Science.gov

Sample records for africa latin america

  1. Writing the Pentecostal History of Africa, Asia and Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Allan

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the writing of Pentecostal history and in particular, the biases and presuppositions associated with it. The problem of sources and the neglect of the important role of indigenous ("native") workers in the historiography of Pentecostalism in Africa, Asia and Latin America is the main focus. It refutes the idea of an…

  2. Africa, Asia, Europe, and Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loh, Eudora I.

    1994-01-01

    Annotates 25 publications from 19 countries: Bolivia, Brazil, Cape Verde, Chile, Dominican Republic, Hungary, India, Ireland, Jamaica, Malaysia, Mexico, Morocco, Mozambique, Netherlands, Niger, Nigeria, Peru, South Africa, and Venezuela. Topics include the environment, women's role, and household consumption and expenditures. The publication of an…

  3. Africa, Asia, Europe, and Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loh, Eudora I.

    1992-01-01

    This annotated bibliography lists 30 government documents published between 1988 and 1991 by Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Burundi, Chile, China, Columbia, Denmark, France, Gambia, Guinea Bissau, Hong Kong, India, Italy, Luxembourg, Mexico, Nepal, Nigeria, Portugal, Rwanda, South Africa, and Thailand. Topics addressed include the environment,…

  4. Trypanosomiasis vector control in Africa and Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Schofield, Chris J; Kabayo, John P

    2008-01-01

    Vectors of trypanosomiasis – tsetse (Glossinidae) in Africa, kissing-bugs (Triatominae) in Latin America – are very different insects but share demographic characteristics that render them highly vulnerable to available control methods. For both, the main operational problems relate to re-invasion of treated areas, and the solution seems to be in very large-scale interventions covering biologically-relevant areas rather than adhering to administrative boundaries. In this review we present the underlying rationale, operational background and progress of the various trypanosomiasis vector control initiatives active in both continents. PMID:18673535

  5. Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenfield, Gerald Michael

    1986-01-01

    Notes the problematical elements of diversity within Latin America, establishes priorities for the social studies curriculum, and reviews what should be taught about its geography, resources, people, religion, customs, economics, politics, history, and international relationships. Lists Latin American Studies programs and published instructional…

  6. Cocaine and Instability in Africa: Lessons from Latin America and the Caribbean (Africa Security Brief, Number 5, July 2010)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    originated from South Amer- ica . Its cargo added to the mounting cocaine traffic from Latin America that transships West Africa on AFRICA SECURITY...security. Cocaine traffic has provided a vital financial re- source to insurgency groups as well. Recent reports from Peru indicate that the military

  7. Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soni, P. Sarita, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This serial issue features 6 members of the Indiana University System faculty who have focused their research on Latin America, past and present. The first article, "A Literature of Their Own," highlights Darlene Sadlier's research on Brazilian women's fiction and poetry that has led to an interest in the interplay of Brazilian and…

  8. Institutional Research in Emerging Countries of Southern Africa, Latin America, and the Middle East and North Africa: Global Frameworks and Local Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lange, Lis; Saavedra, F. Mauricio; Romano, Jeanine

    2013-01-01

    This chapter presents a synthesis of the conceptualization and practice of institutional research (IR) in higher education (HE) in emerging countries across Southern Africa, Latin America and the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) regions. The chapter contextualizes the growing need for IR in these regions, identifies problems and challenges…

  9. IFLA General Conference 1988. Division of Regional Activities. Sections on: Asia and Oceania; Africa; Latin America and the Caribbean; Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    The eight papers in this collection focus on library activities in various geographical regions, e.g., Asia, Oceania, Africa, Latin America, the Caribbean, and Western Australia: (1) "Future Approaches and Prospects of Computerised Information Network among the Countries of South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC)" (Abdullah…

  10. Fine Particulate Pollution and Source Apportionment in the Urban Centers for Africa, Asia and Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guttikunda, S. K.; Johnson, T. M.; Procee, P.

    2004-12-01

    Fossil fuel combustion for domestic cooking and heating, power generation, industrial processes, and motor vehicles are the primary sources of air pollution in the developing country cities. Over the past twenty years, major advances have been made in understanding the social and economic consequences of air pollution. In both industrialized and developing countries, it has been shown that air pollution from energy combustion has detrimental impacts on human health and the environment. Lack of information on the sectoral contributions to air pollution - especially fine particulates, is one of the typical constraints for an effective integrated urban air quality management program. Without such information, it is difficult, if not impossible, for decision makers to provide policy advice and make informed investment decisions related to air quality improvements in developing countries. This also raises the need for low-cost ways of determining the principal sources of fine PM for a proper planning and decision making. The project objective is to develop and verify a methodology to assess and monitor the sources of PM, using a combination of ground-based monitoring and source apportionment techniques. This presentation will focus on four general tasks: (1) Review of the science and current activities in the combined use of monitoring data and modeling for better understanding of PM pollution. (2) Review of recent advances in atmospheric source apportionment techniques (e.g., principal component analysis, organic markers, source-receptor modeling techniques). (3) Develop a general methodology to use integrated top-down and bottom-up datasets. (4) Review of a series of current case studies from Africa, Asia and Latin America and the methodologies applied to assess the air pollution and its sources.

  11. Science in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayala, Francisco J.

    1995-01-01

    A brief history of science and technology in Latin America that begins with the Mayan civilization and progresses through the colonial period to the present. Compares increased scientific productivity in the Latin American and Caribbean regions to productivity in the United States and European Union. (LZ)

  12. Asthma in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Forno, Erick; Gogna, Mudita; Cepeda, Alfonso; Yañez, Anahi; Solé, Dirceu; Cooper, Philip; Avila, Lydiana; Soto-Quiros, Manuel; Castro-Rodriguez, Jose A.; Celedón, Juan C.

    2015-01-01

    Consistent with the diversity of Latin America, there is profound variability in asthma burden among and within countries in this region. Regional variation in asthma prevalence is likely multifactorial and due to genetics, perinatal exposures, diet, obesity, tobacco use, indoor and outdoor pollutants, psychosocial stress, and microbial or parasitic infections. Similarly, nonuniform progress in asthma management leads to regional variability in disease morbidity. Future studies of distinct asthma phenotypes should follow up well-characterized Latin American subgroups and examine risk factors that are unique or common in Latin America (e.g. stress and violence, parasitic infections and use of biomass fuels for cooking). Because most Latin American countries share the same barriers to asthma management, concerted and multifaceted public health and research efforts are needed, including approaches to curtail tobacco use, campaigns to improve asthma treatment, broadening access to care and clinical trials of non-pharmacologic interventions (e.g. replacing biomass fuels with gas or electric stoves). PMID:26103996

  13. Teaching About Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

    This publication is offered as a resource guide for teachers rather than as a prescriptive syllabus. No course of study is delineated and no course objectives are spelled out. Instead there are illustrative examples for applying discovery techniques to the study of Latin America, suggestions of various themes useful in organizing a course of study…

  14. The Role of Education in Building a Future World Based on Democracy and Development: Regional Perspectives from Africa, Latin America, and South Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolman, David C.

    This paper begins with a comparative regional survey of the current status of democracy and development in Africa, Latin America, and South Asia. Each region shares a legacy of colonial domination by European powers. The comparative study uses criteria from the basic needs approach. Critical social thought and future visions about democracy and…

  15. Educational Building in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baza, Jadille; Vaz, Rita de Cassia Alves; Millan, Eduardo; Almeida, Rodolfo

    2002-01-01

    Presents articles describing recent developments in three Latin American countries (Chile, Brazil, and Venezuela) to expand public education facilities, along with a report on UNESCO's recent seminar in Latin America on architecture for an inclusive education. (EV)

  16. WE-AB-213-04: IAEA Support to Medical Physics in Africa and Latin America: Achievements and Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Meghzifene, A.

    2015-06-15

    AAPM projects and collaborations in Africa Adam Shulman (AA-SC Chair) The African Affairs Subcommittee (AA-SC) of the AAPM will present a multi-institutional approach to medical physics support in Africa. Current work to increase the quality of care and level of safety for the medical physics practice in Senegal, Ghana, and Zimbabwe will be presented, along with preliminary projects in Nigeria and Botswana. Because the task of addressing the needs of medical physics in countries across Africa is larger than one entity can accomplish on its own, the AA-SC has taken the approach of joining forces with multiple organizations such as Radiating Hope and TreatSafely (NGO’s), the IAEA, companies like BrainLab, Varian and Elekta, medical volunteers and academic institutions such as NYU and Washington University. Elements of current projects include: 1) Distance training and evaluation of the quality of contouring and treatment planning, teaching treatment planning and other subjects, and troubleshooting using modern telecommunications technology in Senegal, Ghana, and Zimbabwe; 2) Assistance in the transition from 2D to 3D in Senegal and Zimbabwe; 3) Assistance in the transition from 3D to IMRT using in-house compensators in Senegal; 4) Modernizing the cancer center in Senegal and increasing safety and; 5) Training on on 3D techniques in Ghana; 6) Assisting a teaching and training radiation oncology center to be built in Zimbabwe; 7) Working with the ISEP Program in Sub-Saharan Africa; 8) Creating instructional videos on linac commissioning; 9) Working on a possible collaboration to train physicists in Nigeria. Building on past achievements, the subcommittee seeks to make a larger impact on the continent, as the number and size of projects increases and more human resources become available. The State of Medical Physics Collaborations and Projects in Latin America Sandra Guzman (Peru) The lack of Medical Physicists (MP) in many Latin American (LA) countries leads to

  17. WE-AB-213-00: Developments in International Medical Physics Collaborations in Africa and Latin America

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-15

    The African Affairs Subcommittee (AA-SC) of the AAPM will present a multi-institutional approach to medical physics support in Africa. Current work to increase the quality of care and level of safety for the medical physics practice in Senegal, Ghana, and Zimbabwe will be presented, along with preliminary projects in Nigeria and Botswana. Because the task of addressing the needs of medical physics in countries across Africa is larger than one entity can accomplish on its own, the AA-SC has taken the approach of joining forces with multiple organizations such as Radiating Hope and TreatSafely (NGO’s), the IAEA, companies like BrainLab, Varian and Elekta, medical volunteers and academic institutions such as NYU and Washington University. Elements of current projects include: 1) Distance training and evaluation of the quality of contouring and treatment planning, teaching treatment planning and other subjects, and troubleshooting using modern telecommunications technology in Senegal, Ghana, and Zimbabwe; 2) Assistance in the transition from 2D to 3D in Senegal and Zimbabwe; 3) Assistance in the transition from 3D to IMRT using in-house compensators in Senegal; 4) Modernizing the cancer center in Senegal and increasing safety and; 5) Training on on 3D techniques in Ghana; 6) Assisting a teaching and training radiation oncology center to be built in Zimbabwe; 7) Working with the ISEP Program in Sub-Saharan Africa; 8) Creating instructional videos on linac commissioning; 9) Working on a possible collaboration to train physicists in Nigeria. Building on past achievements, the subcommittee seeks to make a larger impact on the continent, as the number and size of projects increases and more human resources become available. The State of Medical Physics Collaborations and Projects in Latin America Sandra Guzman (Peru) The lack of Medical Physicists (MP) in many Latin American (LA) countries leads to recruitment of professionals with incomplete education. In most LA

  18. [International migration in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Pellegrino, A

    1995-12-01

    Trends in international migration in Latin America are reviewed using data from published sources. Aspects considered include historical views; migration according to occupational status and educational level; migration to the United States; migration characteristics in different regions of Latin America; and the crisis of the 1980s and its impact on population distribution.

  19. Fermilab and Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lederman, Leon M.

    2006-09-01

    As Director of Fermilab, starting in 1979, I began a series of meetings with scientists in Latin America. The motivation was to stir collaboration in the field of high energy particle physics, the central focus of Fermilab. In the next 13 years, these Pan American Symposia stirred much discussion of the use of modern physics, created several groups to do collaborative research at Fermilab, and often centralized facilities and, today, still provides the possibility for much more productive North-South collaboration in research and education. In 1992, I handed these activities over to the AAAS, as President. This would, I hoped, broaden areas of collaboration. Such collaboration is unfortunately very sensitive to political events. In a rational world, it would be the rewards, cultural and economic, of collaboration that would modulate political relations. We are not there yet.

  20. The Internet in Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fragoso, Suely; Maldonado, Alberto Efendy

    This article addresses the diverse patterns of internet access, uses and appropriations by different populations in Latin America. The correlation between nequalities in access and economic disparities is not sufficient to define or explain the region's complexity. In an attempt to avoid economic and technological determinism while simultaneously visualizing the general picture of the internet in Latin America without disregarding its finer grain idiosyncrasies, the text is organized in three sections. First, a brief overall picture of the global position of Latin America with respect to the internet. Second, a discussion of three profiles of internet penetration and appropriation vis a vis similar local socioeconomic conditions. Third, qualitatively significant examples of the forms of use and appropriation of the internet in Latin America.

  1. Internet Resources for Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molloy, Molly E., Comp.

    This directory compiles information products and services and other resources pertaining to Latin America that were available on the Internet as of February 1996. Part 1 lists 15 World Wide Web (WWW) URLs that link to other subject or geographical lists of Internet sites providing Latin American resources. Part 2 lists approximately 115…

  2. Developing a Climate Service: Using Hydroclimate Monitoring and Forecasting to Aid Decision Making in Africa and Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, E. F.; Sheffield, J.; Fisher, C. K.; Chaney, N.; Wanders, N.

    2015-12-01

    Hydrological and water scarcity predictions have the potential to provide vital information for a variety of needs including water resources management, agricultural and urban water supply, and flood mitigation. In particular, seasonal forecasts of drought risk can enable farmers to make adaptive choices on crop varieties, labor usage, and technology investments. Forecast skill is generally derived from teleconnections with ocean variability specifically sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies and, equally important persistence in the state of the land in terms of soil moisture, snowpack, or streamflow conditions. Short term precipitation forecasts are critical in flood prediction by extending flood prediction lead times beyond the basin travel time, and thus allows for extended warnings. The Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS) is a UN-wide initiative in which WMO Members and inter- and non- governmental, regional, national and local stakeholders work in partnership to develop targeted climate services. Thus, GFCS offers the potential for hydroclimatologists to develop products (hydroclimatic forecasts) and information services (i.e. product dissemination) to users with the expectation that GFCS will increase the resilience of the society to weather and climate events and to reduce operational costs for economic sectors and regions dependent on water. This presentation will discuss the development of a nascent climate service system focused on hydroclimatic monitoring and forecasting, and initially developed by the authors for Africa and Latin America. Central to this system is the use of satellite remote sensing and hydroclimate forecasts (from days to seasons) in the development of weather and climate information useful for water management in sectors such as flood protection (precipitation and streamflow forecasting) and agriculture (drought and crop forecasting). The elements of this system will be discussed, including the challenges of monitoring and

  3. Neonatal severe bacterial infection impairment estimates in South Asia, sub-Saharan Africa, and Latin America for 2010

    PubMed Central

    Seale, Anna C.; Blencowe, Hannah; Zaidi, Anita; Ganatra, Hammad; Syed, Sana; Engmann, Cyril; Newton, Charles R.; Vergnano, Stefania; Stoll, Barbara J.; Cousens, Simon N.; Lawn, Joy E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Survivors of neonatal infections are at risk of neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI), a burden not previously systematically quantified and yet important for program priority setting. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses were undertaken and applied in a three-step compartmental model to estimate NDI cases after severe neonatal bacterial infection in South Asia, sub-Saharan Africa, and Latin America in neonates of >32 wk gestation (or >1,500 g). Methods: We estimated cases of sepsis, meningitis, pneumonia, or no severe bacterial infection from among estimated cases of possible severe bacterial infection ((pSBI) step 1). We applied respective case fatality risks ((CFRs) step 2) and the NDI risk among survivors (step 3). For neonatal tetanus, incidence estimates were based on the estimated deaths, CFRs, and risk of subsequent NDI. Results: For 2010, we estimated 1.7 million (uncertainty range: 1.1–2.4 million) cases of neonatal sepsis, 200,000 (21,000–350,000) cases of meningitis, 510,000 cases (150,000–930,000) of pneumonia, and 79,000 cases (70,000–930,000) of tetanus in neonates >32 wk gestation (or >1,500 g). Among the survivors, we estimated moderate to severe NDI after neonatal meningitis in 23% (95% confidence interval: 19–26%) of survivors, 18,000 (2,700–35,000) cases, and after neonatal tetanus in 16% (6–27%), 4,700 cases (1,700–8,900). Conclusion: Data are lacking for impairment after neonatal sepsis and pneumonia, especially among those of >32 wk gestation. Improved recognition and treatment of pSBI will reduce neonatal mortality. Lack of follow-up data for survivors of severe bacterial infections, particularly sepsis, was striking. Given the high incidence of sepsis, even minor NDI would be of major public health importance. Prevention of neonatal infection, improved case management, and support for children with NDI are all important strategies, currently receiving limited policy attention. PMID:24366464

  4. Cervical cancer in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Eluf-Neto, J; Nascimento, C M

    2001-04-01

    Cervical cancer is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. In Latin America, the incidence rates in several cities are among the highest worldwide, probably due to a high frequency of risk factors and/or a low screening coverage for cervical cancer. Epidemiologic studies conducted in Latin America (and some in the Caribbean), that have investigated the main risk factors for the disease, as well as screening coverage by Papanicolaou (Pap) smear, were reviewed. The prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among women with negative Pap smears does not seem to explain the risk observed in Latin American countries. Results of some studies have suggested that reproductive factors and male sexual behavior might be responsible, at least partially, for the high occurrence of cervical cancer in Latin America. Concerning cytology screening, many women have a smear taken regularly (some every year). However, a significant proportion of women, probably those with a high risk of cancer of the cervix, have never had a Pap test. To reduce cervical cancer in these countries, screening programs in Latin America should have a wider coverage, especially reaching those women at higher risk. Semin Oncol 28:188-197.

  5. Language Politics in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajagopalan, Kanavillil

    2005-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to take stock of the politics of language as it has been playing out in Latin America, ever since the countries in this region were colonized by European powers, mainly Spain and Portugal. Linguistic imperialism is by no means a new phenomenon in this part of the world. In more recent times, the relentless advance of…

  6. Latin America Report No. 2702.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Proliferation Environmental Quality Epidemiology China -FBIS DAILY REPORT Eastern Europe Soviet Union Western Europe South Asia Latin America...Technology Earth Sciences Electronics and Electrical Engineering Engineering and Equipment Machine Tools and Metal-Working Equipment Life Sciences...Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences Life Sciences: Effects of Nonionizing Electromagnetic Radiation Materials Science and Metallurgy Meteorology

  7. Private hospitals in Latin America - An investor's perspective.

    PubMed

    Cleaton-Jones, Ioan P

    2015-01-01

    Private hospitals are expanding in Latin America, but the industry is less developed in this region than in some other emerging markets. Groups of hospitals are emerging in countries such as Brazil, Mexico, Colombia and Peru. However, they haven't reached the size of hospital groups in Malaysia, India and South Africa. They also remain domestically focused, while companies from the aforementioned three emerging markets outside Latin America have expanded to multiple other countries and have listed on stock exchanges to access more capital to finance their expansion. It is very likely that these trends seen in other emerging markets will manifest in Latin America as it continues to develop.

  8. Latin America Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    a sense that opposes what was clearly stated by Pope John Paul II and the Latin American bishops who met in Puebla . These groups do not accept the...money, arid violence. 2. That distorted vision leads to an appreciation of the reality of injustice that is strongly influenced by Marxist ideology...his term. [Text] [Caracas Tele- vision Service in Spanish 0000 GMT 2 Aug 85 PA] CSO: 3348/873 END 116

  9. JPRS Report, Latin America

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    enrichment and input from all leftist activists in the search for a common synthesis. We are all responsible for meeting this ambitious chal- lenge. To...characterizes its debates and the constructive search for shared views when argument is necessary, and he described these changes as a most...relations, no doubt because of the outspokenness with which a certain mass medium scored the intelligent Argentine-Latin American stand on the request for

  10. Movement disorders in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Troiano, André R; Micheli, Federico E; Alarcón, Fernando; Teive, Hélio A G

    2006-04-01

    The authors review some particularities of movement disorders (MDs) in the ethnically diverse population of Latin America. Although idiopathic diseases are evenly prevalent, access to treatment encounters difficulties that are worth discussing. Infectious-parasitic diseases observed throughout the continent occasionally present as MDs, and will be individually reviewed. Inherited MDs with regional foci of increased prevalence, particularly spinocerebellar ataxias, will also be considered. Whereas there is no treatment for genetic disorders, most of the other conditions are preventable or amenable to adequate treatment. Hope for better health standards for the Latin American population lies in profound social and political changes that are still to come.

  11. Latin America Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-11-05

    for Trade in Central America ( Jose Molina Calderon; PRENSA LIBRE, 27 Aug 86) 1 Argentina Outlines Economic Assistance to Guatemala (PRENSA...Cutback in Steel Production at Monclova 102 NICARAGUA Minister Borge on Church, Human Rights (Tormas Borge Interview; LA HORA, 21 Sep 86) 103...ECONOMIC-FINANCIAL Supplement) in Spanish 27 Aug 86 (no page given) [Article by Jose Molina Calderon] [Text] Free-For-All, Every Man for Himself The

  12. Pinta: Latin America's Forgotten Disease?

    PubMed Central

    Stamm, Lola V.

    2015-01-01

    Pinta is a neglected, chronic skin disease that was first described in the sixteenth century in Mexico. The World Health Organization lists 15 countries in Latin America where pinta was previously endemic. However, the current prevalence of pinta is unknown due to the lack of surveillance data. The etiological agent of pinta, Treponema carateum, cannot be distinguished morphologically or serologically from the not-yet-cultivable Treponema pallidum subspecies that cause venereal syphilis, yaws, and bejel. Although genomic sequencing has enabled the development of molecular techniques to differentiate the T. pallidum subspecies, comparable information is not available for T. carateum. Because of the influx of migrants and refugees from Latin America, U.S. physicians should consider pinta in the differential diagnosis of skin diseases in children and adolescents who come from areas where pinta was previously endemic and have a positive reaction in serological tests for syphilis. All stages of pinta are treatable with a single intramuscular injection of penicillin. PMID:26304920

  13. An Economic Strategy toward Latin America

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1966-04-08

    Challenge of Development in Latin America , p. 92. 4lbid., p. 7. 10 the Equator have searched for easy and neat solutions that will quickly remove...The Challenge of Development in Latin America , p. 57 18 operation its own Development Loan Fund which granted low-interest, long-term credits... Challenge of Development in Latin America , p. 56. 36 "We must embark on a bold new program for making the benefit of our scientific advances and

  14. Origin and schizophrenia in young refugees and inter-country adoptees from Latin America and East Africa in Sweden: a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Hollander, Anna-Clara; Almquist, Ylva B.; Rostila, Mikael; Hjern, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Background Migrants’ socioeconomic adversity has been linked to schizophrenia. Aims To investigate whether the more favourable socioeconomic situation of adoptees prevents them from the high risk of schizophrenia found in other migrants. Method Register study in a cohort of refugees and inter-country adoptees aged 16–40 years, born in East Africa (n=8389), Latin America (n=11 572) and 1.2 million native Swedes. Cox-regression models estimated hazard ratios (HRs) of schizophrenia in data from psychiatric care. Results Despite diverse income levels, HRs for schizophrenia were similar for refugees and adoptees, with East Africans having the highest HRs: 5.83 (3.30–10.27) and 5.80 (5.03–6.70), followed by Latin Americans: HRs 3.09 (2.49–3.83) and 2.31 (1.79–2.97), compared with native Swedes. Adjustment for income decreased these risks slightly for refugees, but not for adoptees. Conclusions This study suggests that risk factors associated with origin are more important determinants of schizophrenia than socioeconomic adversity in the country of settlement. Declaration of interest None. Copyright and usage © 2016 The Royal College of Psychiatrists. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) licence. PMID:27703747

  15. Programmes, resources, and needs of HIV-prevention nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in Africa, Central/Eastern Europe and Central Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean

    PubMed Central

    KELLY, J. A.; SOMLAI, A. M.; BENOTSCH, E. G.; AMIRKHANIAN, Y. A.; FERNANDEZ, M. I.; STEVENSON, L. Y.; SITZLER, C. A.; MCAULIFFE, T. L.; BROWN, K. D.; OPGENORTH, K. M.

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed the programmes, resources, and needs of HIV-prevention nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in 75 countries in Africa, Central/Eastern Europe and Central Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean. Multiple databases and expert recommendations were used to identify one major HIV-prevention NGO in the capital or a large city in each country, and in-depth interviews were conducted with each NGO Director. Most NGOs are carrying out their programmes with minimal funding and few regularly employed personnel. Most are highly dependent on international donors, but reliance on small grants with short funding periods limits programme development capacity. HIV-prevention activities varied by region, with African NGOs most likely to use peer education and community awareness events; Eastern European NGOs most likely to offer needle exchange; Latin American NGOs to have resource centres and offer risk reduction programmes; and Caribbean organizations to use mass education approaches. Across regions, NGOs most often targeted the general public and youth, although specialized at-risk groups were the additional focus of attention in some regions. Limited funding, governmental indifference or opposition, AIDS stigma, and social discomfort discussing sex were often cited as barriers to new HIV-prevention programmes. NGOs are critical service providers. However, their funding, programmes, and resource capacities must be strengthened if NGOs are to realize their full potential in HIV prevention. PMID:16282071

  16. [Population problems in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Faissol, S

    1990-01-01

    Accelerated urban growth is one of the main impediments to rapid development in Latin America. Birth rates are closely tied to development, and improved living standards in urban areas induce migration to cities. The Brazilian urban population exceeded 70% of the total population in 1980, while rural population declined. During the period of 1950-70 high demographic growth occurred as a result of high fertility and the drop of mortality. From the 1970s fertility declined from the under 20 years of age, a fact that will sustain high fertility for sometime. Education exerted an impact on fertility: in 1980 illiterate women averaged 6 children vs. 2.6 children for women with 8 years of education and 2.2 children for those with 12 years. Migration was another major factor: in 1950 the urban population of Latin America amounted to 40 million, and it reached 142 million in 1974. Every year about 8.7 million people are added to the urban population. In 1950 those who resided in an urban area made up 9.2%, in 1975 they increased to 22%, but all urban residents amount to about 40% of the total population. This urbanization has also produced major income differentials. In Argentina 20% of the poorest people get 4.5% of total income, while 10% of the richest get 35%. In Brazil 20% of the poorest receive 2% of income, while 10% of the richest get 50.5% of total income. Unfortunately, the Brazilian model is more typical of Latin America. It is a fundamental premise that balanced population growth and economic development go hand in hand, and the improvement of living standards is essential for the reduction of exponential population growth.

  17. Energy problems in Latin America

    SciTech Connect

    Goldemberg, J.

    1984-03-30

    Present energy consumption patterns, known reserves of conventional energy sources (oil, gas, coal, and hydroelectricity), and the impact of the oil crisis on the oil-importing countries of Latin America are discussed. New approaches to energy use, including improvements on end-use efficiency, fuel substitutions, nonconventional energy sources, and changes in consumption patterns, are important. Of particular significance are the alcohol program in Brazil and the possibilities for increased use of hydroelectricity. Investments needed to sustain a reasonable increase in production from conventional energy sources up to 1990 are presented. 14 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

  18. Updating Malthus in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Bilsborrow, R E

    1991-01-01

    Available arable land in Latin America is actually less than figures indicate, and it is being degraded at a rapid pace. Six Latin American countries are unable to meet their demand for fuelwood, and 10 more are depleting their forests at annual rates of up to 3.8% per year. Land extensification is a national policy in several countries as an alternative to land reform, or subdivision of large land holdings. Guatemala is a case in point. 48% of Guatemala's land is classified as arable, and 80% of this land was already enclosed as farms in the last agricultural census, in 1979. 60% of this land was actually being farmed. 60% of all farms encompass 3.7% of all the farm land, small holdings called minifundia. Between 1964 and 1979 farm numbers increased 45%, total area being farmed rose 13.5%, with an annual increase of 1.2%. Most new farms were settled in the northwestern highlands called the altiplano, where numbers of farms doubled and average size of smallholdings shrank from 0.7-0.45 ha between 1964-1979. The northern lowland tropical forest region, the Peten, is being cut for farmland at one of the fastest rates in the world. Flooding and erosion, as well as urbanization, are also causing irreplaceable loss of farmland. While environmental decline is being recognized in many Latin American countries, the causative role of population growth has not been mentioned in environmental declarations and action plans.

  19. Gastroenterology training in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Henry; Saenz, Roque; de Almeida Troncon, Luiz E; Lizarzabal, Maribel; Olano, Carolina

    2011-01-01

    Latin America is characterized by ethnic, geographical, cultural, and economic diversity; therefore, training in gastroenterology in the region must be considered in this context. The continent’s medical education is characterized by a lack of standards and the volume of research continues to be relatively small. There is a multiplicity of events in general gastroenterology and in sub-disciplines, both at regional and local levels, which ensure that many colleagues have access to information. Medical education programs must be based on a clinical vision and be considered in close contact with the patients. The programs should be properly supervised, appropriately defined, and evaluated on a regular basis. The disparity between the patients’ needs, the scarce resources available, and the pressures exerted by the health systems on doctors are frequent cited by those complaining of poor professionalism. Teaching development can play a critical role in ensuring the quality of teaching and learning in universities. Continuing professional development programs activities must be planned on the basis of the doctors’ needs, with clearly defined objectives and using proper learning methodologies designed for adults. They must be evaluated and accredited by a competent body, so that they may become the basis of a professional regulatory system. The specialty has made progress in the last decades, offering doctors various possibilities for professional development. The world gastroenterology organization has contributed to the speciality through three distinctive, but closely inter-related, programs: Training Centers, Train-the-Trainers, and Global Guidelines, in which Latin America is deeply involved. PMID:21633594

  20. Gastroenterology training in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Henry; Saenz, Roque; de Almeida Troncon, Luiz E; Lizarzabal, Maribel; Olano, Carolina

    2011-05-14

    Latin America is characterized by ethnic, geographical, cultural, and economic diversity; therefore, training in gastroenterology in the region must be considered in this context. The continent's medical education is characterized by a lack of standards and the volume of research continues to be relatively small. There is a multiplicity of events in general gastroenterology and in sub-disciplines, both at regional and local levels, which ensure that many colleagues have access to information. Medical education programs must be based on a clinical vision and be considered in close contact with the patients. The programs should be properly supervised, appropriately defined, and evaluated on a regular basis. The disparity between the patients' needs, the scarce resources available, and the pressures exerted by the health systems on doctors are frequent cited by those complaining of poor professionalism. Teaching development can play a critical role in ensuring the quality of teaching and learning in universities. Continuing professional development programs activities must be planned on the basis of the doctors' needs, with clearly defined objectives and using proper learning methodologies designed for adults. They must be evaluated and accredited by a competent body, so that they may become the basis of a professional regulatory system. The specialty has made progress in the last decades, offering doctors various possibilities for professional development. The world gastroenterology organization has contributed to the speciality through three distinctive, but closely inter-related, programs: Training Centers, Train-the-Trainers, and Global Guidelines, in which Latin America is deeply involved.

  1. Current Vocational Training in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexim, Joao Carlos

    Vocational training (VT) programs in Latin America prepare workers to perform middle-level occupations or jobs. VT in Latin America is characterized by the existence of solid and autonomous national institutes linked to the logic of economic production, funded through a payroll levy grant, counting on a tripartite board, and related to ministries…

  2. Developing nanotechnology in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Shapira, Philip

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates the development of nanotechnology in Latin America with a particular focus on Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Uruguay. Based on data for nanotechnology research publications and patents and suggesting a framework for analyzing the development of R&D networks, we identify three potential strategies of nanotechnology research collaboration. Then, we seek to identify the balance of emphasis upon each of the three strategies by mapping the current research profile of those four countries. In general, we find that they are implementing policies and programs to develop nanotechnologies but differ in their collaboration strategies, institutional involvement, and level of development. On the other hand, we find that they coincide in having a modest industry participation in research and a low level of commercialization of nanotechnologies. PMID:21170134

  3. Developing nanotechnology in Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kay, Luciano; Shapira, Philip

    2009-02-01

    This article investigates the development of nanotechnology in Latin America with a particular focus on Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Uruguay. Based on data for nanotechnology research publications and patents and suggesting a framework for analyzing the development of R&D networks, we identify three potential strategies of nanotechnology research collaboration. Then, we seek to identify the balance of emphasis upon each of the three strategies by mapping the current research profile of those four countries. In general, we find that they are implementing policies and programs to develop nanotechnologies but differ in their collaboration strategies, institutional involvement, and level of development. On the other hand, we find that they coincide in having a modest industry participation in research and a low level of commercialization of nanotechnologies.

  4. Educating cities in Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messina, Graciela; Valdés-Cotera, Raúl

    2013-09-01

    This article considers the development of educating cities from a political perspective, illustrating in detail the diversity of organisations and individuals involved and the challenges they are facing. Bearing in mind that educating cities were established from the 1990s onwards in Europe and spread to other continents from there, the purpose of this article is to demonstrate how this proposal was adopted in Latin America. After discussing the basic aims of educating cities, the paper focuses on the Latin American experience, giving examples of existing projects within the educating cities initiative. The authors are particularly interested in the contrast between the political intentions of educating cities on the one hand and the social, economic, political and cultural world on the other hand. They observe that in this context there is a danger of the individual being forgotten, which contradicts the actual intention of the educating city concept. They also discuss the problem of who should carry out the realisation of educating cities and how the various stakeholders might coordinate their actions. Contemplating new directions at the end of their paper, the authors sum up a number of guidelines and offer recommendations for action in developing educating cities.

  5. A Survey of Mental Health Research Priorities in Low- and Middle-Income Countries of Africa, Asia, and Latin America and the Caribbean

    PubMed Central

    Sharan, P; Gallo, C; Gureje, O; Lamberte, E; Mari, JJ; Mazzotti, G; Patel, V; Swartz, L; Olifson, S; Levav, I; de Francisco, A; Saxena, S

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies suggest a paucity of and lack of prioritization in mental health research output from low- and middle-income (LAMI) countries. Aims To investigate research priorities in mental health among researchers and other stakeholders in LAMI countries. Method A two-stage design that included enumeration (through literature searches and snowball technique) of researchers and stakeholders in 114 countries of Africa, Asia and Latin America and the Caribbean; and a mail survey on priority research. Results The study revealed broad agreement between researchers and stakeholders and across regions regarding the priorities for mental health research, however, stakeholders did not consider researchers' personal interest as an important criterion for prioritizing research. Studies on epidemiology (burden and risk factors), health systems, and social science were the highest ranked types of needed research. The three prioritized disorders were depression/anxiety, substance use disorders, and psychoses, while prioritized population groups were children and adolescents, women, and persons exposed to violence/trauma. Important criteria for prioritizing research were burden of disease, social justice, and availability of funds. Researchers' and stakeholders' priorities were largely consistent with burden of disease estimates (however, suicide was under-prioritized) and partly congruent with the research projects of the responding researchers. Conclusions The broad agreement found between a large and reasonably representative group of active researchers and stakeholders provides a basis for generating policy and service relevant evidence for global mental health. PMID:19794206

  6. Latin America: population and internal unrest.

    PubMed

    Wiarda, J H; Siqueira Wiarda, I

    1985-09-01

    This discussion of population and internal unrest in Latin America covers the following: pressures on land and agriculture; economic frustrations; the youth and radicalism; rising social tensions; and political instability. At current growth rates, Latin America's population is projected to increases between 1981 2001 by 225 million people. This staggering population growth is likely to have serious political, economic, social, strategic, and other implications. The strong opposition to family planning which came principally from nationlists, the military, and the church during the 1960s has changed to general support for voluntary family planning programs in much of Latin America. Too rapid population growth now is viewed widely as aggravating the problems of development and putting severe strains on services and facilities. The wish to limit family size is particularly strong among women. Most of Latin America's untapped land is unusable, either so steeply mountainous, densely tropical, or barren of topsoil that it cannot support life at even the most meager level of subsistence. Food production in most of Latin America has not kept pace with population growth. Since most new agricultural production is oriented toward exports rather than home consumption, conditions for most rural populations are worsening. Economic dilemmas facing Latin America include widespread poverty, the world's highest per capita debt, unemployment and underemployment that may reach between 40-50% of the workforce, negative economic growth rates over the past 5 years, immense income inequalities, declining terms of trade, extensive capital flight, little new investment or foreign assistance, increased protectionism on the part of those countriews with whom Latin America must trade, rising prices for the goods Latin America must import, and (in some countries) devastation of the economic infrastrucutre by guerrilla forces. The unprecedent flow from the countryside has made Latin America the

  7. Illegal abortion in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Viel, B

    1982-08-01

    In Latin American countries abortion on demand is legal only in Cuba and must be performed there in hospitals within the 1st 12 weeks of pregnancy. After the 1st trimester, it can be performed only for medical reasons. With regard to the other 18 Latin American countries, abortion is illegal in 2 of them even for saving the life of the pregnant women. In 9 countries therapeutic abortion is permitted only to save the woman's life. It is allowed in 4 countries in the case of severe disease that will be aggravated if the pregnancy continues. In the 3 remaining countries, in addition to medical reasons, it is legal if pregnancy is the consequence of incest or rape. Despite the law, induced abortion is often performed. The complications of illegal abortion are reviewed along with mortality and morbidity and abortions in adolescents. In Colombia in 1974, 58,717 women were hospitalized for complications of abortion. 42,160 women were hospitalized in Chile in 1974 with the same diagnosis. As Colombia and Chile both have family planning programs and effecive contraceptives are easily obtained, the rate could be even higher in those countries without programs or contraceptive availability. From surveys conducted in these 2 countries, it may be concluded that only 1 out of 3 induced abortions is complicated and requires hospitalization. The hospitalization for complications of abortion/1000 women of fertile age in Colombia and Chile suggests that there is an annual average of 15 hospitalized cases/1000 women of fertile age throughout Latin America. Presuming reasonable accuracy for these surveys, the rate of induced abortion in the entire continent can be estimated to be at least 45/1000 women of fertile age. From this, without considering Cuba, a conservative estimate of 3.4 million illegal induced abortions are performed annually in Latin America. It seems that illegal abortions are performed at an even higher rate than that observed in countries where abortion is legal and

  8. Latin America: Intercultural Experiential Learning Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT. Language Research Center.

    This learning aid is intended to help Americans become more effective in understanding and communicating with Latin Americans. The book consists of the following: (1) a map of Latin America, with area and population statistics for the various countries; (2) a brief description of the land, the people, the economy, diet, religion, government,…

  9. Challenges for Scientists in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Kalergis, Alexis M; Lacerda, Marcus; Rabinovich, Gabriel A; Rosenstein, Yvonne

    2016-09-01

    Despite political turmoil and economical crisis, research in Latin America has considerably advanced over recent decades. The present 'Point of View' outlines our perspectives on the working conditions, successes, difficulties, limitations, and challenges of biomedical scientific communities in four Latin American countries: Argentina (G.A.R.), Brazil (M.L.), Chile (A.K.), and Mexico (Y.R.).

  10. A World of Hurt: Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramaswami, Rama

    2009-01-01

    Massive socioeconomic problems have left Latin American education in a dire condition, and decades behind the rest of the globe in integrating technology into teaching and learning. But a few spots in the region offer signs of hope. In this article, the author describes several efforts at tech-based educational reform in Latin America.

  11. History of primary vasculitis in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Iglesias Gammara, Antonio; Coral, Paola; Quintana, Gerardo; Toro, Carlos E; Flores, Luis Felipe; Matteson, Eric L; Restrepo, José Félix

    2010-03-01

    A literature review utilizing Fepafem, Bireme, LiLacs, Scielo Colombia, Scielo Internacional, former MedLine, Pubmed, and BVS Colombia as well as manual searches in the libraries of major Latin American universities was performed to study vasculitis in Latin America. Since 1945, a total of 752 articles have been published by Latin American authors. However, only a minority are devoted to primary vasculitides, and even fewer have been published in indexed journals. Approximately 126 are in OLD, Medline, Pubmed, Bireme, and Scielo. Most publications are from Mexico, followed by Brazil and Colombia. Systematic studies of the epidemiology of primary idiopathic vasculitis are available for a few countries, i.e. Brazil, Mexico, Colombia, Chile, and Peru. Takayasu arteritis and ANCA-associated vasculitis are the best studied forms of vasculitis in Latin America. Interest and expertise in vasculitis is growing in Latin America, as reflected in the increased number of published articles from this region of the world in the last decade. Racial and environmental factors are possibly responsible for the differential expression of various types of primary vasculitis observed in Latin America. With time, the unique features, epidemiology, and better treatment strategies for idiopathic vasculitides in Latin America will emerge.

  12. LPG in Latin America: An overall view

    SciTech Connect

    Villaronga, G.J.

    1986-01-01

    Latin America is about 2.2 times the size of the United States and, in population, it exceeds the U.S. by 165 million people. A relatively high population growth rate, together with its vast underdeveloped natural resources, gives Latin America a tremendous potential for progress. The desire of governments to advance economically, together with the proper stimuli to education and to the managerial resources, should translate this potential in reality. This is evident in a number of regions.

  13. Epidemiology of type 1 diabetes in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Díaz, Rita Angélica; Garibay-Nieto, Nayely; Wacher-Rodarte, Niels; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos Alberto

    2014-03-01

    Latin America is among the regions with the highest diabetes-related burden. Research and treatment programs have increased in number and complexity in recent years, but they are focused in type 2 diabetes, because this condition explains a large proportion of the cases. In contrast, the information regarding the epidemiology of type 1 diabetes is scant in this area. Here, we analyze the available information on this topic and identify potential areas of opportunity to generate new knowledge through the study of type 1 diabetes in Latin Americans. Both, the prevalence and the incidence of type 1 diabetes, are lower in Latin American countries compared to that reported in Europe, North America, southern Asia and northern Africa. Biologic and methodological factors may explain the smaller contribution of type 1. The presence of some putative 'protective' environmental exposures or the absence of those prevalent in a region may explain the lower type 1 diabetes prevalence observed in most Latin American countries. However, the number and quality of the diabetes registries are not enough in this region. During the past decade, the incidence of type 1 diabetes has grown worldwide. The same trend has been reported in Latin America. This epidemiologic transition is a unique opportunity to identify interactions between rapidly changing environmental factors in subjects with different genetic backgrounds (such as the admixed Latin American populations). Finally, on-going therapeutic initiatives in this region are highlighted.

  14. Haematopoietic cell transplants in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Gale, R P; Seber, A; Bonfim, C; Pasquini, M

    2016-07-01

    Haematopoietic cell transplants are done by more than 1500 transplant centres in 75 countries, mostly for life-threatening haematological disorders. However, transplant technology and access are not uniformly distributed worldwide. Most transplants are done predominately in Europe, North America and some Asian countries. We review transplant activity in Latin America, a geographic region with a population of >600 million persons living in countries with diverse economic and social development levels. These data indicate a 20-40-fold lower frequency of transplants in Latin America compared with Europe and North America. We show that although economics, infrastructure and expertise are important limitations, other variables also operate. Changes in several of these variables may substantially increase transplant activity in Latin America.

  15. Haematopoietic Cell Transplants in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Gale, Robert Peter; Seber, Adriana; Bonfim, Carmem; Pasquini, Marcello

    2016-01-01

    Haematopoietic cell transplants are done by more than 1500 transplant centres in 75 countries, mostly for life-threatening haematological disorders. However, transplant technology and access are not uniformly-distributed worldwide. Most transplants are done in predominately Europe, North America and some Asian countries. We review transplants activity in Latin America, a geographic region with a population of more than 600 million persons living in countries with diverse economic and social development levels. The data indicate a 20-40-fold lower frequency of transplants in Latin America compared with Europe and North America. We show that although economics, infrastructure and expertise are important limitations, other variables also operate. Changes in several of these variables may substantially increase transplant activity in Latin America. PMID:26999468

  16. History of rehabilitation in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Sotelano, Fernando

    2012-04-01

    Rehabilitation in Latin America was pioneered in the 1940s by orthopedists who envisioned the need for the integration of people with disabilities into society. The objective of this review is to discuss the evolution of rehabilitation in Latin America during the last few decades. This review is divided into the following sections: (1) prehistory, (2) the beginning, (3) common features in different countries, (4) the beginning and consolidation of the specialty, (5) the Latin American Medical Association of Rehabilitation, and (6) journals published by different countries.

  17. Determinants of prenatal care use: evidence from 32 low-income countries across Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America.

    PubMed

    Guliani, Harminder; Sepehri, Ardeshir; Serieux, John

    2014-08-01

    While much has been written on the determinants of prenatal care attendance in low-income countries, comparatively little is known about the determinants of the frequency of prenatal visits in general and whether there are separate processes generating the decisions to use prenatal care and the frequency of use. Using the Demographic and Health Surveys data for 32 low-income countries (across Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America) and appropriate two-part and multilevel models, this article empirically assesses the influence of a wide array of observed individual-, household- and community-level characteristics on a woman's decision to use prenatal care and the frequency of that use, while controlling for unobserved community level factors. The results suggest that, though both the decision to use care and the number of prenatal visits are influenced by a range of observed individual-, household- and community-level characteristics, the influence of these determinants vary in magnitude for prenatal care attendance and the frequency of prenatal visits. Despite remarkable consistency among regions in the association of individual, household and community indicators with prenatal care utilization, the estimated coefficients of the risk factors vary greatly across the three world regions. The strong influence of household wealth, education and regional poverty on the use of prenatal care suggests that safe motherhood programmes should be linked with the objectives of social development programmes such as poverty reduction, enhancing the status of women and increasing primary and secondary school enrolment rate among girls. Finally, the finding that teenage mothers and unmarried women and those with unintended pregnancies are less likely to use prenatal care and have fewer visits suggests that safe mother programmes need to pay particular attention to the disadvantaged and vulnerable subgroups of population whose reproductive health issues are often fraught with

  18. Healthy Municipios in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Restrepo, H E; Llanos, G; Contreras, A; Rocabado, F; Gross, S; Suárez, J; González, J

    1995-09-01

    This article describes the Healthy Municipios movement in Latin America and gives examples of some PAHO projects that could become demonstration projects. The Healthy Municipios movement was established in the early 1990s. The movement aims to promote healthy municipalities according to objectives set forth in the 1987 Ottawa Charter on Health Promotion, the 1992 Declaration of Bogota, and the 1993 Caribbean Health Promotion Charter. The movement is a joint effort of government, the health sector, and the community in promoting health locally. Key features of the movement are its creativity, variety, political strength, and adaptation to local conditions. Technical cooperation serves the purpose of facilitating information exchange and promotes the use of modern techniques of analysis and scientific and technical information. All projects shared the following common features: initiation by the local community with strong political commitment, intersectoral organizational structure, widespread community mobilization and participation, problem solving activities, and a recognizable leader. Pioneering projects include the Comprehensive Project for Cienfuegos, Cuba; the Health Manizales, Colombia; the Network in Mexico; Baruta and El Hatillo, Venezuela; Valdivia, Chile; and San Carlos Canton, Costa Rica. It is concluded that these projects and most others aim to assure equity. These efforts are important for placing health on the political agenda and implementing healthy policies. The Valdivia project, for example, serves a population of about 120,000 in the urban city of Valdivia, the semi-urban area, and rural areas. The project was officially sanctioned by the President of Chile on World Health Day in 1993. Progress was reported in mass communication and school-based programs. Attention was directed also to prevention of risk factors for noncommunicable diseases and to the problem of traffic accidents.

  19. Hadron Therapy in Latin America

    SciTech Connect

    Kreiner, A. J.; Minsky, D. M.; Bergueiro, J.; Castell, W.; Thatar Vento, V.; Cartelli, D.; Kesque, J. M.; Ilardo, J. C.; Baldo, M.; Erhardt, J.; Estrada, L.; Hazarabedian, A.; Johann, F.; Suarez Sandin, J. C.; Igarzabal, M.; Repetto, M.; Obligado, M.; Lell, J.; Padulo, J.; Herrera, M.

    2010-08-04

    The use of proton and heavy ion beams for radiotherapy is a well established cancer treatment modality in the first world, which is becoming increasingly widespread, due to its clear advantages over conventional photon-based treatments. This strategy is suitable when the tumor is spatially well localized. Also the use of neutrons has tradition. Here Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) stands out, though on a much smaller scale, being a promising alternative for tumors which are diffuse and infiltrating. On this sector, so far only nuclear reactors have been used as neutron sources. In this paper we briefly describe the situation in Latin America and in particular we discuss the present status of an ongoing project to develop a folded Tandem-ElectroStatic-Quadrupole (TESQ) accelerator for Accelerator-Based (AB)-Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) at the Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina. The project goal is a machine capable of delivering 30 mA of 2.4 MeV protons to be used in conjunction with a neutron production target based on the {sup 7}Li(p,n){sup 7}Be reaction. These are the specifications needed to produce sufficiently intense and clean epithermal neutron beams to perform BNCT for deep-seated tumors in less than an hour. The machine being currently designed and constructed is a folded TESQ with a terminal at 0.6 MV as a smaller scale prototype. Since the concept is modular the same structure will be used for the 1.2 MV final accelerator.

  20. Algunos Animales de Latino America = Some Animals of Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Kathryn F. B.

    Developed by the Latin American Culture Studies Project for educators of elementary level children, these materials are designed to teach students the Spanish and English names of animals found in Latin America. The lesson includes coloring sheets, duplicating masters, fact sheets, the card game Maymayguashi, and directions for preparation. (DB)

  1. Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Iannella, Hernán A; Luna, Carlos M

    2016-12-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) region. Poverty, socioeconomic factors, and malnutrition influence the incidence and outcome of CAP in LAC. In LAC, Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most frequent microorganism responsible for CAP, (incidence: 24-78%); the incidence of atypical microorganisms is similar to other regions of the world. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a growing problem in the LAC region, with the Caribbean being the second most affected area worldwide after Sub-Saharan Africa. Pneumococcal pneumonia remains the most common cause of CAP in HIV-infected patients, but Pneumocystis jirovecii and tuberculosis (TB) are also common in this population. The heterogeneity of the health care systems and social inequity between different countries in LAC, and even between different settings inside the same country, is a difficult issue. TB, including multidrug-resistant TB, is several times more common in South American and Central American countries compared with North America. Furthermore, hantaviruses circulating in the Americas (new world hantaviruses) generate a severe respiratory disease called hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, with an associated mortality as high as 50%. More than 30 hantaviruses have been reported in the Western Hemisphere, with more frequent cases registered in the southern cone (Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, Paraguay, Bolivia, and Brazil). Respiratory viruses (particularly influenza) remain an important cause of morbidity and mortality, particularly in the elderly. Low rates of vaccination (against influenza as well as pneumococcus) may heighten the risk of these infections in low- and middle-income countries.

  2. Evolution of technology transfer in Latin America

    SciTech Connect

    Kahl, L.F. )

    1989-07-01

    The author discusses how Latin American countries have grown up buying technology, transferring technology from more developed nations, and attempting to adapt it to their own countries for their own environment. Although this is the approach that was and is necessary, there are still some shortfalls that have occurred in the process of licensing and acquisition of technology. Governments around the world also have had powerful impacts on technology transfer. Those in Latin America are no exception.

  3. [The feeding of children in Latin America].

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, A M

    1988-09-01

    Nutritional and dietary recommendations are given for infants, preschool and school children in Latin America, based on known and prevailing nutritional deficiencies, and on the prevention of degenerative diseases in adulthood. Special emphasis is placed on dietary iron and zinc deficiencies, as well as on the prevention of obesity and atherosclerosis, diseases which are seriously affecting medium and high socioeconomic levels of the Latin American population.

  4. Latin America, Ibero-America, Hispanic America, Spanish America, Portuguese America: A Proposal for Terminological Standardization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, David L.

    1977-01-01

    Latin America is the most widely used of the terms, but a more precise designation, at least in scholarly usage, would be useful. Distinctions are made on the basis of language in favor of the terms in the title. A bibliographical note for further reference is appended. (AMH)

  5. Will the production increase more than the oil consumption in Latin America

    SciTech Connect

    Monte, G.P.

    1981-12-01

    The year 1981 was one of the most active and of greatest expansion in Latin America's oil history. However, the future of the oil industry in this region must be more active to satisfy its increasing oil demand. During the first semester of 1981, while oil production declined in other regions (US, Canada, Africa, Middle East) it increased in Europe (6%), Asia-Pacific (6.7%) and Latin America (12%). Latin America occupies second place in proved oil reserves worldwide. However, due to the increasing rate of population and industrial development, by 1990 Latin America will double its energy consumption compared to that in 1980. This study looks at the past and at the oil world with emphasis in the reciprocal reactions of the supply and demand to answer the question, will there be more oil production, or more oil consumption. In this study, the economists express an opinion about what can be expected during this decade in Latin America.

  6. Rural Labour in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Janvry, Alain; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the status of rural labor and the performance of labor markets in Latin American agriculture. Points out the rapidly declining share of agriculture in the total labor force, weak capacity for creating nonagricultural employment, and rapidly increasing migration to towns. (JOW)

  7. Comprehensive Internationalisation in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gacel-Avila, Jocelyne

    2012-01-01

    The Latin American tertiary education (TE) sector is nowadays facing demands from globalisation and a knowledge-based society, while still dealing with challenges in terms of access, equity, quality and relevance. This new context has prompted a greater demand for TE and is forcing institutions to reconsider their mission, tasks and…

  8. [Population and nutrition in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Sepulveda, S

    1984-04-01

    This discussion of food and population in Latin America consists of 5 sections covering food and the population debate since Malthus, basic data on nutrition problems in Latin America, the demographic impact, food production, and future prospects. The present position in favor of limitation of population growth is based on the view that continued rapid population increase must inevitably bring a crisis of disequilibrium of food, natural resources, and ecological and economic security within about 100 years. The common element uniting those opposed to or indifferent to population control is a belief that science and technology can predict and satisfy the essential food needs of a burgeoning population. All developed countries have per capita caloric availabilities of over 3000/day, compared to an average of 2465 for Latin American as a whole. Only Barbados and Argentina have 3000 calories/day available. The daily average per capita protein consumption of 65.7 grams in Latin America is above the 54 gr/day recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Health Organiation. In Latin America the average daily per capita consumption from animal protein is 496 calories, compared to 1331 in the US. The nutrition status of different Latin American countries varies, with minimal caloric intakes of 1880-2170 calories/day in some Central American and Caribbean countries. Haiti, the Dominican Republic, Honduras, Ecuador, and Bolivia have frank protein deficits. Within countries, there may be large food gaps between regions, rural and urban populations, and social classes. The FAO estimated that 41 million Latin Americans representing 13% of the population are undernourished. 38% of Guatemalans, Hondurans, and Haitians, 30% of Ecuadoreans, and 23% of Peruvians are believed to be inadequately nourished. The quality of the diet varies widely between countries and regions because of a multitude of cultural, environmental, and socioeconomic factors. In

  9. Gender, Innovation and Education in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Ingrid, Ed.; King, Linda, Ed.

    This document contains 19 papers on gender, innovation, and education in Latin America. The following papers are included: "Introduction" (Ingrid Jung); "Reflections on the Gender Perspective in Experiences of Non-Formal Education with Women" (Lilian Celiberti); "Gender and Innovation" (Graciela Messina);…

  10. Civilian-Military Relations in Latin America

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-01

    Pion-Berlin, “The Defense Wisdom Deficit in Latin America: A Reply to Thomas C. Bruneau,” Revista Fuerzas Armadas y Sociedad , forthcoming. 3. Sir...Guatemala (Guatemala: Fondo de Cultura editorial), 1995. 27. in our view, the major defect of the peace and democratization process in Guatemala was

  11. Profession of neuropsychology in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos; Stevens, Lillian; Morlett Paredes, Alejandra; Ardila, Alfredo; Rivera, Diego

    2016-06-09

    The purpose of this study was to analyze characteristics of individuals working in the profession of neuropsychology in Latin America in order to understand their background, professional training, current work situation, assessment and diagnostic procedures used, rehabilitation techniques employed, population targeted, teaching responsibilities, and research activities. A total of 808 professionals working in neuropsychology from 17 countries in Latin America completed an online survey between July 2013 and January 2014. The majority of participants were female and the mean age was 36.76 years (range 21-74 years). The majority of professionals working in neuropsychology in Latin America have a background in psychology, with some additional specialized training and supervised clinical practice. Over half work in private practice, universities, or private clinics and are quite satisfied with their work. Those who identify themselves as clinicians primarily work with individuals with learning problems, ADHD, mental retardation, TBI, dementia, and stroke. The majority respondents cite the top barrier in the use of neuropsychological instruments to be the lack of normative data for their countries. The top perceived barriers to the field include: lack of academic training programs, lack of clinical training opportunities, lack of willingness to collaborate between professionals, and lack of access to neuropsychological instruments. There is a need in Latin America to increase regulation, improve graduate curriculums, enhance existing clinical training, develop professional certification programs, validate existing neuropsychological tests, and create new, culturally-relevant instruments.

  12. Counseling: A New Priority in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espin, Oliva M.; Renner, Richard R.

    1974-01-01

    This brief survey is an effort to inform counselors about some of the recent developments in Latin America that relate to their profession. The article explains some of the underlying social, cultural, and educational conditions that have helped shape recent trends. Despite the problem of underprofessionalization, the field of vocational guidance…

  13. ADULT BASIC EDUCATION IN LATIN AMERICA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CORTRIGHT, RICHARD W.

    THE AUTHOR BRIEFLY REVIEWS STUDIES AND REPORTS ON ADULT BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAMS IN LATIN AMERICA, WHERE IN MOST COUNTRIES AT LEAST 40 PERCENT OF THE ADULT POPULATION IS ILLITERATE. EDUCATION HAS BEEN RELATED TO NATIONAL ECONOMIES, HEALTH, AND SOCIAL AND POLITICAL PROBLEMS. NATIONAL BUDGETS FOR LITERACY PROGRAMS ARE GROWING AND IN SOME COUNTRIES…

  14. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Europe & Latin America

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-31

    Europe & Latin America JPRS-ELS-87-056 CONTENTS 31 DECEMBER 1987 WEST EUROPE ADVANCED MATERIALS French Magnetic Forming Conference Reviewed [CPE BULLETIN...Radionuclides by CSSR Nuclear Biology Institute [Josef Benes; TECHNICKY TYDENIK, 13 Jan 87...measuring bridge French Magnetic Forming Conference Reviewed fitted on several machine tools at Michelin; an ultra- sound flowmeter on Liquide Air delivery

  15. Station Climatic Summaries Latin America. Addendum 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-02-01

    Latin America is 032, Europe is 033, and so on); only the year of issue changes . The map shows regional boundanes corresponding to each numbered volume...DAY OR < 12 MONTH/YEAR SOURCE(S): 1. USAFETAC DATSAV POR JAN 73 - JUL 85 2. NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE SURVEY 13-39 YEARS 3. WORLDWIDE AIRFIELD CIMATIC DATA

  16. Ophthalmic pathology laboratories in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Contreras, F

    1993-02-01

    Ocular pathology laboratories have been one of the main reasons for the progress and evolution of ophthalmology in Latin America. This has been made possible through pathologic reports, meetings, and seminars and through the valuable help of basic teaching in residency programs in ophthalmology.

  17. Recommendations for the management of candidemia in adults in Latin America. Latin America Invasive Mycosis Network.

    PubMed

    Nucci, Marcio; Thompson-Moya, Luis; Guzman-Blanco, Manuel; Tiraboschi, Iris Nora; Cortes, Jorge Alberto; Echevarría, Juan; Sifuentes, Jose; Zurita, Jeannete; Santolaya, María E; Alvarado Matute, Tito; de Queiroz Telles, Flavio; Colombo, Arnaldo Lopes

    2013-01-01

    Candidemia is one of the most frequent opportunistic mycoses worldwide. Limited epidemiological studies in Latin America indicate that incidence rates are higher in this region than in the Northern Hemisphere. Diagnosis is often made late in the infection, affecting the initiation of antifungal therapy. A more scientific approach, based on specific parameters, for diagnosis and management of candidemia in Latin America is warranted. 'Recommendations for the diagnosis and management of candidemia' are a series of manuscripts that have been developed by members of the Latin America Invasive Mycosis Network. They aim to provide a set of best-evidence recommendations for the diagnosis and management of candidemia. This publication, 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in adults in Latin America', was written to provide guidance to healthcare professionals on the management of adults who have, or who are at risk of, candidemia. Computerized searches of existing literature were performed by PubMed. The data were extensively reviewed and analyzed by members of the group. The group also met on two occasions to pose questions, discuss conflicting views, and deliberate on a series of management recommendations. 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in adults in Latin America' includes prophylaxis, empirical therapy, therapy for proven candidemia, patient work-up following diagnosis of candidemia, duration of candidemia treatment, and central venous catheter management in patients with candidemia. This manuscript is the second of this series that deals with diagnosis and treatment of invasive candidiasis. Other publications in this series include: 'Recommendations for the diagnosis of candidemia in Latin America', 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in children in Latin America', and 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in neonates in Latin America'.

  18. Recommendations for the management of candidemia in neonates in Latin America. Latin America Invasive Mycosis Network.

    PubMed

    Santolaya, María E; Alvarado Matute, Tito; de Queiroz Telles, Flavio; Colombo, Arnaldo Lopes; Zurita, Jeannete; Tiraboschi, Iris Nora; Cortes, Jorge Alberto; Thompson-Moya, Luis; Guzman-Blanco, Manuel; Sifuentes, Jose; Echevarría, Juan; Nucci, Marcio

    2013-01-01

    Candidemia is one of the most frequent opportunistic mycoses worldwide. Limited epidemiological studies in Latin America indicate that incidence rates are higher in this region than in the Northern Hemisphere. Diagnosis is often made late in the infection, affecting the initiation of antifungal therapy. A more scientific approach, based on specific parameters, for diagnosis and management of candidemia in Latin America is warranted. 'Recommendations for the diagnosis and management of candidemia' are a series of manuscripts that have been developed by members of the Latin America Invasive Mycosis Network. They aim to provide a set of best-evidence recommendations for the diagnosis and management of candidemia. This publication, 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in neonates in Latin America', was written to provide guidance to healthcare professionals on the management of neonates who have, or who are at risk of, candidemia. Computerized searches of existing literature were performed by PubMed. The data were extensively reviewed and analyzed by members of the group. The group also met on two occasions to pose questions, discuss conflicting views, and deliberate on a series of management recommendations. 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in neonates in Latin America' includes prophylaxis, empirical therapy, therapy for proven candidemia, patient work-up following diagnosis of candidemia, central venous catheter management, and management of complications. This manuscript is the fourth of this series that deals with diagnosis and treatment of invasive candidiasis. Other publications in this series include: 'Recommendations for the diagnosis of candidemia in Latin America', 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in adults in Latin America', and 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in children in Latin America'.

  19. Recommendations for the diagnosis of candidemia in Latin America. Latin America Invasive Mycosis Network.

    PubMed

    Colombo, Arnaldo Lopes; Cortes, Jorge Alberto; Zurita, Jeannete; Guzman-Blanco, Manuel; Alvarado Matute, Tito; de Queiroz Telles, Flavio; Santolaya, María E; Tiraboschi, Iris Nora; Echevarría, Juan; Sifuentes, Jose; Thompson-Moya, Luis; Nucci, Marcio

    2013-01-01

    Candidemia is one of the most frequent opportunistic mycoses worldwide. Limited epidemiological studies in Latin America indicate that incidence rates are higher in this region than in the Northern Hemisphere. Diagnosis is often made late in the infection, affecting the initiation of antifungal therapy. A more scientific approach, based on specific parameters, for diagnosis and management of candidemia in Latin America is warranted. 'Recommendations for the diagnosis and management of candidemia' are a series of manuscripts that have been developed by members of the Latin America Invasive Mycosis Network. They aim to provide a set of best-evidence recommendations for the diagnosis and management of candidemia. This publication, 'Recommendations for the diagnosis of candidemia in Latin America', was written to provide guidance to healthcare professionals on the diagnosis of candidemia, as well as on the usefulness and application of susceptibility testing in patients who have a confirmed diagnosis of candidemia. Computerized searches of existing literature were performed by PubMed. The data were extensively reviewed and analyzed by members of the group. The group also met on two occasions to pose questions, discuss conflicting views, and deliberate on a series of management recommendations. 'Recommendations for the diagnosis of candidemia in Latin America' includes diagnostic methods used to detect candidemia, Candida species identification, and susceptibility testing. The availability of methods, their costs and treatment settings are considered. This manuscript is the first of this series that deals with diagnosis and treatment of invasive candidiasis. Other publications in this series include: 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in adults in Latin America', 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in children in Latin America', and 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in neonates in Latin America'.

  20. Recommendations for the management of candidemia in children in Latin America. Latin America Invasive Mycosis Network.

    PubMed

    Santolaya, María E; de Queiroz Telles, Flavio; Alvarado Matute, Tito; Colombo, Arnaldo Lopes; Zurita, Jeannete; Tiraboschi, Iris Nora; Cortes, Jorge Alberto; Thompson-Moya, Luis; Guzman-Blanco, Manuel; Sifuentes, Jose; Echevarría, Juan; Nucci, Marcio

    2013-01-01

    Candidemia is one of the most frequent opportunistic mycoses worldwide. Limited epidemiological studies in Latin America indicate that incidence rates are higher in this region than in the Northern Hemisphere. Diagnosis is often made late in the infection, affecting the initiation of antifungal therapy. A more scientific approach, based on specific parameters, for diagnosis and management of candidemia in Latin America is warranted. 'Recommendations for the diagnosis and management of candidemia' are a series of manuscripts that have been developed by members of the Latin America Invasive Mycosis Network. They aim to provide a set of best-evidence recommendations for the diagnosis and management of candidemia. This publication, 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in children in Latin America', was written to provide guidance to healthcare professionals on the management of children who have, or who are at risk of, candidemia. Computerized searches of existing literature were performed by PubMed. The data were extensively reviewed and analyzed by members of the group. The group also met on two occasions to pose questions, discuss conflicting views, and deliberate on a series of management recommendations. 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in children in Latin America' includes prophylaxis, empirical therapy, therapy for proven candidemia, patient work-up following diagnosis of candidemia, duration of candidemia treatment, and central venous catheter management in children with candidemia. This manuscript is the third of this series that deals with diagnosis and treatment of invasive candidiasis. Other publications in this series include: 'Recommendations for the diagnosis of candidemia in Latin America', 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in adults in Latin America', and 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in neonates in Latin America'.

  1. Is Jomtien Irrelevant to Latin America? Adjusting Education While Adjusting the Economy. Development Discussion Paper No. 388-ES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reimers, Fernando M.

    This paper challenges the commonly held view that Latin America has solved its access problems to primary education. The consequences of this view would be that the policy recommendations of the World Conference on Education for All, held in Jomtien, Thailand, in 1990 would be less applicable to Latin America than to Africa or Asia. The first part…

  2. Epidemiology of food allergy in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, J; Sánchez, A

    2015-01-01

    Food allergy is growing worldwide at an alarming rate. A group of eight foods account for over 90% of the reactions in Europe and the United States. However, little is known about the frequency of sensitization to these foods in Latin American, and if other native foods from this region are an important source of sensitization. The objective of this review was to analyse the epidemiological studies in Latin America about food allergy and to compare them with the studies in the United States and Europe.

  3. Mental health policy developments in Latin America.

    PubMed Central

    Alarcón, R. D.; Aguilar-Gaxiola, S. A.

    2000-01-01

    New assessment guidelines for measuring the overall impact of mental health problems in Latin America have served as a catalyst for countries to review their mental health policies. Latin American countries have taken various steps to address long-standing problems such as structural difficulties, scarce financial and human resources, and social, political, and cultural obstacles in the implementation of mental health policies and legislation. These policy developments, however, have had uneven results. Policies must reflect the desire, determination, and commitment of policy-makers to take mental health seriously and look after people's mental health needs. This paper describes the development of mental health policies in Latin American countries, focusing on published data in peer-reviewed journals, and legislative change and its implementation. It presents a brief history of mental health policy developments, and analyzes the basis and practicalities of current practice. PMID:10885167

  4. Public health nutrition in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Solomons, Noel W

    2003-01-01

    An inquiry into options for Masters-level training and into attitudes and perceptions among a convenience sample of nutrition students and professionals from 11 countries suggests that the term, "Public Health Nutrition", as such, is poorly represented and poorly understood in the Latin American region. At least six countries (Brazil, Chile, Cuba, Mexico, Peru, Puerto Rico) at seven sites have Masters programs to provide training for nutrition in a public health context or public health with an emphasis in nutrition. Exploring alliances from the Americas with the formal PHN discipline emerging in Europe should enrich the mutual perspective on curriculum design. However, the form and context of postgraduate training in Latin America must consider first and foremost its own job-markets, diverse public health needs, and resource allocations in building or transforming training programs.

  5. [Bioethics in Latin America: legal perspective].

    PubMed

    Figueroa Yáñez, Gonzalo

    2003-01-01

    The jurist's work is to detect the legal guiding principles, analize them and to anticipate what kind of acceptance they will have. The legislator must be prudent if the subject studied is changeable as it happens with the norms applied in Bioethics. This detection process is more delicate if the guiding principles that have to be detected are valid for such an extensive region, as it is Latin America, where the legislation of the different countries that form it would adopt them. The two problems that will be studied here are: a) if it is advisable or not to raise some Bioethic basic principles to the constitutional level. b) which are the main principles that have been adopted by the juridical legislations of Latin America and who, in some way, guide the legal regulation.

  6. Epidemiology of cervical cancer in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Capote Negrin, Luis G

    2015-01-01

    The basic aspects of the descriptive epidemiology of cervical cancer in Latin America are presented. A decrease in the incidence and mortality rates has been observed in the period from 2000 to 2012 in all countries across the region, this has not occurred at the same proportions, and in many countries, observed figures of incidence and mortality are among the highest levels in the world. In Latin America, calculating a mean measure of the numbers from the GLOBOCAN data from 2000 to 2012, we can observe a difference of up to fivefold of the incidence (Puerto Rico 9,73 Vs Bolivia 50,73) and almost seven times for mortality (Puerto Rico 3,3 Vs Nicaragua 21,67). A report of the epidemiology, risk factors, and evaluation of screening procedures regarding the possible impact of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine I in the prevention of cervical cancer is presented. PMID:26557875

  7. Psychosocial aspects of vasectomy in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, A; Goldberg, R J

    1974-11-01

    Social constraints, the structure of the Latin American family, and the "machismo" cult are some of the reasons for the scarcity of vasectomy programs in Latin America. If processes of screening and counseling, and selfselection are employed, vasectomy programs can be just as successful in Latin America as in other countries. Some psychological factors will always have to be considered. One theory by Desmond Morris holds that the primitive behavior patterns of man, which evolved to protect the young, still persists today although they are no longer necessary. One study showed that men who had received vasectomies were socially more aggressive and assertive as compensatory behavior. The Spanish tradition of patriachy combined with the Roman Catholic tradition of male dominance determines the culture in which machismo is a natural outgrowth. The woman is regarded as property. For the woman, bearing children is the reason for existence. It is possible that all men view vasectomy as castration on the subconscious level. In most Latin American countries the laws are against voluntary contraceptive sterilization, but the laws are not enforced.

  8. JPRS Report, Science & Technology Europe & Latin America.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    1987] . 22 LATIN AMERICA ADVANCED MATERIALS Brazilian Superconductivity [ ENERGIA , Jul 87] 26 AEROSPACE, CIVIL AVIATION Brazil’s Sonda IV...coordination of the Austrian space program is the Austrian Solar and Space Agency (ASSA), headquartered in Vienna. "Thus far, thanks to this organization...can also be used as a thin film for the production of photovoltaic solar cells and for displays (flat television screens, for instance). Much

  9. The Threat of Latin America Populism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-07

    Horowitz, Populism in Latin America, (Tuscaloosa, AL: University of Alabama, 1999) 23. 8 Alberto Paz , "Tango Lyrics in Spanish and English", February...December 5, 2008, http ://www.argentina.ar/ es/ciencia-y- educacion /C343 -invap-tecnologia -de-avanzada -a- medida.php (accessed December 15, 2009...andresoppenheimer.blogspotcom/2006_12_0l_archive.html. Paz Alberto, "Tango Lyrics in Spanish and English" , February 27, 2008, http://www.planet

  10. Family planning in Latin America's barriadas.

    PubMed

    1993-05-01

    In Latin America, many rural people build dwellings in settlements on the cities' fringes without permission from the authorities. The authorities make several unsuccessful attempts to drive them away, but eventually ignore them. In the 1960s, family planning (FP) associations were concerned about how they can serve the shantytowns, which needed their services but had no social services at all, e.g., water supply and sanitation. In the early 1970s, PROFAMILIA Colombia began a new form of FP service delivery in rural areas by training someone from the community who believed in FP to distribution (CBD) programs provided more FP than all of PROFAMILIA's 60 clinics. In 1973, PROFAMILIA started its URBAN CBD program in the slums of Bogota and learned that the people wanted FP. The CBD movement spread throughout urban and rural Latin America. Brazil's BEMFAM developed the world's largest CBD program. By 1985, 10,365 distribution posts operated in Latin America and, by 1991, there were 26,423. In urban slums in the 1980s, Mexico's MEXFAM began using community doctors, who tend to be new medical graduates. Often the community and the doctors respect each other so much that many doctors remain in the shantytowns beyond their required time. The residents' acceptance of FP provided by people who understand the community shows how they want to plan their lives and better themselves. In addition, they have taken the chance to seek a better life by leaving hopeless situations in rural areas and by building dwellings for themselves, even though they had no money, land, or even basic necessities. In Peru, shantytown residents were moved to the desert and supplied with basic construction materials. They built a community, Villa El Salvador, now complete with tree-lined streets, shops, schools, and movies. Shantytown dwellers may have the solution to Latin America's problems.

  11. Mineral Facilities of Latin America and Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bernstein, Rachel; Eros, Mike; Quintana-Velazquez, Meliany

    2006-01-01

    This data set consists of records for over 900 mineral facilities in Latin America and Canada. The mineral facilities include mines, plants, smelters, or refineries of aluminum, cement, coal, copper, diamond, gold, iron and steel, nickel, platinum-group metals, salt, and silver, among others. Records include attributes such as commodity, country, location, company name, facility type and capacity if applicable, and generalized coordinates. The data were compiled from multiple sources, including the 2003 and 2004 USGS Minerals Yearbooks (Latin America and Candada volume), data to be published in the 2005 Minerals Yearbook Latin America and Canada Volume, minerals statistics and information from the USGS minerals information Web site (minerals.usgs.gov/minerals), and data collected by USGS minerals information country specialists. Data reflect the most recent published table of industry structure for each country. Other sources include statistical publications of individual countries, annual reports and press releases of operating companies,and trade journals. Due to the sensitivity of some energy commodity data, the quality of these data should be evaluated on a country-by-country basis. Additional information and explanation is available from the country specialists.

  12. [Scientific journals of medical students in Latin-America].

    PubMed

    Cabrera-Samith, Ignacio; Oróstegui-Pinilla, Diana; Angulo-Bazán, Yolanda; Mayta-Tristán, Percy; Rodríguez-Morales, Alfonso J

    2010-11-01

    This article deals with the history and evolution of student's scientific journals in Latin-America, their beginnings, how many still exist and which is their future projection. Relevant events show the growth of student's scientific journals in Latin-America and how are they working together to improve their quality. This article is addressed not only for Latin American readers but also to worldwide readers. Latin American medical students are consistently working together to publish scientific research, whose quality is constantly improving.

  13. Cardiovascular disease research in Latin America: A comparative bibliometric analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jahangir, Eiman; Comandé, Daniel; Rubinstein, Adolfo

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the number of publications in cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Latin America and the Caribbean over the last decade. METHODS: We performed a bibliometric analysis in PubMed from 2001 to 2010 for Latin America and the Caribbean, the United States, Canada, Europe, China, and India. RESULTS: Latin America published 4% of articles compared with 26% from the United States/Canada and 42% from Europe. In CVD, Latin America published 4% of articles vs 23% from the United States/Canada and 40% from Europe. The number of publications in CVD in Latin America increased from 41 in 2001 to 726 in 2010. CONCLUSION: Latin America, while publishing more articles than previously, lags behind developed countries. Further advances in research infrastructure are necessary to develop prevention strategies for this region. PMID:22216374

  14. BAT-BORNE RABIES IN LATIN AMERICA

    PubMed Central

    Escobar, Luis E.; Peterson, A. Townsend; Favi, Myriam; Yung, Verónica; Medina-Vogel, Gonzalo

    2015-01-01

    The situation of rabies in America is complex: rabies in dogs has decreased dramatically, but bats are increasingly recognized as natural reservoirs of other rabies variants. Here, bat species known to be rabies-positive with different antigenic variants, are summarized in relation to bat conservation status across Latin America. Rabies virus is widespread in Latin American bat species, 22.5%75 of bat species have been confirmed as rabies-positive. Most bat species found rabies positive are classified by the International Union for Conservation of Nature as “Least Concern”. According to diet type, insectivorous bats had the most species known as rabies reservoirs, while in proportion hematophagous bats were the most important. Research at coarse spatial scales must strive to understand rabies ecology; basic information on distribution and population dynamics of many Latin American and Caribbean bat species is needed; and detailed information on effects of landscape change in driving bat-borne rabies outbreaks remains unassessed. Finally, integrated approaches including public health, ecology, and conservation biology are needed to understand and prevent emergent diseases in bats. PMID:25651328

  15. [Clostridum difficile associated disease in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Camacho-Ortiz, Adrián; Ponce-de-León, Alfredo; Sifuentes-Osornio, José

    2009-01-01

    Clostridium difficile associated disease (CDAD) has shown a sustained increase worldwide over the last ten years. However, there are few studies on this topic in Latin America. We conducted a comprehensive literature review using medical databases of Latin American countries. We found only seven recent papers in which clinical characteristics and risk factors were analyzed; some included outcome variables. Of these articles, only one was prospective, while the rest were either retrospective, cross-sectional or case-control studies. Most studies were done among hospitalized adult patients, even though patients 13+ years were also included in some reports. Only two recent clinical studies used cell culture to determine a cytopathic effect and the rest included immunoenzymatic assays. In general, all the studies we reviewed showed that the use of fluorquinolones, clindamycin, and cephalosporins were the antibiotics mostly associated with CDAD. Treatment schedules generally included metronidazol, although vancomycin was reported in one. Attributable mortality was lower than the mortality described in previous reports from hospitals in developed countries. Studies where this outcome was included did not surpass 4%, a significant difference from the findings from developed countries. In Latin America there are few studies that describe this clinical problem, they generally include small sample sizes and most are retrospective. There is a clear need to design and carry out prospective studies that will allow us to determine the true prevalence of this health problem

  16. Forensic anthropology in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Işcan, M Y; Olivera, H E

    2000-03-13

    Forensic anthropology has been one of the fastest growing medico-legal disciplines both in its contribution to the practical needs of the legal system and research accomplishments. New anthropological standards were developed to apply to a specific population of a region. The purpose of this paper is to analyze a large sample of anthropological forensic cases and to review pertinent literature that deals with anthropological standards developed for the population of the continent of Central and South America. Using Uruguay as an example, there was not a single office or anthropologist assigned to analyze human skeletal remains in Uruguay. In 1991 the Laboratorio de Antropología Forense at the Morgue Judicial of Montevideo was created. A total of 189 forensic anthropological cases (276 individuals) were analyzed since this date. Twenty six percent of cases involving human remains were positively identified. The majority came from the Departamento de Montevideo, the largest population district of the country. Most of the cases fell into the 60 to 69 years old age range (35%). Females represented 32% of the total. Since the establishment of the laboratory, the number of forensic cases increased considerably from 20 in 1991 to 40 in 1997. The case studies were accompanied with skull-photo superimposition and facial reconstruction when no other evidence for positive identification was available. This service provided by the laboratory was quickly known to coroners, law enforcement agencies, and other legal authorities and thus utilized not only in Uruguay but also in several other countries in the continent. Because of the obvious need for an anthropologist, there are now university programs to provide forensic anthropological education. Yet, research has lagged behind considerably. Deficiencies are obvious in basic osteological standards of estimating age, calculating stature, determining sex and assessing race that can be applied to populations of the continent

  17. Assessment and monitoring of onchocerciasis in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Pérez, Mario A; Unnasch, Thomas R; Real-Najarro, Olga

    2011-01-01

    Onchocerciasis has historically been one of the leading causes of infectious blindness worldwide. It is endemic to tropical regions both in Africa and Latin America and in the Yemen. In Latin America, it is found in 13 foci located in 6 different countries. The epidemiologically most important focus of onchocerciasis in the Americas is located in a region spanning the border between Guatemala and Mexico. However, the Amazonian focus straddling the border of Venezuela and Brazil is larger in overall area because the Yanomami populations are scattered over a very large geographical region. Onchocerciasis is caused by infection with the filarial parasite Onchocerca volvulus. The infection is spread through the bites of an insect vector, black flies of the genus Simulium. In Africa, the major vectors are members of the S. damnosum complex, while numerous species serve as vectors of the parasite in Latin America. Latin America has had a long history of attempts to control onchocerciasis, stretching back almost 100 years. The earliest programmes used a strategy of surgical removal of the adult parasites from affected individuals. However, because many of the adult parasites lodge in undetectable and inaccessible areas of the body, the overall effect of this strategy on the prevalence of infection was relatively minor. In 1988, a new drug, ivermectin, was introduced that effectively killed the larval stage (microfilaria) of the parasite in infected humans. As the microfilaria is both the stage that is transmitted by the vector fly and the cause of most of the pathologies associated with the infection, ivermectin opened up a new strategy for the control of onchocerciasis. Concurrent with the use of ivermectin for the treatment of onchocerciasis, a number of sensitive new diagnostic tools were developed (both serological and nucleic acid based) that provided the efficiency, sensitivity and specificity necessary to monitor the decline and eventual elimination of

  18. U.S. Security Assistance to Latin America.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-09-01

    SECURITY ASSISTANCE TO LATIN AMERICA THESIS Valerie S. Payne, Captain, USAF AFIT/GTM/LAL/95S-11 DTI« QUALITY INSPECTED 3 DEPARTMENT OF THE...Avail and/or Special r^ELECTE| 1%N0V 0 6 1995i U.S. SECURITY ASSISTANCE TO LATIN AMERICA THESIS Valerie S. Payne, Captain, USAF AFIT/GTM/LAL...Foreign Policy 17 Security Assistance in Latin America 19 Summary 21 IV. Foreign Policy Toward Latin America 23 World War II and the 1950s

  19. Physical Activity Interventions in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Hoehner, Christine M.; Ribeiro, Isabela C.; Parra, Diana C.; Reis, Rodrigo S.; Azevedo, Mario R.; Hino, Adriano A.; Soares, Jesus; Hallal, Pedro C.; Simões, Eduardo J.; Brownson, Ross C.

    2013-01-01

    Context Systematic reviews of public health interventions are useful for identifying effective strategies for informing policy and practice. The goals of this review were to (1) update a previous systematic review of physical activity interventions in Latin America which found that only school-based physical education had sufficient evidence to recommend widespread adoption; (2) assess the reporting of external validity elements; and (3) develop and apply an evidence typology for classifying interventions. Evidence acquisition In 2010–2011, community-level, physical activity intervention studies from Latin America were identified, categorized, and screened based on the peer-reviewed literature or Brazilian theses published between 2006 and 2010. Articles meeting inclusion criteria were evaluated using U.S. Community Guide methods. External validity reporting was assessed among a subset of articles reviewed to date. An evidence rating typology was developed and applied to classify interventions along a continuum based on evidence about their effectiveness in the U.S. context, reach, adoption, implementation, institutionalization, and benefits and costs. Evidence synthesis Thirteen articles published between 2006 and 2010 met inclusion criteria and were abstracted systematically, yet when combined with evidence from articles from the previous systematic review, no additional interventions could be recommended for practice. Moreover, the reporting of external validity elements was low among a subset of 19 studies published to date (median=21% of elements reported). By applying the expanded evidence rating typology, one intervention was classified as evidence-based, seven as promising, and one as emerging. Conclusions Several physical activity interventions have been identified as promising for future research and implementation in Latin America. Enhanced reporting of external validity elements will inform the translation of research into practice. PMID:23415133

  20. Education, democracy and development in Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, Candido

    1993-11-01

    The education first brought to America by Europeans was hardly more than ornamental culture, literacy was generally unimportant, and African slaves were not educated at all. Only in this century did industrialization cause some governments to provide economic and technological support through training and education. In the last decade, the debt crisis curtailed spending, while numbers of students and teachers continued to rise. A comparison between Latin America and South Korea illustrates the former's relative decline in investment. The advent of populist and corporatist democracies did not alleviate the situation, although there is now some evidence of concern for basic education for poorer children. With economic adjustment programmes, little else has been done for those who have suffered the heaviest burdens, and no obvious solutions to poverty and technological obsolescence are in prospect. A major reform of State institutions is called for, including a commitment to education, a change in the economic model, and a recognition of global interdependence.

  1. Internationalizing Business Education in Latin America: Issues and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elahee, Mohammad; Norbis, Mario

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the extent of internationalization of business education in Latin America and identifies the key challenges facing the Latin American business schools. Based on a survey of the business schools that are members of CLADEA (Consejo Latinoamericano de Escuelas de Administracion--Latin American Council of Management Schools), and…

  2. Sickle cell in Latin America and the United States [corrected].

    PubMed

    Huttle, Alexandra; Maestre, Gladys E; Lantigua, Rafael; Green, Nancy S

    2015-07-01

    Latin Americans are an underappreciated population affected by sickle cell disease (SCD). Sickle trait and SCD exist throughout Latin America and U.S. Latino communities. We describe the epidemiology and genetic heterogeneity of SCD among Latin Americans, and fetal hemoglobin expression. National population-based newborn screening for SCD is limited to Brazil, Costa Rica, and the U.S. Available and extrapolated data suggest that over 6,000 annual births and 100,000-150,000 Latin Americans are affected by SCD. This comprehensive review highlights the substantial numbers and population distribution of SCD and sickle trait in Latin America, and where national newborn screening programs for SCD exist.

  3. The Digital Divide: The View from Latin America and the Caribbean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Adolfo

    This paper discusses the digital divide from the perspective of Latin America and the Caribbean. Highlights include: new issues that make access to electronic resources difficult for users; differences in technological infrastructure among countries; how Internet users are distributed worldwide; Internet access in Africa; the number of students…

  4. Implementation of HPV testing in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Jeronimo, Jose; Holme, Francesca; Slavkovsky, Rose; Camel, Claudia

    2016-03-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the leading killers among women in Latin America, a region where most countries have not been successful in implementing population-level cytology-based screening programs. This disease is caused by persistent infection with oncogenic HPV; in recent years, more HPV tests have become available and prices have dropped significantly, making it possible for countries to adopt these technologies. Pilot programs that took place in Nicaragua, Mexico, and Argentina showed a high level of efficacy in detecting precancerous cervical lesions and good feasibility and acceptance of self-sampling. El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua are beginning to institutionalize HPV testing at the population level. The experience from the different countries has created rich information about the barriers and requirements for implementing HPV screening at large scale in these resource-constrained countries. There are several challenges for implementation, including a need to update screening guidelines, strengthen treatment capacity, and develop a comprehensive quality assurance plan for the HPV testing. At the same time, there are several opportunities in Latin America that make the process more feasible and faster than in other regions of the world: most Latin American countries already have screening programs funded by their national governments, several countries in the region are already implementing HPV testing, and there is a regional pooled procurement mechanism that could facilitate the purchase of HPV tests at an accessible price. We envision that most countries in the region will include HPV testing in their national program within the next three to five years.

  5. Background Briefing for Student Teachers Going to Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banning, Bernadine

    A guide for student teachers planning to travel or work in Latin America contains general information about living in Latin America and profiles of Mexico and the Dominican Republic. The general information addresses these issues: travel, what to take along, culture shock, greetings, generalizations about Hispanic culture, values, given names and…

  6. Preparing Teachers for Inclusive Education in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaillant, Denise

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes the current challenges facing inclusive education in Latin America and explores some possible solutions. The author suggests that teachers play a key role in providing education that is inclusive for all. In Latin America, today, however, inclusive education often does not respond to the needs of children and young people,…

  7. Latin America in World Geography Textbooks for the Secondary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andereck, Mary E.; Dixon, Clifton V., Jr.

    The purpose of this study was to quantitatively analyze the Latin American content of contemporary world geography textbooks published for United States secondary schools. A preliminary review of the literature indicated that Latin America was generally omitted from world geography texts, Central America was given minimal attention, and…

  8. Multilateral Agencies and Higher Education Reform in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez-Gomez, Roberto; Alcantara, Armando

    2001-01-01

    Using recent policy proposals, including joint efforts, by four multilateral agencies--two international in scope (UNESCO, World Bank) and two regional (Economic Commission for Latin America, Interamerican Development Bank)--discusses agencies' position on higher education reform in Latin America. Examines each agency's focus and identifies…

  9. Educational Research in Latin America: Review and Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akkari, Abdeljalil; Perez, Soledad

    1998-01-01

    Describes the historical context of educational research in Latin America and focuses on the theoretical frameworks applied to educational research in the area. Identifies the primary institutions involved in educational research in Latin America and suggests priorities for future research. (SLD)

  10. "Latin" and "Anglo" America Geographic Regions Do Not Exist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernardes DaSilva, Edmar; Kvasnak, Robert Neil

    2015-01-01

    The regional divisions termed as "Latin America" versus "Anglo-America" used by many geographers do not fully reflect the cultural and political trends in the world today. "Latin" is a term that was coined by the French Emperor Napoleon the III in order to justify Mexico's being ruled by Maximillian, and later picked…

  11. Latin America: A Selected Functional and Country Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foreign Service (Dept. of State), Washington, DC. Foreign Service Inst.

    This bibliography, one of a series prepared for use in training, has as its main topic Latin America. It is divided into two main sections. The first includes general information about Latin America--history, government, education and intellectual trends, military, religion, the arts, and international relations. The second contains sections on…

  12. "The South American Way": Hollywood Looks at Latins and at Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiex, Nola Kortner

    Latin elements or themes made for the North American market have been used in American films, but at the same time these films have been playing in a Latin American market, making it useful to examine how Latin America has been portrayed in these films. The taste for exotic locales and themes is an element that has been present since the…

  13. Review: Malaria Chemoprophylaxis for Travelers to Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Steinhardt, Laura C.; Magill, Alan J.; Arguin, Paul M.

    2011-01-01

    Because of recent declining malaria transmission in Latin America, some authorities have recommended against chemoprophylaxis for most travelers to this region. However, the predominant parasite species in Latin America, Plasmodium vivax, can form hypnozoites sequestered in the liver, causing malaria relapses. Additionally, new evidence shows the potential severity of vivax infections, warranting continued consideration of prophylaxis for travel to Latin America. Individualized travel risk assessments are recommended and should consider travel locations, type, length, and season, as well as probability of itinerary changes. Travel recommendations might include no precautions, mosquito avoidance only, or mosquito avoidance and chemoprophylaxis. There are a range of good options for chemoprophylaxis in Latin America, including atovaquone-proguanil, doxycycline, mefloquine, and—in selected areas—chloroquine. Primaquine should be strongly considered for nonpregnant, G6PD-nondeficient patients traveling to vivax-endemic areas of Latin America, and it has the added benefit of being the only drug to protect against malaria relapses. PMID:22144437

  14. Latin America: A Filmic Approach. Latin American Studies Program, Film Series No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Leon G.; And Others

    This document describes a university course designed to provide an historical understanding of Latin America through feature films. The booklet contains an introductory essay on the teaching of a film course on Latin America, a general discussion of strengths and weaknesses of student analyses of films, and nine analyses written by students during…

  15. Women's work and development in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Draper, E

    1985-01-01

    The discussion explores the problem of women's employment patterns under capitalist development in Latin America, first by analyzing the way in which women's work has been conceptualized within modernization theory. It then goes on to examine the 2 types of work in which most Latin American women are engaged -- domestic service and informal work such as selling produce and taking in laundry -- to provide evidence for challenging modernization theory and for developing a more useful approach. Subsequently, the discussion considers women's domestic and informal work within the context of capitalist development, which provides some insight into the broader structures shaping women's employment. Finally, the discussion proposes some reconceptualizations of women's work and development. Modernization theorists analyze women's work in the cities within a variety of constructs, interpreting it as a backward manifestation of traditional society, a reflection of women's inadequate training for the modern sector, an indication of women's primary orientation to the family, or as a phenomenon that is too tangential to warrant examination. The primary assumption is that modernization improves women's status and the conditions of their lives as it brings greater productivity, more advanced technology, and more highly differentiated institutions. Assumptions concerning women's absorption into the modern sector and the equalization of work roles between men and women are not borne out by actual employment trends, which reveal the persistent concentration of women in domestic work, informal jobs, and the lower-paying service jobs. Despite their predominance, domestic service and informal jobs are infrequently included in employment statistics and are virtually ignored in studies of development, yet these 2 types of work are the primary forms of work for Latin American women. Even when modernization theorists recognize the proliferation of informal and domestic service jobs, they

  16. [The cultural psychiatry in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Villaseñor-Bayardo, Sergio J; Rojas-Malpica, Carlos; Aceves-Pulido, Martha P

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents only some of the most important contributions in the development of cultural psychiatry in Latin America. The continental efforts to understand the role that culture plays in the manifestation and treatment of mental disorders have been fruitful. The authors included are: Fernando Pagés of Argentina; Mario G. Hollweg of Bolivia; Rubim Alvaro de Pinho and Adalberto Barreto of Brazil; Carlos A. Leon and Carlos A. Uribe of Colombia; Antonio José A. Bustamante and Santa Cruz de Cuba, Carlos Leon Andrade of Ecuador, Guatemala Cristina Chavez; Sergio Villasenor J. Bayardo of Mexico; Carlos A. Seguin, Hermilio Valdizán and Javier Mariátegui in Peru; Y. Bespaldi of Consens of Uruguay; Rojas and Carlos Malpica and Jacqueline Briceño Clarac of Venezuela.

  17. Latin America's Decontamination and Decommissioning Needs

    SciTech Connect

    Bermudez, J.V.; Lagos, L.E.; Ebadian, M.A.; Mayerle, M.

    1998-10-20

    Throughout this project, the Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology's (HCET) goal was to initiate a comprehensive research program on sustainable development, environmental protection, and the market for environmental technologies in Latin America and the Caribbean. The data resulting from the work associated with this project has been entered into an information system which supplies useful and accurate data knowledge to interested parties. When relevant information has been found to be insufficient and/or not readily available, HCET has investigated, conducted research, and subsequently made this information available to the public. During FY96, HCET completed numerous tasks to contribute to this body of knowledge. This initiative will continue throughout 1997. Highlights of FY96 are described.

  18. Latin America: A Development Pole for Phenomics.

    PubMed

    Camargo, Anyela V; Lobos, Gustavo A

    2016-01-01

    Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) has long been associated with the production and export of a diverse range of agricultural commodities. Due to its strategic geographic location, which encompasses a wide range of climates, it is possible to produce almost any crop. The climate diversity in LAC is a major factor in its agricultural potential but this also means climate change represents a real threat to the region. Therefore, LAC farming must prepare and quickly adapt to an environment that is likely to feature long periods of drought, excessive rainfall and extreme temperatures. With the aim of moving toward a more resilient agriculture, LAC scientists have created the Latin American Plant Phenomics Network (LatPPN) which focuses on LAC's economically important crops. LatPPN's key strategies to achieve its main goal are: (1) training of LAC members on plant phenomics and phenotyping, (2) establish international and multidisciplinary collaborations, (3) develop standards for data exchange and research protocols, (4) share equipment and infrastructure, (5) disseminate data and research results, (6) identify funding opportunities and (7) develop strategies to guarantee LatPPN's relevance and sustainability across time. Despite the challenges ahead, LatPPN represents a big step forward toward the consolidation of a common mind-set in the field of plant phenotyping and phenomics in LAC.

  19. [The transcultural process in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Yampey, N

    1981-07-01

    Are we living in an age of rapid changes, or are we actually experiencing an existencial mutation? The author believes the analysis of today's transcultural processes in Latin America to be vital to the understanding of the society which is an emergent of these processes. He defines the concepts of transculturation, aculturation, adaptation creative integration and of assimilation in its biological, cultural and religious aspects. He outlines the general characteristics of a complex problem: the unity or heterogenity of the Latin American people with relation to the interaction, juxtaposition or synthesis of their different indigenous, european and african cultures over a period of four centuries. He classifies five ideological proposals which have arisen from this process: 1) the ultraconservative proposal; 2) the nationalistic proposal; 3) the indigenistic proposal; 4) the proposal of imitation; 5) the proposal of a transcendent synthesis. The subject is the transcultural process in persons who have migrated from rural areas to large cities, and from one country to another. The author describes four adoptive or integrative phases; he emphasizes that this experience implies mourning, transition and working-through for both the individual and the community. Migrants are faced with "horizontal" as well as "vertical" mobility, thus having to deal with a mobilization implying changes which may cause persecutory, depresive and confusional anxieties. These crises test the person's degree of individuation and identity, as reflected in different types of behavior.

  20. Latin America: A Development Pole for Phenomics

    PubMed Central

    Camargo, Anyela V.; Lobos, Gustavo A.

    2016-01-01

    Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) has long been associated with the production and export of a diverse range of agricultural commodities. Due to its strategic geographic location, which encompasses a wide range of climates, it is possible to produce almost any crop. The climate diversity in LAC is a major factor in its agricultural potential but this also means climate change represents a real threat to the region. Therefore, LAC farming must prepare and quickly adapt to an environment that is likely to feature long periods of drought, excessive rainfall and extreme temperatures. With the aim of moving toward a more resilient agriculture, LAC scientists have created the Latin American Plant Phenomics Network (LatPPN) which focuses on LAC's economically important crops. LatPPN's key strategies to achieve its main goal are: (1) training of LAC members on plant phenomics and phenotyping, (2) establish international and multidisciplinary collaborations, (3) develop standards for data exchange and research protocols, (4) share equipment and infrastructure, (5) disseminate data and research results, (6) identify funding opportunities and (7) develop strategies to guarantee LatPPN's relevance and sustainability across time. Despite the challenges ahead, LatPPN represents a big step forward toward the consolidation of a common mind-set in the field of plant phenotyping and phenomics in LAC. PMID:27999577

  1. [Investigation needs on carotenoids in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Muñoz de Chávez, M; Chávez, A; Calvo, C

    1999-09-01

    Many recent papers show the important role of bioactive phytochemicals to maintain a good health status. Among them the carotenoids are the best known. About 637 have been described and possibly 70 of them could have an important role in human health, 16 have been found in human brain in high amounts. Most of the studies have found relations between the carotenoids and chronic non-communicable diseases like several types of cancer, atherogenic disease and some degenerative pathology of the eye. This relation is mediated by genes and age. Studies of carotenoids are of scientific and economic interest for Latin America as many tropical products are high sources of these compounds. Therefore the first task is to analyze them and iniciate some evaluation on its metabolic availability. A coordinated regional work is proposed, in which 40 or 50 fruits and vegetables are analyzed in terms of the seven carotenoids most related to human health. At the same time it will be important to start epidemiological studies that will compare groups with different levels of consumption of fruits and vegetables and make chronic disease risk analysis. In some countries of the Latin American region, with the support of FAO and INFOODS, some courses and meetings are taking place so that in a short time period the carotenoid composition of the important regional foods will be completed and a carotenoid regional food composition table be published.

  2. Reducing Latin America’s Bumper Crop: Babies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    birth control measures. Data was gathered using a literature search which relied heavily on periodicals and materials written as a result of on site research in Latin America by the American Universities Field Staff. The high birth rate in Latin America is caused primarily either by the prohibitions of the Catholic Church against artifical contraceptive methods nor by cultural attitudes towards large families. High birth rates are caused primarily by poverty, illiteracy, and underdevelopment. Where socioechnomic conditions have improved in Latin America birth rates have

  3. Ideas on Policy toward Latin America for the New Administration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-24

    St ra te gy Re se ar ch Pr oj ec t IDEAS ON POLICY TOWARD LATIN AMERICA FOR THE NEW ADMINISTRATION BY COLONEL BRIAN J. BUTCHER United States Army...CONTRACT NUMBER Ideas on Policy Toward Latin America for the New Administration 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...IDEAS ON POLICY TOWARD LATIN AMERICA FOR THE NEW ADMINISTRATION by Colonel Brian J. Butcher United States Army Colonel Glenn A. Crowther United States

  4. The Global Opioid Policy Initiative (GOPI) project to evaluate the availability and accessibility of opioids for the management of cancer pain in Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean, and the Middle East: introduction and methodology.

    PubMed

    Cherny, N I; Cleary, J; Scholten, W; Radbruch, L; Torode, J

    2013-12-01

    Opioid analgesics are critical to the effective relief of cancer pain. Effective treatment is predicated on sound assessments, individually tailored analgesic therapy, and the availability and accessibility of the required medications. In some countries, pain relief is hampered by the lack of availability or barriers to the accessibility of opioid analgesics. As the follow-up to a successful project to evaluate the availability and accessibility of opioids and regulatory barriers in Europe, the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) and the European Association for Palliative Care (EAPC) undertook to expand their research to those parts of the world where data were lacking regarding these aspects of care, in particular Africa, Asia, the Middle East, Latin America and the Caribbean, and the states of India. This project has been undertaken in collaboration with the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC), the Pain and Policy Studies Group (PPSG) of the University of Wisconsin, and the World Health Organization (WHO), together with a consortium of 17 international oncology and palliative care societies. This article describes the study methodology.

  5. Professions and Educational Counseling in Mexico and Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canales, Leticia; Blanco-Beledo, Ricardo

    1993-01-01

    In the past, educational counseling in Latin America has been used to limit economic and political participation and maintain unequal resource distribution. Modernization, the new free trade agreement, and other changes are changing the role of counseling. (SK)

  6. Barriers to conducting clinical research in reproductive medicine: Latin America.

    PubMed

    Zegers-Hochschild, Fernando

    2011-10-01

    Societies in Latin America are not scientifically driven and therefore, the allocation of human and economic resources to research is meager, as a reflection of this as well as other cultural and economic realities.

  7. [An overview of telehealth initiatives in Latin America].

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Alaneir de Fátima; D'Agostino, Marcelo; Bouskela, Maurício Simon; Fernandéz, Andrés; Messina, Luiz Ary; Alves, Humberto José

    2014-01-01

    This article aimed to systematize the views on telehealth in Latin America and to present the experience of building an instrument for monitoring the development of telehealth initiatives based on the reality of this region. A group was structured to coordinate telehealth efforts in Latin America, with members appointed by the ministries of health of 16 countries. Five thematic groups were also set up. Based on international experiences and focusing on the reality of telehealth in the continent, an instrument was created to monitor the development of telehealth in Latin America. Several countries have national telehealth projects: Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Panama. Others are in the process of development and early deployment: Bolivia, Costa Rica, Cuba, El Salvador, Guatemala, Peru, Venezuela. The instrument described in the article, which is still being tested, proposes a characterization of countries according to their telehealth development stage: nonexistent, nascent, intermediate, advanced, and exemplary. Currently, important telehealth initiatives are already underway in Latin America.

  8. EPA Efforts in Latin America and the Caribbean

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Latin America and Caribbean (LAC) program provides environmental tools and information to build the capacity of LAC governments and civil society organizations to reduce environmental degradation and its impacts on public health.

  9. [Thinking about long-term care policies for Latin America].

    PubMed

    Matus-López, Mauricio

    2015-12-01

    Latin America is aging. The process is occurring quickly and in unhealthy conditions with low levels of income. The number of older people who can no longer perform their daily activities will dramatically increase in the coming decades. Developed countries have already been facing this phenomenon over the last three decades, but Latin America has neither the resources nor the social protection systems of these countries. Formulating and planning health policies associated with this phenomenon should be a priority of the governments of Latin America. This paper defines what these care policies are, the models of care rich countries have developed, and the cost of such models. The situation in Latin America is then analyzed and conclusions and a series of discussions to address in the near future are proposed.

  10. Communist China’s National Strategy in Latin America

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1966-04-08

    Foreign Languages Press, "Support the Cuban and Other Latin American Peoples’ Just Struggle Against US Imperialism," p. 95. ^ Salvador de Madariaga ...F1414 M3 c.3) 46. Madariaga , Salvador de. Latin America Between the Eagle and the Bear. New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1962. (F1408 M28) 83 47

  11. Merging Computers and Communication: A Case Study in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oeffinger, John C.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses access to information through merging computers and new communications technology and its influence in developing nations. Highlights include a case study of InterNet/LACRIP (Latin American Cancer Research Information Project), a microcomputer-based international network involving institutions in the United States and Latin America that…

  12. The Development of Marine Science in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palacio, Francisco J.

    1980-01-01

    Describes the maritime history of Latin America and its development of marine science. The need for the Latin American nations to incorporate the oceans into their development process is emphasized in order for them to continue and expand exploitation of living resources. (Author/SA)

  13. Education, Policy, and Social Change: Experiences from Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morales-Gomez, Daniel A., Ed.; Torres, Carlos Alberto, Ed.

    Using both a retrospective and a prospective view, this book examines the links joining research, policy, and change in education in Latin America. It inquires about the relationships among the economy, politics, and the state. It reviews the praxis of education in Latin American countries and in the context of the development trends of the 1980s.…

  14. A.I.D. Economic Data Book: Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agency for International Development (Dept. of State), Washington, DC.

    This data book, updating a December 1968 publication, is designed to serve the internal program and operational needs of the Agency for International Development. More than 19 Latin American republics are referred to in major sections on: (1) Latin America in the Free World: population and production, (2) summary of basic data, (3) population…

  15. Cervical cancer prevention and treatment in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Melissa S; Baker, Ellen S; Maza, Mauricio; Fontes-Cintra, Georgia; Lopez, Aldo; Carvajal, Juan M; Nozar, Fernanda; Fiol, Veronica; Schmeler, Kathleen M

    2017-02-07

    Cervical cancer is a preventable disease with a known etiology (human papillomavirus), effective preventive vaccines, excellent screening methods, and a treatable pre-invasive phase. Surgery is the primary treatment for pre-invasive and early-stage disease and can safely be performed in many low-resource settings. However, cervical cancer rates remain high in many areas of Latin America. This article presents a number of evidence-based strategies being implemented to improve cervical cancer outcomes in Latin America.

  16. Latin America looks to adolescent needs.

    PubMed

    1999-01-01

    64 representatives of UNFPA, Pathfinder, and the Johns Hopkins University, together with high-level representatives of Ministries of Health and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) from the Bahamas, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico, Nicaragua, and Peru attended a conference on advocating sexuality education in school programs in the region. The conference, held October 22-26, 1998, was organized by JOICFP and the Mexican Foundation for Family Planning (MEXFAM) in collaboration with UNFPA and IPPF. Conference participants exchanged experiences upon sexuality education in school programs through group discussions and panel and country presentations. One goal of the conference was to strengthen the links between the various Ministries of Education and NGOs in the field of human sexuality. Recommendations for promoting adolescent reproductive health from Latin America and the Caribbean Region to ICPD+5 were made by 3 work groups and accepted by all participants as the outcome of the conference. Steps are currently being taken to develop and implement school curricula designed to raise the levels of awareness among youths of the important relationship between population and sustainable growth, as well as health issues and sexual equality.

  17. Biomedical engineering undergraduate education in Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allende, R.; Morales, D.; Avendano, G.; Chabert, S.

    2007-11-01

    As in other parts of the World, in recent times there has been an increasing interest on Biomedical Engineering (BME) in Latin America (LA). This interest grows from the need for a larger number of such specialists, originated in a spreading use of health technologies. Indeed, at many universities, biomedical engineering departments have been created, which also brought along discussions on strategies to achieve the best education possible for both undergraduate and graduate programs. In these settings, different positions were taken as regards which subject to emphasize. In such a context, this work aimed to make a survey on the "state-of-the-art" of undergraduate BME education in LA, and to analyze the observed differences. Broadly speaking, similar education profiles are perceived in the entire continent, with main emphasis on electronics and bioinstrumentation, biology and informatics respectively. Much less relevance is given to biomechanics and biomaterials. This tendency is similar in Departments with many decades of experience or in newly opened ones.

  18. Epidemiology of endemic systemic fungal infections in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Colombo, Arnaldo Lopes; Tobón, Angela; Restrepo, Angela; Queiroz-Telles, Flavio; Nucci, Marcio

    2011-11-01

    Although endemic mycoses are a frequent health problem in Latin American countries, clinical and epidemiological data remain scarce and fragmentary. These mycoses have a significant impact on public health, and early diagnosis and appropriate treatment remain important. The target population for endemic disease in Latin America is mostly represented by low-income rural workers with limited access to a public or private health system. Unfortunately, diagnostic tools are not widely available in medical centers in Latin America; consequently, by the time patients are diagnosed with fungal infection, many are already severely ill. Among immunocompromised patients, endemic mycoses usually behave as opportunistic infections causing disseminated rather than localized disease. This paper reviews the epidemiology of the most clinically significant endemic mycoses in Latin America: paracoccidioidomycosis, histoplasmosis, and coccidioidomycosis. The burdens of disease, typically affected populations, and clinical outcomes also are discussed.

  19. Cystic fibrosis in Latin America-Improving the awareness.

    PubMed

    Silva Filho, Luiz Vicente Ribeiro F; Castaños, Claudio; Ruíz, Héctor Hernán

    2016-11-01

    The burden of cystic fibrosis (CF) in Latin America is being increasingly recognized and is significant compared with other regions of the world. In this short communication, we assess the current situation in some Latin American countries and make suggestions for possible directions for future focus. We discuss the work that remains in deciphering how the various genetic, environmental and medical factors interact and influence outcomes in different ethnic groups. We also consider the need for consistency in both research and access to services across Latin America, including CF registries, neonatal screening programs, access to specialized CF healthcare practitioners, transition to adult clinics and treatment regimens. Progress in these areas is likely to build on the advances to date, and improve the lives of patients in Latin America who are affected by this debilitating and life-limiting disorder.

  20. Gene therapy coming of age in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Podhajcer, Osvaldo; Pitossi, Fernando; Agilar-Cordova, Estuardo

    2002-08-01

    "Gene Therapy in Latin America: From the Bench to the Clinic," a meeting sponsored by the Wellcome Trust and the United Nations University through the Biotechnology Program for Latin America and the Caribbean, took place in Buenos Aires, Argentina from May 20 to 22. This symposium, which was hosted by Osvaldo Podhajcer and Fernando Pitossi,had more than 150 basic scientists and physician-scientists from academia, government and industry in Latin America, similar to the first meeting of the Asociacion Iberoamericana de Terapia Génica (Iberoamerican Society of Gene Therapy, AITG) held in Guadalajara, México, two years ago. Participants represented Argentina, Mexico, Brazil, Chile, Uruguay, Costa Rica, Colombia, Venezuela, and Guatemala, with guests from the United States and Europe. All came together to discuss the latest developments in this field in the region. A primary objective of this gathering was to bring together Latin American scientists involved in gene therapy to strengthen continental collaborations and to further disseminate the scientific expertise available in Latin America. The symposium was followed by a 10-day practical course for 25 students from all over Latin America.

  1. Communist Subversion, A Serious Threat to Latin America

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-10-02

    going to continue to grow. JACK E FINCI- IA Colonel, US Army 14 FOOTNOTES 1. Nelson A. Rocketeller, The Rockefeller Report on the Americas pp 34-35. 2...Morris. SovieL Penetration of Latin America. University of Miami Center for Advance Studies, 1975. 25. Hammond, Thomas T. The Anato y of Comurlnist

  2. Adolescent Literacies in Latin America and the Caribbean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartlett, Lesley; Lopez, Dina; Mein, Erika; Valdiviezo, Laura A.

    2011-01-01

    In 2000, approximately 36 million youth and adults living in Latin America and the Caribbean were reported to be unable to read or write basic texts. Of these, 20 million were women. According to official statistics, some countries in Central America (Guatemala, Nicaragua, El Salvador, and Honduras) have a youth and adult literacy rate of 80% or…

  3. Latin America: Curriculum Materials for the Middle Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Virginia G., Ed.

    Self-contained activities that will help social studies or Spanish foreign language students in grades 6-8 learn about the history and culture of Latin America are provided. Following an introductory unit, the activities, ranging from easy to complex, are organized by the following countries and areas: Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean,…

  4. Endoscopic Ultrasound Practice Survey in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Drigo, Juliana Marques; Castillo, Cecilia; Wever, Wallia; Obaldía, José Ricardo Ruíz; Fillipi, Sheila; Ribeiro, Manoel C. S. A.; Rossini, Lucio G. B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has become an important imaging modality for the diagnosis, staging and treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. However, no official data exists regarding clinical EUS practice in Latin America (LA). This study assessed current EUS practice and training. Patients and Methods: A direct mail survey questionnaire was sent to 268 Capítulo Latino Americano de Ultrasonido Endoscópico members between August 2012 and January 2013. The questionnaire was sent out in English, Spanish and Portuguese languages and was available through the following site: http://www.cleus-encuesta.com. Responses were requested only from physicians who perform EUS. Results: A total of 70 LA physicians answered the questionnaire until January 2013. Most of the participants were under 42 years of age (53%) and 80% were men. Most participants (45.7%) perform EUS in Brazil, 53% work in a private hospital. The majority (70%) also perform endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. A total 42% had performed EUS for 2 years or less and 22.7% for 11 years or more. Only 10% performed more than 5000 EUS. The most common indication was an evaluation of pancreatic-biliary-ampullary lesions. Regarding training, 48.6% had more than 6 months of dedicated hands-on EUS and 37% think that at least 6 months of formal training is necessary to acquire competence. Furthermore, 64% think that more than 50 procedures for pancreatic-biliary lesions are necessary. Conclusion: This survey provides insight into the status of EUS in LA. EUS is performed mostly by young endoscopists in LA. Diagnostic upper EUS is the most common EUS procedure. Most endosonographers believe that formal training is necessary to acquire competence. PMID:24949398

  5. Geriatric education in undergraduate and graduate levels in Latin America.

    PubMed

    López, Jorge H; Reyes-Ortiz, Carlos A

    2015-01-01

    A recent dramatic increase in the elderly population has not been accompanied by a parallel increase in specialized health care professionals in Latin America. The main purpose of this work was to determine the stage of geriatrics teaching for undergraduate and graduate medical levels in Latin America. Using a questionnaire given in person and online, the authors surveyed geriatricians from 16 countries: eight from South America and eight from Central America. Among 308 medical schools, 35% taught undergraduate geriatrics, ranging from none in Uruguay, Venezuela, and Guatemala to 82% in Mexico. The authors identified 36 programs in 12 countries with graduate medical education in geriatrics, ranging from 2 to 5 years of training. The authors conclude that although the population is aging rapidly in Latin American countries, there has been a slow development of geriatrics teaching at undergraduate and postgraduate levels in the region.

  6. Latin America: the next region for haematopoietic transplant progress.

    PubMed

    Jaimovich, G; Martinez Rolon, J; Baldomero, H; Rivas, M; Hanesman, I; Bouzas, L; Bonfim, C; Palma, J; Kardus-Urueta, A; Ubidia, D; Bujan-Boza, W; Gonzalez-Ramella, O; Ruiz-Argüelles, G; Gomez-Almaguer, D; Espino, G; Fanilla, E; Gonzalez, D; Carrasco, A; Galeano, S; Borelli, G; Hernandez-Gimenez, M; Pasquini, M; Kodera, Y; Gratwohl, A; Gratwohl, M; Nuñez, J; Szer, J; Gale, R P; Niederwieser, D; Seber, A

    2017-01-23

    Haematopoietic cell transplant activity in the 28 countries comprising Latin America is poorly defined. We conducted a voluntary survey of members of the Latin American Bone Marrow Transplantation Group regarding transplant activity 2009-2012. Collated responses were compared with data of transplant rates from the Worldwide Network for Blood and Marrow Transplantation for other geographic regions. Several socio-economic variables were analysed to determine correlations with transplant rates. In total, 94 teams from 12 countries reported 11 519 transplants including 7033 autotransplants and 4486 allotransplants. Annual activity increased from 2517 transplants in 2009 to 3263 in 2012, a 30% increase. Median transplants rate (transplant per million inhabitants) in 2012 was 64 (autotransplants, median 40; allotransplants, median 24). This rate is substantially lower than that in North America and European regions (482 and 378) but higher than that in the Eastern Mediterranean and Asia Pacific regions (30 and 45). However, the Latin America transplant rate is 5-8-fold lower than that in America and Europe, suggesting a need to increase transplant availability. Transplant team density in Latin America (teams per million population; 1.8) is 3-4-fold lower than that in North America (6.2) or Europe (7.6). Within Latin America, there is substantial diversity in transplant rates by country partially explained by diverse socio-economic variables including per capita gross national income, health expenditure and physician density. These data should help inform future health-care policy in Latin America.Bone Marrow Transplantation advance online publication, 23 January 2017; doi:10.1038/bmt.2016.361.

  7. Hypertension in Latin America: Current perspectives on trends and characteristics.

    PubMed

    Ruilope, L M; Chagas, A C P; Brandão, A A; Gómez-Berroterán, R; Alcalá, J J A; Paris, J V; Cerda, J J O

    The region of Latin America, which includes Central America, the Caribbean and South America, is one that is rapidly developing. Signified by socio-economic growth, transition and development over the last few decades, living standards in countries like Brazil and Mexico have improved dramatically, including improvements in education and health care. An important marker of socio-economic change has been the epidemiological shift in disease burden. Cardiovascular disease is now the leading cause of death in Latin America, and the drop in prevalence of infectious diseases has been accompanied by a rise in non-communicable diseases. Hypertension is the major risk factor driving the cardiovascular disease continuum. In this article we aim to discuss the epidemiological and management trends and patterns in hypertension that may be specific or more common to Latin-American populations - what we term 'Latin American characteristics' of hypertension - via a review of the recent literature. Recognizing that there may be a specific profile of hypertension for Latin-American patients may help to improve their treatment, with the ultimate goal to reduce their cardiovascular risk. We focus somewhat on the countries of Brazil, Mexico and Venezuela, the experience of which may reflect other Latin American countries that currently have less published data regarding epidemiology and management practices.

  8. High blood pressure in Latin America: a call to action.

    PubMed

    Rubinstein, Adolfo; Alcocer, Luis; Chagas, Antonio

    2009-08-01

    High blood pressure (BP) is an enormous global problem, and is especially challenging for low- and middle-income countries such as those of Latin America. Although developed countries have benefited from significant reductions in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease in recent decades, comparable reductions have not been achieved in Latin America. In fact, the prevalence of high BP is increasing in many Latin American countries, and the situation will worsen without definitive efforts to correct it. The growing preponderance of hypertension and chronic diseases, coupled with expected increases in population growth, present a mounting threat to Latin American economies. This report provides a comprehensive overview of the burden of high BP throughout Latin America, and presents recommendations for change. The dismal observations warrant a call to action for improved control of high BP and other cardiovascular risk factors across Latin America. Achieving these ambitious goals will require collaborative efforts by many groups, including policymakers, international organizations, healthcare providers, schools and society as a whole.

  9. Changes in Latin America: consequences for human development.

    PubMed

    Weisbrot, Mark

    2007-01-01

    This article looks at Latin America's political shift over the last several years. The author argues that these changes have largely been misunderstood and underestimated in the United States for a number of reasons. First, Latin America's unprecedented growth failure over the past 25 years is a major cause of these political changes and has not been well-understood. Second, the collapse of the International Monetary Fund's influence in Latin America, and in middle-income countries, is an epoch-making change. Third, the availability of alternative sources of finance, especially from the reserves of the Venezuelan government, has become very important. Finally, the increasing assertion of national control over natural resources is an important part of the new relationship between Latin America and the United States. For these and other reasons, the relationship between Latin America and the United States has undergone a fundamental and possibly irreversible change, and one that opens the way to new and mostly more successful economic policies.

  10. Tobacco industry success in preventing regulation of secondhand smoke in Latin America: the "Latin Project"

    PubMed Central

    Barnoya, J; Glantz, S

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To examine the tobacco industry's strategy to avoid regulations on secondhand smoke exposure in Latin America. Methods: Systematic search of tobacco industry documents available through the internet. All available materials, including confidential reports regarding research, lobbying, and internal memoranda exchanged between the tobacco industry representatives, tobacco industry lawyers, and key players in Latin America. Results: In Latin America, Philip Morris International and British American Tobacco, working through the law firm Covington & Burling, developed a network of well placed physicians and scientists through their "Latin Project" to generate scientific arguments minimising secondhand smoke as a health hazard, produce low estimates of exposure, and to lobby against smoke-free workplaces and public places. The tobacco industry's role was not disclosed. Conclusions: The strategies used by the industry have been successful in hindering development of public health programmes on secondhand smoke. Latin American health professionals need to be aware of this industry involvement and must take steps to counter it to halt the tobacco epidemic in Latin America. PMID:12432156

  11. Evolutionary Developmental Biology (Evo-Devo) Research in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Marcellini, Sylvain; González, Favio; Sarrazin, Andres F; Pabón-Mora, Natalia; Benítez, Mariana; Piñeyro-Nelson, Alma; Rezende, Gustavo L; Maldonado, Ernesto; Schneider, Patricia Neiva; Grizante, Mariana B; Da Fonseca, Rodrigo Nunes; Vergara-Silva, Francisco; Suaza-Gaviria, Vanessa; Zumajo-Cardona, Cecilia; Zattara, Eduardo E; Casasa, Sofia; Suárez-Baron, Harold; Brown, Federico D

    2017-01-01

    Famous for its blind cavefish and Darwin's finches, Latin America is home to some of the richest biodiversity hotspots of our planet. The Latin American fauna and flora inspired and captivated naturalists from the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, including such notable pioneers such as Fritz Müller, Florentino Ameghino, and Léon Croizat who made a significant contribution to the study of embryology and evolutionary thinking. But, what are the historical and present contributions of the Latin American scientific community to Evo-Devo? Here, we provide the first comprehensive overview of the Evo-Devo laboratories based in Latin America and describe current lines of research based on endemic species, focusing on body plans and patterning, systematics, physiology, computational modeling approaches, ecology, and domestication. Literature searches reveal that Evo-Devo in Latin America is still in its early days; while showing encouraging indicators of productivity, it has not stabilized yet, because it relies on few and sparsely distributed laboratories. Coping with the rapid changes in national scientific policies and contributing to solve social and health issues specific to each region are among the main challenges faced by Latin American researchers. The 2015 inaugural meeting of the Pan-American Society for Evolutionary Developmental Biology played a pivotal role in bringing together Latin American researchers eager to initiate and consolidate regional and worldwide collaborative networks. Such networks will undoubtedly advance research on the extremely high genetic and phenotypic biodiversity of Latin America, bound to be an almost infinite source of amazement and fascinating findings for the Evo-Devo community.

  12. The challenges of organizing an international course in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Vairo, Filippo; López, Mónica Luján; Cruz, Carolina Uribe; Corrêa, Priscila Gomes; Baldo, Guilherme

    2014-03-01

    The Latin American School of Human and Medical Genetics (ELAG) is the main course of its kind in the genetics field in Latin America. Here we describe the main challenges regarding the organization of such event, including how we obtain funding and how we proceed with student selection. Thus, we aim to share our experience with other groups that intend to follow this format to create similar events in other areas in this region of the world.

  13. The challenges of organizing an international course in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Vairo, Filippo; López, Mónica Luján; Cruz, Carolina Uribe; Corrêa, Priscila Gomes; Baldo, Guilherme

    2014-01-01

    The Latin American School of Human and Medical Genetics (ELAG) is the main course of its kind in the genetics field in Latin America. Here we describe the main challenges regarding the organization of such event, including how we obtain funding and how we proceed with student selection. Thus, we aim to share our experience with other groups that intend to follow this format to create similar events in other areas in this region of the world. PMID:24764750

  14. Lower inflation in Latin America: Economic recovery begins

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-30

    Throughout the 1980s, Latin American countries struggled with economic stagnation compounded by hyperinflation. A report by the Inter-American Development Bank finds marked improvement in the economies of Latin America, based upon its analysis of 1991 statistics. This issue taps two recent studies of the region, and its own Fuel Price/Tax Series, to track the trends for a view of a brighter future.

  15. An investigation of MAGSAT and complementary data emphasizing precambrian shields and adjacent areas of West Africa and South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hastings, D. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Both MAGSAT data and preliminary results emphasizing Africa, Latin America, and the Caribbean were presented to geologists in Jamaica, Guyana, Brazil, and Argentina. Preliminary interpretations were discussed. A synopsis tectonic map of South America was completed. Semi-final modeling of northern South America was initiated.

  16. The first cataract surgeons in Latin America: 1611–1830

    PubMed Central

    Leffler, Christopher T; Wainsztein, Ricardo D

    2016-01-01

    We strove to identify the earliest cataract surgeons in Latin America. Probably by 1611, the Genovese oculist Francisco Drago was couching cataracts in Mexico City. The surgeon Melchor Vásquez de Valenzuela probably performed cataract couching in Lima by 1697. Juan Peré of France demonstrated cataract couching in Veracruz and Mexico City between 1779 and 1784. Juan Ablanedo of Spain performed couching in Veracruz in 1791. Cataract extraction might have been performed in Havana and Caracas by 1793 and in Mexico by 1797. The earliest contemporaneously documented cataract extractions in Latin America were performed in Guatemala City by Narciso Esparragosa in 1797. In addition to Esparragosa, surgeons born in the New World who established the academic teaching of cataract surgery included José Miguel Muñoz in Mexico and José María Vargas in Caracas. Although cataract surgery came quite early to Latin America, its availability was initially inconsistent and limited. PMID:27143845

  17. A snapshot of gene therapy in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Linden, Rafael; Matte, Ursula

    2014-01-01

    Gene therapy attempts the insertion and expression of exogenous genetic material in cells for therapeutic purposes. Conceived in the 1960s, gene therapy reached its first clinical trial at the end of the 1980s and by December 2013 around 600 genuine open clinical trials of gene therapy were registered at NIH Clinical Trials Database. Here, we summarize the current efforts towards the development of gene therapy in Latin America. Our survey shows that the number of scientists involved in the development of gene therapy and DNA vaccines in Latin America is still very low. Higher levels of investment in this technology are necessary to boost the advancement of innovation and intellectual property in this field in a way that would ease both the social and financial burden of various medical conditions in Latin America. PMID:24764763

  18. A snapshot of gene therapy in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Linden, Rafael; Matte, Ursula

    2014-03-01

    Gene therapy attempts the insertion and expression of exogenous genetic material in cells for therapeutic purposes. Conceived in the 1960s, gene therapy reached its first clinical trial at the end of the 1980s and by December 2013 around 600 genuine open clinical trials of gene therapy were registered at NIH Clinical Trials Database. Here, we summarize the current efforts towards the development of gene therapy in Latin America. Our survey shows that the number of scientists involved in the development of gene therapy and DNA vaccines in Latin America is still very low. Higher levels of investment in this technology are necessary to boost the advancement of innovation and intellectual property in this field in a way that would ease both the social and financial burden of various medical conditions in Latin America.

  19. [Governance and political economy of PHC policies in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Báscolo, Ernesto

    2011-06-01

    The development of implementation processes of PHC policies in Latin America, is a challenge yet to be tackled. It is necessary to acknowledge the political economy related to the implementation processes of PHC policies in Latin America from a governance perspective, characterized by the regulatory strategies used and the political processes. The promotion of social values, organizational policies or the introduction of new financial incentives are components of different forms of governance used in health system reforms. The institutional factors of social protection systems in Latin America are considered. Their potential, redistribution limitations and the political economy disputes of the reform strategies are explained by the conflict between the economic and related interests and values of the actors involved. This dynamic of the political process influences regulatory modes inherent in the processes of implementation of PHC policies. The State's governing capacity and levels of health system segmentation impinge on the effectiveness of reform strategies for resolving the conflicts in the policies implemented.

  20. Pertussis in Latin America: epidemiology and control strategies.

    PubMed

    Falleiros Arlant, Luiza Helena; de Colsa, Agustín; Flores, Dario; Brea, José; Avila Aguero, Maria L; Hozbor, Daniela Flavia

    2014-10-01

    Pertussis is a serious respiratory disease in infants that can also affect children and adults. Vaccination against pertussis was introduced in the 1950s and in the 1990s a resurgence of pertussis was observed worldwide. The aim of this work is to summarize the recent data concerning pertussis disease in different countries of Latin America. In this geographic region, pertussis is nationally notifiable and cases should be reported to the appropriate health department/Ministry. Though the surveillance systems are not the same among Latin America countries, over recent decades an increasing number of cases have been detected. Most of these cases correspond to patients younger than 6 months old who received fewer than three doses of vaccine. However, cases in adolescent and adults have also been detected. For this situation, which is not peculiar to Latin America countries, several explanations have been proposed.

  1. The meanings of universal health care in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Clark, Mary A

    2015-02-01

    In Latin America, competing definitions of universal health care are found. Variants include traditional universalism, basic universalism, and minimal or residual universalism. These definitions are informed by European traditions, a renewed emphasis on equity among Latin American social policy experts, and World Bank strategy. This essay explores these definitions as well as areas of overlap and points of difference between and among them using examples from several Latin American countries. The most important difference concerns the preventive and curative services not covered by the benefits packages of minimal universal programs, a gap expected to grow increasingly costly for patients.

  2. Geography, Resources, and Environment of Latin America: An Undergraduate Science Course focused on Attracting Hispanic students to Science and on Educating Non-Hispanics about Latin America.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujana, I.; Stern, R. J.; Ledbetter, C. E.

    2004-12-01

    With NSF-CCLI funding, we have developed, taught, and evaluated a new lower-division science course for non-majors, entitled "Geography, Resources, and Environment of Hispanic America" (GRELA). This is an adaptation of a similar course, "Geology and Development of Modern Africa" developed by Barbara Tewksbury (Hamilton College), to attract African American students to science by highlighting cultural ties with their ancestral lands. We think that a similar approach focusing on Latin America may attract Hispanic undergraduates, at the same time that it increases awareness among non-Hispanic students about challenges facing our neighbors to the south. GRELA is an interdisciplinary exploration of how the physical and biological environment of Mexico, Central America, and South America have influenced the people who live there. The course consists of 20 lectures and requires the student to present a report partnering with correspondents in Latin American universities. GRELA begins with an overview of Latin American physical and cultural geography and geologic evolution followed by a series of modules that relate the natural resources and environment of Latin America to the history, economy, and culture of the region. This is followed by an exploration of pre-Columbian cultures. The use of metals by pre-Columbian, colonial, and modern cultures is presented next. We then discuss hydrocarbon resources, geothermal energy, and natural hazards of volcanoes and earthquakes. The last half of the course focuses on Earth System Science themes, including El Nino, glaciers, the Amazon river and rainforest, and coral reefs. The final presentation concerns population growth and water resources along the US-Mexico border. Grades are based on two midterms, one final, and a project which requires that groups of students communicate with scientists in Latin America to explore some aspect of geography, natural resources, or the environment of a Latin American region of common interest

  3. Nitrogen Cycling In Latin America and : Drivers, Impacts And Vulnerabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ometto, J. P.; Bustamante, M.; Forti, M. C.; Peres, T.; Stein, A. F.; Jaramillo, V.; Perez, C.; Pinho, P. F.; Ascarrunz, N.; Austin, A.; Martinelli, L. A.

    2015-12-01

    Latin America is at a crossroads where a balance should be found between production of the major agricultural commodities, reasonable and planned urbanization and conservation of its natural ecosystems and associated goods and services. Most of the natural biological fixation of the globe occurs in forests of Latin America. On the other hand, Latin America has one of the highest rate of deforestation in the world, and one of the highest increases in the use of nitrogen fertilizers. A better understanding of the responses of the N cycle to human impacts will allow better conservation of biodiversity and natural resources, with an improvement in food security and more effective land use choices in biofuel development. Latin America is a unique region in multiple aspects, and particularly relevant for this proposal are the broad climatic gradient and economic patterns that include a diverse range of natural ecosystems and socio-economic development pathways. Additionally, the region is impaired by the lack of information on actual impacts of human activity on N cycling across this diverse range of ecosystems. Finally, the large expanse of tropical ecosystems and reservoirs of biodiversity juxtaposed with an intense economic incentive for development make our understanding of human impacts in this context particularly important for global change research in the region. An evaluation of current and predicted changes in climate and land use on nitrogen stocks and fluxes in the region what is being develop by the Nnet network (Nitrogen Cycling In Latin America: Drivers, Impacts And Vulnerabilities ). This presentation will bring the latest results of this integrative initiative in Latin America, focusing on the nitrogen budget associated to provision of ecosystem services and climate change.

  4. Cervical cancer control in Latin America: A call to action.

    PubMed

    Bychkovsky, Brittany L; Ferreyra, Mayra E; Strasser-Weippl, Kathrin; Herold, Christina I; de Lima Lopes, Gilberto; Dizon, Don S; Schmeler, Kathleen M; Del Carmen, Marcela; Randall, Tom C; Nogueira-Rodrigues, Angelica; de Carvalho Calabrich, Aknar Freire; St Louis, Jessica; Vail, Caroline M; Goss, Paul E

    2016-02-15

    Cervical cancer (CC) is second most common cause of cancer in Latin America and is a leading cause of cancer mortality among women. In 2015, an estimated 74,488 women will be diagnosed with CC in Latin America and 31,303 will die of the disease. CC mortality is projected to increase by 45% by 2030 despite human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and screening efforts. In this setting, the goal was of the current study was to examine CC control efforts in Latin America and identify deficiencies in these efforts that could be addressed to reduce CC incidence and mortality. The authors found that HPV vaccination has been introduced in the majority of Latin American countries, and there is now a need to monitor the success (or shortcomings) of these programs and to ensure that these programs are sustainable. This topic was also reviewed in light of emerging data demonstrating that visual inspection with acetic acid and HPV DNA testing without Papanicolaou tests have efficacy from a screening perspective and are good alternatives to cytology-based screening programs. Overall, there is a need to build capacity for CC control in Latin America and the best strategy will depend on the country/region and must be tailored to meet the needs of the population as well as available resources.

  5. The study of processes of medicalization in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Murguía, Adriana; Ordorika, Teresa; Lendo, León F

    2016-01-01

    In recent decades, an ever-increasing cluster of phenomena has attracted the attention of social scientists and historians of medicine: processes of medicalization. As in other regions, Latin America has been affected by these phenomena. This article surveys recent literature involving sociological studies of these processes in the region, in order to provide an overview of the issue. It explores the theoretical transformations linked to the concept of medicalization in the contexts where they originated. It then analyzes the ways in which the concept has been appropriated by the social sciences in Latin America in order to describe the various phenomena associated with medicalization in the subcontinent.

  6. Energy and development in Latin America: perspectives for public policy

    SciTech Connect

    Choucri, N.

    1982-01-01

    This book, the third in a research program on energy and international development, examines energy profiles and prospects of Latin America, economic problems posed by the oil price increases of 1973, and attendant political dislocations. A particular emphasis is placed on the transportation sector as one of the major claimants on energy use. The individual countries' policy responses to new constraints are outlined both with respect to transport policy and to development policy more broadly defined. Some basic conclusions about energy, economy, and policy in Latin America provide a comprehensive perspective on the region's energy-related predicaments and insights into new policy imperatives. 503 references, 2 figures, 28 tables.

  7. From upstream to downstream: Megatrends and latest developments in Latin America`s hydrocarbons sector

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Kang; Pezeshki, S.; McMahon, J.

    1995-08-01

    In recent years, Latin America`s hydrocarbons sector has been characterized by reorganization, revitalization, regional cooperation, environmental awakening, and steady expansion. The pattern of these changes, which appear to be the megatrends of the region`s hydrocarbons sector development, will continue during the rest of the 1990s. To further study the current situation and future prospects of Latin America`s hydrocarbons sector, we critically summarize in this short article the key issues in the region`s oil and gas development. These megatrends in Latin America`s hydrocarbons sector development will impact not only the future energy demand and supply in the region, but also global oil flows in the North American market and across the Pacific Ocean. Each country is individually discussed; pipelines to be constructed are discussed also.

  8. OCLC in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krzyzanowski, Rosaly Favero; Imperatriz, Ines Maria de Morais

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on academic and research library networking in Latin American and Caribbean countries (LAC), where a high level of library service has been achieved. Discusses the information challenges of the 1980s and 1990s to LAC countries; networking in LAC; Brazilian information services; the University of Sao Paulo integrated library system…

  9. Revolutionary Educational Reform Efforts in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulston, Rolland G.

    1975-01-01

    The author briefly examines how educational reform attempts in Cuba since 1959 have taken place and how they have been related to social, economic, and political change efforts in the society at large. The Cuban educational system makes a significant contrast against the failure which characterizes the other Latin American educational systems.…

  10. Paulo Freire and Concientizacion in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Philip R.

    The program of adult education presently used in Chile is studied in this paper. The historical development of the program and some of the theories behind it are discussed. The program is assessed in terms of political and economic considerations and its success as a pedagogical and social technique. Chapters deal with: (1) Latin American…

  11. Educational Neuromyths among Teachers in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleichgerrcht, Ezequiel; Lira Luttges, Benjamin; Salvarezza, Florencia; Campos, Anna Lucia

    2015-01-01

    Neuroscientific knowledge has undeniably gained interest among educators worldwide. However, not all "brain facts" believed by teachers are supported by science. This study sought to evaluate the belief in these so-called "neuromyths" among 3,451 Latin American teachers. We found that, consistent with prior research among…

  12. Education, Democracy, and Development in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomes, Candido

    1993-01-01

    Examines the historical context of the current Latin American educational crisis from the colonial era to the 1980s, comparing it to the educational investment undertaken by the Republic of Korea in a similar crisis. Calls for reform in state institutions, including a commitment to education, change in the economic model, and recognition of global…

  13. Cities, Democracy, and Governance in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Alfredo; Winchester, Lucy

    1996-01-01

    Examines the economic troubles and social turmoil experienced by Latin American cities in the last 10 years. Identifies a global economy, moving from the production of raw materials to information-related jobs and services, as the main culprit. Discusses the growing importance of city councils in municipal governance. (MJP)

  14. School Facility Projects in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berk, Jeffrey; de Cassia Alves Vaz, Rita; Honorio, Joao; Baza, Jadille; Origel, Ricardo; Gomez, Fredys

    2004-01-01

    Many Latin American countries are undertaking projects, in line with practices disseminated by PEB, to share school facilities with the local community, to adapt traditional schools for students with disabilities, and to collaborate with private companies to finance educational buildings. The articles below describe current initiatives in five…

  15. Periodontal disease in children and adolescents of Latin America.

    PubMed

    Botero, Javier E; Rösing, Cassiano Kuchenbecker; Duque, Andres; Jaramillo, Adriana; Contreras, Adolfo

    2015-02-01

    Periodontal diseases are a group of infectious diseases that mainly include gingivitis and periodontitis. Gingivitis is the most prevalent form of periodontal disease in subjects of all ages, including children and adolescents. Less frequent types of periodontal disease include aggressive periodontitis, acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis and various diseases of herpesviral and fungal origin. This review aimed to retrieve relevant information from Latin America on the prevalence of periodontal diseases among children and adolescents of the region. Gingivitis was detected in 35% of young Latin American subjects and showed the highest frequencies in Colombia (77%) and Bolivia (73%) and the lowest frequency in Mexico (23%). The frequency of gingivitis in subjects from other Latin American countries was between 31% and 56%. Periodontitis may affect <10% of the young population in Latin America, but the data are based on only a few studies. A more precise assessment of the distribution and severity of periodontal disease in children and adolescents of Latin America may help policy makers and dentists to institute more effective public health measures to prevent and treat the disease at an early age to avoid major damage to the permanent dentition.

  16. Epidemiological update of hepatitis B, C and delta in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Alvarado-Mora, Mónica V; Pinho, João R Rebello

    2013-01-01

    Viral hepatitis B, C and delta still remain a serious problem in Latin America. Data from the 1980s indicated that HBV and HDV infection are the main causes of chronic hepatitis. However, the spread of HBV infection could be controlled through the implementation of immunization programmes. Different countries from Mexico to Argentina display marked differences in terms of HBV genotype distribution. HBV genotype F has been identified as the most frequent in most Latin America countries, except for Mexico and Brazil, where genotypes H and A are the most frequent, respectively. In Latin America, the overall prevalence of HCV antibody is estimated to be 1.5%. Latin American countries have been very proactive in screening their blood supplies, thus minimizing risk of HCV transmission through transfusion. The number of diagnosed and treated patients is still low, thereby increasing the burden of complications such as liver cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma. The most prevalent HCV genotype is 1, which is the genotype with the greatest worldwide spread, but it is a different genotype from other regions like Africa and Asia. HDV is present worldwide but its distribution pattern is not uniform. HDV was recently detected in novel geographic regions, reinforcing that it is a very serious health threat in under-developed countries. The main prevalence areas are the Mediterranean basin, the Middle East, central and northern Asia, western and central Africa, the Amazonian basin (Brazil, Peru, Venezuela and Colombia) and the Pacific islands. Novel strategies to increase HBV immunization in the Latin American population are needed to warrant thorough coverage in the rural areas.

  17. Visceral Leishmaniasis and HIV Coinfection in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Lindoso, José Angelo; Cota, Gláucia Fernandes; da Cruz, Alda Maria; Goto, Hiro; Maia-Elkhoury, Ana Nilce Silveira; Romero, Gustavo Adolfo Sierra; de Sousa-Gomes, Márcia Leite; Santos-Oliveira, Joanna Reis; Rabello, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an endemic zoonotic disease in Latin America caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum, which is transmitted by sand flies from the genus Lutzomyia. VL occurs in 12 countries of Latin America, with 96% of cases reported in Brazil. Recently, an increase in VL, primarily affecting children and young adults, has been observed in urban areas of Latin America. The area in which this spread of VL is occurring overlaps regions with individuals living with HIV, the number of whom is estimated to be 1.4 million people by the World Health Organization. This overlap is suggested to be a leading cause of the increased number of reported VL-HIV coinfections. The clinical progression of HIV and L. infantum infections are both highly dependent on the specific immune response of an individual. Furthermore, the impact on the immune system caused by either pathogen and by VL-HIV coinfection can contribute to an accelerated progression of the diseases. Clinical presentation of VL in HIV positive patients is similar to patients without HIV, with symptoms characterized by fever, splenomegaly, and hepatomegaly, but diarrhea appears to be more common in coinfected patients. In addition, VL relapses are higher in coinfected patients, affecting 10% to 56.5% of cases and with a lethality ranging from 8.7% to 23.5% in Latin America, depending on the study. With regards to the diagnosis of VL, parasitological tests of bone marrow aspirates have proven to be the most sensitive test in HIV-infected patients. Serologic tests have demonstrated a variable sensitivity according to the method and antigens used, with the standard tests used for diagnosing VL in Latin America displaying lower sensitivity. For this review, few articles were identified that related to VL-HIV coinfections and originated from Latin America, highlighting the need for improving research within the regions most greatly affected. We strongly support the formation of a Latin American network for

  18. Visceral leishmaniasis and HIV coinfection in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Lindoso, José Angelo; Cota, Gláucia Fernandes; da Cruz, Alda Maria; Goto, Hiro; Maia-Elkhoury, Ana Nilce Silveira; Romero, Gustavo Adolfo Sierra; de Sousa-Gomes, Márcia Leite; Santos-Oliveira, Joanna Reis; Rabello, Ana

    2014-09-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an endemic zoonotic disease in Latin America caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum, which is transmitted by sand flies from the genus Lutzomyia. VL occurs in 12 countries of Latin America, with 96% of cases reported in Brazil. Recently, an increase in VL, primarily affecting children and young adults, has been observed in urban areas of Latin America. The area in which this spread of VL is occurring overlaps regions with individuals living with HIV, the number of whom is estimated to be 1.4 million people by the World Health Organization. This overlap is suggested to be a leading cause of the increased number of reported VL-HIV coinfections. The clinical progression of HIV and L. infantum infections are both highly dependent on the specific immune response of an individual. Furthermore, the impact on the immune system caused by either pathogen and by VL-HIV coinfection can contribute to an accelerated progression of the diseases. Clinical presentation of VL in HIV positive patients is similar to patients without HIV, with symptoms characterized by fever, splenomegaly, and hepatomegaly, but diarrhea appears to be more common in coinfected patients. In addition, VL relapses are higher in coinfected patients, affecting 10% to 56.5% of cases and with a lethality ranging from 8.7% to 23.5% in Latin America, depending on the study. With regards to the diagnosis of VL, parasitological tests of bone marrow aspirates have proven to be the most sensitive test in HIV-infected patients. Serologic tests have demonstrated a variable sensitivity according to the method and antigens used, with the standard tests used for diagnosing VL in Latin America displaying lower sensitivity. For this review, few articles were identified that related to VL-HIV coinfections and originated from Latin America, highlighting the need for improving research within the regions most greatly affected. We strongly support the formation of a Latin American network for

  19. The importance of rheumatology biologic registries in Latin America.

    PubMed

    de la Vega, Maria; da Silveira de Carvalho, Hellen M; Ventura Ríos, Lucio; Goycochea Robles, Maria V; Casado, Gustavo C

    2013-04-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is a systemic inflammatory disorder characterized by joint articular pain and disability. Although there is scarcity of data available on the incidence and prevalence of RA in Latin America, there is a growing recognition of this disease where chronic diseases are on the rise and infectious disease on the decline. RA is a substantial burden to patients, society, and the healthcare system. The heterogeneity identified within RA presents an opportunity for personalized medicine, especially in regions with such demographic diversity as that of Latin America. To understand the long-term effects of treatment for RA especially on safety, registries have been established, a number of which have been created in Latin America. Despite their weaknesses (e.g., lack of controls and randomization), registries have provided additional and complementary information on the use of biologics in clinical practice in Latin America and other regions. Although certain challenges remain in the implementation and maintenance of registries, they continue to provide real-life data to clinical practice contributing to improved patient care.

  20. The Catholic Church, Moral Education and Citizenship in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klaiber, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    The Catholic Church, with deep roots in the history of Latin America, exercises considerable influence on all levels of society. Especially after the Second Vatican Council and the bishops' conference at Medellin (1968) the Church took up the banner of human rights and the cause of the poor. During the dictatorships and in the midst of the…

  1. Bringing Latin America to Life with Films in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanden, Harry E.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author points out that in this increasingly visual world, outstanding films can engage classes and lift the curtain on the cultures and modern history of Latin America. He recommends some of the most gripping and perceptive films on this topic, and offers advice on how teachers can provide the background to these dramas and…

  2. Literacy in Latin America: Progress, Problems, and Perspectives. Literacy Lessons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roca, Miguel Soler

    Latin America continues to have about 44 million illiterate people. Since the 1950s, education went from being a requisite of national identity to being recognized as an instrument of power, an important factor of development, the dispenser of human resources, and the guarantor of the continuity of the entire local scene. Important post-World War…

  3. The Case of Latin America and the Caribbean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palacio, Jairo

    1993-01-01

    Reviews the history of population education programs in Latin America and the Caribbean from 1970 to 1992 and changes in fertility, mortality, and migration during that period. Considers issues such as government styles and motivations, staff shortages, cooperation among administrators, teacher training, distance education, and new management…

  4. Strategies and Tactics for Community Mobilization. 1981 Latin America Seminars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobson, John R. A.

    Three seminars examined strategies and tactics for community mobilization in Latin America. The sessions--which were held in Bogota, Columbia; Quito, Ecuador; and Recife, Brazil--involved a total of 75 participants from 27 organizations. Addressed during the seminars were development, leadership, mobilization, and learning in the context of…

  5. Introduction: The Process of Social Urbanization in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margolies, Luise

    1979-01-01

    Social urbanization denotes the socioeconomic transformation of space and the ideological extension of the urban system to former hinterlands. Social urbanization has occurred on the basis of large scale internal migration and has had a similar impact throughout Latin America. (Author/GC)

  6. Stroke Prevention in Atrial Fibrillation: Focus on Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Massaro, Ayrton R.; Lippp, Gregory Y. H.

    2016-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia, with an estimated prevalence of 1-2% in North America and Europe. The increased prevalence of AF in Latin America is associated with an ageing general population, along with poor control of key risk factors, including hypertension. As a result, stroke prevalence and associated mortality have increased dramatically in the region. Therefore, the need for effective anticoagulation strategies in Latin America is clear. The aim of this review is to provide a contemporary overview of anticoagulants for stroke prevention. The use of vitamin K antagonists (VKAs, eg, warfarin) and aspirin in the prevention of stroke in patients with AF in Latin America remains common, although around one fifth of all AF patients receive no anticoagulation. Warfarin use is complicated by a lack of access to effective monitoring services coupled with an unpredictable pharmacokinetic profile. The overuse of aspirin is associated with significant bleeding risks and reduced efficacy for stroke prevention in this patient group. The non-VKA oral anticoagulants (NOACbs) represent a potential means of overcoming many limitations associated with VKA and aspirin use, including a reduction in the need for monitoring and a reduced risk of hemorrhagic events. The ultimate decision of which anticoagulant drug to utilize in AF patients depends on a multitude of factors. More research is needed to appreciate the impact of these factors in the Latin American population and thereby reduce the burden of AF-associated stroke in this region. PMID:27533256

  7. The Administration of Educational Development in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olivera, Carlos E.

    Based on the realization that 20 years of educational development efforts in Latin America have had little result, this author identified problems in educational administration at the national and regional levels that are largely responsible for the lack of progress. A number of structural and legal problems were identified, including the…

  8. Education in Latin America: A Selected Bibliography (1986-1995).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aedo-Richmond, Ruth

    1996-01-01

    Presents a selected bibliography of books, theses, articles, and dissertations concerning education in Latin America. Includes separate sections on Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Peru, Uruguay, and Venezuela. All selections are in…

  9. Reading Comprehension in Latin America: Difficulties and Possible Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lions, Séverin; Peña, Marcela

    2016-01-01

    Reading comprehension (RC) is below the international standard in many countries of Latin America (LA). Here we review factors that might be associated with failure in RC of the first language in LA. Then we present interventions reporting beneficial impact on RC in typically developing students from English-speaking countries and discuss their…

  10. Spanish Bilateral Initiatives for Education in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortina, Regina; Sanchez, Maria Teresa

    2007-01-01

    The research presented in this article concerns la Agencia Espanola de Cooperacion Internacional (Spanish Agency for International Cooperation--AECI) and its growing presence in Latin America since the late 1990s. The aim is to evaluate the transformative potential that bilateral funding can have on educational reform in the region. The article…

  11. Communication Efforts against AIDS in Latin America: An Updated Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Robert E.; And Others

    This paper presents recent information on the use of mass communication to combat the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic in Latin America. The paper takes up the following topics: (1) communication as anti-AIDS weapon; (2) the information effort lag; (3) targeting AIDS information; (4) delivering the message to health…

  12. Latin America Today: An Atlas of Reproducible Pages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Eagle, Inc., Wellesley, MA.

    A profile of Latin America (defined as consisting of the countries of Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Columbia, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, and Venezuela) emerges from this collection of black and white illustrative maps, tables, and…

  13. Latin America Today: An Atlas of Reproducible Pages. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Eagle, Inc., Wellesley, MA.

    This document contains reproducible maps, charts and graphs of Latin America for use by teachers and students. The maps are divided into five categories (1) the land; (2) peoples, countries, cities, and governments; (3) the national economies, product, trade, agriculture, and resources; (4) energy, education, employment, illicit drugs, consumer…

  14. Midlife and Older Women in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Retired Persons, Washington, DC.

    Part I of this publication contains a background paper, "The Health and Socioeconomic Situation of Midlife and Older Women in Latin America and the Caribbean" (Sennott-Miller). Part II includes and introduction and the following presentations: "Opening Statement" (Crooks); "Empowering Older Women: An Agenda for the…

  15. Women of the World: Latin America and the Caribbean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaney, Elsa M.

    The first in a series of five handbooks designed to present and analyze statistical data on women in various regions of the world, this handbook focuses on women in 21 countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. Beginning with an overview of population characteristics of the regions, the analysis continues with a description of women's literacy…

  16. Strategy for the Development of Sex Education in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1977

    The International Planned Parenthood Federation meeting report places priority on the development of sex education programs in Latin America. While regional and national circumstances clearly differ, it was felt that the steps described provide valuable guidelines on how a sex education program can be evolved while utilizing formal and non-formal…

  17. Population and Family Planning in Latin America. Report Number 17.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piotrow, Phyllis T., Ed.

    Analysis of Latin America's demographic situation has led many to believe that the present rapid rates of population growth, the highest anywhere in the world, must be reduced in order to prevent catastrophe. Family planning associations, affiliated with the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), have been organized in 29 Latin…

  18. World Bank's role in electric power projects in Latin America

    SciTech Connect

    Franco, N. de )

    1994-06-01

    This article examines the impacts of changing energy policy in Latin America to the development of electrical infrastructure, interconnections, and electrical exchanges in the area. The topics of the article include energy as a commodity, hydroelectric capacity potential, growth and investment, natural gas reserves and regional interconnections.

  19. KEY IDEAS ABOUT LATIN AMERICA, BULLETIN NUMBER 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CONROY, WILLIAM; GILL, CLARK C.

    SELECTED KEY IDEAS CONTAINED IN THIS BULLETIN ABOUT LATIN AMERICA ARE ORGANIZED AROUND SIX CATEGORIES AND ARE MEANT AS SUGGESTIONS FOR CURRICULUM BUILDING AND EMPHASIS IN A SOCIAL STUDIES CLASS. THE SIX CATEGORIES ARE--(1) THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT, (2) HISTORICAL BACKGROUNDS, (3) CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY AND THE FAMILY, (4) CONTEMPORARY CULTURE, (5)…

  20. Secondary Education, Social Structure and Development in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Economic and Social Council, New York, NY.

    This work is an attempt to analyze the development of education, particularly secondary education, in order to identify the special features of educational structure in Latin America. The educational systems are examined within the following contexts: Literacy Training; Educational Levels (which considers the question of access to formal…

  1. Immigrants from Latin America and the Caribbean: A Socioeconomic Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rumbaut, Ruben G.

    This paper seeks to make sense of the new diversity in the United States, with a focus on immigrants from Latin America and the Caribbean. Some key facts and figures about contemporary immigrants are presented, looking at their patterns of settlement and comparing their distinctive social and economic characteristics to major U.S. racial-ethnic…

  2. The Reality and Future of Latin America: An Educational Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arias, Oscar

    1993-01-01

    Third World countries have lacked the resources to invest in economic and academic development. The source lies in gross inequities between industrialized and developing countries. Globalization of markets has not benefited Latin America. Militarism, corruption, poverty, and social injustice can only be eradicated by incorporating strong…

  3. ESD: Power, Politics, and Policy: "Tragic Optimism" from Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    González-Gaudiano, Edgar J.

    2016-01-01

    In light of the challenging developmental issues confronting the countries of Latin America, this response article analyzes the power and resistance of education for sustainable development from both theoretical and policy perspectives. Of particular concern are the neo-productivist strategies driving the latest stage of capitalist development.…

  4. US-LA CRN Clinical Cancer Research in Latin America

    Cancer.gov

    The United States – Latin America Cancer Research Network (US-LA CRN) convened its Annual Meeting, in coordination with the Ministry of Health of Chile to discuss the Network’s first multilateral clinical research study: Molecular Profiling of Breast Cancer (MPBC).

  5. The Foundations of Telegraphy and Telephony in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baur, Cynthia

    1994-01-01

    Synthesizes empirical evidence on the participation of state and capital in the establishment of domestic telegraphic and telephonic communication in Latin America. Suggests that, in many ways, the contemporary period of telecommunication system organization in the region parallels the early years of telegraphy and telephony. Discusses these…

  6. School Readiness Research in Latin America: Findings and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strasser, Katherine; Rolla, Andrea; Romero-Contreras, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Educational results in Latin America (LA) are well below those of developed countries. One factor that influences how well children do at school is school readiness. In this article, we review studies conducted in LA on the readiness skills of preschool children. We begin by discussing contextual factors that affect what is expected of children…

  7. Women in Insurgent Groups in Latin America

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK ix LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1.   Young girl in the FARC-EP...intensified and internationalized Latin America’s seemingly endemic political violence.1 Young men and women—university students, peasants, or of...than from ideology or mere poverty. On the other hand, in areas controlled by insurgent groups, young people are often conscripted or co-opted to act

  8. Prostate cancer in Brazil and Latin America: epidemiology and screening

    PubMed Central

    Tourinho-Barbosa, Rafael Rocha; Pompeo, Antonio Carlos Lima; Glina, Sidney

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Prostate cancer is one of the tumors with higher incidence and mortality among men in the World. Epidemiological data are influenced by life expectancy of population, available diagnostic methods, correct collection of data and quality of health services. Screening of the disease is not standardized around the World. Up till now there is no consensus about the risks versus benefits of early detection. There are still missing data about this pathology in Latin America. Objective: to revise current epidemiologic situation and early diagnosis policies of prostate cancer in Brazil and Latin America. Materials and Methods: Medline, Cochrane Library and SciELO databases were reviewed on the subject of epidemiology and screening of prostate cancer. Screening research was performed in websites on national public health organizations and Latin America. Screening recommendations were obtained from those governmental organizations and from Latin American urological societies and compared to the most prominent regulatory agencies and societies of specialists and generalists from around the World. Results: Brazil and Latin America have a special position in relation to incidence and mortality of prostate cancer. In Brazil, it occupies the first position regarding incidence of cancer in men and the second cause of mortality. Central America has the highest rate of mortality of the continent with lower incidence/mortality ratios. Screening recommendations are very distinct, mainly among regulatory organs and urological societies. Conclusion: prostate cancer epidemiology is an important health public topic. Data collection related to incidence and mortality is still precarious, especially in less developed countries. It is necessary to follow-up long term screening studies results in order to conclude its benefits. PMID:27622278

  9. Africa, Asia, Europe, and Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loh, Eudora I.

    1991-01-01

    Includes annotations for 19 government publications from 17 countries: Bolivia, Botswana, Burundi, Chile, Costa Rica, Mali, Mexico, Morocco, Mozambique, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Niue, Peru, Rwanda, and the Soviet Union. Topics covered include pornography, poverty, food, and hunger. The effect of library budget pressures on…

  10. The distribution of leptospirosis in Latin America*†

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, A. D.

    1960-01-01

    Although many factors combine to make Latin America an apparently suitable region for the spread of the leptospiroses, the prevalence of these infections has been studied in relatively few areas of this part of the American continent. Of the 60 Leptospira serotypes described in the world, only seven have so far been definitively demonstrated in Middle America and five in South America. However, there is evidence to suggest that other and perhaps new serotypes may be found, and recent serological surveys indicate that there are loci of multiple leptospirosis affecting a large percentage of human or animal populations in at least five Latin American territories. The true prevalence of leptospirosis can only be ascertained by the proper application of reliable laboratory diagnostic methods. The limited value of certain techniques used heretofore makes a number of reports on the presence of this disease subject to question. PMID:13792576

  11. Epidemiology of periodontal diseases in adults from Latin America.

    PubMed

    Oppermann, Rui V; Haas, Alex N; Rösing, Cassiano Kuchenbecker; Susin, Cristiano

    2015-02-01

    A decade has passed since we first reviewed the epidemiology of periodontal diseases in Latin America. At that time, lack of population-based studies was the norm and our conclusions were based on very limited evidence. The aim of the present comprehensive review was to update and expand our previous work by providing a broad overview of Latin America and its current social, economic and demographic status and by focusing on the epidemiology of periodontal diseases in Latin American adults published in the last 15 years. The amount of periodontal epidemiological data available has increased but is still restricted to a few countries only. The scope of the literature available has also broadened to include oral health-related quality of life and systemic interactions; however, most studies had methodological limitations that might have biased their results. In general, periodontitis was very prevalent, but severe periodontal destruction was localized. Besides being associated with well-established risk factors, periodontitis was associated with demographics and socio-economic factors in Latin American populations. To advance epidemiological knowledge, population-based cross-sectional and longitudinal studies, using appropriate methodologies, should be the future focus of the research agenda of researchers and public health planners in Latin American countries.

  12. Space, geophysical research related to Latin America - Part 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, Blanca; Shea, M. A.

    2016-11-01

    For the last 25 years, every two to three years the Conferencia Latinoamericana de Geofísica Espacial (COLAGE) is held in one of the Latin American countries for the purpose of promoting scientific exchange among scientists of the region and to encourage continued research that is unique to this area of the world. At the more recent conference, the community realized that many individuals both within and outside Latin America have contributed greatly to the understanding of the space sciences in this area of the world. It was therefore decided to assemble a Special Issue Space and Geophysical Physics related to Latin America, presenting recent results and where submissions would be accepted from the world wide community of scientists involved in research appropriate to Latin America. Because of the large number of submissions, these papers have been printed in two separate issues. The first issue was published in Advances in Space Research, Vol. 57, number 6 and contained 15 papers. This is the second issue and contains 25 additional papers. These papers show the wide variety of research, both theoretical and applied, that is currently being developed or related to space and geophysical sciences in the Sub-Continent.

  13. The Enduring Effects of Smoking in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Novak, Beatriz; Pinto-Aguirre, Guido

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated smoking-attributable mortality, assessed the impact of past smoking on recent mortality, and computed expected future losses in life expectancy caused by past and current smoking behavior in Latin America and the Caribbean. Methods. We used a regression-based procedure to estimate smoking-attributable mortality and information for 6 countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Cuba, Mexico, and Uruguay) for the years 1980 through 2009 contained in the Latin American Mortality Database (LAMBdA). These countries jointly comprise more than two thirds of the adult population in Latin America and the Caribbean and have the region’s highest rates of smoking prevalence. Results. During the last 10 years, the impact of smoking was equivalent to losses in male (aged ≥ 50 years) life expectancy of about 2 to 6 years. These effects are likely to increase, particularly for females, both in the study countries and in those that joined the epidemic at later dates. Conclusions. Unless innovations in the detection and treatment of chronic diseases are introduced soon, continued gains in adult survival in Latin America and the Caribbean region may slow down considerably. PMID:25880938

  14. Current trends in Latin America and the Argentine perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Laredo, V.G.

    1992-12-31

    The authors discusses the changes that are taking place in Argentina as well as in all of Latin America today -- privatization, deregulation, and the modernization of the economy, changes which will serve to strengthen the governments and provide a better quality of life for all of them. He gives an insight into the factors which helped bring about these changes, the support they are receiving, the problems which persist, and the measures that still must be taken so that these positive changes remain in place. He offers some useful information that will perhaps contribute to their understanding of the vast area which he refers to as Latin America, and more specifically, gives a thumbnail sketch of what is happening today in the Republic of Argentina. For many years now, Latin American leaders have travelled to other parts of the world and spoken about the plans and expectations for the region`s future. When these well-intentioned projects and plans never materialized, partners and supporters in the United States and other countries were frustrated and disappointed by the failure to make things work. The author`s intention here today is to describe things as they are, not as they might be, to tell about what is already happening in the sphere of business and growth of the economies in Latin America.

  15. Musculoskeletal evaluation in severe haemophilia A patients from Latin America.

    PubMed

    Ozelo, M C; Villaça, P R; Pérez-Bianco, R; Candela, M; Garcia-Chavez, J; Moreno-Rodriguez, B; Rodrigues, M B; Rodriguez-Grecco, I; Solano, M H; Chumpitaz, G; Morales-Gana, M M; Ruiz-Sáez, A

    2014-01-01

    There is a paucity of literature on haemophilia treatment in Latin American countries, a region characterized by rapidly improving systems of care, but with substantial disparities in treatment between countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the musculoskeletal status of haemophilia patients from Latin America and to examine the relationship between musculoskeletal status and treatment practices across countries. The Committee of Latin America on the Therapeutics of Inhibitor Groups conducted a survey of its member country representatives on key aspects of haemophilia treatment in 10 countries. Musculoskeletal status of patients was obtained during routine comprehensive evaluations between March 2009 and March 2011. Eligible patients had severe haemophilia A (factor VIII <1%) without inhibitors (<0.6 BU mL(-1) ) and were ≥5 years of age. Musculoskeletal status was compared between three groups of countries, based primarily on differences in the availability of long-term prophylaxis. Overall, 143 patients (5-66 years of age) were enrolled from nine countries. In countries where long-term prophylaxis had been available for at least 10 years (Group A), patients aged 5-10 years had significantly better mean World Federation of Hemophilia clinical scores, fewer target joints and fewer affected joints than patients from countries where long-term prophylaxis has been available for about 5 years (Group B) or was not available (Group C). In Latin America, the musculoskeletal status of patients with severe haemophilia without inhibitors has improved significantly in association with the provision of long-term prophylaxis. As more countries in Latin America institute this practice, further improvements are anticipated.

  16. Musculoskeletal evaluation in severe haemophilia A patients from Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Ozelo, M C; Villaça, P R; Pérez-Bianco, R; Candela, M; Garcia-Chavez, J; Moreno-Rodriguez, B; Rodrigues, M B; Rodriguez-Grecco, I; Solano, M H; Chumpitaz, G; Morales-Gana, M M; Ruiz-Sáez, A

    2013-01-01

    Summary There is a paucity of literature on haemophilia treatment in Latin American countries, a region characterized by rapidly improving systems of care, but with substantial disparities in treatment between countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the musculoskeletal status of haemophilia patients from Latin America and to examine the relationship between musculoskeletal status and treatment practices across countries. The Committee of Latin America on the Therapeutics of Inhibitor Groups conducted a survey of its member country representatives on key aspects of haemophilia treatment in 10 countries. Musculoskeletal status of patients was obtained during routine comprehensive evaluations between March 2009 and March 2011. Eligible patients had severe haemophilia A (factor VIII <1%) without inhibitors (<0.6 BU mL−1) and were ≥5 years of age. Musculoskeletal status was compared between three groups of countries, based primarily on differences in the availability of long-term prophylaxis. Overall, 143 patients (5–66 years of age) were enrolled from nine countries. In countries where long-term prophylaxis had been available for at least 10 years (Group A), patients aged 5–10 years had significantly better mean World Federation of Hemophilia clinical scores, fewer target joints and fewer affected joints than patients from countries where long-term prophylaxis has been available for about 5 years (Group B) or was not available (Group C). In Latin America, the musculoskeletal status of patients with severe haemophilia without inhibitors has improved significantly in association with the provision of long-term prophylaxis. As more countries in Latin America institute this practice, further improvements are anticipated. PMID:24354487

  17. The future of nuclear power in Latin America

    SciTech Connect

    Eibenschutz, J.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the future prospects of nuclear power in Latin America. As part of the developing world, Latin America has a great potential for energy growth. Although there are substantial differences among the different countries of the area, one common denominator is the relatively low per-capita energy consumption. As in many other regions of the world, nuclear power makes sense to complement hydro and fossil-fueled power generation. One of the main restrictions to the growth of nuclear power has been the relatively small size of some electric system. As in most developing countries, the damage to the environment due to the energy-producing systems is very important. In countries like Cuba, nuclear power is clearly the most economical source, since the country lacks indigenous energy resources and the need to import primary energy sources favors nuclear power. The problem of the Latin American region is a severe shortage of financial resources. Standardization has been recognized as one of the better mechanisms to lower nuclear power costs. Argentina has been proposing the construction of CANDU-type reactors as the basis for their standard program, and some years ago Mexico took steps to launch a program for the installation of {approx}20 identical units. As in the whole world, the general public is reluctant to accept nuclear power. So far, nuclear power plants have been important to Latin America, with varying levels of local participation, but with imported technology. Unless a major scientific breakthrough takes place, nuclear power will constitute an important component of the energy system in Latin America.

  18. Latin America: native populations affected by early onset periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Nowzari, Hessam; Botero, Javier Enrique

    2011-06-01

    Millions of individuals are affected by early onset periodontal disease in Latin America, a continent that includes more than 20 countries. The decision-makers claim that the disease is not commonly encountered. In 2009, 280,919 authorized immigrants were registered in the United States versus 5,460,000 unauthorized (2,600,000 in California). The objective of the present article is to raise awareness about the high prevalence of the disease among Latin Americans and the good prognosis of preventive measures associated with minimal financial cost.

  19. Ethics and genetics in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Lopez, Eduardo

    2002-05-01

    Genetic research in human beings poses deep ethical problems, one being the problem of distributive justice. If we suppose that genetic technologies are able to produce visible benefits for the well being of people, and that these benefits are affordable to only a favored portion of society, then the consequence is obvious. We are introducing a new source of inequality. In the first section of this paper, I attempt to justify some concern for the distributive consequences of applying genetics to human beings. This concern transcends a mere preoccupation for material equality. I argue that genetic inequality can undermine the very basis of social cooperation, at least regarding health care. The second section is more practical. My aim is to defend how, at least in some legal and cultural frameworks (such as those clearly apparent in some Latin American countries), the undesired distributive consequences of genetics are more likely to arise and more difficult to avoid.

  20. An investigation of MAGSAT and complementary data emphasizing precambrian shields and adjacent areas of West Africa and South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hastings, D. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Some MAGSAT data and preliminary results emphasizing Africa, Latin America, and the Caribbean were presented to geologists in Jamaica, Guyana, Brazil, and Argentina who then expressed interest in collaborating on linking computer modeling of MAGSAT data to tectionic and metallogenic interpretation for South America and in making the final interpretation. Modeling continues with the preparation of a synopsis tectonic map of South America and the initiation of semi-final modeling of northern South America.

  1. Social security reform in Latin America: policy challenges.

    PubMed

    Kay, Stephen J; Kritzer, Barbara E

    2002-01-01

    Over the last decade Latin American countries have served as the world's laboratory for pension systems based on individual retirement savings accounts. Some countries have adopted defined-contribution individual accounts as a replacement for state-run pension systems; other countries have embraced mixed systems of have made individual accounts optional and supplementary. This article outlines some of the most significant elements of recent Latin American pension reforms and examines some of the most serious policy challenges faced by governments implementing the new systems of individual accounts, including the need to reduce administrative costs, limit evasion, incorporate new categories of workers into the system, and improve competition in the pension fund industry. The authors conclude that there is no single Latin America model, and that reform itself has been and will continue to be an incremental process.

  2. Iran and Latin America: Strategic Security Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    written extensively on asymmetrical warfare. known as Carlos the Jackal )3 for helping to expand the parameters of what irregular warfare should...international furor. See: "Troops Get Provocative Book," Miami Herald, Nov. II, 2005. 4 Ian James, "Chavez Praises Carlos the Jackal ," Associated Press...November 21, 2009, accessed January 24, 20 II, at: http:/ /www.independent.co. uk!news/world/americas/chavez-praises-carlos-the- jackal - 1825135.html

  3. Anticommunism Versus Nonintervention in Latin America

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1966-04-08

    AMERICA By BASIL D. SPALDING, JR. Lieutenant Colonel, Artillery StPfc? 1966 REPRODUCTION OF THIS DOCUMENT IN WHOLE OR IN PART IS PROHIBITED...broke completely from Alessandri and organized a Popular Front. In 1938. the Popular Front candidate for President, Aguirre Cerda , was actually...elected. His regime was characterized by economic growth and social reform. After Cerda !s death in 19^1t the Popular Front disintegrated because of

  4. The Affect of Drug Trafficking in West Africa on the National Security Interests of the United States of America

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-12

    Latin America and Asia to end users in North America, Europe, the Middle East, and Asia. The type of illegal substances has expanded from cocaine and...heroin to amphetamine- type stimulants. West Africa is particularly susceptible to influence by transnational criminal organizations (TCOs) due to

  5. Latin America: how a region surprised the experts.

    PubMed

    De Sherbinin, A

    1993-02-01

    In 1960-1970, family planning specialists and demographers worried that poverty, limited education, Latin machismo, and strong catholic ideals would obstruct family planning efforts to reduce high fertility in Latin America. It had the highest annual population growth rate in the world (2.8%), which would increase the population 2-fold in 25 years. Yet, the UN's 1992 population projection for Latin America and the Caribbean in the year 2000 was about 20% lower than its 1963 projection (just over 500 vs. 638 million). Since life expectancy increased simultaneously from 57 to 68 years, this reduced projection was caused directly by a large decline in fertility from 5.9 to 3. A regression analysis of 11 Latin American and Caribbean countries revealed that differences in the contraceptive prevalence rates accounted for 90% of the variation in the total fertility rate between countries. Thus, contraception played a key role in the fertility decline. The second most significant determinant of fertility decline was an increase in the average age at first marriage from about 20 to 23 years. Induced abortion and breast feeding did not contribute significantly to fertility decline. The major socioeconomic factors responsible for the decline included economic development and urbanization, resulting in improvements in health care, reduced infant and child mortality, and increases in female literacy, education, and labor force participation. Public and private family planning programs also contributed significantly to the decline. They expanded from cities to remote rural areas, thereby increasing access to contraception. By the early 1990s, Brazil, Mexico, and Colombia had among the lowest levels of unmet need (13-24%) in developing countries. Other key factors of fertility decline were political commitment, strong communication efforts, and stress on quality services. Latin America provides hope to other regions where religion and culture promote a large family size.

  6. SURVEY OF BIBLIOGRAPHIES AND REFERENCE WORKS ON ASIA, AFRICA, LATIN AMERICA, RUSSIA, AND EAST EUROPE--AND COMPILATION OF BIBLIOGRAPHIES ON EAST ASIA, SOUTH ASIA AND AFRICA SOUTH OF THE SAHARA FOR UNDERGRADUATE LIBRARIES. INTERIM REPORT, PHASE ONE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MOREHOUSE, WARD

    THE PURPOSE OF THE PROJECT IS TO ASSIST UNDERGRADUATE LIBRARIES IN STRENGTHENING THEIR RESOURCES ON AREAS OUTSIDE THE PERIMETER OF WESTERN CIVILIZATION USUALLY GIVEN LITTLE ATTENTION BY AMERICAN COLLEGES, WITH SPECIAL EMPHASIS ON EAST AND SOUTH ASIA AND AFRICA SOUTH OF THE SAHARA. UNDER THE PROJECT'S FIRST PHASE, A PANEL OF LIBRARY ADVISERS WAS…

  7. The Latin America and the Caribbean search strategy proposal.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Eloy F; Proaño, Alvaro; Proaño, Diego; Torres-Román, Junior Smith; Miranda, J Jaime

    2016-08-04

    Latin America and the Caribbean's public health literature is not widely recognized. Science in this region has even been compared to a night sky with just a few specks of light. To make those lights as reachable as possible, we developed the Latin America and the Caribbean Search Strategy (LACSS). This is a new method to utilize our region's health promotion results within MEDLINE/PubMed. In contrast to a typical MeSH query, LACSS retrieves up to six times more publication results regarding non-communicable diseases, neglected tropical diseases, injuries and other important public health relevant topics in the region. We believe that global health promotion will be improved in this region by improving its visibility, and this search strategy will contribute to this.

  8. An overview of raptor biology and conservation in Latin America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    Prior to the last decade, biological studies of raptorial birds in Latin America were, with a few exceptions, nonexistent. For many species all that was known was the general range and habitat type. While the logistical and political challenges are still present, the last few years has seen the opening of a door to what will almost surely be a flood of scientific investigations. From over 40,000 ground miles traveled in 16 countries, field contact with over two thirds of the raptor species, and interviews with conservation officers in 10 nations, I will report on some raptor concentration areas, identify topics for future research, and generalize on raptor conservation issues. I will also briefly mention some recent biological studies and touch briefly on the challenges awaiting the biologist who tries his or her hand at reaping the rewards that are present in abundance for those who engage in raptor studies in Latin America.

  9. An overview of raptor conservation in Latin America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, D.H.; Smith, D.G.

    1986-01-01

    Prior to the last decade, biological studies of raptorial birds in Latin America were almost nonexistent. For many species little more was known than their general range and habitat type. The last few years have seen the opening of a door to what will surely be a flood of scientific investigations. Ultimately, the survival of raptor communities in Latin America depends not only on research but also on several other equally significant conservation efforts. These typically appear in the following order: first, appropriate legislation must be enacted and enforced to provide legal protection; second, the public must be educated concerning the value of wildlife; third, substantial blocks of favourable habitat must be identified and preserved; fourth, economic incentives must be generated so that the local human populations actually benefit from the preservation of vulnerable wildlife and natural habitats; and finally, the long-term success of all of these efforts in each nation depends on the attainment of political, economic and social stability.

  10. Epidemic cholera in Latin America: spread and routes of transmission.

    PubMed

    Guthmann, J P

    1995-12-01

    In the most recent epidemic of cholera in Latin America, nearly a million cases were reported and almost 9000 people died between January 1991 and December 1993. The epidemic spread rapidly from country to country, affecting in three years all the countries of Latin America except Uruguay and the Caribbean. Case-control studies carried out in Peru showed a significant association between drinking water and risk of disease. Cholera was associated with the consumption of unwashed fruit and vegetables, with eating food from street vendors and with contaminated crabmeat transported in travellers' luggage. This article documents the spread of the epidemic and its routes of transmission and discusses whether the introduction of the epidemic to Peru and its subsequent spread throughout the continent could have been prevented.

  11. Results of assisted reproduction techniques in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Zegers-Hochschild, F; Mackenna, A; Fernández, E; Sepúlveda, M S

    2001-01-01

    The fact that today it is possible to write a comprehensive report on assisted reproduction technologies in Latin America is the result of a serious and systematic effort, accomplished by more than 80 centres, from Mexico to Chile. Over the past 10 years, these centres representing the vast majority of assisted reproductive treatment cycles performed in Latin America, have agreed voluntarily to report their work to our regional registry using a pre-established format. Furthermore, during 1999 and part of 2000, all centres were visited by a team of biologists and clinicians, who evaluated for consistencies in the data reported. This activity also included an evaluation of personnel, facilities, etc. It can be proudly said that the data reported are a true reflection of the actual situation in our region.

  12. Perception of Ethical Misconduct by Neuropsychology Professionals in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Panyavin, Ivan S; Goldberg-Looney, Lisa D; Rivera, Diego; Perrin, Paul B; Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos

    2015-08-01

    To date, extremely limited research has focused on the ethical aspects of clinical neuropsychology practice in Latin America. The current study aimed to identify the frequency of perceived ethical misconduct in a sample of 465 self-identified neuropsychology professionals from Latin America in order to better guide policies for training and begin to establish standards for practitioners in the region. Frequencies of neuropsychologists who knew another professional engaging in ethical misconduct ranged from 1.1% to 60.4% in the areas of research, clinical care, training, and professional relationships. The most frequently reported perceived misconduct was in the domain of professional training and expertise, with nearly two thirds of participants knowing other professionals who do not possess adequate training to be working as neuropsychologists. The least frequently reported perceived misconduct was in the domain of professional relationships. Nearly one third of participants indicated that they had never received formal training in professional ethics.

  13. Fertility changes in Latin America in periods of economic uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Adsera, Alicia; Menendez, Alicia

    2011-03-01

    We explored the relation between fertility and the business cycle in Latin America. First, we used aggregate data on fertility rates and economic performance for 18 countries. We then studied these same associations in the transitions to first, second, and third births with DHS individual data for ten countries. The results show that in general, childbearing declined during economic downturns. The decline was mainly associated with increasing unemployment rather than slowdowns in the growth of gross domestic product, although there was a positive relationship between first-birth rates and growth. While periods of unemployment may be a good time to have children because opportunity costs are lower, in fact childbearing was reduced or postponed, especially among the most recent cohorts and among urban and more educated women. The finding is consistent with the contention that, during this particular period in Latin America, income effects were dominant.

  14. Impact of Malaria in Pregnancy as Latin America Approaches Elimination.

    PubMed

    Yanow, Stephanie K; Gavina, Kenneth; Gnidehou, Sedami; Maestre, Amanda

    2016-05-01

    In Latin America, four million pregnancies are at risk of malaria annually, but malaria in pregnancy is largely overlooked. As countries progress toward malaria elimination, targeting reservoirs of transmission is a priority. Pregnant women are an important risk group because they harbor asymptomatic infections and dormant liver stages of Plasmodium vivax that cause relapses. Of significant concern is the discovery that most infections in pregnant women fail to be detected by routine diagnostics. We review here recent findings on malaria in pregnancy within Latin America. We focus on the Amazon basin and Northwest Colombia, areas that harbor the greatest burden of malaria, and propose that more sensitive diagnostics and active surveillance at antenatal clinics will be necessary to eliminate malaria from these final frontiers.

  15. Nephrology in Latin America, with special emphasis on Brazil.

    PubMed

    Zatz, Roberto; Romão, J E; Noronha, I L

    2003-02-01

    Latin America constitutes a complex universe that shows extreme variation regarding socioeconomic and human development. Brazil is the largest and most populous Latin American country, and combines characteristics encountered in developed countries with problems typically associated with the poorest regions of the world. These disparities condition the profile of renal disease in Brazil, with glomerulonephritis still the leading cause of ESRD. Little is known about the epidemiology of renal disease in the Brazilian (or Latin American) native population, which is numerous in some Central and South American countries, but constitute a very small minority in Brazil. However, interesting information has been obtained from the Yanomamis, a tribe living in Northern Brazil and Southern Venezuela. Hypertension is virtually absent among these people, who ingest very little sodium, lending strong support to the concept that sodium retention, a "civilization" factor, plays a role in the pathogenesis of arterial hypertension. Despite Brazil's striking socioeconomic disparities, access to RRT is in principle accessible to all those in need of it. The dialysis units have been modernized in recent years, whereas the Government covers most expenses related to RRT. However, the prevalence of RRT in Brazil is currently approximately 320 per million population, less than one third as high as in the US, suggesting that ESRD may be underdiagnosed in the country. Much effort is still needed to limit the prevalence of renal disease and to improve the quality and the reach of RRT in Brazil and in Latin America.

  16. Overcoming social segregation in health care in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Cotlear, Daniel; Gómez-Dantés, Octavio; Knaul, Felicia; Atun, Rifat; Barreto, Ivana C H C; Cetrángolo, Oscar; Cueto, Marcos; Francke, Pedro; Frenz, Patricia; Guerrero, Ramiro; Lozano, Rafael; Marten, Robert; Sáenz, Rocío

    2015-03-28

    Latin America continues to segregate different social groups into separate health-system segments, including two separate public sector blocks: a well resourced social security for salaried workers and their families and a Ministry of Health serving poor and vulnerable people with low standards of quality and needing a frequently impoverishing payment at point of service. This segregation shows Latin America's longstanding economic and social inequality, cemented by an economic framework that predicted that economic growth would lead to rapid formalisation of the economy. Today, the institutional setup that organises the social segregation in health care is perceived, despite improved life expectancy and other advances, as a barrier to fulfilling the right to health, embodied in the legislation of many Latin American countries. This Series paper outlines four phases in the history of Latin American countries that explain the roots of segmentation in health care and describe three paths taken by countries seeking to overcome it: unification of the funds used to finance both social security and Ministry of Health services (one public payer); free choice of provider or insurer; and expansion of services to poor people and the non-salaried population by making explicit the health-care benefits to which all citizens are entitled.

  17. Aquatic risk assessment of pesticides in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Carriquiriborde, Pedro; Mirabella, Paula; Waichman, Andrea; Solomon, Keith; Van den Brink, Paul J; Maund, Steve

    2014-10-01

    Latin America is anticipated to be a major growth market for agriculture and production is increasing with use of technologies such as pesticides. Reports of contamination of aquatic ecosystems by pesticides in Latin America have raised concerns about potential for adverse ecological effects. In the registration process of pesticides, all countries require significant data packages on aquatic toxicology and environmental fate. However, there are usually no specific requirements to conduct an aquatic risk assessment. To address this issue, the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry organized a workshop that brought together scientists from academia, government, and industry to review and elaborate on aquatic risk assessment frameworks that can be implemented into regulation of pesticides in Latin America. The workshop concluded that the international framework for risk assessments (protection goals, effects, and exposure assessments, risk characterization, and risk mitigation) is broadly applicable in Latin America but needs further refinement for the use in the region. Some of the challenges associated with these refinements are discussed in the article. It was recognized that there is potential for data sharing both within and outside of the region where conditions are similar. However, there is a need for research to compare local species and environmental conditions to those in other jurisdictions to be able to evaluate the applicability of data used in other countries. Development should also focus on human resources as there is a need to build local capacity and capability, and scientific collaboration and exchange between stakeholders in industry, government, and academia is also important. The meeting also emphasized that, although establishing a regionally relevant risk assessment framework is important, this also needs to be accompanied by enforcement of developed regulations and good management practices to help protect aquatic habitats

  18. EERE-Supported International Activities in Latin America (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-05-01

    The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) is involved in a variety of international initiatives, partnerships, and events that promote greater understanding and use of renewable energy (RE) and energy efficiency (EE) worldwide. In support of the Energy and Climate Partnership of the Americas (ECPA), EERE is working with several Latin American countries to advance EE and RE deployment for economic growth, energy security, poverty relief, and disaster recovery goals. This fact sheet highlights those activities.

  19. Security Assistance in Latin America: Paradox and Dilemma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-21

    the Third World." Parameters, March 1990, pp. 38-47. Starr, Richard F., ed. Yearbook on International Communist Affairs. Stanford: Hoover Institutional...distribuition is unlinuited 4. PERFPORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMIER( S ) S MONITORING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER( S ) 69. NAME OF PERFORMING ORGANIZATION...11. TITLE (bnckud Secuity Clawficationy SECURITY ASSISTANCE IN LATIN AMERICA: PARADOX AND DILEMNA (UNCLASSIFIED) 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR( S ) iKAJOR ROBERT

  20. Advances(?) in mitigating volcano hazards in Latin America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, M.L.

    1991-01-01

    The 1980's were incredible years for volcanology. As a consequence of the Mount St. Helens and other eruptions, major advances in our understanding of volcanic processes and eruption dynamics were made. the decade also witnessed the greatest death toll caused by volcanism since 1902. Following Mount St. Helens, awareness of volcano hazards increased throughout the world; however, in Latin America, subsequent events showed that much was still to be learned. 

  1. Transmission of rabies by bats in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Carneiro, Victor

    1954-01-01

    This article reviews the literature dealing with the role of haematophagous bats in the spread of rabies among cattle in Latin America since 1911, when the association between Desmodontidae and rabies epizootics in Brazil was first suspected. Efforts to control the problem by destruction of the vectors and vaccination of bovines are described, and the suitability of chick-embryo vaccine is considered. PMID:13182599

  2. [Advancing public mental health research in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Susser, Ezra

    2015-01-01

    This special issue on Mental Health of the Journal of the School of Medicine, represents a significant contribution to the advance of public mental health research and training in Latin America. The editors (as well as the authors) deserve much credit for having conceived and implemented the joint publication of these papers. In this brief introduction, I draw attention to four ways in which their effort is likely to accelerate progress in this field.

  3. Bordering on trouble. Resources and politics in Latin America

    SciTech Connect

    McGuire, A.; Brown, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    The authors say much of regions' social, economic, and political instability, can be traced back to poor resource management. Government, corporations, and individuals alike are misusing labor, natural resources, and investment capitals, and many current U.S. policies encourage this chaos. This book focuses on specific problems - from giant hydropower projects to fragile ecosystems overwhelmed by pollution - to capture the drama now unfolding in Latin America and to offer step-by-step solutions.

  4. Counting Child Domestic Servants in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Levison, Deborah; Langer, Anna

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes trends in the use of child domestic servants in six Latin American countries using IPUMS-International census samples for 1960 to 2000. Child domestics are among the most vulnerable of child workers, and the most invisible. They may be treated kindly and allowed to attend school, or they may be secluded in their employers’ home, overworked, verbally abused, beaten, and unable to leave or report their difficulties to kin. Estimates and imputations are based on labor force and relationship-to-head variables. We find that domestic service makes up a substantial fraction of girls’ employment in some countries. We also analyze trends in live-in versus live-out status and school enrollment of child domestic servants. While all child workers are disadvantaged in enrollment relative to non-workers, domestics are sometimes better off than non-domestic workers. In some samples, live-ins are more likely to go to school than live-out child domestics. In others, they are substantially worse off. PMID:22844164

  5. Declining suburbs in Europe and Latin America.

    PubMed

    Audirac, Ivonne; Cunningham-Sabot, Emmanuèle; Fol, Sylvie; Moraes, Sergio Torres

    2012-01-01

    Suburban shrinkage, understood as a degenerative urban process stemming from the demise of the Fordist mode of urbanism, is generally manifested in a decline in population, industry and employment. It is also intimately linked to the global restructuring of industrial organization associated with the rise of the post-Fordist mode of urbanism and, more recently, the thrust of Asian industrialization. Framed in the discourse of industrial urbanism, this article examines the first ring of industrial suburbs that developed around large cities in their most rapid Fordist urbanization phase. These industrial suburbs, although they were formed at different times, are today experiencing specific mutations and undergoing profound restructuring on account of their particular spatial position between the central area and the expanding peripheries of the post-Fordist metropolis. This article describes and compares suburban decline in two European cities (Glasgow and Paris) and two Latin American Cities (São Paulo, Brazil and Guadalajara, Mexico), as different instances of places asymmetrically and fragmentarily integrated into the geography of globalization.

  6. Improving health and empowering women. Latin America.

    PubMed

    1995-09-01

    This news article describes Latin American programs integrating women into family planning and reproductive health programs. Regional efforts are successful in provision of IEC materials, including the Japanese-Mexican joint project, which produced an adolescent health video series. Collaboration among countries is encouraged. The approach involves sensitivity to community needs. In Brazil, JOICFP initiated programs in hard-to-reach areas of the urban slums of Sao Paulo. The program includes an adolescent component on sex education and family planning. In 1994 a gathering place was established where youth could obtain information on health, sex education, and family planning. The Adolescent Space is manned by volunteers and peer counselors who give information on sexually transmitted diseases, AIDS, and other adolescent issues. In Guatemala, program effort has been directed since 1988 on the indigenous populations living in poor rural areas. Outsiders are challenged by the close-knit indigenous communities. In order to obtain credibility and to reach those women in need, traditional birth attendants (TBAs) are recruited by the Family Planning Association of Guatemala and trained by APROFAM in safe motherhood practices and health care. Training is directed to helping TBAs mobilize women to accept health messages and join program activities. TBAs use specially produced handbooks for non-literate users. Bicycles are given to TBAs as a means of transportation. Treadle sewing machines were donated from Japan for training women in a vocation such as dressmaking. The training academies are effective in providing skills, facilitating small group interaction, and mobilizing women to seek a better quality of life. Mexico's Foundation for Family Planning (MEXFAM) encourages the active involvement of men in family planning, emphasizes education, and uses fees as a means of achieving sustainability. The Gente Joven program strives to involve adolescents, teachers, and parents

  7. SCOOL: A NASA Geoscience Education Success in Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, L. H.; Fischer, J. D.; Moore, S. W.; Rogerson, T. M.

    2006-12-01

    are now registered S'COOL observers, including two thirds of Latin American countries. The spread of the project in Latin America has principally been through word of mouth, assisted by the efforts of several individuals who have developed in-country networks based on their own interests. Latin American participants have submitted nearly 9000 observations (constituting 40% of observations received from outside the US), and provide one of few sources of cloud observations during the summer months when northern hemisphere schools are mostly on vacation. Contributions from Latin American participants are also regularly featured in the S'COOL Cloud Photo of the Month. Over the course of eight years, S'COOL has amassed a wealth of knowledge pertaining to the implementation of collaborative projects in Latin America. This paper will report several key lessons learned.

  8. The pharmacoeconomics of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Giglio, Norberto; Micone, Paula; Gentile, Angela

    2011-09-14

    Streptococcus pneumoniae continues to be the most important causative agent of invasive bacterial infections in children and is the most common cause of vaccine-preventable deaths in children less than 5 years of age. Due to some conditions in the Latin America region, economic assessments of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) have unique characteristics. First, distribution of S. pneumoniae serotypes, and thus coverage by vaccines that incorporate certain serotypes, varies within the region and compared with other parts of the world. Second, the mortality rate of pneumococcal infections in developing countries is significantly higher than in the US and Europe. Third, the economies of the Latin American region are very different from those of developed countries. For these reasons, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) is promoting the need for economic valuation studies of the impact of pneumococcal vaccines Latin America. Given the importance of pneumonia in the burden of pneumococcal disease in Latin America, the number of pneumonia cases prevented by the vaccine has a large impact on the economic valuation of PCVs, due to a strong correlation with numbers of deaths averted, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) gained or disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) avoided. In terms of cost, analysis of impact on acute otitis media (short-term) and sequelae (long-term) show a significant and important expenditure avoided by vaccination. Cost-effectiveness is significantly modified by vaccine cost, mortality due to pneumonia, vaccine efficacy/effectiveness and herd immunity. Finally the validity of certain assumptions based on the uncertainty of the data should be considered in economic assessments of new PCVs. These include assumptions related to the impact on otitis media, estimates of efficacy/effectiveness based on measured antibody levels and the extrapolation to PCV10 and PCV13 of previous experience with PCV7.

  9. The cost of Latin American science Introduction for the second issue of CBP-Latin America.

    PubMed

    Zenteno-Savín, Tania; Beleboni, René Oliveira; Hermes-Lima, Marcelo

    2007-04-01

    Latin American researchers in science and engineering (S&E), including those in biology and biomedical sciences, are frequently exposed to unstable conditions of financial support, material and human resources, and a limited number of positions at public and private institutions. Such uncertainties impose continuous challenges for the scientific community which, in the best of cases, responds with careful planning and creativity, and in the worst scenario endures the migration of scientists to the USA or Europe. Still, the number of scientific publications from Latin American institutions in the last decade increased at a much faster rate than publications from the USA and Canada. A brief analysis per country of the gross domestic product (GDP) spent in research and development (R&D) and the S&E production reported by the Pascal bibliographic database suggests that the number and quality of S&E publications is directly proportional to the financial support for R&D. However, the investment in R&D in Latin America did not increase at the same rate (from 0.49 to 0.55% of GDP, from 1990 to 2003) at which S&E publications did in the same period (2.9-fold increase, from 1988 to 2001). In Latin America, the traditional financial support for scientific research continues to be from federal and state government funds, associated in some cases with institutional funds that are mostly directed towards administrative costs and infrastructure maintenance. The aim of this introduction is to briefly discuss the production cost of articles published in refereed S&E journals, including the cost of the scientific research behind them, and, at the same time, to increase the awareness of the high quality of scientific research in Latin American institutions despite the many challenges, especially financial constraints, faced by their scientists. The second issue of Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology dedicated to Latin America ("The Face of Latin American Comparative Biochemistry

  10. Where Does Human Plague Still Persist in Latin America?

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Maria Cristina; Najera, Patricia; Aldighieri, Sylvain; Galan, Deise I.; Bertherat, Eric; Ruiz, Alfonso; Dumit, Elsy; Gabastou, Jean Marc; Espinal, Marcos A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Plague is an epidemic-prone disease with a potential impact on public health, international trade, and tourism. It may emerge and re-emerge after decades of epidemiological silence. Today, in Latin America, human cases and foci are present in Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, and Peru. Aims The objective of this study is to identify where cases of human plague still persist in Latin America and map areas that may be at risk for emergence or re-emergence. This analysis will provide evidence-based information for countries to prioritize areas for intervention. Methods Evidence of the presence of plague was demonstrated using existing official information from WHO, PAHO, and Ministries of Health. A geo-referenced database was created to map the historical presence of plague by country between the first registered case in 1899 and 2012. Areas where plague still persists were mapped at the second level of the political/administrative divisions (counties). Selected demographic, socioeconomic, and environmental variables were described. Results Plague was found to be present for one or more years in 14 out of 25 countries in Latin America (1899–2012). Foci persisted in six countries, two of which have no report of current cases. There is evidence that human cases of plague still persist in 18 counties. Demographic and poverty patterns were observed in 11/18 counties. Four types of biomes are most commonly found. 12/18 have an average altitude higher than 1,300 meters above sea level. Discussion Even though human plague cases are very localized, the risk is present, and unexpected outbreaks could occur. Countries need to make the final push to eliminate plague as a public health problem for the Americas. A further disaggregated risk evaluation is recommended, including identification of foci and possible interactions among areas where plague could emerge or re-emerge. A closer geographical approach and environmental characterization are suggested. PMID:24516682

  11. [Peasant women and agrarian life in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Arizpe, L

    1985-01-01

    The great agrarian transformation in favor of capitalist agriculture that has occurred over the past few decades in the dependent countries of Latin America has modified the traditional production of foodstuffs, the mode of work, and the social reproduction of peasant women belonging to the social groups with the lowest levels of income. Policies of centralized industrialization which have excluded agricultural manpower have affected Latin American women, accounting for their greater tendency to migrate to cities. Migrant peasant women participate in 3 principal characteristics of the dependent development of Latin America: the rural exodus, the burgeoning of the tertiary sector, and marginality. The consequences of unequal capitalist agrarian development in the formation of a female rural proletariat have not been well studies, resulting in a tendency to disregard the heterogeneity of situations in which peasant women find themselves and to confuse 3 aspects of their condition as members of rural families, as workers, and as women. As family members, peasant women find family income declining, leading to increases in their unpaid labor time and declining standards of nutrition and health. The agrarian economies of Latin America and the Caribbean show a certain homogeneity in the sexual division of labor. Their historical development after their insertion as colonial regions in the world economy produced 3 well-defined forms of agricultural economy: haciendas, plantations, and peasant communities, each with its own forms of family and kinship relationships which reflected adjustments between sexual division of labor and production or manpower needs. Concerning the participation of women, there are curerntly 3 specific types of agricultural production characteristic of Latin America and the Caribbean: peasant family units usually belonging to communities in which women primarily perform the tasks of "reproduction", rural family units which rely on the external labor

  12. Economic evaluation guidelines in Latin America: a current snapshot.

    PubMed

    Augustovski, Federico; Garay, Osvaldo Ulises; Pichon-Riviere, Andres; Rubinstein, Adolfo; Caporale, Joaquín E

    2010-10-01

    Economic evaluation guidelines are widespread in developed countries with fourth hurdle systems but as of yet not in Latin America. In the present article, a systematic search was conducted in order to retrieve regional guidelines in PubMed, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS) and the gray literature. Four national guidelines were found: Brazil, Colombia, Cuba and Mexico. We report a thorough review of these documents, as well as a comparison among them. We conclude that, despite some differences found, they are broadly similar, and are broadly in accordance with international documents. The existence of these documents, together with other experiences in the region that explicitly use economic evaluation information for health decision making clearly shows that this global tendency is gaining momentum in Latin America, although there is still a long way to go. In the near future we will be able to see if these documents were successfully used and applied for transparent and evidence-based decision making.

  13. Reaching remote areas in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Jaimes, R

    1994-01-01

    Poor communities in remote and inaccessible areas tend to not only be cut off from family planning education and services, but they are also deprived of basic primary health care services. Efforts to bring family planning to such communities and populations should therefore be linked with other services. The author presents three examples of programs to bring effective family planning services to remote communities in Central and South America. Outside of the municipal center in the Tuxtlas region of Mexico, education and health levels are low and people live according to ancient customs. Ten years ago with the help of MEXFAM, the IPPF affiliate in Mexico, two social promoters established themselves in the town of Catemaco to develop a community program of family planning and health care offering education and prevention to improve the quality of people's lives. Through their health brigades taking health services to towns without an established health center, the program has influenced an estimated 100,000 people in 50 villages and towns. The program also has a clinic. In Guatemala, the Family Welfare Association (APROFAM) gave bicycles to 240 volunteer health care workers to facilitate their outreach work in rural areas. APROFAM since 1988 has operated an integrated program to treat intestinal parasites and promote family planning in San Lucas de Toliman, an Indian town close to Lake Atitlan. Providing health care to more than 10,000 people, the volunteer staff has covered the entire department of Solola, reaching each family in the area. Field educators travel on motorcycles through the rural areas of Guatemala coordinating with the health volunteers the distribution of contraceptives at the community level. The Integrated Project's Clinic was founded in 1992 and currently carries out pregnancy and Pap tests, as well as general lab tests. Finally, Puna is an island in the middle of the Gulf of Guayaquil, Ecuador. Women on the island typically have 10

  14. U.S. Security Strategies: Trade Policy Implications for Latin America

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Strategies: Trade Policy Implications for Latin America Compiled by Dr. Max G. Manwaring Key Points: • Security was defi ned as “freedom from...attended. In the recent past, the security focus as it pertained to Latin America centered primarily on the Drug War, Colombia, and Plan Colombia. But...when key economies in Latin America and the Caribbean are in decline, and nothing is being done to improve strategic security . There was also a

  15. Migratory peregrine falcons, Falco peregrinus, accumulate pesticides in Latin America during winter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henny, C.J.; Ward, F.P.; Riddle, K.E.; Prouty, R.M.

    1982-01-01

    Blood samples from 433 Peregrine Falcons (Falco peregrinus) during fall and spring migrations, 1976-80, indicated that most of their pesticide burden, primarily DDE, was accumulated on wintering grounds in Latin America. DDE in spring migrants returning from Latin America for the first time declined significantly from 1979 to 1980. Only about 10% of breeding-age females contained organochlorine residues likely to adversely affect reproduction. The organochlorine pesticide threat in Latin America may be diminishing.

  16. A HISTORICAL SURVEY OF PATTERNS AND TECHNIQUES OF INSURGENCY CONFLICTS IN POST-1900 LATIN AMERICA

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The purpose of this report is to identify patterns and techniques of national and lower-scale insurgency conflicts in Latin America since 1900 in...order to derive data of assistance to U.S. planning for R+D requirements of military counterinsurgency operations in Latin America. Specific features of...insurgency in Latin America make it desirable that the report utilize the term insurgency in a broad sense and as inclusive of all types of violent

  17. [Key points for the management of dermatitis in Latin America. The SLAAI Consensus].

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Jorge; Páez, Bruno; Macías-Weinmann, Alejandra; De Falco, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of atopic dermatitis in Latin America, as in other regions, has been increasing in recent years. The SLAAI consensus is based on a systematic search for articles related to dermatitis, with focus in the pathophysiology and treatment and its impact on Latin America, and reviewed using the Delphi methodology (Revista Alergia Mexico 2014;61:178-211). In this article we highlight the key points of consensus and particular considerations in Latin America.

  18. Geografia de America Latina. Grados Seis-Diez (Geography of Latin America. Grades Six-Ten).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA. Stanford Program on International and Cross Cultural Education.

    This publication, intended for Spanish-speaking students in grades 6-10, has three main objectives. First, it serves as an introduction (or refresher) to basic geographic concepts. Second, it is an examination of the physical and political geography of Latin America. Third, it is designed to help students examine maps in a critical manner. The…

  19. [Primary health care: challenges for implementation in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Giraldo Osorio, Alexandra; Vélez Álvarez, Consuelo

    2013-01-01

    A development process, marked by the re-appearance of the primary health care as the core of health systems, has emerged in Latin America. Governments have made a commitment to renew this strategy as the basis of their health systems. However, these health systems are mainly faced with re-introducing equity values, and there are common challenges such as providing the health systems with trained human resources in sufficient numbers, overcoming the fragmentation/segmentation of the systems, ensuring financial sustainability, improving governance, quality of care and information systems, expanding coverage, preparing to face the consequences of an aging population, the changing epidemiological profile, and increase in the response capacity of the public health system. This article is intended to provide a comprehensive view of the progress and challenges of the inclusion of primary care health systems in Latin American countries.

  20. Arsenic in volcanic geothermal fluids of Latin America.

    PubMed

    López, Dina L; Bundschuh, Jochen; Birkle, Peter; Armienta, Maria Aurora; Cumbal, Luis; Sracek, Ondra; Cornejo, Lorena; Ormachea, Mauricio

    2012-07-01

    Numerous volcanoes, hot springs, fumaroles, and geothermal wells occur in the Pacific region of Latin America. These systems are characterized by high As concentrations and other typical geothermal elements such as Li and B. This paper presents a review of the available data on As concentrations in geothermal systems and their surficial discharges and As data on volcanic gases of Latin America. Data for geothermal systems in Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Bolivia, and Chile are presented. Two sources of As can be recognized in the investigated sites: Arsenic partitioned into volcanic gases and emitted in plumes and fumaroles, and arsenic in rocks of volcanic edifices that are leached by groundwaters enriched in volcanic gases. Water containing the most elevated concentrations of As are mature Na-Cl fluids with relatively low sulfate content and As concentrations reaching up to 73.6 mg L⁻¹ (Los Humeros geothermal field in Mexico), but more commonly ranging from a few mg L⁻¹ to tens of mg L⁻¹. Fluids derived from Na-Cl enriched waters formed through evaporation and condensation at shallower depths have As levels of only a few μg L⁻¹. Mixing of Na-Cl waters with shallower meteoric waters results in low to intermediate As concentrations (up to a few mg L⁻¹). After the waters are discharged at the ground surface, As(III) oxidizes to As(V) and attenuation of As concentration can occur due to sorption and co-precipitation processes with iron minerals and organic matter present in sediments. Understanding the mechanisms of As enrichment in geothermal waters and their fate upon mixing with shallower groundwater and surface waters is important for the protection of water resources in Latin America.

  1. The future of urban water services in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Wade, Jeffry S

    2012-01-01

    In recent decades, problems with the provision of drinking water and sanitation services around the world have increasingly been addressed by attempts at privatisation, recasting clean water as an essentially economic, rather than public, good. This approach gained particular acceptance in Latin America, but with limited success. In order to address the full range of social, economic and environmental values necessary to sustain water resources over time, public and governmental involvement in establishing integrated water management, pursuing ‘soft path’ approaches, assuring stakeholder input and setting policy will be essential to the process.

  2. [Healthcare rights and conditional cash transfers in Latin America].

    PubMed

    da Fonseca, Ana Maria Medeiros; Viana, Ana Luiza d'Avila

    2007-01-01

    Conditional cash transfer programs in Latin America impose specific requirements and responsibilities on beneficiary households, in order to upgrade education levels, improve drop-out rates and eliminate child labor, while enhancing health and nutrition indicators. Although counterpart healthcare conditions are common to all these programs, government strategies differ in terms of reaching their goals, at times even undermining improvements in the living conditions of more vulnerable segments of the population. Instead of upholding rights to healthcare, such initiatives may well trigger a new cycle of tightly-focused basic care through provisional programs.

  3. New global change research effort launched in Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClain, Michael E.; Galarraga, Remigio H.

    Latin America's mountains extend in a nearly unbroken chain from Mexico to Chile and reach elevations above 6000 m.The valleys of these mountains have seen the evolution of diverse and unique ecosystems, as well as the development of several of the region's most celebrated pre-Columbian civilizations.Today these same valleys contain some of Earth's most rapidly changing landscapes, as urban and agricultural frontiers expand and historical land use changes in response to new pressures from economic globalization.These valleys also face poorly understood threats linked to global climate change.

  4. [Environmental pollution and population growth in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Viel, B

    1983-01-01

    helping to combat environmental degradation, but in Latin America, population control has not yet taken hold and antipollution measures are not implemented because of their high cost. High fertility has always characterized Latin American since colonial days, but until the 20th century it was balanced by high mortality. Largely because of the progressive control of disease, the population increased from some 87 million in 1920 to 212 million by 1960, and may arrive at 650 million by 2000. In just 30 years Latin America was able to reduce mortality to under 10/1000, a process requiring 300 years in the developed world. In Latin America mortality reduction was achieved by medical means and not by environmental improvements. Despite the obious problems caused by rapid population growth, most governments in the region persist in supporting pronatalist policies and legislation.

  5. [Psychosocial consequences of organized violence. Experiences from Latin America].

    PubMed

    Lavik, N J; Sveaass, N

    1990-06-30

    The health consequences of organized violence are well documented (increasing from many parts of the world). We review experiences reported from Latin-America based on literature, contact with human rights organizations and participation in conferences in (Santiago de) Chile and Costa Rica, with special focus on: the destructive psychosocial influence of a repressive society; the development of torture methods; the development of therapeutic methods; the serious psychological implications of "impunity". In Central America joint strategies have been developed for preventive and therapeutic work connected to the effects of war-traumas and terror. Psychiatrists and psychologists from Western countries involved in treatment of refugees in exile can mutually benefit from the experiences of colleagues who have death with the problems in countries where prosecution and oppression have taken place. Within this framework professionals are challenged to take a firm stand against human right violations.

  6. Cardiovascular risk awareness, treatment, and control in urban Latin America.

    PubMed

    Silva, Honorio; Hernandez-Hernandez, Rafael; Vinueza, Raul; Velasco, Manuel; Boissonnet, Carlos Pablo; Escobedo, Jorge; Silva, H Elif; Pramparo, Palmira; Wilson, Elinor

    2010-01-01

    Effective prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases require regular screening for risk factors, high awareness of the condition, effective treatment of the identified risk factors, and adherence to the prescribed treatment. The Cardiovascular Risk Factor Multiple Evaluation in Latin America study was a cross-sectional, population-based, observational study of major cardiovascular risk factors-including hypertension, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia-in 7 Latin American cities. This report presents data on assessment, diagnosis, extent, and effectiveness of treatment, adherence to treatment, and reasons for nonadherence. Data were collected through household questionnaire-based interviews administered to 5383 men and 6167 women, 25-64 years of age, living in the following cities: Barquisimeto, Venezuela; Bogota, Colombia; Buenos Aires, Argentina; Lima, Peru; Mexico City, Mexico; Quito, Ecuador; and Santiago, Chile. Participants also completed a clinic visit for anthromorphometric and laboratory assessments. Rates of prior diagnosis of hypertension and diabetes were high (64% and 78% of affected individuals, respectively) but relatively low for hypercholesterolemia (41%). The majority of affected individuals (hypercholesterolemia 88%, diabetes 67%, and hypertension 53%) were untreated. Among individuals who were receiving pharmacologic treatment, targets for control of hypertension, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia were achieved by 51%, 16%, and 52%, respectively. Adherence to treatment was observed in 69% of individuals with hypertension, 63% with diabetes, and 66% with hypercholesterolemia. Forgetfulness was the major cause of nonadherence for all 3 conditions. There is a substantial need for increasing patient education, diagnosis, treatment, adherence, and control of cardiovascular risk factors in the 7 Latin American cities.

  7. Social Medicine Then and Now: Lessons From Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Waitzkin, Howard; Iriart, Celia; Estrada, Alfredo; Lamadrid, Silvia

    2001-01-01

    The accomplishments of Latin American social medicine remain little known in the English-speaking world. In Latin America, social medicine differs from public health in its definitions of populations and social institutions, its dialectic vision of “health–illness,” and its stance on causal inference. A “golden age” occurred during the 1930s, when Salvador Allende, a pathologist and future president of Chile, played a key role. Later influences included the Cuban revolution, the failed peaceful transition to socialism in Chile, the Nicaraguan revolution, liberation theology, and empowerment strategies in education. Most of the leaders of Latin American social medicine have experienced political repression, partly because they have tried to combine theory and political practice—a combination known as “praxis.” Theoretic debates in social medicine take their bearings from historical materialism and recent trends in European philosophy. Methodologically, differing historical, quantitative, and qualitative approaches aim to avoid perceived problems of positivism and reductionism in traditional public health and clinical methods. Key themes emphasize the effects of broad social policies on health and health care; the social determinants of illness and death; the relationships between work, reproduction, and the environment; and the impact of violence and trauma. PMID:11574316

  8. Planning cancer control in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Goss, Paul E; Lee, Brittany L; Badovinac-Crnjevic, Tanja; Strasser-Weippl, Kathrin; Chavarri-Guerra, Yanin; St Louis, Jessica; Villarreal-Garza, Cynthia; Unger-Saldaña, Karla; Ferreyra, Mayra; Debiasi, Márcio; Liedke, Pedro E R; Touya, Diego; Werutsky, Gustavo; Higgins, Michaela; Fan, Lei; Vasconcelos, Claudia; Cazap, Eduardo; Vallejos, Carlos; Mohar, Alejandro; Knaul, Felicia; Arreola, Hector; Batura, Rekha; Luciani, Silvana; Sullivan, Richard; Finkelstein, Dianne; Simon, Sergio; Barrios, Carlos; Kightlinger, Rebecca; Gelrud, Andres; Bychkovsky, Vladimir; Lopes, Gilberto; Stefani, Stephen; Blaya, Marcelo; Souza, Fabiano Hahn; Santos, Franklin Santana; Kaemmerer, Alberto; de Azambuja, Evandro; Zorilla, Andres Felipe Cardona; Murillo, Raul; Jeronimo, Jose; Tsu, Vivien; Carvalho, Andre; Gil, Carlos Ferreira; Sternberg, Cinthya; Dueñas-Gonzalez, Alfonso; Sgroi, Dennis; Cuello, Mauricio; Fresco, Rodrigo; Reis, Rui Manuel; Masera, Guiseppe; Gabús, Raúl; Ribeiro, Raul; Knust, Renata; Ismael, Gustavo; Rosenblatt, Eduardo; Roth, Berta; Villa, Luisa; Solares, Argelia Lara; Leon, Marta Ximena; Torres-Vigil, Isabel; Covarrubias-Gomez, Alfredo; Hernández, Andrés; Bertolino, Mariela; Schwartsmann, Gilberto; Santillana, Sergio; Esteva, Francisco; Fein, Luis; Mano, Max; Gomez, Henry; Hurlbert, Marc; Durstine, Alessandra; Azenha, Gustavo

    2013-04-01

    Non-communicable diseases, including cancer, are overtaking infectious disease as the leading health-care threat in middle-income and low-income countries. Latin American and Caribbean countries are struggling to respond to increasing morbidity and death from advanced disease. Health ministries and health-care systems in these countries face many challenges caring for patients with advanced cancer: inadequate funding; inequitable distribution of resources and services; inadequate numbers, training, and distribution of health-care personnel and equipment; lack of adequate care for many populations based on socioeconomic, geographic, ethnic, and other factors; and current systems geared toward the needs of wealthy, urban minorities at a cost to the entire population. This burgeoning cancer problem threatens to cause widespread suffering and economic peril to the countries of Latin America. Prompt and deliberate actions must be taken to avoid this scenario. Increasing efforts towards prevention of cancer and avoidance of advanced, stage IV disease will reduce suffering and mortality and will make overall cancer care more affordable. We hope the findings of our Commission and our recommendations will inspire Latin American stakeholders to redouble their efforts to address this increasing cancer burden and to prevent it from worsening and threatening their societies.

  9. Machismo and Virginidad: Sex Roles in Latin America. Discussion Paper 79-10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinones, Julio

    The purpose of this paper is to present a view of Latin American males and females that describes the situation in Latin America more accurately than the current stereotypical view accepted in the United States. The author discusses the roots of the North American misconception, citing differences between Latin American and North American cultures…

  10. "Manana Is Soon Enough for Me": Latin America through Tin Pan Alley's Prism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiex, Nola Kortner

    In order to examine the vision of Latin America transmitted to the American public in Tin Pan Alley's popular songs in the first half of the twentieth century, a study analyzed nearly 50 songs. The songs were grouped into five categories: (1) songs which describe Latin locales; (2) songs which are constructed around a Latin woman's name; (3) songs…

  11. Socioeconomic determinants of cervical cancer screening in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Soneji, Samir; Fukui, Natsu

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the impact of health care access and socioeconomic determinants on Pap smear screening in Latin America. Methods Individual-level data was collected from the Demographic and Health Surveys in Bolivia, Brazil, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Peru, and Trinidad and Tobago between 1987 and 2008. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify socioeconomic and health care determinants of two outcomes: knowledge of Pap smears and recent Pap smear screening. Results In all countries, the proportion of women with a recent Pap smear screening remained below 55%. Key determinants of knowledge of Pap smears were age, education, and recent doctor’s visit. For recent Pap smear screening, key determinants were wealth and recent doctor’s visit. Women were between 1.47 and 3.44 times more likely to have received a recent Pap smear if they had a recent doctor’s visit. Even the poorest women with a recent doctor’s visit were more likely to screen than the richest women without a recent visit. Conclusions These data suggest that visiting a doctor is an important determinant of cervical cancer screening in Latin America. Because screening may coincide with other medical visits, physicians could effectively encourage screening. PMID:23698136

  12. Towards establishing MS prevalence in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Melcon, M O; Melcon, C M; Bartoloni, L; Cristiano, E; Duran, J C; Grzesiuk, A K; Fragoso, Y D; Brooks, J B Bidin; Díaz, V; Romero García, K M; Cabrera Gomez, J A; Abad, P; Islas, M A Macías; Gracia, F; Diaz de Bedoya, V F Hamuy; Ruiz, M E Córdova; Hackembruch, J H; Oehninger, C; Ketzoian, C N; Soto, A

    2013-02-01

    A very high prevalence of multiple sclerosis (MS) has been reported in some Western European and North American countries. The few surveys of MS epidemiology in South America reveal lower prevalence rates, implying that susceptibility varies between distinct ethnic groups, thus forming an important determinant of the geographic distribution of the disease. The objective of this study is to review MS prevalence estimates in different Latin American and Caribbean countries. We reviewed surveys of regional MS prevalence from 1991 to 2011. Sources included an online database, authors' reports and proceedings or specific lectures from regional conferences. We obtained a total of 30 prevalence surveys from 15 countries, showing low/medium MS prevalence rates. Both the number and the quality of prevalence surveys have greatly improved in this region over recent decades. This is the first collaborative study to map the regional frequency of MS. Establishment of standardized methods and joint epidemiological studies will advance future MS research in Latin America and the Caribbean.

  13. Helminth parasites of finfish commercial aquaculture in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Soler-Jiménez, L C; Paredes-Trujillo, A I; Vidal-Martínez, V M

    2017-03-01

    Latin America has tripled production by aquaculture up to 78 million tonnes in the past 20 years. However, one of the problems that aquaculture is facing is the presence of helminth parasites and the diseases caused by them in the region. In this review we have collected all the available information on helminths affecting commercial aquaculture in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), emphasizing those causing serious economic losses. Monogeneans are by far the most common and aggressive parasites affecting farmed fish in LAC. They have been recognized as serious pathogens in intensive fish culture because they reach high levels of infection rapidly, and can infect other phylogenetically related fish species. The next most important group comprises the larval stages of digeneans (metacercariae) such as Diplostomum sp. and Centrocestus formosanus, which cause serious damage to farmed fish. Since LAC aquaculture has been based mainly on exotic species (tilapia, salmon, trout and carp), most of their parasites have been brought into the region together with the fish for aquaculture. Recently, one of us (A.I.P.-T.) has suggested that monogeneans, which have generally been considered to be harmless, can produce serious effects on the growth of cultured Nile tilapia. Therefore, the introduction of fish together with their 'harmless' parasites into new sites, regions or countries in LAC should be considered a breakdown of biosecurity in those countries involved. Therefore, the application of quarantine procedures and preventive therapeutic treatments should be considered before allowing these introductions into a country.

  14. Environmental education: a fast-growing field in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Wood, D W

    1989-01-01

    Private conservation organizations have become more prevalent throughout Latin America in the last decade. They range from well organized and financed, internationally-recognized organizations, to small volunteer groups. They are committed to preserving the natural resources and cover national park management, the protection of wildlife, reforestation, environmental contamination and other issues. Also in Latin America environmental education has become an important part of the resource conservation programs. One of the most advanced and successful programs is in Ecuador and is called Natura. It has produced many educational materials including slide programs, television spots and programs, booklets, a complete primary school curriculum, posters, radio programs and a profile of Ecuador's environment. Their programs have been successful because they analyze their target audience and tailor the program to their needs and desires. They also follow up with evaluation questionnaires and testing for each program. It has been difficult for organizations such as these to implement programs in rural areas. There are some groups developing environmental education programs in rural areas through alliances with development assistance organizations. There are essential for the protection of wild areas where human needs must be balanced with longterm ecological priorities.

  15. Hepatitis E virus: An ancient hidden enemy in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Fierro, Nora A; Realpe, Mauricio; Meraz-Medina, Tzintli; Roman, Sonia; Panduro, Arturo

    2016-02-21

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is a common cause of acute clinical hepatitis worldwide. HEV is an RNA-containing virus and the only member of the genus Hepevirus in the family Hepeviridae. Human HEV is classified into four genotypes widely distributed across the world. The virus is mainly transmitted via the fecal-oral route, and water-borne epidemics have become characteristic of hepatitis E in developing countries, including those in Latin America. The zoonotic potential of HEV is broadly recognized. Thus, there is an urgent need to re-evaluate virus transmission scenarios and to enforce epidemiological surveillance systems. Additionally, it is known that HEV infections, initially defined as self-limiting, can also take chronic courses in immunocompromised patients. Moreover, we recently reported a high seroprevalence of HEV in samples from cirrhotic patients with no other etiological agents present, suggesting the potential role of HEV in the development of chronic liver illness. In this review, HEV genomic variability, transmission, chronic infectious course, zoonotic potential and treatment are discussed. Focus is placed on the impact of HEV infection in Latin America, to support the development of specific control strategies and the handling of this important and typically imperceptible viral infection.

  16. Commentary: improving the health of neglected populations in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Franco-Paredes, Carlos; Jones, Danielle; Rodríguez-Morales, Alfonso J; Santos-Preciado, José Ignacio

    2007-01-23

    Neglected diseases encompass a group of pathologies that disproportionally affect resource-constrained areas of the world. In tropical and subtropical areas in Latin America, the vicious cycle of poverty, disease and underdevelopment is widespread. The burden of disease associated to neglected diseases in this region is mainly expressed through diseases such as malaria, dengue, intestinal parasitic infections, Chagas' disease, and many others. These maladies have burdened Latin America throughout centuries and have directly influenced their ability to develop and become competitive societies in the current climate of globalization. Therefore, the need for a new paradigm that integrates various public health policies, programs, and a strategy with the collaboration of all responsible sectors is long overdue. In this regard, innovative approaches are required to ensure the availability of low-cost, simple, sustainable, and locally acceptable strategies to improve the health of neglected populations to prevent, control, and potentially eliminate neglected diseases. Improving the health of these forgotten populations will place them in an environment more conducive to development and will likely contribute significantly to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals in this area of the globe.

  17. Hepatitis E virus: An ancient hidden enemy in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Fierro, Nora A; Realpe, Mauricio; Meraz-Medina, Tzintli; Roman, Sonia; Panduro, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is a common cause of acute clinical hepatitis worldwide. HEV is an RNA-containing virus and the only member of the genus Hepevirus in the family Hepeviridae. Human HEV is classified into four genotypes widely distributed across the world. The virus is mainly transmitted via the fecal-oral route, and water-borne epidemics have become characteristic of hepatitis E in developing countries, including those in Latin America. The zoonotic potential of HEV is broadly recognized. Thus, there is an urgent need to re-evaluate virus transmission scenarios and to enforce epidemiological surveillance systems. Additionally, it is known that HEV infections, initially defined as self-limiting, can also take chronic courses in immunocompromised patients. Moreover, we recently reported a high seroprevalence of HEV in samples from cirrhotic patients with no other etiological agents present, suggesting the potential role of HEV in the development of chronic liver illness. In this review, HEV genomic variability, transmission, chronic infectious course, zoonotic potential and treatment are discussed. Focus is placed on the impact of HEV infection in Latin America, to support the development of specific control strategies and the handling of this important and typically imperceptible viral infection. PMID:26900289

  18. Energy and sustainable development in Latin America and the Caribbean

    SciTech Connect

    Suding, P.H.

    1995-12-31

    There is a marked difference between the perception of the sustainable development problem in the industrialized countries and that prevailing in the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean (LA&C). Whereas the industrialized countries seem concerned about the sustainability of their development in view of global climate change, developing countries in LA&C are looking for a sustainable development course that will lead them out of poverty and away from the destruction of the local environment. The industrialized countries perspective is apparent in the titles of the papers being presented at the IAEE Conference under the topic: Harmonizing Energy Policy, Environment, and Sustainable Economic Growth. A great number of titles and sessions focus on the apparent antagonism between economic growth and the environment. By environment one seems to primarily mean emissions into the air, especially greenhouse gas emissions. Probably the majority of the energy community of the industrial countries regards Latin America, on the one hand, as a holder of a large CO{sub 2} sink in danger of extinction and, on the other hand, as a potential new large contributor to greenhouse gas emissions.

  19. Psychiatric rehabilitation in Latin America: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Uribe-Restrepo, J M; Escobar, M L; Cubillos, L

    2016-11-17

    Comprehensive psychiatric rehabilitation programs in Latin America have been designed across several countries in the region without yet achieving full implementation. Facing an increasing burden of disease due to mental disorders, including alcohol and substance use disorders, the region has responded unevenly to the challenge. Moreover, low priority for mental health in national policies and insufficient funding for mental health services are common barriers for the much-needed mental health services reforms. Reestablishing a primary care community-based model of care has been a shared aspiration for most countries during the last two decades. Comprehensive models of psychiatric rehabilitation developed predominantly in high-income countries need to be culturally adapted to local contexts, while strengthening health systems research will provide evidence on the efficiency of locally designed interventions and on the critical milestones to succeed in the scaling up strategies. Increasing participation of patients and their families in the mental health delivery system is another key factor in order to ensure comprehensive patient-centred psychosocial rehabilitation programs in Latin America.

  20. [Political logic and regional integration. Migration to Latin America].

    PubMed

    Marmora, L

    1995-01-01

    Now that a new international order is widening the gap between the developed and developing countries, new migration policies are being created in Latin America. Both conceptually and practically, each policy has its own logic, which the authors attempt to identify. In the past, migration policies were of three main types: a logic based on the recruitment of labor; a logic based on territorial settlement; and a logic that aimed to secure the protection of the existing population. Now that regional economic integration is underway in the three main Latin American areas (the Andean countries, Central America, and the Southern Cone), a new logic is emerging. However, the actual strategies for economic integration in each region have only slowly and hesitantly addressed the problem of the free movement of people. Nevertheless, one can identify three objectives on strategies for the circulation of people in the existing schemas. In order of priority, they are security, development of transportation and tourist industries, and regulation of the labor market.

  1. Management of acromegaly in Latin America: expert panel recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Barkan, Ariel; Bronstein, Marcello D.; Bruno, Oscar D.; Cob, Alejandro; Espinosa-de-los-Monteros, Ana Laura; Gadelha, Monica R.; Garavito, Gloria; Guitelman, Mirtha; Mangupli, Ruth; Portocarrero, Lesly; Sheppard, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Although there are international guidelines orienting physicians on how to manage patients with acromegaly, such guidelines should be adapted for use in distinct regions of the world. A panel of neuroendocrinologists convened in Mexico City in August of 2007 to discuss specific considerations in Latin America. Of major discussion was the laboratory evaluation of acromegaly, which requires the use of appropriate tests and the adoption of local institutional standards. As a general rule to ensure diagnosis, the patient’s GH level during an oral glucose tolerance test and IGF-1 level should be evaluated. Furthermore, to guide treatment decisions, both GH and IGF-1 assessments are required. The treatment of patients with acromegaly in Latin America is influenced by local issues of cost, availability and expertise of pituitary neurosurgeons, which should dictate therapeutic choices. Such treatment has undergone profound changes because of the introduction of effective medical interventions that may be used after surgical debulking or as first-line medical therapy in selected cases. Surgical resection remains the mainstay of therapy for small pituitary adenomas (microadenomas), potentially resectable macroadenomas and invasive adenomas causing visual defects. Radiotherapy may be indicated in selected cases when no disease control is achieved despite optimal surgical debulking and medical therapy, when there is no access to somatostatin analogues, or when local issues of cost preclude other therapies. Since not all the diagnostic tools and treatment options are available in all Latin American countries, physicians need to adapt their clinical management decisions to the available local resources and therapeutic options. PMID:19882249

  2. Advances in volcano monitoring and risk reduction in Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCausland, W. A.; White, R. A.; Lockhart, A. B.; Marso, J. N.; Assitance Program, V. D.; Volcano Observatories, L. A.

    2014-12-01

    We describe results of cooperative work that advanced volcanic monitoring and risk reduction. The USGS-USAID Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (VDAP) was initiated in 1986 after disastrous lahars during the 1985 eruption of Nevado del Ruiz dramatizedthe need to advance international capabilities in volcanic monitoring, eruption forecasting and hazard communication. For the past 28 years, VDAP has worked with our partners to improve observatories, strengthen monitoring networks, and train observatory personnel. We highlight a few of the many accomplishments by Latin American volcano observatories. Advances in monitoring, assessment and communication, and lessons learned from the lahars of the 1985 Nevado del Ruiz eruption and the 1994 Paez earthquake enabled the Servicio Geológico Colombiano to issue timely, life-saving warnings for 3 large syn-eruptive lahars at Nevado del Huila in 2007 and 2008. In Chile, the 2008 eruption of Chaitén prompted SERNAGEOMIN to complete a national volcanic vulnerability assessment that led to a major increase in volcano monitoring. Throughout Latin America improved seismic networks now telemeter data to observatories where the decades-long background rates and types of seismicity have been characterized at over 50 volcanoes. Standardization of the Earthworm data acquisition system has enabled data sharing across international boundaries, of paramount importance during both regional tectonic earthquakes and during volcanic crises when vulnerabilities cross international borders. Sharing of seismic forecasting methods led to the formation of the international organization of Latin American Volcano Seismologists (LAVAS). LAVAS courses and other VDAP training sessions have led to international sharing of methods to forecast eruptions through recognition of precursors and to reduce vulnerabilities from all volcano hazards (flows, falls, surges, gas) through hazard assessment, mapping and modeling. Satellite remote sensing data

  3. Cooperation or Security - The Emergence of Space Programs in Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godefroy, A. B.

    Traditionally, Latin America has been labeled a “Third World” region, yet when one examines its various space programs the handle hardly applies. Both Argentina and Brazil received superpower assistance during the early Cold War period to develop indigenous rocketry and space capabilities that continue to evolve today. More recently, other Latin American countries have also taken advantage of the many capabilities that space power provides. However, cooperation and development in Latin America continue to be influenced by politics and security issues, an inescapable aspect of the region's history. These factors combined have had a considerable impact on the emergence of space programs in Latin America.

  4. What Poverty Does to Girls' Education: The Intersection of Class, Gender, and Ethnicity in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stromquist, Nelly P.

    This essay examines poverty in Latin America and its effect on education. It focuses on sexual bias and emphasizes that poverty is inherent in the social and economic structure of the region. The text examines how states in Latin America view the role of education, and it describes the growing chasm between the poor and the gentrified in various…

  5. Human Rights and Curricular Policy in Latin America and the Caribbean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suarez, David F.

    2007-01-01

    Human rights have become increasingly salient for nations, organizations, and individuals since the end of World War II (Lauren 2003). Discussions of human rights now are common in formal education, including in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). A variety of indicators suggest that countries in Latin America have integrated human rights into…

  6. Competing Visions, Shifting Boundaries: The Construction of Latin America as a World Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Marie D.; Cooper, Catherine W.

    2007-01-01

    Latin America is a popularly accepted world region. A systematic review of geographic interpretations of Latin America reveals that the origin of the term goes back to the mid-nineteenth century and that the region's boundaries have shifted over time. This article argues that four basic principles operate in the formation of world regions such as…

  7. Research on Child and Adolescent Development and Public Policy in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narea, Marigen

    2016-01-01

    This commentary discusses the implication of child and adolescent development research for public policy in Latin America. As illustrated by the articles in this special issue, even though the research of child and adolescent development in Latin America is making significant progress, still more research is needed. Developmental research in the…

  8. Latin America's Emergence: Toward a U.S. Response. Headline Series 243.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowenthal, Abraham F.; Fishlow, Albert

    In order to provide a basis for improving United States policies toward Latin America in the 1980s, the document examines past U.S. policy and relations, evaluates recent U.S. approaches, and offers a reassessment of current U.S. interests in Latin America. The book is divided into five chapters. Chapter I discusses social, economic, and political…

  9. Poverty and Malnutrition in Latin America. Early Childhood Intervention Programs: A Report to the Ford Foundation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollitt, Ernesto; And Others

    This book presents a comprehensive review of empirical research on early childhood education and human development in Latin America. Commissioned in 1976 by the Office of Latin America and the Caribbean, part of the International Division of the Ford Foundation, New York, the study was two-faceted. First, researchers were instructed to review…

  10. SELECTION AIDS ON LATIN AMERICA FOR PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOL LIBRARIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SHEPARD, MARIETTA DANIELS

    A SERIES OF BIBLIOGRAPHIES ARE INCLUDED IN THIS DOCUMENT. THE SCOPE OF THE LIST INCLUDES GENERAL BIBLIOGRAPHIES FROM LATIN AMERICA, AS WELL AS BOOKS FROM SPAIN, WHICH ARE PRINCIPALLY IN THE FIELDS OF HUMANITIES AND SOCIAL SCIENCES, ESPECIALLY LITERATURE AND HISTORY. A LIST OF SOURCES FOR THE PURCHASE OF BOOKS FROM LATIN AMERICA AND SPAIN IS ALSO…

  11. Perceptions of Sexual Discrimination among College Women in Latin America and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espin, Oliva M.

    1980-01-01

    In a comparative analysis of 400 college women's perceptions of incidents of sexual discrimination in Latin America and the U.S., significant differences were noted. Most incidents from Latin America regarded social conventions, those from the U.S. involved personal advancement in such matters as jobs or educational opportunities. (DS)

  12. Functional Patterns in International Organizations for University Cooperation in Latin America and the Caribbean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Daniel A.; Lopez, Daniel C.; Andrade, Lorenzo I.; Lopez, Boris A.

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes the coverage, organizational patterns, problems and trends of international organizations for university cooperation in Latin America and the Caribbean. More than 30 international organizations for cooperation currently operating in Latin America and the Caribbean were identified. Two groups of institutions with more than 60%…

  13. Folate and vitamin B12 status in Latin America and the Caribbean: An update

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: The current magnitude of folate and vitamin B12 deficiency in Latin America and the Caribbean is uncertain. Objective: To summarize data on plasma or serum vitamin B12 and folate concentrations in Latin America and the Caribbean reported since 1990, a period that covers the era before an...

  14. Stories from Afar: Using Children's and Young Adult Literature to Teach about Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruz, Barbara C.

    2007-01-01

    In teaching about Latin America and the Caribbean, bringing a human dimension to the study of the region is essential. Texts on the region can be dull and lifeless or even biased and skewed. Introducing students to the region by exploring prose, poetry, and picture books helps to illustrate the rich diversity found throughout Latin America and the…

  15. Use of Third Line Antiretroviral Therapy in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Cesar, Carina; Shepherd, Bryan E.; Jenkins, Cathy A.; Ghidinelli, Massimo; Castro, Jose Luis; Veloso, Valdiléa Gonçalves; Cortes, Claudia P.; Padgett, Denis; Crabtree-Ramirez, Brenda; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Fink, Valeria; Duran, Adriana; Sued, Omar; McGowan, Catherine C.; Cahn, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Background Access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is expanding in Latin America. Many patients require second and third line therapy due to toxicity, tolerability, failure, or a combination of factors. The need for third line HAART, essential for program planning, is not known. Methods Antiretroviral-naïve patients ≥18 years who started first HAART after January 1, 2000 in Caribbean, Central and South America Network (CCASAnet) sites in Argentina, Brazil, Honduras, Mexico, and Peru were included. Clinical trials participants were excluded. Third line HAART was defined as use of darunavir, tipranavir, etravirine, enfuvirtide, maraviroc or raltegravir. Need for third line HAART was defined as virologic failure while on second line HAART. Results Of 5853 HAART initiators followed for a median of 3.5 years, 310 (5.3%) failed a second line regimen and 44 (0.8%) received a third line regimen. Cumulative incidence of failing a 2nd or starting a 3rd line regimen was 2.7% and 6.0% three and five years after HAART initiation, respectively. Predictors at HAART initiation for failing a second or starting a third line included female sex (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.54, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18–2.00, p = 0.001), younger age (HR = 2.76 for 20 vs. 40 years, 95% CI 1.86–4.10, p<0.001), and prior AIDS (HR = 2.17, 95% CI 1.62–2.90, p<0.001). Conclusions Third line regimens may be needed for at least 6% of patients in Latin America within 5 years of starting HAART, a substantial proportion given the large numbers of patients on HAART in the region. Improved accessibility to third line regimens is warranted. PMID:25221931

  16. Dengue in Latin America: Systematic Review of Molecular Epidemiological Trends

    PubMed Central

    Ramos-Castañeda, José; Barreto dos Santos, Flavia; Martínez-Vega, Ruth; Galvão de Araujo, Josélio Maria; Joint, Graham; Sarti, Elsa

    2017-01-01

    Dengue, the predominant arthropod-borne viral disease affecting humans, is caused by one of four distinct serotypes (DENV-1, -2, -3 or -4). A literature analysis and review was undertaken to describe the molecular epidemiological trends in dengue disease and the knowledge generated in specific molecular topics in Latin America, including the Caribbean islands, from 2000 to 2013 in the context of regional trends in order to identify gaps in molecular epidemiological knowledge and future research needs. Searches of literature published between 1 January 2000 and 30 November 2013 were conducted using specific search strategies for each electronic database that was reviewed. A total of 396 relevant citations were identified, 57 of which fulfilled the inclusion criteria. All four dengue virus serotypes were present and co-circulated in many countries over the review period (with the predominance of individual serotypes varying by country and year). The number of countries in which more than one serotype circulated steadily increased during the period under review. Molecular epidemiology data were found for Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, the Caribbean region, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico and Central America, Paraguay, Peru and Venezuela. Distinct lineages with different dynamics were found in each country, with co-existence, extinction and replacement of lineages occurring over the review period. Despite some gaps in the literature limiting the possibility for comparison, our review has described the molecular epidemiological trends of dengue infection. However, several gaps in molecular epidemiological information across Latin America and the Caribbean were identified that provide avenues for future research; in particular, sequence determination of the dengue virus genome is important for more precise phylogenetic classification and correlation with clinical outcome and disease severity. PMID:28068335

  17. Dengue in Latin America: Systematic Review of Molecular Epidemiological Trends.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Castañeda, José; Barreto Dos Santos, Flavia; Martínez-Vega, Ruth; Galvão de Araujo, Josélio Maria; Joint, Graham; Sarti, Elsa

    2017-01-01

    Dengue, the predominant arthropod-borne viral disease affecting humans, is caused by one of four distinct serotypes (DENV-1, -2, -3 or -4). A literature analysis and review was undertaken to describe the molecular epidemiological trends in dengue disease and the knowledge generated in specific molecular topics in Latin America, including the Caribbean islands, from 2000 to 2013 in the context of regional trends in order to identify gaps in molecular epidemiological knowledge and future research needs. Searches of literature published between 1 January 2000 and 30 November 2013 were conducted using specific search strategies for each electronic database that was reviewed. A total of 396 relevant citations were identified, 57 of which fulfilled the inclusion criteria. All four dengue virus serotypes were present and co-circulated in many countries over the review period (with the predominance of individual serotypes varying by country and year). The number of countries in which more than one serotype circulated steadily increased during the period under review. Molecular epidemiology data were found for Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, the Caribbean region, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico and Central America, Paraguay, Peru and Venezuela. Distinct lineages with different dynamics were found in each country, with co-existence, extinction and replacement of lineages occurring over the review period. Despite some gaps in the literature limiting the possibility for comparison, our review has described the molecular epidemiological trends of dengue infection. However, several gaps in molecular epidemiological information across Latin America and the Caribbean were identified that provide avenues for future research; in particular, sequence determination of the dengue virus genome is important for more precise phylogenetic classification and correlation with clinical outcome and disease severity.

  18. Nasal allergies in the Latin American population: results from the Allergies in Latin America survey.

    PubMed

    Neffen, Hugo; Mello, Joao F; Sole, Dirceu; Naspitz, Charles K; Dodero, Alberto Eduardo; Garza, Héctor León; Guerra, Edgard Novelo; Baez-Loyola, Carlos; Boyle, John M; Wingertzahn, Mark A

    2010-01-01

    Allergies in Latin America is the first cross-national survey that describes the symptoms, impact, and treatment of nasal allergies (NAs) in individuals >or=4 years old in Latin America (LA). In total, 22,012 households across the Latin American countries of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, and Venezuela were screened for children, adolescents, and adults with a diagnosis of NA and either symptoms or treatment in the past 12 months. A total of 1088 adults and 457 children and adolescents were included and the sample was probability based to ensure valid statistical inference to the population. Approximately 7% of the LA population was diagnosed with NAs with two of three respondents stating that their allergies were seasonal or intermittent in nature. A general practice physician or otolaryngologist diagnosed the majority of individuals surveyed. Nasal congestion was the most common and bothersome symptom of NAs. Sufferers indicated that their symptoms affected productivity and sleep and had a negative impact on quality of life. Two-thirds of patients reported taking some type of medication for their NAs, with a roughly equal percentage of patients reporting taking over-the-counter versus prescription medications. Changing medications was most commonly done in those reporting inadequate efficacy. The most common reasons cited for dissatisfaction with current medications were related to inadequate effectiveness, effectiveness wearing off with chronic use, failure to provide 24-hour relief, and bothersome side effects (e.g., unpleasant taste and retrograde drainage into the esophagus). Findings from this cross-national survey on NAs have confirmed a high prevalence of physician-diagnosed NAs and a considerable negative impact on daily quality of life and work productivity as well as substantial disease management challenges in LA. Through identification of disease impact on the LA population and further defining treatment gaps, clinicians in

  19. Subseasonal teleconnections South America - South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimm, Alice; Reason, Chris

    2016-04-01

    There is marked subseasonal variability over South America and southern Africa. Based on previous work showing that a teleconnection exists between the South American monsoon system and interannual summer rainfall variability over southern Africa, this study shows teleconnections between subseasonal variability over these landmasses. Observed daily gauge precipitation data for 1970-1999 are gridded to 1° resolution for South America and 2.5° for South Africa. At each grid point, anomalies of daily precipitation are calculated and submitted to a bandpass Lanczos filter to isolate subseasonal oscillations in the 20-90 day band. For each season, the filtered precipitation anomalies for the South African grid boxes are correlated with filtered precipitation anomalies in the grid boxes over South America. Lags from 0 up to 12 days are applied to the South African data, in order to investigate convection anomalies over South America that could produce atmospheric perturbations associated with South African precipitation anomalies. The significance of correlation between the filtered data takes autocorrelation into account and uses effective sample sizes. The results shown represent the best correlations for different climatic regimes such as the winter-rainfall dominated southwestern Cape, the all season rainfall South Coast and the summer-rainfall dominated Limpopo region. NCEP re-analyses are used to composite subseasonal anomalies in OLR, 200 hPa streamfunction, and vertically integrated moisture flux associated with precipitation anomaly above one standard deviation in the filtered series (positive phases) of the South African selected regions. The possible origin of the atmospheric circulation anomalies associated with those positive phases is determined using influence functions (IFs) of a vorticity equation model with a divergence source. The model is linearized about a realistic basic state and includes the divergence of the basic state and the advection of

  20. Prevention of transfusional Trypanosoma cruzi infection in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Schmunis, G A

    1999-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi is a protozoan infection widely spread in Latin America, from Mexico in the north to Argentina and Chile in the south. The second most important way of acquiring the infection is by blood transfusion. Even if most countries of Latin America have law/decree/norms, that make mandatory the screening of blood donors for infectious diseases, including T. cruzi (El Salvador and Nicaragua do not have laws on the subject), there is usually no enforcement or it is very lax. Analysis of published serologic surveys of T. cruzi antibodies in blood donors done in 1993, indicating the number of donors and screening coverage for T. cruzi in ten countries of Central and South America indicated that the probability of receiving a potentially infected transfusion unit in each country varied from 1,096 per 10,000 transfusions in Bolivia, the highest, to 13.02 or 13.86 per 10,000 transfusions in Honduras and Venezuela respectively, where screening coverage was 100%. On the other hand the probability of transmitting a T. cruzi infected unit was 219/10,000 in Bolivia, 24/10,000 in Colombia, 17/10,000 in El Salvador, and around 2-12/10,000 for the seven other countries. Infectivity risks defined as the likelihood of being infected when receiving an infected transfusion unit were assumed to be 20% for T. cruzi. Based on this, estimates of the absolute number of infections induced by transfusion indicated that they were 832, 236, and 875 in Bolivia, Chile and Colombia respectively. In all the other countries varied from seven in Honduras to 85 in El Salvador. Since 1993, the situation has improved. At that time only Honduras and Venezuela screened 100% of donors, while seven countries, Argentina, Colombia, El Salvador, Honduras, Paraguay, Uruguay and Venezuela, did the same in 1996. In Central America, without information from Guatemala, the screening of donors for T. cruzi prevented the transfusion of 1,481 infected units and the potential infection of 300 individuals in

  1. Observational study of multiple myeloma in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Hungria, Vania T M; Maiolino, Angelo; Martinez, Gracia; Duarte, Gislaine Oliveira; Bittencourt, Rosane; Peters, Lygia; Colleoni, Gisele; Oliveira, Luciana C O; Crusoé, Edvan; Coelho, Érika O D M; Pasquini, Ricardo; Magalhães, Sílvia M M; Nunes, Renata; Neto, Jorge V Pinto; Faria, Rosa Malena O; Souza, Mair; Hamerschlak, Nelson; Flantl, Dorotea; Navarro, J R; Conte, Guillermo; Gomez-Almaguer, David; Ruiz-Argüelles, Guillermo; Durie, Brian G M

    2017-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the outcomes of multiple myeloma in Latin America, a world region where incorporation of novel agents is generally slow. In the current retrospective-prospective study, we aimed to describe the patterns of care and treatment results in five Latin American countries. Between April 2007 and October 2009, patients who had been diagnosed from January 2005 to December 2007 were registered at 23 institutions from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico, and Peru. We divided patients into two cohorts, according to transplantation eligibility, and analyzed them with regard to first-line treatment and overall survival (OS). We analyzed a total of 852 patients, 46.9 % of whom were female. The median follow-up was 62 months. Among transplantation-ineligible patients (N = 461), the mean age was 67.4 years, approximately one third of patients received a thalidomide-based treatment in the first line, and the median OS was 43.0 months. Transplantation-eligible patients (N = 391) had a mean age of 54.7 years and a median OS of 73.6 months. Autologous transplantation was performed in 58.6 % of the patients for whom this procedure was initially planned and in only 26.9 % of the overall patients. Our long-term results reflect the contemporary literature for patients with multiple myeloma treated with autologous transplantation and thalidomide-based regimens in clinical trials and observational studies. However, further efforts are needed to approve and incorporate novel agents in Latin American countries, as well as to increase access to transplantation, in order to achieve the expected improvements in patient outcomes.

  2. Stroke Prevention in Atrial Fibrillation: Focus on Latin America.

    PubMed

    Massaro, Ayrton R; Lip, Gregory Y H

    2016-08-11

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia, with an estimated prevalence of 1-2% in North America and Europe. The increased prevalence of AF in Latin America is associated with an ageing general population, along with poor control of key risk factors, including hypertension. As a result, stroke prevalence and associated mortality have increased dramatically in the region. Therefore, the need for effective anticoagulation strategies in Latin America is clear. The aim of this review is to provide a contemporary overview of anticoagulants for stroke prevention. The use of vitamin K antagonists (VKAs, eg, warfarin) and aspirin in the prevention of stroke in patients with AF in Latin America remains common, although around one fifth of all AF patients receive no anticoagulation. Warfarin use is complicated by a lack of access to effective monitoring services coupled with an unpredictable pharmacokinetic profile. The overuse of aspirin is associated with significant bleeding risks and reduced efficacy for stroke prevention in this patient group. The non-VKA oral anticoagulants (NOACbs) represent a potential means of overcoming many limitations associated with VKA and aspirin use, including a reduction in the need for monitoring and a reduced risk of hemorrhagic events. The ultimate decision of which anticoagulant drug to utilize in AF patients depends on a multitude of factors. More research is needed to appreciate the impact of these factors in the Latin American population and thereby reduce the burden of AF-associated stroke in this region. Resumo A fibrilação atrial (FA) é a arritmia cardíaca sustentada mais comum, com uma prevalência estimada de 1-2% na América do Norte e Europa. O aumento da prevalência da FA na América Latina está associado com o envelhecimento da população geral, juntamente com um mal controle dos principais fatores de risco, incluindo a hipertensão arterial. Como resultado, a prevalência do acidente

  3. [Control of diarrheal diseases in Mexico and Latin America].

    PubMed

    Mota, F; Pérez-Ricárdez, M L

    1989-05-01

    Oral rehydration therapy (ORT), has been considered the major advance in the treatment of the diarrheal diseases, and has been the single most important factor in the decrease of mortality and decreased morbidity in childhood diarrheal. ORT, is not limited to the administration of oral rehydration solution; it also includes feeding techniques and community education and participation. In order to promote ORT, national programs have been developed and promoted in educational centers in strategic areas of the Latin America countries, where medical and paramedical staff attend. In México there have been two national surveys to evaluate the ORT program. This policy has allowed for participating countries to reduce the cost of treatment of diarrheal disease.

  4. Petroleum in Latin America: Poised for political debottlenecking

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-28

    The 1980s are viewed as a lost decade' for Latin America by many economists and politicians. Industrialists, too, bemoan the underachievement of many goals that deprived them of financial opportunities. Some of the countries' most critical observers cite the waste of petrodollars and short-sighted management as having deprived populations of longer term benefits from their oil industries. Recent trends of political-economic restructuring, however, point to a brighter future. This issue reviews the above and details some changes in the petroleum industries of a few selected countries. This issue also presents the following: (1) the ED Refining Netback Data Series for the US Gulf and West Coasts, Rotterdam, and Singapore as of August 7, 1992; and (2) the ED Fuel Price/Tax Series for countries of the Western Hemisphere, August 1992 Edition.

  5. [Organ transplant. The legislative response in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Fuenzalida-Puelma, H L

    1990-01-01

    This study first examines the ethical and legal aspects of various regulations that govern the procurement and transplantation of organs in 16 countries of Latin America, and reviews the declarations formulated on the subject by the World Health Organization. It then goes on to discuss specific problems concerning postmortem and inter vivo organ donations. The issues cited in connection with the former include donor consent, determination of death, and conflicts of interest on the part of persons involved in donation procedures. The latter refer to such issues as donor consent and compensation, selection of the recipient and commercialization, as well as the international exchange of organs. It is concluded that these countries need to develop more comprehensive government legislations in order to ensure solution of the problems analyzed.

  6. Cervical cancer screening programs in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Murillo, Raul; Almonte, Maribel; Pereira, Ana; Ferrer, Elena; Gamboa, Oscar A; Jerónimo, José; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo

    2008-08-19

    Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) have a significant burden of cervical cancer. Prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines are an opportunity for primary prevention and new screening methods, such as new HPV DNA testing, are promising alternatives to cytology screening that should be analyzed in the context of regional preventive programs. Cytology-based screening programs have not fulfilled their expectations and coverage does not sufficiently explain the lack of impact on screening in LAC. While improved evaluation of screening programs is necessary to increase the impact of screening on the reduction of incidence and mortality, other programmatic aspects will need to be addressed such as follow-up of positive tests and quality control. The implementation of new technologies might enhance screening performance and reduce mortality in the region. The characteristics, performance and impact of cervical cancer screening programs in LAC are reviewed in this article.

  7. International health, the early cold war and Latin America.

    PubMed

    Cueto, Marcos

    2008-01-01

    This article offers a panoramic vision of the development of international health in Latin America during the late 1940s and the 1950s, when a series of bilateral and multilateral institutions, such as the World Health Organization and UNICEF, were founded and reshaped. The language, policies, and activities of these new institutional actors were heavily influenced by the context of the early Cold War between the era's superpowers: the United States and the Soviet Union. Vertical campaigns against yaws and malaria--implemented under the leadership of Fred L. Soper, director of the Pan American Sanitary Bureau--symbolized international health's technical orientation, as well as its contribution to the modernization of the countries of the region. The Cold War period has received little attention by historians of medicine, though it bears certain similarities to historiographical discussions of the relationship between tropical medicine and imperialism in the early 20th century.

  8. Cardiovascular disease in Latin America: the growing epidemic.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Lanas; Pamela, Serón; Alejandra, Lanas

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) produce almost a million deaths a year in Latin America (LA), becoming the main cause of death in the last years, and it is estimated that the number of deaths in the region attributable to CVD will increase in the near future. This new epidemic is a consequence of the demographic, economic and social changes observed in LA in recent years. Coronary heart disease and stroke causes 42.5% and 28.8%, respectively of the CVD mortality in the region. Chagas heart involvement and rheumatic heart disease, once a major health problem, are responsible of only 1% of the mortality each. Improving in socioeconomic status, increased life expectancy and high prevalence of risk factors for atherosclerosis have been the major determinants of this marked epidemiologic change.

  9. Income inequality, distributive fairness and political trust in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Zmerli, Sonja; Castillo, Juan Carlos

    2015-07-01

    In the wake of rising levels of income inequality during the past two decades, widespread concerns emerged about the social and political consequences of the widening gap between the poor and the rich that can be observed in many established democracies. Several empirical studies substantiate the link between macro-level income inequality and political attitudes and behavior, pointing at its broad and negative implications for political equality. Accordingly, these implications are expected to be accentuated in contexts of high inequality, as is the case in Latin America. Despite these general concerns about the consequences of income inequality, few studies have accounted for the importance of individual perceptions of distributive fairness in regard to trust in political institutions. Even less is known about the extent to which distributive fairness perceptions co-vary with objective indicators of inequality. Moreover, the research in this area has traditionally focused on OECD countries, which have lower indexes of inequality than the rest of the world. This study aims at filling this gap by focusing on the relevance of distributive fairness perceptions and macro-level inequality for political trust and on how these two levels interact in Latin American countries. The analyses are based on the Latinobarometer survey 2011, which consists of 18 countries. Multilevel estimations suggest that both dimensions of inequality are negatively associated with political trust but that higher levels of macro-level inequality attenuate rather than increase the strength of the negative association between distributive fairness perceptions and political trust.

  10. Penicillin resistance and serotyping of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Camargos, Paulo; Fischer, Gilberto Bueno; Mocelin, Helena; Dias, Cícero; Ruvinsky, Raúl

    2006-09-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae (Strep. pneumoniae) is the main cause of bacterial pneumonia in children less than 5 years of age, with high mortality rates in developing countries. In 1993, the Regional System for Vaccines Group (SIREVA) of the pan-American Health Organisation (PAHO) began a study involving six Latin American countries to identify serotypes and their representativity in the new conjugated vaccines, and to determine the degree of resistance to penicillin. Serotypes 14 (highest resistance level), 5, 1, 6A/B, 23F, 7F, 9V, 19F, 18C, 19A, 9N, were prevalent in the region, with some differences among countries. Although resistance to penicillin ranged from 2% (Brazil) to 21.1% (Mexico), studies have shown that pneumonia caused by Strep. pneumoniae with diminished sensitivity to penillin can be treated with this antibiotic. Only 58% of the serotypes isolated in the region studied were represented in the seven-valent vaccine. Continual surveillance is essential to determine which formulation of conjugated vaccine will be suitable for use in Latin America.

  11. Assessing Latin America's Progress Toward Achieving Universal Health Coverage.

    PubMed

    Wagstaff, Adam; Dmytraczenko, Tania; Almeida, Gisele; Buisman, Leander; Hoang-Vu Eozenou, Patrick; Bredenkamp, Caryn; Cercone, James A; Diaz, Yadira; Maceira, Daniel; Molina, Silvia; Paraje, Guillermo; Ruiz, Fernando; Sarti, Flavia; Scott, John; Valdivia, Martin; Werneck, Heitor

    2015-10-01

    Two commonly used metrics for assessing progress toward universal health coverage involve assessing citizens' rights to health care and counting the number of people who are in a financial protection scheme that safeguards them from high health care payments. On these metrics most countries in Latin America have already "reached" universal health coverage. Neither metric indicates, however, whether a country has achieved universal health coverage in the now commonly accepted sense of the term: that everyone--irrespective of their ability to pay--gets the health services they need without suffering undue financial hardship. We operationalized a framework proposed by the World Bank and the World Health Organization to monitor progress under this definition and then constructed an overall index of universal health coverage achievement. We applied the approach using data from 112 household surveys from 1990 to 2013 for all twenty Latin American countries. No country has achieved a perfect universal health coverage score, but some countries (including those with more integrated health systems) fare better than others. All countries except one improved in overall universal health coverage over the time period analyzed.

  12. The role of natural selection in human evolution - insights from Latin America.

    PubMed

    Salzano, Francisco M

    2016-01-01

    A brief introduction considering Darwin's work, the evolutionary synthesis, and the scientific biological field around the 1970s and subsequently, with the molecular revolution, was followed by selected examples of recent investigations dealing with the selection-drift controversy. The studies surveyed included the comparison between essential genes in humans and mice, selection in Africa and Europe, and the possible reasons why females in humans remain healthy and productive after menopause, in contrast with what happens in the great apes. At the end, selected examples of investigations performed in Latin America, related to the action of selection for muscle performance, acetylation of xenobiotics, high altitude and tropical forest adaptations were considered. Despite dissenting views, the influence of positive selection in a considerable portion of the human genome cannot presently be dismissed.

  13. The role of natural selection in human evolution – insights from Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Salzano, Francisco M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A brief introduction considering Darwin's work, the evolutionary synthesis, and the scientific biological field around the 1970s and subsequently, with the molecular revolution, was followed by selected examples of recent investigations dealing with the selection-drift controversy. The studies surveyed included the comparison between essential genes in humans and mice, selection in Africa and Europe, and the possible reasons why females in humans remain healthy and productive after menopause, in contrast with what happens in the great apes. At the end, selected examples of investigations performed in Latin America, related to the action of selection for muscle performance, acetylation of xenobiotics, high altitude and tropical forest adaptations were considered. Despite dissenting views, the influence of positive selection in a considerable portion of the human genome cannot presently be dismissed. PMID:27561111

  14. The First Report on the Medicinal Use of Fossils in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Moura, Geraldo Jorge Barbosa; Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

    2012-01-01

    There have been very few ethnopharmacological studies performed on the traditional use of fossil species, although a few records have been conducted in Asia, Africa, and Europe. This study is the first ever to be performed on the use of Testudine (turtle) fossils for folk medicine in Latin America. An investigation was conducted in the Araripe Basin, which is one of the most important fossil-bearing reserves in the world due to the diversity, endemism, and quality of preservation of its fossils. We propose the formalization of a new discipline called ethnopaleontology, which will involve the study of the dynamic relationship between humans and fossils, from human perception to direct use. PMID:21969843

  15. Cuanto vale Estudiar un Postgrado en America Latina? (How Much do Post-Graduate Studies Cost in Latin America?).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franco Arbelaez, Augusto

    This study, conducted by the Panamerican Association of Educational Credit Institutions (APICE), examined the cost of graduate education in nine Latin American countries. The study was intended to promote graduate and educational exchange within the region, as opposed to exchanges between Latin America and the United States or Europe. Institutions…

  16. The later evolution of modern sport in Latin America: the North American influence.

    PubMed

    Arbena, J L

    2001-01-01

    American impact on modern sports in Latin America overlaps geographically and chronologically with the European, especially British, impact. Principally baseball in the Caribbean basin, more recently basketball and volleyball across the hemisphere and occasionally American football in more limited areas illustrate a north-to-south movement executed by businessmen, educators, missionaries, military personnel, returning travelers (often students), sports entrepreneurs and television. Often initially supported by promoters of development within Latin America, this transfer has altered local recreational patterns and attracted Latin athletes to pursue careers in North America, provoking accusations of cultural imperialism and exploitation.

  17. The cost of diabetes in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    PubMed Central

    Barceló, Alberto; Aedo, Cristian; Rajpathak, Swapnil; Robles, Sylvia

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To measure the economic burden associated with diabetes mellitus in Latin America and the Caribbean. METHODS: Prevalence estimates of diabetes for the year 2000 were used to calculated direct and indirect costs of diabetes mellitus. Direct costs included costs due to drugs, hospitalizations, consultations and management of complications. The human capital approach was used to calculate indirect costs and included calculations of forgone earnings due to premature mortality and disability attributed to diabetes mellitus. Mortality and disability attributed to causes other than diabetes were subtracted from estimates to consider only the excess burden due to diabetes. A 3% discount rate was used to convert future earnings to current value. FINDINGS: The annual number of deaths in 2000 caused by diabetes mellitus was estimated at 339,035. This represented a loss of 757,096 discounted years of productive life among persons younger than 65 years (> billion US dollars). Permanent disability caused a loss of 12,699,087 years and over 50 billion US dollars, and temporary disability caused a loss of 136,701 years in the working population and over 763 million US dollars. Costs associated with insulin and oral medications were 4720 million US dollars, hospitalizations 1012 million US dollars, consultations 2508 million US dollars and care for complications 2,480 million US dollars. The total annual cost associated with diabetes was estimated as 65,216 million US dollars (direct 10,721 US dollars; indirect 54,496 US dollars). CONCLUSION: Despite limitations of the data, diabetes imposes a high economic burden to individuals and society in all countries and to Latin American and the Caribbean as whole. PMID:12640472

  18. Economic and demographic effects on working women in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Psaharopoulos, G; Tzannatos, Z

    1993-01-01

    This analysis of women's work conditions in Latin America includes a description of general trends in female labor force participation in 15 Latin American countries based on census data between 1950 and 1990. Also examined are pay differentials by gender and whether gender alone or individual characteristics of women workers accounted for the sex-wage gap. More extensive treatment is available in the author's other 1992 publications. Trends indicate that marriage and children were important factors determining whether women were in the labor force or not. The probability of being in the labor force was reduced by 50% for married women, and each child reduced the probability by 5%. When marriage and children were controlled for, age had a positive effect on probability of participation. Urban female heads of household had a positive effect on women's labor force participation. The higher a woman's educational qualification, the greater the probability of being in the work force. Earnings increased with increased educational level. An increase of 1 year of schooling for women contributed to an increase in female earnings of 13.1. Investment in education for women has a higher yield for women than for men. Policies that directly or indirectly improve women's employment opportunities, particularly when families are being formed, can have wide distributional effects. Also unresolved was an explanation for why female participation increased during periods of recession and why women are rewarded more for educational effort than men. The suggestion was that public sector employment, which included many women in the labor force, is distorting results.

  19. Applicability of the current hypertension guidelines in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Alcocer, Luis; Meaney, Eduardo; Hernandez-Hernandez, Hector

    2015-08-01

    Recent research has focused on the development of evidence-based guidelines that are intended to regulate the conduct of physicians in the diagnosis and control of hypertension, with the goal of achieving greater effectiveness and equity at the lowest possible cost. In Latin America, guidelines are available for the management of hypertension at three levels: national, regional and international. The national and regional Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) guidelines are in fact adaptations of the international guidelines. The potential benefit of applying guidelines developed in other regions to local healthcare decision making is that it will enable decision makers to take advantage of existing analyses and transfer or adapt them to their local contexts. However, this adaptation precludes the assessment of their generalizability and potential transferability. In addition, this region is characterized by wide socioeconomic differences between its inhabitants, both among and within nations. Therefore, new guidelines for the LAC region must include recommendations that are common to all hypertensive patients in the region. Moreover, we advocate the inclusion of a specific section that makes comprehensive recommendations and provides strategies for implementation according to the socioeconomic conditions of particular groups. In addition to developing guidelines that are truly applicable to the LAC region, it seems sensible to consider information that is specific to this region. Furthermore, developing evidence-based guidelines is not enough to affect positively the burden of disease caused by hypertension. Therefore, professional programs are required for the implementation of such guidelines as well as the auditing of their results. Achieving these ambitious goals will require collaborative efforts by many groups including policymakers, international organizations, healthcare providers, universities and society.

  20. The burden of hepatic encephalopathy in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Dávalos Moscol, Milagros; Bustios Sanchez, Carla

    2011-06-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a neuropsychiatric syndrome characterized by changes in cognitive function, behavior, and personality, as well as by transient neurological symptoms and electroencephalographic changes, which occur in the context of acute or chronic liver failure. Cirrhosis is the main disease associated to HE, and it is known that its incidence is increasing worldwide. As a cause of mortality, cirrhosis is ranked 14 worldwide, but 10 in developed countries. It has been demonstrated that the incidence of liver disease is increasing, in part because of the ascending prevalence of NAFLD, HCV, HCC, as well of alcohol consumption. The real incidence of cirrhosis in Latin America is unknown, although in some Latin American countries that provided national data, cirrhosis death rates were between 5 and 17/100,000 for men and 3 and 5/100,000 for women. Disability, quality of life, and social aspects should be considered when assessing the impact of a disease. In this context, preliminary estimates of the global burden of disease attributable to chronic liver disease seem to be substantial. Hepatic encephalopathy, a main complication of liver failure, occurs in 30-45% of patients as overt encephalopathy, but when subclinical or minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) is considered, estimates of the incidence of encephalopathy vary from 20 to 60%. In USA, the 2009 NIH Report on the Costs of Digestive Diseases stated that liver disease was the second most costly disease in direct and indirect costs (13.1 billion dollars). Although the economic cost of HE has not been assessed, it is obvious that the economic impact of HE on daily activities of living is extremely high, as the costs of diminished work performance and lost wages are substantial.

  1. Latin America's present and future challenges in toxicology education

    SciTech Connect

    Rojas, M. . E-mail: martini@telcel.net.ve

    2005-09-01

    Industrialization that Latin America has experienced during the past 50 years, the increase of population and the growth of chemical-related industries has generated a variety of environmental problems that must be addressed. After assessing these profound changes, greater emphasis should be placed on the study of environmental health and toxicology. Latin American countries face many problems that are common to other developing nations. Therefore, there is a demand for safety assessment and regulatory control of chemicals that create a need for increasing numbers of toxicologists. To meet this demand, educational programs in toxicology have to be designed. This paper utilizes a consultation questionnaire that includes toxicology-network members, scientists and educational institutions where toxicology is taught. An analysis of the information collected is made, with an emphasis on what we currently lack and on future challenges for toxicology professionals. Although the response from the study institutions was 65% (13 countries out of 20), the paper aims to assess the present situation of toxicology. The convenience for a certification/recognition for toxicologists is also evaluated. Action needs to be taken to promote scientific development based on regional specific needs that require increasing at the number of toxicology programs, and promoting of cooperation between academics and researchers. Among the limitations we have are the variability of curricula, objectives and priorities. The increasing globalization of markets and regulations requires the harmonization of graduate/postgraduate programs to ensure that risk assessment and management are dealt with uniformly. Cooperation among our countries and international assistance should play a more prominent role in the promotion of regional integration and the more efficient utilization of international experience in defining educational policies.

  2. [The foundation of international migration policies in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Marmora, L

    1988-12-01

    A government's international migration policies are intended to influence the size, composition, direction, destination, or integration of international migratory flows. The justification for migratory policies has been based on a series of themes that have had varied weights in different stages of Latin American history. Migrations as population settlement, the desired or undesired characteristics of migrants, the economic impact of migration, the role of migration in relations between countries, and the ethical dimensions of migratory movement have been the major policy issues. The 1st migration policies in Latin America saw international migration as a means of settling the colonies. After independence, migratory policies oriented toward massive settlement became common. Although the stated goals were to settle entire territories with immigrants, the usual result was to absorb immigrants in certain economic sectors with high demand for labor. In the colonial period both Spain and Portugal attempted to restrict immigration to the Catholic segment of their own populations. After independence, the criteria were liberalized somewhat but still reflected prejudices about the racial superiority of certain types of European immigration. The selection principals which appeared most clearly during the 19th century were overwhelmed to the extent that immigration was tranformed into provision of labor to meet unsatisfied needs for workers. Indiscriminate admissions and recourse to nontraditional elements such as Chinese and Japanese was strongest in countries needing labor for tropical agriculture or extractive industries. The economic argument that migration contributed to development was widespread economic argument that migration contributed to development was widespread in the 19th and early 20th centuries, but new rules were made to restrict immigration to protect local labor markets during the worldwide depression of the 1930s. In recent decades, migration policies

  3. First case of Mycobacterium heckeshornense cavitary lung disease in the Latin America and Caribbean region

    PubMed Central

    Coitinho, C.; Greif, G.; van Ingen, J.; Laserra, P.; Robello, C.; Rivas, C.

    2015-01-01

    A case of cavitary pulmonary disease caused by Mycobacterium heckeshornense in Uruguay is described. This is the first case reported in the Latin America and Caribbean region, showing that this species is a worldwide opportunistic human pathogen. PMID:26909156

  4. Globalizing the history of disease, medicine, and public health in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, Mariola

    2013-12-01

    The history of Latin America, the history of disease, medicine, and public health, and global history are deeply intertwined, but the intersection of these three fields has not yet attracted sustained attention from historians. Recent developments in the historiography of disease, medicine, and public health in Latin America suggest, however, that a distinctive, global approach to the topic is beginning to emerge. This essay identifies the distinguishing characteristic of this approach as an attentiveness to transfers of contagions, cures, and medical knowledge from Latin America to the rest of the world and then summarizes a few episodes that demonstrate its promise. While national as well as colonial and neocolonial histories of Latin America have made important contributions to our understanding, works taking the global approach have the potential to contribute more directly to the decentering of the global history of disease, medicine, and public health.

  5. The Impact of Neoliberal Restructuring on Education and Poverty in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boron, Atilio Alberto; Torres, Carlos Alberto

    1996-01-01

    Examines the widening gap between rich and poor in Latin America, and the troubling performance of new Latin American democracies. Reviews human-capital, neoconservative, neoliberal, functionalist, and social democratic theories about education and poverty. Presents eight theses about the state, poverty, and education, and calls for education to…

  6. Indigenous People and Poverty in Latin America: An Empirical Analysis. World Bank Regional and Sectoral Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Psacharopoulos, George, Ed.; Patrinos, Harry Anthony, Ed.

    The indigenous peoples of Latin America live in conditions of extreme poverty. This book uses empirical data from national survey sources to determine the extent of poverty among Latin American indigenous populations; to compare indigenous and nonindigenous populations with regard to socioeconomic status, living conditions, educational attainment,…

  7. The Rural Woman in Latin America: A Social Actor in the Past Decade (1975-1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Economic and Social Council, New York, NY.

    The status of women viewed against the background of the United Nations Decade for Women is examined with emphasis on the world context, the Latin American context, and the context of rural women in the region. It describes attempts at categorization of rural women in Latin America based on the main types of agricultural economy in the region and…

  8. The Major Project of Education in Latin America and the Caribbean: Bulletin 37.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Santiago (Chile). Regional Office for Education in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    This bulletin reports on educational reform efforts in specific Latin American countries and calls for policy makers to utilize research findings on education in their decision. Five articles are included: (1) "Education Reform in Latin America and the Caribbean: An Agenda for Action" (Ernesto Schiefelbein); (2) "Uruguayan High…

  9. Critical Perspectives on Women's Literacy Education in Latin America. Essay Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prins, Esther

    2001-01-01

    Reviews works on women's literacy education in Latin America by Fink (1992), Purcell-Gates and Waterman (2000), Stromquist (1995, 1997), and van der Westen (1994). Discusses the Latin American context, critical feminist approach to literacy, implementation of Freirean pedagogy, outcomes and benefits, and gaps in the literature. (Contains 17…

  10. From Proposal to Policy: Social Movements and Teachers' Unions in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finger, Leslie; Gindin, Julián

    2015-01-01

    Latin American teachers' unions have stepped into the policymaking sphere and shaped education policies unrelated to regular workplace priorities like salaries and class sizes at notable moments. The literature on teachers' unions in Latin America has not addressed this, tending to focus instead on those unions' history and role in social…

  11. US Policy in Latin America: It Matters at Home

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-01-01

    new boom. . . Five of the six fastest rising stock markets in the world (in 199 I) were Latin American” 1 It clearly appeared that success m Latin...of Latin Arnerxa, our major interests in the region include: access to Latin American economx markets , protectron of American investments in the...nearly $80 billion of goods and servrces to our neighbors m the southern hemrsphere It remans the only rsgron of thz world where the L’S envoys a

  12. Participatory Research in North America; A Perspective on Participatory Research in Latin America; Participatory Research in Southern Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaventa, John; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The authors present perspectives on the employment of participatory research techniques in three areas: (1) North America (Gaventa); (2) Latin America (de Souza); and (3) Southern Europe (Orefice). Discussion focuses on participatory research strategies for popular groups, purposes and considerations regarding participatory research, and the role…

  13. Indigenous People and Development in Latin America: A Literature Survey and Recommendations. Latin American Monograph & Document Series 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roper, J. Montgomery; Frechione, John; DeWalt, Billie R.

    This report presents findings and conclusions gleaned from a review of 42 cases of indigenous development in Latin America. Findings indicate that the lack of a legal framework for indigenous rights presents a basic obstacle to indigenous self-development; the most common aspect of successful indigenous development was involvement of indigenous…

  14. Considerations for Integrating Technology in Developing Communities in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponte, Daniela Núñez; Cullen, Theresa A.

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses issues related to introducing new information and communication technologies (ICT) into Latin American countries. Latin American countries are gaining world focus with political changes such as the death of Hugo Chavez in Venezuela and the election of the first Latin American Pope. This region will host the World Cup,…

  15. [Recommendations for the diagnosis of candidemia in Latin America. Grupo Proyecto Épico].

    PubMed

    Colombo, Arnaldo Lopes; Cortes, Jorge Alberto; Zurita, Jeannete; Guzman-Blanco, Manuel; Alvarado Matute, Tito; de Queiroz Telles, Flavio; Santolaya, María E; Tiraboschi, Iris Nora; Echevarría, Juan; Sifuentes, Jose; Thompson-Moya, Luis; Nucci, Marcio

    2013-01-01

    Candidemia is one of the most frequent opportunistic mycoses worldwide. Limited epidemiological studies in Latin America indicate that incidence rates are higher in this region than in the Northern Hemisphere. Diagnosis is often made late in the infection, affecting the initiation of antifungal therapy. A more scientific approach, based on specific parameters, for diagnosis and management of candidemia in Latin America is warranted. 'Recommendations for the diagnosis and management of candidemia' are a series of manuscripts that have been developed by members of the Latin America Invasive Mycosis Network. They aim to provide a set of best-evidence recommendations for the diagnosis and management of candidemia. This publication, 'Recommendations for the diagnosis of candidemia in Latin America', was written to provide guidance to healthcare professionals on the diagnosis of candidemia, as well as on the usefulness and application of susceptibility testing in patients who have a confirmed diagnosis of candidemia. Computerized searches of existing literature were performed by PubMed. The data were extensively reviewed and analyzed by members of the group. The group also met on two occasions to pose questions, discuss conflicting views, and deliberate on a series of management recommendations. 'Recommendations for the diagnosis of candidemia in Latin America' includes diagnostic methods used to detect candidemia, Candida species identification, and susceptibility testing. The availability of methods, their costs and treatment settings are considered. This manuscript is the first of this series that deals with diagnosis and treatment of invasive candidiasis. Other publications in this series include: 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in adults in Latin America', 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in children in Latin America', and 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in neonates in Latin America'.

  16. [Recommendations for the management of candidemia in adults in Latin America. Grupo Proyecto Épico].

    PubMed

    Nucci, Marcio; Thompson-Moya, Luis; Guzman-Blanco, Manuel; Tiraboschi, Iris Nora; Cortes, Jorge Alberto; Echevarría, Juan; Sifuentes, Jose; Zurita, Jeannete; Santolaya, María E; Alvarado Matute, Tito; de Queiroz Telles, Flavio; Colombo, Arnaldo Lopes

    2013-01-01

    Candidemia is one of the most frequent opportunistic mycoses worldwide. Limited epidemiological studies in Latin America indicate that incidence rates are higher in this region than in the Northern Hemisphere. Diagnosis is often made late in the infection, affecting the initiation of antifungal therapy. A more scientific approach, based on specific parameters, for diagnosis and management of candidemia in Latin America is warranted. 'Recommendations for the diagnosis and management of candidemia' are a series of manuscripts that have been developed by members of the Latin America Invasive Mycosis Network. They aim to provide a set of best-evidence recommendations for the diagnosis and management of candidemia. This publication, 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in adults in Latin America', was written to provide guidance to healthcare professionals on the management of adults who have, or who are at risk of, candidemia. Computerized searches of existing literature were performed by PubMed. The data were extensively reviewed and analyzed by members of the group. The group also met on two occasions to pose questions, discuss conflicting views, and deliberate on a series of management recommendations. 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in adults in Latin America' includes prophylaxis, empirical therapy, therapy for proven candidemia, patient work-up following diagnosis of candidemia, duration of candidemia treatment, and central venous catheter management in patients with candidemia. This manuscript is the second of this series that deals with diagnosis and treatment of invasive candidiasis. Other publications in this series include: 'Recommendations for the diagnosis of candidemia in Latin America', 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in children in Latin America', and 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in neonates in Latin America'.

  17. [Recommendations for the management of candidemia in neonates in Latin America. Grupo Proyecto Épico].

    PubMed

    Santolaya, María E; Alvarado Matute, Tito; de Queiroz Telles, Flavio; Colombo, Arnaldo Lopes; Zurita, Jeannete; Tiraboschi, Iris Nora; Cortes, Jorge Alberto; Thompson-Moya, Luis; Guzman-Blanco, Manuel; Sifuentes, Jose; Echevarría, Juan; Nucci, Marcio

    2013-01-01

    Candidemia is one of the most frequent opportunistic mycoses worldwide. Limited epidemiological studies in Latin America indicate that incidence rates are higher in this region than in the Northern Hemisphere. Diagnosis is often made late in the infection, affecting the initiation of antifungal therapy. A more scientific approach, based on specific parameters, for diagnosis and management of candidemia in Latin America is warranted. 'Recommendations for the diagnosis and management of candidemia' are a series of manuscripts that have been developed by members of the Latin America Invasive Mycosis Network. They aim to provide a set of best-evidence recommendations for the diagnosis and management of candidemia. This publication, 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in neonates in Latin America', was written to provide guidance to healthcare professionals on the management of neonates who have, or who are at risk of, candidemia. Computerized searches of existing literature were performed by PubMed. The data were extensively reviewed and analyzed by members of the group. The group also met on two occasions to pose questions, discuss conflicting views, and deliberate on a series of management recommendations. 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in neonates in Latin America' includes prophylaxis, empirical therapy, therapy for proven candidemia, patient work-up following diagnosis of candidemia, central venous catheter management, and management of complications. This manuscript is the fourth of this series that deals with diagnosis and treatment of invasive candidiasis. Other publications in this series include: 'Recommendations for the diagnosis of candidemia in Latin America', 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in adults in Latin America', and 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in children in Latin America'.

  18. [Recommendations for the management of candidemia in children in Latin America. Grupo Proyecto Épico].

    PubMed

    Santolaya, María E; de Queiroz Telles, Flavio; Alvarado Matute, Tito; Colombo, Arnaldo Lopes; Zurita, Jeannete; Tiraboschi, Iris Nora; Cortes, Jorge Alberto; Thompson-Moya, Luis; Guzman-Blanco, Manuel; Sifuentes, Jose; Echevarría, Juan; Nucci, Marcio

    2013-01-01

    Candidemia is one of the most frequent opportunistic mycoses worldwide. Limited epidemiological studies in Latin America indicate that incidence rates are higher in this region than in the Northern Hemisphere. Diagnosis is often made late in the infection, affecting the initiation of antifungal therapy. A more scientific approach, based on specific parameters, for diagnosis and management of candidemia in Latin America is warranted. 'Recommendations for the diagnosis and management of candidemia' are a series of manuscripts that have been developed by members of the Latin America Invasive Mycosis Network. They aim to provide a set of best-evidence recommendations for the diagnosis and management of candidemia. This publication, 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in children in Latin America', was written to provide guidance to healthcare professionals on the management of children who have, or who are at risk of, candidemia. Computerized searches of existing literature were performed by PubMed. The data were extensively reviewed and analyzed by members of the group. The group also met on two occasions to pose questions, discuss conflicting views, and deliberate on a series of management recommendations. 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in children in Latin America' includes prophylaxis, empirical therapy, therapy for proven candidemia, patient work-up following diagnosis of candidemia, duration of candidemia treatment, and central venous catheter management in children with candidemia. This manuscript is the third of this series that deals with diagnosis and treatment of invasive candidiasis. Other publications in this series include: 'Recommendations for the diagnosis of candidemia in Latin America', 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in adults in Latin America', and 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in neonates in Latin America'.

  19. WE-AB-213-02: Status of Medical Physics Collaborations, and Projects in Latin America

    SciTech Connect

    Guzman, S.

    2015-06-15

    AAPM projects and collaborations in Africa Adam Shulman (AA-SC Chair) The African Affairs Subcommittee (AA-SC) of the AAPM will present a multi-institutional approach to medical physics support in Africa. Current work to increase the quality of care and level of safety for the medical physics practice in Senegal, Ghana, and Zimbabwe will be presented, along with preliminary projects in Nigeria and Botswana. Because the task of addressing the needs of medical physics in countries across Africa is larger than one entity can accomplish on its own, the AA-SC has taken the approach of joining forces with multiple organizations such as Radiating Hope and TreatSafely (NGO’s), the IAEA, companies like BrainLab, Varian and Elekta, medical volunteers and academic institutions such as NYU and Washington University. Elements of current projects include: 1) Distance training and evaluation of the quality of contouring and treatment planning, teaching treatment planning and other subjects, and troubleshooting using modern telecommunications technology in Senegal, Ghana, and Zimbabwe; 2) Assistance in the transition from 2D to 3D in Senegal and Zimbabwe; 3) Assistance in the transition from 3D to IMRT using in-house compensators in Senegal; 4) Modernizing the cancer center in Senegal and increasing safety and; 5) Training on on 3D techniques in Ghana; 6) Assisting a teaching and training radiation oncology center to be built in Zimbabwe; 7) Working with the ISEP Program in Sub-Saharan Africa; 8) Creating instructional videos on linac commissioning; 9) Working on a possible collaboration to train physicists in Nigeria. Building on past achievements, the subcommittee seeks to make a larger impact on the continent, as the number and size of projects increases and more human resources become available. The State of Medical Physics Collaborations and Projects in Latin America Sandra Guzman (Peru) The lack of Medical Physicists (MP) in many Latin American (LA) countries leads to

  20. Burden of allergic rhinitis: allergies in America, Latin America, and Asia-Pacific adult surveys.

    PubMed

    Meltzer, Eli O; Blaiss, Michael S; Naclerio, Robert M; Stoloff, Stuart W; Derebery, M Jennifer; Nelson, Harold S; Boyle, John M; Wingertzahn, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR; also nasal allergies or "hay fever") is a chronic upper airway inflammatory disease that affects ∼60 million adults and children in the United States. The duration and severity of AR symptoms contribute to a substantial burden on patients' quality of life (QoL), sleep, work productivity, and activity. This study was designed to examine symptoms, QoL, productivity, comorbidities, disease management, and pharmacologic treatment of AR in United States and ex-U.S. sufferers. Allergies in America was a comprehensive telephone-based survey of 2500 adults with AR. These data are compared and contrasted with findings from the Pediatric Allergies in America, Allergies in Latin America, and Allergies in Asia-Pacific telephone surveys. The prevalence of physician-diagnosed AR was 14% in U.S. adults, 7% in Latin America adults, and 9% in Asia-Pacific adults. Nasal congestion is the most common and bothersome symptom for adults. Approximately two-thirds of adults rely on medication to relieve intolerable AR symptoms. Incomplete relief, slow onset, <24-hour relief, and reduced efficacy with sustained use were commonly reported with AR medications, including intranasal corticosteroids. One in seven U.S. adults reported achieving little to no relief with AR medications. Bothersome adverse effects of AR medications included drowsiness, a drying feeling, medication dripping down the throat, and bad taste. Perception of inadequate efficacy was the leading cause of medication discontinuation or change and contributed to treatment dissatisfaction. These findings support the assertion that AR burden has been substantially underestimated and identify several important challenges to successful management of AR.

  1. Changing patterns of migration in Latin America: how can research develop intelligence for public health?

    PubMed

    Cabieses, Baltica; Tunstall, Helena; Pickett, Kate E; Gideon, Jasmine

    2013-07-01

    Migration patterns in Latin America have changed significantly in recent decades, particularly since the onset of global recession in 2007. These recent economic changes have highlighted and exacerbated the weakness of evidence from Latin America regarding migration-a crucial determinant of health. Migration patterns are constantly evolving in Latin America, but research on migration has not developed at the same speed. This article focuses on the need for better understanding of the living conditions and health of migrant populations in Latin America within the context of the recent global recession. The authors explain how new data on migrant well-being could be obtained through improved evidence from censuses and ongoing research surveys to 1) better inform policy-makers about the needs of migrant populations in Latin America and 2) help determine better ways of reaching undocumented immigrants. Longitudinal studies on immigrants in Latin America are essential for generating a better representation of migrant living conditions and health needs during the initial stages of immigration and over time. To help meet this need, the authors support the promotion of sustainable sources of data and evidence on the complex relationship between migration and health.

  2. Improving mental and neurological health research in Latin America: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Fiestas, Fabián; Gallo, Carla; Poletti, Giovanni; Bustamante, Inés; Alarcón, Renato D; Mari, Jair J; Razzouk, Denise; Olifson, Sylvie; Mazzotti, Guido

    2009-01-01

    Background Research evidence is essential to inform policies, interventions and programs, and yet research activities in mental and neurological (MN) health have been largely neglected, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Many challenges have been identified in the production and utilization of research evidence in Latin American countries, and more work is needed to overcome this disadvantageous situation. This study aims to address the situation by identifying initiatives that could improve MN health research activities and implementation of their results in the Latin American region. Methods Thirty-four MN health actors from 13 Latin American countries were interviewed as part of an initiative by the Global Forum for Health Research and the World Health Organization to explore the status of MN health research in low- and middle-income countries in Africa, Asia and Latin-America. Results A variety of recommendations to increase MN health research activities and implementation of their results emerged in the interviews. These included increasing skilled human resources in MN health interventions and research, fostering greater participation of stakeholders in the generation of research topics and projects, and engendering the interest of national and international institutions in important MN health issues and research methodologies. In the view of most participants, government agencies should strive to have research results inform the decision-making process in which they are involved. Thus these agencies would play a key role in facilitating and funding research. Participants also pointed to the importance of academic recognition and financial rewards in attracting professionals to primary and translational research in MN health. In addition, they suggested that institutions should create intramural resources to provide researchers with technical support in designing, carrying out and disseminating research, including resources to improve

  3. Global Warming and Food Insecurity in Rural Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, T. R.; Byrne, J. M.; McDaniel, S.

    2012-12-01

    Food insecurity is one of the most important challenges facing humanity in the 21st century - a challenge that will be further exacerbated by the changing climate. The effects of human induced climate change will be most disproportionate and severe in the developing world, where a stable food supply, decreased purchasing power, and adequate nutrition are often already a daily struggle. This study will build on work done by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations (UN), and will assess how vulnerability to household food insecurity will be affected by global warming in various rural parts of Latin America. Temperature data from downscaled Global Circulation Models (GCM) will be used in conjunction with the results of national household surveys to generate information on each rural farming household's probability of falling below a food poverty threshold in the near future. The results of the study will allow us to distinguish between households that are likely to experience chronic food insecurity and those that are likely to experience transitory food insecurity, permitting for improved targeting of policy responses.

  4. Human rights and the right to abortion in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Zúñiga-Fajuri, Alejandra

    2014-03-01

    The scope of this study is to question the fact that in some countries in Latin America (Chile, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Honduras and the Dominican Republic) abortion is still forbidden in all situations. Even after all the debate on this thorny issue, the theory of human rights is not often used in the defense of abortion. This is clearly related to the pervasive, albeit unspoken belief that, due to their condition, pregnant women inherently lose their full human rights and should surrender and even give up their lives in favor of the unborn child. This article seeks to show that an adequate reading of the theory of human rights should include abortion rights through the first two trimesters of pregnancy, based on the fact that basic liberties can only be limited for the sake of liberty itself. It also seeks to respond to those who maintain that the abortion issue cannot be resolved since the exact point in the development of the embryo that distinguishes legitimate from illegitimate abortion cannot be determined. There are strong moral and scientific arguments for an approach capable of reducing uncertainty and establishing the basis for criminal law reforms that focus on the moral importance of trimester laws.

  5. InSAR observations of active volcanoes in Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales Rivera, A. M.; Chaussard, E.; Amelung, F.

    2012-12-01

    Over the last decade satellite-based interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) has developed into a well-known technique to gauge the status of active volcanoes. The InSAR technique can detect the ascent of magma to shallow levels of the volcanic plumbing system because new arriving magma pressurizes the system. This is likely associated with the inflation of the volcanic edifice and the surroundings. Although the potential of InSAR to detect magma migration is well known, the principal limitation was that only for few volcanoes frequent observations were acquired. The ALOS-1 satellite of the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) acquired a global L-band data set of 15-20 acquisitions during 2006-2011. Here we use ALOS InSAR and Small Baseline (SB) time-series methods for a ground deformation survey of Latin America with emphasis on the northern Andes. We present time-dependent ground deformation data for the volcanoes in Colombia, Ecuador and Peru and interpret the observations in terms of the dynamics of the volcanic systems.

  6. [New technologies: needs and challenges in radiotherapy in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Castellanos, María Esperanza

    2006-01-01

    The cumulative experience gathered over more than a century of practice of radiotherapy has demonstrated the latter's importance not only for the palliative treatment of a fraction of cancer cases, but mainly for the curative treatment of an even greater proportion of such cases. In light of the changes in technology, the ever-increasing access developing countries to such technology, and its current coverage in Latin America, any efforts in this area should be aimed at improving the quality of the radiotherapy services and centers that are already in place. This involves developing their technological assets to the fullest, expanding their services, and complying with the minimum quality requirements established for second-level facilities. Each center should be equipped to carry out all stages of the radiotherapy process, from simulation through treatment verification and patient follow-up, with a high level of quality (level 2). To achieve this, it should possess the necessary technology and properly-trained staff that are required for the purpose. Collaborative efforts in the Region should also prioritize helping countries implement national treatment standards for all stages of the radiotherapy process and promoting the implementation of validated quality assurance programs.

  7. Investigation of Remotely Triggered Tremor and Earthquakes in Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Huizar, H.; Velasco, A. A.

    2014-12-01

    It has been shown that non-volcanic tremor (NVT) as well as small to moderate size earthquakes can be triggered by the seismic waves from distant earthquakes; however, little is understood about the triggering mechanisms. Investigating cases of remote triggering offers the opportunity to improve our knowledge about the physical mechanisms of earthquake interaction and nucleation. Furthermore, the similarities observed between remotely triggered NVT and those related to slow slip events, suggest that investigating triggered NVT may give us important insights into the mechanisms involved in slow slip events and their potential role in the earthquake cycle. In this work we present new results and the techniques we employ in identifying, locating and modeling cases of triggered earthquakes and NVT in Latin America and the Caribbean. In particular, we use global and regional seismic networks to perform an intensive search for triggered seismicity in Mexico, Cuba, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, and Chile. Our results suggest that seismicity can be triggered in a broad variety of tectonic environments, depending strongly on the triggering dynamic stress amplitude and orientation. This investigation will help to define the regions where remote triggering occurs and their susceptibility to undergo an important increase in seismicity after the occurrence of a distant large earthquake.

  8. Investigation of Triggered Non-Volcanic Tremor in Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Huizar, H.; Velasco, A. A.; Ruiz, M.; Minaya, E.; Moreno Toiran, B.; Castro, R. R.; Peng, Z.; Talavera, E.; Escudero, C. R.; García, L. C.; Quiroz, W.

    2013-05-01

    Non-volcanic tremor (NVT) is an episodic, small amplitude, non impulsive and high-frequency seismic signal that occurs just beneath the seismogenic zones of large faults. Little is understood about the processes that generate NVT, and little can be assessed about its potential role in the earthquake cycle. The similarities observed between remotely triggered NVT and slow slip events suggest that investigating triggered NVT may give us important insights into the mechanism evolved in slow slip events. Furthermore, understanding the physics behind triggered NVT may also improve our understanding of the physics of earthquake triggering. Thus, investigating triggered NVT constitutes an important tool for studying these and other related phenomena. In this work we present some of the results and techniques we employ in identifying potential cases of triggered NVT in Latin America. We use global and regional seismic networks to perform an intensive search of triggered NVT in Mexico, Cuba, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia and Chile. Our results suggest that NVT can be dynamically triggered in a broad variety of tectonic environments, depending strongly on the dynamic stress amplitude and orientation. Investigating remotely triggered tremor offers the opportunity to improve our knowledge about deformation mechanisms and the physics of rupture.

  9. Spent sealed radium sources conditioning in Latin America

    SciTech Connect

    Mourao, R.P.

    1999-06-01

    The management of spent sealed sources is considered by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) one of the greatest challenges faced by nuclear authorities today, especially in developing countries. One of the Agency`s initiatives to tackle this problem is the Spent Radium Sources Conditioning Project, a worldwide project relying on the regional co-operation between countries. A team from the Brazilian nuclear research institute Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN) was chosen as the expert team to carry out the operations in Latin America; since December 1996 radium sources have been safely conditioned in Uruguay, Nicaragua, Guatemala, Ecuador and Paraguay. A Quality Assurance Program was established, encompassing the qualification of the capsule welding process, written operational procedures referring to all major steps of the operation, calibration of monitors and information retrievability. A 200L carbon steel drum-based packaging concept was used to condition the sources, its cavity being designed to receive the lead shield device containing stainless steel capsules with the radium sources. As a result of these operations, a total amount of 2,897 mg of needles, tubes, medical applicators, standard sources for calibration, lightning rods, secondary wastes and contaminated objects were stored in proper conditions and are now under control of the nuclear authorities of the visited countries.

  10. A Selective Annotated Guide to Materials on Latin America Suitable for Use at the Secondary School Level. Latin American Studies Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamieson, Alfred

    This selective annotated bibliography is designed to provide reference materials on Latin America that are useful at the secondary level. The guide includes materials on traditionally ignored areas of study, and reflects, as much as possible, an awareness of the problem of relevance and reality in Latin America, in social studies education, and in…

  11. Clinical and economic burden of pneumonia among adults in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Isturiz, Raul E; Luna, Carlos M; Ramirez, Julio

    2010-10-01

    The clinical and economic burden of adult community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in Latin America is not well known. We conducted a literature review to describe the etiology, incidence, hospitalization, morbidity and mortality, antibiotic resistance, costs associated with care, and the potential benefits of pneumococcal vaccination in the reduction of adult CAP in Latin America. Data that were published during the period from January 1970 through August 2008 were identified via the Web sites and databases of the Pan American Health Organization, Latin American health agencies, and the US National Institutes of Health, National Library of Medicine (MEDLINE). Streptococcus pneumoniae was identified as the most common pathogen, accounting for up to 35% of CAP cases. The mean rate of CAP due to penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae was 39%. The mortality in Latin America due to lower respiratory tract infections has been reported to be 6%, compared with 4% in developed regions, and CAP was the third most frequent cause of death in adults in 31 Latin American countries in 2001-2003. Although S. pneumoniae caused the majority of CAP, similar to other regions of the world, mortality due to CAP in Latin America was substantially greater than that in developed countries. This review demonstrates the need to facilitate standardized surveillance and reporting systems to monitor the burden of CAP and to implement prevention strategies to decrease the clinical and economic burden of CAP in Latin American adults.

  12. [Changes in the patterns of food consumption in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Tagle, M A

    1988-09-01

    Food consumption patterns have suffered important although not generalized changes in recent years. A series of factors favor these changes, such as variations in family income, rural-urban migration, increase of tertiary activities related to foods, and exposure to commercial propaganda. All of these factors, when compared among them, do not have the same impact or validity. Thus, while the first two induce changes in the food pattern, the last two guide the consumer to certain food products. Modernization of the food pattern in Latin America and the Caribbean has been inspired by the USA food pattern of the previous decade, which from the nutritional and economic points of view, does not prove to be desirable. The average USA diet is rich in both saturated and mono- and polyunsaturated fats, as well as in refined sugar and all types of additives. It is poor in carbohydrates, particular in those of the complex type; most of its protein is of animal origin. It may also be rich in salt and poor in fiber, as it is made up by well-diversified industrialized foods in their presentation, manufactured and marketed by a highly industrialized production-distribution capitalized structure. The adopted model is not in correspondence with out countries' natural resources; it produces a displacement of the consumption patterns based on autochthonous and/or traditional components, and induces an increase in food imports. Since Latin American countries are of poor economic resources, and the model renders expensive products, these are absorbed by the socioeconomic group able to pay for them and/or--intermittently--as a high-cost product by calorie delivered, by the poor groups who are most in need, a situation which would imply serious damage on the quality and quantity of their diet. Changes in food habits and in food consumption patterns are related to a certain socio-demographic process which cannot be stopped. Consequently, this process should be carefully analyzed and

  13. [Intellectual exchange between Germany and Latin America: an interview with Stefan Rinke].

    PubMed

    Rinke, Stefan; da Silva, André Felipe Cândido; Junghans, Miriam; Cavalcanti, Juliana Manzoni; de Muñoz, Pedro Felipe Neves

    2014-01-01

    Current and former students of the Casa de Oswaldo Cruz/Fiocruz interviewed German historian Stefan Rinke, of the Freie Universität Berlin, who specializes in examining the historical development of Latin America as it fits into the international context. Rinke's work uses dimensions such as economic and diplomatic relations, migratory flows, and ethnic conflict as tools in his analyses of the networks of interdependence that have tied Latin America to Europe and the USA. His lens goes beyond the Latin American continent to approach globalization as a historical process, with national and regional contexts placed within a general framework. In this interview, Rinke talks about his academic career, global and transnational history, and joint projects between Germany and Latin America.

  14. Review on space weather in Latin America. 1. The beginning from space science research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denardini, Clezio Marcos; Dasso, Sergio; Gonzalez-Esparza, J. Americo

    2016-11-01

    The present work is the first of a three-part review on space weather in Latin America. It comprises the evolution of several Latin American institutions investing in space science since the 1960s, focusing on the solar-terrestrial interactions, which today is commonly called space weather. Despite recognizing advances in space research in all of Latin America, this review is restricted to the development observed in three countries in particular (Argentina, Brazil and Mexico), due to the fact that these countries have recently developed operational centers for monitoring space weather. The review starts with a brief summary of the first groups to start working with space science in Latin America. This first part of the review closes with the current status and the research interests of these groups, which are described in relation to the most significant works and challenges of the next decade in order to aid in the solving of space weather open issues.

  15. Training the biomedical informatics workforce in Latin America: results of a needs assessment

    PubMed Central

    Blas, Magaly M; Curioso, Walter H; Zimic, Mirko; Carcamo, Cesar P; Castagnetto, Jesus M; Lescano, Andres G; Lopez, Diego M

    2011-01-01

    Objective To report the results of a needs assessment of research and training in Medical Informatics (MI) and Bioinformatics (BI) in Latin America. Methods and results This assessment was conducted by QUIPU: The Andean Global Health Informatics Research and Training Center. After sending email invitations to MI–BI related professionals from Latin America, 142 surveys were received from 11 Latin American countries. The following were the top four ranked MI-related courses that a training programme should include: introduction to biomedical informatics; data representation and databases; mobile health; and courses that address issues of security, confidentiality and privacy. Several new courses and topics for research were suggested by survey participants. The information collected is guiding the development of curricula and a research agenda for the MI and BI QUIPU multidisciplinary programme for the Andean Region and Latin America. PMID:22080537

  16. Internationalisation in Higher Education in Latin America: Policies and Practice in Colombia and Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Caroline; Taylor, John

    2014-01-01

    There is now an extensive literature about internationalisation in higher education. However, much of the research relates to North America and Europe. This paper is concerned with internationalisation in Latin America and seeks to consider perceptions and experiences in Colombia and Mexico, and to compare practice in the public and private…

  17. Bibliometric analysis of Oropouche research: impact on the surveillance of emerging arboviruses in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Culquichicón, Carlos; Cardona-Ospina, Jaime A.; Patiño-Barbosa, Andrés M.; Rodriguez-Morales, Alfonso J.

    2017-01-01

    Given the emergence and reemergence of viral diseases, particularly in Latin America, we would like to provide an analysis of the patterns of research and publication on Oropouche virus (OROV). We also discuss the implications of recent epidemics in certain areas of South America, and how more clinical and epidemiological information regarding OROV is urgently needed. PMID:28357048

  18. Some Phases of Educational Progress in Latin America. Bulletin, 1919, No. 59

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Walter A.

    1920-01-01

    This bulletin discusses the phases of educational progress in Latin America. The following topic areas are covered: (1) Central America (practical education; Guatemala; Salvador; Honduras; Costa Rica; Nicaragua; Panama); (2) British Guiana (new school regulation); (3) Argentina (preliminary; illiteracy; report of National Council of Education;…

  19. Improvement of IDC/CTBTO Event Locations in Latin America and the Caribbean Using a Regional Seismic Travel Time Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Given, J. W.; Guendel, F.

    2013-05-01

    The International Data Centre is a vital element of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) verification mechanism. The fundamental mission of the International Data Centre (IDC) is to collect, process, and analyze monitoring data and to present results as event bulletins to Member States. For the IDC and in particular for waveform technologies, a key measure of the quality of its products is the accuracy by which every detected event is located. Accurate event location is crucial for purposes of an On Site Inspection (OSI), which would confirm the conduct of a nuclear test. Thus it is important for the IDC monitoring and data analysis to adopt new processing algorithms that improve the accuracy of event location. Among them the development of new algorithms to compute regional seismic travel times through 3-dimensional models have greatly increased IDC's location precision, the reduction of computational time, allowing forward and inverse modeling of large data sets. One of these algorithms has been the Regional Seismic Travel Time model (RSTT) of Myers et al., (2011). The RSTT model is nominally a global model; however, it currently covers only North America and Eurasia in sufficient detail. It is the intention CTBTO's Provisional Technical Secretariat and the IDC to extend the RSTT model to other regions of the earth, e.g. Latin America-Caribbean, Africa and Asia. This is particularly important for the IDC location procedure, as there are regions of the earth for which crustal models are not well constrained. For this purpose IDC has launched a RSTT initiative. In May 2012, a technical meeting was held in Vienna under the auspices of the CTBTO. The purpose of this meeting was to invite National Data Centre experts as well as network operators from Africa, Europe, the Middle East, Asia, Australia, Latin and North America to discuss the context under which a project to extend the RSTT model would be implemented. A total of 41 participants from 32 Member States

  20. Antiretroviral adherence during pregnancy and postpartum in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Kreitchmann, Regis; Harris, D Robert; Kakehasi, Fabiana; Haberer, Jessica E; Cahn, Pedro; Losso, Marcelo; Teles, Elizabete; Pilotto, Jose H; Hofer, Cristina B; Read, Jennifer S

    2012-08-01

    Adherence to antiretrovirals by pregnant women (and postpartum women if breastfeeding) is crucial to effectively decrease maternal viral load and decrease the risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV. Our objectives were to describe self-reported adherence to antiretrovirals during the antepartum (after 22 weeks of pregnancy) and postpartum periods (6-12 weeks and 6 months), and identify predictors of adherence among HIV-infected women enrolled and followed in a prospective cohort study from June 2008 to June 2010 at multiple sites in Latin America. Adherence was evaluated using the number of missed and expected doses during the 3 days before the study visit. At the pre-delivery visit, 340 of 376 women (90%) reported perfect adherence. This rate significantly decreased by 6-12 weeks (171/214 [80%]) and 6 months postpartum (163/199 [82%], p<0.01). The odds for less than perfect adherence at the pre-delivery visit was significantly higher for pregnant women with current tobacco use (odds ratio [OR]=2.9, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.46-6.14; p=0.0029). At 6-12 weeks postpartum, the probability of non-perfect adherence increased by 6% for each 1 year increase in age (OR=1.06, 95% CI: 1.00-1.12, p=0.0497). At 6 months postpartum, the odds of nonperfect adherence was higher for those who were currently using alcohol (OR=3.04, 95% CI: 1.34-6.90; p=0.0079). Although a self-report measure of adherence based on only 3 days may lead to overestimation of actual adherence over time, women with perfect adherence had lower viral loads and higher CD4 counts. Adherence to antiretrovirals decreased significantly postpartum. Interventions should target women at high risk for lower adherence during pregnancy and postpartum, including tobacco and alcohol users.

  1. Antiretroviral Adherence During Pregnancy and Postpartum in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Harris, D. Robert; Kakehasi, Fabiana; Haberer, Jessica E.; Cahn, Pedro; Losso, Marcelo; Teles, Elizabete; Pilotto, Jose H.; Hofer, Cristina B.; Read, Jennifer S.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Adherence to antiretrovirals by pregnant women (and postpartum women if breastfeeding) is crucial to effectively decrease maternal viral load and decrease the risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV. Our objectives were to describe self-reported adherence to antiretrovirals during the antepartum (after 22 weeks of pregnancy) and postpartum periods (6–12 weeks and 6 months), and identify predictors of adherence among HIV-infected women enrolled and followed in a prospective cohort study from June 2008 to June 2010 at multiple sites in Latin America. Adherence was evaluated using the number of missed and expected doses during the 3 days before the study visit. At the pre-delivery visit, 340 of 376 women (90%) reported perfect adherence. This rate significantly decreased by 6–12 weeks (171/214 [80%]) and 6 months postpartum (163/199 [82%], p<0.01). The odds for less than perfect adherence at the pre-delivery visit was significantly higher for pregnant women with current tobacco use (odds ratio [OR]=2.9, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.46–6.14; p=0.0029). At 6–12 weeks postpartum, the probability of non-perfect adherence increased by 6% for each 1 year increase in age (OR=1.06, 95% CI: 1.00–1.12, p=0.0497). At 6 months postpartum, the odds of nonperfect adherence was higher for those who were currently using alcohol (OR=3.04, 95% CI: 1.34–6.90; p=0.0079). Although a self-report measure of adherence based on only 3 days may lead to overestimation of actual adherence over time, women with perfect adherence had lower viral loads and higher CD4 counts. Adherence to antiretrovirals decreased significantly postpartum. Interventions should target women at high risk for lower adherence during pregnancy and postpartum, including tobacco and alcohol users. PMID:22663185

  2. Alternatives across Latin America: catalysing change in the curriculum.

    PubMed

    Jukes, Nick

    2009-01-01

    A 6-week series of seminars addressing replacement of harmful animal use in education and training was held across Latin America in March-April 2008. Organised by InterNICHE and partner organisations in Bolivia, Peru, Brazil, Argentina and Mexico, the events built on the experience of previous major outreach in Russia and India. Up to 6 full-day seminars were held at universities and independent venues in each country. Smaller meetings with campaigners, teachers and professional bodies complemented the large presentations. All events included spoken presentations, demonstrations and free trials of a wide range of alternatives. Speakers included InterNICHE experts and those from the host countries who are involved in replacement work. Partner organisations were empowered through the process of planning and execution of the seminars, and the tour helped to identify and provide support to others who are progressing humane education initiatives. Further collaboration is now planned. Information on the current situation concerning animal use and alternatives, including laws and regulations, was also gathered from each country. The tour succeeded in raising awareness and generating interest in replacement alternatives, also by national-level interviews and media coverage. Information and freeware alternatives were widely distributed, and further translations of material into Spanish and Portuguese are in progress. To continue the hands-on access to alternatives provided at the seminars, a Mexican / Central American Alternatives Loan System has been established, and others are being built in Peru and Brasil. The donation of computers and alternatives to selected universities is also being planned in order to establish multimedia laboratories that will promote alternatives through example.

  3. Cardiovascular Research Publications from Latin America between 1999 and 2008. A Bibliometric Study

    PubMed Central

    Colantonio, Lisandro D.; Baldridge, Abigail S.; Huffman, Mark D.; Bloomfield, Gerald S.; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj

    2015-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular research publications seem to be increasing in Latin America overall. Objective To analyze trends in cardiovascular publications and their citations from countries in Latin America between 1999 and 2008, and to compare them with those from the rest of the countries. Methods We retrieved references of cardiovascular publications between 1999 and 2008 and their five-year post-publication citations from the Web of Knowledge database. For countries in Latin America, we calculated the total number of publications and their citation indices (total citations divided by number of publications) by year. We analyzed trends on publications and citation indices over time using Poisson regression models. The analysis was repeated for Latin America as a region, and compared with that for the rest of the countries grouped according to economic development. Results Brazil (n = 6,132) had the highest number of publications in1999-2008, followed by Argentina (n = 1,686), Mexico (n = 1,368) and Chile (n = 874). Most countries showed an increase in publications over time, leaded by Guatemala (36.5% annually [95%CI: 16.7%-59.7%]), Colombia (22.1% [16.3%-28.2%]), Costa Rica (18.1% [8.1%-28.9%]) and Brazil (17.9% [16.9%-19.1%]). However, trends on citation indices varied widely (from -33.8% to 28.4%). From 1999 to 2008, cardiovascular publications of Latin America increased by 12.9% (12.1%-13.5%) annually. However, the citation indices of Latin America increased 1.5% (1.3%-1.7%) annually, a lower increase than those of all other country groups analyzed. Conclusions Although the number of cardiovascular publications of Latin America increased from 1999 to 2008, trends on citation indices suggest they may have had a relatively low impact on the research field, stressing the importance of considering quality and dissemination on local research policies. PMID:25714407

  4. The 1992 conference on Latin America`s Energy Industry: New opportunities for growth through international investment and trade

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    Liberal economic and political reforms in Latin America, a declining oil market in the US, and world events such as last year`s Persian Gulf Crisis are making foreign investment in Latin America`s energy sector increasingly attractive. The Persian Gulf crisis indicated the US must diversify oil sources; increased competition and deregulation in electric power generation and gas production are providing more opportunities for independent power producers at home and abroad; and Latin America`s need for foreign financial and technical assistance are providing an important ``pull`` factor. Electricity needs in the developing world wig be huge in the years to come. In Latin America and the Caribbean, 66,500 mg of new capacity will be required by 1999. The developing world will require US $100 billion in energy investment a year. But Latin American countries will have trouble obtaining funds. The region will need to rely heavily on private international sources to finance future energy requirements. Multilateral development bank participation win remain critical, however, serving as a catalyst for government reform and private investment in the sector. In particular, World Bank lending will be focused on countries with a clear commitment to pricing reform, regulatory reform, competitive markets, non-market barriers, and technology transfer. Opportunities for foreign participation in the Latin American oil sector are particularly large in Ecuador, Peru, Argentina, and Venezuela. Mexico`s plans for reform in the oil sector, a delicate issue in that country, appear to be less defined and likely to occur farther into the future. The conference made clear that a regulatory entity is needed even when the sector is owned by the government. Regulatory processes must be fair and transparent in order to ensure adequate financial and technical performance.

  5. Spread of epidemic Clostridium difficile NAP1/027 in Latin America: case reports in Panama.

    PubMed

    López-Ureña, Diana; Quesada-Gómez, Carlos; Miranda, Erick; Fonseca, Mercedes; Rodríguez-Cavallini, Evelyn

    2014-02-01

    The rate and severity of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) have been linked to the emergence and spread of the hypervirulent toxigenic strain NAP1/027. This strain has been responsible for large outbreaks in healthcare facilities in North America and Europe and most recently in Latin America. This is the first report of the NAP1 strain in Panama. It suggests that the spread of C. difficile NAP1 throughout Latin America could be a possibility as evidenced in the following case reports. Five isolates typed as NAP1 had tcdA, tcdB, binary toxin gene cdtB and tcdC deletion. All isolates were resistant to clindamycin, fluoroquinolones and rifampicin. Under this scenario, surveillance programmes for CDI should be implemented in public health facilities in Latin America and diagnosis of CDI should be considered, especially in patients with predisposing factors.

  6. Regionalism and the Musical Heritage of Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arbena, Joseph; And Others

    This essay presents background information and suggests teaching stragegies to aid community and junior college classroom teachers of history and civilization as they develop and implement educational programs on Latin American music. It is based on the premise that Latin American music can best be understood as a reflection of other historical…

  7. The targetable A1 Huntington disease haplotype has distinct Amerindian and European origins in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Kay, Chris; Tirado-Hurtado, Indira; Cornejo-Olivas, Mario; Collins, Jennifer A; Wright, Galen; Inca-Martinez, Miguel; Veliz-Otani, Diego; Ketelaar, Maria E; Slama, Ramy A; Ross, Colin J; Mazzetti, Pilar; Hayden, Michael R

    2017-02-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is a dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by a CAG repeat expansion in the Huntingtin (HTT) gene. HD occurs worldwide, but the causative mutation is found on different HTT haplotypes in distinct ethnic groups. In Latin America, HD is thought to have European origins, but indigenous Amerindian ancestry has not been investigated. Here, we report dense HTT haplotypes in 62 mestizo Peruvian HD families, 17 HD families from across Latin America, and 42 controls of defined Peruvian Amerindian ethnicity to determine the origin of HD in populations of admixed Amerindian and European descent. HD in Peru occurs most frequently on the A1 HTT haplotype (73%), as in Europe, but on an unexpected indigenous variant also found in Amerindian controls. This Amerindian A1 HTT haplotype predominates over the European A1 variant among geographically disparate Latin American controls and in HD families from across Latin America, supporting an indigenous origin of the HD mutation in mestizo American populations. We also show that a proportion of HD mutations in Peru occur on a C1 HTT haplotype of putative Amerindian origin (14%). The majority of HD mutations in Latin America may therefore occur on haplotypes of Amerindian ancestry rather than on haplotypes resulting from European admixture. Despite the distinct ethnic ancestry of Amerindian and European A1 HTT, alleles on the parent A1 HTT haplotype allow for development of identical antisense molecules to selectively silence the HD mutation in the greatest proportion of patients in both Latin American and European populations.

  8. Liver transplantation in Latin America: the state-of-the-art and future trends.

    PubMed

    Salvalaggio, Paolo R; Caicedo, Juan C; de Albuquerque, Luiz Carneiro; Contreras, Alan; Garcia, Valter D; Felga, Guilherme E; Maurette, Rafael J; Medina-Pestana, José O; Niño-Murcia, Alejandro; Pacheco-Moreira, Lucio F; Rocca, Juan; Rodriguez-Davalos, Manuel; Ruf, Andres; Rusca, Luis A Caicedo; Vilatoba, Mario

    2014-08-15

    We reviewed the current status of liver transplantation in Latin America. We used data from the Latin American and Caribbean Transplant Society and national organizations and societies, as well as information obtained from local transplant leaders. Latin America has a population of 589 million (8.5% of world population) and more than 2,500 liver transplantations are performed yearly (17% of world activity), resulting in 4.4 liver transplants per million people (pmp) per year. The number of liver transplantations grows at 6% per year in the region, particularly in Brazil. The top liver transplant rates were found in Argentina (10.4 pmp), Brazil (8.4 pmp), and Uruguay (5.5 pmp). The state of liver transplantation in some countries rivals those in developed countries. Model for End-Stage Liver Disease-based allocation, split, domino, and living-donor adult and pediatric transplantations are now routinely performed with outcomes comparable to those in advanced economies. In contrast, liver transplantation is not performed in 35% of Latin American countries and lags adequate resources in many others. The lack of adequate financial coverage, education, and organization is still the main limiting factor in the development of liver transplantation in Latin America. The liver transplant community in the region should push health care leaders and authorities to comply with the Madrid and Istambul resolutions on organ donation and transplantation. It must pursue fiercely the development of registries to advance the science and quality control of liver transplant activities in Latin America.

  9. Between the national and the universal: natural history networks in Latin America in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Regina Horta

    2013-12-01

    This essay examines contemporary Latin American historical writing about natural history from the nineteenth through the twentieth centuries. Natural history is a "network science," woven out of connections and communications between diverse people and centers of scholarship, all against a backdrop of complex political and economic changes. Latin American naturalists navigated a tension between promoting national science and participating in "universal" science. These tensions between the national and the universal have also been reflected in historical writing on Latin America. Since the 1980s, narratives that recognize Latin Americans' active role have become more notable within the renewal of the history of Latin American science. However, the nationalist slant of these approaches has kept Latin American historiography on the margins. The networked nature of natural history and Latin America's active role in it afford an opportunity to end the historiographic isolation of Latin America and situate it within world history.

  10. Characterizing commercial oil palm expansion in Latin America: land use change and trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furumo, Paul Richard; Aide, T. Mitchell

    2017-02-01

    Commodity crop expansion has increased with the globalization of production systems and consumer demand, linking distant socio-ecological systems. Oil palm plantations are expanding in the tropics to satisfy growing oilseed and biofuel markets, and much of this expansion has caused extensive deforestation, especially in Asia. In Latin America, palm oil output has doubled since 2001, and the majority of expansion seems to be occurring on non-forested lands. We used MODIS satellite imagery (250 m resolution) to map current oil palm plantations in Latin America and determined prior land use and land cover (LULC) using high-resolution images in Google Earth. In addition, we compiled trade data to determine where Latin American palm oil flows, in order to better understand the underlying drivers of expansion in the region. Based on a sample of 342 032 ha of oil palm plantations across Latin America, we found that 79% replaced previously intervened lands (e.g. pastures, croplands, bananas), primarily cattle pastures (56%). The remaining 21% came from areas that were classified as woody vegetation (e.g. forests), most notably in the Amazon and the Petén region in northern Guatemala. Latin America is a net exporter of palm oil but the majority of palm oil exports (70%) stayed within the region, with Mexico importing about half. Growth of the oil palm sector may be driven by global factors, but environmental and economic outcomes vary between regions (i.e. Asia and Latin America), within regions (i.e. Colombia and Peru), and within single countries (i.e. Guatemala), suggesting that local conditions are influential. The present trend of oil palm expanding onto previously cleared lands, guided by roundtable certifications programs, provides an opportunity for more sustainable development of the oil palm sector in Latin America.

  11. Latin American Cultural Resiliency to External Foreign Policy: Strategic Implications for the United States as China Extends Into Latin America

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-04

    on an “ever-expanding network of free-trade agreements and broadly orthodox fiscal and monetary policies .”1 Mexico coupled its pursuit of aggressive...currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 04 – 04 – 2016 2. REPORT TYPE ... Policy : Strategic Implications for the United States as China Extends Into Latin America 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM

  12. Latin American Cultural Resiliency to External Foreign Policy: Strategic Implications for the United States as China Extends into Latin America

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-04

    on an “ever-expanding network of free-trade agreements and broadly orthodox fiscal and monetary policies .”1 Mexico coupled its pursuit of aggressive...currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 04 – 04 – 2016 2. REPORT TYPE ... Policy : Strategic Implications for the United States as China Extends Into Latin America 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM

  13. Pedagogy and Politics: Adult Education in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, D'Arcy

    1983-01-01

    Adult education has drawn relatively small amounts of money and skill away from the Latin American government's obsessive concern with primary schooling. But its share of educational resources is increasing rapidly, particularly in literacy and agricultural extension. (SSH)

  14. Policy for Research and Innovation in Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguirre-Bastos, Carlos

    2010-02-01

    Latin America (LAC) is renewing efforts to build-up research and innovation (R&I) capacities, guided by policies that consider the need to transform the traditional science system into a more dynamic entity. Policies permitted the generation of new spaces to develop science, strengthen scientific communities, improve university-enterprise linkages, establish common agendas between public and private sectors, earmark special budgets, build new infrastructure, and improve the number and quality of scientific publications. In spite of much progress, LAC lags much behind developed countries, their universities rank lower than their international counterparts, the number of researchers is small and funding is below an appropriate threshold. Some countries have innovated in few economic sectors, while others remain technologically underdeveloped and much of the countries' innovative capacities remain untapped. It is believed that policies still have little influence on social and economic development and there exists dissatisfaction in the academic and entrepreneurial sectors with their quality and relevance or with the political will of governments to execute them. On the other hand, in the past decades, the complexity of innovation systems has increased considerably, and has yet to be taken fully into account in LAC policy definitions. The situation calls for decision makers to shape new framework conditions for R&I in a way that both processes co-evolve and are stimulated and guided on solutions to the major problems of society. Considering the main features of complex systems, self- organization, emergence and non-linearity, R&I policy measures need to be seen as interventions in such a system, as the use of traditional leverage effects used in the past for policy decisions are more and more obsolete. Policies must now use ``weak coordination mechanisms,'' foresight, mission statements, and visions. It is obvious that due to nonlinearities in the system, adaptive

  15. Overall evaluation of Skylab imagery for mapping of Latin America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staples, J. E.; Eoldan, J. J. M.; Fernandez, O. W.; Alves, M.; Mutis, J.; Fletcher, A. G.; Ferrero, M. B.; Morell, J. J. H.; Romero, L. E.; Garcia, J. A. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Skylab imagery is both desired and needed by the Latin American catographic agencies. The imagery is cost beneficial for the production of new mapping and maintenance of existing maps at national topographic series scales. If this information was available on a near time routine coverage basis, it would provide an excellent additional data base to the Latin American cartographic community, specifically Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Guatemala, Paraguay, and Venezuela.

  16. Venous thromboembolism in Latin America: a review and guide to diagnosis and treatment for primary care

    PubMed Central

    Ceresetto, Jose Manuel

    2016-01-01

    There are various region-specific challenges to the diagnosis and effective treatment of venous thromboembolism in Latin America. Clear guidance for physicians and patient education could improve adherence to existing guidelines. This review examines available information on the burden of pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis in Latin America and the regional issues surrounding the diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis. Potential barriers to appropriate care, as well as treatment options and limitations on their use, are discussed. Finally, an algorithmic approach to the diagnosis and treatment of venous thromboembolism in ambulatory patients is proposed and care pathways for patients with pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis are outlined for primary care providers in Latin America. PMID:26872082

  17. Venous thromboembolism in Latin America: a review and guide to diagnosis and treatment for primary care.

    PubMed

    Ceresetto, Jose Manuel

    2016-01-01

    There are various region-specific challenges to the diagnosis and effective treatment of venous thromboembolism in Latin America. Clear guidance for physicians and patient education could improve adherence to existing guidelines. This review examines available information on the burden of pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis in Latin America and the regional issues surrounding the diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis. Potential barriers to appropriate care, as well as treatment options and limitations on their use, are discussed. Finally, an algorithmic approach to the diagnosis and treatment of venous thromboembolism in ambulatory patients is proposed and care pathways for patients with pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis are outlined for primary care providers in Latin America.

  18. Determinants of human papillomavirus vaccine acceptability in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Jennifer L; Wittet, Scott; Bartolini, Rosario M; Creed-Kanashiro, Hilary M; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Lewis-Bell, Karen; Lewis, Merle J; Penny, Mary E

    2008-08-19

    Prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines provide promise as a key component of future cervical cancer prevention programs in the Latin America and the Caribbean region. The successful introduction and acceptance of these vaccines will depend on a range of factors including awareness of cervical cancer as a problem, affordability of the vaccine, political will, competition with other vaccines, feasibility of vaccine delivery and acceptability of the vaccine among the range of groups who will influence uptake. While existing data about acceptability from Latin America and the Caribbean is scarce, it is clear that health policymakers, providers and the general public lack knowledge about HPV and cervical cancer. Furthermore, they would value more local epidemiologic data related to cervical cancer. Price is currently a major barrier to vaccine acceptability and a priority for advocacy. More research is required in Latin America and the Caribbean to determine what messages and strategies will work in these communities.

  19. Publicaciones Periodicas de Educacion de America Latina y el Caribe (Educational Publications of Latin America and the Caribbean).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oficina Regional de Educacion de la Unesco para America Latina y el Caribe, Santiago (Chile).

    The periodicals listed in this bibliography are those published in Latin America and the Caribbean that deal exclusively with educational themes. Information for each entry, when available, includes the title, subtitle, name and address of publisher, frequency of publication, year the publication began and/or terminated, any previous title, and…

  20. Educacion en Poblaciones Indigenas: Politicas y Estrategias en America Latina. (Education for Indigenous Populations: Policies and Strategies in Latin America).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuniga, Madeleine, Ed.; And Others

    This document is a compilation of 20 papers from a seminar on educational policy and strategy for educating the indigenous peoples of Latin America and Mexico. There is a growing awareness among linguistics and anthropology specialists and educators of the necessity to validate education that respects the values of an indigenous culture. This…

  1. Lecturas sobre educacion de adultos en America latina (Readings on Adult Education in Latin America). Serie: Retablo de Papel 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latapi, Pablo, Comp.; Castillo, Alfonso, Comp.

    Twelve essays written in Spanish on the state of adult education in Latin America are presented. The essays are organized into three main sections, including: "Concepto y evolucion historica de la educacion de adultos" (Conception and Historical Evolution of Adult Education); "Aspectos particulares" (Specific Subjects); and…

  2. Arsenic Exposure in Latin America: Biomarkers, Risk Assessments and Related Health Effects

    PubMed Central

    McClintock, Tyler R.; Chen, Yu; Bundschuh, Jochen; Oliver, John T.; Navoni, Julio; Olmos, Valentina; Lepori, Edda Villaamil; Ahsan, Habibul; Parvez, Faruque

    2013-01-01

    In Latin America, several regions have a long history of widespread arsenic (As) contamination from both natural and anthropological sources. Yet, relatively little is known about the extent of As exposure from drinking water and its related health consequences in these countries. It has been estimated that at least 4.5 million people in Latin America are chronically exposed to high levels of As (>50µg/L), some to as high as 2000 µg/L - 200 times higher than the World Health Organization (WHO) provisional standard for drinking water. We conducted a systematic review of 82 peer reviewed papers and reports to fully explore the current understanding of As exposure and its health effects, as well as the influence of genetic factors that modulate those effects in the populations of Latin America. Despite some methodological limitations, these studies suggested important links between high levels of chronic As exposure and elevated risks of numerous adverse health outcomes in Latin America - including internal and external cancers, reproductive outcomes, and childhood cognitive function. Several studies demonstrated genetic polymorphisms that influence susceptibility to these and other disease states through their modulation of As metabolism, with As methyltransferase (AS3MT), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and genes of one-carbon metabolism being specifically implicated. While the full extent and nature of the health burden are yet to be known in Latin America, these studies have significantly enriched knowledge of As toxicity and led to subsequent research. Targeted future studies will not only yield a better understanding of the public health impact of As in Latin America populations, but also allow for effective and timely mitigation efforts. PMID:22119448

  3. La Educacion en America Latina y El Caribe Durante Los Proximos 25 Anos. (Education in Latin America and the Caribbean during the Next 25 Years.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roggi, Luis Osvaldo, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    The nine papers appearing in this document review both limitations and progress in education in Latin America, study the future of education in Latin America and the Caribbean, and make recommendations to the Regional Program for Educational Development (PREDE). There is, in addition, a lengthy transcription of a discussion, among eight of the…

  4. National working conditions surveys in Latin America: comparison of methodological characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Merino-Salazar, Pamela; Artazcoz, Lucía; Campos-Serna, Javier; Gimeno, David; Benavides, Fernando G.

    2015-01-01

    Background: High-quality and comparable data to monitor working conditions and health in Latin America are not currently available. In 2007, multiple Latin American countries started implementing national working conditions surveys. However, little is known about their methodological characteristics. Objective: To identify commonalities and differences in the methodologies of working conditions surveys (WCSs) conducted in Latin America through 2013. Methods: The study critically examined WCSs in Latin America between 2007 and 2013. Sampling design, data collection, and questionnaire content were compared. Results: Two types of surveys were identified: (1) surveys covering the entire working population and administered at the respondent's home and (2) surveys administered at the workplace. There was considerable overlap in the topics covered by the dimensions of employment and working conditions measured, but less overlap in terms of health outcomes, prevention resources, and activities. Conclusions: Although WCSs from Latin America are similar, there was heterogeneity across surveyed populations and location of the interview. Reducing differences in surveys between countries will increase comparability and allow for a more comprehensive understanding of occupational health in the region. PMID:26079314

  5. Consensus, Dilemmas, and Challenges in Living Donor Liver Transplantation in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Salvalaggio, Paolo R; Seda Neto, João; Alves, Jefferson Andre; Fonseca, Eduardo A; Carneiro de Albuquerque, Luiz; Andraus, Wellington; Massarollo, Paulo B; Duro Garcia, Valter; Maurette, Rafael J; Ruf, Andrés E; Pacheco-Moreira, Lucio F; Caicedo Rusca, Luis A; Osorio, Veronica Botero; Matamoros, Maria Amalia; Varela-Fascinetto, Gustavo; Jarufe, Nicolas P

    2016-06-01

    We reviewed the history, volume, outcomes, uniqueness, and challenges of living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) in Latin America. We used the data from the Latin American and Caribbean Transplant Society, local transplant societies, and opinions from local transplant experts. There are more than 160 active liver transplant teams in Latin America, but only 30 centers have used LDLT in the past 2 years. In 2014, 226 LDLTs were done in the region (8.5% of liver transplant activities). Living donor liver transplantation is mainly restricted to pediatric patients. Adult-to-adult LDLT activities decreased after the implementation of the model for end-stage liver disease score and a concomitant increase on the rate of deceased donors per million population. Posttransplant outcome analysis is not mandatory, transparent or regulated in most countries. More experienced teams have outcomes comparable to international expert centers, but donor and recipient morbidity might be underreported. Latin America lags behind in terms of the number of adult LDLT and the rate of living donor utilization in comparison with other continents with similar donation rates. Local alliances and collaborations with major transplant centers in the developed world will contribute to the development of LDLT in Latin America.

  6. Multiple species production systems: reversing underdevelopment and nonsustainability in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Uhart, Marcela; Milano, Fernando

    2002-10-01

    Latin America (LA) is suffering the environmental consequences of worldwide increased productivity and agricultural expansion as well as strong economic restrictions. To survive, LA landowners must turn to higher income products and/or increase productivity. Alternatives are few. But while intensification relies on unaffordable and nonsustainable subsidies, diversification is solely dependent on improved management of available resources. Diversified, multiple-species production systems (MSPS) add wildlife use to traditional production systems, promoting economic and ecological stability. We present examples of MSPS in Latin America. Although results are technically encouraging, their future sustainability is threatened by: i) local subvaluation of wildlife and ii) restricted international markets.

  7. [Spanish emigration to Latin America, 1946-1990: renewal and crisis in a traditional pattern].

    PubMed

    Palazon Ferrando, S

    1993-01-01

    Trends in international migration from Spain to Latin America are analyzed over the period 1946-1990. Two distinct phases are identified. The first, lasting from 1946 to 1958, involved a revival of earlier trends disrupted by the Spanish Civil War and World War II. The second, beginning in 1959, was marked by the development of economic problems in Latin America, which caused a change toward Europe as a migrant destination. This ended in recent times, as Spain changed from a country of emigration to one of immigration.

  8. Secondary Education in Latin America and the Caribbean: The Challenge of Growth and Reform. Sustainable Development Department Technical Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, Laurence; Castro, Claudio de Moura

    This paper synthesizes the issues, problems, research, and current best practice in secondary education in Latin America and the Caribbean. Overall, Latin America and the Caribbean enroll much lower percentages of school age children in secondary education than the region's chief competitors, and the region's secondary education is inadequate by…

  9. Latin America and the Caribbean: A Survey of Distance Education 1991. New Papers on Higher Education: Studies and Research 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carty, Joan

    Country profiles compiled through a survey of distance education in Latin America and the Caribbean form the contents of this document. Seventeen countries were surveyed in Latin America: Argentina; Bolivia; Brazil; Chile; Colombia; Costa Rica; Ecuador; French Guiana; Guatemala; Guyana; Honduras; Mexico; Nicaragua; Panama; Peru; Uruguay; and…

  10. Latin America: Sights and Sounds; A Guide to Motion Pictures and Music for College Courses. Consortium of Latin American Studies Programs: Publication No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loy, Jane M.

    The first section of this guide discusses topics such as the methods used to select educational films, their quality, the uses and values of films in the college classroom. After a brief section covering how to use the guide, 65 films that deal with Latin America and are recommended for use in conjunction with college courses in Latin American…

  11. Impact of EMS Outreach: Successful Developments in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Olivero, Ofelia A.; Larramendy, Marcelo; Soloneski, Sonia; Menck, Carlos F.M.; Matta, Jaime; Folle, Gustavo A.; Zamorano-Ponce, Enrique; Spivak, Graciela

    2014-01-01

    This collection of articles was inspired by the long-standing relationship between the Environmental Mutagen Society and Latin American scientists, and by the program for the 39th Environmental Mutagen Society meeting in Puerto Rico in 2008, which included a symposium featuring “South of the border” scientists. This collection, compiled by Graciela Spivak and Ofelia Olivero, both originally from Argentina, highlights scientists who work in or were trained in Latin American countries and in Puerto Rico in a variety of scientific specialties related to DNA repair and cancer susceptibility, genomic organization and stability, genetic diversity, and environmental contaminants. PMID:20213840

  12. Impact of EMS outreach: successful developments in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Olivero, Ofelia A; Larramendy, Marcelo; Soloneski, Sonia; Menck, Carlos F M; Matta, Jaime; Folle, Gustavo A; Zamorano-Ponce, Enrique; Spivak, Graciela

    2010-01-01

    This collection of articles was inspired by the long-standing relationship between the Environmental Mutagen Society and Latin American scientists, and by the program for the 39th Environmental Mutagen Society meeting in Puerto Rico in 2008, which included a symposium featuring "South of the border" scientists. This collection, compiled by Graciela Spivak and Ofelia Olivero, both originally from Argentina, highlights scientists who work in or were trained in Latin American countries and in Puerto Rico in a variety of scientific specialties related to DNA repair and cancer susceptibility, genomic organization and stability, genetic diversity, and environmental contaminants.

  13. SIRGAS: ITRF densification in Latin America and the Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunini, C.; Costa, S.; Mackern, V.; Martínez, W.; Sánchez, L.; Seemüller, W.; da Silva, A.

    2009-04-01

    The continental reference frame of SIRGAS (Sistema de Referencia Geocéntrico para las Américas) is at present realized by the SIRGAS Continuously Operating Network (SIRGAS-CON) composed by about 200 stations distributed over all Latin America and the Caribbean. SIRGAS member countries are qualifying their national reference frames by installing continuously operating GNSS stations, which have to be consistently integrated into the continental network. As the number of these stations is rapidly increasing, the processing strategy of the SIRGAS-CON network was redefined during the SIRGAS 2008 General Meeting in May 2008. The new strategy relies upon the definition of two hierarchy levels: a) A core network (SIRGAS-CON-C) with homogeneous continental coverage and stabile site locations ensures the long-term stability of the reference frame and provides the primary link to the ITRS. Stations belonging to this network have been selected so that each country contributes with a number of stations defined according to its surface and guarantying that the selected stations are the best in operability, continuity, reliability, and geographical coverage. b) Several densification sub-networks (SIRGAS-CON-D) improve the accessibility to the reference frame. The SIRGAS-CON-D sub-networks shall correspond to the national reference frames, i.e., as an optimum there shall be as many sub-networks as countries in the region. The goal is that each country processes its own continuously stations following the SIRGAS processing guidelines, which are defined in accordance with the IERS and IGS standards and conventions. Since at present not all of the countries are operating a processing centre, the existing stations are classified in three densification networks (a Northern, a middle, and a Southern one), which are processed by three local processing centres until new ones are installed. As SIRGAS is defined as a densification of the ITRS, stations included in the core network, as

  14. Chinese Soft Power in Latin America: A Case Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    generation of Latin American populist leaders, such as Hugo Chávez, Rafael Correa , and Evo Morales. During his first trip to Beijing after being...Costa Rican president Oscar Arias, for example, established regular diplomatic relations with the PRC as a necessary part of ensuring the relevance of

  15. Promising Practices in Drug Treatment: Findings from Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nemes, Susanna; Libretto, Salvatore; Garrett, Gerald; Johansson, Anna Carin; Hess, Lauren

    2005-01-01

    In a study to evaluate the drug treatment and aftercare efforts sponsored by the State Department's International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs Bureau, residential Therapeutic Community (TC) treatment programs in three Latin American countries--Brazil, Peru and Argentina--were examined to identify promising practices and to assess lessons…

  16. Cultural Penetration in Latin America through Multinational Advertising Agencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Toro, Wanda

    Few studies have addressed the issue of cultural penetration of Latin American countries by multinational corporations (MNCs) and multinational advertising agencies (MAAs). Whether they are considered multinational or transnational, MAAs have expanded as a form of international communication in the global market, forming the backbone of MNCs.…

  17. Latin America Curriculum. World Neighbors in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Neighbors, Inc., Oklahoma City, OK.

    This collection of lessons about the geography, languages, and social issues of several Latin American countries is intended for use with students in grades 6-12. The collection contains five lesson plans: (1) "Cold in the Tropics?" (Marilyn Kesler); (2) "Going beyond the Map: Comparing Geographic Characteristics and Related Social…

  18. Schooling and Environment in Latin America in the Third Millennium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Gaudiano, Edgar

    2007-01-01

    This article develops an historical and contemporary Latin-American perspective on the issues raised by Stevenson's 1987 article, "Schooling and Environmental Education: Contradictions in Purpose and Practice". It shows that since its inception as a pedagogical field in the 1970s, environmental education has faced many challenges and…

  19. Telecom Privatization in Latin America: Trends in Competition & Regulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerner, Norman C.

    1998-01-01

    Presents a country-by-country analysis of investment opportunities in Latin American telecommunications. Concludes: Brazil and Mexico are the major focus of interest and expectations; wireless and cellular are expanding rapidly; the expansion of regulatory reform, as promised to the World Trade Organization (WTO) should foster necessary monopolies…

  20. Beyond prejudice and pride: The human sciences in nineteenth- and twentieth-century Latin America.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Julia

    2013-12-01

    Grappling with problematics of status and hierarchy, recent literature on the history of the human sciences in Latin America has gone through three overlapping phases. First, the scholarship has reflected a dialogue between Latin American scientists and their European colleagues, characterized by the "center/periphery" model of scientific diffusion. Next, scholars drew on postcolonial theory to undermine the power of the "center" and to recover the role of local agents, including both elites and subalterns. In the wake of numerous studies embracing both models, the way has been cleared to look at multiple dimensions simultaneously. Histories of the human sciences in the complex multicultural societies of Latin America provide an unusually direct path to integration. Moreover, this dynamic and multilayered approach has the potential to address ambivalences about authority and power that have characterized previous analyses of the production and application of knowledge about the human condition.

  1. Mycoses of implantation in Latin America: an overview of epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Queiroz-Telles, Flavio; Nucci, Marcio; Colombo, Arnaldo Lopes; Tobón, Angela; Restrepo, Angela

    2011-04-01

    Implantation or subcutaneous mycoses are a frequent health problem in Latin American countries and other tropical and subtropical areas. Although such infections rarely cause disseminated or invasive disease, they have an important impact on public health, and timely diagnosis and appropriate treatment remain important. Although some implantation mycoses are found in immunocompromised persons, the immunocompetent population is the principal target in Latin America. Most etiologic agents are found in soil, vegetation, and decaying matter in tropical, subtropical, and humid environments and infection is commonly the result of penetrating injury. Infections primarily occur (1) among low socioeconomic groups, (2) among those living in rural areas or involved in farming, hunting, or other outdoor activities, and (3) particularly among adult men. This review focuses on the epidemiology of the most clinically significant implantation mycoses in Latin America, i.e., sporotrichosis, eumycetoma, chromoblastomycosis, subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis, subcutaneous zygomycosis, and lacaziosis. Main epidemiologic findings, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment options are also discussed.

  2. Review on space weather in Latin America. 2. The research networks ready for space weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denardini, Clezio Marcos; Dasso, Sergio; Gonzalez-Esparza, J. Americo

    2016-11-01

    The present work is the second of a three-part review of space weather in Latin America, specifically observing its evolution in three countries (Argentina, Brazil and Mexico). This work comprises a summary of scientific challenges in space weather research that are considered to be open scientific questions and how they are being addressed in terms of instrumentation by the international community, including the Latin American groups. We also provide an inventory of the networks and collaborations being constructed in Latin America, including details on the data processing, capabilities and a basic description of the resulting variables. These instrumental networks currently used for space science research are gradually being incorporated into the space weather monitoring data pipelines as their data provides key variables for monitoring and forecasting space weather, which allow these centers to monitor space weather and issue watches, warnings and alerts.

  3. Stroke in Latin America: Burden of Disease and Opportunities for Prevention.

    PubMed

    Avezum, Álvaro; Costa-Filho, Francisco F; Pieri, Alexandre; Martins, Sheila O; Marin-Neto, José A

    2015-12-01

    The epidemiological transition in Latin America toward older urban dwelling adults has led to the rise in cardiovascular risk factors and an increase in morbidity and mortality rates related to both stroke and myocardial infarction. As a result, there is an immediate need for effective actions resulting in better detection and control of cardiovascular risk factors that will ultimately reduce cardiovascular disease burden. Data from case-control studies have identified the following risk factors associated with stroke: hypertension; smoking; abdominal obesity; diet; physical activity; diabetes; alcohol intake; psychosocial factors; cardiac causes; and dyslipidemia. In addition to its high mortality, patients who survive after a stroke present quite frequently with marked physical and functional disability. Because stroke is the leading cause of death in most Latin American countries and also because it is a clearly preventable cause of death and disability, simple, affordable, and efficient strategies must be urgently implemented in Latin America.

  4. On Global Absences: Reflections on the Failings in the Education and Poverty Relationship in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonal, Xavier

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores some of the aspects of the relationship between education and poverty as it has been constructed by international organisations and national governments in Latin America. The analysis is carried out from two separate angles. On the one hand, the paper highlights the main failings that underlie the positive and hoped-for…

  5. An Insider's Look at the Development and Current State of Community Psychology in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montero, Maritza

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the rich history of community psychology in Latin America, describing how the field was systematically built during the second half of the 20th century. Discussed are social and political influences such as the critique of individualistic emphasis dominant at that moment, Paulo Freire's popular education, critical sociology…

  6. Immigrant Children from Latin America at Japanese Schools: Homogeneity, Ethnicity, Gender and Language in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro-Vazquez, Genaro

    2009-01-01

    An ethnographic study conducted between 2003 and 2006 followed three children from Latin America attending three different public Japanese primary schools. The investigation concerned a Japanese-language tutoring programme for foreign children, which was evaluated by participant observation and a set of in-depth interviews with officials, school…

  7. Tendencies toward the Adult Educator Profession in Latin America: An Exploratory, Comparative, and Participatory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goerne, Juan Jose Madrigal

    To obtain information on adult educator education in Latin America, two approaches were used: (1) data collected via e-mail or through the website of the Universidad Pedagogica Nacional de Mexico and (2) interviews with directors, coordinators, teaching staff, and students in six teacher education programs in Mexico, Brazil, Argentina, and…

  8. Teaching Modern Latin America in the Social Science Curriculum: An Interdisciplinary Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novoa, Adriana

    2007-01-01

    It can be a challenge to introduce students to a world region with the cultural diversity and rich history of Latin America. In this article, the author suggests four thematic units that enable teachers to identify both general trends and important differences in the region: (1) race/ethnicity; (2) progress and civilization; (3) conflict and…

  9. Dynamics of Private Sector Support for Education: Experiences in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Kristin; Galisson, Kirsten

    2008-01-01

    Recognizing the diversity of models and strategies for private sector participation in education that have emerged in Latin America, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) requested the Academy for Educational Development (AED) to conduct research with leaders in the public and private sectors in several countries. While…

  10. REVIEW OF CONTEMPORARY RESEARCH ON LITERACY AND ADULT EDUCATION IN LATIN AMERICA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MARQUARDT, WILLIAM F.

    A REVIEW OF RESEARCH CATEGORIZES LITERACY AND ADULT BASIC EDUCATION IN LATIN AMERICA AS FOLLOWS--(1) GENERAL REPORTS OF THE NUMBERS AND OCCUPATIONAL TYPES OF ILLITERATES IN EACH COUNTRY--(2) REPORTS OF THE ACTIVITIES AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF PUBLIC, PRIVATE, AND INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND GROUPS IN PROMOTING LITERACY AND ADULT BASIC…

  11. Primary Education in Latin America: The Unfinished Agenda. Sustainable Development Department Technical Papers Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, Laurence; Schiefelbein, Ernesto; Schiefelbein, Paulina

    This paper assesses progress made in elementary education in Latin America from 1990-2000. Besides examining completion rates, it looks at four critical indicators: the extent to which repetition rates have declined over the decade; the extent of timely access and on-time ages of elementary school students; the level or elementary school students'…

  12. Promoting Visual Literacy among Undergraduate Students in Geography: Teaching a Visualized Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollman, Verónica

    2014-01-01

    This study offers a discussion of the role of the visual in the professional training of geographers arguing that visual literacy is not necessarily promoted during geography undergraduate studies. It then analyzes an experience of teaching a visualized Latin America developed in Argentina, as an illustrative example: on the one hand, it reveals…

  13. John F. Kennedy and Constitutionalism, Democracy and Human Rights in Latin America: Promise and Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabe, Stephen G.

    1995-01-01

    Summarizes the sometimes confusing and contradictory efforts of the John F. Kennedy administration to encourage the development of democratic political processes in Latin America. Although sincere, Kennedy's efforts often were stymied by resistance from the local power structure and his own Central Intelligence Agency. Eventually, anti-communist…

  14. Mosquito Vector Control and Biology in Latin America - A 17th Symposium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 17th Annual Latin America American symposium presented by the American Mosquito Control Association (AMCA) was held as part of the 73rd Annual Meeting in Orlando, FL, in April 2007. The principal objective, as for the previous 16 symposia, was to promote participation in the AMCA by vector cont...

  15. Representation of Social Realities of Latin America in Marquez's Literary Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aghaei, Mohammad B.

    2015-01-01

    Gabriel Garcia Marquez is always keen on presenting to the people the various facets of their history. His literary language acts as effective means for describing the critical historical aspects of Latin America because the legacy of colonialism had destroyed so many important traces of the native culture of that area. This has led him to search…

  16. A Study of Public Library Users in Some Countries of Latin America and the Caribbean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guevara, Alvaro Agudo

    This user survey was part of a three-part diagnostic study that sought to obtain information on how public libraries operate in Latin America (Argentina, Colombia, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Panama, and Venezuela) and the Caribbean (Barbados, Grenada, Jamaica, and Surinam) and the social role performed by this type of service in the region.…

  17. Maintaining and Revitalising Indigenous Languages in Latin America: State Planning vs. Grassroots Initiatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornberger, Nancy H.

    1999-01-01

    Introduces a collection of papers that address issues related to the maintenance and revitalization of indigenous languages in Latin and Central America. Two papers focus on the case of Quechua, another considers bilingual intercultural education to help sustain the Harakmbut languages in Peru, and the last considers one of three native language…

  18. Politics and Society in Latin America at the Start of the New Millennium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcantara, Manual

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the existing relationships between politics and society at the start of the twenty-first century in Latin America, a region that is characterized by its heterogeneity, and that is addressed as a homogenous whole. Politics are treated as an extension of democracy, the changing role of institutions, the weakness of political…

  19. Empowering Indigenous Languages and Cultures: The Impact of German Bilateral Assistance in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortina, Regina

    2010-01-01

    Working in Latin America for several decades to address the educational needs of poor and indigenous groups, the GTZ (Gesellschaft fur Technische Zusammenarbeit) has helped to develop the knowledge base of intercultural bilingual education. The goal of this article is to analyze Germany's impact from the mid-1970s to the present as the GTZ has…

  20. Improving the Precollegiate Curriculum on Latin America, Grades 6-12. Final Performance Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wirth, John D.

    The Latin America Project, which developed print and nonprint materials for use in grades 6-12, is described. The two-year effort was conducted in five phases: survey of existing materials; the development of curriculum units; review of curriculum by teachers attending summer institutes; field testing and evaluation; and dissemination. Titles of…

  1. Our Neglected Neighbors: How the U.S. News Magazines Covered Latin America in 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cline, Carolyn Garrett

    An examination of the coverage of Latin America during 1977 by "Newsweek,""Time," and "U.S. News and World Report" was undertaken to compare the number of stories and the amount of space devoted to that region with that afforded other areas of the world. The results showed that of the major areas of the world, only…

  2. Remote Sensing in Latin America: Technology and Markets for the 1980s

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-01

    A review is made on the impact of satellite derived remote sensing data in Latin America. Data availability has generated a phenomenal growth in the...The international institutionalization of remote sensing interests in the area is an indicator submitted as a viable force in the continued, future

  3. An Overview of Psychology in Latin America. Report No. ONR-35.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertin, Morton A.

    This report is the third of a series covering the status of psychological research and activity in foreign schools and laboratories. It covers discussions with prominent psychologists in Latin America and provides information about representative work in process. Information on the following countries is reported: Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador,…

  4. The Social Condition of Higher Education: Globalisation and (beyond) Regionalisation in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomes, Alfredo M.; Robertson, Susan L.; Dale, Roger

    2012-01-01

    This article aims to discuss the relationship between higher education (HE), globalisation and regionalism projects focusing on HE in Latin America and Brazil. It is claimed that HE has predominantly taken the diverse, yet concerted and co-ordinated routes of globalisation and regionalisation and, by doing so, been profoundly transformed. The…

  5. Financing of Vocational Training in Latin America. Discussion Paper No. 71.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ducci, Maria A.

    This paper presents an overview of the financing of vocational training in Latin America. The paper is organized in six sections. The first section discusses diversification of vocational education funding as a response to crisis, as well as to a more favorable climate within businesses. In the second section, factors of change in funding of…

  6. Social Work Education in Latin America and the United States: A Look to the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resnick, Rosa Perla

    1980-01-01

    The historical relationship between social work education in Latin America and the United States is analyzed. New social work strategies have produced innovative approaches to curriculum development and content, interdisciplinary collaboration, and the social worker's role. Translating these approaches to the American situation is discussed.…

  7. Transformation Dynamics for Higher Education in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Luis Enrique Orozco

    1996-01-01

    Discussion of higher education in Latin America and the Caribbean looks at its role in human resource development, industrial advancement, and sustainable development. Circumstances in individual countries are sketched in the areas of higher education system diversification, characteristics of different national system types, governance,…

  8. Childhood Poverty and Cognitive Development in Latin America in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segretin, M. Soledad; Hermida, M. Julia; Prats, Lucía M.; Fracchia, Carolina S.; Ruetti, Eliana; Lipina, Sebastián J.

    2016-01-01

    For at least eight decades, researchers have analyzed the association between childhood poverty and cognitive development in different societies worldwide, but few of such studies have been carried out in Latin America. The aim of the present paper is to systematically review the empirical studies that have analyzed the associations between…

  9. Carbapenem resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii in the nosocomial setting in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Labarca, Jaime A; Salles, Mauro José Costa; Seas, Carlos; Guzmán-Blanco, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Increasing prevalence of carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii strains in the nosocomial setting in Latin America represents an emerging challenge to public health, as the range of therapeutic agents active against these pathogens becomes increasingly constrained. We review published reports from 2002 to 2013, compiling data from throughout the region on prevalence, mechanisms of resistance and molecular epidemiology of carbapenem-resistant strains of P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii. We find rates of carbapenem resistance up to 66% for P. aeruginosa and as high as 90% for A. baumannii isolates across the different countries of Latin America, with the resistance rate of A. baumannii isolates greater than 50% in many countries. An outbreak of the SPM-1 carbapenemase is a chief cause of resistance in P. aeruginosa strains in Brazil. Elsewhere in Latin America, members of the VIM family are the most important carbapenemases among P. aeruginosa strains. Carbapenem resistance in A. baumannii in Latin America is predominantly due to the oxacillinases OXA-23, OXA-58 and (in Brazil) OXA-143. Susceptibility of P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii to colistin remains high, however, development of resistance has already been detected in some countries. Better epidemiological data are needed to design effective infection control interventions.

  10. Interdisciplinary Collaboration in Gerontology and Geriatrics in Latin America: Conceptual Approaches and Health Care Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Fernando; Curcio, Carmen Lucia

    2013-01-01

    The underlying rationale to support interdisciplinary collaboration in geriatrics and gerontology is based on the complexity of elderly care. The most important characteristic about interdisciplinary health care teams for older people in Latin America is their subjective-basis framework. In other regions, teams are organized according to a…

  11. Introduction to Latin America, Manual for an Interdisciplinary Course: An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamison, Edward A., Comp.

    This teacher's manual is an annotated bibliography of basic and supplementary books in English on topics which can be used to form the basis of an interdisciplinary college introductory course on Latin America. Topics presented include: the land and the physical environment; the Indian heritage; history; the people; the social structure; politics…

  12. Higher Education Quality Assurance Processes in Latin America: A Comparative Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamarra, Norberto Fernandez

    2009-01-01

    The article first considers a characterization of higher education in Latin America, the principal problems and the scenarios that have led to the inclusion of quality assessment and accreditation processes in higher education as a priority in the regional agenda. The following aspects are then developed from a comparative perspective: the main…

  13. The Structure of Educational Costs: Multiproduct Cost Functions for Primary and Secondary Schools in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez, Emmanuel

    1986-01-01

    Relying heavily on equations and tabular data, this paper analyzes the educational cost functions of primary and secondary schooling levels in Latin America. Economies of scale are found for both levels in Bolivian and Paraguayan urban schools; schools combining primary and secondary school services are shown to be less cost effective. (23…

  14. Early Child Development in Latin America and the Caribbean: List of Projects with World Bank Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Bank, Washington, DC. Human Development Network.

    In recent years the World Bank, currently the largest single funding source for education and health programs in the world, has put new emphasis on reaching children in the years before they enter school. Despite the acknowledged benefits to be gained from investing in education, schooling in Latin America has failed to keep pace with the…

  15. Re-Bordering Comparative Education in Latin America: Between Global Limits and Local Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acosta, Felicitas; Perez Centeno, Cristian G.

    2011-01-01

    Conceived for presentation at the XIV WCCES conference in Istanbul in 2010, the topic of which was "Bordering Comparative Education", this paper, within that framework, aims to present the current state of the discipline in Latin America in relation to a quick overview of its present-day situation at a global level. After providing an…

  16. Urban sprawl and fragmentation in Latin America: a dynamic quantification and characterization of spatial patterns.

    PubMed

    Inostroza, Luis; Baur, Rolf; Csaplovics, Elmar

    2013-01-30

    South America is one of the most urbanized continents in the world, where almost 84% of the total population lives in cities, more urbanized than North America (82%) and Europe (73%). Spatial dynamics, their structure, main features, land consumption rates, spatial arrangement, fragmentation degrees and comparability, remain mostly unknown for most Latin American cities. Using satellite imagery the main parameters of sprawl are quantified for 10 Latin American cities over a period of 20 years by monitoring growth patterns and identifying spatial metrics to characterize urban development and sprawling features measured with GIS tools. This quantification contributes to a better understanding of urban form in Latin America. A pervasive spatial expansion has been observed, where most of the studied cities are expanding at fast rates with falling densities trend. Although important differences in the rates of land consumption and densities exist, there is an underlying fragmentation trend towards increasing sprawl. These trends of spatial discontinuity may eventually be intensified by further economic development. Urban Sprawl/Latin America/GIS metrics/spatial development.

  17. Drugs in Latin America. Studies in Third World Societies, Publication Number Thirty-seven.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morales, Edmundo, Ed.

    The eight papers presented in this document discuss the link between substance and human life in Latin America and help readers uncover some of the myths surrounding drugs, especially cocaine. Contributions range from extensive research to field work and observation. Enrique Mayer demonstrates that the coca leaf is a vital Andean cultural element…

  18. Latin America in the 1980’s: The Strategic Environment and Inter-American Security.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-15

    national integration propounded by its Centro de Altos Estudios Militares. The Brazilian and Peruvian "models," variously adapted by other Latin...by the exercise of crude military power. 32 ENDNOTES 1. Hello Jaguaribe, "La America Latina ante al Siglo XXI," El Trimestre Economico , Vol. XLI

  19. Wilderness Medicine: Considerations of Adventure Travel in Tropical Areas of Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Brent

    Adventure travel to Latin America requires careful planning, implementation, and followup to ensure safe, healthy experiences. This paper provides an overview of basic principles of prevention, assessment, and treatment of medical problems common to adventure travel in tropical areas. A brief introduction defines the vegetation and climatic…

  20. Donkeys and Superteachers: Structural Adjustment and Popular Education in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischman, Gustavo

    1998-01-01

    Explores the challenges and possibilities of popular education by examining the educational field after the application of structural adjustment programs in Latin America. Presents a critique of Gramsci's model of the organic intellectual as understood by many within popular education. Offers the specific example of a popular-education workshop in…

  1. The "New Cooperativism" in Latin America: Worker-Recuperated Enterprises and Socialist Production Units

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larrabure, Manuel; Vieta, Marcelo; Schugurensky, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    In the first decade of the 21st century, efforts to create alternatives to neoliberalism emerged in many parts of Latin America. Social movements across the region took to the streets, occupied abandoned factories, and started to create new democratic spaces, solidarity networks, and social economy initiatives. In one country after another,…

  2. Accounting for Poverty in Infrastructure Reform: Learning from Latin America's Experience. WBI Development Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estache, Antonio; Foster, Vivien; Wodon, Quentin

    This book explores the connections between infrastructure reform and poverty alleviation in Latin America based on a detailed analysis of the effects of a decade of reforms. The book demonstrates that because the access to, and affordability of, basic services is still a major problem, infrastructure investment will be a core component of poverty…

  3. Children’s Health in Latin America: The Influence of Environmental Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Laborde, Amalia; Tomasina, Fernando; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Bruné, Marie-Noel; Buka, Irena; Comba, Pietro; Corra, Lilian; Cori, Liliana; Duffert, Christin Maria; Harari, Raul; Iavarone, Ivano; McDiarmid, Melissa A.; Gray, Kimberly A.; Sly, Peter D.; Soares, Agnes; Suk, William A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic diseases are increasing among children in Latin America. Objective and Methods To examine environmental risk factors for chronic disease in Latin American children and to develop a strategic initiative for control of these exposures, the World Health Organization (WHO) including the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), the Collegium Ramazzini, and Latin American scientists reviewed regional and relevant global data. Results Industrial development and urbanization are proceeding rapidly in Latin America, and environmental pollution has become widespread. Environmental threats to children’s health include traditional hazards such as indoor air pollution and drinking-water contamination; the newer hazards of urban air pollution; toxic chemicals such as lead, asbestos, mercury, arsenic, and pesticides; hazardous and electronic waste; and climate change. The mix of traditional and modern hazards varies greatly across and within countries reflecting industrialization, urbanization, and socioeconomic forces. Conclusions To control environmental threats to children’s health in Latin America, WHO, including PAHO, will focus on the most highly prevalent and serious hazards—indoor and outdoor air pollution, water pollution, and toxic chemicals. Strategies for controlling these hazards include developing tracking data on regional trends in children’s environmental health (CEH), building a network of Collaborating Centres, promoting biomedical research in CEH, building regional capacity, supporting development of evidence-based prevention policies, studying the economic costs of chronic diseases in children, and developing platforms for dialogue with relevant stakeholders. Citation Laborde A, Tomasina F, Bianchi F, Bruné MN, Buka I, Comba P, Corra L, Cori L, Duffert CM, Harari R, Iavarone I, McDiarmid MA, Gray KA, Sly PD, Soares A, Suk WA, Landrigan PJ. 2015. Children’s health in Latin America: the influence of environmental exposures. Environ

  4. Neural tube defects in Latin America and the impact of fortification: a literature review

    PubMed Central

    Rosenthal, Jorge; Casas, Jessica; Taren, Douglas; Alverson, Clinton J; Flores, Alina; Frias, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Objective Data on the prevalence of birth defects and neural tube defects (NTD) in Latin America are limited. The present review summarizes NTD prevalence and time trends in Latin American countries and compares pre- and post-fortification periods to assess the impact of folic acid fortification in these countries. Design We carried out a literature review of studies and institutional reports published between 1990 and 2010 that contained information on NTD prevalence in Latin America. Results NTD prevalence in Latin American countries varied from 0.2 to 9.6 per 1000 live births and was influenced by methods of ascertainment. Time trends from Bogota, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Guatemala City, México and Puerto Rico showed average annual declines of 2.5% to 21.8%. Pre- and post-fortification comparisons were available for Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Puerto Rico and México. The aggregate percentage decline in NTD prevalence ranged from 33% to 59%. Conclusions The present publication is the first to review data on time trends and the impact of folic acid fortification on NTD prevalence in Latin America. Reported NTD prevalence varied markedly by geographic region and in some areas of Latin America was among the lowest in the world, while in other areas it was among the highest. For countries with available information, time trends showed significant declines in NTD prevalence and these declines were greater in countries where folic acid fortification of staples reached the majority of the population at risk, such as Chile and Costa Rica. PMID:23464652

  5. Demographic growth and health needs in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Behm, H

    1979-01-01

    The net effect of the rapid population growth in Latin American countries is an increase in the needs for health services. Nevertheless, the demographic factor is not the only nor the most important consideration in determining how to satisfy these demands in the region. The main contradiction lies between the magnitude of needs for services generated by the adverse living conditions prevalling among the majority of the population, together with a restricted supply of health services, the availability of which varies according to social class. The problem of the increasing demand for medical care, generated by the rapid population growth, should be recognized as originating in the socioeconomic structural conditions prevailing in Latin American countries today which determine, simultaneously, low health levels, deficiencies in the provision of health services, and rapid population growth.

  6. Ecological study of effect of breast feeding on infant mortality in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Betrán, Ana P; de Onís, Mercedes; Lauer, Jeremy A; Villar, José

    2001-01-01

    Objective To estimate the effect of exclusive breast feeding and partial breast feeding on infant mortality from diarrhoeal disease and acute respiratory infections in Latin America. Design Attributable fraction analysis of national data on infant mortality and breast feeding. Setting Latin America and the Caribbean. Main outcome measures Mortality from diarrhoeal disease and acute respiratory infections and nationally representative breastfeeding rates. Results 55% of infant deaths from diarrhoeal disease and acute respiratory infections in Latin America are preventable by exclusive breast feeding among infants aged 0-3 months and partial breast feeding throughout the remainder of infancy. Among infants aged 0-3 months, 66% of deaths from these causes are preventable by exclusive breast feeding; among infants aged 4-11 months, 32% of such deaths are preventable by partial breast feeding. 13.9% of infant deaths from all causes are preventable by these breastfeeding patterns. The annual number of preventable deaths is about 52 000 for the region. Conclusions Exclusive breast feeding of infants aged 0-3 months and partial breast feeding throughout the remainder of infancy could substantially reduce infant mortality in Latin America. Interventions to promote breast feeding should target younger infants. What is already known on this topicInfant mortality is lower among breast fed than non-breast fed infantsThe reductions are greatest for deaths from diarrhoeal disease and acute respiratory infectionsWhat this study addsExclusive breast feeding of infants aged 0-3 months and partial breast feeding for the remainder of the first year would prevent about 52 000 infant deaths a year in Latin AmericaThis corresponds to 13.9% of infant deaths from all causesPromotion of breast feeding has an important role in increasing survival of infants PMID:11498485

  7. Problems of venereal infections in Latin America and the Caribbean and means of fighting them.

    PubMed

    Acuña, H R

    1978-01-01

    Rather than providing a comprehensive overview of the sexually transmitted disease (STD) picture in the Americas, this presentation contrasts the STD problem in Latin America and the Caribbean with the situation in both less developed and more developed regions of the world. It also points out three areas of opportunity for improving preventive and curative STD services, specifically: (1) more effective utilization of social security institutions in Latin America, (2) incorporation of STD services into primary health care programs, and (3) development of pilot projects in the smaller Caribbean territories. It is noted, in addition, that the more developed countries of the region are showing increased interest in sexually transmitted diseases. Among other things, the recruitment of a PAHO epidemiologist in venereal diseases on Jamaica--to assist in the development of a national STD program--opens up a new area for PAHO technical assistance which, if successful, may be extended elsewhere.

  8. From Marianism to terrorism: the many faces of violence against women in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Rondon, M B

    2003-08-01

    Violence against women is widespread and highly tolerated in Latin America. In this paper, I will argue that this is because violence stems from deep cultural roots and because women are brought up in a patriarchal familial organization which promotes passivity and dependence. Traditional religious culture, which poses the Virgin Mary figure as role model, is ambivalent and distorted, repressing sex while overvaluing motherhood and self denial and demeaning women who do not conform to the established stereotypes. Patriarchal violence has serious emotional consequences for women. The stressful violent circumstances in women's lives lead to increased drug abuse that further exposes them to police and institutional violence. Political instability and civil wars in South America have caused many deaths, and have left many women with traumatic sequelae. Efforts at improving quality of life and diminishing violent conditions for women and girls in Latin America should include consideration of local cultural, political and economic peculiarities.

  9. Biosimilars in psoriasis: Clinical practice and regulatory perspectives in Latin America.

    PubMed

    de la Cruz, Claudia; de Carvalho, André V E; Dorantes, Gladys L; Londoño Garcia, Angela M; Gonzalez, Cesar; Maskin, Matías; Podoswa, Nancy; Redfern, Jan S; Valenzuela, Fernando; van der Walt, Joelle; Romiti, Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    Latin American countries view biosimilar agents as an effective approach to curtail health-care expenditures while maintaining the safety and efficacy profile of their branded innovator comparators. To understand the complexities of the regulatory landscape and key therapeutic issues for use of biosimilars to treat moderate to severe psoriasis in Latin America, the International Psoriasis Council convened dermatology experts from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia and Mexico in October 2015 to review the definition, approval, marketing and future of biosimilars in each country and develop a consensus statement. The regulatory framework for marketing approval of biosimilars in Latin America is currently a mosaic of disparate, country-specific, regulatory review processes, rules and standards, with considerable heterogeneity in clarity and specificity. Regulations in Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Mexico have undergone multiple refinements whereas Colombia is finalizing draft guidelines. Verification of the similarity in quality, safety and efficacy of biosimilars to the innovator biologic remains a key challenge for policy makers and regulatory authorities. Other key regulatory challenges include: naming of agents and traceability, pharmacovigilance, extrapolation of indications, and interchangeability and substitution. An urgent need exists for more Latin American countries to establish national psoriasis registries and to integrate their common components into a multinational psoriasis network, thereby enhancing their interpretative power and impact. A Latin American psoriasis network similar to PSONET in Europe would assist health-care providers, pharmaceutical companies, regulators and patients to fully comprehend specific products being prescribed and dispensed and to identify potential regional trends or differences in safety or outcomes.

  10. Family Planning in Five Continents: Africa, America, Asia, Europe, Oceania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Population growth trends and family planning activities in Africa, America, Asia, Europe, and Oceania are summarized in this booklet developed by the International Planned Parenthood Federation. Narrative information for each continent gives a resume of population growth trends, reasons for the trends, population problems, policy formation, family…

  11. Chronic kidney disease in Latin America: time to improve screening and detection.

    PubMed

    Cusumano, Ana Maria; González Bedat, Maria Carlota

    2008-03-01

    Latin America is a conglomerate of adjacent countries that share a Latin extraction and language (Spanish or Portuguese) and exhibit extreme variations in socioeconomic status. End-stage renal disease prevalence and incidence rates have been growing steadily, probably as a result of the increase in life expectancy, aging of the population, a growing epidemic of type 2 diabetes, and a fast epidemiologic transition across the region. Chronic noncommunicable diseases impose an enormous cost, barely supported at present and unlikely afforded by Latin America in the future. National health surveys in Chile, Mexico, and Argentina showed a high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors. A total of 21% of the Chilean population had a creatinine clearance <80 ml/min. Among the surveyed people, 8.6% of Argentines, 14.2% of Chileans, and 9.2% of Mexicans had proteinuria. There are ongoing national chronic kidney disease detection programs in Brazil, Cuba, Peru, Uruguay, and Venezuela; Argentina, Colombia, Bolivia, Dominican Republic, Guatemala, and Paraguay are still developing them. The prevalence of cardiovascular and renal risk factors is high in Latin America. Data about chronic kidney disease are scarce, but public health awareness is high, evidenced by ongoing or developing chronic kidney disease detection programs. High-risk patients (e.g., those with hypertension or diabetes, elderly) must be studied, using simple determinations such as creatinine and proteinuria. For these programs to succeed, lifestyle changes must be encouraged, and public awareness must be increased through teaching and media-oriented activities.

  12. Photodynamic therapy: Progress toward a scientific and clinical network in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Buzzá, Hilde H; da Silva, Ana Paula; Vollet Filho, José Dirceu; Ramirez, Dora Patricia; Trujillo, José Roberto; Inada, Natalia M; Moriyama, Lilian T; Kurachi, Cristina; Bagnato, Vanderlei S

    2016-03-01

    Cancer is one of the major challenges for Latin America health services, since the skin cancer is the most frequent lesion. This manuscript addresses an initiative for the treatment of basal cell carcinomas (BCC) by photodynamic therapy (PDT) based on a government-funded national program in Brazil. The program provides clinical training and facilitates access to drugs/equipment and significantly reduces PDT costs. It also lays foundations for the establishment of a Latin American research network to improve prevention, early detection and treatment of diseases. Centers have been established by direct contact (conferences, visits to healthcare facilities and official departments). A local training was divided into complementary theoretical and practical parts. This is an ongoing project that has involved 10 countries: Brazil, Bolivia Chile, Ecuador, El Salvador, Colombia, Cuba, Mexico, Peru and Venezuela, The initial results are encouraging and have provided assessment of Latin America patients relating, for example, the most common skin phototypes with incidence of BCC in such countries. The network is expected to produce relevant scientific information for PDT introduction in many countries. The experience acquired by local teams shall enable them to innovate PDT protocols and increase the number of skilled contributors/researchers to broaden knowledge on the ever-crescent PDT field in Latin America. The establishment of a collaboration network and introduction of other projects and experience exchange shall become an easier process with time. This PDT clinical research network is a start for the strengthening of Science in South Hemisphere countries.

  13. Breast Cancer in Young Women in Latin America: An Unmet, Growing Burden

    PubMed Central

    Aguila, Christian; Magallanes-Hoyos, Maria C.; Mohar, Alejandro; Bargalló, Enrique; Meneses, Abelardo; Cazap, Eduardo; Gomez, Henry; López-Carrillo, Lizbeth; Chávarri-Guerra, Yanin; Murillo, Raúl; Barrios, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Background. Breast cancer (BC) is the leading cause of malignancy-related deaths among women aged ≤45 years. There are unexplored and uncertain issues for BC in this particular group in Latin America. The aim of this study is to evaluate BC incidence and mortality among young women and related clinicopathological and survivorship aspects in this region. Materials and Methods. Data were obtained from Globocan 2008 and the International Agency for Research on Cancer's Cancer Incidence in Five Continents series plus databases. We requested collaboration from the 12 different national cancer institutes in Latin America through SLACOM, the Latin American and Caribbean Society of Medical Oncology, and conducted a systematic literature review to obtain local data regarding the prevalence of BC among young women and their characteristics, outcomes, and survivorship-related issues. Results. BC incidence and mortality proportions for Latin American women aged <44 years were higher when compared with those of developed countries (20% vs. 12% and 14% vs. 7%, respectively). We found only a few Latin American series addressing this topic, and prevalence varied between 8% and 14%. Stage II and III disease, high histological grade, and triple-negative and HER2 BC were features frequently observed among young Latin American BC patients. Conclusion. The rising incidence and mortality of BC in young Latin American women is a call to action in the region. It is necessary to monitor the epidemiological and clinical data through reliable cancer registries and to consider the implementation of protocols for education of patients and health professionals. This unmet, growing burden must be considered as a top priority of the national programs in the fight against BC, and models of specialized units should be implemented for this particular group of patients to provide better care for this emergent challenge. PMID:24277771

  14. Evaluation dimensions for collaborative mental health services in primary care systems in latin america: results of a Delphi group.

    PubMed

    Sapag, Jaime C; Rush, Brian; Barnsley, Jan

    2015-05-01

    This article presents the results of a Delphi group to identify the dimensions of an evaluation framework for collaborative mental health care (CMHC) in Latin America. A three-round Delphi process was implemented with 26 experts from Latin America and Canada to identify main areas of consensus, as well as disagreements, about the importance and feasibility of potential evaluation dimensions previously identified in Mexico, Nicaragua and Chile. Participants validated 40 evaluation dimensions. They strongly endorsed a comprehensive evaluation framework for CMHC in Latin America. This study represents a solid foundation for developing an evaluation framework for CMHC.

  15. Historical perspectives of the role of Spain and Portugal in today's status of psychiatry and mental health in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Baca, Enrique; Lázaro, José; Hernández-Clemente, Juan C

    2010-01-01

    This paper shows how the community of Latin-American and Spanish psychiatry represents a solid platform for the so-called 'continental thought' to meet the analytical Anglo-Saxon thought. It reviews what both Latin America and the Spanish and Portuguese languages represent in the American continent; the relation between Spanish psychiatry and Spanish-speaking psychiatry in America during the twentieth century; the reality of psychiatric research and profession in Latin America; the evolution of Spanish psychiatry in the twentieth century from the post civil war diaspora to the beginning of the twenty-first century, and research on mental health in Spain and the foreseeable future.

  16. U.S. Policy and Latin America in the 1990’s

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    ideology of State Terror: Economic Doctrine and Political Repression in Argentina and Peru . Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 1989. (JC 599 .A7 P56 1989) Poitras...International Social Science Journal 128 (May 1991): 269-84. "*Latin American Left, a Painful Rebirth." XACLA Report an the American 25.5 (May 1992): 12-45. Leach...to Democracy in Latin America." International Social Science Journal 129 (Aug. 1991): 541-53. LeoGrande, William M. "After the Battle Of San Salvador

  17. Latin America in the 1990’s: Implications for US Security,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    interests in Latin America through "economy of force" policies , the United States deploys a limited number of forces to the region--chiefly in Panama to...does not assure security. With this reali- zation, the United States should pursue a more comprehensive security policy in the 1990’s with its Latin...for independence. Even more distasteful by the 1990’s would be a Puerto Rico distanced from the United States as the result of mistakes in policy

  18. The establishment of an attachment research network in Latin America: goals, accomplishments, and challenges.

    PubMed

    Causadias, José M; Sroufe, L Alan; Herreros, Francisca

    2011-03-01

    In the face of a pressing need for expanded attachment research programs and attachment informed interventions in Latin America, a research network was established: Red Iberoamericana de Apego: RIA (Iberian-American Attachment Network). The purpose of RIA is to promote human development and well being, informed by attachment theory, centering on research, and with implications for public policies, education, and intervention. We report the proceedings of the second meeting of RIA held in Panama City, Panama, in February 2010. As part of this meeting, RIA sponsored the first Latin-American attachment conference. Proceedings of the conference are described, as are future goals of this new organization.

  19. Union Formation Implications of Race and Gender Gaps in Educational Attainment: The Case of Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Esteve, Albert; López, Luis Ángel

    2012-01-01

    We use census microdata to assess the levels of educational homogamy in six Latin American countries: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Ecuador and Mexico. This paper contributes to the literature on homogamy in three ways. First, by conducting a comparative analysis between countries belonging to the still little-studied region of Latin America, which is still undergoing intense and varied processes of demographic, economic, social, and political modernization. Second, by simultaneously including variables of structural and individual nature. Finally, by making progress with respect to the interactions between educational homogamy and other important variables associated with high levels of social inequality in the region: race, ethnicity and birthplace. PMID:23172982

  20. [Decentralization of the health sector in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Ugalde, A; Homedes, N

    2002-01-01

    This paper analyzes the Latin American experience of decentralizing health services within the context of health reform. We examine the meaning of the term decentralization and discuss the various modalities of this concept: geographical, institutional and functional. The objectives that, in general, these objectives have not been achieved. After reviewing the literature and drawing on our own fieldwork, we conclude that in many instances the Latin American decentralization programs have produced results opposite to those intended, i.e., these programs have increased inequality and the cost of services and have reduced efficiency and quality of care. We point out that existing information is insufficient to determine with exactitude whether the failure of decentralization is due to the selection of inappropriate policies or to failures in the implementation process. Decentralization is a complex political process, policy makers should decide on the modality of decentralization they wish to implement, estimate the costs, identify the potential obstacles that could surface during the implementation phase and provide solutions. We conclude by suggesting that the multilateral banks have erred by pressing governments to improvise the implementation of decentralization programs without taking into account the different historical, political and socioeconomic contexts.

  1. U.S.-Latin American Trade: Recent Trends

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-05-11

    an analytical overview of U.S.- Latin American trade data and trends, and will be updated.1 Developments in U.S.- Latin American Trade Latin America ...with Latin America grew by 154% compared to 88% for Asia, 89% for the European Union, 78% for Africa, and 102% for the world. It should be pointed...terms, but also the fastest growing. As seen in figure 1, from 1992 to 2003, the share of U.S. trade with Latin America , excluding Mexico, actually

  2. Regional trends and controlling factors of fatal landslides in Latin America and the Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sepúlveda, S. A.; Petley, D. N.

    2015-04-01

    A database of landslides that caused loss of life in Latin America and the Caribbean in the period from 2004 and 2013 inclusive has been compiled using established techniques. This database indicates that in the ten year period a total of 11 631 people lost their lives across the region in 611 landslides. The geographical distribution of the landslides is very heterogeneous, with areas of high incidence in parts of the Caribbean (most notably Haiti), Central America, Colombia, and SE. Brazil. The number of landslides varies considerably between years; the El Niño/La Niña cycle emerges as a major factor controlling this variation, although the study period did not capture a large event. Analysis suggests that on a continental scale the mapped factors that best explain the observed distribution are topography, annual precipitation and population density. On a national basis we have compared the occurrence of fatality-inducing landslide occurrence with the production of research articles with a local author, which shows that there is a landslide research deficit in Latin America and the Caribbean. Understanding better the mechanisms, distributions causes and triggers of landslides in Latin America and the Caribbean must be an essential first step towards managing the hazard.

  3. Regional trends and controlling factors of fatal landslides in Latin America and the Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sepúlveda, S. A.; Petley, D. N.

    2015-08-01

    A new data set of landslides that caused loss of life in Latin America and the Caribbean in the 10-year period from 2004 and 2013 inclusive has been compiled, providing new insight into the impact of landslides in this key part of the world. This data set indicates that in the 10-year period a total of 11 631 people lost their lives across the region in 611 landslides. The geographical distribution of the landslides is highly heterogeneous, with areas of high incidence in parts of the Caribbean (most notably Haiti), Central America, Colombia, and southeast Brazil. There is significant interannual variation in the number of landslides, with the El Niño/La Niña cycle emerging as a key control. Our analysis suggests that on a continental scale the mapped factors that best explain the observed distribution are topography, annual precipitation and population density. On a national basis we have compared the occurrence of fatality-inducing landslide occurrence with the production of locally authored research articles, demonstrating that there is a landslide research deficit in Latin America and the Caribbean. Understanding better the mechanisms, distribution causes and triggers of landslides in Latin America and the Caribbean must be an essential first step towards managing the hazard.

  4. Hepatitis B virus infection in Latin America: A genomic medicine approach

    PubMed Central

    Roman, Sonia; Jose-Abrego, Alexis; Fierro, Nora Alma; Escobedo-Melendez, Griselda; Ojeda-Granados, Claudia; Martinez-Lopez, Erika; Panduro, Arturo

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is the leading cause of severe chronic liver disease. This article provides a critical view of the importance of genomic medicine for the study of HBV infection and its clinical outcomes in Latin America. Three levels of evolutionary adaptation may correlate with the clinical outcomes of HBV infection. Infections in Latin America are predominantly of genotype H in Mexico and genotype F in Central and South America; these strains have historically circulated among the indigenous population. Both genotypes appear to be linked to a benign course of disease among the native and mestizo Mexicans and native South Americans. In contrast, genotypes F, A and D are common in acute and chronic infections among mestizos with Caucasian ancestry. Hepatocellular carcinoma is rare in Mexicans, but it has been associated with genotype F1b among Argentineans. This observation illustrates the significance of ascertaining the genetic and environmental factors involved in the development of HBV-related liver disease in Latin America, which contrast with those reported in other regions of the world. PMID:24966588

  5. Current status of marine protected areas in latin america and the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Guarderas, A Paulina; Hacker, Sally D; Lubchenco, Jane

    2008-12-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs), including no-take marine reserves (MRs), play an important role in the conservation of marine biodiversity. We document the status of MPAs and MRs in Latin America and the Caribbean, where little has been reported on the scope of such protection. Our survey of protected area databases, published and unpublished literature, and Internet searches yielded information from 30 countries and 12 overseas territories. At present more than 700 MPAs have been established, covering more than 300,000 km(2) or 1.5% of the coastal and shelf waters. We report on the status of 3 categories of protection: MPAs (limited take throughout the area), MRs (no-take throughout the area), and mixed-use (a limited-take MPA that contains an MR). The majority of protected areas in Latin America and the Caribbean are MPAs, which allow some or extensive extractive activities throughout the designated area. These 571 sites cover 51,505 km(2) or 0.3% of coastal and shelf waters. There are 98 MRs covering 16,862 km(2) or 0.1% of the coastal and shelf waters. Mixed-use MPAs are the fewest in number (87), but cover the largest area (236,853 km(2), 1.2%). Across Latin America and the Caribbean, many biogeographic provinces are underrepresented in these protected areas. Large coastal regions remain unprotected, in particular, the southern Pacific and southern Atlantic coasts of South America. Our analysis reveals multiple opportunities to strengthen marine conservation in Latin America and the Caribbean by improving implementation, management, and enforcement of existing MPAs; adding new MPAs and MRs strategically to enhance connectivity and sustainability of existing protection; and establishing new networks of MPAs and MRs or combinations thereof to enhance protection where little currently exists.

  6. Existing Instrumentation and Scientific Drivers for a Subduction Zone Observatory in Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frassetto, A.; Woodward, R.; Detrick, R. S.

    2015-12-01

    The subduction zones along the western shore of the Americas provide numerous societally relevant scientific questions that have yet to be fully explored and would make an excellent target for a comprehensive, integrated Subduction Zone Observatory (SZO). Further, recent discussions in Latin America indicate that there are a large number of existing stations that could serve as a backbone for an SZO. Such preexisting geophysical infrastructure commonly plays a vital role in new science initiatives, from small PI-led experiments to the establishment of the USArray Transportable Array, Reference Network, Cascadia Amphibious Array, and the redeployment of EarthScope Transportable Array stations to Alaska. Creating an SZO along the western coast of the Americas could strongly leverage the portfolio of existing seismic and geodetic stations across regions of interest. In this presentation, we will discuss the concept and experience of leveraging existing infrastructure in major new observational programs, outline the state of geophysical networks in the Americas (emphasizing current seismic networks but also looking back on historical temporary deployments), and provide an overview of potential scientific targets in the Americas that encompass a sampling of recently produced research results and datasets. Additionally, we will reflect on strategies for establishing meaningful collaborations across Latin America, an aspect that will be critical to the international partnerships, and associated capacity building, needed for a successful SZO initiative.

  7. Smokefree Policies in Latin America and the Caribbean: Making Progress

    PubMed Central

    Sebrié, Ernesto M.; Schoj, Verónica; Travers, Mark J.; McGaw, Barbara; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2012-01-01

    We reviewed the adoption and implementation of smokefree policies in all Latin American and the Caribbean (LAC) countries. Significant progress has been achieved among LAC countries since the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) was adopted in 2005. Both national and sub-national legislation have provided effective mechanisms to increase the fraction of the population protected from secondhand tobacco smoke. Civil society has actively promoted these policies and played a main role in enacting them and monitoring their enforcement. The tobacco industry, while continuing to oppose the approval and regulation of the laws at legislative and executive levels, has gone a step further by litigating against them in the Courts. As in the US and elsewhere, this litigation has failed to stop the legislation. PMID:22754484

  8. Multisource drug policies in Latin America: survey of 10 countries.

    PubMed Central

    Homedes, Núria; Ugalde, Antonio

    2005-01-01

    Essential drug lists and generic drug policies have been promoted as strategies to improve access to pharmaceuticals and control their rapidly escalating costs. This article reports the results of a preliminary survey conducted in 10 Latin American countries. The study aimed to document the experiences of different countries in defining and implementing generic drug policies, determine the cost of registering different types of pharmaceutical products and the time needed to register them, and uncover the incentives governments have developed to promote the use of multisource drugs. The survey instrument was administered in person in Chile, Ecuador and Peru and by email in Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Costa Rica, Nicaragua and Uruguay. There was a total of 22 respondents. Survey responses indicated that countries use the terms generic and bioequivalence differently. We suggest there is a need to harmonize definitions and technical concepts. PMID:15682251

  9. Experience of disused source management in Latin America

    SciTech Connect

    Pimenta Mourao, R.

    2008-07-01

    The Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (Center for the Development of Nuclear Technology) - CDTN - has been actively engaged in cooperation programs for disused source management throughout the Latin American and the Caribbean region since 1996. The CDTN source conditioning team participated in the preparation of the technical procedures established for the different tasks involved in the radium sources conditioning operations, like preparation of the packaging for conditioning; sources conditioning; capsule welding; leak test in radium-containing capsule; and radiation protection planning for the conditioning of disused radium sources. The team also carried out twelve radium sources conditioning operation in the region, besides in-house operations, which resulted in a total conditioned activity of approximately 525 GBq, or 14,200 mg of radium. Additionally, one operation was carried out in Nicaragua to safely condition three Cobalt teletherapy heads stored under very precarious conditions in the premises of an old hospital. More recently, the team started its participation in an IAEA- and US State Department-sponsored program for the repatriation of disused or excess transuranic sources presently stored at users' premises or under regulatory control in different countries in the region. In September 2007 the team attended a theoretical and practical training in transuranic sources management, including the participation in the conditioning of different neutron sources in certified packages. It is expected that the trained team will carry out similar operations in other Latin American countries. Finally, the team is expected be involved in the near future in the repatriation of US-origin teletherapy heads and industrial gauges. (authors)

  10. The politics of avoidable blindness in Latin America--surgery, solidarity, and solutions: the case of Misión Milagro.

    PubMed

    Zakrison, Tanya L; Armada, Francisco; Rai, Nanky; Muntaner, Caries

    2012-01-01

    Avoidable blindness, especially when caused by cataracts, is a disease primarily of the economically disadvantaged sectors of the population. With a focus on Latin America and the Caribbean, this paper focuses on the program Misión Milagro within its historical, political, and economic contexts. This initiative, led by the governments of Cuba and Venezuela, covers close to 35 countries across Latin America, the Caribbean, Asia, and Africa. It is well-known throughout Latin America as close to 2 million patients have undergone free screening, corrective surgery, and rehabilitation since its inception in 2004. Misión Milagro shows that implementation of a massive initiative to curb avoidable blindness caused by cataracts in a relatively short time is feasible. The program is also built upon a unique model of international cooperation, which stresses social objectives and solidarity rather than hegemonic international initiatives built on commercial relationships. It also provides elements that could be applied to other public health issues of global or national relevance, not only to other low-middle-income countries, but also to high-income countries such as Canada.

  11. Undocumented Migration from Latin America in an Era of Rising U.S. Enforcement

    PubMed Central

    MASSEY, DOUGLAS S.; RIOSMENA, FERNANDO

    2010-01-01

    Available data have consistently pointed up the failure of U.S. policies to reduce undocumented migration from Latin America. To shed light on the reasons for this failure, we estimated a series of dynamic models of undocumented entry into and exit from the United States. Our estimates suggest that undocumented migration is grounded more in mechanisms posited by social capital theory and the new economics of labor migration rather than neoclassical economics. As a result, U.S. efforts to increase the costs of undocumented entry and reduce the benefits of undocumented labor have proven unsuccessful given the widespread access of Latin Americans to migrant networks. The main effect of U.S. enforcement efforts has been to reduce the circularity of Latin American migration. PMID:20824109

  12. Socioeconomic and environmental determinants of adolescent asthma in urban Latin America: an ecological analysis.

    PubMed

    Fattore, Gisel Lorena; Santos, Carlos Antonio de Souza Teles; Barreto, Mauricio Lima

    2015-11-01

    The prevalence of asthma is high in urban areas of many Latin-American countries where societies show high levels of inequality and different levels of development. This study aimed to examine the relationship between asthma symptoms prevalence in adolescents living in Latin American urban centers and socioeconomic and environmental determinants measured at the ecological level. Asthma prevalence symptoms were obtained from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) phase III. A hierarchical conceptual framework was defined and the explanatory variables were organized in three levels: distal, intermediate, proximal. Linear regression models weighed by sample size were undertaken between asthma prevalence and the selected variables. Asthma prevalence was positively associated with Gini index, water supply and homicide rate, and inversely associated with the Human Development Index, crowding and adequate sanitation. This study provides evidence of the potential influence of poverty and social inequalities on current wheezing in adolescents in a complex social context like Latin America.

  13. Ethnic Politics, Defense, and Security in ’LatinAmerica

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    territories into the American and the Canadian polities. In 1867, America purchased Alaska from Russia and with it Russia’s assertion of...spent $7 million on these frozen acres, dubbing the new territory “Seward’s Ice Box” or “Seward’s Folly.” Great Britain, and later Canada, similarly...Alaska Eskimo Scouts in 1942, the famed “Tundra Army” organized by Major Marvin “Muktuk” Marston, which would become the Alaska Territorial Guard

  14. Strengthening vaccination policies in Latin America: an evidence-based approach.

    PubMed

    Tapia-Conyer, Roberto; Betancourt-Cravioto, Miguel; Saucedo-Martínez, Rodrigo; Motta-Murguía, Lourdes; Gallardo-Rincón, Héctor

    2013-08-20

    Despite many successes in the region, Latin American vaccination policies have significant shortcomings, and further work is needed to maintain progress and prepare for the introduction of newly available vaccines. In order to address the challenges facing Latin America, the Commission for the Future of Vaccines in Latin America (COFVAL) has made recommendations for strengthening evidence-based policy-making and reducing regional inequalities in immunisation. We have conducted a comprehensive literature review to assess the feasibility of these recommendations. Standardisation of performance indicators for disease burden, vaccine coverage, epidemiological surveillance and national health resourcing can ensure comparability of the data used to assess vaccination programmes, allowing deeper analysis of how best to provide services. Regional vaccination reference schemes, as used in Europe, can be used to develop best practice models for vaccine introduction and scheduling. Successful models exist for the continuous training of vaccination providers and decision-makers, with a new Latin American diploma aiming to contribute to the successful implementation of vaccination programmes. Permanent, independent vaccine advisory committees, based on the US Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), could facilitate the uptake of new vaccines and support evidence-based decision-making in the administration of national immunisation programmes. Innovative financing mechanisms for the purchase of new vaccines, such as advance market commitments and cost front-loading, have shown potential for improving vaccine coverage. A common regulatory framework for vaccine approval is needed to accelerate delivery and pool human, technological and scientific resources in the region. Finally, public-private partnerships between industry, government, academia and non-profit sectors could provide new investment to stimulate vaccine development in the region, reducing prices in the

  15. The current status of ethnobiological research in Latin America: gaps and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent reviews have demonstrated an increase in the number of papers on ethnobiology in Latin America. Among factors that have influenced this increase are the biological and cultural diversity of these countries and the general scientific situation in some countries. This study aims to assess the panorama of ethnobiological research in Latin America by analyzing its evolution, trends, and future prospects. Methods To conduct this study, we searched for papers in the Scopus (http://www.scopus.com) and Web of Science (http://www.isiknowledge.com) databases. The search was performed using combinations of keywords and the name of each Latin American country. The following countries were included in this study: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Venezuela, and Uruguay. Results and conclusions According to our inclusion criteria, 679 ethnobiological studies conducted in Latin America were found for the period between 1963 and 2012. Of these studies, 289 (41%) were conducted in Brazil, 153 in Mexico (22%), 61 in Peru (9%), 58 in Argentina (8%), 45 in Bolivia (6%), and 97 (14%) in other Latin American countries. The increased number of publications related to this area of knowledge in recent years demonstrates the remarkable growth of ethnobiology as a science. Ethnobiological research may be stimulated by an increase in the number of scientific events and journals for study dissemination and by the creation of undergraduate courses and graduate programs to train ethnoscientists who will produce high-quality studies, especially in certain countries. PMID:24131758

  16. Bibliometric analysis of regional Latin America's scientific output in Public Health through SCImago Journal & Country Rank

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In the greater framework of the essential functions of Public Health, our focus is on a systematic, objective, external evaluation of Latin American scientific output, to compare its publications in the area of Public Health with those of other major geographic zones. We aim to describe the regional distribution of output in Public Health, and the level of visibility and specialization, for Latin America; it can then be characterized and compared in the international context. Methods The primary source of information was the Scopus database, using the category “Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health”, in the period 1996–2011. Data were obtained through the portal of SCImago Journal and Country Rank. Using a set of qualitative (citation-based), quantitative (document recount) and collaborative (authors from more than one country) indicators, we derived complementary data. The methodology serves as an analytical tool for researchers and scientific policy-makers. Results The contribution of Latin America to the arsenal of world science lies more or less midway on the international scale in terms of its output and visibility. Revealed as its greatest strengths are the high level of specialization in Public Health and the sustained growth of output. The main limitations identified were a relative decrease in collaboration and low visibility. Conclusions Collaboration is a key factor behind the development of scientific activity in Latin America. Although this finding can be useful for formulating research policy in Latin American countries, it also underlines the need for further research into patterns of scientific communication in this region, to arrive at more specific recommendations. PMID:24950735

  17. Making the Past Relevant to Future Generations. The Work of the Anne Frank House in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chyrikins, Mariela; Vieyra, Magdalena

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides the context and outlines the barriers and opportunities for developing promising Holocaust education programmes in Latin America, especially working with diverse communities and societies. In particular, the conflictual history of Latin American and recent democratization processes present opportunities for educational work. It…

  18. Psychological and Educational Aspects of P. Freire's Pedagogy and Its Implementation in the Training of Professionals in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhizhko, Olena

    2014-01-01

    The article is dedicated to the results of scientific-pedagogical research, which presupposed the analysis of psychological and educational aspects of P. Freire's pedagogy and its implementation in the training of professionals in Latin America. The analysis of scientific-pedagogical works of such Latin American scientists as M. Arnold, A.…

  19. Indigenous Women of Latin America: Unintended Pregnancy, Unsafe Abortion, and Reproductive Health Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Wurtz, Heather

    2013-01-01

    Indigenous women in Latin America have poorer reproductive health outcomes than the general population and face considerable barriers in accessing adequate health services. Indigenous women have high rates of adolescent fertility and unintended pregnancy and may face increased risks for morbidity and mortality related to unsafe abortion. However, research among this population, particularly focusing on social and cultural implications of unwanted pregnancy and unsafe abortion, is significantly limited. This article reviews the literature on unsafe abortion in Latin America and describes successful interventions to ameliorate reproductive health outcomes within Indigenous communities. It also explores important implications for future research. Shedding light on the circumstances, perspectives, and lived realities of Indigenous women of childbearing age, could encourage further qualitative investigation and mitigate negative outcomes through improved understanding of the topic, targeted culturally appropriate interventions, and recommendations for future policy and programming reformations. PMID:23772229

  20. [Zika virus outbreak in Latin America: what are the challenges for French Guiana in April 2016?].

    PubMed

    Epelboin, L; Douine, M; Carles, G; Villemant, N; Nacher, M; Rousset, D; Djossou, F; Mosnier, E

    2016-05-01

    Started in 2015 in Brazil, an outbreak linked to a little known arbovirus, Zika virus spread throughout Latin America. This virus, considered until recently as responsible of only mild symptoms, made mention of previously unsuspected complications, with severe neurological manifestations in adults and malformations of the central nervous system, including microcephaly, in newborns of mother infected during the pregnancy. While the continent is more accustomed to the succession of arbovirus epidemics, suspected complications and the many unknowns keys of the latter arriving raise many public health issues. French Guiana, a French territory located in the north-east of the continent, combines both European level of resources and climate and issues specific to the Amazon region and Latin America. We discuss here the issues for 2016 Zika virus epidemic in our region, many of them are generalizable to neighboring countries.

  1. Challenges in Facing the Lung Cancer Epidemic and Treating Advanced Disease in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Raez, Luis E; Santos, Edgardo S; Rolfo, Christian; Lopes, Gilberto; Barrios, Carlos; Cardona, Andres; Mas, Luis A; Arrieta, Oscar; Richardet, Eduardo; Vallejos S, Carlos; Wistuba, Ignacio; Gandara, David; Hirsch, Fred R

    2017-01-01

    Lung cancer, the deadliest cancer worldwide, is of particular concern in Latin America. The rising incidence poses a myriad of challenges for the region, which struggles with limited resources to meet the health care needs of its low- and middle-income populations. In this environment, we are concerned that governments are relatively unaware of the pressing need to implement effective strategies for screening, diagnosis, and treatment of lung cancer. The region has also been slow in adopting molecularly-based therapies in the treatment of advanced disease: testing for epidermal growth factor receptor mutations and anaplastic lymphoma kinase rearrangements are not routine, and access to targeted agents such as monoclonal antibodies and tyrosine kinase inhibitors is problematic. In this paper, we review the current situation in the management of lung cancer in Latin America, hoping that this initiative will help physicians, patient associations, industry, governments, and other stakeholders better face this epidemic in the near future.

  2. Confronting the chronic disease burden in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Glassman, Amanda; Gaziano, Thomas A; Bouillon Buendia, César Patricio; Guanais de Aguiar, Frederico C

    2010-12-01

    The United States is not alone in facing increasing incidence and prevalence of chronic conditions as a contributor to poorer health and growing health care spending. Latin America and the Caribbean face similar burdens, but they have fewer resources with which to respond. Much remains to be done to cope with the emerging public health and fiscal threat posed by increases in chronic conditions. However, a set of studies sponsored by the Inter-American Development Bank bring good news on potentially cost-effective strategies to improve coverage and outcomes. They should help move the growing epidemic of chronic diseases in Latin America and the Caribbean to the forefront of health policy in the region.

  3. High rates of obesity and non-communicable diseases predicted across Latin America.

    PubMed

    Webber, Laura; Kilpi, Fanny; Marsh, Tim; Rtveladze, Ketevan; Brown, Martin; McPherson, Klim

    2012-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) such as cardiovascular disease and stroke are a major public health concern across Latin America. A key modifiable risk factor for NCDs is overweight and obesity highlighting the need for policy to reduce prevalence rates and ameliorate rising levels of NCDs. A cross-sectional regression analysis was used to project BMI and related disease trends to 2050. We tested the extent to which interventions that decrease body mass index (BMI) have an effect upon the number of incidence cases avoided for each disease. Without intervention obesity trends will continue to rise across much of Latin America. Effective interventions are necessary if rates of obesity and related diseases are to be reduced.

  4. Abortion in Latin America: changes in practice, growing conflict, and recent policy developments.

    PubMed

    Kulczycki, Andrzej

    2011-09-01

    Latin America is undergoing profound social, economic, political, demographic, and epidemiologic change. Reproductive health indicators have generally improved over the past two decades, but most pregnancies are still unintended and more than 4 million are terminated annually. Clandestine abortions necessitated by restrictive legal and social structures cause more than 1,000 deaths and 500,000 hospitalizations per year, primarily among poor and marginalized women. Abortions are becoming safer and less frequent, however, as a consequence of increased modern contraceptive use, misoprostol adoption, emergency contraception availability, and postabortion care provision, notwithstanding many impediments to these changes. Advocacy and conflict over abortion have grown. The contested policy shifts include Mexico City's 2007 legalization of first-trimester abortion. Drawing on numerous sources of evidence, this article provides a regional analysis of the rapidly changing practice and context of abortion in Latin America, and examines emerging issues, legal and policy developments, and contrasting country situations.

  5. Distributing and transferring medical technology. A view from Latin America and the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Peña-Mohr, J

    1987-01-01

    Great variation exists in the health care delivery systems throughout Latin America and the Caribbean. In general, medical technology is concentrated in large cities at private hospitals that serve a small, elite segment of the population. What is missing in most of these countries is a clearly defined social policy guaranteeing distribution of medical technology to all segments of society. While data is scarce, it appears that political and economic concerns, rather than medical concerns, determine what and how much technology will be available to all segments of the society. Products are sometimes imported that compete with domestically produced ones. Moreover, transfers of technology often fail to include the necessary knowledge to make imported technology truly useful. However, current economic crises throughout the region are forcing changes in policies; as a result, there is a new emphasis on domestic production of technology over imports and the evaluation of medical technology for its appropriate use in Latin America and the Caribbean.

  6. [Emergency contraception in Latin America and the Caribbean].

    PubMed

    Martin, Antonieta

    2004-12-01

    Introducing the post-coital birth control method in the family-planning services of Latin American countries has not been an easy task. Catholic and other conservative groups with great influence in the political arena have time and again stopped it from being adopted as an alternative method and have even succeeded in having it removed from official directives after formal acceptance by health authorities. The main objections are triggered by the erroneous supposition that "emergency contraception" pills are abortifacients. However, a large dose of cultural discrimination against women seems also to be involved. It has been extremely difficult to register dedicated products and make them available in drug-stores and even more difficult to distribute them without charge at public health centers. They are hard to find, expensive, and unavailable to adolescents at risk for unwanted pregnancies and to most low-income women, especially in rural areas. Dissemination of appropriate information has been scarce and slow and there are still great numbers of people that do not understand how or why the method works. Brazil has been the only exception, as its open society has readily accepted this method of contraception. The Latin American Consortium on Emergency Contraception founded in the year 2000 and its regional conference two years later had an important impact on the situation, as they encouraged the coordination of efforts by governmental and nongovernmental entities with those of women's groups to fight for sexual and reproductive rights. A number of studies have shown that the more people learn about emergency contraception, the more they find it acceptable and necessary, and radio spots and other media techniques have begun to educate the public about this matter. In spite of the many difficulties encountered, in the last few years several countries have made strides to include this method in their public health guidelines. However, because of the powerful forces

  7. Anaphylaxis in Latin America: a report of the online Latin American survey on anaphylaxis (OLASA)

    PubMed Central

    Solé, Dirceu; Ivancevich, Juan Carlos; Borges, Mario Sánchez; Coelho, Magna Adaci; Rosário, Nelson A; Ardusso, Ledit Ramón Francisco; Bernd, Luis Antônio Guerra

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aims of the Online Latin American Survey of Anaphylaxis (OLASA) were to identify the main clinical manifestations, triggers, and treatments of severe allergic reactions in patients who were seen by allergists from July 2008 to June 2010 in 15 Latin American countries and Portugal (n = 634). RESULTS: Of all patients, 68.5% were older than 18 years, 41.6% were male, and 65.4% experienced the allergic reaction at home. The etiologic agent was identified in 87.4% of cases and predominantly consisted of drugs (31.2%), foods (23.3%), and insect stings (14.9%). The main symptom categories observed during the acute episodes were cutaneous (94.0%) and respiratory (79.0%). The majority of patients (71.6%) were treated initially by a physician (office/emergency room) within the first hour after the reaction occurred (60.2%), and 43.5% recovered in the first hour after treatment. Most patients were treated in an emergency setting, but only 37.3% received parenteral epinephrine alone or associated with other medication. However, 80.5% and 70.2% were treated with corticosteroids or antihistamines (alone or in association), respectively. A total of 12.9% of the patients underwent reanimation maneuvers, and 15.2% were hospitalized. Only 5.8% of the patients returned to the emergency room after discharge, with 21.7% returning in the first 6 hours after initial treatment. CONCLUSION: The main clinical manifestations of severe allergic reactions were cutaneous. The etiologic agents that were identified as causing these acute episodes differed according to age group. Following in order: drugs (31.2%), foods (23.3% and insect stings (14.9%) in adults with foods predominance in children. Treatment provided for acute anaphylactic reactions was not appropriate. It is necessary to improve educational programs in order to enhance the knowledge on this potentially fatal emergency. PMID:21808856

  8. The Sleeping Dragon Awakens: Ramifications of Chinese Influence in Latin America

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-10

    consensus is that China’s influence in Latin America is not an immediate threat to U.S. and in fact, may be of great benefit to the region in the short...territorial integrity; mutual non-aggression; non-interference in each other’s internal affairs; equality and mutual benefit ; and peaceful coexistence...player. China’s attention provides recognition, as well as respect for Brazil’s sovereignty, and a relationship of mutual benefit and peaceful

  9. Inequality, Zika epidemics, and the lack of reproductive rights in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Vélez, Ana Cristina González; Diniz, Simone G

    2016-11-01

    It is well-documented that structural economic inequalities in Latin America are expressed through and reinforce existing gender gaps. This article aims to look at the relationship between structural inequalities and reproductive health in the case of the Zika epidemic. The consequences of the epidemic will continue to affect the same women whose access to comprehensive reproductive health services, including safe abortion, is restricted at best.

  10. The role of the Organization of American States in the development of seismology in Latin America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quesada, A.

    1982-01-01

    Seismological studies in Latin America were initiated at the beginning of the 20th century, when the first seismological stations were deployed by certain scientific associations. These efforts provided an incentive to the professional community for further activites. Until this date, the only seismic records that existed were historical accounts of catastrophes caused by earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. This type of information of course, leads to "fantasy" and incorrect descriptions of what has taken place. 

  11. Opportunities for Small Geothermal Projects: Rural Power for Latin America, the Caribbean, and the Philippines

    SciTech Connect

    Vimmerstedt, L.

    1998-11-30

    The objective of this report is to provide information on small geothermal project (less than 5 MW) opportunities in Latin America, the Caribbean, and the Philippines. This overview of issues facing small geothermal projects is intended especially for those who are not already familiar with small geothermal opportunities. This is a summary of issues and opportunities and serves as a starting point in determining next steps to develop this market.

  12. The Pursuit of a Failed U.S. Drug Policy in Latin America

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    explain why American policymakers continue failed drug policies throughout Latin America, scholars such as Eva Bertram and her colleagues have...closely linked to political competition; Eva Bertram and her colleagues write that politicians sustain momentum for aggressive drug policies by...Online (10.1017/S1049096511001739). 14 Scherlen, “Drug War Policy Termination,” 68. 15 Eva Bertram , Drug War Politics, 258. 16 “Section 7: Values

  13. Some thoughts about the IAU Strategic Plan in Latin America and the Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Peimbert, Silvia

    2015-03-01

    The distribution of overall education and culture among the population in Latin America and the Caribbean has a very wide range; this is also the case for astronomical engagement. The route to follow in the strategic plan needs to address this situation, for the different levels of development. In particular, guidelines should be established for the regional node(s) where achievable goals should be set up and evaluated periodically. I present a set of ideas on this subject.

  14. Cropland/pastureland dynamics and the slowdown of deforestation in Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graesser, Jordan; Aide, T. Mitchell; Grau, H. Ricardo; Ramankutty, Navin

    2015-03-01

    Latin America has the planet’s largest land reserves for agriculture and had the most rapid agricultural expansion during the twenty-first century. A large portion of the expansion replaced forests, as shown by many local and regional studies. However, expansion varied regionally and also replaced other land covers. Further, it is important to distinguish between changes in cropland and pastureland as they produce food at different levels of efficiency and intensity. We used thirteen years (2001-2013) of MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer satellite imagery to characterize cropland and pastureland expansion at multiple scales across Latin America. From 2001 to 2013, 17% of new cropland and 57% of new pastureland replaced forests throughout Latin America. Cropland expansion from 2001 to 2013 was less (44.27 Mha) than pastureland (96.9 Mha), but 44% of the 2013 cropland total was new cropland, versus 27% of the 2013 pastureland total, revealing higher regional expansion rates of row crop agriculture. The majority of cropland expansion was into pastureland within core agricultural regions of Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay, and Uruguay. On the contrary, pastureland largely expanded at frontiers, such as central Brazil, western Paraguay, and northern Guatemala. As others have suggested, regional agriculture is strongly influenced by globalization. Indeed, we find an overall decrease in agricultural expansion after 2007, coinciding with the global economic slowdown. The results illustrate agricultural cropland and pastureland expansion across Latin America is largely segregated, and emphasize the importance of distinguishing between the two agricultural systems, as they vary in land use intensity and efficiency.

  15. A Review of Breast Cancer Care and Outcomes in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Wilking, Nils; Jönsson, Bengt; Luciani, Silvana; Cazap, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    This review presents an overview of breast cancer care, burden, and outcomes in Latin America, as well as the challenges and opportunities for improvement. Information was gleaned through a review of the literature, public databases, and conference presentations, in addition to a survey of clinical experts and patient organizations from the region. Breast cancer annual incidence (114,900 cases) and mortality (37,000 deaths) are the highest of all women's cancers in Latin America, and they are increasing. Twice as many breast cancer deaths are expected by 2030. In Peru, Mexico, Colombia, and Brazil, diagnosis and death at younger ages deprives society of numerous productive years, as does high disease occurrence in Argentina and Uruguay. Approximately 30%–40% of diagnoses are metastatic disease. High mortality-to-incidence ratios (MIRs) in Latin America indicate poor survival, partly because of the late stage at diagnosis and poorer access to treatment. Between 2002 and 2008, MIRs decreased in all countries, albeit unevenly. Costa Rica's change in MIR outpaced incidence growth, indicating impressive progress in breast cancer survival. The situation is similar, although to a lesser extent, in Colombia and Ecuador. The marginal drops of MIRs in Brazil and Mexico mainly reflect incidence growth rather than progress in outcomes. Panama's MIR is still high. Epidemiological data are scattered and of varying quality in Latin America. However, one could ascertain that the burden of breast cancer in the region is considerable and growing due to demographic changes, particularly the aging population, and socioeconomic development. Early diagnosis and population-wide access to evidence-based treatment remain unresolved problems, despite progress achieved by some countries. PMID:23442305

  16. Voluntary reduction of trans-fatty acids in Latin America and the Caribbean: current situation.

    PubMed

    Monge-Rojas, Rafael; Colón-Ramos, Uriyoán; Jacoby, Enrique; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2011-02-01

    As part of the Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization Trans-Fat-Free Americas initiative, 12 representatives from food industries in Latin America and the Caribbean signed a declaration stating their intention to voluntarily eliminate industrially produced trans-fatty acids (TFA) from the Americas. A year later, in order to document the extent of the voluntary reduction, each declarant was asked to describe all reformulations and reductions in the TFA content of their products. After up to six requests for data, only three declarants provided such information in detail, and three others offered an overall summary of their reformulations. Additionally, three declarants reported the barriers that limit this process: availability of oil substitutes, cost, and consumers' sensory acceptance. The content of TFA and saturated fat in the food supply in the Americas should be regulated and strictly monitored in order to adequately evaluate a reduction of TFA in the region.

  17. International Migration and Gender in Latin America: A Comparative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Massey, Douglas S.; Fischer, Mary J.; Capoferro, Chiara

    2010-01-01

    We review census data to assess the standing of five Latin American nations on a gender continuum ranging from patriarchal to matrifocal. We show that Mexico and Costa Rica lie close to one another with a highly patriarchal system of gender relations whereas Nicaragua and the Dominican Republic are similar in having a matrifocal system. Puerto Rico occupies a middle position, blending characteristics of both systems. These differences yield different patterns of female relative to male migration. Female householders in the two patriarchal settings displayed low rates of out-migration compared with males, whereas in the two matrifocal countries the ratio of female to male migration was much higher, in some case exceeding their male counterparts. Multivariate analyses showed that in patriarchal societies, a formal or informal union with a male dramatically lowers the odds of female out-migration, whereas in matrifocal societies marriage and cohabitation have no real effect. The most important determinants of female migration from patriarchal settings are the migrant status of the husband or partner, having relatives in the United States, and the possession of legal documents. In matrifocal settings, however, female migration is less related to the possession of documents, partner’s migrant status, or having relatives in the United States and more strongly related to the woman’s own migratory experience. Whereas the process of cumulative causation appears to be driven largely by men in patriarchal societies, it is women who dominate the process in matrifocal settings. PMID:21399742

  18. Institutions and national development in Latin America: a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Portes, Alejandro; Smith, Lori D.

    2013-01-01

    We review the theoretical and empirical literatures on the role of institutions on national development as a prelude to present a more rigorous and measurable definition of the concept and a methodology to study this relationship at the national and subnational levels. The existing research literature features conflicting definitions of the concept of “institutions” and empirical tests based mostly on reputational indices, with countries as units of analysis. The present study’s methodology is based on a set of five strategic organizations studied comparatively in five Latin American countries. These include key federal agencies, public administrative organizations, and stock exchanges. Systematic analysis of results show a pattern of differences between economically-oriented institutions and those entrusted with providing basic services to the general population. Consistent differences in institutional quality also emerge across countries, despite similar levels of economic development. Using the algebraic methods developed by Ragin, we test six hypotheses about factors determining the developmental character of particular institutions. Implications of results for theory and for methodological practices of future studies in this field are discussed. PMID:26543407

  19. Institutions and national development in Latin America: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Portes, Alejandro; Smith, Lori D

    We review the theoretical and empirical literatures on the role of institutions on national development as a prelude to present a more rigorous and measurable definition of the concept and a methodology to study this relationship at the national and subnational levels. The existing research literature features conflicting definitions of the concept of "institutions" and empirical tests based mostly on reputational indices, with countries as units of analysis. The present study's methodology is based on a set of five strategic organizations studied comparatively in five Latin American countries. These include key federal agencies, public administrative organizations, and stock exchanges. Systematic analysis of results show a pattern of differences between economically-oriented institutions and those entrusted with providing basic services to the general population. Consistent differences in institutional quality also emerge across countries, despite similar levels of economic development. Using the algebraic methods developed by Ragin, we test six hypotheses about factors determining the developmental character of particular institutions. Implications of results for theory and for methodological practices of future studies in this field are discussed.

  20. [The political context for community participation in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Briceño-León, R

    1998-01-01

    This article reviews the overall significance of the concept of community participation in health with respect to endemic diseases. It also observes how changes in Latin American society during the past forty years have forced radical changes in the notion of participation. The article describes changes in society and analyzes participation in the Cold War context, with four modalities of participation: as ideological manipulation, as cheap labor, as medical care facilitation, and as subversion. It then reviews participation in the context of the crisis of ideologies and describes two modalities: participation as a grassroots movement and as popular promotion. Finally, it interprets the forms participation takes in the context of economic adjustment programs, and from there it describes participation as both a complement to the State and a form of privatization. The article concludes with a proposal for participation as a mechanism to expand and extend democracy; in this sense, it highlights participation as a means of criticism of power, a fomenter of democratic organization, and a mechanism of transformation for the health sector.