. glaucum do not appear to contain any anthocyanin pigment. The fifth group consists of M. balbisiana, M. velutina, M. laterita, and E. superbum which contain only nonmethylated anthocyanin, delphinidin-3-rutinoside, and cyanidin-3-rutinoside. Total anthocyanin content in the analyzed bracts ranged from 0-119.70 mg/100 g bract fresh weight. The differences in the type of anthocyanin and variation in the amounts present indicate that wild <span class="hlt">bananas</span> show biochemical diversity, which may be useful for identifying specific groups of <span class="hlt">bananas</span> or for clarifying the evolution of flavonoid metabolism in each <span class="hlt">banana</span> group.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22320421','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22320421"><span id="translatedtitle">The ecology of Anopheles mosquitoes under climate change: case studies from the effects of deforestation in East African <span class="hlt">highlands</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Afrane, Yaw A; Githeko, Andrew K; Yan, Guiyun</p> <p>2012-02-01</p> <p>Climate change is expected to lead to latitudinal and altitudinal temperature increases. High-elevation regions such as the <span class="hlt">highlands</span> of <span class="hlt">Africa</span> and those that have temperate climate are most likely to be affected. The <span class="hlt">highlands</span> of <span class="hlt">Africa</span> generally exhibit low ambient temperatures. This restricts the distribution of Anopheles mosquitoes, the vectors of malaria, filariasis, and O'nyong'nyong fever. The development and survival of larval and adult mosquitoes are temperature dependent, as are mosquito biting frequency and pathogen development rate. Given that various Anopheles species are adapted to different climatic conditions, changes in climate could lead to changes in species composition in an area that may change the dynamics of mosquito-borne disease transmission. It is important to consider the effect of climate change on rainfall, which is critical to the formation and persistence of mosquito breeding sites. In addition, environmental changes such as deforestation could increase local temperatures in the <span class="hlt">highlands</span>; this could enhance the vectorial capacity of the Anopheles. These experimental data will be invaluable in facilitating the understanding of the impact of climate change on Anopheles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19691322','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19691322"><span id="translatedtitle">Differentiation between cooking <span class="hlt">bananas</span> and dessert <span class="hlt">bananas</span>. 2. Thermal and functional characterization of cultivated Colombian Musaceae (Musa sp.).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dufour, Dominique; Gibert, Olivier; Giraldo, Andrés; Sánchez, Teresa; Reynes, Max; Pain, Jean-Pierre; González, Alonso; Fernández, Alejandro; Díaz, Alberto</p> <p>2009-09-01</p> <p>The starch and flour thermal and functional characteristics of 23 cultivated varieties of <span class="hlt">bananas</span> in Colombia were assessed. Onset temperature for gelatinization of starches measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) varied from 59.7 to 67.8 degrees C, thereby significantly differentiating dessert <span class="hlt">bananas</span> (63.2 degrees C) from nonplantain cooking <span class="hlt">bananas</span> (65.7 degrees C) from FHIA hybrids (66.6 degrees C) and plantains (67.1 degrees C). FHIA hybrids are significantly discriminated from dessert <span class="hlt">banana</span> landraces but not from the cooking group. The starch amylose contents varied from 15.4 to 24.9%; most dessert <span class="hlt">banana</span> starch amylose contents were below 19%, whereas in cooking <span class="hlt">banana</span> starches the contents were over 21%. Flour functional properties were assessed by Rapid ViscoAnalyser (RVA) using silver nitrate as alpha-amylase inhibitor. The flour pasting temperature was relevant to differentiate dessert <span class="hlt">bananas</span> (69.5 degrees C) from FHIA dessert hybrids and nonplantain cooking <span class="hlt">bananas</span> (72.8 degrees C) from cooking hybrids and plantains (75.8 degrees C). Among other criteria, the cooking ability also helped to differentiate dessert <span class="hlt">bananas</span> and FHIA hybrids from cooking <span class="hlt">bananas</span>. A close relation between cultivar genotypes and uses with the thermal and pasting properties were revealed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920030332&hterms=rocks+minerals&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Drocks%2Bminerals','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920030332&hterms=rocks+minerals&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Drocks%2Bminerals"><span id="translatedtitle">Mineral compositions in pristine lunar <span class="hlt">highland</span> rocks and the diversity of <span class="hlt">highland</span> magmatism</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bersch, Michael G.; Taylor, G. J.; Keil, Klaus; Norman, Marc D.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>High precision electron microprobe analyses of olivine and pyroxene in pristine lunar <span class="hlt">highland</span> rocks confirm the dichotomy between ferroan anorthosites and the Mg-suite. Ferroan-anorthosites plot as coherent trends, consistent with formation in a complex global magma system. Lack of coherent compositional trends in the Mg-suite rocks indicates derivation from numerous magmas.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19740040201&hterms=aluminium&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Daluminium','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19740040201&hterms=aluminium&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Daluminium"><span id="translatedtitle">Radionuclides at Descartes in the central <span class="hlt">highlands</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wrigley, R. C.</p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p>Throium, uranium, potassium, aluminium-26, and sodium-22 were measured by nondestructive gamma ray spectrometry in six soil and two rock samples gathered by Apollo 16 in the lunar central <span class="hlt">highlands</span>. The soil samples probably include both major geologic formations in the vicinity, the Cayley and Descartes Formations, although it is possible that the Descartes Formation is not represented. The rock samples have low concentrations of primordial radionuclides. The Al concentrations were lower than could be expected from the high abundance of alumina in the Apollo 16 soils reported earlier, but this could be due to lower concentrations of target elements in these soils, sampling depth variations, or regolithic mixing (exposure age variations).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780062755&hterms=Dunite&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DDunite','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780062755&hterms=Dunite&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DDunite"><span id="translatedtitle">Evolution of the lunar <span class="hlt">highland</span> crust</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Taylor, S. R.; Bence, A. E.</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>The evolution of three distinct element associations in the lunar <span class="hlt">highland</span> crust is discussed in terms of the Taylor-Jakes model which involves melting of most of the moon during accretion. Sources for (1) high Ca, Al, Sr, Eu, (2) high Mg and Cr, and (3) high K, REE, Zr, Hf, Nb are suggested. Bombardment by large projectiles during the differentiation process causes melting and mixing, which produces a wide range of compositions in the crust. The formation of dunite, troctolite, high-, medium-, and low-K Fra Mauro basalts, and rocks close to the olivine-spinel-plagioclase peritectic point is considered.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=GL-2002-001539&hterms=coffee&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dcoffee','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=GL-2002-001539&hterms=coffee&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dcoffee"><span id="translatedtitle">East <span class="hlt">Africa</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>This image shows the East African nations of Ethiopia, Eritrea, and Somalia, as well as portions of Kenya, Sudan, Yemen, and Saudi Arabia. Dominating the scene are the green Ethiopian <span class="hlt">Highlands</span>. With altitudes as high as 4,620 meters (15,157 feet), the <span class="hlt">highlands</span> pull moisture from the arid air, resulting in relatively lush vegetation. In fact, coffee-one of the world's most prized crops-originated here. To the north (above) the <span class="hlt">highlands</span> is Eritrea, which became independent in 1993. East (right) of Ethiopia is Somalia, jutting out into the Indian Ocean. The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) captured this true-color image on November 29, 2000. Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19723232','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19723232"><span id="translatedtitle">Pasta with unripe <span class="hlt">banana</span> flour: physical, texture, and preference study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Agama-Acevedo, Edith; Islas-Hernandez, José J; Osorio-Díaz, Perla; Rendón-Villalobos, Rodolfo; Utrilla-Coello, Rubí G; Angulo, Ofelia; Bello-Pérez, Luis A</p> <p>2009-08-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Banana</span> is a starchy food that contains a high proportion of undigestible compounds such as resistant starch and nonstarch polysaccharides. Products with low glycemic response such as pasta are considered favorable to health. The objective of this study was to use unripe <span class="hlt">banana</span> flour to make spaghetti with low-carbohydrates digestibility and evaluate its physical and texture characteristics, as well as consumer preference. Formulations with 100% durum wheat semolina (control) and formulations with 3 semolina: <span class="hlt">banana</span> flour ratios (85: 15, 70: 30, and 55: 45) were prepared for spaghetti processing. The use of <span class="hlt">banana</span> flour decreased the lightness and diameter of cooked spaghetti, and increased the water absorption of the product. Hardness and elasticity of spaghetti were not affected by <span class="hlt">banana</span> flour, but adhesiveness and chewiness increased as the <span class="hlt">banana</span> flour level in the blend rose. Spaghettis prepared in the laboratory (control and those with <span class="hlt">banana</span> flour) did not show differences in preference by consumers. In general, the preference of spaghettis with different <span class="hlt">banana</span> flour level was similar. The addition of a source of undigestible carbohydrates (<span class="hlt">banana</span> flour) to spaghetti is possible without affecting the consumer preference.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2759213','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2759213"><span id="translatedtitle">Domestication, Genomics and the Future for <span class="hlt">Banana</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Heslop-Harrison, J. S.; Schwarzacher, Trude</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Background Cultivated <span class="hlt">bananas</span> and plantains are giant herbaceous plants within the genus Musa. They are both sterile and parthenocarpic so the fruit develops without seed. The cultivated hybrids and species are mostly triploid (2n = 3x = 33; a few are diploid or tetraploid), and most have been propagated from mutants found in the wild. With a production of 100 million tons annually, <span class="hlt">banana</span> is a staple food across the Asian, African and American tropics, with the 15 % that is exported being important to many economies. Scope There are well over a thousand domesticated Musa cultivars and their genetic diversity is high, indicating multiple origins from different wild hybrids between two principle ancestral species. However, the difficulty of genetics and sterility of the crop has meant that the development of new varieties through hybridization, mutation or transformation was not very successful in the 20th century. Knowledge of structural and functional genomics and genes, reproductive physiology, cytogenetics, and comparative genomics with rice, Arabidopsis and other model species has increased our understanding of Musa and its diversity enormously. Conclusions There are major challenges to <span class="hlt">banana</span> production from virulent diseases, abiotic stresses and new demands for sustainability, quality, transport and yield. Within the genepool of cultivars and wild species there are genetic resistances to many stresses. Genomic approaches are now rapidly advancing in Musa and have the prospect of helping enable <span class="hlt">banana</span> to maintain and increase its importance as a staple food and cash crop through integration of genetical, evolutionary and structural data, allowing targeted breeding, transformation and efficient use of Musa biodiversity in the future. PMID:17766312</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24834817','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24834817"><span id="translatedtitle">Pervaporation of ethanol produced from <span class="hlt">banana</span> waste.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bello, Roger Hoel; Linzmeyer, Poliana; Franco, Cláudia Maria Bueno; Souza, Ozair; Sellin, Noeli; Medeiros, Sandra Helena Westrupp; Marangoni, Cintia</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Banana</span> waste has the potential to produce ethanol with a low-cost and sustainable production method. The present work seeks to evaluate the separation of ethanol produced from <span class="hlt">banana</span> waste (rejected fruit) using pervaporation with different operating conditions. Tests were carried out with model solutions and broth with commercial hollow hydrophobic polydimethylsiloxane membranes. It was observed that pervaporation performance for ethanol/water binary mixtures was strongly dependent on the feed concentration and operating temperature with ethanol concentrations of 1-10%; that an increase of feed flow rate can enhance the permeation rate of ethanol with the water remaining at almost the same value; that water and ethanol fluxes was increased with the temperature increase; and that the higher effect in flux increase was observed when the vapor pressure in the permeate stream was close to the ethanol vapor pressure. Better results were obtained with fermentation broth than with model solutions, indicated by the permeance and membrane selectivity. This could be attributed to by-products present in the multicomponent mixtures, facilitating the ethanol permeability. By-products analyses show that the presence of lactic acid increased the hydrophilicity of the membrane. Based on this, we believe that pervaporation with hollow membrane of ethanol produced from <span class="hlt">banana</span> waste is indeed a technology with the potential to be applied.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5619624','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5619624"><span id="translatedtitle">Lithology and strontium distribution of De Queen limestone at main <span class="hlt">Highland</span> Gypsum Quarry, <span class="hlt">Highland</span>, Arkansas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Slaughter, T.A.; Ledger, E.B.; Sartin, A.A.</p> <p>1987-09-01</p> <p>The De Queen Limestone (Comanchean, Cretaceous) in the main <span class="hlt">Highland</span> Gypsum quarry at <span class="hlt">Highland</span>, Arkansas, consists of gypsum, limestone, and clastic sediments deposited along the landward margin of a broad, restricted, shallow lagoon. It grades downdip into the Ferry Lake Anhydrite. Gypsum, in the form of satin spar, selenite, and alabaster, is abundant in the lower part of the section. Limestones ranging from lime mudstones to grainstones contain fossil mollusks, ostracods, serpulid worm tubes, and foraminifera. The gypsum and limestone lithologies are interbedded with claystones and shales. Strontium concentration was determined on about 100 samples by x-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) and was found to be controlled by diagenesis, not deposition. Strontium concentrations in the gypsum are likely controlled by the rate of recrystallization of secondary anhydrite. Levels of strontium in the limestones reflect the amount of celestite cement. The strontium content of the clastic beds correlates with the amount of strontium-rich microcrystals of strontianite, celestite, barite, and witherite.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_6 --> <div id="page_7" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="121"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17794192','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17794192"><span id="translatedtitle">Classic to postclassic in <span class="hlt">highland</span> central Mexico.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dumond, D E; Muller, F</p> <p>1972-03-17</p> <p>The data and argument we have presented converge on three points. 1) With the decline and abandonment of Teotihuacan by the end of the Metepec phase (Teotihuacan IV), the valleys of Mexico and of Puebla-Tlax-cala witnessed the development of a ceramic culture that was represented, on the one hand, by obvious Teotihuacan derivations in presumably ritual ware and possible Teotihuacan derivations in simpler pottery of red-on-buff, and, on the other hand, by elements that seem to represent a resurgence of Preclassic characteristics. Whether the development is explained through a measure of outside influence or as a local phenomenon, the direct derivation of a substantial portion of the complex from Classic Teotihuacan is unmistakable. This transitional horizon predated the arrival of plumbate tradeware in <span class="hlt">highland</span> central Mexico. 2) The transitional horizon coincided with (and no doubt was an integral part of) an alteration of Classic settlement patterns so drastic that it must bespeak political disruption. Nevertheless, there is no evidence that the Postclassic center of Tula represented a significant force in the <span class="hlt">highlands</span> at that time. There is no evidence that the center of Cholula, which may even have been substantially abandoned during the previous period, was able to exert any force at this juncture; it appears more likely that Cholula was largely reoccupied after the abandonment of Teotihuacan. There is no direct evidence of domination by Xochicalco or any other known major foreign center, although some ceramic traits suggest that relatively minor influences may have emanated from Xochicalco; unfortunately, the state of research at that center does not permit a determination at this time. Thus the most reasonable view on the basis of present evidence is that the abandonment of Teotihuacan was not the direct result of the strength of another centralized power, although some outside populations may have been involved in a minor way. Whatever the proximate cause</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890023492&hterms=metamorphic+rock&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3D%2528metamorphic%2Brock%2529','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890023492&hterms=metamorphic+rock&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3D%2528metamorphic%2Brock%2529"><span id="translatedtitle">Apennine Front revisited - Diversity of Apollo 15 <span class="hlt">highland</span> rock types</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lindstrom, Marilyn M.; Marvin, Ursula B.; Vetter, Scott K.; Shervais, John W.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>The Apollo 15 landing site is geologically the most complex of the Apollo sites, situated at a mare-<span class="hlt">highland</span> interface within the rings of two of the last major basin-forming impacts. Few of the Apollo 15 samples are ancient <span class="hlt">highland</span> rocks derived from the early differentiation of the moon, or impact melts from major basin impacts. Most of the samples are regolith breccias containing abundant clasts of younger volcanic mare and KREEP basalts. The early geologic evolution of the region can be understood only by examining the small fragments of <span class="hlt">highland</span> rocks found in regolith breccias and soils. Geochemical and petrologic studies of clasts and matrices of three impact melt breccias and four regolith breccias are presented. Twelve igneous and metamorphic rocks show extreme diversity and include a new type of ferroan norite. Twenty-five samples of <span class="hlt">highland</span> impact melt are divided into groups based on composition. These impact melts form nearly a continuum over more than an order of magnitude in REE concentrations. This continuum may result from both major basin impacts and younger local events. <span class="hlt">Highland</span> rocks from the Apennine Front include most of the <span class="hlt">highland</span> rock types found at all of the other sites. An extreme diversity of <span class="hlt">highland</span> rocks is a fundamental characteristic of the Apennine Front and is a natural result of its complex geologic evolution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=293225','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=293225"><span id="translatedtitle">Agronomic performance of five <span class="hlt">banana</span> cultivars under protected cultivation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Banana</span> has been grown both in open-field and protected cultivation in Turkey. So far protected cultivation is very popular due to the high yield and quality. The objective of the study was to evaluate agronomic performance of five new <span class="hlt">banana</span> cultivars under plastic greenhouse. ‘MA 13’, ‘Williams’, ‘...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17607468','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17607468"><span id="translatedtitle">[<span class="hlt">Banana</span> tree pests attacking Heliconia latispatha Benth. (Heliconiaceae)].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Watanabe, Maria A</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>In mid-May 2005, the caterpillars Antichloris eriphia (Fabr.) (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) and Calligo illioneus (Cramer) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) which are <span class="hlt">banana</span> tree pests, were found attacking six-month old stalks of Heliconia latispatha Benth., planted near a <span class="hlt">banana</span> tree plantation in Jaguariuna, SP, Brazil. The attack by C. illioneus is observed by the first time in Brazil.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=309120','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=309120"><span id="translatedtitle">Drying characteristics and quality of <span class="hlt">bananas</span> under infrared radiation heating</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Hot air (HA) drying of <span class="hlt">banana</span> has low drying efficiency and results in undesirable product quality. The objectives of this research were to investigate the feasibility of infrared (IR) heating to improve <span class="hlt">banana</span> drying rate, evaluate quality of the dried product, and establish models for predicting d...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26194465','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26194465"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Africa</span> needs streamlined regulation to support the deployment of GM crops.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Atkinson, Howard J; Roderick, Hugh; Tripathi, Leena</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Future food security in sub-Saharan <span class="hlt">Africa</span> (SSA) requires enhancement of its crop production. Transgenic crops with a poverty focus can enhance harvests and are available for staples such as cooking <span class="hlt">bananas</span> and plantains. One constraint is optimisation of national biosafety processes to support rapid and safe uptake of such beneficial crops.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2013-title33-vol3-sec334-570.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2013-title33-vol3-sec334-570.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">33 CFR 334.570 - <span class="hlt">Banana</span> River near Orsino, Fla.; restricted area.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Banana</span> River near Orsino, Fla... THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.570 <span class="hlt">Banana</span> River near Orsino, Fla.; restricted area. (a) The area. That part of <span class="hlt">Banana</span> River N of the NASA <span class="hlt">Banana</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2012-title33-vol3-sec334-570.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2012-title33-vol3-sec334-570.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">33 CFR 334.570 - <span class="hlt">Banana</span> River near Orsino, Fla.; restricted area.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Banana</span> River near Orsino, Fla... THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.570 <span class="hlt">Banana</span> River near Orsino, Fla.; restricted area. (a) The area. That part of <span class="hlt">Banana</span> River N of the NASA <span class="hlt">Banana</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title33-vol3-sec334-570.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title33-vol3-sec334-570.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">33 CFR 334.570 - <span class="hlt">Banana</span> River near Orsino, Fla.; restricted area.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Banana</span> River near Orsino, Fla... THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.570 <span class="hlt">Banana</span> River near Orsino, Fla.; restricted area. (a) The area. That part of <span class="hlt">Banana</span> River N of the NASA <span class="hlt">Banana</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2014-title33-vol3-sec334-570.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2014-title33-vol3-sec334-570.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">33 CFR 334.570 - <span class="hlt">Banana</span> River near Orsino, Fla.; restricted area.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Banana</span> River near Orsino, Fla... THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.570 <span class="hlt">Banana</span> River near Orsino, Fla.; restricted area. (a) The area. That part of <span class="hlt">Banana</span> River N of the NASA <span class="hlt">Banana</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2011-title33-vol3-sec334-570.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2011-title33-vol3-sec334-570.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">33 CFR 334.570 - <span class="hlt">Banana</span> River near Orsino, Fla.; restricted area.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Banana</span> River near Orsino, Fla... THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.570 <span class="hlt">Banana</span> River near Orsino, Fla.; restricted area. (a) The area. That part of <span class="hlt">Banana</span> River N of the NASA <span class="hlt">Banana</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780057774&hterms=scandium&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dscandium','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780057774&hterms=scandium&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dscandium"><span id="translatedtitle">SCCRV, a major component of <span class="hlt">highlands</span> rocks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wasson, J. T.; Warren, P. H.; Kallemeyn, G. W.; Mcewing, C. E.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Boynton, W. V.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>An investigation was conducted of the composition of lunar <span class="hlt">highlands</span> samples rich in mafics. Most of the samples were Apollo 16 rocks. The compositional data for 13 lunar rocks are listed in a table. The nonpristine rocks 64815 and 77545 having essentially identical KREEP contents of about 32% have very similar, high contents of the mafic component SCCRV. The same amounts of rather similar ingredients were mixed at locations 1000 km apart. The composition of SCCRV is discussed. According to the three most plausible hypotheses for the origin of SCCRV which are proposed the SCCRV is primordial material, SCCRV consists entirely or mainly of a single type of lunar rock, or SCCRV resulted from the mixing of two or more lunar materials.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7242698','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7242698"><span id="translatedtitle">Seismic activity noted at Medicine Lake <span class="hlt">Highlands</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Blum, D.</p> <p>1988-12-01</p> <p>The sudden rumble of earthquakes beneath Medicine Lake <span class="hlt">Highlands</span> this fall gave geologists an early warning that one of Northern California's volcanoes may be stirring back to life. Researchers stressed that an eruption of the volcano is not expected soon. But the flurry of underground shocks in late September, combined with new evidence of a pool of molten rock beneath the big volcano, has led them to monitor Medicine Lake with new wariness. The volcano has been dormant since 1910, when it ejected a brief flurry of ash - worrying no one. A federal team plans to take measurements of Medicine Lake, testing for changes in its shape caused by underground pressures. The work is scheduled for spring because snows have made the volcano inaccessible. But the new seismic network is an effective lookout, sensitive to very small increases in activity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840051233&hterms=nitrogen+soil&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dnitrogen%2Bsoil','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840051233&hterms=nitrogen+soil&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dnitrogen%2Bsoil"><span id="translatedtitle">Nitrogen isotopes in lunar <span class="hlt">highlands</span> breccias</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Fourcade, S.; Clayton, R. N.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>Lunar <span class="hlt">highlands</span> breccias from Apollo 14 and 16 which may have trapped solar wind gases at a very early epoch in the history of the moon, as implied by their high content of parentless fissiogenic xenon and sometimes of parentless radiogenic Xe-129, are analyzed for nitrogen content and isotopic composition using stepwise heating techniques. The results show that the nitrogen is not particularly light and was not acquired in very ancient times. The conflicting presence of both parentless xenon and nitrogen of relatively recent isotopic signature can be explained if the hypothetical light nitrogen is diluted by more abundant, heavier nitrogen. Accordingly, the very ancient soil components implied in these breccias by the presence of excess fission xenon were reexposed at a much later epoch, or mixed with younger soil components, before the compaction event.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15036835','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15036835"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Banana</span> streak virus is very diverse in Uganda.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Harper, Glyn; Hart, Darren; Moult, Sarah; Hull, Roger</p> <p>2004-03-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Banana</span> streak virus (BSV) is a badnavirus that causes a viral leaf streak disease of <span class="hlt">banana</span> and plantain (Musa spp.). Identified in essentially all Musa growing areas of the world, it has a deleterious effect on the productivity of infected plants as well as being a major constraint to Musa breeding programmes and germplasm dissemination. <span class="hlt">Banana</span> is a staple food in Uganda which is, per capita, one of the worlds largest <span class="hlt">banana</span> producers and consumers. BSV was isolated from infected plants sampled across the Ugandan Musa growing area and the isolates were analysed using molecular and serological techniques. These analyses showed that BSV is very highly variable in Uganda. They suggest that the variability is, in part, due to a series of introductions of <span class="hlt">banana</span> into Uganda, each with a different complement of infecting viruses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008DPS....40.0304W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008DPS....40.0304W"><span id="translatedtitle">Hydrated Minerals in the Martian Southern <span class="hlt">Highlands</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wray, James J.; Seelos, F. P.; Murchie, S. L.; Squyres, S. W.</p> <p>2008-09-01</p> <p>Hydrated minerals including sulfates, phyllosilicates, and hydrated silica have been observed on the surface of Mars by the orbital near-infrared spectrometers OMEGA and CRISM [1,2]. Global maps from OMEGA [3,4] show that km-scale and larger exposures of these minerals are scattered widely throughout the planet's low and mid latitudes, but are relatively rare. Yet CRISM has found hundreds to thousands of Fe/Mg-phyllosilicate exposures in the <span class="hlt">highlands</span> of Terra Tyrrhena alone [2], suggesting that smaller exposures may be much more common. To search for such exposures, we have surveyed the browse products from all PDS-released CRISM targeted observations (as of July 2008) across a large fraction of the Southern <span class="hlt">highlands</span>, including the Noachis, Cimmeria, and Sirenum regions. Sulfates are observed in Noachian-aged terrains in each of these regions, including as far South as -63º latitude, suggesting that sulfate formation may have occurred locally or regionally throughout a large fraction of Martian history. Some of our strongest phyllosilicate detections occur adjacent to inferred chloride-bearing deposits [5] in Terra Sirenum. Also in Sirenum, the D 100 km Columbus crater contains light-toned, hydrated sulfate-bearing layers overlying materials that contain both a kaolin group clay and Fe/Mg-smectite clay, in different locations. However, phyllosilicates do not appear predominantly associated with impact craters in the regions surveyed, in contrast with Terra Tyrrhena [2]. We are currently searching for additional hydrated mineral exposures using CRISM multispectral data, providing further detail on their global distribution and identifying local areas of interest for future focused studies. [1] Bibring, J.-P. et al. (2005) Science 307, 1576-1581. [2] Mustard, J. F. et al. (2008) Nature 454, 305-309. [3] Bibring, J.-P. et al. (2006) Science 312, 400-404. [4] Poulet, F. et al. (2007) Mars 7, Abs. #3170. [5] Osterloo M. M. et al. (2008) Science 319, 1651-1654.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16..145H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16..145H"><span id="translatedtitle">Sustainable Land Management in the Ethiopian <span class="hlt">Highlands</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Haile, Mitiku; Nyssen, Jan; Araya, Tesfay</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Through centuries of farming practices the farmers and pastoralists in Ethiopia were managing their land resources pertaining to the needs of prevalent populations. With an increasing population and growing demands, more land was put under cultivation. Subsequently forest areas were cleared, encroaching agriculture into steep slopes and areas that were not suitable for agricultural activities. Land degradation and particularly soil erosion by water not only reduced the productivity of the land but also aggravated the effects of drought, such as famine and migration. Obvious signs of degradation in the <span class="hlt">highlands</span> of Ethiopia are wide gullies swallowing fertile lands and rock outcrops making farming a risky business. But also less visible sheet erosion processes result in a tremendous loss of fertile topsoil, particularly on cropland. Efforts have been made by the farming communities to mitigate land degradation by developing local practices of conserving soil and water. With keen interest and openness one can observe such indigenous practices in all corners of Ethiopia. Notwithstanding these practices, there were also efforts to introduce other soil and water conservation interventions to control erosion and retain the eroded soils. Since the early 1980s numerous campaigns were carried out to build terraces in farmlands and sloping areas. Major emphasis was given to structural technologies rather than on vegetative measures. Currently the landscape of the northern <span class="hlt">highlands</span> is dotted with millions of hectares of terraced fields and in some places with planned watershed management interventions including exclosures. Apparently these interventions were introduced without prior investigating the detailed problems and conservation needs of the local population. Intensive research is undertaken on the processes of degradation, the impact of the different intervention measures and the role of communities in sustainably managing their land. This paper attempts to review the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26604400','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26604400"><span id="translatedtitle">Fructan distribution in <span class="hlt">banana</span> cultivars and effect of ripening and processing on Nendran <span class="hlt">banana</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shalini, R; Antony, Usha</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Many plants store fructan as reserve carbohydrate. Fructans naturally present in almost all plant foods, are also used as functional ingredients by the food industry to modify the texture and taste due to their properties as gelling agents, fat substitutes, soluble dietary fibers and low calorie sweeteners. Seven <span class="hlt">banana</span> cultivars were analysed for fructans and Nendran <span class="hlt">banana</span> was selected for the next set of experiments as it had the highest fructan content (1433.3 mg/100 g) among the cultivars studied. Low temperature ripening (16 °C) of Nendran <span class="hlt">banana</span> resulted in higher fructan accumulation of these carbohydrates in cold conditions. Pectinase pre-treatment significantly increased yield of total fructans from 1.4/100 g to 6.5 g/100 g i.e., 370 %. Fructan composition was affected by processing, namely steaming and puree preparation in Nendran. The fructan composition data documented in this study will enable including <span class="hlt">banana</span>, naturally high in fructans in the diet and will facilitate storage and processing for nutritional formulation for higher fructan consumption. PMID:26604400</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16903883','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16903883"><span id="translatedtitle">Low larval vector survival explains unstable malaria in the western Kenya <span class="hlt">highlands</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Koenraadt, C J M; Paaijmans, K P; Schneider, P; Githeko, A K; Takken, W</p> <p>2006-08-01</p> <p>Several <span class="hlt">highland</span> areas in eastern <span class="hlt">Africa</span> have recently suffered from serious malaria epidemics. Some models predict that, in the short term, these areas will experience more epidemics as a result of global warming. However, the various processes underlying these changes are poorly understood. We therefore investigated malaria prevalence, malaria vector densities and malaria vector survival in a <span class="hlt">highland</span> area in western Kenya, ranging from approximately 1,550-1,650 m altitude. Although only five adult malaria vectors were collected during 180 light traps and 180 resting collections over a 23-month study period, malaria was prevalent among school children (average parasite prevalence: 10%). During an extensive survey of potential larval habitats, we identified only seven habitats containing Anopheles gambiae Giles s.l. larvae. Their limited number and low larval densities suggested that their contribution to the adult vector population was small. Experiments on adult and larval survival showed that at this altitude, adult mosquitoes survived inside local houses, but that larval development was severely retarded: only 2 of 500 A. gambiae s.l. larvae developed to the pupal stage, whereas all other larvae died prior to pupation. At present, high vector densities are unlikely because of unfavourable abiotic conditions in the area. However, temporary favourable conditions, such as during El Niño years, may increase larval vector survival and may lead to malaria epidemics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/project/misr/gallery/southern_africa','SCIGOV-ASDC'); return false;" href="https://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/project/misr/gallery/southern_africa"><span id="translatedtitle">Southern <span class="hlt">Africa</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/">Atmospheric Science Data Center </a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-04-16</p> <p>article title:  Southern <span class="hlt">Africa</span>     View larger JPEG image ... visibility of smoke plumes and haze. The southern tip of South <span class="hlt">Africa</span> is at the bottom of the image, and Zambia is at the top. ... MISR Team. Aug 25, 2000 - South <span class="hlt">Africa</span> to Zambia including the Okavango Delta. project:  ...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_7 --> <div id="page_8" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="141"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21068045','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21068045"><span id="translatedtitle">Epidemic malaria and warmer temperatures in recent decades in an East African <span class="hlt">highland</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Alonso, David; Bouma, Menno J; Pascual, Mercedes</p> <p>2011-06-01</p> <p>Climate change impacts on malaria are typically assessed with scenarios for the long-term future. Here we focus instead on the recent past (1970-2003) to address whether warmer temperatures have already increased the incidence of malaria in a <span class="hlt">highland</span> region of East <span class="hlt">Africa</span>. Our analyses rely on a new coupled mosquito-human model of malaria, which we use to compare projected disease levels with and without the observed temperature trend. Predicted malaria cases exhibit a highly nonlinear response to warming, with a significant increase from the 1970s to the 1990s, although typical epidemic sizes are below those observed. These findings suggest that climate change has already played an important role in the exacerbation of malaria in this region. As the observed changes in malaria are even larger than those predicted by our model, other factors previously suggested to explain all of the increase in malaria may be enhancing the impact of climate change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21068045','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21068045"><span id="translatedtitle">Epidemic malaria and warmer temperatures in recent decades in an East African <span class="hlt">highland</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Alonso, David; Bouma, Menno J; Pascual, Mercedes</p> <p>2011-06-01</p> <p>Climate change impacts on malaria are typically assessed with scenarios for the long-term future. Here we focus instead on the recent past (1970-2003) to address whether warmer temperatures have already increased the incidence of malaria in a <span class="hlt">highland</span> region of East <span class="hlt">Africa</span>. Our analyses rely on a new coupled mosquito-human model of malaria, which we use to compare projected disease levels with and without the observed temperature trend. Predicted malaria cases exhibit a highly nonlinear response to warming, with a significant increase from the 1970s to the 1990s, although typical epidemic sizes are below those observed. These findings suggest that climate change has already played an important role in the exacerbation of malaria in this region. As the observed changes in malaria are even larger than those predicted by our model, other factors previously suggested to explain all of the increase in malaria may be enhancing the impact of climate change. PMID:21068045</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120011125','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120011125"><span id="translatedtitle">What Lunar Meteorites Tell Us About the Lunar <span class="hlt">Highlands</span> Crust</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Korotev, R. L.; Jolliff, B. L.; Zeigler, R. A.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The first meteorite to be found1 that was eventually (1984) recognized to have originated from the Moon is Yamato 791197. The find date, November 20, 1979, was four days after the end of the first Conference on the Lunar <span class="hlt">Highland</span> Crust. Since then, >75 other lunar meteorites have been found, and these meteorites provide information about the lunar <span class="hlt">highlands</span> that was not known from studies of the Apollo and Luna samples</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/500794','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/500794"><span id="translatedtitle">New York/New Jersey <span class="hlt">Highlands</span> -- ecological and economic sustainability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gray, C.</p> <p>1997-08-01</p> <p>The New York/New Jersey <span class="hlt">Highlands</span> region is one million acres of Appalachian ridges and valleys that stretch from the Hudson to the Delaware River. The spatial relationship of <span class="hlt">Highlands</span> to the New York/New Jersey metropolitan area provides a unique opportunity for regional development. The New Jersey <span class="hlt">Highlands</span> Region, stretching from the Hudson River to the Delaware River, is an area critical to the overall environmental quality of the nation`s largest metropolitan area. However, there is substantial development pressure in this region. The way in which the <span class="hlt">Highlands</span> Region is developed in the near future will have long-lasting effects. Patterns of population density, water use, pollution and resource consumption are difficult to rectify once established. All indications point to the <span class="hlt">Highlands</span> becoming the latest addition to the urban sprawl of the New York/New Jersey metropolitan areas. Great cooperation and motivation would be required to change this pattern. This paper will attempt to explore the ecological merits of a <span class="hlt">Highland</span> greenway proposal, the economic impacts and possible planning techniques which might effect a win/win situation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24575229','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24575229"><span id="translatedtitle">Diversity of fusarium species from <span class="hlt">highland</span> areas in malaysia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Manshor, Nurhazrati; Rosli, Hafizi; Ismail, Nor Azliza; Salleh, Baharuddin; Zakaria, Latiffah</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Fusarium is a cosmopolitan and highly diversified genus of saprophytic, phytopathogenic and toxigenic fungi. However, the existence and diversity of a few species of Fusarium are restricted to a certain area or climatic condition. The present study was conducted to determine the occurrence and diversity of Fusarium species in tropical <span class="hlt">highland</span> areas in Malaysia and to compare with those in temperate and subtropical regions. A series of sampling was carried out in 2005 to 2009 at several tropical <span class="hlt">highland</span> areas in Malaysia that is: Cameron <span class="hlt">Highlands</span>, Fraser Hills and Genting <span class="hlt">Highlands</span> in Pahang; Penang Hill in Penang; Gunung Jerai in Kedah; Kundasang and Kinabalu Park in Sabah; Kubah National Park and Begunan Hill in Sarawak. Sampling was done randomly from various hosts and substrates. Isolation of Fusarium isolates was done by using pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB) agar and 1449 isolates of Fusarium were successfully recovered. Based on morphological characteristics, 20 species of Fusarium were identified. The most prevalent species occurring on the <span class="hlt">highlands</span> areas was F. solani (66.1%) followed by F. graminearum (8.5%), F. oxysporum (7.8%), F. semitectum (5.7%), F. subglutinans (3.5%) and F. proliferatum (3.4%). Other Fusarium species, namely F. avenaceum, F. camptoceras, F. chlamydosporum, F. compactum, F. crookwellense, F. culmorum, F. decemcellulare, F. equiseti, F. nygamai, F. poae, F. proliferatum, F. sacchari, F. sporotrichioides, F. sterilihyphosum and F. verticillioides accounted for 1% recoveries. The present study was the first report on the occurrences of Fusarium species on <span class="hlt">highland</span> areas in Malaysia.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3799405','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3799405"><span id="translatedtitle">Diversity of Fusarium Species from <span class="hlt">Highland</span> Areas in Malaysia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Manshor, Nurhazrati; Rosli, Hafizi; Ismail, Nor Azliza; Salleh, Baharuddin; Zakaria, Latiffah</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Fusarium is a cosmopolitan and highly diversified genus of saprophytic, phytopathogenic and toxigenic fungi. However, the existence and diversity of a few species of Fusarium are restricted to a certain area or climatic condition. The present study was conducted to determine the occurrence and diversity of Fusarium species in tropical <span class="hlt">highland</span> areas in Malaysia and to compare with those in temperate and subtropical regions. A series of sampling was carried out in 2005 to 2009 at several tropical <span class="hlt">highland</span> areas in Malaysia that is: Cameron <span class="hlt">Highlands</span>, Fraser Hills and Genting <span class="hlt">Highlands</span> in Pahang; Penang Hill in Penang; Gunung Jerai in Kedah; Kundasang and Kinabalu Park in Sabah; Kubah National Park and Begunan Hill in Sarawak. Sampling was done randomly from various hosts and substrates. Isolation of Fusarium isolates was done by using pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB) agar and 1449 isolates of Fusarium were successfully recovered. Based on morphological characteristics, 20 species of Fusarium were identified. The most prevalent species occurring on the <span class="hlt">highlands</span> areas was F. solani (66.1%) followed by F. graminearum (8.5%), F. oxysporum (7.8%), F. semitectum (5.7%), F. subglutinans (3.5%) and F. proliferatum (3.4%). Other Fusarium species, namely F. avenaceum, F. camptoceras, F. chlamydosporum, F. compactum, F. crookwellense, F. culmorum, F. decemcellulare, F. equiseti, F. nygamai, F. poae, F. proliferatum, F. sacchari, F. sporotrichioides, F. sterilihyphosum and F. verticillioides accounted for 1% recoveries. The present study was the first report on the occurrences of Fusarium species on <span class="hlt">highland</span> areas in Malaysia. PMID:24575229</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25745200','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25745200"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessment of <span class="hlt">banana</span> fruit maturity by image processing technique.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Surya Prabha, D; Satheesh Kumar, J</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Maturity stage of fresh <span class="hlt">banana</span> fruit is an important factor that affects the fruit quality during ripening and marketability after ripening. The ability to identify maturity of fresh <span class="hlt">banana</span> fruit will be a great support for farmers to optimize harvesting phase which helps to avoid harvesting either under-matured or over-matured <span class="hlt">banana</span>. This study attempted to use image processing technique to detect the maturity stage of fresh <span class="hlt">banana</span> fruit by its color and size value of their images precisely. A total of 120 images comprising 40 images from each stage such as under-mature, mature and over-mature were used for developing algorithm and accuracy prediction. The mean color intensity from histogram; area, perimeter, major axis length and minor axis length from the size values, were extracted from the calibration images. Analysis of variance between each maturity stage on these features indicated that the mean color intensity and area features were more significant in predicting the maturity of <span class="hlt">banana</span> fruit. Hence, two classifier algorithms namely, mean color intensity algorithm and area algorithm were developed and their accuracy on maturity detection was assessed. The mean color intensity algorithm showed 99.1 % accuracy in classifying the <span class="hlt">banana</span> fruit maturity. The area algorithm classified the under-mature fruit at 85 % accuracy. Hence the maturity assessment technique proposed in this paper could be used commercially to develop a field based complete automatic detection system to take decision on the right time of harvest by the <span class="hlt">banana</span> growers. PMID:25745200</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7590993','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7590993"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparative evaluation of gastric secretory response to <span class="hlt">banana</span> and porridge.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dadoo, R C; Khatri, H L; Singla, S</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Unripe <span class="hlt">Banana</span> (Plantain) is used in South India as a bland diet for peptic ulcer patients. Flour made of plantain is quite often prescribed in dyspepsia in this part of the country. This has led to the belief that ripe <span class="hlt">banana</span> may also be a bland fruit. However, it was observed by the Senior Author that ripe <span class="hlt">banana</span> does produce symptoms of hyperacidity. Hence a study was undertaken to assess whether ripe <span class="hlt">banana</span> is a bland food or not. A total of 115 patients entered the study. 89 individuals had no GIT symptoms, 15 patients had proved peptic ulcer while 11 patients had non-ulcer acid dyspepsia. The gastric residue was emptied by a nasogastric tube after a night fast. Patients were then given 80 gms. of <span class="hlt">banana</span> or porridge on two different days. Then consecutive 15 minute samples of gastric juice were collected and submitted for estimation of acid output in mEq/l. It was observed that gastric acid values were higher following <span class="hlt">banana</span> as compared to porridge and the difference was statistically significant (p < 0.001). It was was thus concluded that ripe <span class="hlt">banana</span> is not a bland food. It should not be recommended as a part of bland diet for patients of acid peptic disease.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002JChEd..79..479D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002JChEd..79..479D"><span id="translatedtitle">Carbohydrate Analysis: Can We Control the Ripening of <span class="hlt">Bananas</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Deal, S. Todd; Farmer, Catherine E.; Cerpovicz, Paul F.</p> <p>2002-04-01</p> <p>We have developed an experiment for nutritional/introductory biochemistry courses that focuses on carbohydrate analysis--specifically, the carbohydrates found in <span class="hlt">bananas</span> and the change in carbohydrate composition as the <span class="hlt">banana</span> ripens. Pairs of students analyze the starch and reducing sugar content of green, ripe, and overripe <span class="hlt">bananas</span>. Using the techniques and knowledge gained from these analyses, they then investigate the influence of various storage methods on the ripening process. While this experiment was developed for an introductory-level biochemistry lab, it can easily be adapted for use in other laboratory programs that seek to teach the fundamentals of carbohydrate analysis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10133461','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10133461"><span id="translatedtitle">An improved choice of oscillator basis for <span class="hlt">banana</span> shaped nuclides</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chasman, R.R.</p> <p>1994-03-01</p> <p>The question of the appropriate choice of oscillator basis functions for studying exotic nuclear shapes is raised. Difficulties with the conventional choice of oscillator basis states are noted for shapes having a large <span class="hlt">banana</span> component. A prescription for an improved oscillator basis to study these shapes is given. It can be applied in a more general context. New calculations with this improved basis are presented for the <span class="hlt">banana</span> deformation mode. The change of basis gives results that improve the prospects of finding states in the <span class="hlt">banana</span> minimum for many isotopes of Tl, Pb and Bi.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19740060877&hterms=hugging&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dhugging','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19740060877&hterms=hugging&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dhugging"><span id="translatedtitle">Lunar basin formation and <span class="hlt">highland</span> stratigraphy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Howard, K. A.; Wilhelms, D. E.; Scott, D. H.</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>Multiring impact basins, formed after solidification of the lunar crust, account for most or all premare regional deposits and structures expressed in the lunar landscape and for major topographic and gravity variations. A fresh basin has two or more concentric mountain rings, a lineated ejecta blanket, and secondary impact craters. Crackled material on the floor may be impact melt. The ejecta blanket was emplaced at least partly as a ground-hugging flow and was probably hot. A suggested model of basin formation is that the center lifts up and the rings form by inward collapse during evisceration. The resulting basin is shallow and has a central uplift of the mantle. This results in a central gravity high and a ring low. Later flooding by mare basalt has since modified most near side basins. <span class="hlt">Highland</span> deposits of plains, furrowed and pitted terrain, and various hills, domes, and craters that were interpreted before the Apollo missions as being volcanic can now be interpreted as being basin related.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2600205','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2600205"><span id="translatedtitle">Diagnosis of Cystic Echinococcosis, Central Peruvian <span class="hlt">Highlands</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Gonzalez, Armando E.; Zhang, Wenbao; McManus, Donald P.; Lopera, Luis; Ninaquispe, Berenice; Garcia, Hector H.; Rodríguez, Silvia; Verastegui, Manuela; Calderon, Carmen; Pan, William K.Y.; Gilman, Robert H.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>We evaluated prevalence of cystic echinococcosis (CE) in a central Peruvian <span class="hlt">Highland</span> district by using 4 diagnostic methods: ultrasonography for 949 persons, radiography for 829, and 2 serologic tests for 929 (2 immunoblot formats using bovine hydatid cyst fluid [IBCF] and recombinant EpC1 glutathione S-transferase [rEpC1-GST] antigens). For the IBCF and rEpC1-GST testing, prevalence of liver and pulmonary CE was 4.7% and 1.1% and seropositivity was 8.9% and 19.7%, respectively. Frequency of seropositive results for IBCF and rEpC1-GST testing was 35.7% and 16.7% (all hepatic cysts), 47.1% and 29.4% (hepatic calcifications excluded), and 22.2% and 33.3% (lung cysts), respectively. Weak immune response against lung cysts, calcified cysts, small cysts, and cysts in sites other than lung and liver might explain the poor performance of the serodiagnostic tests. We confirm that CE is highly endemic to Peru and emphasize the limited performance of available serologic assays in the field. PMID:18258119</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4320136','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4320136"><span id="translatedtitle">Iron absorption in raw and cooked <span class="hlt">bananas</span>: a field study using stable isotopes in women</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>García, Olga P.; Martínez, Mara; Romano, Diana; Camacho, Mariela; de Moura, Fabiana F.; Abrams, Steve A.; Khanna, Harjeet K.; Dale, James L.; Rosado, Jorge L.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Background <span class="hlt">Banana</span> is a staple food in many regions with high iron deficiency and may be a potential vehicle for iron fortification. However, iron absorption from <span class="hlt">bananas</span> is not known. Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate total iron absorption from raw and cooked <span class="hlt">bananas</span>. Design Thirty women (34.9±6.6 years) from rural Mexico were randomly assigned to one of two groups each consuming: 1) 480 g/day of raw <span class="hlt">banana</span> for 6 days, or 2) 500 g/day of cooked <span class="hlt">banana</span> for 4 days. Iron absorption was measured after extrinsically labeling with 2 mg of 58Fe and a reference dose of 6 mg 57Fe; analysis was done using ICP-MS. Results Iron content in cooked <span class="hlt">bananas</span> was significantly higher than raw <span class="hlt">bananas</span> (0.53 mg/100 g <span class="hlt">bananas</span> vs. 0.33 mg/100 mg <span class="hlt">bananas</span>, respectively) (p<0.001). Percent iron absorption was significantly higher in raw <span class="hlt">bananas</span> (49.3±21.3%) compared with cooked <span class="hlt">banana</span> (33.9±16.2%) (p=0.035). Total amount of iron absorbed from raw and cooked <span class="hlt">bananas</span> was similar (0.77±0.33 mg vs. 0.86±0.41 mg, respectively). Conclusion Total amount of absorbed iron is similar between cooked and raw <span class="hlt">bananas</span>. The <span class="hlt">banana</span> matrix does not affect iron absorption and is therefore a potential effective target for genetic modification for iron biofortification. PMID:25660254</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950009780','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950009780"><span id="translatedtitle">Tartarus Colles: A sampling of the Martian <span class="hlt">highlands</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Murchie, Scott; Treiman, Allan</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Several of the most fundamental issues about the geology of Mars can be addressed using information on composition and structure of the plateau plains ('<span class="hlt">highlands</span>') that cover approximately half the planet. The units that compose the <span class="hlt">highlands</span> are interpreted as a mixture of volcanic, fluvial, lacustrine, and impact ejecta deposits. A more precise inventory of differing of igneous and sedimentary lithologies in <span class="hlt">highland</span> rock units would not only lead to a better understanding of how the plateau plains formed, but would also clarify the nature of the surface environment during the first 800 m.y. of martian history. Structural features including bedforms, joints, and small faults that are unresolved from orbit record a history of the emplacement and deformation of the <span class="hlt">highlands</span>. In addition, weathering products present in this very ancient terrain represent a mineralogic record of past climate and of the pathways by which bedrock is altered chemically. Their similarity or dissimilarity to bright soils observed spectroscopically and in situ at the Viking Lander sites will be evidence for the relative roles of regional sources and global eolian transport in producing the widespread cover of 'dust.' Unfortunately, these issues are difficult to address in the plateau plains proper, because bedrock is covered by mobile sand and weathering products, which dominate both surface composition and remotely measurable spectral properties. However, the 'Tartarus Colles' site, located at 11.41 deg N, 197.69 deg W at an elevation of -1 km, provides an excellent opportunity to address the <span class="hlt">highland</span> geology within the mission constraints of Mars Pathfinder. The site is mapped as unit HNu, and consists of knobby remnants of deeply eroded <span class="hlt">highlands</span>. It contains rolling hills, but lacks steep escarpments and massifs common in most <span class="hlt">highland</span> remnants, and is free of large channels that would have removed colluvium from eroded upper portions of the stratigraphic column. These</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11265448','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11265448"><span id="translatedtitle">Acetylation and characterization of <span class="hlt">banana</span> (Musa paradisiaca) starch.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bello-Pérez, L A; Contreras-Ramos, S M; Jìmenez-Aparicio, A; Paredes-López, O</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Banana</span> native starch was acetylated and some of its functional properties were evaluated and compared to corn starch. In general, acetylated <span class="hlt">banana</span> starch presented higher values in ash, protein and fat than corn acetylated starch. The modified starches had minor tendency to retrogradation assessed as % transmittance of starch pastes. At high temperature acetylated starches presented a water retention capacity similar to their native counterpart. The acetylation considerably increased the solubility of starches, and a similar behavior was found for swelling power. When freeze-thaw stability was studied, acetyl <span class="hlt">banana</span> starch drained approximately 60% of water in the first and second cycles, but in the third and fourth cycles the percentage of separated water was low. However, acetyl corn starch showed lower freeze-thaw stability than the untreated sample. The modification increased the viscosity of <span class="hlt">banana</span> starch pastes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24874383','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24874383"><span id="translatedtitle">Lipophilic phytochemicals from <span class="hlt">banana</span> fruits of several Musa species.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vilela, Carla; Santos, Sónia A O; Villaverde, Juan J; Oliveira, Lúcia; Nunes, Alberto; Cordeiro, Nereida; Freire, Carmen S R; Silvestre, Armando J D</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>The chemical composition of the lipophilic extract of ripe pulp of <span class="hlt">banana</span> fruit from several <span class="hlt">banana</span> cultivars belonging to the Musa acuminata and Musa balbisiana species (namely 'Chinese Cavendish', 'Giant Cavendish', 'Dwarf Red', 'Grand Nain', 'Eilon', 'Gruesa', 'Silver', 'Ricasa', 'Williams' and 'Zelig') was studied by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the first time. The <span class="hlt">banana</span> cultivars showed similar amounts of lipophilic extractives (ca. 0.4% of dry material weight) as well as qualitative chemical compositions. The major groups of compounds identified in these fractions were fatty acids and sterols making up 68.6-84.3% and 11.1-28.0%, respectively, of the total amount of lipophilic components. Smaller amounts of long chain aliphatic alcohols and α-tocopherol were also identified. These results are a relevant contribution for the valorisation of these <span class="hlt">banana</span> cultivars as sources of valuable phytochemicals (ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids, and sterols) with well-established beneficial nutritional and health effects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JPhCS.591a2010M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JPhCS.591a2010M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Banana</span> orbits in elliptic tokamaks with hole currents</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Martin, P.; Castro, E.; Puerta, J.</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Ware Pinch is a consequence of breaking of up-down symmetry due to the inductive electric field. This symmetry breaking happens, though up-down symmetry for magnetic surface is assumed. In previous work Ware Pinch and <span class="hlt">banana</span> orbits were studied for tokamak magnetic surface with ellipticity and triangularity, but up-down symmetry. Hole currents appear in large tokamaks and their influence in Ware Pinch and <span class="hlt">banana</span> orbits are now considered here for tokamaks magnetic surfaces with ellipticity and triangularity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26657016','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26657016"><span id="translatedtitle">Transgenic <span class="hlt">banana</span> plants expressing Xanthomonas wilt resistance genes revealed a stable non-target bacterial colonization structure.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nimusiima, Jean; Köberl, Martina; Tumuhairwe, John Baptist; Kubiriba, Jerome; Staver, Charles; Berg, Gabriele</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Africa</span> is among the continents where the battle over genetically modified crops is currently being played out. The impact of GM in <span class="hlt">Africa</span> could potentially be very positive. In Uganda, researchers have developed transgenic <span class="hlt">banana</span> lines resistant to <span class="hlt">banana</span> Xanthomonas wilt. The transgenic lines expressing hrap and pflp can provide a timely solution to the pandemic. However, the impact of the transgenes expression on non-target microorganisms has not yet been investigated. To study this effect, transgenic and control lines were grown under field conditions and their associated microbiome was investigated by 16S rRNA gene profiling combining amplicon sequencing and molecular fingerprinting. Three years after sucker planting, no statistically significant differences between transgenic lines and their non-modified predecessors were detected for their associated bacterial communities. The overall gammaproteobacterial rhizosphere microbiome was highly dominated by Xanthomonadales, while Pseudomonadales and Enterobacteriales were accumulated in the pseudostem. Shannon indices revealed much higher diversity in the rhizosphere than in the pseudostem endosphere. However, the expression of the transgenes did not result in changes in the diversity of Gammaproteobacteria, the closest relatives of the target pathogen. In this field experiment, the expression of the resistance genes appears to have no consequences for non-target rhizobacteria and endophytes. PMID:26657016</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4674801','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4674801"><span id="translatedtitle">Transgenic <span class="hlt">banana</span> plants expressing Xanthomonas wilt resistance genes revealed a stable non-target bacterial colonization structure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Nimusiima, Jean; Köberl, Martina; Tumuhairwe, John Baptist; Kubiriba, Jerome; Staver, Charles; Berg, Gabriele</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Africa</span> is among the continents where the battle over genetically modified crops is currently being played out. The impact of GM in <span class="hlt">Africa</span> could potentially be very positive. In Uganda, researchers have developed transgenic <span class="hlt">banana</span> lines resistant to <span class="hlt">banana</span> Xanthomonas wilt. The transgenic lines expressing hrap and pflp can provide a timely solution to the pandemic. However, the impact of the transgenes expression on non-target microorganisms has not yet been investigated. To study this effect, transgenic and control lines were grown under field conditions and their associated microbiome was investigated by 16S rRNA gene profiling combining amplicon sequencing and molecular fingerprinting. Three years after sucker planting, no statistically significant differences between transgenic lines and their non-modified predecessors were detected for their associated bacterial communities. The overall gammaproteobacterial rhizosphere microbiome was highly dominated by Xanthomonadales, while Pseudomonadales and Enterobacteriales were accumulated in the pseudostem. Shannon indices revealed much higher diversity in the rhizosphere than in the pseudostem endosphere. However, the expression of the transgenes did not result in changes in the diversity of Gammaproteobacteria, the closest relatives of the target pathogen. In this field experiment, the expression of the resistance genes appears to have no consequences for non-target rhizobacteria and endophytes. PMID:26657016</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26657016','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26657016"><span id="translatedtitle">Transgenic <span class="hlt">banana</span> plants expressing Xanthomonas wilt resistance genes revealed a stable non-target bacterial colonization structure.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nimusiima, Jean; Köberl, Martina; Tumuhairwe, John Baptist; Kubiriba, Jerome; Staver, Charles; Berg, Gabriele</p> <p>2015-12-10</p> <p><span class="hlt">Africa</span> is among the continents where the battle over genetically modified crops is currently being played out. The impact of GM in <span class="hlt">Africa</span> could potentially be very positive. In Uganda, researchers have developed transgenic <span class="hlt">banana</span> lines resistant to <span class="hlt">banana</span> Xanthomonas wilt. The transgenic lines expressing hrap and pflp can provide a timely solution to the pandemic. However, the impact of the transgenes expression on non-target microorganisms has not yet been investigated. To study this effect, transgenic and control lines were grown under field conditions and their associated microbiome was investigated by 16S rRNA gene profiling combining amplicon sequencing and molecular fingerprinting. Three years after sucker planting, no statistically significant differences between transgenic lines and their non-modified predecessors were detected for their associated bacterial communities. The overall gammaproteobacterial rhizosphere microbiome was highly dominated by Xanthomonadales, while Pseudomonadales and Enterobacteriales were accumulated in the pseudostem. Shannon indices revealed much higher diversity in the rhizosphere than in the pseudostem endosphere. However, the expression of the transgenes did not result in changes in the diversity of Gammaproteobacteria, the closest relatives of the target pathogen. In this field experiment, the expression of the resistance genes appears to have no consequences for non-target rhizobacteria and endophytes.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA03396&hterms=waterfall&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dwaterfall','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA03396&hterms=waterfall&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dwaterfall"><span id="translatedtitle">Guiana <span class="hlt">Highlands</span>, Shaded Relief and Colored Height</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p><p/> [figure removed for brevity, see original site] <p/>These two images show exactly the same area in South America, the Guiana <span class="hlt">Highlands</span> straddling the borders of Venezuela, Guyana and Brazil. The image on the left was created using the best global topographic data set previously available, the U.S. Geological Survey's GTOPO30. In contrast, the image on the right was generated with a new data set recently released by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) called SRTM30, which represents a significant improvement in our knowledge of the topography of much of the world.<p/>GTOPO30, with a resolution of about 928 meters (1496 feet), was developed over a three-year period and published in 1996, and since then has been the primary source of digital elevation data for scientists and analysts involved in global studies. However, since it was compiled from a number of different map sources with varying attributes, the data for some parts of the globe were inconsistent or of low quality.<p/>The SRTM data, on the other hand, were collected within a ten-day period using the same instrument in a uniform fashion, and were processed into elevation data using consistent processing techniques. Thus SRTM30 provides a new resource of uniform quality for all parts of the Earth, and since the data, which have an intrinsic resolution of about 30 meters, were averaged and resampled to match the GTOPO30 sample spacing and format, and can be used by the same computer software without modification.<p/>The Guiana <span class="hlt">Highlands</span> are part of the Guyana Shield, which lies in northeast South America and represent one of the oldest land surfaces in the world. Chemical weathering over many millions of years has created a landscape of flat-topped table mountains with dramatic, steep cliffs with a large number of spectacular waterfalls. For example Angel Falls, at 979 meters the highest waterfall in the world, plunges from Auyan Tebuy, part of a mesa of the type that may have been the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25665685','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25665685"><span id="translatedtitle">Left ventricular adaptation to high altitude: speckle tracking echocardiography in lowlanders, healthy <span class="hlt">highlanders</span> and <span class="hlt">highlanders</span> with chronic mountain sickness.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dedobbeleer, Chantal; Hadefi, Alia; Pichon, Aurelien; Villafuerte, Francisco; Naeije, Robert; Unger, Philippe</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Hypoxic exposure depresses myocardial contractility in vitro, but has been associated with indices of increased cardiac performance in intact animals and in humans, possibly related to sympathetic nervous system activation. We explored left ventricular (LV) function using speckle tracking echocardiography and sympathetic tone by spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) in recently acclimatized lowlanders versus adapted or maladapted <span class="hlt">highlanders</span> at high altitude. Twenty-six recently acclimatized lowlanders, 14 healthy <span class="hlt">highlanders</span> and 12 <span class="hlt">highlanders</span> with chronic mountain sickness (CMS) were studied. Control measurements at sea level were also obtained in the lowlanders. Altitude exposure in the lowlanders was associated with slightly increased blood pressure, decreased LV volumes and decreased longitudinal strain with a trend to increased prevalence of post-systolic shortening (p = 0.06), whereas the low frequency/high frequency (LF/HF) ratio increased (1.62 ± 0.81 vs. 5.08 ± 4.13, p < 0.05) indicating sympathetic activation. <span class="hlt">Highlanders</span> had a similarly raised LF/HF ratio, but no alteration in LV deformation. <span class="hlt">Highlanders</span> with CMS had no change in LV deformation, no significant increase in LF/HF, but decreased global HRV still suggestive of increased sympathetic tone, and lower mitral E/A ratio compared to healthy <span class="hlt">highlanders</span>. Short-term altitude exposure in lowlanders alters indices of LV systolic function and increases sympathetic nervous system tone. Life-long altitude exposure in <span class="hlt">highlanders</span> is associated with similar sympathetic hyperactivity, but preserved parameters of LV function, whereas diastolic function may be altered in those with CMS. Altered LV systolic function in recently acclimatized lowlanders may be explained by combined effects of hypoxia and changes in loading conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080048268&hterms=Respiratory+system&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3D%2528Respiratory%2Bsystem%2529','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080048268&hterms=Respiratory+system&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3D%2528Respiratory%2Bsystem%2529"><span id="translatedtitle">Respiratory Toxicity of Lunar <span class="hlt">Highland</span> Dust</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>James, John T.; Lam, Chiu-wing; Wallace, William T.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Lunar dust exposures occurred during the Apollo missions while the crew was on the lunar surface and especially when microgravity conditions were attained during rendezvous in lunar orbit. Crews reported that the dust was irritating to the eyes and in some cases respiratory symptoms were elicited. NASA s vision for lunar exploration includes stays of 6 months on the lunar surface hence the health effects of periodic exposure to lunar dust need to be assessed. NASA has performed this assessment with a series of in vitro and in vivo tests on authentic lunar dust. Our approach is to "calibrate" the intrinsic toxicity of lunar dust by comparison to a nontoxic dust (TiO2) and a highly toxic dust (quartz) using intratrachael instillation of the dusts in mice. A battery of indices of toxicity is assessed at various time points after the instillations. Cultures of selected cells are exposed to test dusts to assess the adverse effects on the cells. Finally, chemical systems are used to assess the nature of the reactivity of various dusts and to determine the persistence of reactivity under various environmental conditions that are relevant to a space habitat. Similar systems are used to assess the dissolution of the dust. From these studies we will be able to set a defensible inhalation exposure standard for aged dust and predict whether we need a separate standard for reactive dust. Presently-available data suggest that aged lunar <span class="hlt">highland</span> dust is slightly toxic, that it can adversely affect cultured cells, and that the surface reactivity induced by grinding the dust persists for a few hours after activation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24887593','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24887593"><span id="translatedtitle">Protocol for simultaneous isolation of three important <span class="hlt">banana</span> allergens.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nikolic, Jasna; Mrkic, Ivan; Grozdanovic, Milica; Popovic, Milica; Petersen, Arnd; Jappe, Uta; Gavrovic-Jankulovic, Marija</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Banana</span> fruit (Musa acuminata) has become an important food allergen source in recent years. So far, 5 IgE reactive <span class="hlt">banana</span> proteins have been identified, and the major allergens are: Mus a 2 (a class I chitinase, 31kDa), Mus a 4 (thaumatin-like protein, 21kDa), and Mus a 5 (β-1,3-glucanase, 33kDa). Due to variations in allergen expression levels, diagnostic reagents for food allergy can be improved by using individual allergen components instead of <span class="hlt">banana</span> allergen extracts. The purpose of this study was to optimize the purification protocol of the three major allergens present in <span class="hlt">banana</span> fruit: Mus a 2, Mus a 4 and Mus a 5. By employing a three-step purification protocol (a combination of anion-exchange, cation-exchange and reversed-phase chromatography) three important <span class="hlt">banana</span> allergens were obtained in sufficient yield and high purity. Characterization of the purified proteins was performed by both biochemical (2-D PAGE, mass fingerprint and N-terminal sequencing) and immunochemical (immunoblot) methods. IgE reactivity to the purified allergens was tested by employing sera of five allergic patients. The purified allergens displayed higher sensitivity in IgE detection than the routinely used extracts. The three purified allergens are good candidates for reagents in component-based diagnosis of <span class="hlt">banana</span> allergy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5003829','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5003829"><span id="translatedtitle">Metabolism of Flavonoids in Novel <span class="hlt">Banana</span> Germplasm during Fruit Development</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Dong, Chen; Hu, Huigang; Hu, Yulin; Xie, Jianghui</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Banana</span> is a commercially important fruit, but its flavonoid composition and characteristics has not been well studied in detail. In the present study, the metabolism of flavonoids was investigated in <span class="hlt">banana</span> pulp during the entire developmental period of fruit. ‘Xiangfen 1,’ a novel flavonoid-rich <span class="hlt">banana</span> germplasm, was studied with ‘Brazil’ serving as a control. In both varieties, flavonoids were found to exist mainly in free soluble form and quercetin was the predominant flavonoid. The most abundant free soluble flavonoid was cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride, and quercetin was the major conjugated soluble and bound flavonoid. Higher content of soluble flavonoids was associated with stronger antioxidant activity compared with the bound flavonoids. Strong correlation was observed between antioxidant activity and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride content, suggesting that cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride is one of the major antioxidants in <span class="hlt">banana</span>. In addition, compared with ‘Brazil,’ ‘Xiangfen 1’ fruit exhibited higher antioxidant activity and had more total flavonoids. These results indicate that soluble flavonoids play a key role in the antioxidant activity of <span class="hlt">banana</span>, and ‘Xiangfen 1’ <span class="hlt">banana</span> can be a rich source of natural antioxidants in human diets. PMID:27625665</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20681667','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20681667"><span id="translatedtitle">Sap phytochemical compositions of some <span class="hlt">bananas</span> in Thailand.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pothavorn, Pongsagon; Kitdamrongsont, Kasipong; Swangpol, Sasivimon; Wongniam, Siripope; Atawongsa, Kanokporn; Savasti, Jisnuson; Somana, Jamorn</p> <p>2010-08-11</p> <p><span class="hlt">Banana</span> sap has some special properties relating to various phenomena such as browning of fruits after harvesting, permanent staining of cloth and fibers, and antioxidant and antibleeding properties. Analysis of <span class="hlt">banana</span> sap using high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) indicated the presence of phenolic and aromatic amino compounds of interest due to their special properties. With the online positive electrospray ionization mode (ESI), the possible structures of specific compounds were determined from the fragmentation patterns of each particular ion appearing in the mass spectra. The major compounds revealed from the sap of <span class="hlt">banana</span> accessions, namely, Musa balbisiana , Musa laterita , Musa ornata , and Musa acuminata , and some cultivars were apigenin glycosides, myricetin glycoside, myricetin-3-O-rutinoside, naringenin glycosides, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside, dopamine, and N-acetylserotonin. The results indicated that there was a variety of phenolic and aromatic amino contents in many <span class="hlt">banana</span> species. These compounds were reported to relate with biological activities. Moreover, the identities of these phytochemical compositions may be used as markers for <span class="hlt">banana</span> diet, the assessment of physiochemical status, or the classification of <span class="hlt">banana</span> clones.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10995341','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10995341"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of cooking on <span class="hlt">banana</span> and plantain texture.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Qi, B; Moore, K G; Orchard, J</p> <p>2000-09-01</p> <p>The effect of temperature and duration of cooking on plantain and <span class="hlt">banana</span> fruit texture and cytpoplasmic and cell wall components was investigated. The firmness of both <span class="hlt">banana</span> and plantain pulp tissues decreased rapidly during the first 10 min of cooking in water above 70 degrees C, although plantain was much firmer than <span class="hlt">banana</span>. Cooking resulted in pectin solubilzation and middle lamella dissolution leading to cell wall separation (as observed by SEM). Dessert <span class="hlt">banana</span> showed more advanced and extensive breakdown than plantain. Although dessert <span class="hlt">banana</span> had a higher total pectin content than plantain, the former had smaller-sized carboxyethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (CDTA) soluble pectic polymers which are associated with plant tissues that have a propensity to soften. Plantain had higher levels of starch and amylose than <span class="hlt">banana</span> but this was associated with a firmer fruit texture rather than a softening due to cell swelling during starch gelatinization. Different cooking treatments showed that cooking in 0.5% of CaCl(2) solution and temperatures below 70 degrees C had significant effects on maintenance of pulp firmness.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5003829','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5003829"><span id="translatedtitle">Metabolism of Flavonoids in Novel <span class="hlt">Banana</span> Germplasm during Fruit Development</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Dong, Chen; Hu, Huigang; Hu, Yulin; Xie, Jianghui</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Banana</span> is a commercially important fruit, but its flavonoid composition and characteristics has not been well studied in detail. In the present study, the metabolism of flavonoids was investigated in <span class="hlt">banana</span> pulp during the entire developmental period of fruit. ‘Xiangfen 1,’ a novel flavonoid-rich <span class="hlt">banana</span> germplasm, was studied with ‘Brazil’ serving as a control. In both varieties, flavonoids were found to exist mainly in free soluble form and quercetin was the predominant flavonoid. The most abundant free soluble flavonoid was cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride, and quercetin was the major conjugated soluble and bound flavonoid. Higher content of soluble flavonoids was associated with stronger antioxidant activity compared with the bound flavonoids. Strong correlation was observed between antioxidant activity and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride content, suggesting that cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride is one of the major antioxidants in <span class="hlt">banana</span>. In addition, compared with ‘Brazil,’ ‘Xiangfen 1’ fruit exhibited higher antioxidant activity and had more total flavonoids. These results indicate that soluble flavonoids play a key role in the antioxidant activity of <span class="hlt">banana</span>, and ‘Xiangfen 1’ <span class="hlt">banana</span> can be a rich source of natural antioxidants in human diets.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27625665','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27625665"><span id="translatedtitle">Metabolism of Flavonoids in Novel <span class="hlt">Banana</span> Germplasm during Fruit Development.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dong, Chen; Hu, Huigang; Hu, Yulin; Xie, Jianghui</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Banana</span> is a commercially important fruit, but its flavonoid composition and characteristics has not been well studied in detail. In the present study, the metabolism of flavonoids was investigated in <span class="hlt">banana</span> pulp during the entire developmental period of fruit. 'Xiangfen 1,' a novel flavonoid-rich <span class="hlt">banana</span> germplasm, was studied with 'Brazil' serving as a control. In both varieties, flavonoids were found to exist mainly in free soluble form and quercetin was the predominant flavonoid. The most abundant free soluble flavonoid was cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride, and quercetin was the major conjugated soluble and bound flavonoid. Higher content of soluble flavonoids was associated with stronger antioxidant activity compared with the bound flavonoids. Strong correlation was observed between antioxidant activity and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride content, suggesting that cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride is one of the major antioxidants in <span class="hlt">banana</span>. In addition, compared with 'Brazil,' 'Xiangfen 1' fruit exhibited higher antioxidant activity and had more total flavonoids. These results indicate that soluble flavonoids play a key role in the antioxidant activity of <span class="hlt">banana</span>, and 'Xiangfen 1' <span class="hlt">banana</span> can be a rich source of natural antioxidants in human diets. PMID:27625665</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27052947','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27052947"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Banana</span> peel: an effective biosorbent for aflatoxins.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shar, Zahid Hussain; Fletcher, Mary T; Sumbal, Gul Amer; Sherazi, Syed Tufail Hussain; Giles, Cindy; Bhanger, Muhammad Iqbal; Nizamani, Shafi Muhammad</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>This work reports the application of <span class="hlt">banana</span> peel as a novel bioadsorbent for in vitro removal of five mycotoxins (aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2) and ochratoxin A). The effect of operational parameters including initial pH, adsorbent dose, contact time and temperature were studied in batch adsorption experiments. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and point of zero charge (pHpzc) analysis were used to characterise the adsorbent material. Aflatoxins' adsorption equilibrium was achieved in 15 min, with highest adsorption at alkaline pH (6-8), while ochratoxin has not shown any significant adsorption due to surface charge repulsion. The experimental equilibrium data were tested by Langmuir, Freundlich and Hill isotherms. The Langmuir isotherm was found to be the best fitted model for aflatoxins, and the maximum monolayer coverage (Q0) was determined to be 8.4, 9.5, 0.4 and 1.1 ng mg(-1) for AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2 respectively. Thermodynamic parameters including changes in free energy (ΔG), enthalpy (ΔH) and entropy (ΔS) were determined for the four aflatoxins. Free energy change and enthalpy change demonstrated that the adsorption process was exothermic and spontaneous. Adsorption and desorption study at different pH further demonstrated that the sorption of toxins was strong enough to sustain pH changes that would be experienced in the gastrointestinal tract. This study suggests that biosorption of aflatoxins by dried <span class="hlt">banana</span> peel may be an effective low-cost decontamination method for incorporation in animal feed diets. PMID:27052947</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27052947','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27052947"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Banana</span> peel: an effective biosorbent for aflatoxins.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shar, Zahid Hussain; Fletcher, Mary T; Sumbal, Gul Amer; Sherazi, Syed Tufail Hussain; Giles, Cindy; Bhanger, Muhammad Iqbal; Nizamani, Shafi Muhammad</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>This work reports the application of <span class="hlt">banana</span> peel as a novel bioadsorbent for in vitro removal of five mycotoxins (aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2) and ochratoxin A). The effect of operational parameters including initial pH, adsorbent dose, contact time and temperature were studied in batch adsorption experiments. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and point of zero charge (pHpzc) analysis were used to characterise the adsorbent material. Aflatoxins' adsorption equilibrium was achieved in 15 min, with highest adsorption at alkaline pH (6-8), while ochratoxin has not shown any significant adsorption due to surface charge repulsion. The experimental equilibrium data were tested by Langmuir, Freundlich and Hill isotherms. The Langmuir isotherm was found to be the best fitted model for aflatoxins, and the maximum monolayer coverage (Q0) was determined to be 8.4, 9.5, 0.4 and 1.1 ng mg(-1) for AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2 respectively. Thermodynamic parameters including changes in free energy (ΔG), enthalpy (ΔH) and entropy (ΔS) were determined for the four aflatoxins. Free energy change and enthalpy change demonstrated that the adsorption process was exothermic and spontaneous. Adsorption and desorption study at different pH further demonstrated that the sorption of toxins was strong enough to sustain pH changes that would be experienced in the gastrointestinal tract. This study suggests that biosorption of aflatoxins by dried <span class="hlt">banana</span> peel may be an effective low-cost decontamination method for incorporation in animal feed diets.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22365762','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22365762"><span id="translatedtitle">EARTHSHINE ON A YOUNG MOON: EXPLAINING THE LUNAR FARSIDE <span class="hlt">HIGHLANDS</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Roy, Arpita; Wright, Jason T.; Sigurðsson, Steinn</p> <p>2014-06-20</p> <p>The lunar farside <span class="hlt">highlands</span> problem refers to the curious and unexplained fact that the farside lunar crust is thicker, on average, than the nearside crust. Here we recognize the crucial influence of Earthshine, and propose that it naturally explains this hemispheric dichotomy. Since the accreting Moon rapidly achieved synchronous rotation, a surface and atmospheric thermal gradient was imposed by the proximity of the hot, post-giant impact Earth. This gradient guided condensation of atmospheric and accreting material, preferentially depositing crust-forming refractories on the cooler farside, resulting in a primordial bulk chemical inhomogeneity that seeded the crustal asymmetry. Our model provides a causal solution to the lunar <span class="hlt">highlands</span> problem: the thermal gradient created by Earthshine produced the chemical gradient responsible for the crust thickness dichotomy that defines the lunar <span class="hlt">highlands</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6148580','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6148580"><span id="translatedtitle">Predicting potential effects of climate change on Ozark <span class="hlt">Highlands</span> streams</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Willson, G.D.; Rabeni, C.F.; Galat, D.L. )</p> <p>1993-06-01</p> <p>The Ozark <span class="hlt">Highlands</span> biogeographic area centers on two National Park Service units: Ozark National Scenic Riverways in Missouri and Buffalo National River in Arkansas. The Ozark <span class="hlt">Highlands</span> is part of a national network of 20 research sites established to determine the potential influence of global change on ecosystems and their adaptability. The Ozark <span class="hlt">Highlands</span> program will integrate historic and proxy stream flows, fluvial geomorphology, and trophic-level responses in streams to model aquatic systems under mid-continent, climate change scenarios. Climate change in Ozarks streams will likely alter hydrologic/geomorphic patterns and disrupt community structure and ecological processes. Initially, the program has focused on defining variation inherent in stream systems and how ecological processes and biota respond to that variability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=primary+AND+resource&pg=6&id=EJ918643','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=primary+AND+resource&pg=6&id=EJ918643"><span id="translatedtitle">"Free Primary Education" in Lesotho and the Disadvantages of the <span class="hlt">Highlands</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Urwick, James</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This article explores the effects of national policies associated with "Education for All" on a disadvantaged region, the <span class="hlt">highlands</span> of Lesotho. Since 2000 a programme of "Free Primary Education" has improved the position of the <span class="hlt">highlands</span> in access to primary schooling; nevertheless, <span class="hlt">highland</span> primary schools compare poorly with those in the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11678279','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11678279"><span id="translatedtitle">Molecular cloning and characterisation of <span class="hlt">banana</span> fruit polyphenol oxidase.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gooding, P S; Bird, C; Robinson, S P</p> <p>2001-09-01</p> <p>Polyphenol oxidase (PPO; EC 1.10.3.2) is the enzyme thought to be responsible for browning in <span class="hlt">banana</span> [Musa cavendishii (AAA group, Cavendish subgroup) cv. Williams] fruit. <span class="hlt">Banana</span> flesh was high in PPO activity throughout growth and ripening. Peel showed high levels of activity early in development but activity declined until ripening started and then remained constant. PPO activity in fruit was not substantially induced after wounding or treatment with 5-methyl jasmonate. <span class="hlt">Banana</span> flowers and unexpanded leaf roll had high PPO activities with lower activities observed in mature leaves, roots and stem. Four different PPO cDNA clones were amplified from <span class="hlt">banana</span> fruit (BPO1, BPO11, BPO34 and BPO35). Full-length cDNA and genomic clones were isolated for the most abundant sequence (BPO1) and the genomic clone was found to contain an 85-bp intron. Introns have not been previously found in PPO genes. Northern analysis revealed the presence of BPO1 mRNA in <span class="hlt">banana</span> flesh early in development but little BPO1 mRNA was detected at the same stage in <span class="hlt">banana</span> peel. BPO11 transcript was only detected in very young flesh and there was no detectable expression of BPO34 or BPO35 in developing fruit samples. PPO transcripts were also low throughout ripening in both flesh and peel. BPO1 transcripts were readily detected in flowers, stem, roots and leaf roll samples but were not detected in mature leaves. BPO11 showed a similar pattern of expression to BPO1 in these tissues but transcript levels were much lower. BPO34 and BPO35 mRNAs were only detected at a low level in flowers and roots and BPO34 transcript was detected in mature leaves, the only clone to do so. The results suggest that browning of <span class="hlt">banana</span> fruit during ripening results from release of pre-existing PPO enzyme, which is synthesised very early in fruit development.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.water.usgs.gov/sir2004-5294/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.water.usgs.gov/sir2004-5294/"><span id="translatedtitle">Hydrogeology of the Mogollon <span class="hlt">Highlands</span>, central Arizona</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Parker, John T.C.; Steinkampf, William C.; Flynn, Marilyn E.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>The Mogollon <span class="hlt">Highlands</span>, 4,855 square miles of rugged, mountainous terrain at the southern edge of the Colorado Plateau in central Arizona, is characterized by a bedrock-dominated hydrologic system that results in an incompletely integrated regional ground-water system, flashy streamflow, and various local water-bearing zones that are sensitive to drought. Increased demand on the water resources of the area as a result of recreational activities and population growth have made necessary an increased understanding of the hydrogeology of the region. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a study of the geology and hydrology of the region in cooperation with the Arizona Department of Water Resources under the auspices of the Arizona Rural Watershed Initiative, a program launched in 1998 to assist rural areas in dealing with water-resources issues. The study involved the analysis of geologic maps, surface-water and ground-water flow, and water and rock chemical data and spatial relationships to characterize the hydrogeologic framework. The study area includes the southwestern corner of the Colorado Plateau and the Mogollon Rim, which is the eroded edge of the plateau. A 3,000- to 4,000-foot sequence of early to late Paleozoic sedimentary rocks forms the generally south-facing scarp of the Mogollon Rim. The area adjacent to the edge of the Mogollon Rim is an erosional landscape of rolling, step-like terrain exposing Proterozoic metamorphic and granitic rocks. Farther south, the Sierra Ancha and Mazatzal Mountain ranges, which are composed of various Proterozoic rocks, flank an alluvial basin filled with late Cenozoic sediments and volcanic flows. Eight streams with perennial to intermittent to ephemeral flow drain upland regions of the Mogollon Rim and flow into the Salt River on the southern boundary or the Verde River on the western boundary. Ground-water flow paths generally are controlled by large-scale fracture systems or by karst features in carbonate rocks. Stream</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2636824','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2636824"><span id="translatedtitle">Costs of early detection systems for epidemic malaria in <span class="hlt">highland</span> areas of Kenya and Uganda</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Mueller, Dirk H; Abeku, Tarekegn A; Okia, Michael; Rapuoda, Beth; Cox, Jonathan</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Background Malaria epidemics cause substantial morbidity and mortality in <span class="hlt">highland</span> areas of <span class="hlt">Africa</span>. The costs of detecting and controlling these epidemics have not been explored adequately in the past. This study presents the costs of establishing and running an early detection system (EDS) for epidemic malaria in four districts in the <span class="hlt">highlands</span> of Kenya and Uganda. Methods An economic costing was carried out from the health service provider's perspective in both countries. Staff time for data entry and processing, as well as supervising and coordinating EDS activities at district and national levels was recorded and associated opportunity costs estimated. A threshold analysis was carried out to determine the number of DALYs or deaths that would need to be averted in order for the EDS to be considered cost-effective. Results The total costs of the EDS per district per year ranged between US$ 14,439 and 15,512. Salaries were identified as major cost-drivers, although their relative contribution to overall costs varied by country. Costs of relaying surveillance data between facilities and district offices (typically by hand) were also substantial. Data from Uganda indicated that 4% or more of overall costs could potentially be saved by switching to data transfer via mobile phones. Based on commonly used thresholds, 96 DALYs in Uganda and 103 DALYs in Kenya would need to be averted annually in each district for the EDS to be considered cost-effective. Conclusion Results from this analysis suggest that EDS are likely to be cost-effective. Further studies that include the costs and effects of the health systems' reaction prompted by EDS will need to be undertaken in order to obtain comprehensive cost-effectiveness estimates. PMID:19149878</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=315686','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=315686"><span id="translatedtitle">Iron absorption in raw and cooked <span class="hlt">bananas</span>: A field study using stable isotopes in women</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Banana</span> is a staple food in many regions with high iron deficiency and may be a potential vehicle for iron fortification. However, iron absorption from <span class="hlt">bananas</span> is not known. The objective of this study was to evaluate total iron absorption from raw and cooked <span class="hlt">bananas</span>. Thirty women (34.9 +/- 6.6 years...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-04-16/pdf/2012-9063.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-04-16/pdf/2012-9063.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">77 FR 22510 - Importation of Fresh <span class="hlt">Bananas</span> From the Philippines Into the Continental United States</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-04-16</p> <p>... establish low-prevalence places of production; Covering <span class="hlt">bananas</span> with pesticide bags during the growing... require <span class="hlt">bananas</span> to be grown at places of production that are registered with the NPPO of the Philippines... place of production to remain eligible to export <span class="hlt">bananas</span> to the United States. The NPPO of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=production+AND+banana&id=EJ1026562','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=production+AND+banana&id=EJ1026562"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of Information and Communication Technology Utilization by Small Holder <span class="hlt">Banana</span> Farmers in Gatanga District, Kenya</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Mwombe, Simon O. L.; Mugivane, Fred I.; Adolwa, Ivan S.; Nderitu, John H.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Purpose: The study was carried out to identify information communication technologies (ICTs) used in production and marketing of <span class="hlt">bananas</span>, to determine factors influencing intensity of use of ICT tools and to assess whether use of ICT has a significant influence on adoption of tissue culture <span class="hlt">bananas</span> by small-scale <span class="hlt">banana</span> farmers in Gatanga…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-02-07/pdf/2013-02775.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-02-07/pdf/2013-02775.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">78 FR 8957 - Importation of Fresh <span class="hlt">Bananas</span> From the Philippines into the Continental United States</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-02-07</p> <p>... establish low- prevalence places of production, harvesting only of hard green <span class="hlt">bananas</span>, and inspection for.... Commercial production of <span class="hlt">bananas</span> in the United States takes place in Hawaii, where most if not all of the... the place of production to remain eligible to export <span class="hlt">bananas</span> to the United States. The NPPO of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/project/misr/gallery/west_africa_haze','SCIGOV-ASDC'); return false;" href="https://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/project/misr/gallery/west_africa_haze"><span id="translatedtitle">West <span class="hlt">Africa</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/">Atmospheric Science Data Center </a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-04-16</p> <p>... article title:  Hazy and Dusty Skies over Western <span class="hlt">Africa</span>     View Larger Image ... the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude. These data products were generated from a portion of the ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/project/misr/gallery/s_africa_red_tide','SCIGOV-ASDC'); return false;" href="https://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/project/misr/gallery/s_africa_red_tide"><span id="translatedtitle">South <span class="hlt">Africa</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/">Atmospheric Science Data Center </a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-04-16</p> <p>article title:  Red Tide Strands South African Rock Lobsters     ... and on atmospheric and oceanic conditions. At Elands Bay in South <span class="hlt">Africa</span>'s Western Cape province, about 1000 tons of rock lobsters beached ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4204973','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4204973"><span id="translatedtitle">Production of bioethanol using agricultural waste: <span class="hlt">Banana</span> pseudo stem</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ingale, Snehal; Joshi, Sanket J.; Gupte, Akshaya</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>India is amongst the largest <span class="hlt">banana</span> (Musa acuminata) producing countries and thus <span class="hlt">banana</span> pseudo stem is commonly available agricultural waste to be used as lignocellulosic substrate. Present study focuses on exploitation of <span class="hlt">banana</span> pseudo stem as a source for bioethanol production from the sugars released due to different chemical and biological pretreatments. Two fungal strains Aspergillus ellipticus and Aspergillus fumigatus reported to be producing cellulolytic enzymes on sugarcane bagasse were used under co-culture fermentation on <span class="hlt">banana</span> pseudo stem to degrade holocellulose and facilitate maximum release of reducing sugars. The hydrolysate obtained after alkali and microbial treatments was fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae NCIM 3570 to produce ethanol. Fermentation of cellulosic hydrolysate (4.1 g%) gave maximum ethanol (17.1 g/L) with yield (84%) and productivity (0.024 g%/h) after 72 h. Some critical aspects of fungal pretreatment for saccharification of cellulosic substrate using A. ellipticus and A. fumigatus for ethanol production by S. cerevisiae NCIM 3570 have been explored in this study. It was observed that pretreated <span class="hlt">banana</span> pseudo stem can be economically utilized as a cheaper substrate for ethanol production. PMID:25477922</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11030554','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11030554"><span id="translatedtitle">Fruit-specific lectins from <span class="hlt">banana</span> and plantain.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Peumans, W J; Zhang, W; Barre, A; Houlès Astoul, C; Balint-Kurti, P J; Rovira, P; Rougé, P; May, G D; Van Leuven, F; Truffa-Bachi, P; Van Damme, E J</p> <p>2000-09-01</p> <p>One of the predominant proteins in the pulp of ripe <span class="hlt">bananas</span> (Musa acuminata L.) and plantains (Musa spp.) has been identified as a lectin. The <span class="hlt">banana</span> and plantain agglutinins (called BanLec and PlanLec, respectively) were purified in reasonable quantities using a novel isolation procedure, which prevented adsorption of the lectins onto insoluble endogenous polysaccharides. Both BanLec and PlanLec are dimeric proteins composed of two identical subunits of 15 kDa. They readily agglutinate rabbit erythrocytes and exhibit specificity towards mannose. Molecular cloning revealed that BanLec has sequence similarity to previously described lectins of the family of jacalin-related lectins, and according to molecular modelling studies has the same overall fold and three-dimensional structure. The identification of BanLec and PlanLec demonstrates the occurrence of jacalin-related lectins in monocot species, suggesting that these lectins are more widespread among higher plants than is actually believed. The <span class="hlt">banana</span> and plantain lectins are also the first documented examples of jacalin-related lectins, which are abundantly present in the pulp of mature fruits but are apparently absent from other tissues. However, after treatment of intact plants with methyl jasmonate, BanLec is also clearly induced in leaves. The <span class="hlt">banana</span> lectin is a powerful murine T-cell mitogen. The relevance of the mitogenicity of the <span class="hlt">banana</span> lectin is discussed in terms of both the physiological role of the lectin and the impact on food safety.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25477922','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25477922"><span id="translatedtitle">Production of bioethanol using agricultural waste: <span class="hlt">banana</span> pseudo stem.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ingale, Snehal; Joshi, Sanket J; Gupte, Akshaya</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>India is amongst the largest <span class="hlt">banana</span> (Musa acuminata) producing countries and thus <span class="hlt">banana</span> pseudo stem is commonly available agricultural waste to be used as lignocellulosic substrate. Present study focuses on exploitation of <span class="hlt">banana</span> pseudo stem as a source for bioethanol production from the sugars released due to different chemical and biological pretreatments. Two fungal strains Aspergillus ellipticus and Aspergillus fumigatus reported to be producing cellulolytic enzymes on sugarcane bagasse were used under co-culture fermentation on <span class="hlt">banana</span> pseudo stem to degrade holocellulose and facilitate maximum release of reducing sugars. The hydrolysate obtained after alkali and microbial treatments was fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae NCIM 3570 to produce ethanol. Fermentation of cellulosic hydrolysate (4.1 g%) gave maximum ethanol (17.1 g/L) with yield (84%) and productivity (0.024 g%/h) after 72 h. Some critical aspects of fungal pretreatment for saccharification of cellulosic substrate using A. ellipticus and A. fumigatus for ethanol production by S. cerevisiae NCIM 3570 have been explored in this study. It was observed that pretreated <span class="hlt">banana</span> pseudo stem can be economically utilized as a cheaper substrate for ethanol production.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED112475.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED112475.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Educational Leadership by Objectives. <span class="hlt">Highland</span>, Indiana Superintendency Team Assessment Plan.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Highland Public Schools, IN.</p> <p></p> <p>This publication describes the <span class="hlt">Highland</span> Superintendency Team Assessment Program, an effort to apply the principles of management by objectives to the evaluation of school district administrative personnel. Section 1 presents the basic rationale and goals of the assessment program and explains the concept of "educational leadership by objectives"…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ739889.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ739889.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">An Exploration of Myles Horton's Democratic Praxis: <span class="hlt">Highlander</span> Folk School</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Thayer-Bacon, Barbara J.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Highlander</span> Folk School is an adult education center located in eastern Tennessee that was formed in 1932 by Myles Horton and continues today. Myles Horton (1905-1990) hoped to create an independent adult learning center where people could come together and address their problems. He wanted to create a public space where people could learn from…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19730013041&hterms=orientale+basin&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dorientale%2Bbasin','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19730013041&hterms=orientale+basin&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dorientale%2Bbasin"><span id="translatedtitle">Descartes <span class="hlt">highlands</span>: Possible analogs around the Orientale Basin, part D</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Carroll, A. H.</p> <p>1972-01-01</p> <p>Two possible analogs, although not entirely satisfactory, offer reasonable alternatives to the volcanic interpretation of the Descartes <span class="hlt">highlands</span>. Reconsideration of this complex terrain, prompted by the preliminary results of the Apollo 16 mission, will lead to the revision of some theories on lunar volcanism and also to a better understanding of the landforms caused by the formation of multi-ring basins.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=326643','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=326643"><span id="translatedtitle">Virulence diversity of Uromyces Appendiculatus in the <span class="hlt">Highlands</span> of Guatemala</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The common bean is planted throughout Guatemala, especially in the <span class="hlt">highlands</span> of the South East, North East, and South West regions. In these regions, temperatures fluctuate between 16 y 20 °C and the average rain precipitation is about 1000 mm. These conditions are optimum for the rust disease and b...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780032326&hterms=metamorphic+rock&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3D%2528metamorphic%2Brock%2529','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780032326&hterms=metamorphic+rock&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3D%2528metamorphic%2Brock%2529"><span id="translatedtitle">On the age of KREEP. [in lunar <span class="hlt">highland</span> rocks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Palme, H.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>It is noted that the variable Rb-Sr model ages of lunar <span class="hlt">highland</span> rocks containing a significant amount of KREEP basalt may be best explained by some fractionation of Rb from Sr during metamorphism 3.9 billion years ago, but the uniformity of the KREEP-type trace-element pattern in different <span class="hlt">highland</span> samples indicates that elements such as the rare earth were hardly fractionated at all during the metamorphic event. Data are presented which show that the Rb/Sr fractionation 3.9 billion years ago was due to Rb mobilization alone in most cases and that this fractionation can be accounted for by coupling of Rb to other, less volatile incompatible elements. Variations of Rb in lunar <span class="hlt">highland</span> rocks are analyzed, a correction method is applied for the Rb/Sr fractionation, and results are evaluated separately for Apollo 16 VHA and KREEP basalts, Apollo 17 noritic breccias, Apollo 14 KREEP breccias, Apollo 15 KREEP basalts, and Apollo 15-KREEP-enriched breccias. Evidence for volatilization of alkalis from glasses of impact origin is summarized, and an apparent correlation is discussed between meteoritic component (as given by the Ir/Au ratio) and rock type (as given by the U or Rb content) for many lunar <span class="hlt">highland</span> samples.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=76694&keyword=logistic+AND+management&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=66596780&CFTOKEN=89888993','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=76694&keyword=logistic+AND+management&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=66596780&CFTOKEN=89888993"><span id="translatedtitle">INTERACTIVE HABITAT MODELS FOR MID-ATLANTIC <span class="hlt">HIGHLAND</span> STREAM FISHES</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>In most wadeable streams of the Mid-Atlantic <span class="hlt">Highland</span> region of the eastern United States, habitat alteration resulting from development in the watershed is the primary stressor for fish. Models that predict the presence of stream fish species based on habitat characteristics ca...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title27-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title27-vol1-sec9-139.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title27-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title27-vol1-sec9-139.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">27 CFR 9.139 - Santa Lucia <span class="hlt">Highlands</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>... 1984) (7) Paraiso Springs, Calif., 1956 (photorevised 1984) (c) Boundaries. The Santa Lucia <span class="hlt">Highlands</span>... boundary follows Limekiln Creek for approximately 1.25 miles northeast to the 100 foot elevation. (2) Then... the junction of Foothill and Paraiso Roads on the Soledad, California U.S.G.S. map. (8) Then...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title27-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title27-vol1-sec9-122.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title27-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title27-vol1-sec9-122.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">27 CFR 9.122 - Western Connecticut <span class="hlt">Highlands</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">Highlands</span>. 9.122 Section 9.122 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... (Litchfield-Hartford-New Haven County line); (6) The boundary then travels approximately 7 miles west along the Litchfield-New Haven County line to Connecticut Route #8 at Waterville in the Town of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=AS07-05-1617&hterms=Studded&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DStudded','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=AS07-05-1617&hterms=Studded&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DStudded"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Highlands</span> of Tibet as seen from the Apollo 7 spacecraft</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1968-01-01</p> <p>The great lake-studded <span class="hlt">highlands</span> of Tibet, as seen from the Apollo 7 spacecraft during its 24th revolution of the earth. Photographed from an altitude of 124 nautical miles. The snow line in the picture is at 18,000 feet; and the lakes are at 15,000 feet above sea level.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14717901','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14717901"><span id="translatedtitle">Founder effects and stochastic dispersal at the continental scale of the fungal pathogen of <span class="hlt">bananas</span> Mycosphaerella fijiensis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rivas, Gonzalo-Galileo; Zapater, Marie-Françoise; Abadie, Catherine; Carlier, Jean</p> <p>2004-02-01</p> <p>The worldwide destructive epidemic of the fungus Mycosphaerella fijiensis on <span class="hlt">banana</span> started recently, spreading from South-East Asia. The founder effects detected in the global population structure of M. fijiensis reflected rare migration events among continents through movements of infected plant material. The main objective of this work was to infer gene flow and dispersal processes of M. fijiensis at the continental scale from population structure analysis in recently invaded regions. Samples of isolates were collected from <span class="hlt">banana</span> plantations in 13 countries in Latin America and the Caribbean and in <span class="hlt">Africa</span>. The isolates were analysed using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and microsatellite molecular markers. The results indicate that a high level of genetic diversity was maintained at the plantation and the plant scales. The loci were at gametic equilibrium in most of the samples analysed, supporting the hypothesis of the existence of random-mating populations of M. fijiensis, even at the plant scale. A low level of gene diversity was observed in some populations from the <span class="hlt">Africa</span> and Latin America-Caribbean regions. Nearly half the populations analysed showed a significant deviation from mutation-drift equilibrium with gene diversity excess. Finally, a high level of genetic differentiation was detected between populations from <span class="hlt">Africa</span> (FST = 0.19) and from the Latin America-Caribbean region (FST = 0.30). These results show that founder effects accompanied the recent invasion of M. fijiensis in both regions, suggesting stochastic spread of the disease at the continental scale. This spread might be caused by either the limited dispersal of ascospores or by movements of infected plant material.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/wri/1980/0048/WRIR80-48.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/wri/1980/0048/WRIR80-48.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Distribution of nitrate in the unsaturated zone, <span class="hlt">Highland</span>-East <span class="hlt">Highlands</span> area, San Bernardino County, California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Klein, John M.; Bradford, Wesley L.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>Nitrogen in the unsaturated soil zone in the <span class="hlt">Highland</span>-East <span class="hlt">Highlands</span> area of San Bernardino County, Calif., has been suspected as the source of nitrate in water from wells. Plans to recharge the local aquifers with imported surface water would raise the water table and intercept that nitrogen. This study was made to describe the distribution of inorganic nitrogen and other chemical constituents and nitrogen-using bacteria in the unsaturated zone, to relate nitrogen occurrences, in a general way, to present and historical land use, and to attempt to predict nitrogen concentrations in ground water after recharge. Some generalized correlations between nitrogen occurrence and land use were observed. In 11 of 13 test holes, the maximum nitrate-nitrogen (NO3--N) concentrations occurred within 10 feet of the surface, suggesting that the major source of nitrogen is from the surface at these sites. Test holes were ranked according to maximum NO3--N in the top 10 feet, total NO3--N in the top 10 feet, and total NO3--N in the top 40 feet. In all three rankings, the top seven test holes were the same--five in or near present or historical agricultural areas (primarily citrus groves), one in a feedlot, and one adjacent to an abandoned sewage-treatment plant. Two test holes in historically uninhabited areas ranked lowest. The control test hole in an uninhabited area ranked high in geometric mean of ammonium-nitrogen concentration (NH4+-N), suggesting that present in freshly weathered granite. The geometric means of NH4+-N concentrations in six of eight citrus-related test holes were significantly lower than in the control hole, suggesting that irrigation in citrus groves may have created conditions favoring nitrification of the primary NH4+-N. Rank correlation analyses between various measurements in test holes showed that high NO3--N concentrations tend to occur with high specific conductance and chloride concentrations in soil extracts. If recharge is carried out as planned</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25703385','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25703385"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Banana</span> leaf and glucose mineralization and soil organic matter in microhabitats of <span class="hlt">banana</span> plantations under long-term pesticide use.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Blume, Elena; Reichert, José Miguel</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Soil organic matter (SOM) and microbial activity are key components of soil quality and sustainability. In the humid tropics of Costa Rica 3 pesticide regimes were studied-fungicide (low input); fungicide and herbicide (medium input); and fungicide, herbicide, and nematicide (high input)-under continuous <span class="hlt">banana</span> cultivation for 5 yr (young) or 20 yr (old) in 3 microhabitats-nematicide ring around plants, litter pile of harvested <span class="hlt">banana</span>, and bare area between litter pile and nematicide ring. Soil samples were incubated sequentially in the laboratory: unamended, amended with glucose, and amended with ground <span class="hlt">banana</span> leaves. Soil organic matter varied with microhabitat, being greatest in the litter pile, where microbes had the greatest basal respiration with ground <span class="hlt">banana</span> leaf, whereas microbes in the nematicide ring had the greatest respiration with glucose. These results suggest that soil microbes adapt to specific microhabitats. Young <span class="hlt">banana</span> plantations had similar SOM compared with old plantations, but the former had greater basal microbial respiration in unamended and in glucose-amended soil and greater first-order mineralization rates in glucose-amended soil, thus indicating soil biological quality decline over time. High pesticide input did not decrease microbial activity or mineralization rate in surface soil. In conclusion, microbial activity in tropical volcanic soil is highly adaptable to organic and inorganic inputs. PMID:25703385</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2898222','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2898222"><span id="translatedtitle">Evolution of Endogenous Sequences of <span class="hlt">Banana</span> Streak Virus: What Can We Learn from <span class="hlt">Banana</span> (Musa sp.) Evolution?▿</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Gayral, Philippe; Blondin, Laurence; Guidolin, Olivier; Carreel, Françoise; Hippolyte, Isabelle; Perrier, Xavier; Iskra-Caruana, Marie-Line</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Endogenous plant pararetroviruses (EPRVs) are viral sequences of the family Caulimoviridae integrated into the nuclear genome of numerous plant species. The ability of some endogenous sequences of <span class="hlt">Banana</span> streak viruses (eBSVs) in the genome of <span class="hlt">banana</span> (Musa sp.) to induce infections just like the virus itself was recently demonstrated (P. Gayral et al., J. Virol. 83:6697-6710, 2008). Although eBSVs probably arose from accidental events, infectious eBSVs constitute an extreme case of parasitism, as well as a newly described strategy for vertical virus transmission in plants. We investigated the early evolutionary stages of infectious eBSV for two distinct BSV species—GF (BSGFV) and Imové (BSImV)—through the study of their distribution, insertion polymorphism, and structure evolution among selected <span class="hlt">banana</span> genotypes representative of the diversity of 60 wild Musa species and genotypes. To do so, the historical frame of host evolution was analyzed by inferring <span class="hlt">banana</span> phylogeny from two chloroplast regions—matK and trnL-trnF—as well as from the nuclear genome, using 19 microsatellite loci. We demonstrated that both BSV species integrated recently in <span class="hlt">banana</span> evolution, circa 640,000 years ago. The two infectious eBSVs were subjected to different selective pressures and showed distinct levels of rearrangement within their final structure. In addition, the molecular phylogenies of integrated and nonintegrated BSVs enabled us to establish the phylogenetic origins of eBSGFV and eBSImV. PMID:20427523</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26751064','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26751064"><span id="translatedtitle">Ecological Assessment of Two Species of Potamonautid Freshwater Crabs from the Eastern <span class="hlt">Highlands</span> of Zimbabwe, with Implications for Their Conservation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dalu, Tatenda; Sachikonye, Mwazvita T B; Alexander, Mhairi E; Dube, Timothy; Froneman, William P; Manungo, Kwanele I; Bepe, Onias; Wasserman, Ryan J</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The spatial ecology of freshwater crabs and their conservation status is largely understudied in <span class="hlt">Africa</span>. An ecological assessment was conducted at 104 localities in 51 rivers and/or streams in the Eastern <span class="hlt">Highlands</span> of Zimbabwe whereby the distribution and abundances of freshwater crab species were mapped and the possible drivers of the observed trends in population structure explored. In addition, information on crab utilisation as a food resource by local communities was assessed via face to face interviews across the region. Finally, the conservation status of each species was assessed using the IUCN Red List criteria. Only two crab species Potamonautes mutareensis and Potamonautes unispinus were recorded within the region of study. Potamonautes mutareensis was largely restricted to less impacted environments in the high mountainous river system, whereas P. unispinus was found in low laying areas. In stretches of river where both species were found to co-occur, the species were never sampled from the same site, with P. mutareensis occurring in shallower, faster flowing environments and P. unispinus in deeper, slow flowing sites. Interview results revealed that the local communities, particularly in the southern part of the Eastern <span class="hlt">Highlands</span> around the Chipinge area, had a considerable level of utilisation (55% of households) on the harvesting of crabs for household consumption during the non-agricultural season (May to September). Results from the IUCN Red List assessment indicate that both species should be considered as "Least Concern". Threats to freshwater crabs in the Eastern <span class="hlt">Highlands</span>, however, include widespread anthropogenic impacts such as habitat destruction associated with gold and diamond mining, inorganic and organic pollution and possibly exploitation for human consumption. The current study provides important information and insight towards the possible development of a freshwater crab conservation action plan within the region. PMID:26751064</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4713832','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4713832"><span id="translatedtitle">Ecological Assessment of Two Species of Potamonautid Freshwater Crabs from the Eastern <span class="hlt">Highlands</span> of Zimbabwe, with Implications for Their Conservation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Dalu, Tatenda; Sachikonye, Mwazvita T. B.; Froneman, William P.; Manungo, Kwanele I.; Bepe, Onias; Wasserman, Ryan J.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The spatial ecology of freshwater crabs and their conservation status is largely understudied in <span class="hlt">Africa</span>. An ecological assessment was conducted at 104 localities in 51 rivers and/or streams in the Eastern <span class="hlt">Highlands</span> of Zimbabwe whereby the distribution and abundances of freshwater crab species were mapped and the possible drivers of the observed trends in population structure explored. In addition, information on crab utilisation as a food resource by local communities was assessed via face to face interviews across the region. Finally, the conservation status of each species was assessed using the IUCN Red List criteria. Only two crab species Potamonautes mutareensis and Potamonautes unispinus were recorded within the region of study. Potamonautes mutareensis was largely restricted to less impacted environments in the high mountainous river system, whereas P. unispinus was found in low laying areas. In stretches of river where both species were found to co-occur, the species were never sampled from the same site, with P. mutareensis occurring in shallower, faster flowing environments and P. unispinus in deeper, slow flowing sites. Interview results revealed that the local communities, particularly in the southern part of the Eastern <span class="hlt">Highlands</span> around the Chipinge area, had a considerable level of utilisation (55% of households) on the harvesting of crabs for household consumption during the non-agricultural season (May to September). Results from the IUCN Red List assessment indicate that both species should be considered as “Least Concern”. Threats to freshwater crabs in the Eastern <span class="hlt">Highlands</span>, however, include widespread anthropogenic impacts such as habitat destruction associated with gold and diamond mining, inorganic and organic pollution and possibly exploitation for human consumption. The current study provides important information and insight towards the possible development of a freshwater crab conservation action plan within the region. PMID:26751064</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26751064','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26751064"><span id="translatedtitle">Ecological Assessment of Two Species of Potamonautid Freshwater Crabs from the Eastern <span class="hlt">Highlands</span> of Zimbabwe, with Implications for Their Conservation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dalu, Tatenda; Sachikonye, Mwazvita T B; Alexander, Mhairi E; Dube, Timothy; Froneman, William P; Manungo, Kwanele I; Bepe, Onias; Wasserman, Ryan J</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The spatial ecology of freshwater crabs and their conservation status is largely understudied in <span class="hlt">Africa</span>. An ecological assessment was conducted at 104 localities in 51 rivers and/or streams in the Eastern <span class="hlt">Highlands</span> of Zimbabwe whereby the distribution and abundances of freshwater crab species were mapped and the possible drivers of the observed trends in population structure explored. In addition, information on crab utilisation as a food resource by local communities was assessed via face to face interviews across the region. Finally, the conservation status of each species was assessed using the IUCN Red List criteria. Only two crab species Potamonautes mutareensis and Potamonautes unispinus were recorded within the region of study. Potamonautes mutareensis was largely restricted to less impacted environments in the high mountainous river system, whereas P. unispinus was found in low laying areas. In stretches of river where both species were found to co-occur, the species were never sampled from the same site, with P. mutareensis occurring in shallower, faster flowing environments and P. unispinus in deeper, slow flowing sites. Interview results revealed that the local communities, particularly in the southern part of the Eastern <span class="hlt">Highlands</span> around the Chipinge area, had a considerable level of utilisation (55% of households) on the harvesting of crabs for household consumption during the non-agricultural season (May to September). Results from the IUCN Red List assessment indicate that both species should be considered as "Least Concern". Threats to freshwater crabs in the Eastern <span class="hlt">Highlands</span>, however, include widespread anthropogenic impacts such as habitat destruction associated with gold and diamond mining, inorganic and organic pollution and possibly exploitation for human consumption. The current study provides important information and insight towards the possible development of a freshwater crab conservation action plan within the region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9864E..0MO','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9864E..0MO"><span id="translatedtitle">Hyperspectral imaging system for disease scanning on <span class="hlt">banana</span> plants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ochoa, Daniel; Cevallos, Juan; Vargas, German; Criollo, Ronald; Romero, Dennis; Castro, Rodrigo; Bayona, Oswaldo</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Black Sigatoka (BS) is a <span class="hlt">banana</span> plant disease caused by the fungus Mycosphaerella fijiensis. BS symptoms can be observed at late infection stages. By that time, BS has probably spread to other plants. In this paper, we present our current work on building an hyper-spectral (HS) imaging system aimed at in-vivo detection of BS pre-symptomatic responses in <span class="hlt">banana</span> leaves. The proposed imaging system comprises a motorized stage, a high-sensitivity VIS-NIR camera and an optical spectrograph. To capture images of the <span class="hlt">banana</span> leaf, the stage's speed and camera's frame rate must be computed to reduce motion blur and to obtain the same resolution along both spatial dimensions of the resulting HS cube. Our continuous leaf scanning approach allows imaging leaves of arbitrary length with minimum frame loss. Once the images are captured, a denoising step is performed to improve HS image quality and spectral profile extraction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26005137','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26005137"><span id="translatedtitle">Visualization of internal structure of <span class="hlt">banana</span> starch granule through AFM.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Peroni-Okita, Fernanda H G; Gunning, A Patrick; Kirby, Andrew; Simão, Renata A; Soares, Claudinéia A; Cordenunsi, Beatriz R</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a high resolution technique for studying the external and internal structures of starch granules. For this purpose granules were isolated from <span class="hlt">bananas</span> and embedded in a non-penetrating resin. To achieve image contrast of the ultrastructure, the face of the cut blocks were wetted in steam and force modulation mode imaging was used. Images of starch from green <span class="hlt">bananas</span> showed large variation of height across the granule due to a locational specific absorption of water and swelling of amorphous regions; the data reveal that the center of the granules are structurally different and have different viscoelastic properties. Images of starches from ripe <span class="hlt">bananas</span> showed an even greater different level of organization: absence of growth rings around the hilum; the central region of the granule is richer in amylose; very porous surface with round shaped dark structures; the size of blocklets are larger than the green fruits. PMID:26005137</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27574355','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27574355"><span id="translatedtitle">Wild <span class="hlt">Banana</span> Seed Phytobezoar Rectal Impaction Causing Intestinal Obstruction.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chai, Feng Yih; Heng, Sophia Si Ling; Asilah, Siti Mohd Desa; Adila, Irene Nur Ibrahim; Tan, Yew Eng; Chong, Hock Chin</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Wild <span class="hlt">banana</span> (Musa acuminata subsp. microcarpa) seed phytobezoar rectal impaction in adult is a rare entity. Here, we report a 75-year-old male with dementia who presented with lower abdominal pain, per-rectal bleeding and overflow faecal incontinence. Our investigation discovered a large wild <span class="hlt">banana</span> seed phytobezoar impacted in the rectum causing intestinal obstruction, stercoral ulcer and faecal overflow incontinence. In this article, we discuss the patient's clinical findings, imaging and management. The culprit plant was identified and depicted. This may be the first report of its kind. Public consumption of these wild <span class="hlt">bananas</span> should be curtailed. It is hoped that this report would increase the awareness of such condition and its identification. PMID:27574355</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24091289','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24091289"><span id="translatedtitle">From crossbreeding to biotechnology-facilitated improvement of <span class="hlt">banana</span> and plantain.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ortiz, Rodomiro; Swennen, Rony</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The annual harvest of <span class="hlt">banana</span> and plantain (Musa spp.) is approximately 145 million tons worldwide. About 85% of this global production comes from small plots and kitchen or backyard gardens from the developing world, and only 15% goes to the export trade. Musa acuminata and Musa balbisiana are the ancestors of several hundreds of parthenocarpic Musa diploid and polyploid cultivars, which show multiple origins through inter- and intra-specific hybridizations from these two wild diploid species. Generating hybrids combining host plant resistance to pathogens and pests, short growth cycles and height, high fruit yield, parthenocarpy, and desired quality from the cultivars remains a challenge for Musa crossbreeding, which started about one century ago in Trinidad. The success of Musa crossbreeding depends on the production of true hybrid seeds in a crop known for its high levels of female sterility, particularly among polyploid cultivars. All <span class="hlt">banana</span> export cultivars grown today are, however, selections from somatic mutants of the group Cavendish and have a very narrow genetic base, while smallholders in sub-Saharan <span class="hlt">Africa</span>, tropical Asia and Latin America use some bred-hybrids (mostly cooking types). Musa improvement goals need to shift to address emerging threats because of the changing climate. Innovative cell and molecular biology tools have the potential to enhance the pace and efficiency of genetic improvement in Musa. Micro-propagation has been successful for high throughput of clean planting materials while in vitro seed germination assists in obtaining seedlings after inter-specific and across ploidy hybridization. Flow cytometry protocols are used for checking ploidy among genebank accessions and breeding materials. DNA markers, the genetic maps based on them, and the recent sequencing of the <span class="hlt">banana</span> genome offer means for gaining more insights in the genetics of the crops and to identifying genes that could lead to accelerating Musa betterment. Likewise, DNA</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24091289','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24091289"><span id="translatedtitle">From crossbreeding to biotechnology-facilitated improvement of <span class="hlt">banana</span> and plantain.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ortiz, Rodomiro; Swennen, Rony</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The annual harvest of <span class="hlt">banana</span> and plantain (Musa spp.) is approximately 145 million tons worldwide. About 85% of this global production comes from small plots and kitchen or backyard gardens from the developing world, and only 15% goes to the export trade. Musa acuminata and Musa balbisiana are the ancestors of several hundreds of parthenocarpic Musa diploid and polyploid cultivars, which show multiple origins through inter- and intra-specific hybridizations from these two wild diploid species. Generating hybrids combining host plant resistance to pathogens and pests, short growth cycles and height, high fruit yield, parthenocarpy, and desired quality from the cultivars remains a challenge for Musa crossbreeding, which started about one century ago in Trinidad. The success of Musa crossbreeding depends on the production of true hybrid seeds in a crop known for its high levels of female sterility, particularly among polyploid cultivars. All <span class="hlt">banana</span> export cultivars grown today are, however, selections from somatic mutants of the group Cavendish and have a very narrow genetic base, while smallholders in sub-Saharan <span class="hlt">Africa</span>, tropical Asia and Latin America use some bred-hybrids (mostly cooking types). Musa improvement goals need to shift to address emerging threats because of the changing climate. Innovative cell and molecular biology tools have the potential to enhance the pace and efficiency of genetic improvement in Musa. Micro-propagation has been successful for high throughput of clean planting materials while in vitro seed germination assists in obtaining seedlings after inter-specific and across ploidy hybridization. Flow cytometry protocols are used for checking ploidy among genebank accessions and breeding materials. DNA markers, the genetic maps based on them, and the recent sequencing of the <span class="hlt">banana</span> genome offer means for gaining more insights in the genetics of the crops and to identifying genes that could lead to accelerating Musa betterment. Likewise, DNA</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014E%26ES...19a2009A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014E%26ES...19a2009A"><span id="translatedtitle">Willingness to pay for <span class="hlt">highlands</span>' agro-tourism recreational facility: A case of Boh Tea plantation, Cameron <span class="hlt">Highlands</span>, Malaysia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>A, Syamsul Herman M.; M, Nur A'in C.; S, Ahmad; S, Ramachandran</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>The increase in tourist demand for <span class="hlt">highland</span> experience is inevitable. Cameron <span class="hlt">Highlands</span>, established as a Tea Plantation Estate during the British Colonial era in 1929, has evolved into a major <span class="hlt">highland</span> tourism destination providing a cool climatic experience coupled with scenic beauty in the midst of Tudor concept architecture which enhances the destinations historical value. Realising such tourism potential, the Boh Plantation management has provided a visitor centre as recreational facility for tourist utilisation. However, the absence in imposing an entrance fee has left a vacuum in determining the recreational economic value of this facility as the benefit of this agro-tourism product to tourists remains unknown. It would be important for the management to identify the benefit since the development and maintenance of the facility is costly. Hence, the purpose of this paper is to estimate the benefit of such establishment in <span class="hlt">highlands</span> area by assessing visitor's Willingness to pay (WTP). The study examines, explores and debates the issues in a critical yet supportive environment especially <span class="hlt">highlands</span>. The study obtained 179 usable questionnaires from visitors during weekends, weekdays and public holidays. The result showed that 59% of the visitors were willing to pay for the agro-tourism product. The WTP was estimated at RM 7.21 (1.81). Three factors were found to be influencing WTP which were monthly income, years of education and perception on scenery. Although the study was conducted post development, the finding indicated the WTP for current management practise. Should the management change its style, it would also affect WTP and also the total economic value. Since WTP is established concept, the finding of the study reflects on the opportunities, barriers and challenges inherent in embracing post-disciplinary approaches to research and suggest ways to further enhance the approach.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21941761','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21941761"><span id="translatedtitle">[Main bacterial groups in <span class="hlt">banana</span> soil under rotated and continuous cropping].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ouyang, Xian; Ruan, Xiao-Lei; Wu, Chao; Bai, Ting-Ting; Li, Hua-Ping</p> <p>2011-06-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Banana</span> wilt is the main disease in <span class="hlt">banana</span> production, while <span class="hlt">banana</span>-leek rotation can effectively control the occurrence of the disease. In order to understand the variations of soil bacterial groups under <span class="hlt">banana</span>-leek rotation and <span class="hlt">banana</span> continuous cropping, soil samples under these two cropping systems were collected to extract crude DNA, and the bacterial 16S rDNA in V3 region was amplified by PCR. The PCR products were then separated by DGGE, and the main different bands were sequenced and compared with the records of NCBI to identify the germs. Under <span class="hlt">banana</span>-leek rotation, soil bacterial diversity was richer, and the main bacterial groups were Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Acidobacteria; while under <span class="hlt">banana</span> continuous cropping, the soil bacterial diversity was somewhat decreased, and the main bacterial groups were Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Chloroflexi.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23055273','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23055273"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Banana</span> production systems: identification of alternative systems for more sustainable production.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bellamy, Angelina Sanderson</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Large-scale, monoculture production systems dependent on synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, increase yields, but are costly and have deleterious impacts on human health and the environment. This research investigates variations in <span class="hlt">banana</span> production practices in Costa Rica, to identify alternative systems that combine high productivity and profitability, with reduced reliance on agrochemicals. Farm workers were observed during daily production activities; 39 <span class="hlt">banana</span> producers and 8 extension workers/researchers were interviewed; and a review of field experiments conducted by the National <span class="hlt">Banana</span> Corporation between 1997 and 2002 was made. Correspondence analysis showed that there is no structured variation in large-scale <span class="hlt">banana</span> producers' practices, but two other <span class="hlt">banana</span> production systems were identified: a small-scale organic system and a small-scale conventional coffee-<span class="hlt">banana</span> intercropped system. Field-scale research may reveal ways that these practices can be scaled up to achieve a productive and profitable system producing high-quality export <span class="hlt">bananas</span> with fewer or no pesticides.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EOSTr..94R..21K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EOSTr..94R..21K"><span id="translatedtitle">The Evolution of the Lunar <span class="hlt">Highlands</span> Crust: A Complicated History</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Klima, Rachel</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>More than 30 years after the first Lunar <span class="hlt">Highlands</span> Crust conference, lunar petrology and remote sensing experts from around the world gathered to discuss and debate the formation and evolution of the lunar <span class="hlt">highlands</span> crust. Huge strides in orbital remote sensing have enabled researchers to put the samples gathered during the Apollo missions into a larger, global context, yet many of the original, key questions remain. What was the extent and fate of the lunar magma ocean (LMO)? What is the nature of the lower lunar crust? Do lunar sample ages still suggest that the inner solar system was subject to an increase in impact flux around 3.9 billion years ago? At the heart of these questions is the desire to understand not only the formation and evolution of the Moon but of Earth, the terrestrial planets, and the inner solar system as a whole.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21071665','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21071665"><span id="translatedtitle">Structure and formation of the lunar farside <span class="hlt">highlands</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Garrick-Bethell, Ian; Nimmo, Francis; Wieczorek, Mark A</p> <p>2010-11-12</p> <p>The formation of the lunar farside <span class="hlt">highlands</span> has long been an open problem in lunar science. We show that much of the topography and crustal thickness in this terrain can be described by a degree-2 harmonic. No other portion of the Moon exhibits comparable degree-2 structure. The quantified structure of the farside <span class="hlt">highlands</span> unites them with the nearside and suggests a relation between lunar crustal structure, nearside volcanism, and heat-producing elements. The farside topography cannot be explained by a frozen-in tidal bulge. However, the farside crustal thickness and the topography it produces may have been caused by spatial variations in tidal heating when the ancient crust was decoupled from the mantle by a liquid magma ocean, similar to Europa's present ice shell. PMID:21071665</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19750006613','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19750006613"><span id="translatedtitle">Lunar <span class="hlt">highland</span> rock types: Their implications for impact induced fractionation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Phinney, W. C.; Warner, J. L.; Simonds, C. H.</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>The first step in a petrologic study must be a classification based on observed textures and mineralogy. Lunar rocks, may be classified into three major groups: (1) coarse-grained igneous rocks, (2) fine-grained igneous rocks and (3) breccias. Group 1 is interpreted as primitive lunar crustal rocks that display various degrees of crushing and/or annealing. Group 2 is interpreted as volcanic rocks. Group 3 is interpreted as resulting from impacts on the lunar surface and is subdivided on the basis of matrix textures into fragmental breccias, crystalline breccias that have been annealed, and crystalline breccias with igneous matrices. A synthesis of the relevant data concerning lunar <span class="hlt">highlands</span> polymict breccias from the fields of petrography, chemistry, photogeology, and impact studies compels the prediction that the breccias should have homogeneous matrices from rock to rock within regions of the <span class="hlt">highlands</span> of limited size where impact mixing has been efficient and extensive.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130011614','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130011614"><span id="translatedtitle">Mission Applications of a HIAD for the Mars Southern <span class="hlt">Highlands</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Winski, Richard; Bose, Dave; Komar, David R.; Samareh, Jamshid</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Recent discoveries of evidence of a flowing liquid in craters throughout the Mars Southern <span class="hlt">Highlands</span>, like Terra Sirenum, have spurred interest in sending science missions to those locations; however, these locations are at elevations that are much higher (0 to +4 km MOLA) than any previous landing site (-1 to -4 km MOLA). New technologies may be needed to achieve a landing at these sites with significant payload mass to the surface. A promising technology is the hypersonic inflatable aerodynamic decelerator (HIAD); a number of designs have been advanced but the stacked torus has been recently successfully flight tested in the IRVE-2 and IRVE-3 projects through the NASA Langley Research Center. This paper will focus on a variety of mission applications of the stacked torus type attached HIAD to the Mars southern <span class="hlt">highlands</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=1992Metic..27R.295T&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=1992Metic..27R.295T&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">The Lunar <span class="hlt">Highland</span> Crust: Complex or Simple Petrogenesis?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Taylor, S. R.; Koeberl, C.</p> <p>1992-07-01</p> <p>Following the general acceptance of the magma ocean hypothesis, models for the evolution of the <span class="hlt">highland</span> crust of the Moon have become increasingly complicated, just as religious and philosophical systems have always diverged from the teachings of their founder. Three components make up the <span class="hlt">highland</span> crust: the ferroan anorthosite, which crystallizes early from the magma ocean, depletes the deep interior in Eu, and adds a large Eu enrichment to the crust. KREEP, choked with incompatible trace elements from the residual 2% melt resulting from the crystallization of the magma ocean is pervasively mixed into the crust by cratering. KREEP adds a deep Eu depletion, with high abundances of the other REE parallel to those of the ferroan anorthosites. The third well-recognized component is the Mg Suite, commonly about 100-200 Ma younger, with intermediate REE patterns parallel to the ferroan anorthosites and KREEP (Fig. 1). If the <span class="hlt">highland</span> crust were formed from many igneous events, in which the Mg suite comes from several separate plutons, crystallization and separation of mineral phases would surely result in REE patterns with diverse slopes, as is observed on Earth. This does not seem to have occurred. For example, the deep-seated troctolite 76535 has a well-established age of 4236 +- 15 Ma (Premo and Tatsumoto, 1992), much younger than the 4440 +- 20 Ma crystallization age of the lunar crust (Carlson and Lugmair, 1988), and the 4400-Ma closure ages for the source regions of the lunar mare basalts. If 76535 formed as a separate intrusion by partial melting during "serial magmatism" 200 Ma after the ferroan anorthosites crystallized, why is its REE pattern parallel to those of all the other <span class="hlt">highland</span> rocks (Fig. 1)? Two explanations seem viable. The first possibility is that a diverse crust may have been homogenized by cratering. Alternatively, only one major igneous event produced the lunar <span class="hlt">highland</span> crust. All subsequent complexity in ages and production of "igneous</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2010/5097/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2010/5097/"><span id="translatedtitle">Hydrogeology and groundwater quality of <span class="hlt">Highlands</span> County, Florida</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Spechler, Rick M.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Groundwater is the main source of water supply in <span class="hlt">Highlands</span> County, Florida. As the demand for water in the county increases, additional information about local groundwater resources is needed to manage and develop the water supply effectively. To address the need for additional data, a study was conducted to evaluate the hydrogeology and groundwater quality of <span class="hlt">Highlands</span> County. Total groundwater use in <span class="hlt">Highlands</span> County has increased steadily since 1965. Total groundwater withdrawals increased from about 37 million gallons per day in 1965 to about 107 million gallons per day in 2005. Much of this increase in water use is related to agricultural activities, especially citrus cultivation, which increased more than 300 percent from 1965 to 2005. <span class="hlt">Highlands</span> County is underlain by three principal hydrogeologic units. The uppermost water-bearing unit is the surficial aquifer, which is underlain by the intermediate aquifer system/intermediate confining unit. The lowermost hydrogeologic unit is the Floridan aquifer system, which consists of the Upper Floridan aquifer, as many as three middle confining units, and the Lower Floridan aquifer. The surficial aquifer consists primarily of fine-to-medium grained quartz sand with varying amounts of clay and silt. The aquifer system is unconfined and underlies the entire county. The thickness of the surficial aquifer is highly variable, ranging from less than 50 to more than 300 feet. Groundwater in the surficial aquifer is recharged primarily by precipitation, but also by septic tanks, irrigation from wells, seepage from lakes and streams, and the lateral groundwater inflow from adjacent areas. The intermediate aquifer system/intermediate confining unit acts as a confining layer (except where breached by sinkholes) that restricts the vertical movement of water between the surficial aquifer and the underlying Upper Floridan aquifer. The sediments have varying degrees of permeability and consist of permeable limestone, dolostone, or</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=223705','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=223705"><span id="translatedtitle">Quality Characteristics of Dried <span class="hlt">Bananas</span> Produced with Infrared Radiation Technology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Browning of fruits during drying is a major quality concern. The enzyme polyphenol oxidase has been found to be the main cause of browning in <span class="hlt">bananas</span>. Infrared radiation (IR) drying could be used to minimize enzymatic browning hence eliminating the need for pre-treatments. This study was to inves...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=203102','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=203102"><span id="translatedtitle">Sequencing the Major Mycosphaerella Pathogens of Wheat and <span class="hlt">Banana</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Mycosphaerella is one of the largest genera of plant pathogenic fungi with more than 1,000 named species, many of which are important pathogens causing leaf spotting diseases in a wide variety of crops including cereals, citrus, <span class="hlt">banana</span>, eucalypts, soft fruits, and horticultural crops. A few species ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22258310','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22258310"><span id="translatedtitle">Integrating <span class="hlt">banana</span> and ruminant production in the French West Indies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Archimède, Harry; Gourdine, Jean Luc; Fanchone, Audrey; Tournebize, Regis; Bassien-Capsa, Mylène; González-García, Eliel</p> <p>2012-08-01</p> <p>Using a mechanistic model, we compared five alternative farming systems with the purpose of transforming monoculture (MON) <span class="hlt">banana</span> farms into mixed farming systems (MFS) with ruminants feeding <span class="hlt">banana</span> by-products (leaves, pseudostems and nonmarketable fruits) and forage from the fallow land. The paper presents the main structure of the model (land surface changes, available biomass for animals, stocking rates, productive or reproductive indicators), and impact assessment (change in farm productivity) is discussed. Five MFS with typical local ruminant production systems were used to compare MON to the strategies using forage from fallow and/or integrating Creole cattle (CC), Creole goats (CG) or Martinik sheep (MS) into <span class="hlt">banana</span> farming. One hectare MON shifted into an MFS allows a stocking rate of 1,184, 285, and 418 kg of live weight per hectare for CC, CG and MS, respectively. <span class="hlt">Banana</span> by-products seem to be better valorized by the CC scenario. However, parameters such as length of the cycle, local prices for cattle, goat and sheep meat, work time and farmer's skills in ruminant management may have been taken into account by the farmer when choosing the ruminant species to rear.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1029973','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1029973"><span id="translatedtitle">Prevalence of asthma and wheeze in the <span class="hlt">Highlands</span> of Scotland.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Austin, J B; Russell, G; Adam, M G; Mackintosh, D; Kelsey, S; Peck, D F</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>To establish the prevalence of asthma and wheeze in 12 year old children in a region with low background pollution levels, a population of children resident in the <span class="hlt">Highland</span> Region of Scotland was studied by questionnaire supported by objective data. A respiratory questionnaire was distributed to the parents of 1919 children aged from 12-13 years and attending secondary schools in the educational divisions of Lochaber, Ross and Cromarty, and Inverness including Skye in <span class="hlt">Highland</span> Region to ascertain history of wheeze and parental awareness of a diagnosis of asthma. Peak expiratory flow (PEF) measurements were carried out before and after a standardised exercise test. Ozone levels were noted. Questionnaires were completed by 1825 parents (95% of those invited) and 1702 (93%) of those returning questionnaires took part in the exercise test. The overall prevalence of reported asthma was 14% and wheeze 25%. Defined as a fall in PEF of more than 15% with exercise, the overall prevalence of exercise induced bronchospasm was 9%. In Skye the prevalence of reported asthma was 17%, wheeze 28%, and exercise induced bronchospasm 30%. There were no significant differences between areas for reported asthma or wheeze. There was, however, a highly significant difference between areas for exercise induced bronchospasm, most of which was accounted for by the very high incidence in Skye, which is one of the most rural of the areas studied. The results of this study do not support the hypothesis that asthma is commoner in urban than rural areas, whether we compare the <span class="hlt">Highlands</span> with the rest of the UK or areas within the <span class="hlt">Highlands</span>, or whether we examine reported symptoms or exercise induced bronchospasm. The results do not support an association between atmospheric pollution and the prevalence of asthma. PMID:7979493</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810041815&hterms=Ants&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3DAnts','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810041815&hterms=Ants&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3DAnts"><span id="translatedtitle">Genesis of <span class="hlt">highland</span> basalt breccias - A view from 66095</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Garrison, J. R., Jr.; Taylor, L. A.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>Electron microprobe and defocused beam analyses of the lunar <span class="hlt">highland</span> breccia sample 66095 show it consists of a fine-grained subophitic matrix containing a variety of mineral and lithic clasts, such as intergranular and cataclastic ANT, shocked and unshocked plagioclase, and basalts. Consideration of the chemistries of both matrix and clasts provides a basis for a qualitative three-component mixing model consisting of an ANT plutonic complex, a Fra Mauro basalt, and minor meteoric material.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1275431','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1275431"><span id="translatedtitle">Biological correlates of modernization in a Guatemalan <span class="hlt">highland</span> municipio.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Scholl, T O; Odell, M E</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>The demographic correlates of modernization were studied in a municipio of the Guatemalan <span class="hlt">highlands</span> using, as indicators of modernization, the introduction of chemical fertilizers and of a religous revitalization movement. Accion Catolica. Records, taken from interviews, of 340 women divided into declines (decennial groups) within ten-year birth cohorts extending from before 1925 to 1954, were checked for representativeness against the birth registries for the entire municipio for the years 1965-69.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5707833','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5707833"><span id="translatedtitle">Mafic rocks of the Adirondack <span class="hlt">Highlands</span>: One suite or many</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Whitney, P.R. . New York State Museum)</p> <p>1993-03-01</p> <p>Mafic rocks in the granulite facies terrane of the Adirondack <span class="hlt">Highlands</span> form at least 3 and possibly as many as 6 groups, based on field, petrographic, and geochemical criteria. Most abundant is the olivine metagabbro-amphibolite group (OMA), equivalent to the mafic suite'' of Olson (J. Petrol. 33:471, 1992). OMA occurs in irregular to tabular bodies, locally with intrusive relations, in all major rock types in the E and central <span class="hlt">Highlands</span>. OMA is strongly olivine normative and forms a continuous differentiation series (Olson, 1992). Plagioclase-two pyroxene-garnet granulites (PGG) form dikes up to several m wide, in anorthositic host rocks. PGG are ferrogabbroic or ferrodioritic and approximately silica saturated. Two subgroups differ sharply in Mg, P, and trace elements. Ferrodiorite and monzodiorite gneisses (FMG), quartz normative and commonly migmatitic, occur in several large bodies in the NE <span class="hlt">Highlands</span> and as extensive thin sheets in the W and SE <span class="hlt">Highlands</span>, in association with anorthositic rocks. Three subgroups are distinguishable using Mg/Fe ratios and trace elements. Major element least-squares modeling suggests that both PGG and FMG could be derived by fractionation of gabbroic anorthosite liquids. A differentiation series is not evident, however, and both trace element (Ba, Rb, Sr, Zr and REE) data and normative plagioclase (An [>=] plag. in anorthosite) indicate a more complex origin. One subgroup of FMG may be early cumulates of the mangerite-charnockite suite. The chemistry of OMA, PGG, and FMG reflects their evolved nature and cannot be readily interpreted in terms of magma sources.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1275431','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1275431"><span id="translatedtitle">Biological correlates of modernization in a Guatemalan <span class="hlt">highland</span> municipio.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Scholl, T O; Odell, M E</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>The demographic correlates of modernization were studied in a municipio of the Guatemalan <span class="hlt">highlands</span> using, as indicators of modernization, the introduction of chemical fertilizers and of a religous revitalization movement. Accion Catolica. Records, taken from interviews, of 340 women divided into declines (decennial groups) within ten-year birth cohorts extending from before 1925 to 1954, were checked for representativeness against the birth registries for the entire municipio for the years 1965-69. PMID:1275431</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=GL-2002-001470&hterms=water+africa&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dwater%2Bafrica','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=GL-2002-001470&hterms=water+africa&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dwater%2Bafrica"><span id="translatedtitle">South <span class="hlt">Africa</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>This true-color image of South <span class="hlt">Africa</span> was acquired on May 14, 2000, by NASA's Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, or MODIS. The image was produced using a combination of the sensor's 250-m and 500-m resolution visible wavelength bands. As part of the opening ceremony to begin the joint U.S.-South <span class="hlt">Africa</span> SAFARI Field Experiment, NASA presented print copies of this image as GIFts to Dr. Ben Ngubane, Minister of Arts, Science and Technology, and Honorable Advocate Ngoaka Ramathlodi, Premier of the Northern Province, South <span class="hlt">Africa</span>. The area shown in this image encompasses seven capital cities and a number of the region's distinctive geological features can be seen clearly. Toward the northern (top) central part of the image, the browns and tans comprise the Kalahari Desert of southern Botswana. The Tropic of Capricorn runs right through the heart of the Kalahari and the Botswanan capital city of Gaborone sits on the Limpopo River, southeast of the Kalahari. Along the western coastline of the continent is the country of Namibia, where the Namib Desert is framed against the sea by the Kaokoveld Mountains. The Namibian capital of Windhoek is obscured by clouds. Looking closely in the center of the image, the Orange River can be seen running from east to west, demarcating the boundary between Namibia and South <span class="hlt">Africa</span>. On the southwestern corner of the continent is the hook-like Cape of Good Hope peninsula and Cape Town, the parliamentary capital of South <span class="hlt">Africa</span>. Running west to east away from Cape Town are the Great Karroo Mountains. The shadow in this image conveys a sense of the very steep grade of the cliffs along the southern coast of South <span class="hlt">Africa</span>. Port Elizabeth sits on the southeasternmost point of South <span class="hlt">Africa</span>, and a large phytoplankton bloom can be seen in the water about 100 miles east of there. Moving northward along the east coast, the Drakensberg Mountains are visible. The two small nations of Lesotho and Swaziland are in this region, completely</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17255031','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17255031"><span id="translatedtitle">Prehistoric human impact on rainforest biodiversity in <span class="hlt">highland</span> New Guinea.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Haberle, Simon G</p> <p>2007-02-28</p> <p>In the <span class="hlt">highlands</span> of New Guinea, the development of agriculture as an indigenous innovation during the Early Holocene is considered to have resulted in rapid loss of forest cover, a decrease in forest biodiversity and increased land degradation over thousands of years. But how important is human activity in shaping the diversity of vegetation communities over millennial time-scales? An evaluation of the change in biodiversity of forest habitats through the Late Glacial transition to the present in five palaeoecological sites from <span class="hlt">highland</span> valleys, where intensive agriculture is practised today, is presented. A detailed analysis of the longest and most continuous record from Papua New Guinea is also presented using available biodiversity indices (palynological richness and biodiversity indicator taxa) as a means of identifying changes in diversity. The analysis shows that the collapse of key forest habitats in the <span class="hlt">highland</span> valleys is evident during the Mid - Late Holocene. These changes are best explained by the adoption of new land management practices and altered disturbance regimes associated with agricultural activity, though climate change may also play a role. The implications of these findings for ecosystem conservation and sustainability of agriculture in New Guinea are discussed. PMID:17255031</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26078279','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26078279"><span id="translatedtitle">Independent Molecular Basis of Convergent <span class="hlt">Highland</span> Adaptation in Maize.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Takuno, Shohei; Ralph, Peter; Swarts, Kelly; Elshire, Rob J; Glaubitz, Jeffrey C; Buckler, Edward S; Hufford, Matthew B; Ross-Ibarra, Jeffrey</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Convergent evolution is the independent evolution of similar traits in different species or lineages of the same species; this often is a result of adaptation to similar environments, a process referred to as convergent adaptation. We investigate here the molecular basis of convergent adaptation in maize to <span class="hlt">highland</span> climates in Mesoamerica and South America, using genome-wide SNP data. Taking advantage of archaeological data on the arrival of maize to the <span class="hlt">highlands</span>, we infer demographic models for both populations, identifying evidence of a strong bottleneck and rapid expansion in South America. We use these models to then identify loci showing an excess of differentiation as a means of identifying putative targets of natural selection and compare our results to expectations from recently developed theory on convergent adaptation. Consistent with predictions across a wide parameter space, we see limited evidence for convergent evolution at the nucleotide level in spite of strong similarities in overall phenotypes. Instead, we show that selection appears to have predominantly acted on standing genetic variation and that introgression from wild teosinte populations appears to have played a role in <span class="hlt">highland</span> adaptation in Mexican maize.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4571994','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4571994"><span id="translatedtitle">Independent Molecular Basis of Convergent <span class="hlt">Highland</span> Adaptation in Maize</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Takuno, Shohei; Ralph, Peter; Swarts, Kelly; Elshire, Rob J.; Glaubitz, Jeffrey C.; Buckler, Edward S.; Hufford, Matthew B.; Ross-Ibarra, Jeffrey</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Convergent evolution is the independent evolution of similar traits in different species or lineages of the same species; this often is a result of adaptation to similar environments, a process referred to as convergent adaptation. We investigate here the molecular basis of convergent adaptation in maize to <span class="hlt">highland</span> climates in Mesoamerica and South America, using genome-wide SNP data. Taking advantage of archaeological data on the arrival of maize to the <span class="hlt">highlands</span>, we infer demographic models for both populations, identifying evidence of a strong bottleneck and rapid expansion in South America. We use these models to then identify loci showing an excess of differentiation as a means of identifying putative targets of natural selection and compare our results to expectations from recently developed theory on convergent adaptation. Consistent with predictions across a wide parameter space, we see limited evidence for convergent evolution at the nucleotide level in spite of strong similarities in overall phenotypes. Instead, we show that selection appears to have predominantly acted on standing genetic variation and that introgression from wild teosinte populations appears to have played a role in <span class="hlt">highland</span> adaptation in Mexican maize. PMID:26078279</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920001563','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920001563"><span id="translatedtitle">Ancient fluvial processes in the equatorial <span class="hlt">highlands</span> of Mars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Craddock, Robert A.; Maxwell, Ted A.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>Martian <span class="hlt">highland</span> craters typically lack ejecta deposits, have no noticeable rim, and are flat floored. In addition, crater size frequency distribution curves show that <span class="hlt">highland</span> craters have depleted populations less than 20 km in diameter. A variety of processes have been suggested to explain these observations including deposition of aeolian or volcanic materials up to the crater rim crests, thermal creep, terrain softening, and mass wasting. However, none of these processes adequately explains both the crater morphology and population distribution. In order to explain both the Martian <span class="hlt">highland</span> crater morphology and population distribution, a fluvial process is proposed which is capable of removing the loose crater rim material. The resulting effect is to decrease the crater diameter, thereby causing the population curves to bendover. The eroded material is redistributed, burying or partially burying smaller diameter craters before complete erosion. This material may also be deposited into local topographic lows, creating the depositional basins observed. A fluvial process explains both sets of observations: crater morphology and crater population distribution curves.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4376713','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4376713"><span id="translatedtitle">Low Parasitemia in Submicroscopic Infections Significantly Impacts Malaria Diagnostic Sensitivity in the <span class="hlt">Highlands</span> of Western Kenya</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lo, Eugenia; Zhou, Guofa; Oo, Winny; Afrane, Yaw; Githeko, Andrew; Yan, Guiyun</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Asymptomatic malaria infections represent a major challenge in malaria control and elimination in <span class="hlt">Africa</span>. They are reservoirs of malaria parasite that can contribute to disease transmission. Therefore, identification and control of asymptomatic infections are important to make malaria elimination feasible. In this study, we investigated the extent and distribution of asymptomatic malaria in Western Kenya and examined how varying parasitemia affects performance of diagnostic methods including microscopy, conventional PCR, and quantitative PCR. In addition, we compared parasite prevalence rates and parasitemia levels with respect to topography and age in order to explore factors that influence malaria infection. Over 11,000 asymptomatic blood samples from children and adolescents up to 18 years old representing broad areas of Western Kenya were included. Quantitative PCR revealed the highest parasite positive rate among all methods and malaria prevalence in western Kenya varied widely from less than 1% to over 50%. A significantly lower parasitemia was detected in <span class="hlt">highland</span> than in lowland samples and this contrast was also observed primarily among submicroscopic samples. Although we found no correlation between parasitemia level and age, individuals of younger age group (aged <14) showed significantly higher parasite prevalence. In the lowlands, individuals of aged 5–14 showed significantly higher prevalence than those under age 5. Our findings highlight the need for a more sensitive and time-efficient assay for asymptomatic malaria detection particularly in areas of low-transmission. Combining QPCR with microscopy can enhance the capacity of detecting submicroscopic asymptomatic malaria infections. PMID:25816298</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3331809','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3331809"><span id="translatedtitle">Divergent lineage of a novel hantavirus in the <span class="hlt">banana</span> pipistrelle (Neoromicia nanus) in Côte d'Ivoire</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Recently identified hantaviruses harbored by shrews and moles (order Soricomorpha) suggest that other mammals having shared ancestry may serve as reservoirs. To investigate this possibility, archival tissues from 213 insectivorous bats (order Chiroptera) were analyzed for hantavirus RNA by RT-PCR. Following numerous failed attempts, hantavirus RNA was detected in ethanol-fixed liver tissue from two <span class="hlt">banana</span> pipistrelles (Neoromicia nanus), captured near Mouyassué village in Côte d'Ivoire, West <span class="hlt">Africa</span>, in June 2011. Phylogenetic analysis of partial L-segment sequences using maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods revealed that the newfound hantavirus, designated Mouyassué virus (MOUV), was highly divergent and basal to all other rodent- and soricomorph-borne hantaviruses, except for Nova virus in the European common mole (Talpa europaea). Full genome sequencing of MOUV and further surveys of other bat species for hantaviruses, now underway, will provide critical insights into the evolution and diversification of hantaviruses. PMID:22281072</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998IJBm...42...22P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998IJBm...42...22P"><span id="translatedtitle">The influence of exposure to ultraviolet radiation in simulated sunlight on ascospores causing Black Sigatoka disease of <span class="hlt">banana</span> and plantain</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Parnell, Mark; Burt, P. J. A.; Wilson, Kate</p> <p></p> <p>The influence of ultraviolet (UV) radiation in simulated natural sunlight on the viability of ascospores of Mycosphaerella fijiensis, the cause of Black Sigatoka disease in <span class="hlt">banana</span> and plantain, has been investigated as part of a study to assess the windborne spread of this pathogen from mainland Central and South America into the Caribbean. Spores were killed following continuous exposure to UV radiation for periods of 6 h or over. This relatively short exposure time suggests that the distances over which viable spores can be transported will be determined not only by the speed of the wind but also the amount of cloud cover and the time off day that spore release occurs. On this basis, wind dispersal of viable spores over distances greater than a few hundred kilometres is unlikely. These conclusions are reinforced by an examination of historical reports of the arrival of the disease in previously uninfected areas of the Americas and <span class="hlt">Africa</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22281072','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22281072"><span id="translatedtitle">Divergent lineage of a novel hantavirus in the <span class="hlt">banana</span> pipistrelle (Neoromicia nanus) in Côte d'Ivoire.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sumibcay, Laarni; Kadjo, Blaise; Gu, Se Hun; Kang, Hae Ji; Lim, Burton K; Cook, Joseph A; Song, Jin-Won; Yanagihara, Richard</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Recently identified hantaviruses harbored by shrews and moles (order Soricomorpha) suggest that other mammals having shared ancestry may serve as reservoirs. To investigate this possibility, archival tissues from 213 insectivorous bats (order Chiroptera) were analyzed for hantavirus RNA by RT-PCR. Following numerous failed attempts, hantavirus RNA was detected in ethanol-fixed liver tissue from two <span class="hlt">banana</span> pipistrelles (Neoromicia nanus), captured near Mouyassué village in Côte d'Ivoire, West <span class="hlt">Africa</span>, in June 2011. Phylogenetic analysis of partial L-segment sequences using maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods revealed that the newfound hantavirus, designated Mouyassué virus (MOUV), was highly divergent and basal to all other rodent- and soricomorph-borne hantaviruses, except for Nova virus in the European common mole (Talpa europaea). Full genome sequencing of MOUV and further surveys of other bat species for hantaviruses, now underway, will provide critical insights into the evolution and diversification of hantaviruses. PMID:22281072</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25839789','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25839789"><span id="translatedtitle">Physicochemical, digestibility and structural characteristics of starch isolated from <span class="hlt">banana</span> cultivars.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Agama-Acevedo, Edith; Nuñez-Santiago, Maria C; Alvarez-Ramirez, José; Bello-Pérez, Luis A</p> <p>2015-06-25</p> <p><span class="hlt">Banana</span> starches from diverse varieties (Macho, Morado, Valery and Enano Gigante) were studied in their physicochemical, structural and digestibility features. X-ray diffraction indicated that the <span class="hlt">banana</span> starches present a B-type crystallinity pattern, with slight difference in the crystallinity level. Macho and Enano Gigante starches showed the highest pasting temperatures (79 and 78°C, respectively), whilst Valery and Morado varieties presented a slight breakdown and higher setback than the formers. Morado starch presented the highest solubility value and Valery starch the lowest one. The swelling pattern of the <span class="hlt">banana</span> starches was in agreement with their pasting profile. All <span class="hlt">banana</span> starches showed a shear-thinning profile. The resistant starch (RS) fraction was the main fraction in the uncooked <span class="hlt">banana</span> starches. Morado variety showed the highest amount of slowly digestible starch (SDS) and the lowest RS content reported until now in <span class="hlt">banana</span> starches. <span class="hlt">Banana</span> starch cooked samples presented an important amount of SDS and RS. Molecular weight and gyration radius of the four <span class="hlt">banana</span> starches ranged between 2.88-3.14×10(8)g/mol and 286-302nm, respectively. The chain-length distributions of <span class="hlt">banana</span> amylopectin showed that B1 chains (DP 13-24) is the main fraction, and an important amount of long chains (DP≥37) are present. The information generated from this study can be useful to determine <span class="hlt">banana</span> varieties for starch isolation with specific functionality.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25839789','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25839789"><span id="translatedtitle">Physicochemical, digestibility and structural characteristics of starch isolated from <span class="hlt">banana</span> cultivars.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Agama-Acevedo, Edith; Nuñez-Santiago, Maria C; Alvarez-Ramirez, José; Bello-Pérez, Luis A</p> <p>2015-06-25</p> <p><span class="hlt">Banana</span> starches from diverse varieties (Macho, Morado, Valery and Enano Gigante) were studied in their physicochemical, structural and digestibility features. X-ray diffraction indicated that the <span class="hlt">banana</span> starches present a B-type crystallinity pattern, with slight difference in the crystallinity level. Macho and Enano Gigante starches showed the highest pasting temperatures (79 and 78°C, respectively), whilst Valery and Morado varieties presented a slight breakdown and higher setback than the formers. Morado starch presented the highest solubility value and Valery starch the lowest one. The swelling pattern of the <span class="hlt">banana</span> starches was in agreement with their pasting profile. All <span class="hlt">banana</span> starches showed a shear-thinning profile. The resistant starch (RS) fraction was the main fraction in the uncooked <span class="hlt">banana</span> starches. Morado variety showed the highest amount of slowly digestible starch (SDS) and the lowest RS content reported until now in <span class="hlt">banana</span> starches. <span class="hlt">Banana</span> starch cooked samples presented an important amount of SDS and RS. Molecular weight and gyration radius of the four <span class="hlt">banana</span> starches ranged between 2.88-3.14×10(8)g/mol and 286-302nm, respectively. The chain-length distributions of <span class="hlt">banana</span> amylopectin showed that B1 chains (DP 13-24) is the main fraction, and an important amount of long chains (DP≥37) are present. The information generated from this study can be useful to determine <span class="hlt">banana</span> varieties for starch isolation with specific functionality. PMID:25839789</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4794170','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4794170"><span id="translatedtitle">Traditional <span class="hlt">Banana</span> Diversity in Oceania: An Endangered Heritage</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kagy, Valérie; Wong, Maurice; Vandenbroucke, Henri; Jenny, Christophe; Dubois, Cécile; Ollivier, Anthony; Cardi, Céline; Mournet, Pierre; Tuia, Valérie; Roux, Nicolas; Doležel, Jaroslav; Perrier, Xavier</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This study aims to understand the genetic diversity of traditional Oceanian starchy <span class="hlt">bananas</span> in order to propose an efficient conservation strategy for these endangered varieties. SSR and DArT molecular markers are used to characterize a large sample of Pacific accessions, from New Guinea to Tahiti and Hawaii. All Pacific starchy <span class="hlt">bananas</span> are shown of New Guinea origin, by interspecific hybridization between Musa acuminata (AA genome), more precisely its local subspecies M. acuminata ssp. banksii, and M. balbisiana (BB genome) generating triploid AAB Pacific starchy <span class="hlt">bananas</span>. These AAB genotypes do not form a subgroup sensu stricto and genetic markers differentiate two subgroups across the three morphotypes usually identified: Iholena versus Popoulu and Maoli. The Popoulu/Maoli accessions, even if morphologically diverse throughout the Pacific, cluster in the same genetic subgroup. However, the subgroup is not strictly monophyletic and several close, but different genotypes are linked to the dominant genotype. One of the related genotypes is specific to New Caledonia (NC), with morphotypes close to Maoli, but with some primitive characters. It is concluded that the diffusion of Pacific starchy AAB <span class="hlt">bananas</span> results from a series of introductions of triploids originating in New Guinea area from several sexual recombination events implying different genotypes of M. acuminata ssp. banksii. This scheme of multiple waves from the New Guinea zone is consistent with the archaeological data for peopling of the Pacific. The present geographic distribution suggests that a greater diversity must have existed in the past. Its erosion finds parallels with the erosion of cultural traditions, inexorably declining in most of the Polynesian or Melanesian Islands. Symmetrically, diversity hot spots appear linked to the local persistence of traditions: Maoli in New Caledonian Kanak traditions or Iholena in a few Polynesian islands. These results will contribute to optimizing the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26982801','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26982801"><span id="translatedtitle">Traditional <span class="hlt">Banana</span> Diversity in Oceania: An Endangered Heritage.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kagy, Valérie; Wong, Maurice; Vandenbroucke, Henri; Jenny, Christophe; Dubois, Cécile; Ollivier, Anthony; Cardi, Céline; Mournet, Pierre; Tuia, Valérie; Roux, Nicolas; Doležel, Jaroslav; Perrier, Xavier</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This study aims to understand the genetic diversity of traditional Oceanian starchy <span class="hlt">bananas</span> in order to propose an efficient conservation strategy for these endangered varieties. SSR and DArT molecular markers are used to characterize a large sample of Pacific accessions, from New Guinea to Tahiti and Hawaii. All Pacific starchy <span class="hlt">bananas</span> are shown of New Guinea origin, by interspecific hybridization between Musa acuminata (AA genome), more precisely its local subspecies M. acuminata ssp. banksii, and M. balbisiana (BB genome) generating triploid AAB Pacific starchy <span class="hlt">bananas</span>. These AAB genotypes do not form a subgroup sensu stricto and genetic markers differentiate two subgroups across the three morphotypes usually identified: Iholena versus Popoulu and Maoli. The Popoulu/Maoli accessions, even if morphologically diverse throughout the Pacific, cluster in the same genetic subgroup. However, the subgroup is not strictly monophyletic and several close, but different genotypes are linked to the dominant genotype. One of the related genotypes is specific to New Caledonia (NC), with morphotypes close to Maoli, but with some primitive characters. It is concluded that the diffusion of Pacific starchy AAB <span class="hlt">bananas</span> results from a series of introductions of triploids originating in New Guinea area from several sexual recombination events implying different genotypes of M. acuminata ssp. banksii. This scheme of multiple waves from the New Guinea zone is consistent with the archaeological data for peopling of the Pacific. The present geographic distribution suggests that a greater diversity must have existed in the past. Its erosion finds parallels with the erosion of cultural traditions, inexorably declining in most of the Polynesian or Melanesian Islands. Symmetrically, diversity hot spots appear linked to the local persistence of traditions: Maoli in New Caledonian Kanak traditions or Iholena in a few Polynesian islands. These results will contribute to optimizing the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26982801','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26982801"><span id="translatedtitle">Traditional <span class="hlt">Banana</span> Diversity in Oceania: An Endangered Heritage.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kagy, Valérie; Wong, Maurice; Vandenbroucke, Henri; Jenny, Christophe; Dubois, Cécile; Ollivier, Anthony; Cardi, Céline; Mournet, Pierre; Tuia, Valérie; Roux, Nicolas; Doležel, Jaroslav; Perrier, Xavier</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This study aims to understand the genetic diversity of traditional Oceanian starchy <span class="hlt">bananas</span> in order to propose an efficient conservation strategy for these endangered varieties. SSR and DArT molecular markers are used to characterize a large sample of Pacific accessions, from New Guinea to Tahiti and Hawaii. All Pacific starchy <span class="hlt">bananas</span> are shown of New Guinea origin, by interspecific hybridization between Musa acuminata (AA genome), more precisely its local subspecies M. acuminata ssp. banksii, and M. balbisiana (BB genome) generating triploid AAB Pacific starchy <span class="hlt">bananas</span>. These AAB genotypes do not form a subgroup sensu stricto and genetic markers differentiate two subgroups across the three morphotypes usually identified: Iholena versus Popoulu and Maoli. The Popoulu/Maoli accessions, even if morphologically diverse throughout the Pacific, cluster in the same genetic subgroup. However, the subgroup is not strictly monophyletic and several close, but different genotypes are linked to the dominant genotype. One of the related genotypes is specific to New Caledonia (NC), with morphotypes close to Maoli, but with some primitive characters. It is concluded that the diffusion of Pacific starchy AAB <span class="hlt">bananas</span> results from a series of introductions of triploids originating in New Guinea area from several sexual recombination events implying different genotypes of M. acuminata ssp. banksii. This scheme of multiple waves from the New Guinea zone is consistent with the archaeological data for peopling of the Pacific. The present geographic distribution suggests that a greater diversity must have existed in the past. Its erosion finds parallels with the erosion of cultural traditions, inexorably declining in most of the Polynesian or Melanesian Islands. Symmetrically, diversity hot spots appear linked to the local persistence of traditions: Maoli in New Caledonian Kanak traditions or Iholena in a few Polynesian islands. These results will contribute to optimizing the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/wri7814','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/wri7814"><span id="translatedtitle">Distribution of dissolved nitrate and fluoride in ground water, <span class="hlt">Highland</span>-East <span class="hlt">Highlands</span>, San Bernardino County, California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Eccles, Lawrence A.; Klein, John M.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>In the <span class="hlt">Highland</span>-East <span class="hlt">Highlands</span> area of southern California, concentrations of nitrate in water from many wells exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 's and the California Department of Health 's recommended limit for public water supplies. The nitrate standards for public water supplies in the study area are commonly met by blending the high-nitrate water with low-nitrate water before distribution; however, some of the low-nitrate water sources have fluoride concentrations that exceed the optimum level, or in a few cases exceed the maximum level recommended by the California Department of Health. Nitrate-nitrogen concentrations in the study area are generally between 1 and 20 milligrams per liter. In general, nitrate-nitrogen concentrations exceeding 10 milligrams per liter are found in water from wells perforated at depths of less than 500 feet. (Woodard-USGS)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.water.usgs.gov/wri824054','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.water.usgs.gov/wri824054"><span id="translatedtitle">Preliminary delineation and description of the regional aquifers of Tennessee : the <span class="hlt">Highland</span> Rim aquifer system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Brahana, J.V.; Bradley, M.W.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Highland</span> Rim aquifer system in Tennessee is primarily composed of Mississippian carbonates and occurs west of the Valley and Ridge Province. It crops out in the <span class="hlt">Highland</span> Rim and the Sequatchie Valley. It has been removed by erosion from the Central Basin. Groundwater in the <span class="hlt">Highland</span> Rim aquifer system occurs primarily in secondary openings including solution openings, joints, and faults. The Chattanooga Shale is the lower confining layer for the <span class="hlt">Highland</span> Rim aquifer system. Under the Cumberland plateau, this aquifer system is separated from the overlying Pennsylvanian formations by the Pennington Shale. The <span class="hlt">Highland</span> Rim aquifer system is an important source of drinking water. It supplies most of the rural, domestic, and many public supplies of drinking water in the <span class="hlt">Highland</span> Rim. Where there is a dynamic flow system, dissolved solids concentrations are less than 500 mg/L. However, isolated cells may exist where the groundwater has dissolved solids concentrations of more than 1 ,000 mg/L. (USGS)</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25962076','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25962076"><span id="translatedtitle">Small RNA Profiling of Two Important Cultivars of <span class="hlt">Banana</span> and Overexpression of miRNA156 in Transgenic <span class="hlt">Banana</span> Plants.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ghag, Siddhesh B; Shekhawat, Upendra K S; Ganapathi, Thumballi R</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Micro RNAs (miRNAs) are a class of non-coding, short RNAs having important roles in regulation of gene expression. Although plant miRNAs have been studied in detail in some model plants, less is known about these miRNAs in important fruit plants like <span class="hlt">banana</span>. miRNAs have pivotal roles in plant growth and development, and in responses to diverse biotic and abiotic stress stimuli. Here, we have analyzed the small RNA expression profiles of two different economically significant <span class="hlt">banana</span> cultivars by using high-throughput sequencing technology. We identified a total of 170 and 244 miRNAs in the two libraries respectively derived from cv. Grand Naine and cv. Rasthali leaves. In addition, several cultivar specific microRNAs along with their putative target transcripts were also detected in our studies. To validate our findings regarding the small RNA profiles, we also undertook overexpression of a common microRNA, MusamiRNA156 in transgenic <span class="hlt">banana</span> plants. The transgenic plants overexpressing the stem-loop sequence derived from MusamiRNA156 gene were stunted in their growth together with peculiar changes in leaf anatomy. These results provide a foundation for further investigations into important physiological and metabolic pathways operational in <span class="hlt">banana</span> in general and cultivar specific traits in particular. PMID:25962076</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4427177','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4427177"><span id="translatedtitle">Small RNA Profiling of Two Important Cultivars of <span class="hlt">Banana</span> and Overexpression of miRNA156 in Transgenic <span class="hlt">Banana</span> Plants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ganapathi, Thumballi R.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Micro RNAs (miRNAs) are a class of non-coding, short RNAs having important roles in regulation of gene expression. Although plant miRNAs have been studied in detail in some model plants, less is known about these miRNAs in important fruit plants like <span class="hlt">banana</span>. miRNAs have pivotal roles in plant growth and development, and in responses to diverse biotic and abiotic stress stimuli. Here, we have analyzed the small RNA expression profiles of two different economically significant <span class="hlt">banana</span> cultivars by using high-throughput sequencing technology. We identified a total of 170 and 244 miRNAs in the two libraries respectively derived from cv. Grand Naine and cv. Rasthali leaves. In addition, several cultivar specific microRNAs along with their putative target transcripts were also detected in our studies. To validate our findings regarding the small RNA profiles, we also undertook overexpression of a common microRNA, MusamiRNA156 in transgenic <span class="hlt">banana</span> plants. The transgenic plants overexpressing the stem-loop sequence derived from MusamiRNA156 gene were stunted in their growth together with peculiar changes in leaf anatomy. These results provide a foundation for further investigations into important physiological and metabolic pathways operational in <span class="hlt">banana</span> in general and cultivar specific traits in particular. PMID:25962076</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3308519','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3308519"><span id="translatedtitle">Larval Habitat Associations with Human Land Uses, Roads, Rivers, and Land Cover for Anopheles albimanus, A. pseudopunctipennis, and A. punctimacula (Diptera: Culicidae) in Coastal and <span class="hlt">Highland</span> Ecuador</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Pinault, Lauren L.; Hunter, Fiona F.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Larval habitat for three <span class="hlt">highland</span> Anopheles species: Anopheles albimanus Wiedemann, Anopheles pseudopunctipennis Theobald, and Anopheles punctimacula Dyar and Knab was related to human land uses, rivers, roads, and remotely sensed land cover classifications in the western Ecuadorian Andes. Of the five commonly observed human land uses, cattle pasture (n = 30) provided potentially suitable habitat for A. punctimacula and A. albimanus in less than 14% of sites, and was related in a principal components analysis (PCA) to the presence of macrophyte vegetation, greater surface area, clarity, and algae cover. Empty lots (n = 30) were related in the PCA to incident sunlight and provided potential habitat for A. pseudopunctipennis and A. albimanus in less than 14% of sites. The other land uses surveyed (<span class="hlt">banana</span>, sugarcane, and mixed tree plantations; n = 28, 21, 25, respectively) provided very little standing water that could potentially be used for larval habitat. River edges and eddies (n = 41) were associated with greater clarity, depth, temperature, and algae cover, which provide potentially suitable habitat for A. albimanus in 58% of sites and A. pseudopunctipennis in 29% of sites. Road-associated water bodies (n = 38) provided potential habitat for A. punctimacula in 44% of sites and A. albimanus in 26% of sites surveyed. Species collection localities were compared to land cover classifications using Geographic Information Systems software. All three mosquito species were associated more often with the category “closed/open broadleaved evergreen and/or semi-deciduous forests” than expected (P ≤ 0.01 in all cases), given such a habitat’s abundance. This study provides evidence that specific human land uses create habitat for potential malaria vectors in <span class="hlt">highland</span> regions of the Andes. PMID:22454623</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22454623','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22454623"><span id="translatedtitle">Larval Habitat Associations with Human Land Uses, Roads, Rivers, and Land Cover for Anopheles albimanus, A. pseudopunctipennis, and A. punctimacula (Diptera: Culicidae) in Coastal and <span class="hlt">Highland</span> Ecuador.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pinault, Lauren L; Hunter, Fiona F</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Larval habitat for three <span class="hlt">highland</span> Anopheles species: Anopheles albimanus Wiedemann, Anopheles pseudopunctipennis Theobald, and Anopheles punctimacula Dyar and Knab was related to human land uses, rivers, roads, and remotely sensed land cover classifications in the western Ecuadorian Andes. Of the five commonly observed human land uses, cattle pasture (n = 30) provided potentially suitable habitat for A. punctimacula and A. albimanus in less than 14% of sites, and was related in a principal components analysis (PCA) to the presence of macrophyte vegetation, greater surface area, clarity, and algae cover. Empty lots (n = 30) were related in the PCA to incident sunlight and provided potential habitat for A. pseudopunctipennis and A. albimanus in less than 14% of sites. The other land uses surveyed (<span class="hlt">banana</span>, sugarcane, and mixed tree plantations; n = 28, 21, 25, respectively) provided very little standing water that could potentially be used for larval habitat. River edges and eddies (n = 41) were associated with greater clarity, depth, temperature, and algae cover, which provide potentially suitable habitat for A. albimanus in 58% of sites and A. pseudopunctipennis in 29% of sites. Road-associated water bodies (n = 38) provided potential habitat for A. punctimacula in 44% of sites and A. albimanus in 26% of sites surveyed. Species collection localities were compared to land cover classifications using Geographic Information Systems software. All three mosquito species were associated more often with the category "closed/open broadleaved evergreen and/or semi-deciduous forests" than expected (P ≤ 0.01 in all cases), given such a habitat's abundance. This study provides evidence that specific human land uses create habitat for potential malaria vectors in <span class="hlt">highland</span> regions of the Andes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22444823','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22444823"><span id="translatedtitle">Lifetime productivity of dairy cows in smallholder farming systems of the Central <span class="hlt">highlands</span> of Kenya.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rufino, M C; Herrero, M; Van Wijk, M T; Hemerik, L; De Ridder, N; Giller, K E</p> <p>2009-07-01</p> <p>Evaluation of lifetime productivity is sensible to target interventions for improving productivity of smallholder dairy systems in the <span class="hlt">highlands</span> of East <span class="hlt">Africa</span>, because cows are normally not disposed of based on productive reasons. Feeding strategies and involuntary culling may have long-term effects on productive (and therefore economic) performance of dairy systems. Because of the temporal scale needed to evaluate lifetime productivity, experimentation with feedstuffs in single lactations is not enough to assess improvements in productivity. A dynamic modelling approach was used to explore the effect of feeding strategies on the lifetime productivity of dairy cattle. We used LIVSIM (LIVestock SIMulator), an individual-based, dynamic model in which performance depends on genetic potential of the breed and feeding. We tested the model for the <span class="hlt">highlands</span> of Central Kenya, and simulated individual animals throughout their lifetime using scenarios with different diets based on common feedstuffs used in these systems (Napier grass, maize stover and dairy concentrates), with and without imposing random mortality on different age classes. The simulations showed that it is possible to maximise lifetime productivity by supplementing concentrates to meet the nutrient requirements of cattle during lactation, and during early development to reduce age at first calving and extend productive life. Avoiding undernutrition during the dry period by supplementing the diet with 0.5 kg of concentrates per day helped to increase productivity and productive life, but in practice farmers may not perceive the immediate economic benefits because the results of this practice are manifested through a cumulative, long-term effect. Survival analyses indicated that unsupplemented diets prolong calving intervals and therefore, reduce lifetime productivity. The simulations with imposed random mortality showed a reduction of 43% to 65% in all productivity indicators. Milk production may be</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25227688','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25227688"><span id="translatedtitle">Tobacco arabinogalactan protein NtEPc can promote <span class="hlt">banana</span> (Musa AAA) somatic embryogenesis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shu, H; Xu, L; Li, Z; Li, J; Jin, Z; Chang, S</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Banana</span> is an important tropical fruit worldwide. Parthenocarpy and female sterility made it impossible to improve <span class="hlt">banana</span> varieties through common hybridization. Genetic transformation for <span class="hlt">banana</span> improvement is imperative. But the low rate that <span class="hlt">banana</span> embryogenic callus was induced made the transformation cannot be performed in many laboratories. Finding ways to promote <span class="hlt">banana</span> somatic embryogenesis is critical for <span class="hlt">banana</span> genetic transformation. After tobacco arabinogalactan protein gene NtEPc was transformed into Escherichia coli (DE3), the recombinant protein was purified and filter-sterilized. A series of the sterilized protein was added into tissue culture medium. It was found that the number of <span class="hlt">banana</span> immature male flowers developing embryogenic calli increased significantly in the presence of NtEPc protein compared with the effect of the control medium. Among the treatments, explants cultured on medium containing 10 mg/l of NtEPc protein had the highest chance to develop embryogenic calli. The percentage of lines that developed embryogenic calli on this medium was about 12.5 %. These demonstrated that NtEPc protein can be used to promote <span class="hlt">banana</span> embryogenesis. This is the first paper that reported that foreign arabinogalactan protein (AGP) could be used to improve <span class="hlt">banana</span> somatic embryogenesis. PMID:25227688</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25227688','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25227688"><span id="translatedtitle">Tobacco arabinogalactan protein NtEPc can promote <span class="hlt">banana</span> (Musa AAA) somatic embryogenesis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shu, H; Xu, L; Li, Z; Li, J; Jin, Z; Chang, S</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Banana</span> is an important tropical fruit worldwide. Parthenocarpy and female sterility made it impossible to improve <span class="hlt">banana</span> varieties through common hybridization. Genetic transformation for <span class="hlt">banana</span> improvement is imperative. But the low rate that <span class="hlt">banana</span> embryogenic callus was induced made the transformation cannot be performed in many laboratories. Finding ways to promote <span class="hlt">banana</span> somatic embryogenesis is critical for <span class="hlt">banana</span> genetic transformation. After tobacco arabinogalactan protein gene NtEPc was transformed into Escherichia coli (DE3), the recombinant protein was purified and filter-sterilized. A series of the sterilized protein was added into tissue culture medium. It was found that the number of <span class="hlt">banana</span> immature male flowers developing embryogenic calli increased significantly in the presence of NtEPc protein compared with the effect of the control medium. Among the treatments, explants cultured on medium containing 10 mg/l of NtEPc protein had the highest chance to develop embryogenic calli. The percentage of lines that developed embryogenic calli on this medium was about 12.5 %. These demonstrated that NtEPc protein can be used to promote <span class="hlt">banana</span> embryogenesis. This is the first paper that reported that foreign arabinogalactan protein (AGP) could be used to improve <span class="hlt">banana</span> somatic embryogenesis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9634789','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9634789"><span id="translatedtitle">Genetic transformation of <span class="hlt">banana</span> and plantain (Musa spp.) via particle bombardment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sági, L; Panis, B; Remy, S; Schoofs, H; De Smet, K; Swennen, R; Cammue, B P</p> <p>1995-05-01</p> <p>We have developed a simple protocol to allow the production of transgenic <span class="hlt">banana</span> plants. Foreign genes were delivered into embryogenic suspension cells using accelerated particles coated with DNA. Bombardment parameters were optimized for a modified particle gun resulting in high levels of transient expression of the beta-glucuronidase gene in both <span class="hlt">banana</span> and plantain cells. Bombarded <span class="hlt">banana</span> cells were selected with hygromycin and regenerated into plants. Molecular and histochemical characterization of transformants revealed the stable integration of the transferred genes into the <span class="hlt">banana</span> genome.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15..171K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15..171K"><span id="translatedtitle">Soil erosion and land degradation in the <span class="hlt">Highlands</span> of Jordan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Khresat, Saeb</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Highlands</span> of Jordan has a Mediterranean type of climate characterized by hot dry summers and cold wet winters. Unsustainable land use practices, recurrent droughts and climate change are the main causes of land degradation in the <span class="hlt">Highlands</span> area of Jordan. Unsustainable land use practices include improper plowing, inappropriate rotations, inadequate or inexistent management of plant residues, overgrazing of natural vegetation, forest cutting, land fragmentation and over-pumping of groundwater. In addition, Jordan's rapid population growth (2.8% per year) is exerting considerable pressure upon its limited arable land through uncontrolled and random urbanization activities. Water erosion is the most widespread Land degradation type in the country. It greatly increases on slopes where the vegetation cover is (seasonally) reduced. It is further aggravated by a loss of soil structure and reduced infiltration rates. Wind erosion occurs most frequently in the arid and semi-arid portions of the southern <span class="hlt">Highlands</span>, especially in areas with sandy or loamy soils. Rangeland degradation is the second most widespread land degradation type that is driven by overgrazing. The impact of overgrazing on the vegetation is evident from the excessive uprooting of the green matter (grass and bushes), leading to reduced seeding, reduced regeneration, and the consequent loss of plant cover which make the soil more susceptible to water and wind erosion. It is estimated that about 41 percent of Jordan's total land area is characterized as degraded of which 22 percent of the total land mass is classified as moderately degraded and agricultural productivity is greatly reduced. Observed aspects of land degradation include the recession of forest areas, high rate of erosion by water (formation of rills and gullies), expansion of urbanized area, reduction in soil organic matter and soil structure deterioration. Implementation of soil erosion control measures such as contour cultivation</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27569548','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27569548"><span id="translatedtitle">Ancestral Origins and Genetic History of Tibetan <span class="hlt">Highlanders</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lu, Dongsheng; Lou, Haiyi; Yuan, Kai; Wang, Xiaoji; Wang, Yuchen; Zhang, Chao; Lu, Yan; Yang, Xiong; Deng, Lian; Zhou, Ying; Feng, Qidi; Hu, Ya; Ding, Qiliang; Yang, Yajun; Li, Shilin; Jin, Li; Guan, Yaqun; Su, Bing; Kang, Longli; Xu, Shuhua</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>The origin of Tibetans remains one of the most contentious puzzles in history, anthropology, and genetics. Analyses of deeply sequenced (30×-60×) genomes of 38 Tibetan <span class="hlt">highlanders</span> and 39 Han Chinese lowlanders, together with available data on archaic and modern humans, allow us to comprehensively characterize the ancestral makeup of Tibetans and uncover their origins. Non-modern human sequences compose ∼6% of the Tibetan gene pool and form unique haplotypes in some genomic regions, where Denisovan-like, Neanderthal-like, ancient-Siberian-like, and unknown ancestries are entangled and elevated. The shared ancestry of Tibetan-enriched sequences dates back to ∼62,000-38,000 years ago, predating the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and representing early colonization of the plateau. Nonetheless, most of the Tibetan gene pool is of modern human origin and diverged from that of Han Chinese ∼15,000 to ∼9,000 years ago, which can be largely attributed to post-LGM arrivals. Analysis of ∼200 contemporary populations showed that Tibetans share ancestry with populations from East Asia (∼82%), Central Asia and Siberia (∼11%), South Asia (∼6%), and western Eurasia and Oceania (∼1%). Our results support that Tibetans arose from a mixture of multiple ancestral gene pools but that their origins are much more complicated and ancient than previously suspected. We provide compelling evidence of the co-existence of Paleolithic and Neolithic ancestries in the Tibetan gene pool, indicating a genetic continuity between pre-historical <span class="hlt">highland</span>-foragers and present-day Tibetans. In particular, highly differentiated sequences harbored in <span class="hlt">highlanders</span>' genomes were most likely inherited from pre-LGM settlers of multiple ancestral origins (SUNDer) and maintained in high frequency by natural selection.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27569548','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27569548"><span id="translatedtitle">Ancestral Origins and Genetic History of Tibetan <span class="hlt">Highlanders</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lu, Dongsheng; Lou, Haiyi; Yuan, Kai; Wang, Xiaoji; Wang, Yuchen; Zhang, Chao; Lu, Yan; Yang, Xiong; Deng, Lian; Zhou, Ying; Feng, Qidi; Hu, Ya; Ding, Qiliang; Yang, Yajun; Li, Shilin; Jin, Li; Guan, Yaqun; Su, Bing; Kang, Longli; Xu, Shuhua</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>The origin of Tibetans remains one of the most contentious puzzles in history, anthropology, and genetics. Analyses of deeply sequenced (30×-60×) genomes of 38 Tibetan <span class="hlt">highlanders</span> and 39 Han Chinese lowlanders, together with available data on archaic and modern humans, allow us to comprehensively characterize the ancestral makeup of Tibetans and uncover their origins. Non-modern human sequences compose ∼6% of the Tibetan gene pool and form unique haplotypes in some genomic regions, where Denisovan-like, Neanderthal-like, ancient-Siberian-like, and unknown ancestries are entangled and elevated. The shared ancestry of Tibetan-enriched sequences dates back to ∼62,000-38,000 years ago, predating the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and representing early colonization of the plateau. Nonetheless, most of the Tibetan gene pool is of modern human origin and diverged from that of Han Chinese ∼15,000 to ∼9,000 years ago, which can be largely attributed to post-LGM arrivals. Analysis of ∼200 contemporary populations showed that Tibetans share ancestry with populations from East Asia (∼82%), Central Asia and Siberia (∼11%), South Asia (∼6%), and western Eurasia and Oceania (∼1%). Our results support that Tibetans arose from a mixture of multiple ancestral gene pools but that their origins are much more complicated and ancient than previously suspected. We provide compelling evidence of the co-existence of Paleolithic and Neolithic ancestries in the Tibetan gene pool, indicating a genetic continuity between pre-historical <span class="hlt">highland</span>-foragers and present-day Tibetans. In particular, highly differentiated sequences harbored in <span class="hlt">highlanders</span>' genomes were most likely inherited from pre-LGM settlers of multiple ancestral origins (SUNDer) and maintained in high frequency by natural selection. PMID:27569548</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4067671','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4067671"><span id="translatedtitle">Utilization of urea nitrogen in Papua New Guinea <span class="hlt">highlanders</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rikimaru, T; Fujita, Y; Okuda, T; Kajiwara, N; Date, C; Heywood, P F; Alpers, M P; Koishi, H</p> <p>1985-06-01</p> <p>The utilization of urea nitrogen was examined in 10 healthy adult men from a village near Lufa, in the Eastern <span class="hlt">Highlands</span> Province of Papua New Guinea. The staple diet of these men was sweet potatoes. [15N]urea was used as tracer for urea released into their intestinal tracts and the utilization of the urea-N was estimated from the trend of 15N. The men were orally given [15N]urea at the beginning of the study and then their daily protein intake, serum protein levels, 15N excretion in the feces and urine, 15N retention in the whole body and 15N incorporation into serum protein were examined. Their daily protein intake (32.2 +/- 8.6 g/day) was low, but their serum protein level (8.05 +/- 0.41 g/100 ml) was within the normal range. 15N retention in the whole body on day 3 was estimated to be 35.4 +/- 20.2% of the total amount administered, calculated from the recoveries in the feces (1.64 +/- 0.85%) and urine (63.0 +/- 20.5%) on days 1-3. The utilization of urea nitrogen in Papua New Guinea <span class="hlt">highlanders</span> was confirmed from the finding of 15N incorporation into serum proteins on day 3 (0.008 +/- 0.005 atom% excess). This incorporation was negatively correlated with the urinary nitrogen excretion and serum protein level. This correlation suggests that Papua New Guinea <span class="hlt">highlanders</span> with low urinary nitrogen excretion or a low level in serum protein, who are in a poor state of protein nutrition, tend to utilize more urea nitrogen for the synthesis of serum protein.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11510430','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11510430"><span id="translatedtitle">Functional properties of corn, <span class="hlt">banana</span> and potato starch blends.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bello-Pérez, L A; Meza-León, K; Contreras-Ramos, S; Paredes-López, O</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Potato, corn and <span class="hlt">banana</span> starches were blended in various combinations and ratios. Stability and clarity, freeze-thaw stability, water retention capacity and apparent viscosity of the pastes (prepared with a hydrothermic treatment using 100 degrees C for 30 min) were evaluated. In general, the samples stored at room temperature (28 degrees C) presented stability as well as low retrogradation rate. However, in the samples stored at 4 degrees C the propagation and maturation of crystals in the amylopectin component were favored, increasing sample retrogradation. A synergistic effect was shown in some starch blends. The blends had poor stability to freeze-thaw cycle, but a high synergestic effect was presented in water retention capacity. Potato:<span class="hlt">banana</span> and corn:potato blends showed a synergistic effect in the apparent viscosity and in general, starch blends had stability during the 30-min test.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23572644','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23572644"><span id="translatedtitle">Studies on optimization of ripening techniques for <span class="hlt">banana</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mahajan, B V C; Kaur, Tajender; Gill, M I S; Dhaliwal, H S; Ghuman, B S; Chahil, B S</p> <p>2010-06-01</p> <p>Fruits of <span class="hlt">banana</span> (Musa spp) cultivar 'Grand Naine' were harvested at physiological green mature stage. The first lot of fruit was exposed to ethylene gas (100 ppm) for 24 h in ripening chamber. The second lot was treated with different concentrations of aqueous solution of ethephon (250, 500, 750, 1000 ppm) each for 5 min. The fruits were packed in plastic crates and stored in ripening chamber maintained at 16-18°C and 90-95% RH. Treatment with ethylene gas (100 ppm) or ethephon (500 ppm) resulted in adequate ripening of fruits after 4 days with uniform colour, pleasant flavour, desirable firmness and acceptable quality and better shelf-life. The untreated control fruits were hard textured and poor in colour and quality. The ripening with ethylene gas or ethephon treatment seems to hold promise in reducing postharvest losses and boosting the economy of <span class="hlt">banana</span> growers and traders. PMID:23572644</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12425113','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12425113"><span id="translatedtitle">Pesticide assessment of the <span class="hlt">banana</span> sector in an Ecuadorian watershed.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Matamoros, D; Vanrolleghem, P A</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>A survey was conducted in several Ecuadorian <span class="hlt">banana</span> plantations to determine the actual pesticide management and their environmental impacts. It was detected that glyphosate, propiconazole, imazalil, tridemorph and imazalil are the pesticides most used in the Ecuadorian <span class="hlt">banana</span> sector. As a first step, two screening models (EQC and EXAMS) were used to determine the overall distribution of these pesticides in a unitary environment. Whereas EQC evaluates soil, water, sediment and air compartments, EXAMS only takes into account water and sediment compartments. Although both models show different results due to their different approaches, a comparison can still be done considering only the aquatic portion of the unitary environment. For the case study presented here, all 5 pesticides tend to affect more the soil and water compartment. PMID:12425113</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11109178','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11109178"><span id="translatedtitle">Agricultural "killing fields": the poisoning of Costa Rican <span class="hlt">banana</span> workers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sass, R</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>The poisoning of Costa Rican <span class="hlt">banana</span> workers by multinational corporations' excessive use of pesticides is not a local issue; it is embedded in a dominant ideology expressed by the phenomenon of globalization. This ideology seeps into every aspect of our social institutions--economic, political, and legal. The practice of this ideological perspective is evident in the industrialization of global agriculture and the shift from "developmentalism"--liberal welfarism, industrialization, and urbanization--to a dominant, undemocratic, global financial elite with "economism" and a neoliberal political agenda overriding the nation-state polis. A specific effect is to transform the agricultural workers of developing countries, such as Costa Rican <span class="hlt">banana</span> workers, into politically superfluous flesh-and-blood human beings.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950034777&hterms=emissivity&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Demissivity','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950034777&hterms=emissivity&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Demissivity"><span id="translatedtitle">A ferroelectric model for the low emissivity <span class="hlt">highlands</span> on Venus</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Shepard, Michael K.; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Brackett, Robert A.; Fegley, Bruce, Jr.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>A model to explain the low emissivity venusian <span class="hlt">highlands</span> is proposed utilizing the temperature-dependent dielectric constant of ferroelectric minerals. Ferroelectric minerals are known to occur in alkaline and carbonite rocks, both of which are plausible for Venus. Ferroelectric minerals possess extremely high dielectric constants (10(exp 5)) over small temperature intervals and are only required in minor (much less than 1%) abundances to explain the observed emissivities. The ferroelectric model can account for: (1) the observed reduction in emissivity with increased altitude, (2) the abrupt return to normal emissivities at highest elevations, and (3) the variations in the critical elevation observed from region to region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26624312','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26624312"><span id="translatedtitle">A new species of Parakari (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae) from Guiana <span class="hlt">Highlands</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Derka, Tomáš; Nieto, Carolina; Svitok, Marek</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The genus Parakari was described from Guiana <span class="hlt">Highlands</span> in southeastern Venezuela by Nieto & Derka in 2011 for two species inhabiting streams draining isolated, flat-topped table mountains called tepuis. A description of a third representative, Parakari roraimensis sp. n., is given here based on material collected from a coldwater stream at the foothills of Roraima-tepui (SE Venezuela). Detailed morphological descriptions of mature nymph and female adult are given. A differential diagnosis and a key to nymphs of the three Parakari species are provided. PMID:26624312</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26624312','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26624312"><span id="translatedtitle">A new species of Parakari (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae) from Guiana <span class="hlt">Highlands</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Derka, Tomáš; Nieto, Carolina; Svitok, Marek</p> <p>2015-10-08</p> <p>The genus Parakari was described from Guiana <span class="hlt">Highlands</span> in southeastern Venezuela by Nieto & Derka in 2011 for two species inhabiting streams draining isolated, flat-topped table mountains called tepuis. A description of a third representative, Parakari roraimensis sp. n., is given here based on material collected from a coldwater stream at the foothills of Roraima-tepui (SE Venezuela). Detailed morphological descriptions of mature nymph and female adult are given. A differential diagnosis and a key to nymphs of the three Parakari species are provided.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=GL-2002-001605&hterms=morocco+africa&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dmorocco%252C%2Bafrica','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=GL-2002-001605&hterms=morocco+africa&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dmorocco%252C%2Bafrica"><span id="translatedtitle">West <span class="hlt">Africa</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>With its vast expanses of sand, framed by mountain ranges and exposed rock, northwestern <span class="hlt">Africa</span> makes a pretty picture when viewed from above. This image was acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The Canary Islands can be seen on the left side of the image just off <span class="hlt">Africa</span>'s Atlantic shore. The light brown expanse running through the northern two thirds of the image is the Sahara Desert. The desert runs up against the dark brown Haut Atlas mountain range of Morocco in the northwest, the Atlantic Ocean to the west and the semi-arid (light brown pixels) Sahelian region in the South. The Sahara, however, isn't staying put. Since the 1960s, the desert has been expanding into the Sahelian region at a rate of up to 6 kilometers per year. In the 1980s this desert expansion, combined with over cultivation of the Sahel, caused a major famine across west <span class="hlt">Africa</span>. Over the summer months, strong winds pick up sands from the Sahara and blow them across the Atlantic as far west as North America, causing air pollution in Miami and damaging coral reefs in the Bahamas and the Florida Keys. The white outlines on the map represent country borders. Starting at the top-most portion of the map and working clockwise, the countries shown are Morocco, Western Sahara, Mauritania, Senegal, Mali, Burkina Fasso, Nigeria, Mali (again), and Algeria. Image by Reto Stockli, Robert Simmon, and Brian Montgomery, NASA Earth Observatory, based on data from MODIS</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22113407','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22113407"><span id="translatedtitle">Analytic expression for poloidal flow velocity in the <span class="hlt">banana</span> regime</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Taguchi, M.</p> <p>2013-01-15</p> <p>The poloidal flow velocity in the <span class="hlt">banana</span> regime is calculated by improving the l = 1 approximation for the Fokker-Planck collision operator [M. Taguchi, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 30, 1897 (1988)]. The obtained analytic expression for this flow, which can be used for general axisymmetric toroidal plasmas, agrees quite well with the recently calculated numerical results by Parker and Catto [Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 54, 085011 (2012)] in the full range of aspect ratio.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20647524','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20647524"><span id="translatedtitle">Factors influencing the drain and rinse operation of <span class="hlt">Banana</span> screens</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>O'Brien, M.; Firth, B.</p> <p>2005-06-01</p> <p>An Australian Coal Association Research Project (ACARP) study to identify the variables and effects on <span class="hlt">Banana</span> screens is described in this article. The impacts of the following system variables were investigated: panel angle, volumetric feed flow rate, solids content of feed screen motion, vibration frequency, magnetite content and impact of screen aperture. The article was adapted from a presentation at Coal Prep 2005, Lexington, KY, USA in May 2005. 4 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JHEP...06..052D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JHEP...06..052D"><span id="translatedtitle">Holographic entanglement entropy for hollow cones and <span class="hlt">banana</span> shaped regions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dorn, Harald</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>We consider <span class="hlt">banana</span> shaped regions as examples of compact regions, whose boundary has two conical singularities. Their regularised holographic entropy is calculated with all divergent as well as finite terms. The coefficient of the squared logarithmic divergence, also in such a case with internally curved boundary, agrees with that calculated in the literature for infinite circular cones with their internally flat boundary. For the otherwise conformally invariant coefficient of the ordinary logarithmic divergence an anomaly under exceptional conformal transformations is observed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2990659','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2990659"><span id="translatedtitle">Did backcrossing contribute to the origin of hybrid edible <span class="hlt">bananas</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>De Langhe, Edmond; Hřibová, Eva; Carpentier, Sebastien; Doležel, Jaroslav; Swennen, Rony</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Background <span class="hlt">Bananas</span> and plantains (Musa spp.) provide a staple food for many millions of people living in the humid tropics. The cultivated varieties (cultivars) are seedless parthenocarpic clones of which the origin remains unclear. Many are believed to be diploid and polyploid hybrids involving the A genome diploid M. acuminata and the B genome M. balbisiana, with the hybrid genomes consisting of a simple combination of the parental ones. Thus the genomic constitution of the diploids has been classified as AB, and that of the triploids as AAB or ABB. However, the morphology of many accessions is biased towards either the A or B phenotype and does not conform to predictions based on these genomic formulae. Scope On the basis of published cytotypes (mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes), we speculate here that the hybrid <span class="hlt">banana</span> genomes are unbalanced with respect to the parental ones, and/or that inter-genome translocation chromosomes are relatively common. We hypothesize that the evolution under domestication of cultivated <span class="hlt">banana</span> hybrids is more likely to have passed through an intermediate hybrid, which was then involved in a variety of backcrossing events. We present experimental data supporting our hypothesis and we propose a set of experimental approaches to test it, thereby indicating other possibilities for explaining some of the unbalanced genome expressions. Progress in this area would not only throw more light on the origin of one of the most important crops, but provide data of general relevance for the evolution under domestication of many other important clonal crops. At the same time, a complex origin of the cultivated <span class="hlt">banana</span> hybrids would imply a reconsideration of current breeding strategies. PMID:20858591</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23007689','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23007689"><span id="translatedtitle">The interaction of <span class="hlt">banana</span> MADS-box protein MuMADS1 and ubiquitin-activating enzyme E-MuUBA in post-harvest <span class="hlt">banana</span> fruit.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liu, Ju-Hua; Zhang, Jing; Jia, Cai-Hong; Zhang, Jian-Bin; Wang, Jia-Shui; Yang, Zi-Xian; Xu, Bi-Yu; Jin, Zhi-Qiang</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>KEY MESSAGE : The interaction of MuMADS1 and MuUBA in <span class="hlt">banana</span> was reported, which will help us to understand the mechanism of the MADS-box gene in regulating <span class="hlt">banana</span> fruit development and ripening. The ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1 gene fragment MuUBA was obtained from <span class="hlt">banana</span> (Musa acuminata L.AAA) fruit by the yeast two-hybrid method using the <span class="hlt">banana</span> MADS-box gene MuMADS1 as bait and 2-day post-harvest <span class="hlt">banana</span> fruit cDNA library as prey. MuMADS1 interacted with MuUBA. The interaction of MuMADS1 and MuUBA in vivo was further proved by bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay. Real-time quantitative PCR evaluation of MuMADS1 and MuUBA expression patterns in <span class="hlt">banana</span> showed that they are highly expressed in the ovule 4 stage, but present in low levels in the stem, which suggests a simultaneously differential expression action exists for both MuMADS1 and MuUBA in different tissues and developmental fruits. MuMADS1 and MuUBA expression was highly stimulated by exogenous ethylene and suppressed by 1-methylcyclopropene. These results indicated that MuMADS1 and MuUBA were co-regulated by ethylene and might play an important role in post-harvest <span class="hlt">banana</span> fruit ripening. PMID:23007689</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17990091','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17990091"><span id="translatedtitle">Molecular characterisation of <span class="hlt">banana</span> bunchy top virus (BBTV) from Pakistan.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Amin, Imran; Qazi, Javaria; Mansoor, Shahid; Ilyas, Muhammad; Briddon, Rob W</p> <p>2008-02-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Banana</span> bunchy top disease is caused by a single-stranded circular DNA virus, <span class="hlt">banana</span> bunchy top virus (BBTV), which is a member of the genus Babuvirus (family Nanoviridae). We have cloned and sequenced five components (DNA-R, DNA-S, DNA-N, DNA-M and DNA-C) of a BBTV isolate originating from Pakistan. In addition, the DNA-R and several other components of five further isolates, originating from geographically distinct sites across the <span class="hlt">banana</span>-growing area of Sindh province, Pakistan, were cloned and sequenced. Analysis of the sequences indicates that BBTV present in Pakistan belongs to the "South Pacific" group of isolates and that the genetic diversity of the virus in the country is very low. The virus shows the highest levels of sequence identity to BBTV isolates originating from Egypt, India and Australia. The significance of these results with respect to the possible origin of the virus in Pakistan and the prospects for obtaining genetically engineered resistance to the virus are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22725711','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22725711"><span id="translatedtitle">Toxicity profile of commercially produced indigenous <span class="hlt">banana</span> beer.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shale, K; Mukamugema, J; Lues, R J; Venter, P</p> <p>2012-08-01</p> <p>Mycotoxins, together with endotoxins, represent important classes of naturally occurring contaminants in food products, posing significant health risks to consumers. The aim of this study is to investigate the occurrence of both Fusarium mycotoxins and endotoxins in commercially produced traditional <span class="hlt">banana</span> beer. Two brands of commercially produced traditional <span class="hlt">banana</span> beer were collected from a local retail market in Kigali, Rwanda. Beer samples were analysed for the presence of deoxynivalenol (DON), fumonisin B₁ and zearalenone (ZEA), using an enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA) method. The quantification of bacterial endotoxin using Limulus amoeboecyte lysate (LAL) assay was also conducted. The contamination levels were 20 and 6.7 µg kg⁻¹ for DON; 34 and 31.3 µg kg⁻¹ for FB₁; 0.66 and 2.2 µg kg⁻¹ for ZEA in brands A and B of the beers, respectively. Results indicate that the levels of Fusarium toxins and bacterial endotoxin reported in this study did not pose adverse human health effects as a result of drinking/consuming <span class="hlt">banana</span> beer. However, exposure to low/sub-threshold doses or non-toxic levels of endotoxins magnifies the toxic effect of xenobiotic agents (e.g. fungal toxins) on liver and other target organs. Considering Fusarium toxins and/or endotoxin contamination levels in other agricultural commodities intended for human consumption, health risks might be high and the condition is aggravated when beer is contaminated by mixtures of the mycotoxins, as indicated in this study.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20725857','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20725857"><span id="translatedtitle">Ripening influences <span class="hlt">banana</span> and plantain peels composition and energy content.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Emaga, Thomas Happi; Bindelle, Jérôme; Agneesens, Richard; Buldgen, André; Wathelet, Bernard; Paquot, Michel</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Musa sp. peels are widely used by smallholders as complementary feeds for cattle in the tropics. A study of the influence of the variety and the maturation stage of the fruit on fermentability and metabolisable energy (ME) content of the peels was performed using <span class="hlt">banana</span> (Yangambi Km5) and plantain (Big Ebanga) peels at three stages of maturation in an in vitro model of the rumen. Peel samples were analysed for starch, free sugars and fibre composition. Samples were incubated in the presence of rumen fluid. Kinetics of gas production were modelled, ME content was calculated using prediction equation and short-chain fatty acids production and molar ratio were measured after 72 h of fermentation. Final gas production was higher in plantain (269-339 ml g(-1)) compared to <span class="hlt">banana</span> (237-328 ml g(-1)) and plantain exhibited higher ME contents (8.9-9.7 MJ/kg of dry matter, DM) compared to <span class="hlt">banana</span> (7.7-8.8 MJ/kg of DM). Butyrate molar ratio decreased with maturity of the peels. The main influence of the variety and the stage of maturation on all fermentation parameters as well as ME contents of the peels was correlated to changes in the carbohydrate fraction of the peels, including starch and fibre. PMID:20725857</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20725857','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20725857"><span id="translatedtitle">Ripening influences <span class="hlt">banana</span> and plantain peels composition and energy content.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Emaga, Thomas Happi; Bindelle, Jérôme; Agneesens, Richard; Buldgen, André; Wathelet, Bernard; Paquot, Michel</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Musa sp. peels are widely used by smallholders as complementary feeds for cattle in the tropics. A study of the influence of the variety and the maturation stage of the fruit on fermentability and metabolisable energy (ME) content of the peels was performed using <span class="hlt">banana</span> (Yangambi Km5) and plantain (Big Ebanga) peels at three stages of maturation in an in vitro model of the rumen. Peel samples were analysed for starch, free sugars and fibre composition. Samples were incubated in the presence of rumen fluid. Kinetics of gas production were modelled, ME content was calculated using prediction equation and short-chain fatty acids production and molar ratio were measured after 72 h of fermentation. Final gas production was higher in plantain (269-339 ml g(-1)) compared to <span class="hlt">banana</span> (237-328 ml g(-1)) and plantain exhibited higher ME contents (8.9-9.7 MJ/kg of dry matter, DM) compared to <span class="hlt">banana</span> (7.7-8.8 MJ/kg of DM). Butyrate molar ratio decreased with maturity of the peels. The main influence of the variety and the stage of maturation on all fermentation parameters as well as ME contents of the peels was correlated to changes in the carbohydrate fraction of the peels, including starch and fibre.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=151624&keyword=activities+AND+libraries&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=64948460&CFTOKEN=53050965','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=151624&keyword=activities+AND+libraries&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=64948460&CFTOKEN=53050965"><span id="translatedtitle">WATERSHED RESTORATION AND FISHERIES MANAGEMENT IN THE MID-ATLANTIC <span class="hlt">HIGHLANDS</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This presentation is about watershed restoration and fisheries management in the Mid-Atlantic <span class="hlt">Highlands</span>. The goal of the Canaan Valley Institue is to develop and implement solutions to restore damaged areas and protect aquatic systems in the Mid-Atlantic <span class="hlt">Highlands</span>. A decision ana...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED362910.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED362910.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Ethos in Action: Public Relations at the <span class="hlt">Highlander</span> Folk School, 1955-1956.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Durham, Frank</p> <p></p> <p>An examination of Rosa Parks' relationship with the <span class="hlt">Highlander</span> Folk School from the first encounter in 1955 through Labor Day of 1956 provides a new understanding of the school's public relations program that sought to end segregation in the Jim Crow South. Myles Horton founded <span class="hlt">Highlander</span> in 1932 to provide an adult residential center in the South…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-05-03/pdf/2010-10093.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-05-03/pdf/2010-10093.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">75 FR 23221 - <span class="hlt">Highlands</span> Regional Study: Connecticut and Pennsylvania 2010 Update</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-05-03</p> <p>..., USDA. ACTION: Notice of public meetings; request for comment. SUMMARY: As required by the <span class="hlt">Highlands</span> Conservation Act, Public Law 108- 421, the Forest Service has drafted the <span class="hlt">Highlands</span> Regional Study: Connecticut... conservation value areas, the impacts of land use change on the natural resources, and conservation...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED560029.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED560029.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">A New Turnaround Model: Michigan's <span class="hlt">Highland</span> Park Goes Charter. Policy Brief</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Spalding, Audrey</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>This brief examines the series of events that led to the <span class="hlt">Highland</span> Park school district being converted to a system of charter public schools in 2012. Used as a strategy to help the district eliminate its large fiscal debt while still providing resident students with a local public school option, <span class="hlt">Highland</span> Park's charter conversion is one of the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006QuRes..66..454D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006QuRes..66..454D"><span id="translatedtitle">Holocene paleoclimates of southern Arabia from lacustrine deposits of the Dhamar <span class="hlt">highlands</span>, Yemen</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Davies, Caroline Pickens</p> <p>2006-11-01</p> <p>This paper presents new evidence from the Dhamar <span class="hlt">highlands</span>, Yemen, of paleohydrologic response to fluctuations in Holocene climate. Stratigraphic, geochemical, and chronological analyses of <span class="hlt">highland</span> peat and lacustrine deposits contribute to knowledge of the timing of early Holocene moisture changes on the Arabian Peninsula, providing a backdrop to understanding early cultural development in the Arabian <span class="hlt">highlands</span>. The location of the Dhamar <span class="hlt">highlands</span>, characterized by intermontane valleys surrounded by the highest mountains on the Arabian Peninsula and adjacent to the Indian Ocean is ideal for examining the influence of the Indian Ocean Monsoon (IOM) on the moisture history of this region. Fluctuations in the lacustrine and paleosol records of the Dhamar <span class="hlt">highlands</span> reflect both local changes in paleohydrology and regional influences on the Holocene paleoclimatic conditions in southwest Arabia. In addition, a peat deposit with a radiocarbon age of 10,253 - 10,560 cal yr BP documents some of the earliest Holocene high moisture conditions on the Arabian Peninsula.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/journal/1974/vol2issue1/report.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/journal/1974/vol2issue1/report.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Lunar <span class="hlt">highlands</span> volcanism implications from Luna 20 and Apollo 16</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Wilshire, H.G.; Wilhelms, D.E.; Howard, K.A.</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Highlands</span> materials sampled at the Apollo 16 and Luna 20 sites represent units of distinctive morphology that are widespread on the lunar nearside. Samples from the Apollo 16 site represent hilly and furrowed materials of the Descartes <span class="hlt">highlands</span> and Cayley Formation. Materials were collected by Luna 20 from terrain resembling the Descartes terrain. Most photogeologic interpretations of these units favored volcanic origins, but the samples fail to support this interpretation. Luna 20 soil fragments are mainly glassy microbreccia with lithic inclusions of fine-grained hornfels; less than 3 percent of the fragments have textures of volcanic rocks, and most of these are likely crystalline products of impact melting. Apollo 16 soils formed on ejecta derived from a plutonic anorthosite-norite-troctolite suite. The similarity of Luna 20 soils indicates that these too formed as regolith on ejecta of anorthosite-norite-troctolitc composition. Interpretation of the samples from the two locations now suggests that hilly and furrowed terrains, previously thought to be of volcanic origin, are impact ejecta; in view of the plutonic nature of the source rocks and their extensive fusion and metamorphism, it is likely that the ejecta were derived from multiring basins. At one point, the Apollo 16 site, the Cayley Formation is composed of basin ejecta.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810041811&hterms=Gabbro&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DGabbro','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810041811&hterms=Gabbro&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DGabbro"><span id="translatedtitle">Lunar <span class="hlt">highland</span> melt rocks - Chemistry, petrology and silicate mineralogy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Vaniman, D. T.; Papike, J. J.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>A selected suite containing several of the largest samples of lunar <span class="hlt">highland</span> melt rocks includes impact melt specimens (anorthositic gabbro, low-K Fra Mauro) and volcanic specimens (intermediate-K Fra Mauro). Although previous assumptions of LKFM volcanism have fallen into disfavor, no fatal arguments against this hypothesis have been presented, and the evidence of a possibly 'inherited igneous' olivine-plagioclase cosaturation provides cause for keeping a volcanic LKFM hypothesis viable. Comparisons of silicate mineralogy with melt rock compositions provide information on the specimen's composition and cooling history. Plagioclase-rock compositions can be matched to the experimentally determined equilibria for appropriate samples to identify melt rocks with refractory anorthitic clasts. Olivine-rock compositions indicate that melt rock vitrophyres precipitate anomalously Fe-rich olivine; the cause of this anomaly is not immediately evident. The Al-Ti and Ca-Fe-Mg zonation in pyroxene provide information on relative cooling rates of <span class="hlt">highland</span> melt rocks, but Cr- and Al-content (where Al-rich low-Ca pyroxene cores are preserved in rapidly cooled samples) can be correlated with composition of the host rock.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26844017','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26844017"><span id="translatedtitle">Non-native species in the vascular flora of <span class="hlt">highlands</span> and mountains of Iceland.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wasowicz, Pawel</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">highlands</span> and mountains of Iceland are one of the largest remaining wilderness areas in Europe. This study aimed to provide comprehensive and up-to-date data on non-native plant species in these areas and to answer the following questions: (1) How many non-native vascular plant species inhabit <span class="hlt">highland</span> and mountainous environments in Iceland? (2) Do temporal trends in the immigration of alien species to Iceland differ between <span class="hlt">highland</span> and lowland areas? (3) Does the incidence of alien species in the disturbed and undisturbed areas within Icelandic <span class="hlt">highlands</span> differ? (4) Does the spread of non-native species in Iceland proceed from lowlands to <span class="hlt">highlands</span>? and (5) Can we detect hot-spots in the distribution of non-native taxa within the <span class="hlt">highlands</span>? Overall, 16 non-native vascular plant species were detected, including 11 casuals and 5 naturalized taxa (1 invasive). Results showed that temporal trends in alien species immigration to <span class="hlt">highland</span> and lowland areas are similar, but it is clear that the process of colonization of <span class="hlt">highland</span> areas is still in its initial phase. Non-native plants tended to occur close to man-made infrastructure and buildings including huts, shelters, roads etc. Analysis of spatio-temporal patterns showed that the spread within <span class="hlt">highland</span> areas is a second step in non-native plant colonization in Iceland. Several statically significant hot spots of alien plant occurrences were identified using the Getis-Ord Gi* statistic and these were linked to human disturbance. This research suggests that human-mediated dispersal is the main driving force increasing the risk of invasion in Iceland's <span class="hlt">highlands</span> and mountain areas.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26844017','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26844017"><span id="translatedtitle">Non-native species in the vascular flora of <span class="hlt">highlands</span> and mountains of Iceland.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wasowicz, Pawel</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">highlands</span> and mountains of Iceland are one of the largest remaining wilderness areas in Europe. This study aimed to provide comprehensive and up-to-date data on non-native plant species in these areas and to answer the following questions: (1) How many non-native vascular plant species inhabit <span class="hlt">highland</span> and mountainous environments in Iceland? (2) Do temporal trends in the immigration of alien species to Iceland differ between <span class="hlt">highland</span> and lowland areas? (3) Does the incidence of alien species in the disturbed and undisturbed areas within Icelandic <span class="hlt">highlands</span> differ? (4) Does the spread of non-native species in Iceland proceed from lowlands to <span class="hlt">highlands</span>? and (5) Can we detect hot-spots in the distribution of non-native taxa within the <span class="hlt">highlands</span>? Overall, 16 non-native vascular plant species were detected, including 11 casuals and 5 naturalized taxa (1 invasive). Results showed that temporal trends in alien species immigration to <span class="hlt">highland</span> and lowland areas are similar, but it is clear that the process of colonization of <span class="hlt">highland</span> areas is still in its initial phase. Non-native plants tended to occur close to man-made infrastructure and buildings including huts, shelters, roads etc. Analysis of spatio-temporal patterns showed that the spread within <span class="hlt">highland</span> areas is a second step in non-native plant colonization in Iceland. Several statically significant hot spots of alien plant occurrences were identified using the Getis-Ord Gi* statistic and these were linked to human disturbance. This research suggests that human-mediated dispersal is the main driving force increasing the risk of invasion in Iceland's <span class="hlt">highlands</span> and mountain areas. PMID:26844017</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4736984','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4736984"><span id="translatedtitle">Non-native species in the vascular flora of <span class="hlt">highlands</span> and mountains of Iceland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">highlands</span> and mountains of Iceland are one of the largest remaining wilderness areas in Europe. This study aimed to provide comprehensive and up-to-date data on non-native plant species in these areas and to answer the following questions: (1) How many non-native vascular plant species inhabit <span class="hlt">highland</span> and mountainous environments in Iceland? (2) Do temporal trends in the immigration of alien species to Iceland differ between <span class="hlt">highland</span> and lowland areas? (3) Does the incidence of alien species in the disturbed and undisturbed areas within Icelandic <span class="hlt">highlands</span> differ? (4) Does the spread of non-native species in Iceland proceed from lowlands to <span class="hlt">highlands</span>? and (5) Can we detect hot-spots in the distribution of non-native taxa within the <span class="hlt">highlands</span>? Overall, 16 non-native vascular plant species were detected, including 11 casuals and 5 naturalized taxa (1 invasive). Results showed that temporal trends in alien species immigration to <span class="hlt">highland</span> and lowland areas are similar, but it is clear that the process of colonization of <span class="hlt">highland</span> areas is still in its initial phase. Non-native plants tended to occur close to man-made infrastructure and buildings including huts, shelters, roads etc. Analysis of spatio-temporal patterns showed that the spread within <span class="hlt">highland</span> areas is a second step in non-native plant colonization in Iceland. Several statically significant hot spots of alien plant occurrences were identified using the Getis-Ord Gi* statistic and these were linked to human disturbance. This research suggests that human-mediated dispersal is the main driving force increasing the risk of invasion in Iceland’s <span class="hlt">highlands</span> and mountain areas. PMID:26844017</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26028740','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26028740"><span id="translatedtitle">Pectinase production by Aspergillus niger using <span class="hlt">banana</span> (Musa balbisiana) peel as substrate and its effect on clarification of <span class="hlt">banana</span> juice.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Barman, Sumi; Sit, Nandan; Badwaik, Laxmikant S; Deka, Sankar C</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Optimization of substrate concentration, time of incubation and temperature for crude pectinase production from A. niger was carried out using Bhimkol <span class="hlt">banana</span> (Musa balbisiana) peel as substrate. The crude pectinase produced was partially purified using ethanol and effectiveness of crude and partially purified pectinase was studied for <span class="hlt">banana</span> juice clarification. The optimum substrate concentration, incubation time and temperature of incubation were 8.07 %, 65.82 h and 32.37 °C respectively, and the polygalacturonase (PG) activity achieved was 6.6 U/ml for crude pectinase. The partially purified enzyme showed more than 3 times of polygalacturonase activity as compared to the crude enzyme. The SDS-PAGE profile showed that the molecular weight of proteins present in the different pectinases varied from 34 to 42 kDa. The study further revealed that highest clarification was achieved when raw <span class="hlt">banana</span> juice was incubated for 60 min with 2 % concentration of partially purified pectinase and the absorbance obtained was 0.10.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9410249','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9410249"><span id="translatedtitle">[The reconquest of the Madagascar <span class="hlt">highlands</span> by malaria].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mouchet, J; Laventure, S; Blanchy, S; Fioramonti, R; Rakotonjanabelo, A; Rabarison, P; Sircoulon, J; Roux, J</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>A strong malaria epidemic with a high mortality rate occurred on the Madagascar <span class="hlt">Highlands</span> in 1986-88. Vector control and free access to antimalaria drugs controlled the disease. The authors have searched for the causes of the epidemic to propose a strategy avoiding such events. The <span class="hlt">Highlands</span> on Madagascar were known as malaria free. In 1878 a very severe epidemic flooded all the country. Development of irrigated ricefields which house both An. arabiensis and An. funestus had created a new anthropic environment. Moreover manpower imported from malarious coastal areas for rice cultivation and also for building large temples, could have brought P. falciparum. After several outbreaks the disease became endemic up to 1949. In 1949 a malaria eradication programme based on DDT spraying and drug chemoprophylaxis and chemotherapy was launched. By 1960 malaria was eliminated and DDT spraying cancelled. Only 3 foci were kept under surveillance with irregular spraying until 1975. The prophylaxis and treatment centres ("centres de nivaquinisation") were kept open up to 1979. The catholic dispensary of Analaroa, 100 km N.E. of Tananarive, opened in 1971 and worked without interruption up to now. The malaria diagnosis has always been controlled by microscopy. Its registers are probably the more reliable source of information on malaria in the area. They show that malaria was already present on the <span class="hlt">Highlands</span> in 1971 but at a low prevalence; in 1980 when the "centres de nivaquinisation" were closed the number of cases increased by three times the progressive increase of the number of cases became exponential from 1986 to 1988 which was the peak of the epidemic; malaria remained at a high level until the end of 1993; yearly DDT spraying since 1993 have decreased the number of malaria cases among the dispensary attendants by 90%. The epidemic peak of 1988 was well documented by the Pasteur Institute of Madagascar around Tananarive. Before the epidemic started it was observed a come</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=331591','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=331591"><span id="translatedtitle">Evidence for the presence of a female produced sex pheromone in the <span class="hlt">banana</span> weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus Germar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Behavior-modifying chemicals such as pheromones and kairomones have great potential in pest management. Studies reported here investigated chemical cues involved in mating and aggregation behavior of <span class="hlt">banana</span> weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus, a major insect pest of <span class="hlt">banana</span> in every country where <span class="hlt">bananas</span> a...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Bananas&id=EJ989630','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Bananas&id=EJ989630"><span id="translatedtitle">"The Rotten <span class="hlt">Banana</span>" Fires Back: The Story of a Danish Discourse of "Inclusive" Rurality in the Making</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Winther, Malene Brandt; Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The popularity of a particular term--the Rotten <span class="hlt">Banana</span>--has paralleled the one-sided centralisation of public services since the Danish Municipal Reform of 2007. The Rotten <span class="hlt">Banana</span> denotes peripheral Denmark, which takes a geographically curved form that resembles a <span class="hlt">banana</span>, and it symbolises the belief that rural areas are backward and (too)…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=232841','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=232841"><span id="translatedtitle">A Study on the Morphological and PhysicoChemical Characteristics of Five Cooking <span class="hlt">Bananas</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Field evaluation of five <span class="hlt">banana</span> clones was carried out at the National Germplasm Repository in Miami, Florida, USA from July 2006 to July 2008. <span class="hlt">Bananas</span> (Musa acuminata Colla [AA, AAA]; Musa x paradisiaca Colla (ABB, AAAB, AABB), are one of the worlds most important food crops. Five clones of cookin...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=249296','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=249296"><span id="translatedtitle">The Draft Genome Sequence of Mycosphaerella fijiensis, the Black Sigatoka Pathogen of <span class="hlt">Banana</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Mycosphaerella fijiensis is a fungal pathogen of <span class="hlt">banana</span> and the causal agent of the devastating Black Sigatoka or black leaf streak disease. Its control requires weekly fungicide applications when <span class="hlt">bananas</span> are grown under disease-conducive conditions, which mostly represent precarious tropical enviro...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-05-30/pdf/2012-13057.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-05-30/pdf/2012-13057.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">77 FR 31829 - Importation of Fresh <span class="hlt">Bananas</span> From the Philippines Into the Continental United States...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-05-30</p> <p>... the Continental United States'' and published in the Federal Register on April 16, 2012 (77 FR 22510... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Importation of Fresh <span class="hlt">Bananas</span> From the Philippines Into the... the importation of fresh <span class="hlt">bananas</span> from the Philippines into the continental United States....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17195692','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17195692"><span id="translatedtitle">Within-plant distribution and binomial sampling of Pentalonia nigronervosa (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on <span class="hlt">banana</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Robson, Jacqueline D; Wright, Mark G; Almeida, Rodrigo P P</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">banana</span> aphid, Pentalonia nigronervosa Coquerel (Hemiptera: Aphididae), infests <span class="hlt">banana</span> (Musa spp.) worldwide. Pentalonia nigronervosa is the vector of <span class="hlt">Banana</span> bunchy top virus (family Nanoviridae, genus Babuvirus) the etiological agent of <span class="hlt">Banana</span> bunchy top disease (BBTD). BBTD is currently the most serious problem affecting <span class="hlt">banana</span> in Hawaii. Despite the importance of this vector species, little is known about its biology or ecology. There are also no sampling plans available for P. nigronervosa. We conducted field surveys to develop a sampling plan for this pest. Ten plots were surveyed on seven commercial <span class="hlt">banana</span> farms on the island of Oahu, HI, for the presence of P. nigronervosa on <span class="hlt">banana</span> plantlets. We found aphids more frequently near the base of plants, followed by the newest unfurled leaf at the top of the plant. Aphids were least likely to be located on leaves in between the top and bottom of the plant. Aphid infestation on surveyed plots ranged from 8 to 95%. We developed a sequential binomial sampling plan based on our surveys. We also discovered that the within-plant distribution of P. nigronervosa is an important factor to consider when sampling for this pest. Our sampling plan will assist in the development of sustainable management practices for <span class="hlt">banana</span> production.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24331087','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24331087"><span id="translatedtitle">Absorption and metabolism of formaldehyde in solutions by detached <span class="hlt">banana</span> leaves.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zeng, Zhidong; Qi, Chuanjiao; Chen, Qi; Li, Kunzhi; Chen, Limei</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Detached <span class="hlt">banana</span> leaves are one of the by-products of <span class="hlt">banana</span> production. In this study, the absorption and metabolism of formaldehyde (HCHO) in solutions by detached <span class="hlt">banana</span> leaves was investigated under submergence conditions. The results showed that <span class="hlt">banana</span> leaves could effectively absorb HCHO in the treatment solutions, and the relationship between HCHO absorption and treatment time appeared to fit a radical root function model. (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance analysis was used to investigate the ability of detached <span class="hlt">banana</span> leaves to metabolise H(13)CHO, and the results indicated that the H(13)CHO absorbed from the treatment solutions was converted into non-toxic compounds. High amounts of [U-(13)C]glucose, [U-(13)C]fructose, [3-(13)C]serine and [3-(13)C]citrate were produced as a result of H(13)CHO metabolism in <span class="hlt">banana</span> leaves, and the production of a small amount of [2,4-(13)C]citrate and [2,3-(13)C]alanine was also observed. These results suggest that detached <span class="hlt">banana</span> leaves can metabolise H(13)CHO and convert it to non-toxic compounds. The metabolic pathways that produce these intermediates in detached <span class="hlt">banana</span> leaves are postulated based on our (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17439237','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17439237"><span id="translatedtitle">Pineapple juice and its fractions in enzymatic browning inhibition of <span class="hlt">banana</span> [Musa (AAA group) Gros Michel].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chaisakdanugull, Chitsuda; Theerakulkait, Chockchai; Wrolstad, Ronald E</p> <p>2007-05-16</p> <p>The effectiveness of pineapple juice in enzymatic browning inhibition was evaluated on the cut surface of <span class="hlt">banana</span> slices. After storage of <span class="hlt">banana</span> slices at 15 degrees C for 3 days, pineapple juice showed browning inhibition to a similar extent as 8 mM ascorbic acid but less than 4 mM sodium metabisulfite. Fractionation of pineapple juice by a solid-phase C18 cartridge revealed that the directly eluted fraction (DE fraction) inhibited <span class="hlt">banana</span> polyphenol oxidase (PPO) about 100% when compared to the control. The DE fraction also showed more inhibitory effect than 8 mM ascorbic acid in enzymatic browning inhibition of <span class="hlt">banana</span> puree during storage at 5 degrees C for 24 h. Further identification of the DE fraction by fractionation with ion exchange chromatography and confirmation using model systems indicated that malic acid and citric acid play an important role in the enzymatic browning inhibition of <span class="hlt">banana</span> PPO.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23549844','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23549844"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of physiological harvest stages on the composition of bioactive compounds in Cavendish <span class="hlt">bananas</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bruno Bonnet, Christelle; Hubert, Olivier; Mbeguie-A-Mbeguie, Didier; Pallet, Dominique; Hiol, Abel; Reynes, Max; Poucheret, Patrick</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>The combined influence of maturation, ripening, and climate on the profile of bioactive compounds was studied in <span class="hlt">banana</span> (Musa acuminata, AAA, Cavendish, cv. Grande Naine). Their bioactive compounds were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and high-performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method. The polyphenol content of <span class="hlt">bananas</span> harvested after 400 degree days remained unchanged during ripening, while <span class="hlt">bananas</span> harvested after 600 and 900 degree days exhibited a significant polyphenol increase. Although dopamine was the polyphenol with the highest concentration in <span class="hlt">banana</span> peels during the green developmental stage and ripening, its kinetics differed from the total polyphenol profile. Our results showed that this matrix of choice (maturation, ripening, and climate) may allow selection of the <span class="hlt">banana</span> (M. acuminata, AAA, Cavendish, cv. Grande Naine) status that will produce optimal concentrations of identified compounds with human health relevance. PMID:23549844</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23549844','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23549844"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of physiological harvest stages on the composition of bioactive compounds in Cavendish <span class="hlt">bananas</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bruno Bonnet, Christelle; Hubert, Olivier; Mbeguie-A-Mbeguie, Didier; Pallet, Dominique; Hiol, Abel; Reynes, Max; Poucheret, Patrick</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>The combined influence of maturation, ripening, and climate on the profile of bioactive compounds was studied in <span class="hlt">banana</span> (Musa acuminata, AAA, Cavendish, cv. Grande Naine). Their bioactive compounds were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and high-performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method. The polyphenol content of <span class="hlt">bananas</span> harvested after 400 degree days remained unchanged during ripening, while <span class="hlt">bananas</span> harvested after 600 and 900 degree days exhibited a significant polyphenol increase. Although dopamine was the polyphenol with the highest concentration in <span class="hlt">banana</span> peels during the green developmental stage and ripening, its kinetics differed from the total polyphenol profile. Our results showed that this matrix of choice (maturation, ripening, and climate) may allow selection of the <span class="hlt">banana</span> (M. acuminata, AAA, Cavendish, cv. Grande Naine) status that will produce optimal concentrations of identified compounds with human health relevance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3625523','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3625523"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of physiological harvest stages on the composition of bioactive compounds in Cavendish <span class="hlt">bananas</span>*</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bruno Bonnet, Christelle; Hubert, Olivier; Mbeguie-A-Mbeguie, Didier; Pallet, Dominique; Hiol, Abel; Reynes, Max; Poucheret, Patrick</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The combined influence of maturation, ripening, and climate on the profile of bioactive compounds was studied in <span class="hlt">banana</span> (Musa acuminata, AAA, Cavendish, cv. Grande Naine). Their bioactive compounds were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and high-performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method. The polyphenol content of <span class="hlt">bananas</span> harvested after 400 degree days remained unchanged during ripening, while <span class="hlt">bananas</span> harvested after 600 and 900 degree days exhibited a significant polyphenol increase. Although dopamine was the polyphenol with the highest concentration in <span class="hlt">banana</span> peels during the green developmental stage and ripening, its kinetics differed from the total polyphenol profile. Our results showed that this matrix of choice (maturation, ripening, and climate) may allow selection of the <span class="hlt">banana</span> (M. acuminata, AAA, Cavendish, cv. Grande Naine) status that will produce optimal concentrations of identified compounds with human health relevance. PMID:23549844</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26471649','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26471649"><span id="translatedtitle">Image analysis to evaluate the browning degree of <span class="hlt">banana</span> (Musa spp.) peel.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cho, Jeong-Seok; Lee, Hyeon-Jeong; Park, Jung-Hoon; Sung, Jun-Hyung; Choi, Ji-Young; Moon, Kwang-Deog</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Image analysis was applied to examine <span class="hlt">banana</span> peel browning. The <span class="hlt">banana</span> samples were divided into 3 treatment groups: no treatment and normal packaging (Cont); CO2 gas exchange packaging (CO); normal packaging with an ethylene generator (ET). We confirmed that the browning of <span class="hlt">banana</span> peels developed more quickly in the CO group than the other groups based on sensory test and enzyme assay. The G (green) and CIE L(∗), a(∗), and b(∗) values obtained from the image analysis sharply increased or decreased in the CO group. And these colour values showed high correlation coefficients (>0.9) with the sensory test results. CIE L(∗)a(∗)b(∗) values using a colorimeter also showed high correlation coefficients but comparatively lower than those of image analysis. Based on this analysis, browning of the <span class="hlt">banana</span> occurred more quickly for CO2 gas exchange packaging, and image analysis can be used to evaluate the browning of <span class="hlt">banana</span> peels.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26215214','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26215214"><span id="translatedtitle">In vitro fermentation of chewed mango and <span class="hlt">banana</span>: particle size, starch and vascular fibre effects.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Low, Dorrain Y; Williams, Barbara A; D'Arcy, Bruce R; Flanagan, Bernadine M; Gidley, Michael J</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Fruits (and vegetables) contain cellular structures that are not degraded by human digestive enzymes. Therefore, the structure of the insoluble fraction of swallowed fruits is mostly retained until intestinal microbial fermentation. In vitro fermentation of mango and <span class="hlt">banana</span> cell structures, which survived in vivo mastication and in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, were incubated with porcine faecal inoculum and showed intensive metabolic activity. This included degradation of cell walls, leading to the release of encapsulated cell contents for further microbial metabolism. Production of cumulative gas, short chain fatty acids and ammonia were greater for mango than for <span class="hlt">banana</span>. Microscopic and spectroscopic analyses showed this was due to a major fermentation-resistant starch fraction present in <span class="hlt">banana</span>, that was absent in mango. This study demonstrated distinctive differences in the fermentability of <span class="hlt">banana</span> and mango, reflecting a preferential degradation of (parenchyma) fleshy cell walls over resistant starch in <span class="hlt">banana</span>, and the thick cellulosic vascular fibres in mango.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3724834','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3724834"><span id="translatedtitle">Contamination of <span class="hlt">Bananas</span> with Beauvericin and Fusaric Acid Produced by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kuang, Ruibin; Yang, Qiaosong; Hu, Chunhua; Sheng, Ou; Zhang, Sheng; Ma, Lijun; Wei, Yuerong; Yang, Jing; Liu, Siwen; Biswas, Manosh Kumar; Viljoen, Altus; Yi, Ganjun</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Background Fusarium wilt, caused by the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc), is one of the most destructive diseases of <span class="hlt">banana</span>. Toxins produced by Foc have been proposed to play an important role during the pathogenic process. The objectives of this study were to investigate the contamination of <span class="hlt">banana</span> with toxins produced by Foc, and to elucidate their role in pathogenesis. Methodology/Principal Findings Twenty isolates of Foc representing races 1 and 4 were isolated from diseased <span class="hlt">bananas</span> in five Chinese provinces. Two toxins were consistently associated with Foc, fusaric acid (FA) and beauvericin (BEA). Cytotoxicity of the two toxins on <span class="hlt">banana</span> protoplast was determined using the Alamar Blue assay. The virulence of 20 Foc isolates was further tested by inoculating tissue culture <span class="hlt">banana</span> plantlets, and the contents of toxins determined in <span class="hlt">banana</span> roots, pseudostems and leaves. Virulence of Foc isolates correlated well with toxin deposition in the host plant. To determine the natural occurrence of the two toxins in <span class="hlt">banana</span> plants with Fusarium wilt symptoms, samples were collected before harvest from the pseudostems, fruit and leaves from 10 Pisang Awak ‘Guangfen #1’ and 10 Cavendish ‘Brazilian’ plants. Fusaric acid and BEA were detected in all the tissues, including the fruits. Conclusions/Signficance The current study provides the first investigation of toxins produced by Foc in <span class="hlt">banana</span>. The toxins produced by Foc, and their levels of contamination of <span class="hlt">banana</span> fruits, however, were too low to be of concern to human and animal health. Rather, these toxins appear to contribute to the pathogenicity of the fungus during infection of <span class="hlt">banana</span> plants. PMID:23922960</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22552945','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22552945"><span id="translatedtitle">Transgenic <span class="hlt">banana</span> plants expressing small interfering RNAs targeted against viral replication initiation gene display high-level resistance to <span class="hlt">banana</span> bunchy top virus infection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shekhawat, Upendra K S; Ganapathi, Thumballi R; Hadapad, Ashok B</p> <p>2012-08-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">banana</span> aphid-transmitted <span class="hlt">Banana</span> bunchy top virus (BBTV) is the most destructive viral pathogen of <span class="hlt">bananas</span> and plantains worldwide. Lack of natural sources of resistance to BBTV has necessitated the exploitation of proven transgenic technologies for obtaining BBTV-resistant <span class="hlt">banana</span> cultivars. In this study, we have explored the concept of using intron-hairpin-RNA (ihpRNA) transcripts corresponding to viral master replication initiation protein (Rep) to generate BBTV-resistant transgenic <span class="hlt">banana</span> plants. Two ihpRNA constructs namely ihpRNA-Rep and ihpRNA-ProRep generated using Rep full coding sequence or Rep partial coding sequence together with its 5' upstream regulatory region, respectively, and castor bean catalase intron were successfully transformed into <span class="hlt">banana</span> embryogenic cells. ihpRNA-Rep- and ihpRNA-ProRep-derived transgenic <span class="hlt">banana</span> plants, selected based on preliminary screening for efficient reporter gene expression, were completely resistant to BBTV infection as indicated by the absence of disease symptoms after 6 months of viruliferous aphid inoculation. The resistance to BBTV infection was also evident by the inability to detect cDNAs coding for viral coat protein, movement protein and Rep protein by RT-PCR from inoculated transgenic leaf extracts. Southern analysis of the two groups of transgenics showed that ihpRNA transgene was stably integrated into the <span class="hlt">banana</span> genome. The detection of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) derived from the ihpRNA transgene sequence in transformed BBTV-resistant plants positively established RNA interference as the mechanism underlying the observed resistance to BBTV. Efficient screening of optimal transformants in this vegetatively propagated non-segregating fruit crop ensured that all the transgenic plants assayed were resistant to BBTV infection. PMID:22552945</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/974792','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/974792"><span id="translatedtitle">2006 Toyota <span class="hlt">Highlander</span>-6395 Hyrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Tyler Gray; Chester Motloch; James Francfort</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity conducts several different types of tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing hybrid electric vehicles batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new, and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of accelerated testing. This report documents the battery testing performed and battery testing results for the 2007 Toyota <span class="hlt">Highlander</span> hybrid electric vehicle (Vin Number JTEDW21A160006395). Testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program. The Idaho National Laboratory and the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation conduct Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the U.S. Department of Energy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5415069','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5415069"><span id="translatedtitle">Electronic control system for air fuel ratio compensation in <span class="hlt">highlands</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kimura, J.; Noji, A.</p> <p>1981-12-29</p> <p>An electronic control system which electronically controls the air fuel ratio of a mixture being supplied to a gasoline engine in <span class="hlt">highlands</span> is described. An orifice device is provided in a passage through which secondary air is supplied to the venturi section of the engine carburetor. An electronic control unit carries out programmed control of the orifice opening of the orifice device in response to the atmospheric pressure and the engine temperature to create a reference pressure. A further electronic control unit drives a second air control valve provided in the secondary air supply passage along a predetermined operating characteristic pattern in response to the difference between the reference pressure and an actual pressure present in the venturi section of the carburetor. A mixture having an optimum air fuel ratio corresponding to the atmospheric pressure can thus be supplied to the engine from the carburetor.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/974752','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/974752"><span id="translatedtitle">2006 Toyota <span class="hlt">Highlander</span>-5681 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Tyler Gray; Chester Motloch; James Francfort</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity conducts several different types of tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing hybrid electric vehicles batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new, and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of accelerated testing. This report documents the battery testing performed and battery testing results for the 2007 Toyota <span class="hlt">Highlander</span> hybrid electric vehicle (Vin Number JTEDW21A860005681). Testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program. The Idaho National Laboratory and the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation conduct Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the U.S. Department of Energy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17201301','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17201301"><span id="translatedtitle">[Malaria in the central <span class="hlt">highlands</span> of Madagascar: control strategies].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rabarijaona, L P; Rabe, T; Ranaivo, L H; Raharimalala, L A; Rakotomanana, F; Rakotondraibe, E M; Ramarosandratana, B; Rakotoson, J D; Rakotonjanabelo, L A; Tafangy, P B</p> <p>2006-10-01</p> <p>The purpose of this article is to present data on malaria in the central <span class="hlt">highland</span> plateaux of Madagascar and strategies to improve the national malaria control program. Use of rapid diagnosis strips, early home-based fever management with pre-packaged chloroquine treatment kits and proposed new therapeutic combination based on artemisinine are discussed for management of patients with high suspicion of malaria attack. Preventive measures including alternated targeted and full-house indoor spraying for vector control, use of insecticide-impregnated bednets, implementation of intermittent preventive treatment in risk groups, optimization of the epidemic early detection and warning system using the Lot Quality Assurance Sampling method for epidemiological investigation if the alert threshold is exceeded, and provision of rapid diagnosis strips are presented.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17963098','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17963098"><span id="translatedtitle">Rebel girls? Unplanned pregnancy and colonialism in <span class="hlt">highlands</span> Papua, Indonesia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Butt, Leslie; Munro, Jenny</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>In <span class="hlt">highlands</span> Papua, Indonesia, rapid social change under a colonial system of governance has created novel sexual opportunities for young indigenous women. Recent scholarship has viewed similar youthful sexual practices that challenge the status quo as expressions of personal agency. By looking at how young women and their families cope with unplanned pregnancies, we suggest that a more viable analytic approach would be to view sexuality, pregnancy and childbirth as a single unit of analysis. From this perspective, young women's experiences are primarily ones of constraint. Case studies offer insights into the ways a political context of colonial domination limits options and choices for young women who have children born out of wedlock. In particular, this paper describes how the 'settler gaze' - omnipresent colonial norms and judgments - creates regulatory effects in the realm of reproduction. PMID:17963098</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19901901','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19901901"><span id="translatedtitle">Cytotoxicity screening of endemic plants from Guayana <span class="hlt">highlands</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Guil-Guerrero, José Luis; Campra, Pablo</p> <p>2009-08-01</p> <p>A chemical-ecology approach has been used to screen plants growing in Guyana <span class="hlt">Highlands</span> as an indicator of production of biologically active secondary metabolites. Extracts of leaves from 19 species, most of them endemic in this area, and collected at the top of Roraima Tepui (2,723 m) were screened in vitro at different concentrations for their potential cytotoxic activity against three tumour cell lines: HT29 (colon), A549 (lung) and MDA-MB-231 (breast). MTT (tetrazolium blue) colorimetric assay was employed as cytotoxicity test. Extracts of nine species caused less than 30% growth in at least one cell line. From these species, high cytotoxic activity was detected in Casearia sylvestris var. lingua and Ledotamnus sessiliflorus extracts; medium activity was found in Cyathea sp. Two other species, Cyrilla racemiflora and Heliamphora minor showed lower but significant cytotoxicity. Further cytotoxicity-directed fractionation of these extracts would be advisable to isolate and identify the active principles of these plants.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920040774&hterms=ADC&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DADC','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920040774&hterms=ADC&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DADC"><span id="translatedtitle">Venusian <span class="hlt">highlands</span> - Geoid to topography ratios and their implications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Smrekar, Suzanne E.; Phillips, Roger J.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>Geoid-to-topography ratios (GTRs) are estimated for 12 Venusian <span class="hlt">highland</span> features to allow comparison with convection calculations and with terrestrial data of oceanic hot spots, swells, and plateaus. The geoid is estimated in the wavenumber domain from the isostatic formula, using the topography and the apparent depths isostatic compensation (ADC) for each region. In the space domain, the GTR is equal to the least squares slope of the linear fit of the geoid to the topograpy. The resulting GTR range is 7-31 m/km, which is much higher than terrestrial oceanic values (-1 to 5 m/km). The features fall into two distinct groups, one with a GTR range of 7-13 m/km, and one with a range of 19-25 m/km. A model for thermal thinning of a 100-km-thick lithosphere fits all values in the lower GTR group to within one standard deviation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2642781','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2642781"><span id="translatedtitle">The use of magical plants by curanderos in the Ecuador <span class="hlt">highlands</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cavender, Anthony P; Albán, Manuel</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Although the use of plants for treating supernaturally caused illnesses (e.g., soul loss, evil wind, witchcraft) has been documented in the Ecuador <span class="hlt">highlands</span>, so-called magical plants have received much less focused attention than plants used for treating naturalistic disorders. Drawing on interviews done in 2002 and 2003 with 116 curanderos residing in the Ecuador <span class="hlt">highlands</span>, this paper examines the characteristics of plants identified as magical, how they are used, and how the study of magical plants provides insights into the mindscape of residents of the <span class="hlt">highlands</span>. PMID:19161618</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016RSPSA.47250760C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016RSPSA.47250760C"><span id="translatedtitle">Folded isometric deformations and <span class="hlt">banana</span>-shaped seedpod</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Couturier, Etienne</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Thin vegetal shells have recently been a significant source of inspiration for the design of smart materials and soft actuators. Herein is presented a novel analytical family of isometric deformations with a family of θ-folds crossing a family of parallel z-folds; it contains the isometric deformations of a <span class="hlt">banana</span>-shaped surface inspired by a seedpod, which converts a vertical closing into either an horizontal closing or an opening depending on the location of the fold. Similarly to the seedpod, optimum shapes for opening ease are the most elongated ones.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26952840','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26952840"><span id="translatedtitle">SENP1, but not fetal hemoglobin, differentiates Andean <span class="hlt">highlanders</span> with chronic mountain sickness from healthy individuals among Andean <span class="hlt">highlanders</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hsieh, Matthew M; Callacondo, David; Rojas-Camayo, Jose; Quesada-Olarte, Jose; Wang, Xunde; Uchida, Naoya; Maric, Irina; Remaley, Alan T; Leon-Velarde, Fabiola; Villafuerte, Francisco C; Tisdale, John F</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Chronic mountain sickness (CMS) results from chronic hypoxia. It is unclear why certain <span class="hlt">highlanders</span> develop CMS. We hypothesized that modest increases in fetal hemoglobin (HbF) are associated with lower CMS severity. In this cross-sectional study, we found that HbF levels were normal (median = 0.4%) in all 153 adult Andean natives in Cerro de Pasco, Peru. Compared with healthy adults, the borderline elevated hemoglobin group frequently had symptoms (headaches, tinnitus, cyanosis, dilatation of veins) of CMS. Although the mean hemoglobin level differed between the healthy (17.1 g/dL) and CMS (22.3 g/dL) groups, mean plasma erythropoietin (EPO) levels were similar (healthy, 17.7 mIU/mL; CMS, 12.02 mIU/mL). Sanger sequencing determined that single-nucleotide polymorphisms in endothelial PAS domain 1 (EPAS1) and egl nine homolog 1 (EGLN1), associated with lower hemoglobin in Tibetans, were not identified in Andeans. Sanger sequencing of sentrin-specific protease 1 (SENP1) and acidic nuclear phosphoprotein 32 family, member D (ANP32D), in healthy and CMS individuals revealed that non-G/G genotypes were associated with higher CMS scores. No JAK2 V617F mutation was detected in CMS individuals. Thus, HbF and other classic erythropoietic parameters did not differ between healthy and CMS individuals. However, the non-G/G genotypes of SENP1 appeared to differentiate individuals with CMS from healthy Andean <span class="hlt">highlanders</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12216499','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12216499"><span id="translatedtitle">Laboratory scale production of maltodextrins and glucose syrup from <span class="hlt">banana</span> starch.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bello-Pérez, Luis Arturo; Sánchez-Hernández, Laura; Moreno-Damían, Esther; Toro-Vazquez, Jorge F</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Banana</span> starch was isolated to obtain maltodextrin by enzymatic hydrolysis with a heat-stable alpha-amylase. The maltodextrin obtained had a dextrose equivalent (DE) between 7-11 and showed suitable chemical characteristics for food application. Additionally, <span class="hlt">banana</span> maltodextrin had a greater white color value and total color difference (delta E) than a sample of commercial maltodextrin. Further saccharification of the maltodextrins was carried out with amyloglucosidase and pullulanase at 60 degrees C during 24 h obtaining a glucose syrup. Chemical characteristics of <span class="hlt">banana</span> glucose syrup were compared with those of a commercial syrup obtaining similar results. Nevertheless, the color of <span class="hlt">banana</span> glucose syrup was clearer than the one of a sample of commercial syrup. However, it showed lower color stability than the commercial sample, i.e., the color of <span class="hlt">banana</span> glucose syrup changed as a function of storage time. <span class="hlt">Banana</span> starch may be used to obtain maltodextrins and glucose syrups with similar chemical characteristics of those obtained from maize starch. Particularly, the color of <span class="hlt">banana</span> maltodextrin is adequate for its use in food products.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24876653','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24876653"><span id="translatedtitle">Prediction of textural attributes using color values of <span class="hlt">banana</span> (Musa sapientum) during ripening.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jaiswal, Pranita; Jha, Shyam Narayan; Kaur, Poonam Preet; Bhardwaj, Rishi; Singh, Ashish Kumar; Wadhawan, Vishakha</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Banana</span> is an important sub-tropical fruit in international trade. It undergoes significant textural and color transformations during ripening process, which in turn influence the eating quality of the fruit. In present study, color ('L', 'a' and 'b' value) and textural attributes of <span class="hlt">bananas</span> (peel, fruit and pulp firmness; pulp toughness; stickiness) were studied simultaneously using Hunter Color Lab and Texture Analyser, respectively, during ripening period of 10 days at ambient atmosphere. There was significant effect of ripening period on all the considered textural characteristics and color properties of <span class="hlt">bananas</span> except color value 'b'. In general, textural descriptors (peel, fruit and pulp firmness; and pulp toughness) decreased during ripening except stickiness, while color values viz 'a' and 'b' increased with ripening barring 'L' value. Among various textural attributes, peel toughness and pulp firmness showed highest correlation (r) with 'a' value of <span class="hlt">banana</span> peel. In order to predict textural properties using color values of <span class="hlt">banana</span>, five types of equations (linear/polynomial/exponential/logarithmic/power) were fitted. Among them, polynomial equation was found to be the best fit (highest coefficient of determination, R(2)) for prediction of texture using color properties for <span class="hlt">bananas</span>. The pulp firmness, peel toughness and pulp toughness showed R(2) above 0.84 with indicating its potentiality of the fitted equations for prediction of textural profile of <span class="hlt">bananas</span> non-destructively using 'a' value. PMID:24876653</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23055273','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23055273"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Banana</span> production systems: identification of alternative systems for more sustainable production.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bellamy, Angelina Sanderson</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Large-scale, monoculture production systems dependent on synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, increase yields, but are costly and have deleterious impacts on human health and the environment. This research investigates variations in <span class="hlt">banana</span> production practices in Costa Rica, to identify alternative systems that combine high productivity and profitability, with reduced reliance on agrochemicals. Farm workers were observed during daily production activities; 39 <span class="hlt">banana</span> producers and 8 extension workers/researchers were interviewed; and a review of field experiments conducted by the National <span class="hlt">Banana</span> Corporation between 1997 and 2002 was made. Correspondence analysis showed that there is no structured variation in large-scale <span class="hlt">banana</span> producers' practices, but two other <span class="hlt">banana</span> production systems were identified: a small-scale organic system and a small-scale conventional coffee-<span class="hlt">banana</span> intercropped system. Field-scale research may reveal ways that these practices can be scaled up to achieve a productive and profitable system producing high-quality export <span class="hlt">bananas</span> with fewer or no pesticides. PMID:23055273</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26396292','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26396292"><span id="translatedtitle">Storage stability of <span class="hlt">banana</span> chips in polypropylene based nanocomposite packaging films.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Manikantan, M R; Sharma, Rajiv; Kasturi, R; Varadharaju, N</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>In this study, polypropylene (PP) based nanocomposite films of 15 different compositions of nanoclay, compatibilizer and thickness were developed and used for packaging and storage of <span class="hlt">banana</span> chips. The effect of nanocomposite films on the quality characteristics viz. moisture content (MC), water activity (WA), total color difference(TCD), breaking force (BF), free fatty acid (FFA), peroxide value(PV), total plate count (TPC) and overall acceptability score of <span class="hlt">banana</span> chips under ambient condition at every 15 days interval were studied for 120 days. All quality parameters of stored <span class="hlt">banana</span> chips increased whereas overall acceptability scores decreased during storage. The elevation in FFA, BF and TCD of stored <span class="hlt">banana</span> chips increased with elapse of storage period as well as with increased proportion of both nanoclay and compatibilizer but decreased by reducing the thickness of film. Among all the packaging materials, the WA of <span class="hlt">banana</span> chips remained lower than 0.60 i.e. critical limit for microbial growth up to 90 days of storage. The PV of <span class="hlt">banana</span> chips packaged also remained within the safe limit of 25 meq oxygen kg(-1) throughout the storage period. Among all the nanocomposite films, packaging material having 5 % compatibilizer, 2 % nanoclay & 100 μm thickness (treatment E) and 10 % compatibilizer, 4 % nanoclay & 120 μm thickness (treatment N) showed better stability of measured quality characteristics of <span class="hlt">banana</span> chips than any other treatment. PMID:26396292</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18820933','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18820933"><span id="translatedtitle">Involvement of a <span class="hlt">banana</span> MADS-box transcription factor gene in ethylene-induced fruit ripening.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liu, Juhua; Xu, Biyu; Hu, Lifang; Li, Meiying; Su, Wei; Wu, Jing; Yang, Jinghao; Jin, Zhiqiang</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>To investigate the regulation of MADS-box genes in <span class="hlt">banana</span> (Musa acuminata L. AAA group cv. Brazilian) fruit development and postharvest ripening, we isolated from <span class="hlt">banana</span> fruit a MADS-box gene designated MuMADS1. Amino acid alignment indicated MuMADS1 belongs to the AGAMOUS subfamily, and phylogenetic analysis indicates that this gene is most similar to class D MADS-box genes. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis showed that MuMADS1 is expressed in the stamen and pistil of male and female flowers and in the rhizome, the vegetative reproductive organ of the <span class="hlt">banana</span> plant. In preharvest <span class="hlt">banana</span> fruit, MuMADS1 is likely expressed throughout <span class="hlt">banana</span> fruit development. In postharvest <span class="hlt">banana</span> ripening, MuMADS1 is associated with ethylene biosynthesis. Expression patterns of MuMADS1 during postharvest ripening as determined by real-time RT-PCR suggest that differential expression of MuMADS1 may not only be induced by ethylene biosynthesis associated with postharvest <span class="hlt">banana</span> ripening, but also may be induced by exogenous ethylene. PMID:18820933</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26256319','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26256319"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of the degree of substitution of octenyl succinic anhydride-<span class="hlt">banana</span> starch on emulsion stability.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bello-Pérez, Luis A; Bello-Flores, Christopher A; Nuñez-Santiago, María del Carmen; Coronel-Aguilera, Claudia P; Alvarez-Ramirez, J</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Banana</span> starch was esterified with octenylsuccinic anhydride (OSA) at different degree substitution (DS) and used to stabilize emulsions. Morphology, emulsion stability, emulsification index, rheological properties and particle size distribution of the emulsions were tested. Emulsions dyed with Solvent Red 26 showed affinity for the oil phase. Backscattering light showed three regions in the emulsion where the emulsified region was present. Starch concentration had higher effect in the emulsification index (EI) than the DS used in the study because similar values were found with OSA-<span class="hlt">banana</span> and native starches. However, OSA-<span class="hlt">banana</span> presented greater stability of the emulsified region. Rheological tests in emulsions with OSA-<span class="hlt">banana</span> showed G'>G" values and low dependence of G' with the frequency, indicating a dominant elastic response to shear. When emulsions were prepared under high-pressure conditions, the emulsions with OSA-<span class="hlt">banana</span> starch with different DS showed a bimodal distribution of particle size. The emulsion with OSA-<span class="hlt">banana</span> starch and the low DS showed similar mean droplet diameter than its native counterpart. In contrast, the highest DS led to the highest mean droplet diameter. It is concluded that OSA-<span class="hlt">banana</span> starch with DS can be used to stabilize specific emulsion types.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26877005','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26877005"><span id="translatedtitle">Study on oil absorbency of succinic anhydride modified <span class="hlt">banana</span> cellulose in ionic liquid.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shang, Wenting; Sheng, Zhanwu; Shen, Yixiao; Ai, Binling; Zheng, Lili; Yang, Jingsong; Xu, Zhimin</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Banana</span> cellulose contained number of hydrophilic hydroxyl groups which were succinylated to be hydrophobic groups with high oil affinity. Succinic anhydride was used to modify <span class="hlt">banana</span> cellulose in 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquid in this study. The modified <span class="hlt">banana</span> cellulose had a high oil absorption capacity. The effects of reaction time, temperature, and molar ratio of succinic anhydride to anhydroglucose on the degree of substitution of modified <span class="hlt">banana</span> cellulose were evaluated. The optimal reaction condition was at a ratio of succinic anhydride and anhydroglucose 6:1 (m:m), reaction time 60min and temperature 90°C. The maximum degree of acylation reaction reached to 0.37. The characterization analysis of the modified <span class="hlt">banana</span> cellulose was performed using X-ray diffractometer, Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetry. The oil absorption capacity and kinetics of the modified <span class="hlt">banana</span> cellulose were evaluated at the modified cellulose dose (0.025-0.3g), initial oil amount (5-30g), and temperature (15-35°C) conditions. The maximum oil absorption capacity was 32.12g/g at the condition of the cellulose dose (0.05g), initial oil amount (25g) and temperature (15°C). The kinetics of oil absorption of the cellulose followed a pseudo-second-order model. The results of this study demonstrated that the modified <span class="hlt">banana</span> cellulose could be used as an efficient bio-sorbent for oil adsorption. PMID:26877005</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26256319','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26256319"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of the degree of substitution of octenyl succinic anhydride-<span class="hlt">banana</span> starch on emulsion stability.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bello-Pérez, Luis A; Bello-Flores, Christopher A; Nuñez-Santiago, María del Carmen; Coronel-Aguilera, Claudia P; Alvarez-Ramirez, J</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Banana</span> starch was esterified with octenylsuccinic anhydride (OSA) at different degree substitution (DS) and used to stabilize emulsions. Morphology, emulsion stability, emulsification index, rheological properties and particle size distribution of the emulsions were tested. Emulsions dyed with Solvent Red 26 showed affinity for the oil phase. Backscattering light showed three regions in the emulsion where the emulsified region was present. Starch concentration had higher effect in the emulsification index (EI) than the DS used in the study because similar values were found with OSA-<span class="hlt">banana</span> and native starches. However, OSA-<span class="hlt">banana</span> presented greater stability of the emulsified region. Rheological tests in emulsions with OSA-<span class="hlt">banana</span> showed G'>G" values and low dependence of G' with the frequency, indicating a dominant elastic response to shear. When emulsions were prepared under high-pressure conditions, the emulsions with OSA-<span class="hlt">banana</span> starch with different DS showed a bimodal distribution of particle size. The emulsion with OSA-<span class="hlt">banana</span> starch and the low DS showed similar mean droplet diameter than its native counterpart. In contrast, the highest DS led to the highest mean droplet diameter. It is concluded that OSA-<span class="hlt">banana</span> starch with DS can be used to stabilize specific emulsion types. PMID:26256319</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26940488','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26940488"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">banana</span> E2 gene family: Genomic identification, characterization, expression profiling analysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dong, Chen; Hu, Huigang; Jue, Dengwei; Zhao, Qiufang; Chen, Hongliang; Xie, Jianghui; Jia, Liqiang</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The E2 is at the center of a cascade of Ub1 transfers, and it links activation of the Ub1 by E1 to its eventual E3-catalyzed attachment to substrate. Although the genome-wide analysis of this family has been performed in some species, little is known about analysis of E2 genes in <span class="hlt">banana</span>. In this study, 74 E2 genes of <span class="hlt">banana</span> were identified and phylogenetically clustered into thirteen subgroups. The predicted <span class="hlt">banana</span> E2 genes were distributed across all 11 chromosomes at different densities. Additionally, the E2 domain, gene structure and motif compositions were analyzed. The expression of all of the <span class="hlt">banana</span> E2 genes was analyzed in the root, stem, leaf, flower organs, five stages of fruit development and under abiotic stresses. All of the <span class="hlt">banana</span> E2 genes, with the exception of few genes in each group, were expressed in at least one of the organs and fruit developments, which indicated that the E2 genes might involve in various aspects of the physiological and developmental processes of the <span class="hlt">banana</span>. Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis identified that 45 E2s under drought and 33 E2s under salt were induced. To the best of our knowledge, this report describes the first genome-wide analysis of the <span class="hlt">banana</span> E2 gene family, and the results should provide valuable information for understanding the classification, cloning and putative functions of this family. PMID:26940488</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70010094','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70010094"><span id="translatedtitle">Differentiation and volcanism in the lunar <span class="hlt">highlands</span>: photogeologic evidence and Apollo 16 implications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Trask, N.J.; McCauley, J.F.</p> <p>1972-01-01</p> <p>Materials of possible volcanic origin in the lunar <span class="hlt">highlands</span> include (1) <span class="hlt">highland</span> plains materials, (2) materials forming closely spaced hills in which summit furrows and chains of craters are common and (3) materials forming closely spaced hills (some of which parallel the lunar grid) on which summit furrows and chain craters are rare. The <span class="hlt">highland</span> plains materials probably are basaltic lavas with less Fe and Ti than the mare plains materials. The two hilly units appear to consist of materials that, if volcanic, were more viscous in the molten state than any of the lunar plains units; thus these materials may be significantly enriched in felsic components. Most of the <span class="hlt">highland</span> materials of possible volcanic origin formed after the Imbrium multi-ring basin but before mare material completed flooding parts of the moon; they therefore postdate accretion of the moon and may represent several episodes of premare volcanism. ?? 1972.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=75535&keyword=Deforestation&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=68456007&CFTOKEN=73405563','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=75535&keyword=Deforestation&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=68456007&CFTOKEN=73405563"><span id="translatedtitle">IDENTIFICATION AND LOCATION OF FUNDAMENTAL FISH ASSEMBLAGES IN THE MID-ATLANTIC <span class="hlt">HIGHLANDS</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>To predict fish community response to environmental restoration in the <span class="hlt">Highlands</span> Region one must first have information on fish abundance and diversity. We used data collected by the US Environmental Protection Agency's EMAP (Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program) to i...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016LPICo1911.6038O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016LPICo1911.6038O"><span id="translatedtitle">Composition of the Lunar <span class="hlt">Highland</span> Crust and Mantle and Its Implications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ohtake, M.; Yamamoto, S.; Uemoto, K.</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Recent remote sensing data suggest that extremely pure anorthosite (PAN) layer is a main component of the lunar <span class="hlt">highland</span> crust and presence of crustal material with higher Mg# on the farside than the nearside.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940007707&hterms=echo+sounder&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3D%2528echo%2Bsounder%2529','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940007707&hterms=echo+sounder&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3D%2528echo%2Bsounder%2529"><span id="translatedtitle">Using lunar sounder imagery to distinguish surface from subsurface reflectors in lunar <span class="hlt">highlands</span> areas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Cooper, Bonnie L.; Carter, James L.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>We have developed a method using the Apollo 17 Lunar Sounder imagery data which appears capable of filtering out off-nadir surface noise from <span class="hlt">highland</span> area profiles, so that subsurface features may now be detected in <span class="hlt">highland</span> areas as well as mare areas. Previously, this had been impossible because the rough topography in the <span class="hlt">highland</span> areas created noise in the profiles which could not be distinguished from subsurface echoes. The new method is an image processing procedure involving the computerized selection of pixels which represent intermediate echo intensity values, then manually removing those pixels from the profile. Using this technique, a subsurface feature with a horizontal extent of about 150 km, at a calculated depth of approximately 3 km, has been detected beneath the crater Riccioli in the <span class="hlt">highlands</span> near Oceanus Procellarum. This result shows that the ALSE data contain much useful information that remains to be extracted and used.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2010/1187/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2010/1187/"><span id="translatedtitle">Connecticut <span class="hlt">Highlands</span> Technical Report - Documentation of the Regional Rainfall-Runoff Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Ahearn, Elizabeth A.; Bjerklie, David M.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This report provides the supporting data and describes the data sources, methodologies, and assumptions used in the assessment of existing and potential water resources of the <span class="hlt">Highlands</span> of Connecticut and Pennsylvania (referred to herein as the “Highlands”). Included in this report are <span class="hlt">Highlands</span> groundwater and surface-water use data and the methods of data compilation. Annual mean streamflow and annual mean base-flow estimates from selected U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) gaging stations were computed using data for the period of record through water year 2005. The methods of watershed modeling are discussed and regional and sub-regional water budgets are provided. Information on <span class="hlt">Highlands</span> surface-water-quality trends is presented. USGS web sites are provided as sources for additional information on groundwater levels, streamflow records, and ground- and surface-water-quality data. Interpretation of these data and the findings are summarized in the <span class="hlt">Highlands</span> study report.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17048100','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17048100"><span id="translatedtitle">Composition, digestibility and application in breadmaking of <span class="hlt">banana</span> flour.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Juarez-Garcia, E; Agama-Acevedo, E; Sáyago-Ayerdi, S G; Rodríguez-Ambriz, S L; Bello-Pérez, L A</p> <p>2006-09-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Banana</span> flour (BF) was obtained from unripe <span class="hlt">banana</span> (Musa paradisiacal L.) and characterized in its chemical composition. Experimental bread was formulated with BF flour and the product was studied regarding chemical composition, available starch (AS), resistant starch (RS) and rate of starch digestion in vitro. The chemical composition of BF showed that total starch (73.36%) and dietary fiber (14.52%) were the highest constituents. Of the total starch, available starch was 56.29% and resistant starch 17.50%. BF bread had higher protein and total starch content than control bread, but the first had higher lipid amount. Appreciable differences were found in available, resistant starch and indigestible fraction between the bread studied, since BF bread showed higher resistant starch and indigestible fraction content. HI-based predicted glycemic index for the BF bread was 65.08%, which was significantly lower than control bread (81.88%), suggesting a "slow carbohydrate" feature for the BF-based goods. Results revealed BF as a potential ingredient for bakery products containing slowly digestible carbohydrates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5464323','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5464323"><span id="translatedtitle">Tearing instabilities in the <span class="hlt">banana</span>-plateau collisionality regime</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Qu, W.X.; Callen, J.D.</p> <p>1985-04-01</p> <p>Starting from a resistive MHD set of equations and adding neoclassical currents (bootstrap, enhanced polarization and pinch type), we derive the eigenmode equation and relevant dispersion relation for ''neoclassical MHD'' tearing modes in the <span class="hlt">banana</span>-plateau collisionality regime. The ballooning mode representation and a multiple length scale approximation are utilized. Analysis of the dispersion relation shows that the neoclassical effects on tearing modes are quite strong for ..sqrt..epsilon ..beta../sub p/(1 + nu/sub *//sub e/)/sup -1/ > S/sup -2/5/ (epsilon is the inverse aspect ratio, ..beta../sub p/ is the poloidal beta value, nu/sub *//sub e/ is the electron collisionality factor and S is the neoclassical MHD Reynolds number). The growth rate ..gamma.. and singular layer width deltax are increased typically by more than one order of magnitude from the usual values for epsilon ..beta../sub p/ approx. = 1. For our model, the changes in the tearing modes from the <span class="hlt">banana</span>-plateau collisionality regime to the usual Pfirsch-Schlueter regime are very clear and natural.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23692371','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23692371"><span id="translatedtitle">Black leaf streak disease affects starch metabolism in <span class="hlt">banana</span> fruit.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Saraiva, Lorenzo de Amorim; Castelan, Florence Polegato; Shitakubo, Renata; Hassimotto, Neuza Mariko Aymoto; Purgatto, Eduardo; Chillet, Marc; Cordenunsi, Beatriz Rosana</p> <p>2013-06-12</p> <p>Black leaf streak disease (BLSD), also known as black sigatoka, represents the main foliar disease in Brazilian <span class="hlt">banana</span> plantations. In addition to photosynthetic leaf area losses and yield losses, this disease causes an alteration in the pre- and postharvest behavior of the fruit. The aim of this work was to investigate the starch metabolism of fruits during fruit ripening from plants infected with BLSD by evaluating carbohydrate content (i.e., starch, soluble sugars, oligosaccharides, amylose), phenolic compound content, phytohormones, enzymatic activities (i.e., starch phosphorylases, α- and β-amylase), and starch granules. The results indicated that the starch metabolism in <span class="hlt">banana</span> fruit ripening is affected by BLSD infection. Fruit from infested plots contained unusual amounts of soluble sugars in the green stage and smaller starch granules and showed a different pattern of superficial degradation. Enzymatic activities linked to starch degradation were also altered by the disease. Moreover, the levels of indole-acetic acid and phenolic compounds indicated an advanced fruit physiological age for fruits from infested plots. PMID:23692371</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016E%26ES...32a2017C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016E%26ES...32a2017C"><span id="translatedtitle">Impact Resistance Behaviour of <span class="hlt">Banana</span> Fiber Reinforced Slabs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Che Muda, Zakaria; Syamsir, Agusril; Nasharuddin Mustapha, Kamal; Rifdy Samsudin, Muhamad; Thiruchelvam, Sivadass; Usman, Fathoni; Beddu, Salmia; Liyana Mohd Kamal, Nur; Ashraful Alam, Md; Birima, Ahmed H.; Zaroog, O. S.</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>This paper investigate the performance of <span class="hlt">banana</span> fibre reinforced slabs 300mm × 300mm size with varied thickness subjected to low impact projectile test. A self-fabricated drop-weight impact test rig with a steel ball weight of 1.25 kg drop at 1 m height has been used in this research work. The main variables for the study is to find the relationship of the impact resistance against the BF contents and slab thickness. A linear relationship has been established between first and ultimate crack resistance against BF contents and slab thickness by the experiment. The linear relationship has also been established between the service (first) crack and ultimate crack resistance against the BF contents for a constant spacing for various <span class="hlt">banana</span> fibre reinforced slab thickness. The increment in BF content has more effect on the first crack resistance than the ultimate crack resistance. The linear relationship has also been established between the service (first) crack and ultimate crack resistance against the various slab thickness. Overall 1.5% BF content with slab thickness of 40 mm exhibit better first and ultimate crack resistance up to 16 times and up to 17 times respectively against control slab (without BF)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4830403','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4830403"><span id="translatedtitle">Emergence or improved detection of Japanese encephalitis virus in the Himalayan <span class="hlt">highlands</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Baylis, Matthew; Barker, Christopher M.; Caminade, Cyril; Joshi, Bhoj R.; Pant, Ganesh R.; Rayamajhi, Ajit; Reisen, William K.; Impoinvil, Daniel E.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The emergence of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) in the Himalayan <span class="hlt">highlands</span> is of significant veterinary and public health concern and may be related to climate warming and anthropogenic landscape change, or simply improved surveillance. To investigate this phenomenon, a One Health approach focusing on the phylogeography of JEV, the distribution and abundance of the mosquito vectors, and seroprevalence in humans and animal reservoirs would be useful to understand the epidemiology of Japanese encephalitis in <span class="hlt">highland</span> areas. PMID:26956778</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820038740&hterms=contaminated&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dcontaminated','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820038740&hterms=contaminated&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dcontaminated"><span id="translatedtitle">The distinction of pristine from meteorite-contaminated <span class="hlt">highlands</span> rocks using metal compositions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ryder, G.; Norman, M. D.; Score, R. A.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>Pristine <span class="hlt">highlands</span> rocks, i.e., those which have retained the chemical characteristics they acquired from igneous processes, contain metal grains whose Ni and Co contents are distinct from those in most polymict, meteorite-contaminated rocks. The difference is mainly a result of the bulk Ni/Co ratios of pristine rocks being much lower than those of chondritic meteorites. The compositions of metal grains thus provide a rapid and effective criterion for the recognition of pristine <span class="hlt">highlands</span> samples.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26956778','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26956778"><span id="translatedtitle">Emergence or improved detection of Japanese encephalitis virus in the Himalayan <span class="hlt">highlands</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Baylis, Matthew; Barker, Christopher M; Caminade, Cyril; Joshi, Bhoj R; Pant, Ganesh R; Rayamajhi, Ajit; Reisen, William K; Impoinvil, Daniel E</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The emergence of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) in the Himalayan <span class="hlt">highlands</span> is of significant veterinary and public health concern and may be related to climate warming and anthropogenic landscape change, or simply improved surveillance. To investigate this phenomenon, a One Health approach focusing on the phylogeography of JEV, the distribution and abundance of the mosquito vectors, and seroprevalence in humans and animal reservoirs would be useful to understand the epidemiology of Japanese encephalitis in <span class="hlt">highland</span> areas. PMID:26956778</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22557669','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22557669"><span id="translatedtitle">Plantain or edible <span class="hlt">banana</span> (musa x paradisica var - sapiemtum) some lesser known folk uses in India.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pushpangadan, P; Kaur, J; Sharma, J</p> <p>1989-07-01</p> <p>Plantain Or edible <span class="hlt">banana</span> (Musa X paradisiacal var. Sapientum), an important commercial fruit item of the tropics, is known in India since time immemorial. Apart from its use as a valuable food item, <span class="hlt">banana</span> fruits and the different part of plant find diverse uses in various folk practices, customs, religious rituals and medicine among the villagers and tribal communities of the country which are oral in tradition. A study conducted on various medicinal applications of <span class="hlt">banana</span> has shown that they are very effective and can be used by all as simple and safe home remedy for treating a number of common ailments which are reported here.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/503657','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/503657"><span id="translatedtitle">Neoclassical ion thermal conductivity modified by finite <span class="hlt">banana</span> effects in a tokamak plasma</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chang, C.S.</p> <p>1997-06-01</p> <p>A finite-<span class="hlt">banana</span>-width correction to the neoclassical ion thermal conductivity is obtained in a tokamak plasma under the conventional assumption that the particle flow parallel to magnetic-field lines dominates the trapped particle{close_quote}s orbital dynamics. It is found that the finite-<span class="hlt">banana</span>-width effect makes ion thermal conductivity itself be a function of radial plasma density gradient and magnetic shear. Negative radial gradients in plasma density and/or safety factor can reduce the neoclassical ion thermal conductivity when the <span class="hlt">banana</span> width is a significant fraction of the gradient scale length. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21160159','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21160159"><span id="translatedtitle">Chlorophyll breakdown as seen in <span class="hlt">bananas</span>: sign of aging and ripening--a mini-review.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Müller, Thomas; Kräutler, Bernhard</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The ripening of <span class="hlt">bananas</span> is seen by a characteristic change of their color from deep green to bright yellow. Likewise, their over-ripening and eventual rotting are accompanied by the appearance of an unappetizing brown. Chlorophyll breakdown is a major contributor to the visual signs of these processes in <span class="hlt">bananas</span>. Outlined here are the basic structures of chlorophyll catabolites in higher plants, with particular reference to ripening and aging <span class="hlt">bananas</span>. In these fruits, unique fluorescent chlorophyll catabolites accumulate and give rise to their fascinating blue luminescence. PMID:21160159</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21160159','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21160159"><span id="translatedtitle">Chlorophyll breakdown as seen in <span class="hlt">bananas</span>: sign of aging and ripening--a mini-review.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Müller, Thomas; Kräutler, Bernhard</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The ripening of <span class="hlt">bananas</span> is seen by a characteristic change of their color from deep green to bright yellow. Likewise, their over-ripening and eventual rotting are accompanied by the appearance of an unappetizing brown. Chlorophyll breakdown is a major contributor to the visual signs of these processes in <span class="hlt">bananas</span>. Outlined here are the basic structures of chlorophyll catabolites in higher plants, with particular reference to ripening and aging <span class="hlt">bananas</span>. In these fruits, unique fluorescent chlorophyll catabolites accumulate and give rise to their fascinating blue luminescence.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820038752&hterms=density+iron&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Ddensity%2Biron','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820038752&hterms=density+iron&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Ddensity%2Biron"><span id="translatedtitle">Lunar <span class="hlt">highland</span> crustal models based on iron concentrations - Isostasy and center-of-mass displacement</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Haines, E. L.; Metzger, A. E.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>Data is introduced on the iron concentrations of the lunar surface which have been refined by means of convolution corrections to restore the spatial resolution and contrast lost by the omnidirectional spectrometer. This refined iron data is synthesized with other orbital seismic, and lunar sample data to derive <span class="hlt">highland</span> crustal density and thickness, and isostasy and lunar centers of mass models are examined in light of this new information. A model is developed by which <span class="hlt">highland</span> crustal density is calculated for each <span class="hlt">highland</span> region from orbital observations of Fe, Mg and Ti concentrations. The results of this model are presented numerically and graphically for 35 <span class="hlt">highland</span> and two non-<span class="hlt">highland</span> regions. Density and thickness results are then applied to two long-standing lunar problems: (1) the nature of <span class="hlt">highland</span> isostasy, which is shown to be controlled by crustal thickness rather than density, and (2) the separation of the moon's mass and figure centers, which is shown to be due to the crustal thickness difference between the lunar near and far sides.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012EGUGA..14.4365U&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012EGUGA..14.4365U&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Sedimentological features of lateritic and saprolitic horizons in a mid-slope lavaka, Central <span class="hlt">Highlands</span>, Madagascar</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Udvardi, B.; Raveloson, A.; Visnovitz, F.; Szabó, Cs.; Kovács, I.; Székely, B.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Madagascar is characterized by a world-record erosion rate, especially in the Central <span class="hlt">Highlands</span> and the vicinity of Lake Alaotra. As a consequence of the high erosion rate several specific erosional landforms develop in the area. Among them an inverted teardrop-shaped geomorphic feature, the lavaka, meaning 'hole' in Malagasy, is very typical in the hilly landscape. These unique features are widespread in Madagascar though somewhat similar patterns can also be found in Congo, South <span class="hlt">Africa</span> and Brazil. In these areas, material from the lavakas is washed down from the hillsides into the streams and rivers after every heavy rain (1500-1800 mm/yr). The high sediment load from the eroded lavakas can damage the infrastructure (collapses roads, bridges and buildings) and may destroy agricultural land (swamp fields). The distribution of lavakas is very diverse: despite the same climatologic, geological environment and anthropogenic effects a large difference in density of lavakas can be observed. For this reason it cannot be fully constrained how lavakas form and develop. Their formation is affected by natural factors (hydrological and climatic effects, geology, tectonics, vegetation, etc.) and also by anthropogenic influences (deforestation, grassland burning, overgrazing). The basic condition for the formation of lavakas often includes the petrographic characteristics of the area. Lavaka-generating substrates can be separated into two main weathered units: thin upper laterite (less than one meter) and thicker deeper saprolite (several tens of meters) on the crystalline basement. This study focuses on a mid-slope lavaka, in the area of Tsiafahy, in Madagascar's Central <span class="hlt">Highlands</span>. To ascertain the composition of the material and to evaluate the hydraulic conductivity of the lateritic and saprolitic profile on precambrian magmatic basement, we investigated the grain size distribution and mineral composition of an active lavaka. Our results show the significance of water on</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/390091','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/390091"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Africa</span>: Prosperous times</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>1996-08-01</p> <p>Political instability and corruption is the rule, rather than the exception, in <span class="hlt">Africa`s</span> main producing regions, but exploration and production prospects there are bright and attractive to foreign operators. The paper discusses exploration, drilling, resource development, and production in Nigeria, Libya, Algeria, Egypt, Angola, Congo, Gabon, and Tunisia. The other countries of <span class="hlt">Africa</span> are briefly mentioned, i.e., Cameroon, Cote D`Ivoire, South <span class="hlt">Africa</span>, Sudan, Namibia, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Zaire, Mozambique, Ghana, Niger, and Seychelles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16358509','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16358509"><span id="translatedtitle">Global perspectives on animal welfare: <span class="hlt">Africa</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Masiga, W N; Munyua, S J M</p> <p>2005-08-01</p> <p>Livestock production systems, production objectives, the cultural values of livestock keepers, and the close relationship between keepers and their livestock have evolved over the years and have influenced the quality of animal welfare in <span class="hlt">Africa</span>. An equivalent level and quality of care is not evident for companion animals, especially dogs and donkeys, who are often mistreated and physically abused. In the densely populated <span class="hlt">highland</span> and humid coastal belts of <span class="hlt">Africa</span>, profit-driven commercial large-scale intensive livestock production systems predominate. As the main production objective of these operations is to maximise profit, the operators of these production systems do not exhibit the same kind of attachment to their livestock as traditional farmers. In some large-scale commercial systems animals and birds are kept in sub-standard poorly constructed structures that greatly restrict the animals' movements. In <span class="hlt">Africa</span>, conservation of wildlife habitats is part of animal welfare, but due to an increasing human population and a greater demand for land for grazing, cultivation, and housing, wildlife reserves are quickly diminishing. This essentially means that the land that was previously set aside for wildlife and forests is being encroached upon and previously unsettled plains and marginal lands are being used for agriculture and mining. In most places there is significant conflict between humans and wildlife, such that wildlife are considered to be pests that need to be destroyed. This is a particular problem in areas where wildlife have destroyed crops, attacked man and/or livestock, or there has been disease transmission between animals and humans. In situations and/or areas that do not have official animal control services, crude weapons, poisons, and traps are used to kill the wildlife. Animal welfare issues, domestic and wildlife related, need to be urgently addressed through policy and legal frameworks and supported by community awareness of, education about</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16358509','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16358509"><span id="translatedtitle">Global perspectives on animal welfare: <span class="hlt">Africa</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Masiga, W N; Munyua, S J M</p> <p>2005-08-01</p> <p>Livestock production systems, production objectives, the cultural values of livestock keepers, and the close relationship between keepers and their livestock have evolved over the years and have influenced the quality of animal welfare in <span class="hlt">Africa</span>. An equivalent level and quality of care is not evident for companion animals, especially dogs and donkeys, who are often mistreated and physically abused. In the densely populated <span class="hlt">highland</span> and humid coastal belts of <span class="hlt">Africa</span>, profit-driven commercial large-scale intensive livestock production systems predominate. As the main production objective of these operations is to maximise profit, the operators of these production systems do not exhibit the same kind of attachment to their livestock as traditional farmers. In some large-scale commercial systems animals and birds are kept in sub-standard poorly constructed structures that greatly restrict the animals' movements. In <span class="hlt">Africa</span>, conservation of wildlife habitats is part of animal welfare, but due to an increasing human population and a greater demand for land for grazing, cultivation, and housing, wildlife reserves are quickly diminishing. This essentially means that the land that was previously set aside for wildlife and forests is being encroached upon and previously unsettled plains and marginal lands are being used for agriculture and mining. In most places there is significant conflict between humans and wildlife, such that wildlife are considered to be pests that need to be destroyed. This is a particular problem in areas where wildlife have destroyed crops, attacked man and/or livestock, or there has been disease transmission between animals and humans. In situations and/or areas that do not have official animal control services, crude weapons, poisons, and traps are used to kill the wildlife. Animal welfare issues, domestic and wildlife related, need to be urgently addressed through policy and legal frameworks and supported by community awareness of, education about</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27066290','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27066290"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessing the Role of Climate Change in Malaria Transmission in <span class="hlt">Africa</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ngarakana-Gwasira, E T; Bhunu, C P; Masocha, M; Mashonjowa, E</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The sensitivity of vector borne diseases like malaria to climate continues to raise considerable concern over the implications of climate change on future disease dynamics. The problem of malaria vectors shifting from their traditional locations to invade new zones is of important concern. A mathematical model incorporating rainfall and temperature is constructed to study the transmission dynamics of malaria. The reproduction number obtained is applied to gridded temperature and rainfall datasets for baseline climate and future climate with aid of GIS. As a result of climate change, malaria burden is likely to increase in the tropics, the <span class="hlt">highland</span> regions, and East <span class="hlt">Africa</span> and along the northern limit of falciparum malaria. Falciparum malaria will spread into the African <span class="hlt">highlands</span>; however it is likely to die out at the southern limit of the disease.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=domino%27s&pg=3&id=EJ429296','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=domino%27s&pg=3&id=EJ429296"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Africa</span>'s Geomosaic under Stress.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>de Blij, H. J.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>Traces the transformation of Subsaharan <span class="hlt">Africa</span> during the last 35 years. Contends that the domino effect hastened decolonization and increased polarization within South <span class="hlt">Africa</span>. Argues that modernization is taking place only in South <span class="hlt">Africa</span>'s core and that the geopolitical framework appears stable but may collapse from within. (NL)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23413173','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23413173"><span id="translatedtitle">High-resolution predictive mapping for Rhipicephalus appendiculatus (Acari: Ixodidae) in the Horn of <span class="hlt">Africa</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Leta, Samson; De Clercq, Eva M; Madder, Maxime</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>The brown ear tick Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, vector of East Coast fever (ECF) and related cattle diseases caused by Theileria parva has never been reported from the Horn of <span class="hlt">Africa</span>. Habitat suitability for this tick species was predicted using Maxent modelling technique based on R. appendiculatus records in Sub-Saharan <span class="hlt">Africa</span>. Two models were developed: the first is based on the tropical R. appendiculatus distribution and the one is based on the distribution records in the temperate region of Sub-Saharan <span class="hlt">Africa</span>. The tropical model shows favourable habitat in much of the Ethiopian <span class="hlt">highlands</span>. The whole Djibouti, the south eastern Ethiopian lowlands, majority of Somalia and Eritrea were found to be not suitable for the survival and development of this tick species. Highly suitable areas occur in areas which have moderate temperature and high precipitation. Introductions of R. appendiculatus into the Horn of <span class="hlt">Africa</span> probably have been prevented by the natural barrier between the known R. appendiculatus distribution range in East <span class="hlt">Africa</span> and the Horn of <span class="hlt">Africa</span>. The effect of an introduction of R. appendiculatus and thereby ECF into the Horn of <span class="hlt">Africa</span> could be catastrophic since the cattle in this area have no immunity against ECF, and mortality might be considerable in all age groups of cattle. PMID:23413173</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25886169','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25886169"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Banana</span> Ovate family protein MaOFP1 and MADS-box protein MuMADS1 antagonistically regulated <span class="hlt">banana</span> fruit ripening.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liu, Juhua; Zhang, Jing; Hu, Wei; Miao, Hongxia; Zhang, Jianbin; Jia, Caihong; Wang, Zhuo; Xu, Biyu; Jin, Zhiqiang</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The ovate family protein named MaOFP1 was identified in <span class="hlt">banana</span> (Musa acuminata L.AAA) fruit by a yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) method using the <span class="hlt">banana</span> MADS-box gene MuMADS1 as bait and a 2 day postharvest (DPH) <span class="hlt">banana</span> fruit cDNA library as prey. The interaction between MuMADS1 and MaOFP1 was further confirmed by Y2H and Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation (BiFC) methods, which showed that the MuMADS1 K domain interacted with MaOFP1. Real-time quantitative PCR evaluation of MuMADS1 and MaOFP1 expression patterns in <span class="hlt">banana</span> showed that they are highly expressed in 0 DPH fruit, but present in low levels in the stem, which suggests that simultaneous but different expression patterns exist for both MuMADS1 and MaOFP1 in different tissues and developing fruits. Meanwhile, MuMADS1 and MaOFP1 expression was highly stimulated and greatly suppressed, respectively, by exogenous ethylene. In contrast, MaOFP1 expression was highly stimulated while MuMADS1 was greatly suppressed by the ethylene competitor 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP). These results indicate that MuMADS1 and MaOFP1 are antagonistically regulated by ethylene and might play important roles in postharvest <span class="hlt">banana</span> fruit ripening. PMID:25886169</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23773808','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23773808"><span id="translatedtitle">High-throughput detection of <span class="hlt">banana</span> bunchy top virus in <span class="hlt">banana</span> plants and aphids using real-time TaqMan(®) PCR.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chen, Yan; Hu, Xiaoping</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Banana</span> bunchy top virus (BBTV) is the causal agent of <span class="hlt">banana</span> bunchy top disease. Current diagnostic methods for BBTV are laborious and prone to generate false-negative results. A simple, reliable, and high-throughput method for detecting BBTV in plants and aphids has been developed, which involves tissues disruption from <span class="hlt">banana</span> plants and viruliferous aphids followed by real-time TaqMan(®) PCR. Extraction of BBTV single-stranded DNA using this method is simple and less prone to contamination than using the CTAB (hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide) method. The high throughput TaqMan(®) PCR system was highly sensitive, detecting as few as 2.76 copies of BBTV genomic DNA or 1.0 ng-1.0mg of infected <span class="hlt">banana</span> leaves. The entire assay could be completed within 2h. Regression analysis showed that the quantitative results of TaqMan(®) PCR and copies of the virus have good correlation for plasmids (R(2)=0.966) and for infected leaves (R(2)=0.979). The method developed in this study can quantify BBTV in aphids and plants, even before the appearance of symptoms of <span class="hlt">banana</span> bunchy top disease.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4401719','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4401719"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Banana</span> Ovate Family Protein MaOFP1 and MADS-Box Protein MuMADS1 Antagonistically Regulated <span class="hlt">Banana</span> Fruit Ripening</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hu, Wei; Miao, Hongxia; Zhang, Jianbin; Jia, Caihong; Wang, Zhuo; Xu, Biyu; Jin, Zhiqiang</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The ovate family protein named MaOFP1 was identified in <span class="hlt">banana</span> (Musa acuminata L.AAA) fruit by a yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) method using the <span class="hlt">banana</span> MADS-box gene MuMADS1 as bait and a 2 day postharvest (DPH) <span class="hlt">banana</span> fruit cDNA library as prey. The interaction between MuMADS1 and MaOFP1 was further confirmed by Y2H and Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation (BiFC) methods, which showed that the MuMADS1 K domain interacted with MaOFP1. Real-time quantitative PCR evaluation of MuMADS1 and MaOFP1 expression patterns in <span class="hlt">banana</span> showed that they are highly expressed in 0 DPH fruit, but present in low levels in the stem, which suggests that simultaneous but different expression patterns exist for both MuMADS1 and MaOFP1 in different tissues and developing fruits. Meanwhile, MuMADS1 and MaOFP1 expression was highly stimulated and greatly suppressed, respectively, by exogenous ethylene. In contrast, MaOFP1 expression was highly stimulated while MuMADS1 was greatly suppressed by the ethylene competitor 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP). These results indicate that MuMADS1 and MaOFP1 are antagonistically regulated by ethylene and might play important roles in postharvest <span class="hlt">banana</span> fruit ripening. PMID:25886169</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11902928','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11902928"><span id="translatedtitle">Flavor and texture of <span class="hlt">banana</span> chips dried by combinations of hot air, vacuum, and microwave processing.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mui, Winnie W Y; Durance, Timothy D; Scaman, Christine H</p> <p>2002-03-27</p> <p>The behavior of 16 volatile compounds of <span class="hlt">banana</span> during a combination of air-drying (AD) and vacuum microwave-drying (VMD) of <span class="hlt">banana</span> chips was characterized. Samples were AD to remove 60, 70, 80, or 90% of moisture (wet basis) and then subjected to VMD to achieve a final moisture content of 3% (dry basis). <span class="hlt">Banana</span> slices were also dehydrated using only AD, VMD, and freeze-drying (FD) for comparison. Samples that underwent more VMD had significantly lower levels of volatile compounds, which is attributed to the decreased formation of an impermeable solute layer on the surface of the chips. High values for water solubility and relative volatility of compounds correlated with losses during VMD; however, additional factors appear to influence the behavior of compounds during VMD processing. The optimal process of 90%AD/10%VMD yielded crisper <span class="hlt">banana</span> chips with significantly higher volatile levels and sensory ratings than AD chips.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=205952','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=205952"><span id="translatedtitle">Development and Characterization of Spaghetti with High Resistant Starch Content Supplemented with <span class="hlt">Banana</span> Starch</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Pasta products, such as spaghetti, are relatively healthy foods traditionally manufactured from durum wheat semolina and water. Nutritionally improved spaghetti products with additional health benefits can be produced by supplementing durum wheat with suitable food additives, such as <span class="hlt">banana</span> starch....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6329384','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6329384"><span id="translatedtitle">The anti-ulcerogenic activity of the unripe plantain <span class="hlt">banana</span> (Musa species).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Best, R; Lewis, D A; Nasser, N</p> <p>1984-05-01</p> <p>Various preparations of dried unripe plantain <span class="hlt">banana</span> were found to be anti-ulcerogenic against aspirin-induced ulceration in the rat and were effective both as a prophylactic treatment and in healing ulcers already induced by aspirin. Ripe fruit <span class="hlt">bananas</span> were inactive. The active factor(s) were water soluble and were concentrated by extraction to approximately three hundred times that in the dried <span class="hlt">banana</span> powder. The anti-ulcerogenic action of <span class="hlt">banana</span> preparations appears to be due to their ability to stimulate the growth of gastric mucosa. Aluminium hydroxide, cimetidine, prostaglandin E2, N6, O2-dibutyryl adenosine 3',5' cyclic monophosphate but not 5-hydroxytryptamine were also anti-ulcerogenic when used prophylactically in rats but were ineffective in healing ulcers already formed by aspirin. These substances did not stimulate the growth of gastric mucosa.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24629975','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24629975"><span id="translatedtitle">Changes in resistant starch from two <span class="hlt">banana</span> cultivars during postharvest storage.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Juan; Tang, Xue Juan; Chen, Ping Sheng; Huang, Hui Hua</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Banana</span> resistant starch samples were extracted and isolated from two <span class="hlt">banana</span> cultivars (Musa AAA group, Cavendish subgroup and Musa ABB group, Pisang Awak subgroup) at seven ripening stages during postharvest storage. The structures of the resistant starch samples were analysed by light microscopy, polarising microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and infrared spectroscopy. Physicochemical properties (e.g., water-holding capacity, solubility, swelling power, transparency, starch-iodine absorption spectrum, and Brabender microviscoamylograph profile) were determined. The results revealed significant differences in microstructure and physicochemical characteristics among the <span class="hlt">banana</span> resistant starch samples during different ripening stages. The results of this study provide valuable information for the potential applications of <span class="hlt">banana</span> resistant starches. PMID:24629975</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23572812','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23572812"><span id="translatedtitle">Studies on physico-chemical changes during artificial ripening of <span class="hlt">banana</span> (Musa sp) variety 'Robusta'.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kulkarni, Shyamrao Gururao; Kudachikar, V B; Keshava Prakash, M N</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Banana</span> (Musa sp var 'Robusta') fruits harvested at 75-80% maturity were dip treated with different concentrations of ethrel (250-1,000 ppm) solution for 5 min. Ethrel at 500 ppm induced uniform ripening without impairing taste and flavour of <span class="hlt">banana</span>. Untreated control <span class="hlt">banana</span> fruits remained shriveled, green and failed to ripen evenly even after 8 days of storage. Fruits treated with 500 ppm of ethrel ripened well in 6 days at 20 ± 1 °C. Changes in total soluble solids, acidity, total sugars and total carotenoids showed increasing trends up to 6 days during ripening whereas fruit shear force values, pulp pH and total chlorophyll in peel showed decreasing trends. Sensory quality of ethrel treated <span class="hlt">banana</span> fruits (fully ripe) were excellent with respect to external colour, taste, flavour and overall quality. PMID:23572812</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21983877','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21983877"><span id="translatedtitle">Chemical control of the red palm mite, Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) in <span class="hlt">banana</span> and coconut.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rodrigues, Jose Carlos Verle; Peña, J E</p> <p>2012-08-01</p> <p>The red palm mite (RPM), Raoiella indica Hirst, is a predominant pest of coconuts, date palms and other palm species, as well as a major pest of <span class="hlt">bananas</span> (Musa spp.) in different parts of the world. Recently, RPM dispersed throughout the Caribbean islands and has reached both the North and South American continents. The RPM introductions have caused severe damage to palm species, and <span class="hlt">bananas</span> and plantains in the Caribbean region. The work presented herein is the result of several acaricide trials conducted in Puerto Rico and Florida on palms and <span class="hlt">bananas</span> in order to provide chemical control alternatives to minimize the impact of this pest. Spiromesifen, dicofol and acequinocyl were effective in reducing the population of R. indica in coconut in Puerto Rico. Spray treatments with etoxanole, abamectin, pyridaben, milbemectin and sulfur showed mite control in Florida. In addition, the acaricides acequinocyl and spiromesifen were able to reduce the population of R. indica in <span class="hlt">banana</span> trials.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21983877','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21983877"><span id="translatedtitle">Chemical control of the red palm mite, Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) in <span class="hlt">banana</span> and coconut.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rodrigues, Jose Carlos Verle; Peña, J E</p> <p>2012-08-01</p> <p>The red palm mite (RPM), Raoiella indica Hirst, is a predominant pest of coconuts, date palms and other palm species, as well as a major pest of <span class="hlt">bananas</span> (Musa spp.) in different parts of the world. Recently, RPM dispersed throughout the Caribbean islands and has reached both the North and South American continents. The RPM introductions have caused severe damage to palm species, and <span class="hlt">bananas</span> and plantains in the Caribbean region. The work presented herein is the result of several acaricide trials conducted in Puerto Rico and Florida on palms and <span class="hlt">bananas</span> in order to provide chemical control alternatives to minimize the impact of this pest. Spiromesifen, dicofol and acequinocyl were effective in reducing the population of R. indica in coconut in Puerto Rico. Spray treatments with etoxanole, abamectin, pyridaben, milbemectin and sulfur showed mite control in Florida. In addition, the acaricides acequinocyl and spiromesifen were able to reduce the population of R. indica in <span class="hlt">banana</span> trials. PMID:21983877</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Bananas&pg=2&id=EJ670441','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Bananas&pg=2&id=EJ670441"><span id="translatedtitle">Discrete Dynamical Systems Meet the Classic Monkey-and-the-<span class="hlt">Bananas</span> Problem.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Gannon, Gerald E.; Martelli, Mario U.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Presents a solution of the three-sailors-and-the-<span class="hlt">bananas</span> problem and attempts a generalization. Introduces an interesting way of looking at the mathematics with an idea drawn from discrete dynamical systems. (KHR)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26653423','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26653423"><span id="translatedtitle">Prediction of <span class="hlt">banana</span> quality indices from color features using support vector regression.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sanaeifar, Alireza; Bakhshipour, Adel; de la Guardia, Miguel</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Banana</span> undergoes significant quality indices and color transformations during shelf-life process, which in turn affect important chemical and physical characteristics for the organoleptic quality of <span class="hlt">banana</span>. A computer vision system was implemented in order to evaluate color of <span class="hlt">banana</span> in RGB, L*a*b* and HSV color spaces, and changes in color features of <span class="hlt">banana</span> during shelf-life were employed for the quantitative prediction of quality indices. The radial basis function (RBF) was applied as the kernel function of support vector regression (SVR) and the color features, in different color spaces, were selected as the inputs of the model, being determined total soluble solids, pH, titratable acidity and firmness as the output. Experimental results provided an improvement in predictive accuracy as compared with those obtained by using artificial neural network (ANN). PMID:26653423</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24629975','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24629975"><span id="translatedtitle">Changes in resistant starch from two <span class="hlt">banana</span> cultivars during postharvest storage.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Juan; Tang, Xue Juan; Chen, Ping Sheng; Huang, Hui Hua</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Banana</span> resistant starch samples were extracted and isolated from two <span class="hlt">banana</span> cultivars (Musa AAA group, Cavendish subgroup and Musa ABB group, Pisang Awak subgroup) at seven ripening stages during postharvest storage. The structures of the resistant starch samples were analysed by light microscopy, polarising microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and infrared spectroscopy. Physicochemical properties (e.g., water-holding capacity, solubility, swelling power, transparency, starch-iodine absorption spectrum, and Brabender microviscoamylograph profile) were determined. The results revealed significant differences in microstructure and physicochemical characteristics among the <span class="hlt">banana</span> resistant starch samples during different ripening stages. The results of this study provide valuable information for the potential applications of <span class="hlt">banana</span> resistant starches.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21704665','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21704665"><span id="translatedtitle">Attitudes, perceptions, and trust. Insights from a consumer survey regarding genetically modified <span class="hlt">banana</span> in Uganda.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kikulwe, Enoch M; Wesseler, Justus; Falck-Zepeda, Jose</p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>Genetically modified (GM) crops and food are still controversial. This paper analyzes consumers' perceptions and institutional awareness and trust toward GM <span class="hlt">banana</span> regulation in Uganda. Results are based on a study conducted among 421 <span class="hlt">banana</span>-consuming households between July and August 2007. Results show a high willingness to purchase GM <span class="hlt">banana</span> among consumers. An explanatory factor analysis is conducted to identify the perceptions toward genetic modification. The identified factors are used in a cluster analysis that grouped consumers into segments of GM skepticism, government trust, health safety concern, and food and environmental safety concern. Socioeconomic characteristics differed significantly across segments. Consumer characteristics and perception factors influence consumers' willingness to purchase GM <span class="hlt">banana</span>. The institutional awareness and trust varied significantly across segments as well. The findings would be essential to policy makers when designing risk-communication strategies targeting different consumer segments to ensure proper discussion and addressing potential concerns about GM technology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26018499','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26018499"><span id="translatedtitle">Optimization of cellulase production by Penicillium oxalicum using <span class="hlt">banana</span> agrowaste as a substrate.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shah, Shilpa P; Kalia, Kiran S; Patel, Jagdish S</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to produce a higher amount of cellulase by using an alternative carbon source, such as <span class="hlt">banana</span> agrowaste, and to optimize the fermentation parameters for a high yield. In the present study, cellulase-producing Penicillium was isolated from a decaying wood sample. Different nutritional and environmental factors were investigated to assess their effect on cellulase production. The highest crude enzyme production was observed at a pH 6.0 and a temperature of 28°C in a medium that was supplemented with <span class="hlt">banana</span> agrowaste as the carbon source. Pretreatment with 2N NaOH, at 7% substrate (<span class="hlt">banana</span> agrowaste) concentration yielded the highest cellulase activity. Further to this, the effect of other parameters such as inoculum age, inoculum size, static and agitated conditions were also studied. It is concluded that Penicillium oxalicum is a powerful cellulase-producer strain under our tested experimental conditions using <span class="hlt">banana</span> agrowaste as the carbon source.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26653423','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26653423"><span id="translatedtitle">Prediction of <span class="hlt">banana</span> quality indices from color features using support vector regression.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sanaeifar, Alireza; Bakhshipour, Adel; de la Guardia, Miguel</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Banana</span> undergoes significant quality indices and color transformations during shelf-life process, which in turn affect important chemical and physical characteristics for the organoleptic quality of <span class="hlt">banana</span>. A computer vision system was implemented in order to evaluate color of <span class="hlt">banana</span> in RGB, L*a*b* and HSV color spaces, and changes in color features of <span class="hlt">banana</span> during shelf-life were employed for the quantitative prediction of quality indices. The radial basis function (RBF) was applied as the kernel function of support vector regression (SVR) and the color features, in different color spaces, were selected as the inputs of the model, being determined total soluble solids, pH, titratable acidity and firmness as the output. Experimental results provided an improvement in predictive accuracy as compared with those obtained by using artificial neural network (ANN).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23508886','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23508886"><span id="translatedtitle">Rural income and forest reliance in <span class="hlt">highland</span> Guatemala.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Prado Córdova, José Pablo; Wunder, Sven; Smith-Hall, Carsten; Börner, Jan</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>This paper estimates rural household-level forest reliance in the western <span class="hlt">highlands</span> of Guatemala using quantitative methods. Data were generated by the way of an in-depth household income survey, repeated quarterly between November 2005 and November 2006, in 11 villages (n = 149 randomly selected households). The main sources of income proved to be small-scale agriculture (53 % of total household income), wages (19 %) and environmental resources (14 %). The latter came primarily from forests (11 % on average). In the poorest quintile the forest income share was as high as 28 %. All households harvest and consume environmental products. In absolute terms, environmental income in the top quintile was 24 times higher than in the lowest. Timber and poles, seeds, firewood and leaf litter were the most important forest products. Households can be described as 'regular subsistence users': the share of subsistence income is high, with correspondingly weak integration into regional markets. Agricultural systems furthermore use important inputs from surrounding forests, although forests and agricultural uses compete in household specialization strategies. We find the main household determinants of forest income to be household size, education and asset values, as well as closeness to markets and agricultural productivity. Understanding these common but spatially differentiated patterns of environmental reliance may inform policies aimed at improving livelihoods and conserving forests.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7845274','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7845274"><span id="translatedtitle">Family characteristics of suicides in Cameron <span class="hlt">Highlands</span>: a controlled study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Maniam, T</p> <p>1994-09-01</p> <p>Cameron <span class="hlt">Highlands</span> has one of the highest suicide rates in the world, especially among Indians. Forty Indian families (19 suicides; 21 controls) were studied to compare family characteristics such as income, overcrowding, birth order of index cases of suicide, family history of suicidal behaviour or mental illness, marital disharmony, presence of alcohol abuse, availability of, and knowledge about, weedicides/insecticides, talk/threat of suicide among family members and experience of significant losses in the past year. Controls were matched for age, sex and educational level with the index cases of suicide. A significant difference was only found for one of the above factors, namely increased experience of significant losses in the past year in the family of index cases of suicide. More than 75% in both groups had alcohol related problems. About equal proportions in each group had a family history of suicidal behaviour and mental illness. There was more marital disharmony in families of suicides but this failed to reach significance. These results and methodological limitations of this study are discussed. PMID:7845274</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70013892','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70013892"><span id="translatedtitle">Crustal structure of the Appalachian <span class="hlt">Highlands</span> in Tennessee</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Prodehl, C.; Schlittenhardt, J.; Stewart, S.W.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>Crustal structure of the southern Appalachians and adjacent Interior Low Plateaus in Tennessee is derived from seismic-refraction measurements observed by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1965 along reversed lines, normal (NW-SE) and parallel (NE-SW) to the structure of the Appalachian <span class="hlt">Highlands</span>' major geologic divisions. Its easternmost part is located approximately 80 km southwest of the westernmost part of the COCORP seismic-reflection traverse within the Blue Ridge province. The velocity-depth models derived for both observational directions consist of three crustal layers with surprisingly high velocities, being about 6.1-6.2 km/s in the upper crust down to 7-10 km depth, 6.7-6.8 km/s for the middle crust between about 17 and 34 km and varying from 7.1 to 7.4 km/s for the lower crust at about 40-47 km depth. The boundaries between the three crustal layers as well as the crust-mantle boundary are transition zones of up to 11 km thickness. Similar to old orogens in other parts of the earth, the main result is a thick crust, at places in excess of 50 km, with high average velocity and a broad crust-mantle transition zone. ?? 1984.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EnMan..51.1034P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EnMan..51.1034P"><span id="translatedtitle">Rural Income and Forest Reliance in <span class="hlt">Highland</span> Guatemala</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Prado Córdova, José Pablo; Wunder, Sven; Smith-Hall, Carsten; Börner, Jan</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>This paper estimates rural household-level forest reliance in the western <span class="hlt">highlands</span> of Guatemala using quantitative methods. Data were generated by the way of an in-depth household income survey, repeated quarterly between November 2005 and November 2006, in 11 villages ( n = 149 randomly selected households). The main sources of income proved to be small-scale agriculture (53 % of total household income), wages (19 %) and environmental resources (14 %). The latter came primarily from forests (11 % on average). In the poorest quintile the forest income share was as high as 28 %. All households harvest and consume environmental products. In absolute terms, environmental income in the top quintile was 24 times higher than in the lowest. Timber and poles, seeds, firewood and leaf litter were the most important forest products. Households can be described as `regular subsistence users': the share of subsistence income is high, with correspondingly weak integration into regional markets. Agricultural systems furthermore use important inputs from surrounding forests, although forests and agricultural uses compete in household specialization strategies. We find the main household determinants of forest income to be household size, education and asset values, as well as closeness to markets and agricultural productivity. Understanding these common but spatially differentiated patterns of environmental reliance may inform policies aimed at improving livelihoods and conserving forests.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.jstor.org/stable/2694809','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://www.jstor.org/stable/2694809"><span id="translatedtitle">Figurines, flint clay sourcing, the Ozark <span class="hlt">Highlands</span>, and Cahokian acquisition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Emerson, T.E.; Hughes, R.E.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>At the pinnacle of Eastern Woodlands' prehistoric cultural development, Cahokia has been interpreted as a political and economic power participating in prestige-goods exchanges and trade networks stretching from the Great Plains to the South Atlantic. Among the more spectacular of the Cahokian elite artifacts were stone pipes and figurines made from a distinctive red stone previously identified as Arkansas bauxite. In this research, we used a combination of X-ray diffraction, sequential acid dissolution, and inductively coupled plasma analyses to establish the source of the raw material used in the manufacture of the red figurines and pipes that epitomize the Cahokian-style. Our research demonstrates that these objects were made of locally available flint clays. This finding, in conjunction with other evidence, indicate Cahokian exploitation of many mineral and stone resources focuses on the northern Ozark <span class="hlt">Highlands</span> to the exclusion of other areas. These findings indicate that we must reassess the direction, extent, and role of Cahokian external contacts and trade in elite goods. Copyright ?? 2000 by the Society for American Archaeology.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19901901','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19901901"><span id="translatedtitle">Cytotoxicity screening of endemic plants from Guayana <span class="hlt">highlands</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Guil-Guerrero, José Luis; Campra, Pablo</p> <p>2009-08-01</p> <p>A chemical-ecology approach has been used to screen plants growing in Guyana <span class="hlt">Highlands</span> as an indicator of production of biologically active secondary metabolites. Extracts of leaves from 19 species, most of them endemic in this area, and collected at the top of Roraima Tepui (2,723 m) were screened in vitro at different concentrations for their potential cytotoxic activity against three tumour cell lines: HT29 (colon), A549 (lung) and MDA-MB-231 (breast). MTT (tetrazolium blue) colorimetric assay was employed as cytotoxicity test. Extracts of nine species caused less than 30% growth in at least one cell line. From these species, high cytotoxic activity was detected in Casearia sylvestris var. lingua and Ledotamnus sessiliflorus extracts; medium activity was found in Cyathea sp. Two other species, Cyrilla racemiflora and Heliamphora minor showed lower but significant cytotoxicity. Further cytotoxicity-directed fractionation of these extracts would be advisable to isolate and identify the active principles of these plants. PMID:19901901</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5822616','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5822616"><span id="translatedtitle">Pristine <span class="hlt">highland</span> clasts in consortium breccia 14305 Petrology and geochemistry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Shervais, J.W.; Taylor, L.A.</p> <p>1984-11-15</p> <p>Data are presented on the petrography and mineral chemistry of six pristine <span class="hlt">highland</span> clasts chipped from the polymict lunar breccia 14305. Major and trace elements in the clasts were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis, and mineral analyses were performed by electron microprobe. Mg-suite clasts have eastern geochemical affinities, reaffirming the importance of local variations in geochemistry. These local variations are superimposed on the moon-wide, longitudinal variations noted by Warren and Wasson (1980). Alkali anorthosites and Mg-suite troctolites and anorthosites are not comagmatic, and cannot be related to a single parent magma by either fractional crystallization or variable assimilation of KREEP. Both magma suites may have assimilated varied amounts of KREEP into distinct parent magmas. Alternatively, alkali anorthosites may have crystallized directly from a KREEP-basalt parent magma. A thick crust of ferroan anorthosite probably never existed on the western lunar nearside, or was removed by basin-forming impacts prior to intrusion of later plutonic suites.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23508886','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23508886"><span id="translatedtitle">Rural income and forest reliance in <span class="hlt">highland</span> Guatemala.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Prado Córdova, José Pablo; Wunder, Sven; Smith-Hall, Carsten; Börner, Jan</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>This paper estimates rural household-level forest reliance in the western <span class="hlt">highlands</span> of Guatemala using quantitative methods. Data were generated by the way of an in-depth household income survey, repeated quarterly between November 2005 and November 2006, in 11 villages (n = 149 randomly selected households). The main sources of income proved to be small-scale agriculture (53 % of total household income), wages (19 %) and environmental resources (14 %). The latter came primarily from forests (11 % on average). In the poorest quintile the forest income share was as high as 28 %. All households harvest and consume environmental products. In absolute terms, environmental income in the top quintile was 24 times higher than in the lowest. Timber and poles, seeds, firewood and leaf litter were the most important forest products. Households can be described as 'regular subsistence users': the share of subsistence income is high, with correspondingly weak integration into regional markets. Agricultural systems furthermore use important inputs from surrounding forests, although forests and agricultural uses compete in household specialization strategies. We find the main household determinants of forest income to be household size, education and asset values, as well as closeness to markets and agricultural productivity. Understanding these common but spatially differentiated patterns of environmental reliance may inform policies aimed at improving livelihoods and conserving forests. PMID:23508886</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70035700','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70035700"><span id="translatedtitle">Watershed morphology of <span class="hlt">highland</span> and mountain ecoregions in eastern Oklahoma</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Splinter, D.K.; Dauwalter, D.C.; Marston, R.A.; Fisher, W.L.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The fluvial system represents a nested hierarchy that reflects the relationship among different spatial and temporal scales. Within the hierarchy, larger scale variables influence the characteristics of the next lower nested scale. Ecoregions represent one of the largest scales in the fluvial hierarchy and are defined by recurring patterns of geology, climate, land use, soils, and potential natural vegetation. Watersheds, the next largest scale, are often nested into a single ecoregion and therefore have properties that are indicative of a given ecoregion. Differences in watershed morphology (relief, drainage density, circularity ratio, relief ratio, and ruggedness number) were evaluated among three ecoregions in eastern Oklahoma: Ozark <span class="hlt">Highlands</span>, Boston Mountains, and Ouachita Mountains. These ecoregions were selected because of their high-quality stream resources and diverse aquatic communities and are of special management interest to the Oklahoma Department of Wildlife Conservation. One hundred thirty-four watersheds in first-through fourth-order streams were compared. Using a nonparametric, two-factor analysis of variance (?? = 0.05) we concluded that the relief, drainage density, relief ratio, and ruggedness number all changed among ecoregion and stream order, whereas circularity ratio only changed with stream order. Our study shows that ecoregions can be used as a broad-scale framework for watershed management. ?? 2011 by Association of American Geographers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.P13D1699C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.P13D1699C"><span id="translatedtitle">New Elemental Maps of the Nearside Lunar <span class="hlt">Highlands</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Carter, J. A.; Grande, M.; Bisi, M. M.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>A set of elemental maps obtained by the Chandrayaan-1 X-ray Spectrometer (C1XS) and covering the Southern Nearside Lunar <span class="hlt">Highland</span> region will be presented. This region broadly covers the area below 10 S latitude and between -10 to +30 E longitude. It has never been the subject of a sample return mission; the nearest ground truth measurements are Apollo 16 at 8.56 S, 15.3 E and Surveyor 7 at 41 S, -11 E - this is mainly due to the uneven, mountainous terrain which makes spacecraft landings hazardous. The region has very high relief, with large slopes and rough surface features - these characteristics complicate the analysis of X-ray fluorescence analysis. Chandrayaan-1 flew at a time coinciding with a predicted increase in solar activity. For an X-ray fluorescence instrument, which relies on incident solar X-rays to illuminate the surface, this increase in activity would be enough to guarantee ~100% surface coverage in Mg, Al and Si, and significant areas in Fe, Ti, and Ca. However, the solar cycle was delayed, and instead C1XS launched into the quietest solar conditions seen in 100 years. Regardless, the excellent stability and low noise level of the instrument meant that small flares (A and B class) were able to generate statistically significant findings. The elements mapped will include Magnesium, Silicon and Aluminium, as well as relevant elemental ratios. These will be compared to other datasets including Lunar Prospector, Clementine and M3 mineral maps.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5048797','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5048797"><span id="translatedtitle">Coleman <span class="hlt">Highlands</span> subsurface air utilization study. Final report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Shapiro, M.D.</p> <p>1982-11-15</p> <p>An investigation was conducted into the feasibility of using a 1 million square foot developed cave within the Downtown Industrial Park as a heating and cooling source for a proposed residential subdivision on an adjacent vacant tract of land. Both sites are located near the Coleman <span class="hlt">Highlands</span> neighborhood in the Westport Community of Kansas City, Missouri. Characteristics of the cave and surface sites were studied, as well as potential heating and cooling sources and transfer media. BTU capacity of the cave and demand for the prototype houses was calculated. The preferred system included a water source in the cave, water transfer medium, and water-to-air heat pumps in the individual homes. Analysis of that system showed it would be marginally effective due to the limited heat valve available in the cave and substantial shortfalls of cooling capacity for summertime operation. Estimated system costs appeared to be in an affordable range, but it was felt that those capital costs could be better applied to other energy-conserving measures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1297176','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1297176"><span id="translatedtitle">Rift Valley fever epizootic in the central <span class="hlt">highlands</span> of Madagascar.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Morvan, J; Rollin, P E; Laventure, S; Rakotoarivony, I; Roux, J</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Between February and April 1991, unusual numbers of bovine abortion around Antananarivo (central <span class="hlt">highlands</span>, Madagascar) were reported by official veterinary services. Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus isolations were made from sixteen aborted foetuses and one dead calf in different foci. Using monoclonal antibodies, the isolated viruses were found to be different from the 1979 RVF strains isolated in Madagascar from mosquitoes and human laboratory infection, and closer to African RVF strains. In a bovine population--previously characterized by a negative or very low RVF antibody prevalence--a high prevalence of IgM antibodies (264/994: 26.5% positive) was revealed; the IgM prevalence in recently aborting females varied from 40 to 91%. Among 994 human sera tested by IgG-IFA (immunofluorescent antibody assay) and IgM ELISA, 8.2% and 4.5%, respectively, proved positive. A total of 11,371 mosquitoes (61% Culex antennatus) were collected in the epizootic areas and tested without any virus isolation. Extensive studies were conducted to determine the geographical extension and the impact of this epidemic on the highly susceptible livestock and human populations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7845274','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7845274"><span id="translatedtitle">Family characteristics of suicides in Cameron <span class="hlt">Highlands</span>: a controlled study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Maniam, T</p> <p>1994-09-01</p> <p>Cameron <span class="hlt">Highlands</span> has one of the highest suicide rates in the world, especially among Indians. Forty Indian families (19 suicides; 21 controls) were studied to compare family characteristics such as income, overcrowding, birth order of index cases of suicide, family history of suicidal behaviour or mental illness, marital disharmony, presence of alcohol abuse, availability of, and knowledge about, weedicides/insecticides, talk/threat of suicide among family members and experience of significant losses in the past year. Controls were matched for age, sex and educational level with the index cases of suicide. A significant difference was only found for one of the above factors, namely increased experience of significant losses in the past year in the family of index cases of suicide. More than 75% in both groups had alcohol related problems. About equal proportions in each group had a family history of suicidal behaviour and mental illness. There was more marital disharmony in families of suicides but this failed to reach significance. These results and methodological limitations of this study are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.water.usgs.gov/wri99-4087/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.water.usgs.gov/wri99-4087/"><span id="translatedtitle">Characterization and simulation of the quantity and quality of water in the <span class="hlt">Highland</span> Lakes, Texas, 1983-92</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Raines, Timothy H.; Rast, Walter</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Results from the simulations indicate that saline inflows to the <span class="hlt">Highland</span> Lakes similar to those of the releases from Natural Dam Salt Lake during 1987–89 are unlikely to cause large increases in future concentrations of dissolved solids, chloride, and sulfate in the <span class="hlt">Highland</span> Lakes. The results also indicate that high-salinity water will continue to be diluted as it is transported downstream through the <span class="hlt">Highland</span> Lakes, even during extended dry periods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5464275','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5464275"><span id="translatedtitle">M = 1 internal kink mode in the plateau and <span class="hlt">banana</span> regimes in tokamaks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mikhailovskii, A.B.; Tsypin, V.S.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>A theory is derived for the m = 1 internal kink mode of a tokamak in the plateau and <span class="hlt">banana</span> regimes. The growth rate for this mode in the plateau regime is shown to be smaller by a factor of a/R than the MHD prediction (a and R are the minor and major radii of the torus). The growth rate in the <span class="hlt">banana</span> regime is higher than in the plateau regime and approaches the standard MHD value.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25591881','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25591881"><span id="translatedtitle">Biology, etiology, and control of virus diseases of <span class="hlt">banana</span> and plantain.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kumar, P Lava; Selvarajan, Ramasamy; Iskra-Caruana, Marie-Line; Chabannes, Matthieu; Hanna, Rachid</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Banana</span> and plantain (Musa spp.), produced in 10.3 million ha in the tropics, are among the world's top 10 food crops. They are vegetatively propagated using suckers or tissue culture plants and grown almost as perennial plantations. These are prone to the accumulation of pests and pathogens, especially viruses which contribute to yield reduction and are also barriers to the international exchange of germplasm. The most economically important viruses of <span class="hlt">banana</span> and plantain are <span class="hlt">Banana</span> bunchy top virus (BBTV), a complex of <span class="hlt">banana</span> streak viruses (BSVs) and <span class="hlt">Banana</span> bract mosaic virus (BBrMV). BBTV is known to cause the most serious economic losses in the "Old World," contributing to a yield reduction of up to 100% and responsible for a dramatic reduction in cropping area. The BSVs exist as episomal and endogenous forms are known to be worldwide in distribution. In India and the Philippines, BBrMV is known to be economically important but recently the virus was discovered in Colombia and Costa Rica, thus signaling its spread into the "New World." <span class="hlt">Banana</span> and plantain are also known to be susceptible to five other viruses of minor significance, such as Abaca mosaic virus, Abaca bunchy top virus, <span class="hlt">Banana</span> mild mosaic virus, <span class="hlt">Banana</span> virus X, and Cucumber mosaic virus. Studies over the past 100 years have contributed to important knowledge on disease biology, distribution, and spread. Research during the last 25 years have led to a better understanding of the virus-vector-host interactions, virus diversity, disease etiology, and epidemiology. In addition, new diagnostic tools were developed which were used for surveillance and the certification of planting material. Due to a lack of durable host resistance in the Musa spp., phytosanitary measures and the use of virus-free planting material are the major methods of virus control. The state of knowledge on BBTV, BBrMV, and BSVs, and other minor viruses, disease spread, and control are summarized in this review. PMID:25591881</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25591881','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25591881"><span id="translatedtitle">Biology, etiology, and control of virus diseases of <span class="hlt">banana</span> and plantain.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kumar, P Lava; Selvarajan, Ramasamy; Iskra-Caruana, Marie-Line; Chabannes, Matthieu; Hanna, Rachid</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Banana</span> and plantain (Musa spp.), produced in 10.3 million ha in the tropics, are among the world's top 10 food crops. They are vegetatively propagated using suckers or tissue culture plants and grown almost as perennial plantations. These are prone to the accumulation of pests and pathogens, especially viruses which contribute to yield reduction and are also barriers to the international exchange of germplasm. The most economically important viruses of <span class="hlt">banana</span> and plantain are <span class="hlt">Banana</span> bunchy top virus (BBTV), a complex of <span class="hlt">banana</span> streak viruses (BSVs) and <span class="hlt">Banana</span> bract mosaic virus (BBrMV). BBTV is known to cause the most serious economic losses in the "Old World," contributing to a yield reduction of up to 100% and responsible for a dramatic reduction in cropping area. The BSVs exist as episomal and endogenous forms are known to be worldwide in distribution. In India and the Philippines, BBrMV is known to be economically important but recently the virus was discovered in Colombia and Costa Rica, thus signaling its spread into the "New World." <span class="hlt">Banana</span> and plantain are also known to be susceptible to five other viruses of minor significance, such as Abaca mosaic virus, Abaca bunchy top virus, <span class="hlt">Banana</span> mild mosaic virus, <span class="hlt">Banana</span> virus X, and Cucumber mosaic virus. Studies over the past 100 years have contributed to important knowledge on disease biology, distribution, and spread. Research during the last 25 years have led to a better understanding of the virus-vector-host interactions, virus diversity, disease etiology, and epidemiology. In addition, new diagnostic tools were developed which were used for surveillance and the certification of planting material. Due to a lack of durable host resistance in the Musa spp., phytosanitary measures and the use of virus-free planting material are the major methods of virus control. The state of knowledge on BBTV, BBrMV, and BSVs, and other minor viruses, disease spread, and control are summarized in this review.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17761472','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17761472"><span id="translatedtitle">The role of biotechnology for agricultural sustainability in <span class="hlt">Africa</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Thomson, Jennifer A</p> <p>2008-02-27</p> <p>Sub-Saharan <span class="hlt">Africa</span> could have a shortfall of nearly 90Mt of cereals by the year 2025 if current agricultural practices are maintained. Biotechnology is one of the ways to improve agricultural production. Insect-resistant varieties of maize and cotton suitable for the subcontinent have been identified as already having a significant impact. Virus-resistant crops are under development. These include maize resistant to the African endemic maize streak virus and cassava resistant to African cassava mosaic virus. Parasitic weeds such as Striga attack the roots of crops such as maize, millet, sorghum and upland rice. Field trials in Kenya using a variety of maize resistant to a herbicide have proven very successful. Drought-tolerant crops are also under development as are improved varieties of local African crops such as <span class="hlt">bananas</span>, cassava, sorghum and sweet potatoes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20873187','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20873187"><span id="translatedtitle">[Capabilities of the application of the perspective technique during the medical supply of the outfits in <span class="hlt">highlands</span>].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Belevitin, A B; Shelepov, A M; Soldatov, E A; Shurupov, D A</p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>During the organization of the medical evacuation of the outfits in <span class="hlt">highlands</span> it is necessary to consider that the workability of the stretchermen in <span class="hlt">highland</span> goes down to 50% and more; equipment of the aid man must corresponds to the conditions of the <span class="hlt">highlands</span> (immobilize vacuum mattress--IVMv-01, collapsible immobilize pinion stretchers--IPS-01); application of the wheel-type machines and helicopters is difficult and dangerously. Application of the modern techniques of informational support, unmanned drones and others modern techniques requires the output of new organization principles of the system of the medical evacuation in <span class="hlt">highlands</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20873187','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20873187"><span id="translatedtitle">[Capabilities of the application of the perspective technique during the medical supply of the outfits in <span class="hlt">highlands</span>].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Belevitin, A B; Shelepov, A M; Soldatov, E A; Shurupov, D A</p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>During the organization of the medical evacuation of the outfits in <span class="hlt">highlands</span> it is necessary to consider that the workability of the stretchermen in <span class="hlt">highland</span> goes down to 50% and more; equipment of the aid man must corresponds to the conditions of the <span class="hlt">highlands</span> (immobilize vacuum mattress--IVMv-01, collapsible immobilize pinion stretchers--IPS-01); application of the wheel-type machines and helicopters is difficult and dangerously. Application of the modern techniques of informational support, unmanned drones and others modern techniques requires the output of new organization principles of the system of the medical evacuation in <span class="hlt">highlands</span>. PMID:20873187</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27498855','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27498855"><span id="translatedtitle">MtDNA analysis reveals enriched pathogenic mutations in Tibetan <span class="hlt">highlanders</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kang, Longli; Zheng, Hong-Xiang; Zhang, Menghan; Yan, Shi; Li, Lei; Liu, Lijun; Liu, Kai; Hu, Kang; Chen, Feng; Ma, Lifeng; Qin, Zhendong; Wang, Yi; Wang, Xiaofeng; Jin, Li</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Tibetan <span class="hlt">highlanders</span>, including Tibetans, Monpas, Lhobas, Dengs and Sherpas, are considered highly adaptive to severe hypoxic environments. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) might be important in hypoxia adaptation given its role in coding core subunits of oxidative phosphorylation. In this study, we employed 549 complete <span class="hlt">highlander</span> mtDNA sequences (including 432 random samples) to obtain a comprehensive view of <span class="hlt">highlander</span> mtDNA profile. In the phylogeny of a total of 36,914 sequences, we identified 21 major haplogroups representing founding events of <span class="hlt">highlanders</span>, most of which were coalesced in 10 kya. Through founder analysis, we proposed a three-phase model of colonizing the plateau, i.e., pre-LGM Time (30 kya, 4.68%), post-LGM Paleolithic Time (16.8 kya, 29.31%) and Neolithic Time (after 8 kya, 66.01% in total). We observed that pathogenic mutations occurred far more frequently in 22 <span class="hlt">highlander</span>-specific lineages (five lineages carrying two pathogenic mutations and six carrying one) than in the 6,857 haplogroups of all the 36,914 sequences (P = 4.87 × 10(-8)). Furthermore, the number of possible pathogenic mutations carried by <span class="hlt">highlanders</span> (in average 3.18 ± 1.27) were significantly higher than that in controls (2.82 ± 1.40) (P = 1.89 × 10(-4)). Considering that function-altering and pathogenic mutations are enriched in <span class="hlt">highlanders</span>, we therefore hypothesize that they may have played a role in hypoxia adaptation. PMID:27498855</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016E%26PSL.441...60M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016E%26PSL.441...60M"><span id="translatedtitle">Formation of Australian continental margin <span class="hlt">highlands</span> driven by plate-mantle interaction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Müller, R. Dietmar; Flament, Nicolas; Matthews, Kara J.; Williams, Simon E.; Gurnis, Michael</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Passive margin <span class="hlt">highlands</span> occur on most continents on Earth and play a critical role in the cycle of weathering, erosion, and atmospheric circulation. Yet, in contrast to the well-developed understanding of collisional mountain belts, such as the Alps and Himalayas, the origin of less elevated (1-2 km) passive margin <span class="hlt">highlands</span> is still unknown. The eastern Australian <span class="hlt">highlands</span> are a prime example of these plateaus, but compared to others they have a well-documented episodic uplift history spanning 120 million years. We use a series of mantle convection models to show that the time-dependent interaction of plate motion with mantle downwellings and upwellings accounts for the broad pattern of margin uplift phases. Initial dynamic uplift of 400-600 m from 120-80 Ma was driven by the eastward motion of eastern Australia's margin away from the sinking eastern Gondwana slab, followed by tectonic quiescence to about 60 Ma in the south (Snowy Mountains). Renewed uplift of ∼700 m in the Snowy Mountains is propelled by the gradual motion of the margin over the edge of the large Pacific mantle upwelling. In contrast the northernmost portion of the <span class="hlt">highlands</span> records continuous uplift from 120 Ma to present-day totalling about 800 m. The northern <span class="hlt">highlands</span> experienced a continuous history of dynamic uplift, first due to the end of subduction to the east of Australia, then due to moving over a large passive mantle upwelling. In contrast, the southern <span class="hlt">highlands</span> started interacting with the edge of the large Pacific mantle upwelling ∼ 40- 50 million years later, resulting in a two-phase uplift history. Our results are in agreement with published uplift models derived from river profiles and the Cretaceous sediment influx into the Ceduna sub-basin offshore southeast Australia, reflecting the fundamental link between dynamic uplift, fluvial erosion and depositional pulses in basins distal to passive margin <span class="hlt">highlands</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4976311','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4976311"><span id="translatedtitle">MtDNA analysis reveals enriched pathogenic mutations in Tibetan <span class="hlt">highlanders</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kang, Longli; Zheng, Hong-Xiang; Zhang, Menghan; Yan, Shi; Li, Lei; Liu, Lijun; Liu, Kai; Hu, Kang; Chen, Feng; Ma, Lifeng; Qin, Zhendong; Wang, Yi; Wang, Xiaofeng; Jin, Li</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Tibetan <span class="hlt">highlanders</span>, including Tibetans, Monpas, Lhobas, Dengs and Sherpas, are considered highly adaptive to severe hypoxic environments. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) might be important in hypoxia adaptation given its role in coding core subunits of oxidative phosphorylation. In this study, we employed 549 complete <span class="hlt">highlander</span> mtDNA sequences (including 432 random samples) to obtain a comprehensive view of <span class="hlt">highlander</span> mtDNA profile. In the phylogeny of a total of 36,914 sequences, we identified 21 major haplogroups representing founding events of <span class="hlt">highlanders</span>, most of which were coalesced in 10 kya. Through founder analysis, we proposed a three-phase model of colonizing the plateau, i.e., pre-LGM Time (30 kya, 4.68%), post-LGM Paleolithic Time (16.8 kya, 29.31%) and Neolithic Time (after 8 kya, 66.01% in total). We observed that pathogenic mutations occurred far more frequently in 22 <span class="hlt">highlander</span>-specific lineages (five lineages carrying two pathogenic mutations and six carrying one) than in the 6,857 haplogroups of all the 36,914 sequences (P = 4.87 × 10−8). Furthermore, the number of possible pathogenic mutations carried by <span class="hlt">highlanders</span> (in average 3.18 ± 1.27) were significantly higher than that in controls (2.82 ± 1.40) (P = 1.89 × 10−4). Considering that function-altering and pathogenic mutations are enriched in <span class="hlt">highlanders</span>, we therefore hypothesize that they may have played a role in hypoxia adaptation. PMID:27498855</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15646312','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15646312"><span id="translatedtitle">Advancing human nutrition without degrading land resources through modeling cropping systems in the Ethiopian <span class="hlt">highlands</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Amede, Tilahun; Stroud, Ann; Aune, Jens</p> <p>2004-12-01</p> <p>Food shortage in sub-Saharan <span class="hlt">Africa</span> is generally considered a function of limited access to food, with little thought to nutritional quality. Analyzing household production of nutrients across farming systems could be valuable in guiding the improvement of those systems. An optimization model was employed to analyze the scenario of human nutrition and cropland allocation in enset (Enset ventricosum)/root crop-based and cereal-based systems of the Ethiopian <span class="hlt">Highlands</span>. The type and amount of nutrients produced in each system were analyzed, and an optimization model was used to analyze which cropping strategies might improve the nutritional quality of the household using existing resources. Both production systems were in food deficit, in terms of quantity and quality of nutrients, except for iron. The energy supply of resource-poor households in the enset/root crop-based system was only 75% of the recommended daily dietary allowance (RDA) of the World Health Organization (WHO), whereas resource-rich farmers were able to meet their energy, protein, zinc, and thiamine demands. Extremely high deficiency was found in zinc, calcium, vitamin A, and vitamin C, which provided only 26.5%, 34%, 1.78%, and 12%, of the RDA, respectively. The RDA could be satisfied if the land area occupied by enset, kale, and beans were expanded by about 20%, 10%, and 40%, respectively, at the expense of maize and sweet potato. The cereal-based system also had critical nutrient deficits in calcium, vitamin A, and vitamin C, which provided 30%, 2.5%, and 2% of the RDA, respectively. In the cereal system, the RDA could be fully satisfied by reducing cropland allocated to barley by about 50% and expanding the land area occupied by faba beans, kale, and enset. A shift from the cereal/root crop-dominated system to a perennial-enset dominated system would decrease soil erosion by improving the crop factor by about 45%. This shift would also have a very strong positive impact on soil fertility</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27306096','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27306096"><span id="translatedtitle">Continous application of bioorganic fertilizer induced resilient culturable bacteria community associated with <span class="hlt">banana</span> Fusarium wilt suppression.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fu, Lin; Ruan, Yunze; Tao, Chengyuan; Li, Rong; Shen, Qirong</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Fusarium wilt of <span class="hlt">banana</span> always drives farmers to find new land for <span class="hlt">banana</span> cultivation due to the comeback of the disease after a few cropping years. A novel idea for solving this problem is the continuous application of bioorganic fertilizer (BIO), which should be practiced from the beginning of <span class="hlt">banana</span> planting. In this study, BIO was applied in newly reclaimed fields to pre-control <span class="hlt">banana</span> Fusarium wilt and the culturable rhizobacteria community were evaluated using Biolog Ecoplates and culture-dependent denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (CD-DGGE). The results showed that BIO application significantly reduced disease incidences and increased crop yields, respectivly. And the stabilized general bacterial metabolic potential, especially for the utilization of carbohydrates, carboxylic acids and phenolic compounds, was induced by BIO application. DGGE profiles demonstrated that resilient community structure of culturable rhizobacteria with higher richness and diversity were observed in BIO treated soils. Morever, enriched culturable bacteria affiliated with Firmicutes, Gammaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria were also detected. In total, continuous application of BIO effectively suppressed Fusarium wilt disease by stabilizing culturable bacterial metabolic potential and community structure. This study revealed a new method to control Fusarium wilt of <span class="hlt">banana</span> for long term <span class="hlt">banana</span> cultivation. PMID:27306096</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19805212','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19805212"><span id="translatedtitle">Fluorescent chlorophyll catabolites in <span class="hlt">bananas</span> light up blue halos of cell death.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Moser, Simone; Müller, Thomas; Holzinger, Andreas; Lütz, Cornelius; Jockusch, Steffen; Turro, Nicholas J; Kräutler, Bernhard</p> <p>2009-09-15</p> <p>Breakdown of chlorophyll is a major contributor to the diagnostic color changes in fall leaves, and in ripening apples and pears, where it commonly provides colorless, nonfluorescent tetrapyrroles. In contrast, in ripening <span class="hlt">bananas</span> (Musa acuminata) chlorophylls fade to give unique fluorescent catabolites (FCCs), causing yellow <span class="hlt">bananas</span> to glow blue, when observed under UV light. Here, we demonstrate the capacity of the blue fluorescent chlorophyll catabolites to signal symptoms of programmed cell death in a plant. We report on studies of bright blue luminescent rings on the peel of very ripe <span class="hlt">bananas</span>, which arise as halos around necrotic areas in 'senescence associated' dark spots. These dark spots appear naturally on the peel of ripe <span class="hlt">bananas</span> and occur in the vicinity of stomata. Wavelength, space, and time resolved fluorescence measurements allowed the luminescent areas to be monitored on whole <span class="hlt">bananas</span>. Our studies revealed an accumulation of FCCs in luminescent rings, within senescing cells undergoing the transition to dead tissue, as was observable by morphological textural cellular changes. FCCs typically are short lived intermediates of chlorophyll breakdown. In some plants, FCCs are uniquely persistent, as is seen in <span class="hlt">bananas</span>, and can thus be used as luminescent in vivo markers in tissue undergoing senescence. While FCCs still remain to be tested for their own hypothetical physiological role in plants, they may help fill the demand for specific endogenous molecular reporters in noninvasive assays of plant senescence. Thus, they allow for in vivo studies, which provide insights into critical stages preceding cell death. PMID:19805212</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19082923','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19082923"><span id="translatedtitle">Total soluble solids from <span class="hlt">banana</span>: evaluation and optimization of extraction parameters.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Carvalho, Giovani B M; Silva, Daniel P; Santos, Júlio C; Izário Filho, Hélcio J; Vicente, António A; Teixeira, José A; Felipe, Maria das Graças A; Almeida e Silva, João B</p> <p>2009-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Banana</span>, an important component in the diet of the global population, is one of the most consumed fruits in the world. This fruit is also very favorable to industry processes (e.g., fermented beverages) due to its rich content on soluble solids and minerals, with low acidity. The main objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of factors such as <span class="hlt">banana</span> weight and extraction time during a hot aqueous extraction process on the total soluble solids content of <span class="hlt">banana</span>. The extract is to be used by the food and beverage industries. The experiments were performed with 105 mL of water, considering the moisture of the ripe <span class="hlt">banana</span> (65%). Total sugar concentrations were obtained in a beer analyzer and the result expressed in degrees Plato (degrees P, which is the weight of the extract or the sugar equivalent in 100 g solution at 20 degrees C), aiming at facilitating the use of these results by the beverage industries. After previous studies of characterization of the fruit and of ripening performance, a 2(2) full-factorial star design was carried out, and a model was developed to describe the behavior of the dependent variable (total soluble solids) as a function of the factors (<span class="hlt">banana</span> weight and extraction time), indicating as optimum conditions for extraction 38.5 g of <span class="hlt">banana</span> at 39.7 min.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17931857','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17931857"><span id="translatedtitle">Dietary fibre components and pectin chemical features of peels during ripening in <span class="hlt">banana</span> and plantain varieties.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Happi Emaga, Thomas; Robert, Christelle; Ronkart, Sébastien N; Wathelet, Bernard; Paquot, Michel</p> <p>2008-07-01</p> <p>The effects of the ripeness stage of <span class="hlt">banana</span> (Musa AAA) and plantain (Musa AAB) peels on neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre, cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin, pectin contents, and pectin chemical features were studied. Plantain peels contained a higher amount of lignin but had a lower hemicellulose content than <span class="hlt">banana</span> peels. A sequential extraction of pectins showed that acid extraction was the most efficient to isolate <span class="hlt">banana</span> peel pectins, whereas an ammonium oxalate extraction was more appropriate for plantain peels. In all the stages of maturation, the pectin content in <span class="hlt">banana</span> peels was higher compared to plantain peels. Moreover, the galacturonic acid and methoxy group contents in <span class="hlt">banana</span> peels were higher than in plantain peels. The average molecular weights of the extracted pectins were in the range of 132.6-573.8 kDa and were not dependant on peel variety, while the stage of maturation did not affect the dietary fibre yields and the composition in pectic polysaccharides in a consistent manner. This study has showed that <span class="hlt">banana</span> peels are a potential source of dietary fibres and pectins. PMID:17931857</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4324142','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4324142"><span id="translatedtitle">Agroforestry leads to shifts within the gammaproteobacterial microbiome of <span class="hlt">banana</span> plants cultivated in Central America</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Köberl, Martina; Dita, Miguel; Martinuz, Alfonso; Staver, Charles; Berg, Gabriele</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Bananas</span> (Musa spp.) belong to the most important global food commodities, and their cultivation represents the world's largest monoculture. Although the plant-associated microbiome has substantial influence on plant growth and health, there is a lack of knowledge of the <span class="hlt">banana</span> microbiome and its influencing factors. We studied the impact of (i) biogeography, and (ii) agroforestry on the <span class="hlt">banana</span>-associated gammaproteobacterial microbiome analyzing plants grown in smallholder farms in Nicaragua and Costa Rica. Profiles of 16S rRNA genes revealed high abundances of Pseudomonadales, Enterobacteriales, Xanthomonadales, and Legionellales. An extraordinary high diversity of the gammaproteobacterial microbiota was observed within the endophytic microenvironments (endorhiza and pseudostem), which was similar in both countries. Enterobacteria were identified as dominant group of above-ground plant parts (pseudostem and leaves). Neither biogeography nor agroforestry showed a statistically significant impact on the gammaproteobacterial <span class="hlt">banana</span> microbiome in general. However, indicator species for each microenvironment and country, as well as for plants grown in Coffea intercropping systems with and without agri-silvicultural production of different Fabaceae trees (Inga spp. in Nicaragua and Erythrina poeppigiana in Costa Rica) could be identified. For example, <span class="hlt">banana</span> plants grown in agroforestry systems were characterized by an increase of potential plant-beneficial bacteria, like Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas, and on the other side by a decrease of Erwinia. Hence, this study could show that as a result of legume-based agroforestry the indigenous <span class="hlt">banana</span>-associated gammaproteobacterial community noticeably shifted. PMID:25717322</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19082923','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19082923"><span id="translatedtitle">Total soluble solids from <span class="hlt">banana</span>: evaluation and optimization of extraction parameters.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Carvalho, Giovani B M; Silva, Daniel P; Santos, Júlio C; Izário Filho, Hélcio J; Vicente, António A; Teixeira, José A; Felipe, Maria das Graças A; Almeida e Silva, João B</p> <p>2009-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Banana</span>, an important component in the diet of the global population, is one of the most consumed fruits in the world. This fruit is also very favorable to industry processes (e.g., fermented beverages) due to its rich content on soluble solids and minerals, with low acidity. The main objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of factors such as <span class="hlt">banana</span> weight and extraction time during a hot aqueous extraction process on the total soluble solids content of <span class="hlt">banana</span>. The extract is to be used by the food and beverage industries. The experiments were performed with 105 mL of water, considering the moisture of the ripe <span class="hlt">banana</span> (65%). Total sugar concentrations were obtained in a beer analyzer and the result expressed in degrees Plato (degrees P, which is the weight of the extract or the sugar equivalent in 100 g solution at 20 degrees C), aiming at facilitating the use of these results by the beverage industries. After previous studies of characterization of the fruit and of ripening performance, a 2(2) full-factorial star design was carried out, and a model was developed to describe the behavior of the dependent variable (total soluble solids) as a function of the factors (<span class="hlt">banana</span> weight and extraction time), indicating as optimum conditions for extraction 38.5 g of <span class="hlt">banana</span> at 39.7 min. PMID:19082923</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25717322','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25717322"><span id="translatedtitle">Agroforestry leads to shifts within the gammaproteobacterial microbiome of <span class="hlt">banana</span> plants cultivated in Central America.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Köberl, Martina; Dita, Miguel; Martinuz, Alfonso; Staver, Charles; Berg, Gabriele</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Bananas</span> (Musa spp.) belong to the most important global food commodities, and their cultivation represents the world's largest monoculture. Although the plant-associated microbiome has substantial influence on plant growth and health, there is a lack of knowledge of the <span class="hlt">banana</span> microbiome and its influencing factors. We studied the impact of (i) biogeography, and (ii) agroforestry on the <span class="hlt">banana</span>-associated gammaproteobacterial microbiome analyzing plants grown in smallholder farms in Nicaragua and Costa Rica. Profiles of 16S rRNA genes revealed high abundances of Pseudomonadales, Enterobacteriales, Xanthomonadales, and Legionellales. An extraordinary high diversity of the gammaproteobacterial microbiota was observed within the endophytic microenvironments (endorhiza and pseudostem), which was similar in both countries. Enterobacteria were identified as dominant group of above-ground plant parts (pseudostem and leaves). Neither biogeography nor agroforestry showed a statistically significant impact on the gammaproteobacterial <span class="hlt">banana</span> microbiome in general. However, indicator species for each microenvironment and country, as well as for plants grown in Coffea intercropping systems with and without agri-silvicultural production of different Fabaceae trees (Inga spp. in Nicaragua and Erythrina poeppigiana in Costa Rica) could be identified. For example, <span class="hlt">banana</span> plants grown in agroforestry systems were characterized by an increase of potential plant-beneficial bacteria, like Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas, and on the other side by a decrease of Erwinia. Hence, this study could show that as a result of legume-based agroforestry the indigenous <span class="hlt">banana</span>-associated gammaproteobacterial community noticeably shifted. PMID:25717322</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4910074','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4910074"><span id="translatedtitle">Continous application of bioorganic fertilizer induced resilient culturable bacteria community associated with <span class="hlt">banana</span> Fusarium wilt suppression</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Fu, Lin; Ruan, Yunze; Tao, Chengyuan; Li, Rong; Shen, Qirong</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Fusarium wilt of <span class="hlt">banana</span> always drives farmers to find new land for <span class="hlt">banana</span> cultivation due to the comeback of the disease after a few cropping years. A novel idea for solving this problem is the continuous application of bioorganic fertilizer (BIO), which should be practiced from the beginning of <span class="hlt">banana</span> planting. In this study, BIO was applied in newly reclaimed fields to pre-control <span class="hlt">banana</span> Fusarium wilt and the culturable rhizobacteria community were evaluated using Biolog Ecoplates and culture-dependent denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (CD-DGGE). The results showed that BIO application significantly reduced disease incidences and increased crop yields, respectivly. And the stabilized general bacterial metabolic potential, especially for the utilization of carbohydrates, carboxylic acids and phenolic compounds, was induced by BIO application. DGGE profiles demonstrated that resilient community structure of culturable rhizobacteria with higher richness and diversity were observed in BIO treated soils. Morever, enriched culturable bacteria affiliated with Firmicutes, Gammaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria were also detected. In total, continuous application of BIO effectively suppressed Fusarium wilt disease by stabilizing culturable bacterial metabolic potential and community structure. This study revealed a new method to control Fusarium wilt of <span class="hlt">banana</span> for long term <span class="hlt">banana</span> cultivation. PMID:27306096</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26001493','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26001493"><span id="translatedtitle">Advances in industrial prospective of cellulosic macromolecules enriched <span class="hlt">banana</span> biofibre resources: A review.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pappu, Asokan; Patil, Vikas; Jain, Sonal; Mahindrakar, Amit; Haque, Ruhi; Thakur, Vijay Kumar</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Biological macromolecules enriched resources are rapidly emerging as sustainable, cost effective and environmental friendly materials for several industrial applications. Among different biological macromolecules enriched resources, <span class="hlt">banana</span> fibres are one of the unexplored high potential bio-resources. Compared to various natural fibres such as jute, coir, palm etc., the <span class="hlt">banana</span> fibres exhibits a better tensile strength i.e. 458 MPa with 17.14 GPa tensile modulus. Traditionally used petroleum based synthetic fibres have been proven to be toxic, non-biodegradable and energy intensive for manufacturing. Cellulosic <span class="hlt">banana</span> fibres are potential engineering materials having considerable scope to be used as an environmental friendly reinforcing element for manufacturing of polymer based green materials. This paper summarizes the world scenario of current production of biological macromolecules rich <span class="hlt">banana</span> residues and fibres; major user's of <span class="hlt">banana</span> fibres. The quality and quantity of biological macromolecules especially the cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, wax, engineering and mechanical properties of <span class="hlt">banana</span> biofibre resources are reported and discussed. Subsequently, the findings of the recent research on bio resource composites, materials performance and opportunities have been discussed which would be a real challenge for the tomorrow world to enhance the livelihood environmental friendly advancement. PMID:26001493</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19805212','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19805212"><span id="translatedtitle">Fluorescent chlorophyll catabolites in <span class="hlt">bananas</span> light up blue halos of cell death.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Moser, Simone; Müller, Thomas; Holzinger, Andreas; Lütz, Cornelius; Jockusch, Steffen; Turro, Nicholas J; Kräutler, Bernhard</p> <p>2009-09-15</p> <p>Breakdown of chlorophyll is a major contributor to the diagnostic color changes in fall leaves, and in ripening apples and pears, where it commonly provides colorless, nonfluorescent tetrapyrroles. In contrast, in ripening <span class="hlt">bananas</span> (Musa acuminata) chlorophylls fade to give unique fluorescent catabolites (FCCs), causing yellow <span class="hlt">bananas</span> to glow blue, when observed under UV light. Here, we demonstrate the capacity of the blue fluorescent chlorophyll catabolites to signal symptoms of programmed cell death in a plant. We report on studies of bright blue luminescent rings on the peel of very ripe <span class="hlt">bananas</span>, which arise as halos around necrotic areas in 'senescence associated' dark spots. These dark spots appear naturally on the peel of ripe <span class="hlt">bananas</span> and occur in the vicinity of stomata. Wavelength, space, and time resolved fluorescence measurements allowed the luminescent areas to be monitored on whole <span class="hlt">bananas</span>. Our studies revealed an accumulation of FCCs in luminescent rings, within senescing cells undergoing the transition to dead tissue, as was observable by morphological textural cellular changes. FCCs typically are short lived intermediates of chlorophyll breakdown. In some plants, FCCs are uniquely persistent, as is seen in <span class="hlt">bananas</span>, and can thus be used as luminescent in vivo markers in tissue undergoing senescence. While FCCs still remain to be tested for their own hypothetical physiological role in plants, they may help fill the demand for specific endogenous molecular reporters in noninvasive assays of plant senescence. Thus, they allow for in vivo studies, which provide insights into critical stages preceding cell death.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17931857','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17931857"><span id="translatedtitle">Dietary fibre components and pectin chemical features of peels during ripening in <span class="hlt">banana</span> and plantain varieties.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Happi Emaga, Thomas; Robert, Christelle; Ronkart, Sébastien N; Wathelet, Bernard; Paquot, Michel</p> <p>2008-07-01</p> <p>The effects of the ripeness stage of <span class="hlt">banana</span> (Musa AAA) and plantain (Musa AAB) peels on neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre, cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin, pectin contents, and pectin chemical features were studied. Plantain peels contained a higher amount of lignin but had a lower hemicellulose content than <span class="hlt">banana</span> peels. A sequential extraction of pectins showed that acid extraction was the most efficient to isolate <span class="hlt">banana</span> peel pectins, whereas an ammonium oxalate extraction was more appropriate for plantain peels. In all the stages of maturation, the pectin content in <span class="hlt">banana</span> peels was higher compared to plantain peels. Moreover, the galacturonic acid and methoxy group contents in <span class="hlt">banana</span> peels were higher than in plantain peels. The average molecular weights of the extracted pectins were in the range of 132.6-573.8 kDa and were not dependant on peel variety, while the stage of maturation did not affect the dietary fibre yields and the composition in pectic polysaccharides in a consistent manner. This study has showed that <span class="hlt">banana</span> peels are a potential source of dietary fibres and pectins.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21212957','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21212957"><span id="translatedtitle">Highly efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of <span class="hlt">banana</span> cv. Rasthali (AAB) via sonication and vacuum infiltration.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Subramanyam, Kondeti; Subramanyam, Koona; Sailaja, K V; Srinivasulu, M; Lakshmidevi, K</p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p>A reproducible and efficient transformation method was developed for the <span class="hlt">banana</span> cv. Rasthali (AAB) via Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of suckers. Three-month-old <span class="hlt">banana</span> suckers were used as explant and three Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains (EHA105, EHA101, and LBA4404) harboring the binary vector pCAMBIA1301 were used in the co-cultivation. The <span class="hlt">banana</span> suckers were sonicated and vacuum infiltered with each of the three A. tumefaciens strains and co-cultivated in the medium containing different concentrations of acetosyringone for 3 days. The transformed shoots were selected in 30 mg/l hygromycin-containing selection medium and rooted in rooting medium containing 1 mg/l IBA and 30 mg/l hygromycin. The presence and integration of the hpt II and gus genes into the <span class="hlt">banana</span> genome were confirmed by GUS histochemical assay, polymerase chain reaction, and southern hybridization. Among the different combinations tested, high transformation efficiency (39.4 ± 0.5% GUS positive shoots) was obtained when suckers were sonicated and vacuum infiltered for 6 min with A. tumefaciens EHA105 in presence of 50 μM acetosyringone followed by co-cultivation in 50 μM acetosyringone-containing medium for 3 days. These results suggest that an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocol for stable integration of foreign genes into <span class="hlt">banana</span> has been developed and that this transformation system could be useful for future studies on transferring economically important genes into <span class="hlt">banana</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27041291','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27041291"><span id="translatedtitle">Bioactive compounds in <span class="hlt">banana</span> and their associated health benefits - A review.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Singh, Balwinder; Singh, Jatinder Pal; Kaur, Amritpal; Singh, Narpinder</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Banana</span> is a very popular fruit in the world market and is consumed as staple food in many countries. It is grown worldwide and constitutes the fifth most important agricultural food crop in terms of world trade. It has been classified into the dessert or sweet <span class="hlt">bananas</span> and the cooking <span class="hlt">bananas</span> or plantains. It is either eaten raw or processed, and also as a functional ingredient in various food products. <span class="hlt">Banana</span> contains several bioactive compounds, such as phenolics, carotenoids, biogenic amines and phytosterols, which are highly desirable in the diet as they exert many positive effects on human health and well-being. Many of these compounds have antioxidant activities and are effective in protecting the body against various oxidative stresses. In the past, <span class="hlt">bananas</span> were effectively used in the treatment of various diseases, including reducing the risk of many chronic degenerative disorders. In the present review, historical background, cultivar classification, beneficial phytochemicals, antioxidant activity and health benefits of <span class="hlt">bananas</span> are discussed. PMID:27041291</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26001493','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26001493"><span id="translatedtitle">Advances in industrial prospective of cellulosic macromolecules enriched <span class="hlt">banana</span> biofibre resources: A review.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pappu, Asokan; Patil, Vikas; Jain, Sonal; Mahindrakar, Amit; Haque, Ruhi; Thakur, Vijay Kumar</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Biological macromolecules enriched resources are rapidly emerging as sustainable, cost effective and environmental friendly materials for several industrial applications. Among different biological macromolecules enriched resources, <span class="hlt">banana</span> fibres are one of the unexplored high potential bio-resources. Compared to various natural fibres such as jute, coir, palm etc., the <span class="hlt">banana</span> fibres exhibits a better tensile strength i.e. 458 MPa with 17.14 GPa tensile modulus. Traditionally used petroleum based synthetic fibres have been proven to be toxic, non-biodegradable and energy intensive for manufacturing. Cellulosic <span class="hlt">banana</span> fibres are potential engineering materials having considerable scope to be used as an environmental friendly reinforcing element for manufacturing of polymer based green materials. This paper summarizes the world scenario of current production of biological macromolecules rich <span class="hlt">banana</span> residues and fibres; major user's of <span class="hlt">banana</span> fibres. The quality and quantity of biological macromolecules especially the cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, wax, engineering and mechanical properties of <span class="hlt">banana</span> biofibre resources are reported and discussed. Subsequently, the findings of the recent research on bio resource composites, materials performance and opportunities have been discussed which would be a real challenge for the tomorrow world to enhance the livelihood environmental friendly advancement.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AIPC.1677j0005P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AIPC.1677j0005P"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of chitosan coating and bamboo FSC (fruit storage chamber) to expand <span class="hlt">banana</span> shelf life</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pratiwi, Aksarani'Sa; Dwivany, Fenny M.; Larasati, Dwinita; Islamia, Hana Cahya; Martien, Ronny</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Chitosan has been widely used as fruit preserver and proven to extend the shelf life of many fruits, such as <span class="hlt">banana</span>. However, <span class="hlt">banana</span> producers and many industries in Indonesia still facing storage problems which may lead to mechanical damage of the fruits and ripening acceleration. Therefore, we have designed food storage chamber (FSC) based on bamboo material. Bamboo was selected because of material abundance in Indonesia, economically effective, and not causing an autocatalytic reaction to the ethylene gas produced by the <span class="hlt">banana</span>. In this research, Cavendish <span class="hlt">banana</span> that has reached the maturity level of mature green were coated with 1% chitosan and placed inside the FSC. As control treatments, uncoated <span class="hlt">banana</span> was also placed inside the FSC as well as uncoated <span class="hlt">banana</span> that were placed at open space. All of the treatments were placed at 25°C temperature and observed for 9 days. Water produced by respiration was reduced by the addition of charcoal inside a fabric pouch. The result showed that treatment using FSC and chitosan can delay ripening process.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20707108','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20707108"><span id="translatedtitle">[Climatic risk zoning for <span class="hlt">banana</span> and litchi's chilling injury in South China].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Na; Huo, Zhi-guo; He, Nan; Xiao, Jing-jing; Wen, Quan-pei</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>Based on the 1951-2006 climatic observation data from 224 meteorological stations in South China (Guangdong Province, Guangxi Autonomous Region, and Fujian Province) and the historical information about the chilling injury losses of <span class="hlt">banana</span> and litchi, the accumulated harmful chilling for the processes with minimum daily temperature < or = 5.0 degrees C and more than 3 days was used to indicate the climatic risk of chilling injury during the whole growth season, and an integrated climatic index with the background of climate change was constructed. The maps of geographical distribution of climatic risk probability for each grade chilling injury, and of integrated climatic risk zoning for <span class="hlt">banana</span> and litchi's chilling injury were drawn, and the spatial variation of climatic risk for <span class="hlt">banana</span> and litchi's chilling injury was commented. The results indicated that in the study area, climate warming might lead to the decrease of cold resistance of <span class="hlt">banana</span> and litchi, which could increase the disaster risk of chilling injury. The geographical distribution of climatic risk probability for <span class="hlt">banana</span> and litchi's chilling injury showed a zonal pattern. According to the integrated climatic risk index, the <span class="hlt">banana</span> and litchi's chilling injury region was divided into three risk types, i.e., high risk, moderate risk, and low risk, which provided an important basis for the adjustment of agricultural production structure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25717322','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25717322"><span id="translatedtitle">Agroforestry leads to shifts within the gammaproteobacterial microbiome of <span class="hlt">banana</span> plants cultivated in Central America.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Köberl, Martina; Dita, Miguel; Martinuz, Alfonso; Staver, Charles; Berg, Gabriele</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Bananas</span> (Musa spp.) belong to the most important global food commodities, and their cultivation represents the world's largest monoculture. Although the plant-associated microbiome has substantial influence on plant growth and health, there is a lack of knowledge of the <span class="hlt">banana</span> microbiome and its influencing factors. We studied the impact of (i) biogeography, and (ii) agroforestry on the <span class="hlt">banana</span>-associated gammaproteobacterial microbiome analyzing plants grown in smallholder farms in Nicaragua and Costa Rica. Profiles of 16S rRNA genes revealed high abundances of Pseudomonadales, Enterobacteriales, Xanthomonadales, and Legionellales. An extraordinary high diversity of the gammaproteobacterial microbiota was observed within the endophytic microenvironments (endorhiza and pseudostem), which was similar in both countries. Enterobacteria were identified as dominant group of above-ground plant parts (pseudostem and leaves). Neither biogeography nor agroforestry showed a statistically significant impact on the gammaproteobacterial <span class="hlt">banana</span> microbiome in general. However, indicator species for each microenvironment and country, as well as for plants grown in Coffea intercropping systems with and without agri-silvicultural production of different Fabaceae trees (Inga spp. in Nicaragua and Erythrina poeppigiana in Costa Rica) could be identified. For example, <span class="hlt">banana</span> plants grown in agroforestry systems were characterized by an increase of potential plant-beneficial bacteria, like Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas, and on the other side by a decrease of Erwinia. Hence, this study could show that as a result of legume-based agroforestry the indigenous <span class="hlt">banana</span>-associated gammaproteobacterial community noticeably shifted.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2747156','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2747156"><span id="translatedtitle">Fluorescent chlorophyll catabolites in <span class="hlt">bananas</span> light up blue halos of cell death</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Moser, Simone; Müller, Thomas; Holzinger, Andreas; Lütz, Cornelius; Jockusch, Steffen; Turro, Nicholas J.; Kräutler, Bernhard</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Breakdown of chlorophyll is a major contributor to the diagnostic color changes in fall leaves, and in ripening apples and pears, where it commonly provides colorless, nonfluorescent tetrapyrroles. In contrast, in ripening <span class="hlt">bananas</span> (Musa acuminata) chlorophylls fade to give unique fluorescent catabolites (FCCs), causing yellow <span class="hlt">bananas</span> to glow blue, when observed under UV light. Here, we demonstrate the capacity of the blue fluorescent chlorophyll catabolites to signal symptoms of programmed cell death in a plant. We report on studies of bright blue luminescent rings on the peel of very ripe <span class="hlt">bananas</span>, which arise as halos around necrotic areas in ‘senescence associated’ dark spots. These dark spots appear naturally on the peel of ripe <span class="hlt">bananas</span> and occur in the vicinity of stomata. Wavelength, space, and time resolved fluorescence measurements allowed the luminescent areas to be monitored on whole <span class="hlt">bananas</span>. Our studies revealed an accumulation of FCCs in luminescent rings, within senescing cells undergoing the transition to dead tissue, as was observable by morphological textural cellular changes. FCCs typically are short lived intermediates of chlorophyll breakdown. In some plants, FCCs are uniquely persistent, as is seen in <span class="hlt">bananas</span>, and can thus be used as luminescent in vivo markers in tissue undergoing senescence. While FCCs still remain to be tested for their own hypothetical physiological role in plants, they may help fill the demand for specific endogenous molecular reporters in noninvasive assays of plant senescence. Thus, they allow for in vivo studies, which provide insights into critical stages preceding cell death. PMID:19805212</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20782451','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20782451"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Banana</span> regime pressure anisotropy in a bumpy cylinder magnetic field</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Garcia-Perciante, A.L.; Callen, J.D.; Shaing, K.C.; Hegna, C.C.</p> <p>2006-01-15</p> <p>The pressure anisotropy is calculated for a plasma in a bumpy cylindrical magnetic field in the low collisionality (<span class="hlt">banana</span>) regime for small magnetic-field modulations ({epsilon}{identical_to}{delta}B/2B<<1). Solutions are obtained by integrating the drift-kinetic equation along field lines in steady state. A closure for the local value of the parallel viscous force B{center_dot}{nabla}{center_dot}{pi}{sub parallel} is then calculated and is shown to exceed the flux-surface-averaged parallel viscous force <B{center_dot}{nabla}{center_dot}{pi}{sub parallel}> by a factor of O(1/{epsilon}). A high-frequency limit ({omega}>>{nu}) for the pressure anisotropy is also determined and the calculation is then extended to include the full frequency dependence by using an expansion in Cordey eigenfunctions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/165371','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/165371"><span id="translatedtitle">Finite <span class="hlt">banana</span> width effect on magnetoacoustic cyclotron instability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chen, Y.P.; Tsai, S.T.</p> <p>1995-08-01</p> <p>The finite <span class="hlt">banana</span> width (FBW) effect on the coupling between magnetoacoustic waves and the near harmonic gyro-oscillations of the energetic ions/{alpha} particles in tokamaks are studied. The gyrokinetic equation with FBW effect is rederived for the energetic trapped ions. The dispersion relation and growth rate of the magnetoacoustic cyclotron instability (MACI) are obtained. It is found that the coherence interaction between the energetic ion trajectory and mode field has a significant effect when the Larmor radius of energetic ions is larger than the wavelength of MACI. Near the low field side the FBW effect destabilizes the mode, while away from it the FBW gives a stabilizing effect. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26002290','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26002290"><span id="translatedtitle">Impact of diseases on export and smallholder production of <span class="hlt">banana</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ploetz, Randy C; Kema, Gert H J; Ma, Li-Jun</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Banana</span> (Musa spp.) is one of the world's most valuable primary agricultural commodities. Exported fruit are key commodities in several producing countries yet make up less than 15% of the total annual output of 145 million metric tons (MMT). Transnational exporters market fruit of the Cavendish cultivars, which are usually produced in large plantations with fixed infrastructures and high inputs of fertilizers, pesticides, and irrigation. In contrast, smallholders grow diverse cultivars, often for domestic markets, with minimal inputs. Diseases are serious constraints for export as well as smallholder production. Although black leaf streak disease (BLSD), which is present throughout Asian, African, and American production areas, is a primary global concern, other diseases with limited distributions, notably tropical race 4 of Fusarium wilt, rival its impact. Here, we summarize recent developments on the most significant of these problems. PMID:26002290</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23039112','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23039112"><span id="translatedtitle">Structure analysis and laxative effects of oligosaccharides isolated from <span class="hlt">bananas</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Juan; Huang, Hui Hua; Cheng, Yan Feng; Yang, Gong Ming</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Banana</span> oligosaccharides (BOS) were extracted with water, and then separated and purified using column chromatography. Gel penetration chromatography was used to determine the molecular weights. Thin layer chromatogram and capillary electrophoresis were employed to analyze the monosaccharide composition. The indican bond and structure of the BOS molecule were determined using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance. Results showed that BOS were probably composed of eight β-D-pyran glucose units linked with 1→6 indican bonds. The laxative effects of BOS were investigated in mice using the method described in "Handbook of Technical Standards for Testing and Assessment of Health Food in China." The length of the small intestine over which a carbon suspension solution advanced in mice treated with low-, middle-, and high-dose BOS was significantly greater than that in the model group, suggesting that BOS are effective in accelerating the movement of the small intestine.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23218302','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23218302"><span id="translatedtitle">Acetylation of <span class="hlt">banana</span> fibre to improve oil absorbency.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Teli, M D; Valia, Sanket P</p> <p>2013-01-30</p> <p>Oil spill leaves detrimental effects on the environment, living organisms and economy. In the present work, an attempt is made to provide an efficient, easily deployable method of cleaning up oil spills and recovering of the oil. The work reports the use of <span class="hlt">banana</span> fibres which were acetylated for oil spill recovery. The product so formed was characterized by FT-IR, TG, SEM and its degree of acetylation was also evaluated. The extent of acetylation was measured by weight percent gain. The oil sorption capacity of the acetylated fibre was higher than that of the commercial synthetic oil sorbents such as polypropylene fibres as well as un-modified fibre. Therefore, these oil sorption-active materials which are also biodegradable can be used to substitute non-biodegradable synthetic materials in oil spill cleanup. PMID:23218302</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26002290','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26002290"><span id="translatedtitle">Impact of diseases on export and smallholder production of <span class="hlt">banana</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ploetz, Randy C; Kema, Gert H J; Ma, Li-Jun</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Banana</span> (Musa spp.) is one of the world's most valuable primary agricultural commodities. Exported fruit are key commodities in several producing countries yet make up less than 15% of the total annual output of 145 million metric tons (MMT). Transnational exporters market fruit of the Cavendish cultivars, which are usually produced in large plantations with fixed infrastructures and high inputs of fertilizers, pesticides, and irrigation. In contrast, smallholders grow diverse cultivars, often for domestic markets, with minimal inputs. Diseases are serious constraints for export as well as smallholder production. Although black leaf streak disease (BLSD), which is present throughout Asian, African, and American production areas, is a primary global concern, other diseases with limited distributions, notably tropical race 4 of Fusarium wilt, rival its impact. Here, we summarize recent developments on the most significant of these problems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1389509','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1389509"><span id="translatedtitle">Mycotoxin Production by Fusarium Species Isolated from <span class="hlt">Bananas</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Jimenez, M.; Huerta, T.; Mateo, R.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>The ability of Fusarium species isolated from <span class="hlt">bananas</span> to produce mycotoxins was studied with 66 isolates of the following species: F. semitectum var. majus (8 isolates), F. camptoceras (3 isolates), a Fusarium sp. (3 isolates), F. moniliforme (16 isolates), F. proliferatum (9 isolates), F. subglutinans (3 isolates), F. solani (3 isolates), F. oxysporum (5 isolates), F. graminearum (7 isolates), F. dimerum (3 isolates), F. acuminatum (3 isolates), and F. equiseti (3 isolates). All isolates were cultured on autoclaved corn grains. Their toxicity to Artemia salina L. larvae was examined. Some of the toxic effects observed arose from the production of known mycotoxins that were determined by thin-layer chromatography, gas chromatography, or high-performance liquid chromatography. All F. camptoceras and Fusarium sp. isolates proved toxic to A. salina larvae; however, no specific toxic metabolites could be identified. This was also the case with eight isolates of F. moniliforme and three of F. proliferatum. The following mycotoxins were encountered in the corn culture extracts: fumonisin B(inf1) (40 to 2,900 (mu)g/g), fumonisin B(inf2) (150 to 320 (mu)g/g), moniliformin (10 to 1,670 (mu)g/g), zearalenone (5 to 470 (mu)g/g), (alpha)-zearalenol (5 to 10 (mu)g/g), deoxynivalenol (8 to 35 (mu)g/g), 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (5 to 10 (mu)g/g), neosolaniol (50 to 180 (mu)g/g), and T-2 tetraol (5 to 15 (mu)g/g). Based on the results, additional compounds produced by the fungal isolates may play prominent roles in the toxic effects on larvae observed. This is the first reported study on the mycotoxin-producing abilities of Fusarium species that contaminate <span class="hlt">bananas</span>. PMID:16535503</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4678547','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4678547"><span id="translatedtitle">Detection of antimicrobial activity of <span class="hlt">banana</span> peel (Musa paradisiaca L.) on Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans: An in vitro study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kapadia, Suraj Premal; Pudakalkatti, Pushpa S.; Shivanaikar, Sachin</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Introduction and Aim: <span class="hlt">Banana</span> is used widely because of its nutritional values. In past, there are studies that show <span class="hlt">banana</span> plant parts, and their fruits can be used to treat the human diseases. <span class="hlt">Banana</span> peel is a part of <span class="hlt">banana</span> fruit that also has the antibacterial activity against microorganisms but has not been studied extensively. Since, there are no studies that relate the antibacterial activity of <span class="hlt">banana</span> peel against periodontal pathogens. Hence, the aim of this study is to determine the antimicrobial activity of <span class="hlt">banana</span> peel extract on Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (A. actinomycetemcomitans). Material and Methods: Standard strains of P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans were used in this study which was obtained from the in-house bacterial bank of Department of Molecular Biology and Immunology at Maratha Mandal's Nathajirao G. Halgekar Institute of Dental Sciences and Research Centre. The <span class="hlt">banana</span> peel extract was prepared, and the antibacterial activity was assessed using well agar diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration was assessed using serial broth dilution method. Results: In the current study, both the tested microorganisms showed antibacterial activity. In well diffusion method, P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans showed 15 mm and 12 mm inhibition zone against an alcoholic extract of <span class="hlt">banana</span> peel, respectively. In serial broth dilution method P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans were sensitive until 31.25 μg/ml dilutions. Conclusion: From results of the study, it is suggested that an alcoholic extract of <span class="hlt">banana</span> peel has antimicrobial activity against P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans. PMID:26681854</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26307965','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26307965"><span id="translatedtitle">Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Analyses of Aquaporin Gene Family during Development and Abiotic Stress in <span class="hlt">Banana</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hu, Wei; Hou, Xiaowan; Huang, Chao; Yan, Yan; Tie, Weiwei; Ding, Zehong; Wei, Yunxie; Liu, Juhua; Miao, Hongxia; Lu, Zhiwei; Li, Meiying; Xu, Biyu; Jin, Zhiqiang</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Aquaporins (AQPs) function to selectively control the flow of water and other small molecules through biological membranes, playing crucial roles in various biological processes. However, little information is available on the AQP gene family in <span class="hlt">bananas</span>. In this study, we identified 47 <span class="hlt">banana</span> AQP genes based on the <span class="hlt">banana</span> genome sequence. Evolutionary analysis of AQPs from <span class="hlt">banana</span>, Arabidopsis, poplar, and rice indicated that <span class="hlt">banana</span> AQPs (MaAQPs) were clustered into four subfamilies. Conserved motif analysis showed that all <span class="hlt">banana</span> AQPs contained the typical AQP-like or major intrinsic protein (MIP) domain. Gene structure analysis suggested the majority of MaAQPs had two to four introns with a highly specific number and length for each subfamily. Expression analysis of MaAQP genes during fruit development and postharvest ripening showed that some MaAQP genes exhibited high expression levels during these stages, indicating the involvement of MaAQP genes in <span class="hlt">banana</span> fruit development and ripening. Additionally, some MaAQP genes showed strong induction after stress treatment and therefore, may represent potential candidates for improving <span class="hlt">banana</span> resistance to abiotic stress. Taken together, this study identified some excellent tissue-specific, fruit development- and ripening-dependent, and abiotic stress-responsive candidate MaAQP genes, which could lay a solid foundation for genetic improvement of <span class="hlt">banana</span> cultivars. PMID:26307965</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4581322','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4581322"><span id="translatedtitle">Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Analyses of Aquaporin Gene Family during Development and Abiotic Stress in <span class="hlt">Banana</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hu, Wei; Hou, Xiaowan; Huang, Chao; Yan, Yan; Tie, Weiwei; Ding, Zehong; Wei, Yunxie; Liu, Juhua; Miao, Hongxia; Lu, Zhiwei; Li, Meiying; Xu, Biyu; Jin, Zhiqiang</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Aquaporins (AQPs) function to selectively control the flow of water and other small molecules through biological membranes, playing crucial roles in various biological processes. However, little information is available on the AQP gene family in <span class="hlt">bananas</span>. In this study, we identified 47 <span class="hlt">banana</span> AQP genes based on the <span class="hlt">banana</span> genome sequence. Evolutionary analysis of AQPs from <span class="hlt">banana</span>, Arabidopsis, poplar, and rice indicated that <span class="hlt">banana</span> AQPs (MaAQPs) were clustered into four subfamilies. Conserved motif analysis showed that all <span class="hlt">banana</span> AQPs contained the typical AQP-like or major intrinsic protein (MIP) domain. Gene structure analysis suggested the majority of MaAQPs had two to four introns with a highly specific number and length for each subfamily. Expression analysis of MaAQP genes during fruit development and postharvest ripening showed that some MaAQP genes exhibited high expression levels during these stages, indicating the involvement of MaAQP genes in <span class="hlt">banana</span> fruit development and ripening. Additionally, some MaAQP genes showed strong induction after stress treatment and therefore, may represent potential candidates for improving <span class="hlt">banana</span> resistance to abiotic stress. Taken together, this study identified some excellent tissue-specific, fruit development- and ripening-dependent, and abiotic stress-responsive candidate MaAQP genes, which could lay a solid foundation for genetic improvement of <span class="hlt">banana</span> cultivars. PMID:26307965</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1727878','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1727878"><span id="translatedtitle">Gallstone disease in Peruvian coastal natives and <span class="hlt">highland</span> migrants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Moro, P; Checkley, W; Gilman, R; Cabrera, L; Lescano, A; Bonilla, J; Silva, B</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>BACKGROUND—In a previous study, we found that gallstones were a common occurrence in the high altitude villages of the Peruvian Andes.
AIMS—To determine if high altitude (⩾ 1500 m) is a contributing risk factor for gallstone disease.
METHODS—We conducted a cross sectional study in a periurban community in Lima, Peru, and compared the prevalence of gallstone disease between coastal natives, <span class="hlt">highland</span> (Sierra) natives and Sierra natives who had migrated to the coast. We also compared the prevalence rates from this study with those from a previous study conducted at high altitude. We examined 1534 subjects >15 years of age for gallstone disease. Subjects were interviewed for the presence or absence of risk factors.
RESULTS—Gallstone disease was more common in females (16.1 cases per 100, 95% CI 13.8-18.2) than in males (10.7 per 100, 95% CI 8.0-13.4). Females had a greater risk of gallstone disease, especially if they had used oral contraception and/or had four or more children. The age adjusted prevalence was not significantly different between coastal natives, Sierra migrants, and Andean villagers. The prevalence of gallstone disease was not associated with time since migration or with having native Sierra parents. After adjusting for other risk factors, Sierra natives who migrated to the coast had a lower prevalence of gallstone disease than coastal natives (odds ratio 0.74, 95% CI 0.58-0.94).
CONCLUSIONS—This study indicates that high altitude is not a positive risk factor for gallstone disease and confirms that this disease is common in Peruvians, which may be attributable to Peruvian-Indian ethnicity.


Keywords: gallstone disease; cholelithiasis; high altitude; risk factors; epidemiology; Peru PMID:10716689</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20090014123&hterms=Anorthosite&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DAnorthosite','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20090014123&hterms=Anorthosite&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DAnorthosite"><span id="translatedtitle">The LHT (Lunar <span class="hlt">Highlands</span> Type) Regolith Simulant Series</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Stoeser, Douglas; Wilson, Steve; Weinstein, Michael; Rickman, Douglas; Lowers, Heather; Meeker, Gregory; Schrader, Christian; McLemore, Carole; Fikes, John</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Three NU-LHT (NASA/USGS-Lunar <span class="hlt">Highlands</span> Type) regolith simulants have been produced to date: NU-LHT-1M, -ID, and -2M. A fourth simulant is currently in production: NU-LHT-3C. The "M" (medium) designation indicates a simulant with a grain size of <1 mm, "D" (dust) a simulant with a grain size of <36 microns, and "C" (coarse) a simulant with a 10 cm maximum particle size. The composition of these simulants is based on a NASA average Apollo 16 regolith chemical composition, However, the mixing model used to create our simulants is based on cationic nonnative mineral proportions derived from the target chemical composition to approximate lunar modal mineralogy rather than chemical composition per se. Accordingly, the amount of plagioclase, pyroxenes, olivine, and trace minerals in the simulant crystalline fraction approximates that of the lunar regolith. We also added synthetic agglutinate in amounts approximate for low-medium regolith maturity. A pure glass fraction was also added to simulate other types of lunar glasses present in the regolith. In addition, the 3C simulant will include synthetic impact melt breccia clasts for the >1 cm particles. The bulk raw materials used to create these simulants include clinopyroxene-norite, anorthosite, hartzburgite and noritic mill waste from the Stillwater Mine, Nye, MT, and olivine from the Twin Sisters dunite, WA. Added trace minerals include beach sand ilmenite, chromite, synthetic p-tricaicium phosphate (whitiockite), gem grade fluor-apatite, and pyrite. The agglutinate, glasses, and synthetic breccia were designed and prepared at an industrial plasma melting facility in Boulder, CO, using Stillwater mill waste feedstock for the melt. These simulants do not include nanophase-feO. The M and C simulant grain size distribution (down to 0.4 microns) approximates that of Apollo 16 regolith and the regolith in general.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3928908','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3928908"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Highland</span> cattle and Radix labiata, the hosts of Fascioloides magna</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Background Fascioloides magna is a pathogenic fluke introduced to Europe ca 140 years ago. As it is spreading over the continent, new intermediate and definitive hosts might be involved in transmission of the parasite. In Europe, several studies reported potential new intermediate snail hosts (Radix spp.) for F. magna, and also several cases of fascioloidosis of wild and domestic animals were published. However, the data based on molecular and histological analyses confirming these findings remained unreported. This study aims to refer to unique findings of F. magna in European snails and domestic animals (the first observation in the Czech Republic in the last 30 years) and demonstrate the use of molecular techniques in determination of F. magna. Results Two snails of R. labiata naturally infected with F. magna were found; mature cercariae and daughter rediae were observed. Maturity of cercariae was checked by histological methods, however, their ability to encyst was not confirmed. Co-infection of F. magna and Fasciola hepatica in the liver of two <span class="hlt">highland</span> cattle bulls was proved. Adult fasciolid flukes producing eggs were found in the liver pseudocysts (F. magna) and the bile ducts (F. hepatica). Identification of intermediate hosts, intramolluscan stages, adult flukes and eggs was performed by sequencing the ITS2 region. Connection of F. magna pseudocysts with the gut (via the bile ducts) was not confirmed by means of histological and coprological examinations. Conclusions For the first time, Radix labiata was confirmed as the snail host for F. magna under natural conditions and, together with the finding of F. magna infection in cattle, we can expect further transmission of F. magna from wildlife to livestock in localities shared by these hosts. PMID:24517409</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2778131','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2778131"><span id="translatedtitle">Ranking Malaria Risk Factors to Guide Malaria Control Efforts in African <span class="hlt">Highlands</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Protopopoff, Natacha; Van Bortel, Wim; Speybroeck, Niko; Van Geertruyden, Jean-Pierre; Baza, Dismas; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Coosemans, Marc</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Introduction Malaria is re-emerging in most of the African <span class="hlt">highlands</span> exposing the non immune population to deadly epidemics. A better understanding of the factors impacting transmission in the <span class="hlt">highlands</span> is crucial to improve well targeted malaria control strategies. Methods and Findings A conceptual model of potential malaria risk factors in the <span class="hlt">highlands</span> was built based on the available literature. Furthermore, the relative importance of these factors on malaria can be estimated through “classification and regression trees”, an unexploited statistical method in the malaria field. This CART method was used to analyse the malaria risk factors in the Burundi <span class="hlt">highlands</span>. The results showed that Anopheles density was the best predictor for high malaria prevalence. Then lower rainfall, no vector control, higher minimum temperature and houses near breeding sites were associated by order of importance to higher Anopheles density. Conclusions In Burundi <span class="hlt">highlands</span> monitoring Anopheles densities when rainfall is low may be able to predict epidemics. The conceptual model combined with the CART analysis is a decision support tool that could provide an important contribution toward the prevention and control of malaria by identifying major risk factors. PMID:19946627</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2447048','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2447048"><span id="translatedtitle">A Single <span class="hlt">Banana</span> Streak Virus Integration Event in the <span class="hlt">Banana</span> Genome as the Origin of Infectious Endogenous Pararetrovirus▿</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Gayral, Philippe; Noa-Carrazana, Juan-Carlos; Lescot, Magali; Lheureux, Fabrice; Lockhart, Benham E. L.; Matsumoto, Takashi; Piffanelli, Pietro; Iskra-Caruana, Marie-Line</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Sequencing of plant nuclear genomes reveals the widespread presence of integrated viral sequences known as endogenous pararetroviruses (EPRVs). <span class="hlt">Banana</span> is one of the three plant species known to harbor infectious EPRVs. Musa balbisiana carries integrated copies of <span class="hlt">Banana</span> streak virus (BSV), which are infectious by releasing virions in interspecific hybrids. Here, we analyze the organization of the EPRV of BSV Goldfinger (BSGfV) present in the wild diploid M. balbisiana cv. Pisang Klutuk Wulung (PKW) revealed by the study of Musa bacterial artificial chromosome resources and interspecific genetic cross. cv. PKW contains two similar EPRVs of BSGfV. Genotyping of these integrants and studies of their segregation pattern show an allelic insertion. Despite the fact that integrated BSGfV has undergone extensive rearrangement, both EPRVs contain the full-length viral genome. The high degree of sequence conservation between the integrated and episomal form of the virus indicates a recent integration event; however, only one allele is infectious. Analysis of BSGfV EPRV segregation among an F1 population from an interspecific genetic cross revealed that these EPRV sequences correspond to two alleles originating from a single integration event. We describe here for the first time the full genomic and genetic organization of the two EPRVs of BSGfV present in cv. PKW in response to the challenge facing both scientists and breeders to identify and generate genetic resources free from BSV. We discuss the consequences of this unique host-pathogen interaction in terms of genetic and genomic plant defenses versus strategies of infectious BSGfV EPRVs. PMID:18417582</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25361833','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25361833"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Banana</span> infecting fungus, Fusarium musae, is also an opportunistic human pathogen: are <span class="hlt">bananas</span> potential carriers and source of fusariosis?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Triest, David; Stubbe, Dirk; De Cremer, Koen; Piérard, Denis; Detandt, Monique; Hendrickx, Marijke</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>During re-identification of Fusarium strains in the BCCM™/IHEM fungal collection by multilocus sequence-analysis we observed that five strains, previously identified as Fusarium verticillioides, were Fusarium musae, a species described in 2011 from <span class="hlt">banana</span> fruits. Four strains were isolated from blood samples or biopsies of immune-suppressed patients and one was isolated from the clinical environment, all originating from different hospitals in Belgium or France, 2001-2008. The F. musae identity of our isolates was confirmed by phylogenetic analysis using reference sequences of type material. Absence of the gene cluster necessary for fumonisin biosynthesis, characteristic to F. musae, was also the case for our isolates. In vitro antifungal susceptibility testing revealed no important differences in their susceptibility compared to clinical F. verticillioides strains and terbinafine was the most effective drug. Additional clinical F. musae strains were searched by performing BLAST queries in GenBank. Eight strains were found, of which six were keratitis cases from the U.S. multistate contact lens-associated outbreak in 2005 and 2006. The two other strains were also from the U.S., causing either a skin infection or sinusitis. This report is the first to describe F. musae as causative agent of superficial and opportunistic, disseminated infections in humans. Imported <span class="hlt">bananas</span> might act as carriers of F. musae spores and be a potential source of infection with F. musae in humans. An alternative hypothesis is that the natural distribution of F. musae is geographically a lot broader than originally suspected and F. musae is present on different plant hosts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26396289','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26396289"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of packaging materials on shelf life and quality of <span class="hlt">banana</span> cultivars (Musa spp.).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hailu, M; Seyoum Workneh, T; Belew, D</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of packaging materials on the shelf life of three <span class="hlt">banana</span> cultivars. Four packaging materials, namely, perforated low density polyethylene bag, perforated high density polyethylene bag, dried <span class="hlt">banana</span> leaf, teff straw and no packaging materials (control) were used with three <span class="hlt">banana</span> cultivars, locally known as, Poyo, Giant Cavendish and Williams I. The experiment was carried out in Randomized Complete Block Design in a factorial combination with three replications. Physical parameters including weight loss, peel colour, peel thickness, pulp thickness, pulp to peel ratio, pulp firmness, pulp dry matter, decay, loss percent of marketability were assessed every 3 days. <span class="hlt">Banana</span> remained marketable for 36 days in the high density polyethylene and low density polyethylene bags, and for 18 days in <span class="hlt">banana</span> leaf and teff straw packaging treatments. Unpackaged fruits remained marketable for 15 days only. Fruits that were not packaged lost their weight by 24.0 % whereas fruits packaged in <span class="hlt">banana</span> leaf and teff straw became unmarketable with final weight loss of 19.8 % and 20.9 %, respectively. Packaged fruits remained well until 36th days of storage with final weight loss of only 8.2 % and 9.20 %, respectively. Starting from green mature stage, the colour of the <span class="hlt">banana</span> peel changed to yellow and this process was found to be fast for unpackaged fruits. Packaging maintained the peel and the pulp thickness, firmness, dry matter and pulp to peel ratio was kept lower. Decay loss for unpackaged <span class="hlt">banana</span> fruits was16 % at the end of date 15, whereas the decay loss of fruits packaged using high density and low density polyethylene bags were 43.0 % and 41.2 %, respectively at the end of the 36th day of the experiment. It can, thus, be concluded that packaging of <span class="hlt">banana</span> fruits in high density and low density polyethylene bags resulted in longer shelf life and improved quality of the produce followed by packaging in dried <span class="hlt">banana</span> leaf</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3832372','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3832372"><span id="translatedtitle">Origins and Domestication of Cultivated <span class="hlt">Banana</span> Inferred from Chloroplast and Nuclear Genes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zhang, Cui; Wang, Xin-Feng; Shi, Feng-Xue; Chen, Wen-Na; Ge, Xue-Jun</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Background Cultivated <span class="hlt">bananas</span> are large, vegetatively-propagated members of the genus Musa. More than 1,000 cultivars are grown worldwide and they are major economic and food resources in numerous developing countries. It has been suggested that cultivated <span class="hlt">bananas</span> originated from the islands of Southeast Asia (ISEA) and have been developed through complex geodomestication pathways. However, the maternal and parental donors of most cultivars are unknown, and the pattern of nucleotide diversity in domesticated <span class="hlt">banana</span> has not been fully resolved. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied the genetics of 16 cultivated and 18 wild Musa accessions using two single-copy nuclear (granule-bound starch synthase I, GBSS I, also known as Waxy, and alcohol dehydrogenase 1, Adh1) and two chloroplast (maturase K, matK, and the trnL-F gene cluster) genes. The results of phylogenetic analyses showed that all A-genome haplotypes of cultivated <span class="hlt">bananas</span> were grouped together with those of ISEA subspecies of M. acuminata (A-genome). Similarly, the B- and S-genome haplotypes of cultivated <span class="hlt">bananas</span> clustered with the wild species M. balbisiana (B-genome) and M. schizocarpa (S-genome), respectively. Notably, it has been shown that distinct haplotypes of each cultivar (A-genome group) were nested together to different ISEA subspecies M. acuminata. Analyses of nucleotide polymorphism in the Waxy and Adh1 genes revealed that, in comparison to the wild relatives, cultivated <span class="hlt">banana</span> exhibited slightly lower nucleotide diversity both across all sites and specifically at silent sites. However, dramatically reduced nucleotide diversity was found at nonsynonymous sites for cultivated <span class="hlt">bananas</span>. Conclusions/Significance Our study not only confirmed the origin of cultivated <span class="hlt">banana</span> as arising from multiple intra- and inter-specific hybridization events, but also showed that cultivated <span class="hlt">banana</span> may have not suffered a severe genetic bottleneck during the domestication process. Importantly, our findings</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016LPICo1926.6053H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016LPICo1926.6053H"><span id="translatedtitle">Massive Late Noachian South Polar/Southern Upland Ice Deposits: Predictions and Tests of the Late Noachian "Cold and Icy <span class="hlt">Highlands</span>" Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Head, J. W.</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>New Noachian climate models predict a "cold and icy <span class="hlt">highlands</span>": glacial ice dominates the southern <span class="hlt">highlands</span> around a huge south polar ice deposit. We document the predicted nature of these polar/circumpolar deposits and test it with observations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3416381','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3416381"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Banana</span>-Associated Microbial Communities in Uganda Are Highly Diverse but Dominated by Enterobacteriaceae</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Rossmann, Bettina; Müller, Henry; Smalla, Kornelia; Mpiira, Samuel; Tumuhairwe, John Baptist; Staver, Charles</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Bananas</span> are among the most widely consumed foods in the world. In Uganda, the country with the second largest <span class="hlt">banana</span> production in the world, <span class="hlt">bananas</span> are the most important staple food. The objective of this study was to analyze <span class="hlt">banana</span>-associated microorganisms and to select efficient antagonists against fungal pathogens which are responsible for substantial yield losses. We studied the structure and function of microbial communities (endosphere, rhizosphere, and soil) obtained from three different traditional farms in Uganda by cultivation-independent (PCR-SSCP fingerprints of 16S rRNA/ITS genes, pyrosequencing of enterobacterial 16S rRNA gene fragments, quantitative PCR, fluorescence in situ hybridization coupled with confocal laser scanning microscopy, and PCR-based detection of broad-host-range plasmids and sulfonamide resistance genes) and cultivation-dependent methods. The results showed microhabitat-specific microbial communities that were significant across sites and treatments. Furthermore, all microhabitats contained a high number and broad spectrum of indigenous antagonists toward identified fungal pathogens. While bacterial antagonists were found to be enriched in <span class="hlt">banana</span> plants, fungal antagonists were less abundant and mainly found in soil. The <span class="hlt">banana</span> stem endosphere was the habitat with the highest bacterial counts (up to 109 gene copy numbers g−1). Here, enterics were found to be enhanced in abundance and diversity; they provided one-third of the bacteria and were identified by pyrosequencing with 14 genera, including not only potential human (Escherichia, Klebsiella, Salmonella, and Yersinia spp.) and plant (Pectobacterium spp.) pathogens but also disease-suppressive bacteria (Serratia spp.). The dominant role of enterics can be explained by the permanent nature and vegetative propagation of <span class="hlt">banana</span> and the amendments of human, as well as animal, manure in these traditional cultivations. PMID:22562988</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.7268D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.7268D"><span id="translatedtitle">A comparison between energy transfer and atmospheric turbulent exchanges over alpine meadow and <span class="hlt">banana</span> plantation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ding, Zhangwei; Ma, Yaoming; Wen, Zhiping; Ma, Weiqiang</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Banana</span> plantation and alpine meadow ecosystems in southern China and the Tibetan Plateau are unique in the underlying surfaces they exhibit. In this study, we used eddy covariance and a micrometeorological tower to examine the characteristics of land surface energy exchanges over a <span class="hlt">banana</span> plantation in southern China and an alpine meadow in the Tibetan Plateau from May 2010 to August 2012. The results showed that the diurnal and seasonal variations in upward shortwave radiation flux and surface soil heat flux were larger over the alpine meadow than over the <span class="hlt">banana</span> plantation surface. Dominant energy partitioning varied with season. Latent heat flux was the main consumer of net radiation flux in the growing season, whereas sensible heat flux was the main consumer during other periods. The Monin-Obukhov similarity theory was employed for comparative purposes, using sonic anemometer observations of flow over the surfaces of <span class="hlt">banana</span> plantations in the humid southern China monsoon region and the semi-arid areas of the TP, and was found to be applicable. Over <span class="hlt">banana</span> plantation and alpine meadow areas, the average surface albedo and surface aerodynamic roughness lengths under neutral atmospheric conditions were ~0.128 and 0.47m, and ~0.223 and 0.01m, respectively. During the measuring period, the mean annual bulk transfer coefficients for momentum and sensible heat were 1.47×10-2 and 7.13×10-3, and 2.91×10-3 and 1.96×10-3, for <span class="hlt">banana</span> plantation and alpine meadow areas, respectively. This is the first time in Asia that long-term open field measurements have been taken with the specific aim of making comparisons between <span class="hlt">banana</span> plantation and alpine meadow surfaces.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5085665','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5085665"><span id="translatedtitle">Global Transcriptomic Analysis of Targeted Silencing of Two Paralogous ACC Oxidase Genes in <span class="hlt">Banana</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Xia, Yan; Kuan, Chi; Chiu, Chien-Hsiang; Chen, Xiao-Jing; Do, Yi-Yin; Huang, Pung-Ling</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Among 18 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) oxidase homologous genes existing in the <span class="hlt">banana</span> genome there are two genes, Mh-ACO1 and Mh-ACO2, that participate in <span class="hlt">banana</span> fruit ripening. To better understand the physiological functions of Mh-ACO1 and Mh-ACO2, two hairpin-type siRNA expression vectors targeting both the Mh-ACO1 and Mh-ACO2 were constructed and incorporated into the <span class="hlt">banana</span> genome by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The generation of Mh-ACO1 and Mh-ACO2 RNAi transgenic <span class="hlt">banana</span> plants was confirmed by Southern blot analysis. To gain insights into the functional diversity and complexity between Mh-ACO1 and Mh-ACO2, transcriptome sequencing of <span class="hlt">banana</span> fruits using the Illumina next-generation sequencer was performed. A total of 32,093,976 reads, assembled into 88,031 unigenes for 123,617 transcripts were obtained. Significantly enriched Gene Oncology (GO) terms and the number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) with GO annotation were ‘catalytic activity’ (1327, 56.4%), ‘heme binding’ (65, 2.76%), ‘tetrapyrrole binding’ (66, 2.81%), and ‘oxidoreductase activity’ (287, 12.21%). Real-time RT-PCR was further performed with mRNAs from both peel and pulp of <span class="hlt">banana</span> fruits in Mh-ACO1 and Mh-ACO2 RNAi transgenic plants. The results showed that expression levels of genes related to ethylene signaling in ripening <span class="hlt">banana</span> fruits were strongly influenced by the expression of genes associated with ethylene biosynthesis. PMID:27681726</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22562988','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22562988"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Banana</span>-associated microbial communities in Uganda are highly diverse but dominated by Enterobacteriaceae.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rossmann, Bettina; Müller, Henry; Smalla, Kornelia; Mpiira, Samuel; Tumuhairwe, John Baptist; Staver, Charles; Berg, Gabriele</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Bananas</span> are among the most widely consumed foods in the world. In Uganda, the country with the second largest <span class="hlt">banana</span> production in the world, <span class="hlt">bananas</span> are the most important staple food. The objective of this study was to analyze <span class="hlt">banana</span>-associated microorganisms and to select efficient antagonists against fungal pathogens which are responsible for substantial yield losses. We studied the structure and function of microbial communities (endosphere, rhizosphere, and soil) obtained from three different traditional farms in Uganda by cultivation-independent (PCR-SSCP fingerprints of 16S rRNA/ITS genes, pyrosequencing of enterobacterial 16S rRNA gene fragments, quantitative PCR, fluorescence in situ hybridization coupled with confocal laser scanning microscopy, and PCR-based detection of broad-host-range plasmids and sulfonamide resistance genes) and cultivation-dependent methods. The results showed microhabitat-specific microbial communities that were significant across sites and treatments. Furthermore, all microhabitats contained a high number and broad spectrum of indigenous antagonists toward identified fungal pathogens. While bacterial antagonists were found to be enriched in <span class="hlt">banana</span> plants, fungal antagonists were less abundant and mainly found in soil. The <span class="hlt">banana</span> stem endosphere was the habitat with the highest bacterial counts (up to 10(9) gene copy numbers g(-1)). Here, enterics were found to be enhanced in abundance and diversity; they provided one-third of the bacteria and were identified by pyrosequencing with 14 genera, including not only potential human (Escherichia, Klebsiella, Salmonella, and Yersinia spp.) and plant (Pectobacterium spp.) pathogens but also disease-suppressive bacteria (Serratia spp.). The dominant role of enterics can be explained by the permanent nature and vegetative propagation of <span class="hlt">banana</span> and the amendments of human, as well as animal, manure in these traditional cultivations.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050179462','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050179462"><span id="translatedtitle">Pervasive Layering in the Lunar <span class="hlt">Highland</span> Crust: Evidence from Apollos 15, 16,and 17</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lowman, Paul D., Jr.; Yang, Tiffany</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>This paper presents results of a photogeologic reconnaissance of 70 mm photographs taken on the lunar surface during the Apollo 15, 16, and 17 missions, whose primary objective was to investigate the lunar <span class="hlt">highland</span> crust. Photographs at all three sites, notably the Apennine Front, show pervasive layered structure. These layers are easily distinguished from lighting artifacts, and are considered genuine crustal structures. Their number, thickness, and extent implies that they are lava flows, not ejecta blankets or intrusive features. They appear to be the upper part of the earliest lunar crust, possibly forming a layer tens of kilometers thick. Remote sensing studies (X-ray fluorescence and reflectance spectroscopy), indicate that the <span class="hlt">highland</span> crust is dominantly a feldspathic basalt. It is concluded that the <span class="hlt">highland</span> layers represent a global crust formed by eruptions of high-alumina basalt in the first few hundred million years of the Moon's history.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940017194','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940017194"><span id="translatedtitle">The early Martian environment: Clues from the cratered <span class="hlt">highlands</span> and the Precambrian Earth</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Craddock, R. A.; Maxwell, T. A.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>There is abundant geomorphic evidence to suggest that Mars once had a much denser and warmer atmosphere than present today. Outflow channel, ancient valley networks, and degraded impact craters in the <span class="hlt">highlands</span> all suggest that ancient Martian atmospheric conditions supported liquid water on the surface. The pressure, composition, and duration of this atmosphere is largely unknown. However, we have attempted to place some constraints on the nature of the early Martian atmosphere by analyzing morphologic variations of <span class="hlt">highland</span> impact crater populations, synthesizing results of other investigators, and incorporating what is know about the geologic history of the early Earth. This is important for understanding the climatic evolution of Mars, the relative abundance of martian volatiles, and the nature of <span class="hlt">highland</span> surface materials.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12296236','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12296236"><span id="translatedtitle">Female spirit cults as a window on gender relations in the <span class="hlt">highlands</span> of Papua New Guinea.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Stewart, P J; Strathern, A</p> <p>1999-09-01</p> <p>Early writings on male cults in the <span class="hlt">highlands</span> of Papua New Guinea tended to stress the exclusion of women and the collective agency of men. Looking at a subset of these cults from the Western and Southern <span class="hlt">Highlands</span> Provinces, centering on Female Spirit figures, the authors argue that in these cases the cults are better understood as expressions of a collaborative model, in which gendered cooperation, both in practice and in terms of ritual symbolism, is activated in order to produce fertility and wealth. Positive collaboration is involved as well as structural complementarity. The collaborative model is therefore suggested as an alternative to the model of "male exclusivity" in the analysis of certain cult practices in these parts of the New Guinea <span class="hlt">highlands</span> region. PMID:12296236</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.water.usgs.gov/wri85-4252','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.water.usgs.gov/wri85-4252"><span id="translatedtitle">Preliminary evaluation of the <span class="hlt">Highland</span> Rim aquifer system in Tennessee for receiving injected wastes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Bradley, M.W.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>The EPA has authority under the Safe Drinking Water Act to protect underground sources of drinking water from contamination by deep well injection. An aquifer, however, may be exempted from protection and used for injected wastes where the aquifer meets criteria established in the Agency 's Underground Injection Control program. The <span class="hlt">Highland</span> Rim aquifer system in Tennessee consists of Mississippian age carbonate rocks and occurs from the Valley and Ridge of East Tennessee to west of the Tennessee River. This aquifer contains potable water and is an important source of drinking water for municipal and domestic supplies on the <span class="hlt">Highland</span> Rim. The <span class="hlt">Highland</span> Rim aquifer system under parts of the Cumberland Plateau is not currently used as a source of drinking water and is not expected to be used in the future. These areas meet parts of the EPA 's Underground Injection Control criteria for exempting aquifers to receive injected waste. (Author 's abstract)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=race+AND+bottom&pg=5&id=ED331940','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=race+AND+bottom&pg=5&id=ED331940"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Highlander</span> Folk School and the Labor Movement, 1932-1953. The Relationship between Education and Social Movements.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Zacharakis-Jutz, Jeff</p> <p></p> <p>The mission of the <span class="hlt">Highlander</span> Folk School (Tennessee), which flourished between 1932 and 1961, was intimately intertwined with the labor movement of the 1930s and 1940s and the civil rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s. <span class="hlt">Highlander</span> began as an Appalachian community school seeking to understand the issues and problems of the community it served.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-09-30/pdf/2011-25244.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-09-30/pdf/2011-25244.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">76 FR 60935 - Notice of Application from ExxonMobil Corporation, <span class="hlt">Highland</span> Uranium Mine and Millsite, To Amend...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-09-30</p> <p>... accordance with the NRC E-Filing rule (72 FR 49139, August 28, 2007). The E-Filing process requires... COMMISSION Notice of Application from ExxonMobil Corporation, <span class="hlt">Highland</span> Uranium Mine and Millsite, To Amend... concentration limits and to extend the NRC Long-Term Surveillance Boundary at its <span class="hlt">Highland</span> Uranium Mine and...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1600020','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1600020"><span id="translatedtitle">A clinico-epidemiological study of epidemic typhus in <span class="hlt">Africa</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Perine, P L; Chandler, B P; Krause, D K; McCardle, P; Awoke, S; Habte-Gabr, E; Wisseman, C L; McDade, J E</p> <p>1992-05-01</p> <p>Epidemic, louse-borne typhus persists in the rugged, mountainous areas of Ethiopia and much of northeastern and central <span class="hlt">Africa</span> as well as in the rural <span class="hlt">highlands</span> of Central and South America, where the conditions of living favor the harboring of body lice and where antibiotic treatment and effective louse-control measures are unavailable. The historical significance and current epidemiology of typhus, including the reservoir of Rickettsia prowazekii in flying squirrels in the United States, are reviewed, and the clinical presentation, laboratory findings, and hospital course in the cases of 60 patients admitted with epidemic, louse-borne typhus to the St. Paul's Hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, are described. Treatment of this disease with oral doxycycline, tetracycline, or chloramphenicol prevents complications and results in prompt resolution of symptoms. PMID:1600020</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19840004991','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19840004991"><span id="translatedtitle">Workshop on Pristine <span class="hlt">Highlands</span> Rocks and the early History of the Moon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Longhi, J. (Editor); Ryder, G. (Editor)</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>Oxide composition of the Moon, evidence for an initially totally molten Moon, geophysical contraints on lunar composition, random sampling of a layered intrusion, lunar <span class="hlt">highland</span> rocks, early evolution of the Moon, mineralogy and petrology of the pristine rocks, relationship of the pristine nonmore rocks to the <span class="hlt">highlands</span> soils and breccias, ferroan anorthositic norite, early lunar igneous history, compositional variation in ferroan anosthosites, a lunar magma ocean, deposits of lunar pristine rocks, lunar and planetary compositions and early fractionation in the solar nebula, Moon composition models, petrogenesis in a Moon with a chondritic refractory lithophile pattern, a terrestrial analog of lunar ilmenite bearing camulates, and the lunar magma ocean are summarized.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910042964&hterms=magnet&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DTitle%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dmagnet','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910042964&hterms=magnet&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DTitle%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dmagnet"><span id="translatedtitle">Magnetic beneficiation of <span class="hlt">highland</span> and hi-Ti mare soils - Magnet requirements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Oder, R. R.; Taylor, L. A.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Magnetic beneficiation of immature <span class="hlt">highland</span> soil 67511 recovered 22 wt pct of the sample with an iron oxide content of 0.6 pct. Magnetic isolates of immature <span class="hlt">highland</span> soils are candidates for the manufacture of silicon, aluminum, and other metals. Fifty-seven percent of the ilmenite in immature mare soil 71061 was recovered in magnetic processing. Ilmenite can be recovered by magnetic separation but may be difficult to 'high'grade'. A parametric description is given of magnetic separators suitable for supplying ilmenite for the production of 22.7 metric tons per year oxygen.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/prof/p1565c/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/prof/p1565c/"><span id="translatedtitle">Geochemistry and stratigraphic relations of middle Proterozoic rocks of the New Jersey <span class="hlt">Highlands</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Volkert, Richard A.; Drake, Avery Ala</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Middle Proterozoic rocks of the New Jersey <span class="hlt">Highlands</span> consist of a basement of dacitic, tonalitic, trondhjemitic, and charnockitic rocks that constitute the Losee metamorphic suite. These rocks are unconformably overlain by a layered supracrustal sequence of quartzo-feldspathic and calcareous rocks. Abundant sheets of hornblende- and biotite-bearing rocks of the Byram intrusive suite and clinopyroxene-bearing rocks of the Lake Hopatcong intrusive suite were synkinematically emplaced at about 1,090 Ma. These intrusive suites constitute the Vernon Supersuite. The postorogenic Mount Eve Granite has been dated at 1,020?4 Ma and is confined to the extreme northern <span class="hlt">Highlands</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=231337','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=231337"><span id="translatedtitle">Development of VNTR Markers to Assess Genetic Diversity of Mycosphaerella Fijiensis, the Causal Agent of Black Leaf Streak Disease in <span class="hlt">Bananas</span> (Musa spp.)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Mycosphaerella fijiensis is the causal agent of black leaf streak (BLS) disease in <span class="hlt">bananas</span>. This pathogen threatens global <span class="hlt">banana</span> production as the main export cultivars are highly susceptible. As a consequence, commercial <span class="hlt">banana</span> plantations must be protected chemically with fungicides; up to 40 app...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11770206','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11770206"><span id="translatedtitle">Village poultry production systems in the central <span class="hlt">highlands</span> of Ethiopia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dessie, T; Ogle, B</p> <p>2001-12-01</p> <p>Participatory rural appraisal (PRA), supported by checklists and intensive case studies on individual households, was carried out in three villages at three different altitudes in the central <span class="hlt">highlands</span> of Ethiopia. The chicken production system in each village is described and the problems are discussed. More than 60% of the families kept chickens, and in most cases the women owned and managed the birds and controlled the cash from the sales. The production systems followed were mainly low-input and small-scale, with 7-10 mature birds per household, reared in the back yards with inadequate housing, feeding and health care. The average egg production per clutch was 15-20, with 3-4 clutches per year. The mean number of eggs set per bird was 12.9 +/- 2.2 (n = 160), depending on the size of the bird and season, and the hatching rate was 80.9% +/- 11.1%, range 44%-100% (n = 160). Poultry meat and eggs were generally accepted and appreciated in all three villages. In addition to the small amount of cash income they provide, scavenging chickens have nutritional, cultural and social functions. The flock composition, price of poultry and poultry products, disease outbreaks and hatching of chicks were strongly affected by season. Disease was cited as the most important problem by most of the members of the community, followed by predation, lack of feed, poor housing, insufficient water and parasites. Disease periodically decimated the flocks, and consequently, about 50% of the eggs produced were incubated in order to replace the birds that had died. The major source of loss in the system was the high mortality of chicks (61%) that occurred between hatching and the end of brooding at 8 weeks of age. The system was characterized by no or few inputs and a low output level. The major input was the cost of foundation stock, but after that virtually no cost was involved. The major source of feed for the birds was from the scavenging feed resource base, which comprised table</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26471649','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26471649"><span id="translatedtitle">Image analysis to evaluate the browning degree of <span class="hlt">banana</span> (Musa spp.) peel.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cho, Jeong-Seok; Lee, Hyeon-Jeong; Park, Jung-Hoon; Sung, Jun-Hyung; Choi, Ji-Young; Moon, Kwang-Deog</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Image analysis was applied to examine <span class="hlt">banana</span> peel browning. The <span class="hlt">banana</span> samples were divided into 3 treatment groups: no treatment and normal packaging (Cont); CO2 gas exchange packaging (CO); normal packaging with an ethylene generator (ET). We confirmed that the browning of <span class="hlt">banana</span> peels developed more quickly in the CO group than the other groups based on sensory test and enzyme assay. The G (green) and CIE L(∗), a(∗), and b(∗) values obtained from the image analysis sharply increased or decreased in the CO group. And these colour values showed high correlation coefficients (>0.9) with the sensory test results. CIE L(∗)a(∗)b(∗) values using a colorimeter also showed high correlation coefficients but comparatively lower than those of image analysis. Based on this analysis, browning of the <span class="hlt">banana</span> occurred more quickly for CO2 gas exchange packaging, and image analysis can be used to evaluate the browning of <span class="hlt">banana</span> peels. PMID:26471649</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15686392','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15686392"><span id="translatedtitle">Determination of the molecular and structural characteristics of okenia, mango, and <span class="hlt">banana</span> starches.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Millan-Testa, C E; Mendez-Montealvo, M G; Ottenhof, M-A; Farhat, I A; Bello-Pérez, L A</p> <p>2005-02-01</p> <p>Starches were isolated from nonconventional sources (<span class="hlt">banana</span>, mango, and okenia) and their characteristics were examined using polarized light microscopy, X-ray diffraction pattern, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). <span class="hlt">Banana</span> starch granules were of an ellipsoidal shape with size between approximately 8 and 20 microm; okenia had the smallest granule size, between approximately 2 and 5 microm. The three starches showed the Maltese cross, indicative of an intact granule structure. Okenia and mango starches had the A-type X-ray diffraction pattern, common to native cereal starches, whereas <span class="hlt">banana</span> starch showed a mixture between A- and B-type pattern. <span class="hlt">Banana</span> starch had the highest temperature (77.6 degrees C) and enthalpy (23.4 J/g) of gelatinization in excess water conditions; okenia had the lowest temperature (71.2 degrees C) and enthalpy (15 J/g), which may be related to the X-ray diffraction pattern and its small granule size. Both the okenia and mango starches had a higher molar mass and gyration radius than <span class="hlt">banana</span> starch, which may be related to the differences determined in their crystalline structures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2447444','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2447444"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of <span class="hlt">banana</span> powder (Musa sapientum var. paradisiaca) on gastric mucosal shedding.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mukhopadhyaya, K; Bhattacharya, D; Chakraborty, A; Goel, R K; Sanyal, A K</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Banana</span> pulp powder (Musa sapientum Linn. var. paradisiaca) was studied for its effects on gastric mucosal resistance. <span class="hlt">Banana</span>-treated (0.5 g/kg orally, twice daily for 3 days) rats of either sex showed: (i) a significant increase in the [3H]thymidine incorporation into mucosal cell DNA; (ii) a significant increase in the total carbohydrate (sum of total hexoses, hexosamine, fucose and sialic acid) content of gastric mucosa; (iii) a significant decrease in gastric juice DNA and protein; (iv) a significant increase in the total carbohydrates and carbohydrate/protein ratio of gastric juice. Aspirin treatment to rats caused similar effects as <span class="hlt">banana</span> on the [3H]thymidine incorporation into mucosal cell DNA but showed opposite effects on the other parameters. These results suggest that <span class="hlt">banana</span> treatment increased and aspirin decreased the gastric mucosal resistance as evidenced by a respective decrease and increase in gastric juice DNA, the latter serving as an index of the rate of mucosal shedding. Increased cellular mucus may be the factor for increased mucosal resistance. The results of the present study tend to confirm that plantain <span class="hlt">banana</span> powder strengthens mucosal resistance and promotes the healing of ulcers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24471133','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24471133"><span id="translatedtitle">Physicochemical and Microbial Properties of the Korean Traditional Rice Wine, Makgeolli, Supplemented with <span class="hlt">Banana</span> during Fermentation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kim, Eunkyung; Chang, Yoon Hyuk; Ko, Jae Youn; Jeong, Yoonhwa</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>The objective of the present study was to evaluate the physicochemical and microbial properties of the Korean traditional rice wine Makgeolli, supplemented with <span class="hlt">banana</span> during 6 day fermentation. The alcohol contents of the control and <span class="hlt">banana</span> Makgeolli were 17.0 and 16.5%, respectively. The pH values decreased while total acidity, total soluble solids, and color values increased throughout the fermentation process. An increase in microorganism counts throughout the 6-day fermentation period was noted in all samples. The major free sugar and organic acid detected in all samples were glucose and succinic acid, respectively. There were 39 volatile compounds detected in the control and <span class="hlt">banana</span> Makgeolli. The major ester detected was ethyl acetate (20.037 and 22.604% for the control and <span class="hlt">banana</span> Makgeolli, respectively). The major alcohol compounds detected were 3-methylbutanol (20.933%) and 3-methyl-1-butanol (34.325%) in the control. 2-mtehyl-1-propanol (22.289%) and 3-methyl-1-butanol (39.851%) were the highest alcohol compounds detected in the <span class="hlt">banana</span> Makgeolli.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20839056','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20839056"><span id="translatedtitle">In vitro colonic fermentation and glycemic response of different kinds of unripe <span class="hlt">banana</span> flour.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Menezes, Elizabete Wenzel; Dan, Milana C T; Cardenette, Giselli H L; Goñi, Isabel; Bello-Pérez, Luis Arturo; Lajolo, Franco M</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>This work aimed to study the in vitro colonic fermentation profile of unavailable carbohydrates of two different kinds of unripe <span class="hlt">banana</span> flour and to evaluate their postprandial glycemic responses. The unripe <span class="hlt">banana</span> mass (UBM), obtained from the cooked pulp of unripe <span class="hlt">bananas</span> (Musa acuminata, Nanicão variety), and the unripe <span class="hlt">banana</span> starch (UBS), obtained from isolated starch of unripe <span class="hlt">banana</span>, plantain type (Musa paradisiaca) in natura, were studied. The fermentability of the flours was evaluated by different parameters, using rat inoculum, as well as the glycemic response produced after the ingestion by healthy volunteers. The flours presented high concentration of unavailable carbohydrates, which varied in the content of resistant starch, dietary fiber and indigestible fraction (IF). The in vitro colonic fermentation of the flours was high, 98% for the UBS and 75% for the UBM when expressed by the total amount of SCFA such as acetate, butyrate and propionate in relation to lactulose. The increase in the area under the glycemic curve after ingestion of the flours was 90% lower for the UBS and 40% lower for the UBM than the increase produced after bread intake. These characteristics highlight the potential of UBM and UBS as functional ingredients. However, in vivo studies are necessary in order to evaluate the possible benefit effects of the fermentation on intestinal health. PMID:20839056</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24854442','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24854442"><span id="translatedtitle">Phenotypic and molecular characterization of Colletotrichum species associated with anthracnose of <span class="hlt">banana</span> (Musa spp) in Malaysia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Intan Sakinah, M A; Suzianti, I V; Latiffah, Z</p> <p>2014-05-09</p> <p>Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum species is a common postharvest disease of <span class="hlt">banana</span> fruit. We investigated and identified Colletotrichum species associated with anthracnose in several local <span class="hlt">banana</span> cultivars based on morphological characteristics and sequencing of ITS regions and of the β-tubulin gene. Thirty-eight Colletotrichum isolates were encountered in anthracnose lesions of five local <span class="hlt">banana</span> cultivars, 'berangan', 'mas', 'awak', 'rastali', and 'nangka'. Based on morphological characteristics, 32 isolates were identified as Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and 6 isolates as C. musae. C. gloeosporioides isolates were divided into two morphotypes, with differences in colony color, shape of the conidia and growth rate. Based on ITS regions and β-tubulin sequences, 35 of the isolates were identified as C. gloeosporioides and only 3 isolates as C. musae; the percentage of similarity from BLAST ranged from 95-100% for ITS regions and 97-100% for β-tubulin. C. gloeosporioides isolates were more prevalent compared to C. musae. This is the first record of C. gloeosporioides associated with <span class="hlt">banana</span> anthracnose in Malaysia. In a phylogenetic analysis of the combined dataset of ITS regions and β-tubulin using a maximum likelihood method, C. gloeosporioides and C. musae isolates were clearly separated into two groups. We concluded that C. gloeosporioides and C. musae isolates are associated with anthracnose in the local <span class="hlt">banana</span> cultivars and that C. gloeosporioides is more prevalent than C. musae.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3413722','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3413722"><span id="translatedtitle">Predicting the Benefits of <span class="hlt">Banana</span> Bunchy Top Virus Exclusion from Commercial Plantations in Australia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cook, David C.; Liu, Shuang; Edwards, Jacqueline; Villalta, Oscar N.; Aurambout, Jean-Philippe; Kriticos, Darren J.; Drenth, Andre; De Barro, Paul J.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Benefit cost analysis is a tried and tested analytical framework that can clearly communicate likely net changes in producer welfare from investment decisions to diverse stakeholder audiences. However, in a plant biosecurity context, it is often difficult to predict policy benefits over time due to complex biophysical interactions between invasive species, their hosts, and the environment. In this paper, we demonstrate how a break-even style benefit cost analysis remains highly relevant to biosecurity decision-makers using the example of <span class="hlt">banana</span> bunchy top virus, a plant pathogen targeted for eradication from <span class="hlt">banana</span> growing regions of Australia. We develop an analytical approach using a stratified diffusion spread model to simulate the likely benefits of exclusion of this virus from commercial <span class="hlt">banana</span> plantations over time relative to a nil management scenario in which no surveillance or containment activities take place. Using Monte Carlo simulation to generate a range of possible future incursion scenarios, we predict the exclusion benefits of the disease will avoid Aus$15.9-27.0 million in annual losses for the <span class="hlt">banana</span> industry. For these exclusion benefits to be reduced to zero would require a bunchy top re-establishment event in commercial <span class="hlt">banana</span> plantations three years in every four. Sensitivity analysis indicates that exclusion benefits can be greatly enhanced through improvements in disease surveillance and incursion response. PMID:22879960</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23116484','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23116484"><span id="translatedtitle">Oral immunogenicity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus antigen expressed in transgenic <span class="hlt">banana</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chan, Hui-Ting; Chia, Min-Yuan; Pang, Victor Fei; Jeng, Chian-Ren; Do, Yi-Yin; Huang, Pung-Ling</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a persistent threat of economically significant influence to the swine industry worldwide. Recombinant DNA technology coupled with tissue culture technology is a viable alternative for the inexpensive production of heterologous proteins in planta. Embryogenic cells of <span class="hlt">banana</span> cv. 'Pei chiao' (AAA) have been transformed with the ORF5 gene of PRRSV envelope glycoprotein (GP5) using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and have been confirmed. Recombinant GP5 protein levels in the transgenic <span class="hlt">banana</span> leaves were detected and ranged from 0.021%-0.037% of total soluble protein. Pigs were immunized with recombinant GP5 protein by orally feeding transgenic <span class="hlt">banana</span> leaves for three consecutive doses at a 2-week interval and challenged with PRRSV at 7 weeks postinitial immunization. A vaccination-dependent gradational increase in the elicitation of serum and saliva anti-PRRSV IgG and IgA was observed. Furthermore, significantly lower viraemia and tissue viral load were recorded when compared with the pigs fed with untransformed <span class="hlt">banana</span> leaves. The results suggest that transgenic <span class="hlt">banana</span> leaves expressing recombinant GP5 protein can be an effective strategy for oral delivery of recombinant subunit vaccines in pigs and can open new avenues for the production of vaccines against PRRSV. PMID:23116484</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24361571','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24361571"><span id="translatedtitle">Carbon footprint of premium quality export <span class="hlt">bananas</span>: case study in Ecuador, the world's largest exporter.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Iriarte, Alfredo; Almeida, Maria Gabriela; Villalobos, Pablo</p> <p>2014-02-15</p> <p>Nowadays, the new international market demands challenge the food producing countries to include the measurement of the environmental impact generated along the production process for their products. In order to comply with the environmentally responsible market requests the measurement of the greenhouse gas emissions of Ecuadorian agricultural goods has been promoted employing the carbon footprint concept. Ecuador is the largest exporter of <span class="hlt">bananas</span> in the world. Within this context, this study is a first assessment of the carbon footprint of the Ecuadorian premium export <span class="hlt">banana</span> (Musa AAA) using a considerable amount of field data. The system boundaries considered from agricultural production to delivery in a European destination port. The data collected over three years permitted identifying the hot spot stages. For the calculation, the CCaLC V3.0 software developed by the University of Manchester is used. The carbon footprint of the Ecuadorian export <span class="hlt">banana</span> ranged from 0.45 to 1.04 kg CO2-equivalent/kg <span class="hlt">banana</span> depending on the international overseas transport employed. The principal contributors to the carbon footprint are the on farm production and overseas transport stages. Mitigation and reduction strategies were suggested for the main emission sources in order to achieve sustainable <span class="hlt">banana</span> production. PMID:24361571</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20839056','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20839056"><span id="translatedtitle">In vitro colonic fermentation and glycemic response of different kinds of unripe <span class="hlt">banana</span> flour.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Menezes, Elizabete Wenzel; Dan, Milana C T; Cardenette, Giselli H L; Goñi, Isabel; Bello-Pérez, Luis Arturo; Lajolo, Franco M</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>This work aimed to study the in vitro colonic fermentation profile of unavailable carbohydrates of two different kinds of unripe <span class="hlt">banana</span> flour and to evaluate their postprandial glycemic responses. The unripe <span class="hlt">banana</span> mass (UBM), obtained from the cooked pulp of unripe <span class="hlt">bananas</span> (Musa acuminata, Nanicão variety), and the unripe <span class="hlt">banana</span> starch (UBS), obtained from isolated starch of unripe <span class="hlt">banana</span>, plantain type (Musa paradisiaca) in natura, were studied. The fermentability of the flours was evaluated by different parameters, using rat inoculum, as well as the glycemic response produced after the ingestion by healthy volunteers. The flours presented high concentration of unavailable carbohydrates, which varied in the content of resistant starch, dietary fiber and indigestible fraction (IF). The in vitro colonic fermentation of the flours was high, 98% for the UBS and 75% for the UBM when expressed by the total amount of SCFA such as acetate, butyrate and propionate in relation to lactulose. The increase in the area under the glycemic curve after ingestion of the flours was 90% lower for the UBS and 40% lower for the UBM than the increase produced after bread intake. These characteristics highlight the potential of UBM and UBS as functional ingredients. However, in vivo studies are necessary in order to evaluate the possible benefit effects of the fermentation on intestinal health.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24361571','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24361571"><span id="translatedtitle">Carbon footprint of premium quality export <span class="hlt">bananas</span>: case study in Ecuador, the world's largest exporter.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Iriarte, Alfredo; Almeida, Maria Gabriela; Villalobos, Pablo</p> <p>2014-02-15</p> <p>Nowadays, the new international market demands challenge the food producing countries to include the measurement of the environmental impact generated along the production process for their products. In order to comply with the environmentally responsible market requests the measurement of the greenhouse gas emissions of Ecuadorian agricultural goods has been promoted employing the carbon footprint concept. Ecuador is the largest exporter of <span class="hlt">bananas</span> in the world. Within this context, this study is a first assessment of the carbon footprint of the Ecuadorian premium export <span class="hlt">banana</span> (Musa AAA) using a considerable amount of field data. The system boundaries considered from agricultural production to delivery in a European destination port. The data collected over three years permitted identifying the hot spot stages. For the calculation, the CCaLC V3.0 software developed by the University of Manchester is used. The carbon footprint of the Ecuadorian export <span class="hlt">banana</span> ranged from 0.45 to 1.04 kg CO2-equivalent/kg <span class="hlt">banana</span> depending on the international overseas transport employed. The principal contributors to the carbon footprint are the on farm production and overseas transport stages. Mitigation and reduction strategies were suggested for the main emission sources in order to achieve sustainable <span class="hlt">banana</span> production.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008PCE....33..768S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008PCE....33..768S"><span id="translatedtitle">Soil water requirements of tissue-cultured Dwarf Cavendish <span class="hlt">banana</span> ( Musa spp. L)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shongwe, V. D.; Tumber, R.; Masarirambi, M. T.; Mutukumira, A. N.</p> <p></p> <p>The <span class="hlt">banana</span> is one of the most important fruit crops in the world. In terms of consumption, the <span class="hlt">banana</span> fruit is ranked high yet there has not been much research particularly in relation to water requirements for propagules produced by tissue culture. In recent years, tissue culture <span class="hlt">banana</span> planting material has become increasingly important due to its vigorous growth and high yields. The objective of this study was to investigate optimum soil water requirements of tissue-cultured <span class="hlt">banana</span>. Dwarf Cavendish tissue-cultured plantlets grown in pots in a greenhouse were subjected to four irrigation regimes at 100% ETm, 85% ETm, 65% ETm, and 40% ETm. Plant parameters measured were leaf number, plant height, pseudo-stem girth, leaf length, leaf width, leaf area, leaf area index, leaf index, leaf colour, and plant vigour. Soil water potential measurements were also made over a three-month period. Differences between irrigating at 100% ETm and 85% ETm were not significantly ( P < 0.05) different. Both irrigation regimes resulted in significant ( P < 0.05) increases in leaf number, leaf length, leaf area, leaf area index, green leaf colour intensity, plant height, and plant height, compared to 65% and 40% ETm treatments. Pseudo-stem girth was highest from the 100% ETm compared to the other treatments. Economic yields of <span class="hlt">banana</span> may be obtained with irrigation regimes ranging between 100% ETm and 85% ETm.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24977315','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24977315"><span id="translatedtitle">Immunodiagnosis of episomal <span class="hlt">Banana</span> streak MY virus using polyclonal antibodies to an expressed putative coat protein.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sharma, Susheel Kumar; Kumar, P Vignesh; Baranwal, Virendra Kumar</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>A cryptic Badnavirus species complex, known as <span class="hlt">banana</span> streak viruses (BSV) poses a serious threat to <span class="hlt">banana</span> production and genetic improvement worldwide. Due to the presence of integrated BSV sequences in the <span class="hlt">banana</span> genome, routine detection is largely based on serological and nucleo-serological diagnostic methods which require high titre specific polyclonal antiserum. Viral structural proteins like coat protein (CP) are the best target for in vitro expression, to be used as antigen for antiserum production. However, in badnaviruses precise CP sequences are not known. In this study, two putative CP coding regions (p48 and p37) of <span class="hlt">Banana</span> streak MY virus (BSMYV) were identified in silico by comparison with caulimoviruses, retroviruses and Rice tungro bacilliform virus. The putative CP coding region (p37) was in vitro expressed in pMAL system and affinity purified. The purified fusion protein was used as antigen for raising polyclonal antiserum in rabbit. The specificity of antiserum was confirmed in Western blots, immunosorbent electron microscopy (ISEM) and antigen coated plate-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ACP-ELISA). The antiserum (1:2000) was successfully used in ACP-ELISA for specific detection of BSMYV infection in field and tissue culture raised <span class="hlt">banana</span> plants. The antiserum was also utilized in immuno-capture PCR (IC-PCR) based indexing of episomal BSMYV infection. This is the first report of in silico identification of putative CP region of BSMYV, production of polyclonal antiserum against recombinant p37 and its successful use in immunodetection.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23116484','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23116484"><span id="translatedtitle">Oral immunogenicity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus antigen expressed in transgenic <span class="hlt">banana</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chan, Hui-Ting; Chia, Min-Yuan; Pang, Victor Fei; Jeng, Chian-Ren; Do, Yi-Yin; Huang, Pung-Ling</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a persistent threat of economically significant influence to the swine industry worldwide. Recombinant DNA technology coupled with tissue culture technology is a viable alternative for the inexpensive production of heterologous proteins in planta. Embryogenic cells of <span class="hlt">banana</span> cv. 'Pei chiao' (AAA) have been transformed with the ORF5 gene of PRRSV envelope glycoprotein (GP5) using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and have been confirmed. Recombinant GP5 protein levels in the transgenic <span class="hlt">banana</span> leaves were detected and ranged from 0.021%-0.037% of total soluble protein. Pigs were immunized with recombinant GP5 protein by orally feeding transgenic <span class="hlt">banana</span> leaves for three consecutive doses at a 2-week interval and challenged with PRRSV at 7 weeks postinitial immunization. A vaccination-dependent gradational increase in the elicitation of serum and saliva anti-PRRSV IgG and IgA was observed. Furthermore, significantly lower viraemia and tissue viral load were recorded when compared with the pigs fed with untransformed <span class="hlt">banana</span> leaves. The results suggest that transgenic <span class="hlt">banana</span> leaves expressing recombinant GP5 protein can be an effective strategy for oral delivery of recombinant subunit vaccines in pigs and can open new avenues for the production of vaccines against PRRSV.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JApSp..83..254Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JApSp..83..254Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Hyperspectral Surface Analysis for Ripeness Estimation and Quick UV-C Surface Treatments for Preservation of <span class="hlt">Bananas</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhao, W.; Yang, Zh.; Chen, Zh.; Liu, J.; Wang, W. Ch.; Zheng, W. Yu.</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>This study aimed to determine the ripeness of <span class="hlt">bananas</span> using hyperspectral surface analysis and how a rapid UV-C (ultraviolet-C light) surface treatment could reduce decay. The surface of the <span class="hlt">banana</span> fruit and its stages of maturity were studied using a hyperspectral imaging technique in the visible and near infrared (370-1000 nm) regions. The vselected color ratios from these spectral images were used for classifying the whole <span class="hlt">banana</span> into immature, ripe, half-ripe and overripe stages. By using a BP neural network, models based on the wavelengths were developed to predict quality attributes. The mean discrimination rate was 98.17%. The surface of the fresh <span class="hlt">bananas</span> was treated with UV-C at dosages from 15-55 μW/cm2. The visual qualities with or without UV-C treatment were compared using the image, the chromatic aberration test, the firmness test and the area of black spot on the <span class="hlt">banana</span> skin. The results showed that high dosages of UV-C damaged the <span class="hlt">banana</span> skin, while low dosages were more efficient at delaying changes in the relative brightness of the skin. The maximum UV-C treatment dose for satisfactory <span class="hlt">banana</span> preservation was between 21 and 24 μW/cm2. These results could help to improve the visual quality of <span class="hlt">bananas</span> and to classify their ripeness more easily.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=317550','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=317550"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of 1-Methylcyclopropene coupled with controlled atmosphere storage on the ripening and quality of ‘Cavendish’ <span class="hlt">bananas</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Fresh-fruit <span class="hlt">banana</span> is well known to have a short-life after harvest. A short pre-pilot study was carried out to test the effect of atmospheric condition exposure to 1-MCP on the quality, limited to cosmetic and peel appearance, and shelf life of fresh-fruit <span class="hlt">bananas</span>. Low level of O2 (3 kPa) and high ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED560027.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED560027.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Generation 2030/<span class="hlt">Africa</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>You, Danzhen; Hug, Lucia; Anthony, David</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Until relatively recently, much of <span class="hlt">Africa</span> has been among the economically least developed and least densely populated places on earth, replete with villages and rural communities. <span class="hlt">Africa</span> is changing rapidly, in its economy, trade and investment; in climate change; in conflict and stability; in urbanization, migration patterns, and most of all in…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=nation+AND+cuisine&id=ED269295','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=nation+AND+cuisine&id=ED269295"><span id="translatedtitle">Teaching about Francophone <span class="hlt">Africa</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Merryfield, Mary; Timbo, Adama</p> <p></p> <p>Lessons and resources for Social Studies and French courses are included in this document. The major goals of these materials are to help students (1) explore the history and geography of Francophone <span class="hlt">Africa</span>, (2) examine French influences in contemporary <span class="hlt">Africa</span>, (3) recognize and appreciate cultural differences and similarities in values and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=pidgin&pg=6&id=ED473085','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=pidgin&pg=6&id=ED473085"><span id="translatedtitle">Language in South <span class="hlt">Africa</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Mesthrie, Rajend, Ed.</p> <p></p> <p>This collection of 24 papers focuses on language and society in South <span class="hlt">Africa</span>. Part 1, "The Main Language Groupings," includes (1) "South <span class="hlt">Africa</span>: A Sociolinguistic Overview" (R. Mesthrie); (2) "The Khoesan Languages" (A. Traill); (3) "The Bantu Languages: Sociohistorical Perspectives" (Robert K. Herbert and Richard Bailey); (4) "Afrikaans:…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=technological+AND+advancement+AND+England&pg=7&id=EJ380996','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=technological+AND+advancement+AND+England&pg=7&id=EJ380996"><span id="translatedtitle">Historical Capsule: South <span class="hlt">Africa</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Cole, Robert</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Briefly traces the history of South <span class="hlt">Africa</span> from British acquisition in 1815 through the creation of the Union of South <span class="hlt">Africa</span> in 1910. Presents a chronicle of the year 1900 to show part of the European achievement in close-up. Lists accomplishments in literature, fine arts, science, technology, music, theater, and dance. (GEA)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=annual+AND+review+AND+linguistics&pg=5&id=EJ541081','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=annual+AND+review+AND+linguistics&pg=5&id=EJ541081"><span id="translatedtitle">Multilingualism in Southern <span class="hlt">Africa</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Peirce, Bonny Norton; Ridge, Stanley G. M.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Reviews recent research in multilingualism in Southern <span class="hlt">Africa</span>, focusing on the role of languages in education, sociolinguistics, and language policy. Much of the research is on South <span class="hlt">Africa</span>. Topics discussed include language of instruction in schools, teacher education, higher education, adult literacy, language contact, gender and linguistic…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4431790','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4431790"><span id="translatedtitle">Morphological, physicochemical, and antioxidant profile of noncommercial <span class="hlt">banana</span> cultivars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Anyasi, Tonna A; Jideani, Afam IO; Mchau, Godwin A</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Banana</span> cultivars––Luvhele (MusaABB), Mabonde (MusaAAA), and Muomva-red (Musa balbisiana) ––were characterized for morphological, physicochemical, and antioxidant properties. All three cultivars varied significantly (P < 0.05) in their morphology, pH, titratable acidity and total soluble solids with no significant difference in their ash content. Individual cultivars showed variations in flour starch granule when observed using a scanning electron microscope. Characterization of cultivars for total polyphenols (TPs) and antioxidant activity upon pretreatment with ascorbic, citric, and lactic acid shows that the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay of samples varied significantly as Muomva-red cultivar (1.02 ± 0.01 mg GA/g) expressed the highest DPPH activity at lactic acid concentration of 20 g/L. Total polyphenol content was also highest for Muomva-red [1091.76 ± 122.81 mg GAE/100 g (d.w.)]. The high amount of TPs present in these cultivars make them suitable source of bio-nutrients with great medicinal and health functions. PMID:25987997</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27180297','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27180297"><span id="translatedtitle">Characterization of <span class="hlt">banana</span> starches obtained from cultivars grown in Brazil.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>de Barros Mesquita, Camila; Leonel, Magali; Franco, Célia Maria Landi; Leonel, Sarita; Garcia, Emerson Loli; Dos Santos, Thaís Paes Rodrigues</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>The starch market is constantly evolving and studies that provide information about the physical and rheological properties of native starches to meet the diverse demands of the sector are increasingly necessary. In this study starches obtained from five cultivars of <span class="hlt">banana</span> were analyzed for size and shape of granules, crystallinity, chemical composition, resistant starch, swelling power, solubility, thermal and paste properties. The granules of starch were large (36.58-47.24μm), oval, showed crystallinity pattern type B and the index of crystallinity ranged from 31.94 to 34.06%. The phosphorus content ranged from 0.003 to 0.011%, the amylose ranged from 25.13 to 29.01% and the resistant starch ranged from 65.70 to 80.28%. The starches showed high peak viscosity and breakdown, especially those obtained from 'Nanicão' and 'Grand Naine'. Peak temperature of gelatinization was around 71°C, the enthalpy change (ΔH) ranged from 9.45 to 14.73Jg(-1). The starch from 'Grand Naine' showed higher swelling power (15.19gg(-1)) and the starch from 'Prata-Anã' higher solubility (11.61%). The starches studied are highlighted by their physical and chemical characteristics and may be used in several applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001SPIE.4256..233L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001SPIE.4256..233L"><span id="translatedtitle">Ultrasonic probing of the <span class="hlt">banana</span> photon distribution in turbid media</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lev, Aner; Kotler, Zvi; Sfez, Bruno</p> <p>2001-06-01</p> <p>Probing photon density in diffusive media is very important in order to model and understand their propagation. It is possible to detect photons outside the medium, but their non-invasive detection inside it is still an unsolved problem. An elegant, semi-invasive approach to perform this task is to scan a small absorbing sphere inside the turbid medium and measure the light outside the sample when the sphere is present and when it is not. However this method requires the medium to be liquid and such a procedure cannot be performed in the case of biological tissues. Ultrasound tagging of light has been introduced initially for transillumination imaging in turbid media, and then extended to the case of reflection imaging. Here we present results showing that it is possible to map the photon density inside solid turbid media by locally tagging photons using an ultrasonic field. We experimentally retrieve the well-known <span class="hlt">banana</span>-shaped photons distribution when the source and the detectors are in a back-scattering configuration, using a gel-based homogeneous phantom. We also present experiments where hemoglobin has been introduced inside the gel. By fitting the experimental results with the theoretical formula, we are able to quantitatively retrieve the amount of hemoglobin introduced inside the gel, not only from data obtained by scanning the ultrasound waist inside the phantom, the in put and output fibers staying fixed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/165373','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/165373"><span id="translatedtitle">Collisional ballooning mode dispersion relation in the <span class="hlt">banana</span> regime</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zheng, L.; Tessarotto, M.</p> <p>1995-08-01</p> <p>Collisional ballooning mode theory in the <span class="hlt">banana</span> regime is developed for tokamak configurations from the gyrokinetic formalism. A general dispersion relation is obtained, which in principle can deal with a collision operator of any type. However, investigation of an approximate Fokker--Planck collision operator developed in recent neoclassical transport theory is detailed. The most significant feature of the present theory as compared to the customary treatment lies in that the distinction between particle and fluid velocities is made in the ordering analyses. This reveals that the eigenfrequency of modes is determined by balancing the small-parallel-ion-velocity (SPIV) effect [L.-J. Zheng and M. Tessarotto, Phys. Plasmas {bold 1}, 3928 (1994)], instead of the fluid inertia one, with the instability drives. Since the parallel-electric-field effect is found to be negligible as compared to the SPIV effect, in contrast to the customary resistive ballooning mode picture, the leading collisional effect is demonstrated to be the modification of the SPIV effect instead of the relaxation of the frozen-in-law. The ion--ion collisions are the cause for this modification, while the electron collisional effect is shown to be negligible. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21630042','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21630042"><span id="translatedtitle">Structure and regulation of the Asr gene family in <span class="hlt">banana</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Henry, Isabelle M; Carpentier, Sebastien C; Pampurova, Suzana; Van Hoylandt, Anais; Panis, Bart; Swennen, Rony; Remy, Serge</p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>Abscisic acid, stress, ripening proteins (ASR) are a family of plant-specific small hydrophilic proteins. Studies in various plant species have highlighted their role in increased resistance to abiotic stress, including drought, but their specific function remains unknown. As a first step toward their potential use in crop improvement, we investigated the structure and regulation of the Asr gene family in Musa species (<span class="hlt">bananas</span> and plantains). We determined that the Musa Asr gene family contained at least four members, all of which exhibited the typical two exons, one intron structure of Asr genes and the "ABA/WDS" (abscisic acid/water deficit stress) domain characteristic of Asr genes. Phylogenetic analyses determined that the Musa Asr genes were closely related to each other, probably as the product of recent duplication events. For two of the four members, two versions corresponding to the two sub-genomes of Musa, acuminata and balbisiana were identified. Gene expression and protein analyses were performed and Asr expression could be detected in meristem cultures, root, pseudostem, leaf and cormus. In meristem cultures, mAsr1 and mAsr3 were induced by osmotic stress and wounding, while mAsr3 and mAsr4 were induced by exposure to ABA. mASR3 exhibited the most variation both in terms of amino acid sequence and expression pattern, making it the most promising candidate for further functional study and use in crop improvement. PMID:21630042</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27180297','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27180297"><span id="translatedtitle">Characterization of <span class="hlt">banana</span> starches obtained from cultivars grown in Brazil.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>de Barros Mesquita, Camila; Leonel, Magali; Franco, Célia Maria Landi; Leonel, Sarita; Garcia, Emerson Loli; Dos Santos, Thaís Paes Rodrigues</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>The starch market is constantly evolving and studies that provide information about the physical and rheological properties of native starches to meet the diverse demands of the sector are increasingly necessary. In this study starches obtained from five cultivars of <span class="hlt">banana</span> were analyzed for size and shape of granules, crystallinity, chemical composition, resistant starch, swelling power, solubility, thermal and paste properties. The granules of starch were large (36.58-47.24μm), oval, showed crystallinity pattern type B and the index of crystallinity ranged from 31.94 to 34.06%. The phosphorus content ranged from 0.003 to 0.011%, the amylose ranged from 25.13 to 29.01% and the resistant starch ranged from 65.70 to 80.28%. The starches showed high peak viscosity and breakdown, especially those obtained from 'Nanicão' and 'Grand Naine'. Peak temperature of gelatinization was around 71°C, the enthalpy change (ΔH) ranged from 9.45 to 14.73Jg(-1). The starch from 'Grand Naine' showed higher swelling power (15.19gg(-1)) and the starch from 'Prata-Anã' higher solubility (11.61%). The starches studied are highlighted by their physical and chemical characteristics and may be used in several applications. PMID:27180297</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25476008','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25476008"><span id="translatedtitle">A sarabande of tropical fruit proteomics: Avocado, <span class="hlt">banana</span>, and mango.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Righetti, Pier Giorgio; Esteve, Clara; D'Amato, Alfonsina; Fasoli, Elisa; Luisa Marina, María; Concepción García, María</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>The present review highlights the progress made in plant proteomics via the introduction of combinatorial peptide ligand libraries (CPLL) for detecting low-abundance species. Thanks to a novel approach to the CPLL methodology, namely, that of performing the capture both under native and denaturing conditions, identifying plant species in the order of thousands, rather than hundreds, is now possible. We report here data on a trio of tropical fruits, namely, <span class="hlt">banana</span>, avocado, and mango. The first two are classified as "recalcitrant" tissues since minute amounts of proteins (in the order of 1%) are embedded on a very large matrix of plant-specific material (e.g., polysaccharides and other plant polymers). Yet, even under these adverse conditions we could report, in a single sweep, from 1000 to 3000 unique gene products. In the case of mango the investigation has been extended to the peel too, since this skin is popularly used to flavor dishes in Far East cuisine. Even in this tough peel 330 proteins could be identified, whereas in soft peels, such as in lemons, one thousand unique species could be detected.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12188636','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12188636"><span id="translatedtitle">Characterization of resistant starch type III from <span class="hlt">banana</span> (Musa acuminata).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lehmann, Undine; Jacobasch, Gisela; Schmiedl, Detlef</p> <p>2002-08-28</p> <p><span class="hlt">Banana</span> starch (Musa acuminata var. Nandigobe) was evaluated for its use in generating resistant starch (RS) type III. Structural, physicochemical, and biological properties of these products were analyzed. The investigated process includes debranching of the native starch and retrogradation under different storage temperatures and starch concentrations. After enzymatic debranching, a high amount of low-molecular-weight polymers with a degree of polymerization between 10 and 35 glucose units beside a higher molecular weight fraction were found. The resulting products comprised RS contents of about 50%. After heat-moisture treatment, the RS yield increased up to 84%. Peak temperatures of about 145 degrees C found in DSC measurements pointed to a high thermal stability of the RS products. In vitro fermentations of the RS products, carried out with intestinal microflora of healthy humans, resulted in a molar ratio of acetate:propionate:butyrate of about 49:17:34. The established method allowed the production of a high-quality RS with prebiotic properties for health preventing applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25987997','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25987997"><span id="translatedtitle">Morphological, physicochemical, and antioxidant profile of noncommercial <span class="hlt">banana</span> cultivars.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Anyasi, Tonna A; Jideani, Afam Io; Mchau, Godwin A</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Banana</span> cultivars--Luvhele (MusaABB), Mabonde (MusaAAA), and Muomva-red (Musa balbisiana) --were characterized for morphological, physicochemical, and antioxidant properties. All three cultivars varied significantly (P < 0.05) in their morphology, pH, titratable acidity and total soluble solids with no significant difference in their ash content. Individual cultivars showed variations in flour starch granule when observed using a scanning electron microscope. Characterization of cultivars for total polyphenols (TPs) and antioxidant activity upon pretreatment with ascorbic, citric, and lactic acid shows that the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay of samples varied significantly as Muomva-red cultivar (1.02 ± 0.01 mg GA/g) expressed the highest DPPH activity at lactic acid concentration of 20 g/L. Total polyphenol content was also highest for Muomva-red [1091.76 ± 122.81 mg GAE/100 g (d.w.)]. The high amount of TPs present in these cultivars make them suitable source of bio-nutrients with great medicinal and health functions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17135318','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17135318"><span id="translatedtitle">Reassortment and concerted evolution in <span class="hlt">banana</span> bunchy top virus genomes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hu, Jer-Ming; Fu, Hui-Chuan; Lin, Chia-Hua; Su, Hong-Ji; Yeh, Hsin-Hung</p> <p>2007-02-01</p> <p>The nanovirus <span class="hlt">Banana</span> bunchy top virus (BBTV) has six standard components in its genome and occasionally contains components encoding additional Rep (replication initiation protein) genes. Phylogenetic network analysis of coding sequences of DNA 1 and 3 confirmed the two major groups of BBTV, a Pacific and an Asian group, but show evidence of web-like phylogenies for some genes. Phylogenetic analysis of 102 major common regions (CR-Ms) from all six components showed a possible concerted evolution within the Pacific group, which is likely due to recombination in this region. The CR-M of additional Rep genes is close to that of DNA 1 and 2. Comparison of tree topologies constructed with DNA 1 and DNA 3 coding sequences of 14 BBTV isolates showed distinct phylogenetic histories based on Kishino-Hasegawa and Shimodaira-Hasegawa tests. The results of principal component analysis of amino acid and codon usages indicate that DNA 1 and 3 have a codon bias different from that of all other genes of nanoviruses, including all currently known additional Rep genes of BBTV, which suggests a possible ancient genome reassortment event between distinctive nanoviruses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMPA51C2215K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMPA51C2215K"><span id="translatedtitle">Mapping Soil Organic Carbon Resources Across Agricultural Land Uses in <span class="hlt">Highland</span> Lesotho Using High Resolution Satellite Imagery</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Knight, J.; Adam, E.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Mapping spatial patterns of soil organic carbon (SOC) using high resolution satellite imagery is especially important in inaccessible or upland areas that have limited field measurements, where land use and land cover (LULC) are changing rapidly, or where the land surface is sensitive to overgrazing and high rates of soil erosion and thus sediment, nutrient and carbon export. Here we outline the methods and results of mapping soil organic carbon in <span class="hlt">highland</span> areas (~2400 m) of eastern Lesotho, southern <span class="hlt">Africa</span>, across different land uses. Bedrock summit areas with very thin soils are dominated by xeric alpine grassland; terrace agriculture with strip fields and thicker soils is found within river valleys. Multispectral Worldview 2 imagery was used to map LULC across the region. An overall accuracy of 88% and kappa value of 0.83 were achieved using a support vector machine model. Soils were examined in the field from different LULC areas for properties such as soil depth, maturity and structure. In situ soils in the field were also evaluated using a portable analytical spectral device (ASD) in order to ground truth spectral signatures from Worldview. Soil samples were examined in the lab for chemical properties including organic carbon. Regression modeling was used in order to establish a relationship between soil characteristics and soil spectral reflectance. We were thus able to map SOC across this diverse landscape. Results show that there are notable differences in SOC between upland and agricultural areas which reflect both soil thickness and maturity, and land use practices such as manuring of fields by cattle. Soil erosion and thus carbon (nutrient) export is significant issue in this region, which this project will now be examining.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26826974','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26826974"><span id="translatedtitle">A novel spotted fever group Rickettsia infecting Amblyomma parvitarsum (Acari: Ixodidae) in <span class="hlt">highlands</span> of Argentina and Chile.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ogrzewalska, Maria; Nieri-Bastos, Fernanda A; Marcili, Arlei; Nava, Santiago; González-Acuña, Daniel; Muñoz-Leal, Sebastián; Ruiz-Arrondo, Ignacio; Venzal, José M; Mangold, Atilio; Labruna, Marcelo B</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The tick Amblyomma parvitarsum (Acari: Ixodidae) has established populations in Andean and Patagonic environments of South America. For the present study, adults of A. parvitarsum were collected in <span class="hlt">highland</span> areas (elevation >3500 m) of Argentina and Chile during 2009-2013, and tested by PCR for rickettsial infection in the laboratory, and isolation of rickettsiae in Vero cell culture by the shell vial technique. Overall, 51 (62.2%) out of 82 A. parvitarsum adult ticks were infected by spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae, which generated DNA sequences 100% identical to each other, and when submitted to BLAST analysis, they were 99.3% identical to corresponding sequence of the ompA gene of Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest. Rickettsiae were successfully isolated in Vero cell culture from two ticks, one from Argentina and one from Chile. DNA extracted from the third passage of the isolates of Argentina and Chile were processed by PCR, resulting in partial sequences for three rickettsial genes (gltA, ompB, ompA). These sequences were concatenated and aligned with rickettsial corresponding sequences available in GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the A. pavitarsum rickettsial agent grouped under high bootstrap support in a clade composed by the SFG pathogens R. sibirica, R. <span class="hlt">africae</span>, R. parkeri, Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest, and two unnamed SFG agents of unknown pathogenicty, Rickettsia sp. strain NOD, and Rickettsia sp. strain ApPR. The pathogenic role of this A. parvitarsum rickettsia cannot be discarded, since several species of tick-borne rickettsiae that were considered nonpathogenic for decades are now associated with human infections. PMID:26826974</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6357384','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6357384"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Banana</span> fluxes in the plateau regime for a nonaxisymmetrically confined plasma</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Balescu, R.; Fantechi, S. )</p> <p>1990-09-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">banana</span> (or <span class="hlt">banana</span>-plateau) fluxes, related to the generalized stresses {l angle}{bold B}{center dot}{del}{center dot}{pi}{sup {alpha}({ital n})}{r angle}, {l angle}{bold B}{sub {ital T}}{center dot}{del}{center dot}{pi}{sup {alpha}({ital n})}{r angle} have been determined in the plateau regime, for a plasma confined by a toroidal magnetic field of arbitrary geometry. The complete set of transport coefficients for both the parallel'' (ambipolar) and toroidal'' (nonambipolar) <span class="hlt">banana</span> fluxes was obtained in the 13-moment (13M) approximation, going beyond the previously known expressions in the nonaxisymmetric case. The main emphasis is laid on the structure of the transport matrix and of its coefficients. It is shown that the Onsager symmetry of this matrix partly breaks down (for the mixed electron--ion coefficients) in a nonaxisymmetrically confined plasma.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16462122','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16462122"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of dietary administration of <span class="hlt">bananas</span> on immunocytes in F1 hybrid calves.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Matsuda, Keiichi; Ohtsuka, Hiromichi; Ichijho, Toshihiro; Kawamura, Seiichi</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>The effect of dietary administration of <span class="hlt">bananas</span> on immunocytes in calves was investigated. Twenty Fl hybrid calves were used in this study (treated group n=10, control group n=10). <span class="hlt">Banana</span> (2 g/kg BW) was administered to the calves for 5 days. Leukocyte subsets were examined on days 0, 5, 10, and 15. The numbers CD3+, (CD3+)CD45R-, and (CD3+)TcR+ cells significantly increased between day 0 and day 5 in the treated group (P<0.01), and were significantly higher on day 5 in the treated group relative to the control group (P<0.05). These data showed that feeding <span class="hlt">banana</span> to calves increased T-lymphocytes, suggesting it might be possible to enhance protective functions against infections.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1722v0008C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1722v0008C"><span id="translatedtitle">Broadening of mesophase temperature range induced by doping calamitic mesogen with <span class="hlt">banana</span>-shaped mesogen</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cvetinov, Miroslav; Stojanović, Maja; Obadović, Dušanka; Vajda, Aniko; Fodor-Csorba, Katalin; Eber, Nandor</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>We have investigated three binary mixtures composed of selected <span class="hlt">banana</span>-shaped dopant in low concentrations and calamitic mesogen in high. <span class="hlt">Banana</span>-shaped dopant forms a B7 phase, while the calamitic mesogen exhibit nematic and smectic SmA and SmC phases. The occurring mesophases have been identified by their optical textures. At dopant concentrations of 2.2 and 3.1 mol%, there is evident broadening of nematic and smectic SmA temperature ranges in respect to the pure calamitic compound. Yet, the mixture with dopant concentration of 7 mol% exhibits narrower temperature ranges of mesophases. Increasing dopant concentration caused lowering of all phase transitions temperatures (TI-N, TN-SmA, TSmA-SmC) in all investigated mixtures. Therefore, mixing classic calamitic compounds with novel <span class="hlt">banana</span>-shaped compound in low concentrations is viable way to attain useful mesophase range for application in industry.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1736b0032R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1736b0032R"><span id="translatedtitle">Morphological and biodegradability studies of Euphorbia latex modified polyester - <span class="hlt">Banana</span> fiber composites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rai, Bhuvneshwar; Kumar, Gulshan; Diwan, R. K.</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>The composites of <span class="hlt">Banana</span> fiber were prepared using polyester resin blended Euphorbia coagulum, morphology and the degree of rate of aerobic biodegradation of the prepared composites were studied. Polyester resin blended Euphorbia coagulum containing <span class="hlt">Banana</span> fiber, Euphorbia coagulum and polyester resin taken in the ratio 40: 24: 36 was used for the study, which was the optimum composition of the composite reported in a previous study by the authors. In the biodegradability study cellulose has been used as positive reference material. Result shows that Euphorbia coagulum modified polyester - <span class="hlt">Banana</span> fiber composites exhibited biodegradation to the extent of around 40%. The use of developed green composites may help in reducing the generation of non-biodegradable polymeric wastes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25822319','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25822319"><span id="translatedtitle">Development of <span class="hlt">banana</span>-based weaning food mixes for infants and its nutritional quality evaluation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chitra, Pothiraj</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Banana</span>-based weaning food mixes were developed from the Nendran variety to study the nutritional quality of the mixes and feasibility of marketing on a commercial scale. Chemical composition viz., moisture, acid, pH, reducing and total sugars, protein and β-carotene of the developed <span class="hlt">banana</span>-based weaning mixes were analysed. The trypsin inhibitor activity reduced during cooking, and the flatus compound could not be measured due to its very meagre gas production. The α-amylase activity and in vitro protein and carbohydrate digestibilities were also analysed. A feeding trial of the developed mixes was conducted in infants as a supplement to study the nutritional quality of the developed <span class="hlt">banana</span>-based weaning food mixes. Results showed an increase in all the anthropometric measurements during the feeding period, and the developed mixes can be prepared on a commercial scale to prevent malnutrition and undernutrition during the rapid growing period of infants.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12789424','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12789424"><span id="translatedtitle">Production of haploids from anther culture of <span class="hlt">banana</span> [Musa balbisiana (BB)].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Assani, A; Bakry, F; Kerbellec, F; Haïcour, R; Wenzel, G; Foroughi-Wehr, B</p> <p>2003-02-01</p> <p>We report here, for the first time, the production of haploid plants of <span class="hlt">banana</span> Musa balbisiana (BB). Callus was induced from anthers in which the majority of the microspores were at the uninucleate stage. The frequency of callus induction was 77%. Callus proliferation usually preceded embryo formation. About 8% of the anthers developed androgenic embryos. Of the 147 plantlets obtained, 41 were haploids (n=x=11). The frequency of haploid production depended on genotypes used: 18 haploid plants were produced from genotype Pisang klutuk, 12 from Pisang batu, seven from Pisang klutuk wulung and four from Tani. The frequency of regeneration was 1.1%, which was based on the total number of anthers cultured. Diploid plants (2n=2x=22) were also observed in the regenerated plants. The haploid <span class="hlt">banana</span> plants that were developed will be important material for the improvement of <span class="hlt">banana</span> through breeding programmes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=312294','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=312294"><span id="translatedtitle">Biophysical and economic assessment of a community-based rehabilitated gully in the Ethiopian <span class="hlt">highlands</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>In the last fifty years, sediment concentrations in the Ethiopian <span class="hlt">highlands</span> have increased two- to three-fold. The current severity of gully erosion is a major cause of increased sediment loads, but gully rehabilitation has proven to be challenging, with limited success. This paper describes gully r...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=312252','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=312252"><span id="translatedtitle">Participatory community-based gully rehabilitation on the Ethiopian <span class="hlt">Highlands</span>: the case of Birr watershed</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>In the last fifty years, sediment concentrations in the Ethiopian <span class="hlt">highlands</span> have increased two- to three-fold. The current severity of gully erosion is a major cause of increased sediment loads, but gully rehabilitation has proven to be challenging as success rates have been small. This paper descri...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2607295','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2607295"><span id="translatedtitle">Malaria treatment-seeking behaviour and recovery from malaria in a <span class="hlt">highland</span> area of Kenya</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sumba, Peter O; Wong, S Lindsey; Kanzaria, Hemal K; Johnson, Kelsey A; John, Chandy C</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Background Malaria epidemics in <span class="hlt">highland</span> areas of Kenya cause significant morbidity and mortality. Methods To assess treatment-seeking behaviour for malaria in these areas, a questionnaire was administered to 117 randomly selected households in the <span class="hlt">highland</span> area of Kipsamoite, Kenya. Self-reported episodes of malaria occurred in 100 adults and 66 children. Results The most frequent initial sources of treatment for malaria in adults and children were medical facilities (66.0% and 66.7%) and local shops (19.0% and 30.3%). Adults and children who initially visited a medical facility for treatment were significantly more likely to recover and require no further treatment than those who initially went to a local shop (adults, 84.9% v. 36.8%, P < 0.0001, and children, 79.6% v. 40.0%, P = 0.002, respectively). Individuals who attended medical facilities recalled receiving anti-malarial medication significantly more frequently than those who visited shops (adults, 100% vs. 29.4%, and children, 100% v. 5.0%, respectively, both P < 0.0001). Conclusion A significant proportion of this <span class="hlt">highland</span> population chooses local shops for initial malaria treatment and receives inappropriate medication at these localshops, reslting in delay of effective treatment. Shopkeeper education has the potential to be a component of prevention or containment strategies for malaria epidemics in <span class="hlt">highland</span> areas. PMID:19036154</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3315256','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3315256"><span id="translatedtitle">Building Climate Resilience in the Blue Nile/Abay <span class="hlt">Highlands</span>: A Role for Earth System Sciences</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zaitchik, Benjamin F.; Simane, Belay; Habib, Shahid; Anderson, Martha C.; Ozdogan, Mutlu; Foltz, Jeremy D.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The Blue Nile (Abay) <span class="hlt">Highlands</span> of Ethiopia are characterized by significant interannual climate variability, complex topography and associated local climate contrasts, erosive rains and erodible soils, and intense land pressure due to an increasing population and an economy that is almost entirely dependent on smallholder, low-input agriculture. As a result, these <span class="hlt">highland</span> zones are highly vulnerable to negative impacts of climate variability. As patterns of variability and precipitation intensity alter under anthropogenic climate change, there is concern that this vulnerability will increase, threatening economic development and food security in the region. In order to overcome these challenges and to enhance sustainable development in the context of climate change, it is necessary to establish climate resilient development strategies that are informed by best-available Earth System Science (ESS) information. This requirement is complicated by the fact that climate projections for the Abay <span class="hlt">Highlands</span> contain significant and perhaps irreducible uncertainties. A critical challenge for ESS, then, is to generate and to communicate meaningful information for climate resilient development in the context of a highly uncertain climate forecast. Here we report on a framework for applying ESS to climate resilient development in the Abay <span class="hlt">Highlands</span>, with a focus on the challenge of reducing land degradation. PMID:22470302</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Interrogation&pg=4&id=EJ1105425','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Interrogation&pg=4&id=EJ1105425"><span id="translatedtitle">Making Hope and History Rhyme: Reflections on Popular Education and Leadership Following a Visit to <span class="hlt">Highlander</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Connolly, Bríd; Finnegan, Fergal</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This article draws on our backgrounds as adult educators in Ireland and our experience at <span class="hlt">Highlander</span> in 2014. We review our development as critical educators, exposed to deep inequalities in Irish society. We explore role of popular education in fostering social change, beginning with the commitment to equality and freedom, whereby, we produce…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=76695&keyword=health+AND+Sport&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=68447660&CFTOKEN=25282162','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=76695&keyword=health+AND+Sport&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=68447660&CFTOKEN=25282162"><span id="translatedtitle">DECISION TOOL FOR RIPARIAN ECOSYSTEM MANAGMENT IN THE MID-ATLANTIC <span class="hlt">HIGHLANDS</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>In the Canaan Valley <span class="hlt">Highlands</span> of the Mid-Atlantic, riparian zone restoration has been identified as a critical watershed management practice not only for the ecosystem services provided but also for the potential socioeconomic growth from environmental investment and job creatio...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=desertion+AND+school&id=EJ463865','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=desertion+AND+school&id=EJ463865"><span id="translatedtitle">Economic Determinants of Academic Failure and School Desertion in the Guatemala <span class="hlt">Highlands</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Carvajal, Manuel J.; And Others</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Explores, from an economic perspective, elementary school system adequacy in the rural, indigenous Guatemalan <span class="hlt">highlands</span>. Estimates least-squares coefficients and elasticities separately for academic failure and school abandonment for each of four indigenous groups. The model explains academic failure better than school desertion. A national policy…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED470917.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED470917.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">A Study of Service-Learning at Virginia <span class="hlt">Highlands</span> Community College and Mountain Empire Community College.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hughes, Alice</p> <p></p> <p>This qualitative study was conducted to explore student perceptions of service learning as well as the importance of service learning to community college students. Data were collected through interviews with 24 community college participants from Virginia <span class="hlt">Highlands</span> Community College and Mountain Empire Community College, both in southwest…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=65380&keyword=total+AND+physical+AND+response&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=80525269&CFTOKEN=97425678','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=65380&keyword=total+AND+physical+AND+response&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=80525269&CFTOKEN=97425678"><span id="translatedtitle">DEVELOPMENT OF AN INDEX OF BIOTIC INTEGRITY FOR THE MID-ATLANTIC <span class="hlt">HIGHLANDS</span> REGION</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>From 1993 to 1996, fish assemblage data were collected from 309 wadeable streams in the U.S. Mid-Atlantic <span class="hlt">Highlands</span> region as part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program. Stream sites were selected with a probabilistic sampl...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED494433.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED494433.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Highland</span> Children's Education Project: A Pilot Project on Bilingual Education in Cambodia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Middleborg, Jorn</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>The report was produced by UNESCO in partnership with CARE International in Cambodia for the "<span class="hlt">Highland</span> Children's Education Project" (HCEP) to show how bilingual primary education has been implemented among the Tampuen and Kreung ethnic minority groups in six remote villages in the northeastern province of Ratanakiri, Cambodia. Central to HCEP is…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=310709','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=310709"><span id="translatedtitle">Improving efficacy of landscape interventions in the (semi) humid Ethiopian <span class="hlt">Highlands</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Despite millions of dollars invested in soil and water conservation practices and other landscape interventions in Ethiopian <span class="hlt">highlands</span> and billions of hours of food-for-work farm labor, sediment concentration in rivers is increasing. Possible ways to reverse the current trend has been investigated b...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SGC....24..381P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SGC....24..381P"><span id="translatedtitle">Tectonostratigraphy of the Mesozoic complexes of the northwestern part of the Koryak <span class="hlt">Highland</span>, Ust' Belaya Mountains</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Palechek, T. N.; Moiseev, A. V.; Gul'pa, I. V.</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>New data on the structure, age, and composition of the tectonostratigraphic complexes of the western part of the Koryak <span class="hlt">Highland</span> are presented. The conclusions on the sedimentation conditions are drawn and primary relations are interpreted for most complexes. New Kimmeridgian-Tithonian and Berriasian assemblages of radiolarians are established. Campanian radiolarians are found for the first time in the region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26933635','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26933635"><span id="translatedtitle">Response of soil respiration to experimental warming in a <span class="hlt">highland</span> barley of the Tibet.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhong, Zhi-Ming; Shen, Zhen-Xi; Fu, Gang</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Highland</span> barley is an important dominant crop in the Tibet and the croplands of the Tibet are experiencing obvious climatic warming. However, information about how soil respiration will respond to climatic warming in the <span class="hlt">highland</span> barley system is still lacking. A field warming experiment using infrared heaters with two warming magnitudes was conducted in a <span class="hlt">highland</span> barley system of the Tibet in May 2014. Five daily cycles of soil respiration was measured using a CO2 flux system (Li-8100, Li-COR Biosciences, Lincoln, NE, USA) during the period from early June to early September in 2014. The high and low experimental warming significantly increased soil temperature by 1.98 and 1.52 °C over the whole study period, respectively. The high experimental warming significantly decreased soil moisture. Soil respiration and its temperature sensitivity did not significantly change under both the high and low experimental warming. The response of soil respiration to experimental warming did not linearly correlate with warming magnitudes because a greater experimental warming resulted in a higher soil drying. Our findings suggested that clarifying the response of soil CO2 production and its temperature sensitivity to climatic warming need consider water availability in the <span class="hlt">highland</span> barley system of the Tibet.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=81034&keyword=Longitude&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78937397&CFTOKEN=29922056','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=81034&keyword=Longitude&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78937397&CFTOKEN=29922056"><span id="translatedtitle">PREDICTION OF FUNDAMENTAL ASSEMBLAGES OF MID-ATLANTIC <span class="hlt">HIGHLAND</span> STREAM FISHES</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>A statistical software tool, the Stream Fish Assemblage Predictor (SFAP), based on stream sampling data collected by the EPA in the mid-Atlantic <span class="hlt">Highlands</span>, was developed to predict potential stream fish communities using characteristics of the stream and its watershed. <br>Step o...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=76155&keyword=Longitude&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78937397&CFTOKEN=29922056','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=76155&keyword=Longitude&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78937397&CFTOKEN=29922056"><span id="translatedtitle">STATISTICAL TECHNIQUES FOR DETERMINATION AND PREDICTION OF FUNDAMENTAL FISH ASSEMBLAGES OF THE MID-ATLANTIC <span class="hlt">HIGHLANDS</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>A statistical software tool, Stream Fish Community Predictor (SFCP), based on EMAP stream sampling in the mid-Atlantic <span class="hlt">Highlands</span>, was developed to predict stream fish communities using stream and watershed characteristics. Step one in the tool development was a cluster analysis t...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED325570.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED325570.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Profiles of the <span class="hlt">Highland</span> Lao Communities in the United States. Final Report.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Yang, Doua; North, David</p> <p></p> <p>This collection of statistical data on the 90 <span class="hlt">Highland</span> Lao communities in the United States is designed to help members of those communities and people working in refugee-serving agencies to better assist this refugee group. Information was provided by community leaders, state refugee coordinators, and county human resource officials in 1988.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22470302','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22470302"><span id="translatedtitle">Building climate resilience in the Blue Nile/Abay <span class="hlt">Highlands</span>: a role for Earth system sciences.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zaitchik, Benjamin F; Simane, Belay; Habib, Shahid; Anderson, Martha C; Ozdogan, Mutlu; Foltz, Jeremy D</p> <p>2012-02-01</p> <p>The Blue Nile (Abay) <span class="hlt">Highlands</span> of Ethiopia are characterized by significant interannual climate variability, complex topography and associated local climate contrasts, erosive rains and erodible soils, and intense land pressure due to an increasing population and an economy that is almost entirely dependent on smallholder, low-input agriculture. As a result, these <span class="hlt">highland</span> zones are highly vulnerable to negative impacts of climate variability. As patterns of variability and precipitation intensity alter under anthropogenic climate change, there is concern that this vulnerability will increase, threatening economic development and food security in the region. In order to overcome these challenges and to enhance sustainable development in the context of climate change, it is necessary to establish climate resilient development strategies that are informed by best-available Earth System Science (ESS) information. This requirement is complicated by the fact that climate projections for the Abay <span class="hlt">Highlands</span> contain significant and perhaps irreducible uncertainties. A critical challenge for ESS, then, is to generate and to communicate meaningful information for climate resilient development in the context of a highly uncertain climate forecast. Here we report on a framework for applying ESS to climate resilient development in the Abay <span class="hlt">Highlands</span>, with a focus on the challenge of reducing land degradation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=vietnam+AND+economy&pg=2&id=EJ818283','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=vietnam+AND+economy&pg=2&id=EJ818283"><span id="translatedtitle">Competing for Coffee Space: Development-Induced Displacement in the Central <span class="hlt">Highlands</span> of Vietnam</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Doutriaux, Sylvie; Geisler, Charles; Shively, Gerald</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Vietnam has emerged as the world's second largest producer of coffee. The benefits of this expanding coffee economy are substantial but not universal; their distribution follows ethnic lines despite government commitment to equalize welfare. Focusing on Dak Lak Province in Vietnam's Central <span class="hlt">Highlands</span>, we investigate this commercial transformation…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=sanitation+AND+urban&pg=2&id=ED085203','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=sanitation+AND+urban&pg=2&id=ED085203"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Highland</span> Park Environmental Health Plan: Evaluation and Recommendations for Improving the Urban Environment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Michigan State Dept. of Commerce, Lansing. Community Planning Div.</p> <p></p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Highland</span> Park environmental health plan includes the following components: Legal and administrative and programmatic relationships, planning studies, residential environment, disease vector control, water and sewage systems, sanitation, air pollution, food protection, industrial and radiological health, and solid waste facilities. (JR)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED125631.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED125631.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Highland</span> High School Vocational Television; a Salt Lake Schools Exemplary Vocational Program.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Nagle, LaMar C.</p> <p></p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Highland</span> High School (Salt Lake City, Utah) vocational television production program was designed to provide students with marketable skills in color television studio operation. Among the skills covered in the program were camera set-up and operation, video engineering, production switching, directing, television lighting, audio engineering,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010044510&hterms=Magnetism&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DMagnetism','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010044510&hterms=Magnetism&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DMagnetism"><span id="translatedtitle">Constraints on Sources of Strong Crustal Magnetism in the Southern <span class="hlt">Highlands</span> of Mars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Raymond, C. A.; Smrekar, S. E.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Magnetic models, guided by results of gravity-topography admittance studies, suggest that the anomaly pattern in the central southern <span class="hlt">highlands</span> of Mars results from large blocks of coherently magnetized crust separated by 'non-magnetic' areas. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=320969','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=320969"><span id="translatedtitle">Morphological dynamics of gully systems in the subhumid Ethiopian <span class="hlt">Highlands</span>: The Debre Mawi watershed</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Gully expansion in the Ethiopian <span class="hlt">highlands</span> dissects vital agricultural lands with the eroded materials adversely impacting downstream resources, for example as they accumulate in reservoirs. While gully expansion and rehabilitation have been more extensively researched in the semi-arid region of Eth...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-09-19/pdf/2012-23064.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-09-19/pdf/2012-23064.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">77 FR 58181 - Power Resources, Inc., Smith Ranch <span class="hlt">Highland</span> Uranium Project; License Renewal Request, Opportunity...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-09-19</p> <p>... NRC E-Filing rule (72 FR 49139, August 28, 2007). The E-Filing process requires participants to submit... 2.311.\\3\\ \\3\\ Requesters should note that the filing requirements of the NRC's E-Filing Rule (72 FR... COMMISSION Power Resources, Inc., Smith Ranch <span class="hlt">Highland</span> Uranium Project; License Renewal Request,...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=history+AND+Peru&pg=6&id=EJ200441','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=history+AND+Peru&pg=6&id=EJ200441"><span id="translatedtitle">The Politics of Schooling in the Nonliterate Third World: The Case of <span class="hlt">Highland</span> Peru.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hazen, Dan C.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>Presents a case study of a village in <span class="hlt">highland</span> South America to show how different segments of a society view literacy education. Topics discussed include collapse of traditional society as a result of education, values, changing economic and social conditions, the school role in creating an active citizenry, and school drop-out rates. (Author/DB)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-09-22/pdf/2011-24331.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-09-22/pdf/2011-24331.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">76 FR 58850 - <span class="hlt">Highland</span> Capital Management, L.P., et al.; Notice of Application</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-09-22</p> <p>... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION <span class="hlt">Highland</span> Capital Management, L.P., et al.; Notice of Application September 15, 2011. AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission (``Commission''). ACTION: Notice of an application under section 6(c) of the Investment Company Act of 1940...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=physical+AND+education&pg=5&id=EJ1061439','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=physical+AND+education&pg=5&id=EJ1061439"><span id="translatedtitle">Incorporating Scottish <span class="hlt">Highland</span> Games and Activities into Your Physical Education Classes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Prewitt, Steven L.; Hannon, James C.; Brusseau, Timothy</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this article is to introduce a potentially new and exciting group of activities that can be taught in physical education. Activities based on Scottish <span class="hlt">Highland</span> Games can be an interesting way to incorporate history and literature into the curriculum, as well as introduce students to a variety of unique physical activities. This…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-11-16/pdf/2012-27875.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-11-16/pdf/2012-27875.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">77 FR 68854 - <span class="hlt">Highland</span> Associates, Inc. and Financial Investors Trust; Notice of Application</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-11-16</p> <p>... without shareholder approval. Applicants: <span class="hlt">Highland</span> Associates, Inc. (the ``Adviser'') and Financial... shareholders representing a majority of each Redmont Fund's shares. \\1\\ Applicants also request relief with... Agreements will be approved by shareholders and by the Board, including a majority of the...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.P31E1740G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.P31E1740G"><span id="translatedtitle">The Bulk Density of the Tyrrhena Patera <span class="hlt">Highland</span> Volcano, Mars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Grott, M.; Wieczorek, M. A.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Tyrrhena Patera is a low-relief, central-vent volcano located in the southern <span class="hlt">highlands</span> of Mars, northeast of the Hellas impact basin. The main edifice contains few primary lave flow features and the flanks of the volcano are heavily eroded, indicating that they are composed of friable material which could have been formed by pyroclastic flows. The volcano itself was emplaced in the Noachian, but was subsequently modified during the Hesperian period, with episodes of resurfacing - probably driven by erosion - stretching well into the Amazonian period. Resurfacing of the caldera rille floor and upper shield probably mark the cessation of volcanic activity at Tyrrhena Patera around 800 Ma ago, and the geological evidence suggests that activity at Tyrrhena Patera transitioned from dominantly explosive to dominantly effusive eruptions. In summary, Tyrrhena Patera is generally thought to be predominantly composed of multi-layered, compacted ignimbrite deposits. The Tyrrhena Patera volcano is associated with a well localized positive free-air gravity anomaly and a good correlation exists with the features topography. We have used the latest gravity field model for Mars expanded up to degree and order 110 to model the localized admittance spectrum at Tyrrhena Patera considering surface as well as subsurface loading. We use a spherical cap localization window with a cap diameter of 7 degrees and a spherical harmonic bandwidth of 37. Ignoring the lowest degree terms that may be influenced by the Tharsis signal, we analyze the localized admittance in the degree range 42 to 57. The observed admittance is then compared to a forward model which is localized in the same manner as the data. In this way, we have quantified the range of admissible load densities as well as the admissible magnitude of a potentially present subsurface load. Modelling suggests that load densities need to be between 3290 and 3450 kg/m3 if no subsurface loads are present. If subsurface loads in the form</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMOS11B1286S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMOS11B1286S"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling the Flushing Response to the Construction of a Low Crested Weir in the <span class="hlt">Banana</span> River</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Saberi, A.; Weaver, R. J.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The ADCIRC hydrodynamic model coupled with a Lagrangian Particle Tracking Model (LPTM) is applied to study circulation in the <span class="hlt">Banana</span> River. The purpose of this study is to determine the extent to which constructing a low crested weir adjacent to Port Canaveral can improve flushing in this region. The <span class="hlt">Banana</span> River a 50 km long sub-basin of the Indian River Lagoon (IRL), located on the central-east coast of Florida in Brevard County between Cape Canaveral and Merritt Island. Although <span class="hlt">Banana</span> River has an outlet to the ocean through the Port Canaveral locks, the locks remain closed when there is no passing vessel resulting in limited circulation, long flushing time and poor water quality. Recent high mortality events of different species, e.g. dolphins, manatees and pelicans in the lagoon ecosystem, can be linked to the decline in the water quality. ADCIRC is used to simulate the hydrodynamic properties of the study area and determine the 2D depth-averaged velocity field for two separate cases: one with only tidal and another with both tidal and meteorological forces considered. Simulations are run, first to establish the baseline hydrodynamics of the unmodified system, and then to predict the effects of modifying the domain. Passive particles are placed in the <span class="hlt">Banana</span> River portion of our domain, and the movement of these particles is tracked using LPTM for both cases. Flushing and residence time are then computed. Results indicate an improvement in flushing in both the <span class="hlt">Banana</span> River and the central Indian River Lagoon, driven by an induced southerly current. In the portion of the <span class="hlt">Banana</span> River to the south of the port complex, tidal flushing time is significantly reduced for the case of modified domain. In this southern region the flushing time based on 50% renewal time, is decreased from 100 days down to 15 days, after the addition of the weir to the domain.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_25 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. 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