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Sample records for africa latin america

  1. Directory of Engineering Education Institutions: Africa, Asia, Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    This directory presents data on 458 degree-awarding engineering education institutions in countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Data include the general educational pattern of the country and specific institutional information such as: structure, staff, enrollment, research, specializations offered, address, academic period, admissions…

  2. Africa, Asia, Europe, and Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loh, Eudora I.

    1992-01-01

    This annotated bibliography lists 30 government documents published between 1988 and 1991 by Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Burundi, Chile, China, Columbia, Denmark, France, Gambia, Guinea Bissau, Hong Kong, India, Italy, Luxembourg, Mexico, Nepal, Nigeria, Portugal, Rwanda, South Africa, and Thailand. Topics addressed include the environment,…

  3. Africa, Asia, Europe, and Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loh, Eudora I.

    1994-01-01

    Annotates 25 publications from 19 countries: Bolivia, Brazil, Cape Verde, Chile, Dominican Republic, Hungary, India, Ireland, Jamaica, Malaysia, Mexico, Morocco, Mozambique, Netherlands, Niger, Nigeria, Peru, South Africa, and Venezuela. Topics include the environment, women's role, and household consumption and expenditures. The publication of an…

  4. Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soni, P. Sarita, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This serial issue features 6 members of the Indiana University System faculty who have focused their research on Latin America, past and present. The first article, "A Literature of Their Own," highlights Darlene Sadlier's research on Brazilian women's fiction and poetry that has led to an interest in the interplay of Brazilian and Portuguese…

  5. Cholera in Africa: lessons on transmission and control for Latin America.

    PubMed

    Glass, R I; Claeson, M; Blake, P A; Waldman, R J; Pierce, N F

    1991-09-28

    In January, 1991, epidemic cholera emerged in Peru and spread to 7 other countries of Latin America. Cholera was introduced 20 years ago to Africa, where it spread rapidly to 30 of the 46 countries of the region and by 1990 accounted for 90% of all cases reported to the World Health Organisation. Many lessons from the cholera epidemic in Africa are relevant to efforts to control the disease in Latin America. Public health practices from the past--quarantine and cordon sanitaire to halt introduction of cholera by travellers, and vaccination and mass chemoprophylaxis to control epidemics--are ineffective in preventing spread of the disease. Cholera can be transmitted not only by contaminated water but also by food. Social phenomena such as mass migrations and burial practices may play a greater role than previously understood. While efforts to prevent the spread of cholera have been ineffective, cholera-associated mortality can be decreased with rehydration therapy. Since the current pandemic is unlikely to retreat soon, new strategies are urgently needed to control the spread of cholera through sanitary and behavioural interventions or improved vaccines. PMID:1681168

  6. Institutional Research in Emerging Countries of Southern Africa, Latin America, and the Middle East and North Africa: Global Frameworks and Local Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lange, Lis; Saavedra, F. Mauricio; Romano, Jeanine

    2013-01-01

    This chapter presents a synthesis of the conceptualization and practice of institutional research (IR) in higher education (HE) in emerging countries across Southern Africa, Latin America and the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) regions. The chapter contextualizes the growing need for IR in these regions, identifies problems and challenges…

  7. [Overseas disease: comparative studies of onchocerciasis in Latin America and Africa].

    PubMed

    Sá, Magali Romero; Maia-Herzog, Marilza

    2003-01-01

    Round worm is a parasite, Onchocera, and is transmitted by a black fly, simulidae; it can cause blindness. Originally from the African continent, where it is widespread, in Latin America it was first discovered in Guatemala in 1917; later instances were recorded in Mexico, Venezuela, Colombia and Brazil. The establishment of this disease in the Americas has intrigued scientists since then and today it is an open question. The multidisciplinary project described in this research note aims to investigate historical aspects of the arrival and spread of the disease in Latin America and, to make comparative studies of the history of the disease on both continents. The increasing importance of the disease has meant greater value being attributed to collections of simuliídeo, whose Brazilian species were first studied by Adolpho Lutz at the beginning of the 20th century. PMID:12901388

  8. Science in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayala, Francisco J.

    1995-01-01

    A brief history of science and technology in Latin America that begins with the Mayan civilization and progresses through the colonial period to the present. Compares increased scientific productivity in the Latin American and Caribbean regions to productivity in the United States and European Union. (LZ)

  9. Fine Particulate Pollution and Source Apportionment in the Urban Centers for Africa, Asia and Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guttikunda, S. K.; Johnson, T. M.; Procee, P.

    2004-12-01

    Fossil fuel combustion for domestic cooking and heating, power generation, industrial processes, and motor vehicles are the primary sources of air pollution in the developing country cities. Over the past twenty years, major advances have been made in understanding the social and economic consequences of air pollution. In both industrialized and developing countries, it has been shown that air pollution from energy combustion has detrimental impacts on human health and the environment. Lack of information on the sectoral contributions to air pollution - especially fine particulates, is one of the typical constraints for an effective integrated urban air quality management program. Without such information, it is difficult, if not impossible, for decision makers to provide policy advice and make informed investment decisions related to air quality improvements in developing countries. This also raises the need for low-cost ways of determining the principal sources of fine PM for a proper planning and decision making. The project objective is to develop and verify a methodology to assess and monitor the sources of PM, using a combination of ground-based monitoring and source apportionment techniques. This presentation will focus on four general tasks: (1) Review of the science and current activities in the combined use of monitoring data and modeling for better understanding of PM pollution. (2) Review of recent advances in atmospheric source apportionment techniques (e.g., principal component analysis, organic markers, source-receptor modeling techniques). (3) Develop a general methodology to use integrated top-down and bottom-up datasets. (4) Review of a series of current case studies from Africa, Asia and Latin America and the methodologies applied to assess the air pollution and its sources.

  10. Asthma in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Forno, Erick; Gogna, Mudita; Cepeda, Alfonso; Yañez, Anahi; Solé, Dirceu; Cooper, Philip; Avila, Lydiana; Soto-Quiros, Manuel; Castro-Rodriguez, Jose A; Celedón, Juan C

    2015-09-01

    Consistent with the diversity of Latin America, there is profound variability in asthma burden among and within countries in this region. Regional variation in asthma prevalence is likely multifactorial and due to genetics, perinatal exposures, diet, obesity, tobacco use, indoor and outdoor pollutants, psychosocial stress and microbial or parasitic infections. Similarly, non-uniform progress in asthma management leads to regional variability in disease morbidity. Future studies of distinct asthma phenotypes should follow-up well-characterised Latin American subgroups and examine risk factors that are unique or common in Latin America (eg, stress and violence, parasitic infections and use of biomass fuels for cooking). Because most Latin American countries share the same barriers to asthma management, concerted and multifaceted public health and research efforts are needed, including approaches to curtail tobacco use, campaigns to improve asthma treatment, broadening access to care and clinical trials of non-pharmacological interventions (eg, replacing biomass fuels with gas or electric stoves). PMID:26103996

  11. Asthma in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Forno, Erick; Gogna, Mudita; Cepeda, Alfonso; Yañez, Anahi; Solé, Dirceu; Cooper, Philip; Avila, Lydiana; Soto-Quiros, Manuel; Castro-Rodriguez, Jose A.; Celedón, Juan C.

    2015-01-01

    Consistent with the diversity of Latin America, there is profound variability in asthma burden among and within countries in this region. Regional variation in asthma prevalence is likely multifactorial and due to genetics, perinatal exposures, diet, obesity, tobacco use, indoor and outdoor pollutants, psychosocial stress, and microbial or parasitic infections. Similarly, nonuniform progress in asthma management leads to regional variability in disease morbidity. Future studies of distinct asthma phenotypes should follow up well-characterized Latin American subgroups and examine risk factors that are unique or common in Latin America (e.g. stress and violence, parasitic infections and use of biomass fuels for cooking). Because most Latin American countries share the same barriers to asthma management, concerted and multifaceted public health and research efforts are needed, including approaches to curtail tobacco use, campaigns to improve asthma treatment, broadening access to care and clinical trials of non-pharmacologic interventions (e.g. replacing biomass fuels with gas or electric stoves). PMID:26103996

  12. Teaching About Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

    This publication is offered as a resource guide for teachers rather than as a prescriptive syllabus. No course of study is delineated and no course objectives are spelled out. Instead there are illustrative examples for applying discovery techniques to the study of Latin America, suggestions of various themes useful in organizing a course of study…

  13. IFLA General Conference, 1992. Division of Regional Activities: Section on Africa; Section on Asia/Oceania; Section on Latin America and the Caribbean. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions, London (England).

    Seven papers delivered at the 1992 International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions annual meeting relating to regional activities are presented. These papers deal with library issues in Africa, Asia and Oceania, Latin America, and the Caribbean. The papers are: (1) "Designing National Information Policies in African: Process and…

  14. Identifying important breast cancer control strategies in Asia, Latin America and the Middle East/North Africa

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is the most frequent cause of cancer death in women worldwide, but global disparities in breast cancer control persist, due to a lack of a comprehensive breast cancer control strategy in many countries. Objectives To identify and compare the need for breast cancer control strategies in Asia, Latin America and the Middle East/North Africa and to develop a common framework to guide the development of national breast cancer control strategies. Methods Data were derived from open-ended, semi-structured interviews conducted in 2007 with 221 clinicians, policy makers, and patient advocates; stratified across Asia (n = 97), Latin America (n = 46), the Middle East/North Africa (ME/NA) (n = 39) and Australia and Canada (n = 39). Respondents were identified using purposive and snowballing sampling. Interpretation of the data utilized interpretive phenomenological analysis where transcripts and field notes were coded and analyzed and common themes were identified. Analysis of regional variation was conducted based on the frequency of discussion and the writing of the manuscript followed the RATS guidelines. Results Analysis revealed four major themes that form the foundation for developing national breast cancer control strategies: 1) building capacity; 2) developing evidence; 3) removing barriers; and 4) promoting advocacy - each specified across five sub-ordinate dimensions. The propensity to discuss most dimensions was similar across regions, but managing advocacy was discussed more frequently (p = 0.004) and organized advocacy was discussed less frequently (p < 0.001) in Australia and Canada. Conclusions This unique research identified common themes for the development of breast cancer control strategies, grounded in the experience of local practitioners, policy makers and advocacy leaders across diverse regions. Future research should be aimed at gathering a wider array of experiences, including those of patients. PMID:21933435

  15. Educational Building in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baza, Jadille; Vaz, Rita de Cassia Alves; Millan, Eduardo; Almeida, Rodolfo

    2002-01-01

    Presents articles describing recent developments in three Latin American countries (Chile, Brazil, and Venezuela) to expand public education facilities, along with a report on UNESCO's recent seminar in Latin America on architecture for an inclusive education. (EV)

  16. Fermilab and Latin America

    SciTech Connect

    Lederman, Leon M.

    2006-09-25

    As Director of Fermilab, starting in 1979, I began a series of meetings with scientists in Latin America. The motivation was to stir collaboration in the field of high energy particle physics, the central focus of Fermilab. In the next 13 years, these Pan American Symposia stirred much discussion of the use of modern physics, created several groups to do collaborative research at Fermilab, and often centralized facilities and, today, still provides the possibility for much more productive North-South collaboration in research and education. In 1992, I handed these activities over to the AAAS, as President. This would, I hoped, broaden areas of collaboration. Such collaboration is unfortunately very sensitive to political events. In a rational world, it would be the rewards, cultural and economic, of collaboration that would modulate political relations. We are not there yet.

  17. Fermilab and Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lederman, Leon M.

    2006-09-01

    As Director of Fermilab, starting in 1979, I began a series of meetings with scientists in Latin America. The motivation was to stir collaboration in the field of high energy particle physics, the central focus of Fermilab. In the next 13 years, these Pan American Symposia stirred much discussion of the use of modern physics, created several groups to do collaborative research at Fermilab, and often centralized facilities and, today, still provides the possibility for much more productive North-South collaboration in research and education. In 1992, I handed these activities over to the AAAS, as President. This would, I hoped, broaden areas of collaboration. Such collaboration is unfortunately very sensitive to political events. In a rational world, it would be the rewards, cultural and economic, of collaboration that would modulate political relations. We are not there yet.

  18. The Internet in Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fragoso, Suely; Maldonado, Alberto Efendy

    This article addresses the diverse patterns of internet access, uses and appropriations by different populations in Latin America. The correlation between nequalities in access and economic disparities is not sufficient to define or explain the region's complexity. In an attempt to avoid economic and technological determinism while simultaneously visualizing the general picture of the internet in Latin America without disregarding its finer grain idiosyncrasies, the text is organized in three sections. First, a brief overall picture of the global position of Latin America with respect to the internet. Second, a discussion of three profiles of internet penetration and appropriation vis a vis similar local socioeconomic conditions. Third, qualitatively significant examples of the forms of use and appropriation of the internet in Latin America.

  19. Vocational Training in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallenborn, Manfred

    2001-01-01

    Explores historical development and weaknesses and change efforts in vocational training institutions in Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, and Peru. Identifies future directions for the training enterprise in Latin America. (SK)

  20. Developing a Climate Service: Using Hydroclimate Monitoring and Forecasting to Aid Decision Making in Africa and Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, E. F.; Sheffield, J.; Fisher, C. K.; Chaney, N.; Wanders, N.

    2015-12-01

    Hydrological and water scarcity predictions have the potential to provide vital information for a variety of needs including water resources management, agricultural and urban water supply, and flood mitigation. In particular, seasonal forecasts of drought risk can enable farmers to make adaptive choices on crop varieties, labor usage, and technology investments. Forecast skill is generally derived from teleconnections with ocean variability specifically sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies and, equally important persistence in the state of the land in terms of soil moisture, snowpack, or streamflow conditions. Short term precipitation forecasts are critical in flood prediction by extending flood prediction lead times beyond the basin travel time, and thus allows for extended warnings. The Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS) is a UN-wide initiative in which WMO Members and inter- and non- governmental, regional, national and local stakeholders work in partnership to develop targeted climate services. Thus, GFCS offers the potential for hydroclimatologists to develop products (hydroclimatic forecasts) and information services (i.e. product dissemination) to users with the expectation that GFCS will increase the resilience of the society to weather and climate events and to reduce operational costs for economic sectors and regions dependent on water. This presentation will discuss the development of a nascent climate service system focused on hydroclimatic monitoring and forecasting, and initially developed by the authors for Africa and Latin America. Central to this system is the use of satellite remote sensing and hydroclimate forecasts (from days to seasons) in the development of weather and climate information useful for water management in sectors such as flood protection (precipitation and streamflow forecasting) and agriculture (drought and crop forecasting). The elements of this system will be discussed, including the challenges of monitoring and

  1. Neonatal severe bacterial infection impairment estimates in South Asia, sub-Saharan Africa, and Latin America for 2010

    PubMed Central

    Seale, Anna C.; Blencowe, Hannah; Zaidi, Anita; Ganatra, Hammad; Syed, Sana; Engmann, Cyril; Newton, Charles R.; Vergnano, Stefania; Stoll, Barbara J.; Cousens, Simon N.; Lawn, Joy E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Survivors of neonatal infections are at risk of neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI), a burden not previously systematically quantified and yet important for program priority setting. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses were undertaken and applied in a three-step compartmental model to estimate NDI cases after severe neonatal bacterial infection in South Asia, sub-Saharan Africa, and Latin America in neonates of >32 wk gestation (or >1,500 g). Methods: We estimated cases of sepsis, meningitis, pneumonia, or no severe bacterial infection from among estimated cases of possible severe bacterial infection ((pSBI) step 1). We applied respective case fatality risks ((CFRs) step 2) and the NDI risk among survivors (step 3). For neonatal tetanus, incidence estimates were based on the estimated deaths, CFRs, and risk of subsequent NDI. Results: For 2010, we estimated 1.7 million (uncertainty range: 1.1–2.4 million) cases of neonatal sepsis, 200,000 (21,000–350,000) cases of meningitis, 510,000 cases (150,000–930,000) of pneumonia, and 79,000 cases (70,000–930,000) of tetanus in neonates >32 wk gestation (or >1,500 g). Among the survivors, we estimated moderate to severe NDI after neonatal meningitis in 23% (95% confidence interval: 19–26%) of survivors, 18,000 (2,700–35,000) cases, and after neonatal tetanus in 16% (6–27%), 4,700 cases (1,700–8,900). Conclusion: Data are lacking for impairment after neonatal sepsis and pneumonia, especially among those of >32 wk gestation. Improved recognition and treatment of pSBI will reduce neonatal mortality. Lack of follow-up data for survivors of severe bacterial infections, particularly sepsis, was striking. Given the high incidence of sepsis, even minor NDI would be of major public health importance. Prevention of neonatal infection, improved case management, and support for children with NDI are all important strategies, currently receiving limited policy attention. PMID:24366464

  2. Language Politics in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajagopalan, Kanavillil

    2005-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to take stock of the politics of language as it has been playing out in Latin America, ever since the countries in this region were colonized by European powers, mainly Spain and Portugal. Linguistic imperialism is by no means a new phenomenon in this part of the world. In more recent times, the relentless advance of…

  3. Internet Accessibility in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haymond, Ruel

    1998-01-01

    Addresses the problems that prohibit expanded Internet access and possible solutions to these problems, particularly with respect to the country of Chile. The three main problems that block Internet usage in Latin America are high demand and poor infrastructure; high costs for Internet access; and high preliminary costs for computers, modems, and…

  4. Building ESD in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Education for Sustainable Development, 2007

    2007-01-01

    To encourage efforts for furthering the UN DESD agenda in Latin America, a meeting titled "Building Education for Sustainable Development" was held in Costa Rica from 31 October to 2 November 2006. Plenary sessions were interspersed with working groups to look at how ESD can be integrated in formal and non-formal education systems, and to make…

  5. Estimates of possible severe bacterial infection in neonates in sub-Saharan Africa, south Asia, and Latin America for 2012: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Seale, Anna C; Blencowe, Hannah; Manu, Alexander A; Nair, Harish; Bahl, Rajiv; Qazi, Shamim A; Zaidi, Anita K; Berkley, James A; Cousens, Simon N; Lawn, Joy E

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Bacterial infections are a leading cause of the 2·9 million annual neonatal deaths. Treatment is usually based on clinical diagnosis of possible severe bacterial infection (pSBI). To guide programme planning, we have undertaken the first estimates of neonatal pSBI, by sex and by region, for sub-Saharan Africa, south Asia, and Latin America. Methods We included data for pSBI incidence in neonates of 32 weeks' gestation or more (or birthweight ≥1500 g) with livebirth denominator data, undertaking a systematic review and forming an investigator group to obtain unpublished data. We calculated pooled risk estimates for neonatal pSBI and case fatality risk, by sex and by region. We then applied these risk estimates to estimates of livebirths in sub-Saharan Africa, south Asia, and Latin America to estimate cases and associated deaths in 2012. Findings We included data from 22 studies, for 259 944 neonates and 20 196 pSBI cases, with most of the data (18 of the 22 studies) coming from the investigator group. The pooled estimate of pSBI incidence risk was 7·6% (95% CI 6·1–9·2%) and the case-fatality risk associated with pSBI was 9·8% (7·4–12·2). We estimated that in 2012 there were 6·9 million cases (uncertainty range 5·5 million–8·3 million) of pSBI in neonates needing treatment: 3·5 million (2·8 million–4·2 million) in south Asia, 2·6 million (2·1 million–3·1 million) in sub-Saharan Africa, and 0·8 million (0·7 million–1·0 million) in Latin America. The risk of pSBI was greater in boys (risk ratio 1·12, 95% CI 1·06–1·18) than girls. We estimated that there were 0·68 million (0·46 million–0·92 million) neonatal deaths associated with pSBI in 2012. Interpretation The need-to-treat population for pSBI in these three regions is high, with ten cases of pSBI diagnosed for each associated neonatal death. Deaths and disability can be reduced through improved prevention, detection, and case management. Funding The

  6. Pinta: Latin America's Forgotten Disease?

    PubMed

    Stamm, Lola V

    2015-11-01

    Pinta is a neglected, chronic skin disease that was first described in the sixteenth century in Mexico. The World Health Organization lists 15 countries in Latin America where pinta was previously endemic. However, the current prevalence of pinta is unknown due to the lack of surveillance data. The etiological agent of pinta, Treponema carateum, cannot be distinguished morphologically or serologically from the not-yet-cultivable Treponema pallidum subspecies that cause venereal syphilis, yaws, and bejel. Although genomic sequencing has enabled the development of molecular techniques to differentiate the T. pallidum subspecies, comparable information is not available for T. carateum. Because of the influx of migrants and refugees from Latin America, U.S. physicians should consider pinta in the differential diagnosis of skin diseases in children and adolescents who come from areas where pinta was previously endemic and have a positive reaction in serological tests for syphilis. All stages of pinta are treatable with a single intramuscular injection of penicillin. PMID:26304920

  7. [The characteristics of the macro- and trace element composition of the hair in the peoples of Asia, Africa and Latin America].

    PubMed

    Pavlov, Iu V; Alisievich, V I

    1999-01-01

    Macro- and trace element composition of hairs on the head, chest, in the armpits, and on the pubis in the population of Asia, Africa, and Latin America adapted and not to the climate, geographic and ecological conditions of the Russian Federation (Moscow) is studied by spectrography (DPS-13 spectrograph). Element composition of residents of 16 countries is analyzed by variation statistics methods using PC: Lebanon, Syria, Yemen, Bahrain, India, Sierra Leone, Côte d'Ivoire, Rwanda, Kenya, Sudan, Mexico, Ecuador, Bolivia, Brasilia, Columbia, and Chile. Hairs from residents of East Europe (Russians, Byelorussians, Ukrainians) living in Moscow for 6-8 years (adapted) were the reference for comparison. A total of 371 specimens of hairs were examined. Hairs from adapted and not adapted residents of the above-listed countries and continents differ significantly from each other and from the hairs of Russians, Byelorussians, and Ukrainians living in Moscow. PMID:10224921

  8. Three Phylogenetic Groups of nodA and nifH Genes in Sinorhizobium and Mesorhizobium Isolates from Leguminous Trees Growing in Africa and Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Haukka, Kaisa; Lindström, Kristina; Young, J. Peter W.

    1998-01-01

    The diversity and phylogeny of nodA and nifH genes were studied by using 52 rhizobial isolates from Acacia senegal, Prosopis chilensis, and related leguminous trees growing in Africa and Latin America. All of the strains had similar host ranges and belonged to the genera Sinorhizobium and Mesorhizobium, as previously determined by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The restriction patterns and a sequence analysis of the nodA and nifH genes divided the strains into the following three distinct groups: sinorhizobia from Africa, sinorhizobia from Latin America, and mesorhizobia from both regions. In a phylogenetic tree also containing previously published sequences, the nodA genes of our rhizobia formed a branch of their own, but within the branch no correlation between symbiotic genes and host trees was apparent. Within the large group of African sinorhizobia, similar symbiotic gene types were found in different chromosomal backgrounds, suggesting that transfer of symbiotic genes has occurred across species boundaries. Most strains had plasmids, and the presence of plasmid-borne nifH was demonstrated by hybridization for some examples. The nodA and nifH genes of Sinorhizobium teranga ORS1009T grouped with the nodA and nifH genes of the other African sinorhizobia, but Sinorhizobium saheli ORS609T had a totally different nodA sequence, although it was closely related based on the 16S rRNA gene and nifH data. This might be because this S. saheli strain was originally isolated from Sesbania sp., which belongs to a different cross-nodulation group than Acacia and Prosopis spp. The factors that appear to have influenced the evolution of rhizobial symbiotic genes vary in importance at different taxonomic levels. PMID:9464375

  9. Cardiac rehabilitation in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Anchique Santos, Claudia Victoria; Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco; Benaim, Briseida; Burdiat, Gerard; Fernandez Coronado, Rosalia; Gonzalez, Graciela; Herdy, Arthur; Medina-Inojosa, Jose; Santibañez, Claudio; Uriona Villarroel, Juan E; Zeballos, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a description of the status of cardiovascular (CV) rehabilitation (CVR) in Latin America (LA) and the potential impact on CV disease in the region. We discuss the insufficient number of CVR programs in the region and describe the components of CVR that are more commonly available, like exercise interventions, medical assessment and patient education. Additionally, we discuss the heterogeneity in other components, like the evaluation of depression, sleep apnea, and smoking cessation programs. Lastly, we provide a brief review on the main characteristics of the health systems of each country regarding access to CVR programs and compare the average cost of CV procedures and treatments with CVR. PMID:25220257

  10. Teaching physics in Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Darío

    1995-08-01

    A review is made of current teaching practice in Latin America. The impact of research about teaching is assessed. It is argued that the usual role of teaching laboratories as a place just to measure physical constants is a sad waste of time and resources. Also the usual format of lectures is considered inefficient and a plea is made for the return to some kind of personalized instruction. Universities are compared to hospitals. This similitude suggest that the most important changes are related to administrative decisions. The conclusion is rather pessimistic, since the main educational defects arise from factors not easily dealt with.

  11. Updating Malthus in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Bilsborrow, R E

    1991-01-01

    Available arable land in Latin America is actually less than figures indicate, and it is being degraded at a rapid pace. Six Latin American countries are unable to meet their demand for fuelwood, and 10 more are depleting their forests at annual rates of up to 3.8% per year. Land extensification is a national policy in several countries as an alternative to land reform, or subdivision of large land holdings. Guatemala is a case in point. 48% of Guatemala's land is classified as arable, and 80% of this land was already enclosed as farms in the last agricultural census, in 1979. 60% of this land was actually being farmed. 60% of all farms encompass 3.7% of all the farm land, small holdings called minifundia. Between 1964 and 1979 farm numbers increased 45%, total area being farmed rose 13.5%, with an annual increase of 1.2%. Most new farms were settled in the northwestern highlands called the altiplano, where numbers of farms doubled and average size of smallholdings shrank from 0.7-0.45 ha between 1964-1979. The northern lowland tropical forest region, the Peten, is being cut for farmland at one of the fastest rates in the world. Flooding and erosion, as well as urbanization, are also causing irreplaceable loss of farmland. While environmental decline is being recognized in many Latin American countries, the causative role of population growth has not been mentioned in environmental declarations and action plans. PMID:12283998

  12. Gastroenterology training in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Henry; Saenz, Roque; de Almeida Troncon, Luiz E; Lizarzabal, Maribel; Olano, Carolina

    2011-01-01

    Latin America is characterized by ethnic, geographical, cultural, and economic diversity; therefore, training in gastroenterology in the region must be considered in this context. The continent’s medical education is characterized by a lack of standards and the volume of research continues to be relatively small. There is a multiplicity of events in general gastroenterology and in sub-disciplines, both at regional and local levels, which ensure that many colleagues have access to information. Medical education programs must be based on a clinical vision and be considered in close contact with the patients. The programs should be properly supervised, appropriately defined, and evaluated on a regular basis. The disparity between the patients’ needs, the scarce resources available, and the pressures exerted by the health systems on doctors are frequent cited by those complaining of poor professionalism. Teaching development can play a critical role in ensuring the quality of teaching and learning in universities. Continuing professional development programs activities must be planned on the basis of the doctors’ needs, with clearly defined objectives and using proper learning methodologies designed for adults. They must be evaluated and accredited by a competent body, so that they may become the basis of a professional regulatory system. The specialty has made progress in the last decades, offering doctors various possibilities for professional development. The world gastroenterology organization has contributed to the speciality through three distinctive, but closely inter-related, programs: Training Centers, Train-the-Trainers, and Global Guidelines, in which Latin America is deeply involved. PMID:21633594

  13. Gastroenterology training in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Henry; Saenz, Roque; de Almeida Troncon, Luiz E; Lizarzabal, Maribel; Olano, Carolina

    2011-05-14

    Latin America is characterized by ethnic, geographical, cultural, and economic diversity; therefore, training in gastroenterology in the region must be considered in this context. The continent's medical education is characterized by a lack of standards and the volume of research continues to be relatively small. There is a multiplicity of events in general gastroenterology and in sub-disciplines, both at regional and local levels, which ensure that many colleagues have access to information. Medical education programs must be based on a clinical vision and be considered in close contact with the patients. The programs should be properly supervised, appropriately defined, and evaluated on a regular basis. The disparity between the patients' needs, the scarce resources available, and the pressures exerted by the health systems on doctors are frequent cited by those complaining of poor professionalism. Teaching development can play a critical role in ensuring the quality of teaching and learning in universities. Continuing professional development programs activities must be planned on the basis of the doctors' needs, with clearly defined objectives and using proper learning methodologies designed for adults. They must be evaluated and accredited by a competent body, so that they may become the basis of a professional regulatory system. The specialty has made progress in the last decades, offering doctors various possibilities for professional development. The world gastroenterology organization has contributed to the speciality through three distinctive, but closely inter-related, programs: Training Centers, Train-the-Trainers, and Global Guidelines, in which Latin America is deeply involved. PMID:21633594

  14. Industrialization in Latin America: Successes and Failures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baer, Werner

    1984-01-01

    Industrialization in Latin America and how it has influenced growth, employment, and income distribution are examined. The role played by multinational companies in industrialization is discussed. The future of Latin America's growth possibilities is evaluated in the light of the Asian export-industrialization models. (Author/RM)

  15. Educating cities in Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messina, Graciela; Valdés-Cotera, Raúl

    2013-09-01

    This article considers the development of educating cities from a political perspective, illustrating in detail the diversity of organisations and individuals involved and the challenges they are facing. Bearing in mind that educating cities were established from the 1990s onwards in Europe and spread to other continents from there, the purpose of this article is to demonstrate how this proposal was adopted in Latin America. After discussing the basic aims of educating cities, the paper focuses on the Latin American experience, giving examples of existing projects within the educating cities initiative. The authors are particularly interested in the contrast between the political intentions of educating cities on the one hand and the social, economic, political and cultural world on the other hand. They observe that in this context there is a danger of the individual being forgotten, which contradicts the actual intention of the educating city concept. They also discuss the problem of who should carry out the realisation of educating cities and how the various stakeholders might coordinate their actions. Contemplating new directions at the end of their paper, the authors sum up a number of guidelines and offer recommendations for action in developing educating cities.

  16. Developing nanotechnology in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Shapira, Philip

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates the development of nanotechnology in Latin America with a particular focus on Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Uruguay. Based on data for nanotechnology research publications and patents and suggesting a framework for analyzing the development of R&D networks, we identify three potential strategies of nanotechnology research collaboration. Then, we seek to identify the balance of emphasis upon each of the three strategies by mapping the current research profile of those four countries. In general, we find that they are implementing policies and programs to develop nanotechnologies but differ in their collaboration strategies, institutional involvement, and level of development. On the other hand, we find that they coincide in having a modest industry participation in research and a low level of commercialization of nanotechnologies. PMID:21170134

  17. Latin America: population and internal unrest.

    PubMed

    Wiarda, J H; Siqueira Wiarda, I

    1985-09-01

    This discussion of population and internal unrest in Latin America covers the following: pressures on land and agriculture; economic frustrations; the youth and radicalism; rising social tensions; and political instability. At current growth rates, Latin America's population is projected to increases between 1981 2001 by 225 million people. This staggering population growth is likely to have serious political, economic, social, strategic, and other implications. The strong opposition to family planning which came principally from nationlists, the military, and the church during the 1960s has changed to general support for voluntary family planning programs in much of Latin America. Too rapid population growth now is viewed widely as aggravating the problems of development and putting severe strains on services and facilities. The wish to limit family size is particularly strong among women. Most of Latin America's untapped land is unusable, either so steeply mountainous, densely tropical, or barren of topsoil that it cannot support life at even the most meager level of subsistence. Food production in most of Latin America has not kept pace with population growth. Since most new agricultural production is oriented toward exports rather than home consumption, conditions for most rural populations are worsening. Economic dilemmas facing Latin America include widespread poverty, the world's highest per capita debt, unemployment and underemployment that may reach between 40-50% of the workforce, negative economic growth rates over the past 5 years, immense income inequalities, declining terms of trade, extensive capital flight, little new investment or foreign assistance, increased protectionism on the part of those countriews with whom Latin America must trade, rising prices for the goods Latin America must import, and (in some countries) devastation of the economic infrastrucutre by guerrilla forces. The unprecedent flow from the countryside has made Latin America the

  18. A World of Hurt: Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramaswami, Rama

    2009-01-01

    Massive socioeconomic problems have left Latin American education in a dire condition, and decades behind the rest of the globe in integrating technology into teaching and learning. But a few spots in the region offer signs of hope. In this article, the author describes several efforts at tech-based educational reform in Latin America.

  19. Latin America: Intercultural Experiential Learning Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT. Language Research Center.

    This learning aid is intended to help Americans become more effective in understanding and communicating with Latin Americans. The book consists of the following: (1) a map of Latin America, with area and population statistics for the various countries; (2) a brief description of the land, the people, the economy, diet, religion, government,…

  20. Challenges for Scientists in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Kalergis, Alexis M; Lacerda, Marcus; Rabinovich, Gabriel A; Rosenstein, Yvonne

    2016-09-01

    Despite political turmoil and economical crisis, research in Latin America has considerably advanced over recent decades. The present 'Point of View' outlines our perspectives on the working conditions, successes, difficulties, limitations, and challenges of biomedical scientific communities in four Latin American countries: Argentina (G.A.R.), Brazil (M.L.), Chile (A.K.), and Mexico (Y.R.). PMID:27426044

  1. Reproductive governance in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Lynn M; Roberts, Elizabeth F S

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops the concept of reproductive governance as an analytic tool for tracing the shifting political rationalities of population and reproduction. As advanced here, the concept of reproductive governance refers to the mechanisms through which different historical configurations of actors - such as state, religious, and international financial institutions, NGOs, and social movements - use legislative controls, economic inducements, moral injunctions, direct coercion, and ethical incitements to produce, monitor, and control reproductive behaviours and population practices. Examples are drawn from Latin America, where reproductive governance is undergoing a dramatic transformation as public policy conversations are coalescing around new moral regimes and rights-based actors through debates about abortion, emergency contraception, sterilisation, migration, and assisted reproductive technologies. Reproductive discourses are increasingly framed through morality and contestations over 'rights', where rights-bearing citizens are pitted against each other in claiming reproductive, sexual, indigenous, and natural rights, as well as the 'right to life' of the unborn. The concept of reproductive governance can be applied to other settings in order to understand shifting political rationalities within the domain of reproduction. PMID:22889430

  2. Haematopoietic cell transplants in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Gale, R P; Seber, A; Bonfim, C; Pasquini, M

    2016-07-01

    Haematopoietic cell transplants are done by more than 1500 transplant centres in 75 countries, mostly for life-threatening haematological disorders. However, transplant technology and access are not uniformly distributed worldwide. Most transplants are done predominately in Europe, North America and some Asian countries. We review transplant activity in Latin America, a geographic region with a population of >600 million persons living in countries with diverse economic and social development levels. These data indicate a 20-40-fold lower frequency of transplants in Latin America compared with Europe and North America. We show that although economics, infrastructure and expertise are important limitations, other variables also operate. Changes in several of these variables may substantially increase transplant activity in Latin America. PMID:26999468

  3. Hadron Therapy in Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreiner, A. J.; Bergueiro, J.; Burlon, A. A.; Di Paolo, H.; Castell, W.; Thatar Vento, V.; Levinas, P.; Cartelli, D.; Kesque, J. M.; Valda, A. A.; Ilardo, J. C.; Baldo, M.; Erhardt, J.; Debray, M. E.; Somacal, H. R.; Minsky, D. M.; Estrada, L.; Hazarabedian, A.; Johann, F.; Suarez Sandin, J. C.; Igarzabal, M.; Huck, H.; Repetto, M.; Obligado, M.; Lell, J.; Padulo, J.; Herrera, M.; Gonzalez, S. R.; Capoulat, M. E.; Davidson, J.; Davidson, M.

    2010-08-01

    The use of proton and heavy ion beams for radiotherapy is a well established cancer treatment modality in the first world, which is becoming increasingly widespread, due to its clear advantages over conventional photon-based treatments. This strategy is suitable when the tumor is spatially well localized. Also the use of neutrons has tradition. Here Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) stands out, though on a much smaller scale, being a promising alternative for tumors which are diffuse and infiltrating. On this sector, so far only nuclear reactors have been used as neutron sources. In this paper we briefly describe the situation in Latin America and in particular we discuss the present status of an ongoing project to develop a folded Tandem-ElectroStatic-Quadrupole (TESQ) accelerator for Accelerator-Based (AB)-Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) at the Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina. The project goal is a machine capable of delivering 30 mA of 2.4 MeV protons to be used in conjunction with a neutron production target based on the 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction. These are the specifications needed to produce sufficiently intense and clean epithermal neutron beams to perform BNCT for deep-seated tumors in less than an hour. The machine being currently designed and constructed is a folded TESQ with a terminal at 0.6 MV as a smaller scale prototype. Since the concept is modular the same structure will be used for the 1.2 MV final accelerator.

  4. Hadron Therapy in Latin America

    SciTech Connect

    Kreiner, A. J.; Minsky, D. M.; Bergueiro, J.; Castell, W.; Thatar Vento, V.; Cartelli, D.; Kesque, J. M.; Ilardo, J. C.; Baldo, M.; Erhardt, J.; Estrada, L.; Hazarabedian, A.; Johann, F.; Suarez Sandin, J. C.; Igarzabal, M.; Repetto, M.; Obligado, M.; Lell, J.; Padulo, J.; Herrera, M.

    2010-08-04

    The use of proton and heavy ion beams for radiotherapy is a well established cancer treatment modality in the first world, which is becoming increasingly widespread, due to its clear advantages over conventional photon-based treatments. This strategy is suitable when the tumor is spatially well localized. Also the use of neutrons has tradition. Here Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) stands out, though on a much smaller scale, being a promising alternative for tumors which are diffuse and infiltrating. On this sector, so far only nuclear reactors have been used as neutron sources. In this paper we briefly describe the situation in Latin America and in particular we discuss the present status of an ongoing project to develop a folded Tandem-ElectroStatic-Quadrupole (TESQ) accelerator for Accelerator-Based (AB)-Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) at the Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina. The project goal is a machine capable of delivering 30 mA of 2.4 MeV protons to be used in conjunction with a neutron production target based on the {sup 7}Li(p,n){sup 7}Be reaction. These are the specifications needed to produce sufficiently intense and clean epithermal neutron beams to perform BNCT for deep-seated tumors in less than an hour. The machine being currently designed and constructed is a folded TESQ with a terminal at 0.6 MV as a smaller scale prototype. Since the concept is modular the same structure will be used for the 1.2 MV final accelerator.

  5. Algunos Animales de Latino America = Some Animals of Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Kathryn F. B.

    Developed by the Latin American Culture Studies Project for educators of elementary level children, these materials are designed to teach students the Spanish and English names of animals found in Latin America. The lesson includes coloring sheets, duplicating masters, fact sheets, the card game Maymayguashi, and directions for preparation. (DB)

  6. Geographical inequalities in mortality in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Curto de Casas, S I

    1993-05-01

    This paper is an attempt to synthesize several models of health and levels of affluence in Latin America. An analysis is accomplished wherein various countries and regions of Latin America are classified for health purposes as either products of a poverty model or a wealth model. Variables utilized include: mortality rates in preschool children and infants; elderly mortality; life expectancy; and overall causes of death. All three of the general models can be found in different parts of Latin America. More developed countries and regions tend to approximate the wealth model where chronic and degenerative diseases dominate. Still, while life expectations are shorter in countries and regions with lower levels of development, some elderly are afflicted by chronic and degenerative diseases. PMID:8511622

  7. Young Workers in Latin America: Protection or Self-Determination?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salazar, Maria Cristina

    1991-01-01

    Child labor in Latin America is discussed in terms of its history and social and economic conditions. Relationships between children and adults and new social policies that effect child labor in Latin America are considered. (BC)

  8. Universal Definition of Loss to Follow-Up in HIV Treatment Programs: A Statistical Analysis of 111 Facilities in Africa, Asia, and Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Benjamin H.; Yiannoutsos, Constantin T.; Westfall, Andrew O.; Newman, Jamie E.; Zhou, Jialun; Cesar, Carina; Brinkhof, Martin W. G.; Mwango, Albert; Balestre, Eric; Carriquiry, Gabriela; Sirisanthana, Thira; Mukumbi, Henri; Martin, Jeffrey N.; Grimsrud, Anna; Bacon, Melanie; Thiebaut, Rodolphe

    2011-01-01

    Background Although patient attrition is recognized as a threat to the long-term success of antiretroviral therapy programs worldwide, there is no universal definition for classifying patients as lost to follow-up (LTFU). We analyzed data from health facilities across Africa, Asia, and Latin America to empirically determine a standard LTFU definition. Methods and Findings At a set “status classification” date, patients were categorized as either “active” or “LTFU” according to different intervals from time of last clinic encounter. For each threshold, we looked forward 365 d to assess the performance and accuracy of this initial classification. The best-performing definition for LTFU had the lowest proportion of patients misclassified as active or LTFU. Observational data from 111 health facilities—representing 180,718 patients from 19 countries—were included in this study. In the primary analysis, for which data from all facilities were pooled, an interval of 180 d (95% confidence interval [CI]: 173–181 d) since last patient encounter resulted in the fewest misclassifications (7.7%, 95% CI: 7.6%–7.8%). A secondary analysis that gave equal weight to cohorts and to regions generated a similar result (175 d); however, an alternate approach that used inverse weighting for cohorts based on variance and equal weighting for regions produced a slightly lower summary measure (150 d). When examined at the facility level, the best-performing definition varied from 58 to 383 d (mean = 150 d), but when a standard definition of 180 d was applied to each facility, only slight increases in misclassification (mean = 1.2%, 95% CI: 1.0%–1.5%) were observed. Using this definition, the proportion of patients classified as LTFU by facility ranged from 3.1% to 45.1% (mean = 19.9%, 95% CI: 19.1%–21.7%). Conclusions Based on this evaluation, we recommend the adoption of ≥180 d since the last clinic visit as a standard LTFU definition. Such

  9. HRD in Latin America. Symposium 5. [AHRD Conference, 2001].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This document contains three papers on human resource development (HRD) in Latin America. "Looking at the Literature on Workplace Democracy in Latin America: Factors in Favor and Against It" (Max U. Montesino) discusses selected issues related to workplace democracy in Latin America and identifies salient issues for further research, including the…

  10. Evaluating Multigrade School Reform in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwan, Patrick J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes three multigrade school reforms in Latin America: (1) Colombia's "Escuela Nueva", (2) Guatemala's "Nueva Escuela Unitaria", and (3) Chile's MECE-Rural. Each reform endowed primary teachers and students with special training and instructional materials, and encouraged new kinds of instruction in rural classrooms, with the goal…

  11. Vocational Training in Latin America. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexim, Joao Carlos; And Others

    This monograph summarizes the main structural and operational components of the framework for the development of vocational training in Latin America. Part 1, "Economic Framework and Population" (Orlando Luebbert), is an overview of social and economic indicators: population, agriculture, industry and productivity, the informal sector, gainful…

  12. Instructional Technology Research in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chadwick, Clifton B.

    1986-01-01

    Description of research activities in the field of instructional technology in Latin America highlights distance education, microcomputers, educational radio, learning strategies and study habits, and instructional development models and design of textbooks. Problem areas discussed include students' role, cognitive styles, and effectiveness, and…

  13. The Scientific Institutions of Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, Ronald

    This book is a comprehensive survey of the scientific institutions and science information facilities of Latin America and the Caribbean. The organization of the book is by countries and by institutions within each country. The section on each country begins with a description of the country and its scientific organizations. A series of…

  14. Partnering for Sustainable Development in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levinger, Beryl

    2002-01-01

    A study examined how government agencies, the private sector, nongovernmental organizations, and community organizations in Latin America cooperate in development activities. A model outlines each sector's functions in service delivery, human resource development and training, resource mobilization, research, and public education; the stages of…

  15. Latin America: The Revolution of Hope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salcedo, Jose Joaquin; And Others

    Latin America is a continent with a great deal of poverty, ignorance, and violence. This book describes the problems that plague the region and explains how and why they have gone unsolved. Change can come about only through real and effective participation by men and women in the political and economic activities of their nations. Organized into…

  16. Gender, Innovation and Education in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Ingrid, Ed.; King, Linda, Ed.

    This document contains 19 papers on gender, innovation, and education in Latin America. The following papers are included: "Introduction" (Ingrid Jung); "Reflections on the Gender Perspective in Experiences of Non-Formal Education with Women" (Lilian Celiberti); "Gender and Innovation" (Graciela Messina); "Towards a Pedagogy of Education…

  17. ADULT BASIC EDUCATION IN LATIN AMERICA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CORTRIGHT, RICHARD W.

    THE AUTHOR BRIEFLY REVIEWS STUDIES AND REPORTS ON ADULT BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAMS IN LATIN AMERICA, WHERE IN MOST COUNTRIES AT LEAST 40 PERCENT OF THE ADULT POPULATION IS ILLITERATE. EDUCATION HAS BEEN RELATED TO NATIONAL ECONOMIES, HEALTH, AND SOCIAL AND POLITICAL PROBLEMS. NATIONAL BUDGETS FOR LITERACY PROGRAMS ARE GROWING AND IN SOME COUNTRIES…

  18. The Community College Experiment in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madden, Lori

    1998-01-01

    Discusses preconditions for exporting community colleges to developing countries, the historical development of higher education in Latin America, and the current favorable political and economic climate for housing colleges. Suggests using Argentina as a testing-ground for the community college system. (11 citations) (VWC)

  19. Secondary School Libraries in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rooney, Eugene M.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses problems (poverty, lack of national publishers, use of libraries as study halls, low professional status of librarians) affecting high school libraries in Latin America and suggests ways to improve library services, focusing on reference service (opening reference stacks, improved cataloging, library skills instruction), technical…

  20. Mental health policy developments in Latin America.

    PubMed Central

    Alarcón, R. D.; Aguilar-Gaxiola, S. A.

    2000-01-01

    New assessment guidelines for measuring the overall impact of mental health problems in Latin America have served as a catalyst for countries to review their mental health policies. Latin American countries have taken various steps to address long-standing problems such as structural difficulties, scarce financial and human resources, and social, political, and cultural obstacles in the implementation of mental health policies and legislation. These policy developments, however, have had uneven results. Policies must reflect the desire, determination, and commitment of policy-makers to take mental health seriously and look after people's mental health needs. This paper describes the development of mental health policies in Latin American countries, focusing on published data in peer-reviewed journals, and legislative change and its implementation. It presents a brief history of mental health policy developments, and analyzes the basis and practicalities of current practice. PMID:10885167

  1. Epidemiology of cervical cancer in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Capote Negrin, Luis G

    2015-01-01

    The basic aspects of the descriptive epidemiology of cervical cancer in Latin America are presented. A decrease in the incidence and mortality rates has been observed in the period from 2000 to 2012 in all countries across the region, this has not occurred at the same proportions, and in many countries, observed figures of incidence and mortality are among the highest levels in the world. In Latin America, calculating a mean measure of the numbers from the GLOBOCAN data from 2000 to 2012, we can observe a difference of up to fivefold of the incidence (Puerto Rico 9,73 Vs Bolivia 50,73) and almost seven times for mortality (Puerto Rico 3,3 Vs Nicaragua 21,67). A report of the epidemiology, risk factors, and evaluation of screening procedures regarding the possible impact of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine I in the prevention of cervical cancer is presented. PMID:26557875

  2. Public health nutrition in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Solomons, Noel W

    2003-01-01

    An inquiry into options for Masters-level training and into attitudes and perceptions among a convenience sample of nutrition students and professionals from 11 countries suggests that the term, "Public Health Nutrition", as such, is poorly represented and poorly understood in the Latin American region. At least six countries (Brazil, Chile, Cuba, Mexico, Peru, Puerto Rico) at seven sites have Masters programs to provide training for nutrition in a public health context or public health with an emphasis in nutrition. Exploring alliances from the Americas with the formal PHN discipline emerging in Europe should enrich the mutual perspective on curriculum design. However, the form and context of postgraduate training in Latin America must consider first and foremost its own job-markets, diverse public health needs, and resource allocations in building or transforming training programs. PMID:15806833

  3. The Regulation of Biosimilars in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Ricardo; Araujo, Denizar Vianna

    2016-03-01

    This article summarizes the regulatory scenario on biological medications in Latin America focusing on comparability studies, extrapolation of indications, interchangeability and pharmacovigilance issues. In the case of comparability studies, what is being discussed is the possibility of decreasing the clinical trials requirement, but that the molecule should be well characterized in the studies of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. With the worldwide-level approval of the first monoclonal antibody biosimilar, infliximab, extrapolation of indications are being discussed, since the behavior of the Latin America regulatory agencies has been different with regard to such issue. Another issue discussed by the regulatory agencies is the interchangeability between biological medications and their biosimilars, mainly due to the fact that there is a clear confusion on interchangeability and substitution concepts. Finally, the pharmacovigilance debate, according to what takes place globally, is related to the need for identifying and differentiating the reference biological medication and its biosimilars for traceability purposes. PMID:26951254

  4. High magnetic field facilities in Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, R.; Grössinger, R.; Bertorello, H.; Broto, J. M.; Davies, H. A.; Estevez-Rams, E.; Gonzalez, J.; Matutes, J.; Sinnecker, J. P.; Sagredo, V.

    2006-11-01

    The EC supported a network (under the Framework 5 ALFA Programme) designated HIFIELD (Project number II0147FI) and entitled: "Measurement methods involving high magnetic fields for advanced and novel materials". As a result, high field facilities were initiated, constructed or extended at the following laboratories in Latin America: University Cordoba (Argentina), CES, Merida (Venezuela), CIMAV, Chihuahua (Mexico), University Federal de Rio de Janeiro (Brazil).

  5. Family planning in Latin America's barriadas.

    PubMed

    1993-05-01

    In Latin America, many rural people build dwellings in settlements on the cities' fringes without permission from the authorities. The authorities make several unsuccessful attempts to drive them away, but eventually ignore them. In the 1960s, family planning (FP) associations were concerned about how they can serve the shantytowns, which needed their services but had no social services at all, e.g., water supply and sanitation. In the early 1970s, PROFAMILIA Colombia began a new form of FP service delivery in rural areas by training someone from the community who believed in FP to distribution (CBD) programs provided more FP than all of PROFAMILIA's 60 clinics. In 1973, PROFAMILIA started its URBAN CBD program in the slums of Bogota and learned that the people wanted FP. The CBD movement spread throughout urban and rural Latin America. Brazil's BEMFAM developed the world's largest CBD program. By 1985, 10,365 distribution posts operated in Latin America and, by 1991, there were 26,423. In urban slums in the 1980s, Mexico's MEXFAM began using community doctors, who tend to be new medical graduates. Often the community and the doctors respect each other so much that many doctors remain in the shantytowns beyond their required time. The residents' acceptance of FP provided by people who understand the community shows how they want to plan their lives and better themselves. In addition, they have taken the chance to seek a better life by leaving hopeless situations in rural areas and by building dwellings for themselves, even though they had no money, land, or even basic necessities. In Peru, shantytown residents were moved to the desert and supplied with basic construction materials. They built a community, Villa El Salvador, now complete with tree-lined streets, shops, schools, and movies. Shantytown dwellers may have the solution to Latin America's problems. PMID:12179848

  6. Mineral Facilities of Latin America and Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bernstein, Rachel; Eros, Mike; Quintana-Velazquez, Meliany

    2006-01-01

    This data set consists of records for over 900 mineral facilities in Latin America and Canada. The mineral facilities include mines, plants, smelters, or refineries of aluminum, cement, coal, copper, diamond, gold, iron and steel, nickel, platinum-group metals, salt, and silver, among others. Records include attributes such as commodity, country, location, company name, facility type and capacity if applicable, and generalized coordinates. The data were compiled from multiple sources, including the 2003 and 2004 USGS Minerals Yearbooks (Latin America and Candada volume), data to be published in the 2005 Minerals Yearbook Latin America and Canada Volume, minerals statistics and information from the USGS minerals information Web site (minerals.usgs.gov/minerals), and data collected by USGS minerals information country specialists. Data reflect the most recent published table of industry structure for each country. Other sources include statistical publications of individual countries, annual reports and press releases of operating companies,and trade journals. Due to the sensitivity of some energy commodity data, the quality of these data should be evaluated on a country-by-country basis. Additional information and explanation is available from the country specialists.

  7. Latin America`s emerging non-proliferation consensus

    SciTech Connect

    Redick, J.R.

    1994-03-01

    Latin America`s incorporation into the international nuclear non-proliferation regime is well advanced. The 1967 Tlatelolco Treaty, which established a regional nuclear-weapon-free zone (NWFZ), is nearing completion. A signal event occurred January 18, when Argentina and Chile deposited instruments of ratification to the treaty, leaving Brazil and Cuba the only major countries in Latin America that are not yet contracting parties. And after more than two decades of concern about the nuclear programs and policies in Argentina and Brazil, there is room for great optimism that Brazil may now be moving quickly on important non-proliferation issues. Even Cuba, the {open_quotes}bad boy of the neighborhood{close_quotes} in the eyes of many, which held aloof from the Tlatelolco process for three decades, has stated its willingness to join the zone in the future.

  8. BAT-BORNE RABIES IN LATIN AMERICA

    PubMed Central

    Escobar, Luis E.; Peterson, A. Townsend; Favi, Myriam; Yung, Verónica; Medina-Vogel, Gonzalo

    2015-01-01

    The situation of rabies in America is complex: rabies in dogs has decreased dramatically, but bats are increasingly recognized as natural reservoirs of other rabies variants. Here, bat species known to be rabies-positive with different antigenic variants, are summarized in relation to bat conservation status across Latin America. Rabies virus is widespread in Latin American bat species, 22.5%75 of bat species have been confirmed as rabies-positive. Most bat species found rabies positive are classified by the International Union for Conservation of Nature as “Least Concern”. According to diet type, insectivorous bats had the most species known as rabies reservoirs, while in proportion hematophagous bats were the most important. Research at coarse spatial scales must strive to understand rabies ecology; basic information on distribution and population dynamics of many Latin American and Caribbean bat species is needed; and detailed information on effects of landscape change in driving bat-borne rabies outbreaks remains unassessed. Finally, integrated approaches including public health, ecology, and conservation biology are needed to understand and prevent emergent diseases in bats. PMID:25651328

  9. Bat-borne rabies in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Escobar, Luis E; Peterson, A Townsend; Favi, Myriam; Yung, Verónica; Medina-Vogel, Gonzalo

    2015-01-01

    The situation of rabies in America is complex: rabies in dogs has decreased dramatically, but bats are increasingly recognized as natural reservoirs of other rabies variants. Here, bat species known to be rabies-positive with different antigenic variants, are summarized in relation to bat conservation status across Latin America. Rabies virus is widespread in Latin American bat species, 22.5%75 of bat species have been confirmed as rabies-positive. Most bat species found rabies positive are classified by the International Union for Conservation of Nature as "Least Concern". According to diet type, insectivorous bats had the most species known as rabies reservoirs, while in proportion hematophagous bats were the most important. Research at coarse spatial scales must strive to understand rabies ecology; basic information on distribution and population dynamics of many Latin American and Caribbean bat species is needed; and detailed information on effects of landscape change in driving bat-borne rabies outbreaks remains unassessed. Finally, integrated approaches including public health, ecology, and conservation biology are needed to understand and prevent emergent diseases in bats. PMID:25651328

  10. Assessment and monitoring of onchocerciasis in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Pérez, Mario A; Unnasch, Thomas R; Real-Najarro, Olga

    2011-01-01

    Onchocerciasis has historically been one of the leading causes of infectious blindness worldwide. It is endemic to tropical regions both in Africa and Latin America and in the Yemen. In Latin America, it is found in 13 foci located in 6 different countries. The epidemiologically most important focus of onchocerciasis in the Americas is located in a region spanning the border between Guatemala and Mexico. However, the Amazonian focus straddling the border of Venezuela and Brazil is larger in overall area because the Yanomami populations are scattered over a very large geographical region. Onchocerciasis is caused by infection with the filarial parasite Onchocerca volvulus. The infection is spread through the bites of an insect vector, black flies of the genus Simulium. In Africa, the major vectors are members of the S. damnosum complex, while numerous species serve as vectors of the parasite in Latin America. Latin America has had a long history of attempts to control onchocerciasis, stretching back almost 100 years. The earliest programmes used a strategy of surgical removal of the adult parasites from affected individuals. However, because many of the adult parasites lodge in undetectable and inaccessible areas of the body, the overall effect of this strategy on the prevalence of infection was relatively minor. In 1988, a new drug, ivermectin, was introduced that effectively killed the larval stage (microfilaria) of the parasite in infected humans. As the microfilaria is both the stage that is transmitted by the vector fly and the cause of most of the pathologies associated with the infection, ivermectin opened up a new strategy for the control of onchocerciasis. Concurrent with the use of ivermectin for the treatment of onchocerciasis, a number of sensitive new diagnostic tools were developed (both serological and nucleic acid based) that provided the efficiency, sensitivity and specificity necessary to monitor the decline and eventual elimination of

  11. Multiple sclerosis care in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Victor M; Medina, Marco Tulio; Duron, Reyna M; Macias, Miguel Angel

    2014-05-01

    Before the advent of diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis (MS), it was reported that the prevalence of MS in Mexico was "one of the lowest in the world" (1.6/100,000).(1) The notion that MS was a rare neurologic disease among those living in the tropics of the Americas and Southern latitudes was widely accepted. The geopolitical boundaries of the region identified as Latin America (LA) extend from the southern border of United States with Mexico (32° North latitude) to the Argentinian and Chilean Patagonia in South America (56° South latitude). The largest Spanish-speaking island countries in the Caribbean-Cuba, Dominican Republic, and Puerto Rico-are also traditionally considered part of LA. The continental mass includes 17 countries with a population of more than 550 million. Due to centuries of racial intermixing, it is a heterogeneous and genetically complex population. The blended cultures of native Amerindians with white Caucasian Europeans and black Africans has resulted in the predominant ethnic Latin American Mestizo. The influence of African genetics is notable in many areas of the subcontinent and the Caribbean. A common observation across LA is the absence of identification of MS in non-mixed Amerindians(2); the reason for this phenomenon is unclear. PMID:24799516

  12. Physical Activity Interventions in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Hoehner, Christine M.; Ribeiro, Isabela C.; Parra, Diana C.; Reis, Rodrigo S.; Azevedo, Mario R.; Hino, Adriano A.; Soares, Jesus; Hallal, Pedro C.; Simões, Eduardo J.; Brownson, Ross C.

    2013-01-01

    Context Systematic reviews of public health interventions are useful for identifying effective strategies for informing policy and practice. The goals of this review were to (1) update a previous systematic review of physical activity interventions in Latin America which found that only school-based physical education had sufficient evidence to recommend widespread adoption; (2) assess the reporting of external validity elements; and (3) develop and apply an evidence typology for classifying interventions. Evidence acquisition In 2010–2011, community-level, physical activity intervention studies from Latin America were identified, categorized, and screened based on the peer-reviewed literature or Brazilian theses published between 2006 and 2010. Articles meeting inclusion criteria were evaluated using U.S. Community Guide methods. External validity reporting was assessed among a subset of articles reviewed to date. An evidence rating typology was developed and applied to classify interventions along a continuum based on evidence about their effectiveness in the U.S. context, reach, adoption, implementation, institutionalization, and benefits and costs. Evidence synthesis Thirteen articles published between 2006 and 2010 met inclusion criteria and were abstracted systematically, yet when combined with evidence from articles from the previous systematic review, no additional interventions could be recommended for practice. Moreover, the reporting of external validity elements was low among a subset of 19 studies published to date (median=21% of elements reported). By applying the expanded evidence rating typology, one intervention was classified as evidence-based, seven as promising, and one as emerging. Conclusions Several physical activity interventions have been identified as promising for future research and implementation in Latin America. Enhanced reporting of external validity elements will inform the translation of research into practice. PMID:23415133

  13. Education, democracy and development in Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, Candido

    1993-11-01

    The education first brought to America by Europeans was hardly more than ornamental culture, literacy was generally unimportant, and African slaves were not educated at all. Only in this century did industrialization cause some governments to provide economic and technological support through training and education. In the last decade, the debt crisis curtailed spending, while numbers of students and teachers continued to rise. A comparison between Latin America and South Korea illustrates the former's relative decline in investment. The advent of populist and corporatist democracies did not alleviate the situation, although there is now some evidence of concern for basic education for poorer children. With economic adjustment programmes, little else has been done for those who have suffered the heaviest burdens, and no obvious solutions to poverty and technological obsolescence are in prospect. A major reform of State institutions is called for, including a commitment to education, a change in the economic model, and a recognition of global interdependence.

  14. Internationalizing Business Education in Latin America: Issues and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elahee, Mohammad; Norbis, Mario

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the extent of internationalization of business education in Latin America and identifies the key challenges facing the Latin American business schools. Based on a survey of the business schools that are members of CLADEA (Consejo Latinoamericano de Escuelas de Administracion--Latin American Council of Management Schools), and…

  15. Implementation of HPV testing in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Jeronimo, Jose; Holme, Francesca; Slavkovsky, Rose; Camel, Claudia

    2016-03-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the leading killers among women in Latin America, a region where most countries have not been successful in implementing population-level cytology-based screening programs. This disease is caused by persistent infection with oncogenic HPV; in recent years, more HPV tests have become available and prices have dropped significantly, making it possible for countries to adopt these technologies. Pilot programs that took place in Nicaragua, Mexico, and Argentina showed a high level of efficacy in detecting precancerous cervical lesions and good feasibility and acceptance of self-sampling. El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua are beginning to institutionalize HPV testing at the population level. The experience from the different countries has created rich information about the barriers and requirements for implementing HPV screening at large scale in these resource-constrained countries. There are several challenges for implementation, including a need to update screening guidelines, strengthen treatment capacity, and develop a comprehensive quality assurance plan for the HPV testing. At the same time, there are several opportunities in Latin America that make the process more feasible and faster than in other regions of the world: most Latin American countries already have screening programs funded by their national governments, several countries in the region are already implementing HPV testing, and there is a regional pooled procurement mechanism that could facilitate the purchase of HPV tests at an accessible price. We envision that most countries in the region will include HPV testing in their national program within the next three to five years. PMID:26699418

  16. "The South American Way": Hollywood Looks at Latins and at Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiex, Nola Kortner

    Latin elements or themes made for the North American market have been used in American films, but at the same time these films have been playing in a Latin American market, making it useful to examine how Latin America has been portrayed in these films. The taste for exotic locales and themes is an element that has been present since the…

  17. "Latin" and "Anglo" America Geographic Regions Do Not Exist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernardes DaSilva, Edmar; Kvasnak, Robert Neil

    2015-01-01

    The regional divisions termed as "Latin America" versus "Anglo-America" used by many geographers do not fully reflect the cultural and political trends in the world today. "Latin" is a term that was coined by the French Emperor Napoleon the III in order to justify Mexico's being ruled by Maximillian, and later picked…

  18. Background Briefing for Student Teachers Going to Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banning, Bernadine

    A guide for student teachers planning to travel or work in Latin America contains general information about living in Latin America and profiles of Mexico and the Dominican Republic. The general information addresses these issues: travel, what to take along, culture shock, greetings, generalizations about Hispanic culture, values, given names and…

  19. Scientific Co-operation between Europe and Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uller, Angela

    1993-01-01

    The university's role in scientific research differs considerably in Europe and Latin America; the latter does not have the long academic tradition of the former. However, Latin America has much to offer in international scientific cooperation, which should be consolidated and expanded to benefit both communities. Tables detail cooperative…

  20. Preparing Teachers for Inclusive Education in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaillant, Denise

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes the current challenges facing inclusive education in Latin America and explores some possible solutions. The author suggests that teachers play a key role in providing education that is inclusive for all. In Latin America, today, however, inclusive education often does not respond to the needs of children and young people,…

  1. Epidemiology and Treatment of Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Rego, E.M.; Jácomo, R.H.

    2011-01-01

    Distinct epidemiological characteristics have been described in Acute Promielocytic Leukemia (APL). Populations from Latin America have a higher incidence of APL and in some geographic areas a distinct distribution of the PML-RARA isoforms is present. Here, we review the main differences in APL epidemilogy in Latin America as well as treatment outcomes. PMID:22110899

  2. Community Colleges: A Viable Solution for Latin America?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro, Claudio de Moura; Bernasconi, Andres

    This paper analyzes the United States community college as a model for adaptation in Latin America. The author argues that there is a growing frustration with the lack of responsiveness of universities to the development needs of societies in Latin America. Higher education continues to be accessible only to the privileged segments of society…

  3. Educational Research in Latin America: A Twelve-Year Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egginton, Everett

    1983-01-01

    Analyzes reviewers' assessments of all publications on Latin American education included in the "Handbook of Latin American Studies" since 1969. Compares publications on education in South America with those relating to Central America and the Caribbean. Concludes that although the quality of research has been uneven, progress is being made. (BRR)

  4. Medical ethics in Latin America: a new interest and commitment.

    PubMed

    Drane, James F; Fuenzalida, Hernán L

    1991-12-01

    Recent visits to five Latin American nations indicate that some medical professionals are eager to increase the role of bioethics in their countries. Conversations with key figures there point up similarities and differences among Latin nations, and between Latin countries and the United States, in their approaches to ethics. Opportunities exist for U.S. bioethicists to help get bioethics teaching and research off the ground in Latin America. PMID:11645713

  5. Review: Malaria Chemoprophylaxis for Travelers to Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Steinhardt, Laura C.; Magill, Alan J.; Arguin, Paul M.

    2011-01-01

    Because of recent declining malaria transmission in Latin America, some authorities have recommended against chemoprophylaxis for most travelers to this region. However, the predominant parasite species in Latin America, Plasmodium vivax, can form hypnozoites sequestered in the liver, causing malaria relapses. Additionally, new evidence shows the potential severity of vivax infections, warranting continued consideration of prophylaxis for travel to Latin America. Individualized travel risk assessments are recommended and should consider travel locations, type, length, and season, as well as probability of itinerary changes. Travel recommendations might include no precautions, mosquito avoidance only, or mosquito avoidance and chemoprophylaxis. There are a range of good options for chemoprophylaxis in Latin America, including atovaquone-proguanil, doxycycline, mefloquine, and—in selected areas—chloroquine. Primaquine should be strongly considered for nonpregnant, G6PD-nondeficient patients traveling to vivax-endemic areas of Latin America, and it has the added benefit of being the only drug to protect against malaria relapses. PMID:22144437

  6. Latin America: A Filmic Approach. Latin American Studies Program, Film Series No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Leon G.; And Others

    This document describes a university course designed to provide an historical understanding of Latin America through feature films. The booklet contains an introductory essay on the teaching of a film course on Latin America, a general discussion of strengths and weaknesses of student analyses of films, and nine analyses written by students during…

  7. Current status of carbapenemases in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Maya, Juan J; Ruiz, Sory J; Blanco, Victor M; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Guzman-Blanco, Manuel; Labarca, Jaime; Salles, Mauro; Quinn, John P; Villegas, Maria V

    2013-07-01

    Enterobacteriaceae and non fermenting Gram-negative bacilli have become a threat to public health, in part due to their resistance to multiple antibiotic classes, which ultimately have led to an increase in morbidity and mortality. β-lactams are currently the mainstay for combating infections caused by these microorganisms, and β-lactamases are the major mechanism of resistance to this class of antibiotics. Within the β-lactamases, carbapenemases pose one of the gravest threats, as they compromise one of our most potent lines of defense, the carbapenems. Carbapenemases are being continuously identified worldwide; and in Latin America, numerous members of these enzymes have been reported. In this region, the high incidence of reports implies that carbapenemases have become a menace and that they are an issue that must be carefully studied and analyzed. PMID:23879607

  8. Latin America's Decontamination and Decommissioning Needs

    SciTech Connect

    Bermudez, J.V.; Lagos, L.E.; Ebadian, M.A.; Mayerle, M.

    1998-10-20

    Throughout this project, the Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology's (HCET) goal was to initiate a comprehensive research program on sustainable development, environmental protection, and the market for environmental technologies in Latin America and the Caribbean. The data resulting from the work associated with this project has been entered into an information system which supplies useful and accurate data knowledge to interested parties. When relevant information has been found to be insufficient and/or not readily available, HCET has investigated, conducted research, and subsequently made this information available to the public. During FY96, HCET completed numerous tasks to contribute to this body of knowledge. This initiative will continue throughout 1997. Highlights of FY96 are described.

  9. Clandestine abortion in Latin America: provider perspectives.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, K; Strickler, J

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the results of in-depth interviews with ten clandestine abortion providers in urban Latin America. Three related issues are addressed: how abortion providers come to this line of work; their major difficulties; and their sources of job satisfaction. A variety of paths bring health professionals to the practice of abortion; common elements are a sense of calling, a desire to help women, personal experience with abortion, and a commitment to political change. Providers describe difficulties that include a lack of medical support, the need for secrecy, and threats of violence, extortion, and prosecution. In spite of difficulties, all providers report a great deal of fulfillment in their work, based on their satisfaction in saving women's lives, maintaining supportive relationships with colleagues, and empowering women. PMID:10374808

  10. [Scientific journals of medical students in Latin-America].

    PubMed

    Cabrera-Samith, Ignacio; Oróstegui-Pinilla, Diana; Angulo-Bazán, Yolanda; Mayta-Tristán, Percy; Rodríguez-Morales, Alfonso J

    2010-11-01

    This article deals with the history and evolution of student's scientific journals in Latin-America, their beginnings, how many still exist and which is their future projection. Relevant events show the growth of student's scientific journals in Latin-America and how are they working together to improve their quality. This article is addressed not only for Latin American readers but also to worldwide readers. Latin American medical students are consistently working together to publish scientific research, whose quality is constantly improving. PMID:21279260

  11. How Effective Are Private Schools in Latin America?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somers, Marie-Andree; McEwan, Patrick J.; Willms, J. Douglas

    2004-01-01

    In 1997, the Santiago office of UNESCO implemented an assessment of student achievement in Latin America, working in collaboration with 13 Latin American ministries of education. Using a common sampling methodology and survey instruments, researchers in each country collected representative samples of data on third- and fourth-grade achievement in…

  12. A.I.D. Economic Data Book: Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agency for International Development (Dept. of State), Washington, DC.

    This data book, updating a December 1968 publication, is designed to serve the internal program and operational needs of the Agency for International Development. More than 19 Latin American republics are referred to in major sections on: (1) Latin America in the Free World: population and production, (2) summary of basic data, (3) population…

  13. The Development of Marine Science in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palacio, Francisco J.

    1980-01-01

    Describes the maritime history of Latin America and its development of marine science. The need for the Latin American nations to incorporate the oceans into their development process is emphasized in order for them to continue and expand exploitation of living resources. (Author/SA)

  14. Education, Policy, and Social Change: Experiences from Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morales-Gomez, Daniel A., Ed.; Torres, Carlos Alberto, Ed.

    Using both a retrospective and a prospective view, this book examines the links joining research, policy, and change in education in Latin America. It inquires about the relationships among the economy, politics, and the state. It reviews the praxis of education in Latin American countries and in the context of the development trends of the 1980s.…

  15. Children in the Streets: Latin America's Lost Generation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rizzini, Irene; Lusk, Mark W.

    1995-01-01

    Presents an overview of the situation of street children and youth in urban Latin America. Findings from numerous studies throughout the region are synthesized. Suggests that economic factors underlie the marginalization of vast numbers of Latin American children. The result is the exclusion of many of the region's children from meaningful…

  16. [Thinking about long-term care policies for Latin America].

    PubMed

    Matus-López, Mauricio

    2015-12-01

    Latin America is aging. The process is occurring quickly and in unhealthy conditions with low levels of income. The number of older people who can no longer perform their daily activities will dramatically increase in the coming decades. Developed countries have already been facing this phenomenon over the last three decades, but Latin America has neither the resources nor the social protection systems of these countries. Formulating and planning health policies associated with this phenomenon should be a priority of the governments of Latin America. This paper defines what these care policies are, the models of care rich countries have developed, and the cost of such models. The situation in Latin America is then analyzed and conclusions and a series of discussions to address in the near future are proposed. PMID:26676592

  17. The Growth of Multinational Advertising Agencies in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fejes, Fred

    1980-01-01

    Sketches the history of the expansion of multinational advertising agencies. Then examines the growth, characteristics, and consequences of these agencies in an important region of the developing world, Latin America. (PD)

  18. [An overview of telehealth initiatives in Latin America].

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Alaneir de Fátima; D'Agostino, Marcelo; Bouskela, Maurício Simon; Fernandéz, Andrés; Messina, Luiz Ary; Alves, Humberto José

    2014-01-01

    This article aimed to systematize the views on telehealth in Latin America and to present the experience of building an instrument for monitoring the development of telehealth initiatives based on the reality of this region. A group was structured to coordinate telehealth efforts in Latin America, with members appointed by the ministries of health of 16 countries. Five thematic groups were also set up. Based on international experiences and focusing on the reality of telehealth in the continent, an instrument was created to monitor the development of telehealth in Latin America. Several countries have national telehealth projects: Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Panama. Others are in the process of development and early deployment: Bolivia, Costa Rica, Cuba, El Salvador, Guatemala, Peru, Venezuela. The instrument described in the article, which is still being tested, proposes a characterization of countries according to their telehealth development stage: nonexistent, nascent, intermediate, advanced, and exemplary. Currently, important telehealth initiatives are already underway in Latin America. PMID:25211578

  19. Professions and Educational Counseling in Mexico and Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canales, Leticia; Blanco-Beledo, Ricardo

    1993-01-01

    In the past, educational counseling in Latin America has been used to limit economic and political participation and maintain unequal resource distribution. Modernization, the new free trade agreement, and other changes are changing the role of counseling. (SK)

  20. Continuing Education Needs in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capanema, Clelia de Freitas

    Continuing education needs of the Latin American population are related to the need of Latin American countries for social and economic development. The source of continuing educaton needs is the area's differentiated socioeconomic development and cultural diversity. Some common features of Latin American educational systems, well known as…

  1. Education in Latin America--Comparative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulston, Rolland G.; Tidwell, Monte

    The different ways in which researchers have conceptualized Latin American education are identified. Written for an encyclopedia of educational research, this entry does not seek to describe and compare education "as it is" in some 28 Latin American republics. Rather it characterizes and compares how Latin American education has appeared to Latin…

  2. Development of regional network for nuclear information in Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebinuma, Yukio

    Among the recent INIS activities several interesting items are reported. In particular Latin America area where active movements have been seen recently is described in detail in terms of INIS information services. The author reports Latin America regional nuclear information project which has been implemented as 5-year project since 1985 supported by IAEA, and its progress, and describes information service system in Brazil which plays the core role in promoting this project.

  3. Eastern Equine Encephalitis in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Carrera, Jean-Paul; Forrester, Naomi; Wang, Eryu; Vittor, Amy Y.; Haddow, Andrew D.; López-Vergès, Sandra; Abadía, Ivan; Castaño, Elizabeth; Sosa, Nestor; Báez, Carmen; Estripeaut, Dora; Díaz, Yamilka; Beltrán, Davis; Cisneros, Julio; Cedeño, Hector G.; da Rosa, Amelia P. Travassos; Hernandez, Humberto; Martínez-Torres, Alex O.; Tesh, Robert B.; Weaver, Scott C.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND The eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) and Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) viruses are pathogens that infect humans and horses in the Americas. Outbreaks of neurologic disease in humans and horses were reported in Panama from May through early August 2010. METHODS We performed antibody assays and tests to detect viral RNA and isolate the viruses in serum samples from hospitalized patients. Additional cases were identified with enhanced surveillance. RESULTS A total of 19 patients were hospitalized for encephalitis. Among them, 7 had confirmed EEE, 3 had VEE, and 1 was infected with both viruses; 3 patients died, 1 of whom had confirmed VEE. The clinical findings for patients with EEE included brain lesions, seizures that evolved to status epilepticus, and neurologic sequelae. An additional 99 suspected or probable cases of alphavirus infection were detected during active surveillance. In total, 13 cases were confirmed as EEE, along with 11 cases of VEE and 1 case of dual infection. A total of 50 cases in horses were confirmed as EEE and 8 as VEE; mixed etiologic factors were associated with 11 cases in horses. Phylogenetic analyses of isolates from 2 cases of equine infection with the EEE virus and 1 case of human infection with the VEE virus indicated that the viruses were of enzootic lineages previously identified in Panama rather than new introductions. CONCLUSIONS Cases of EEE in humans in Latin America may be the result of ecologic changes that increased human contact with enzootic transmission cycles, genetic changes in EEE viral strains that resulted in increased human virulence, or an altered host range. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and the Secretaría Nacional de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación, Panama.) PMID:23964935

  4. Latin American Culture Studies: Information and Materials for Teaching About Latin America. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glab, Edward, Jr., Ed.

    This resource manual provides ideas, lesson plans, course outlines, arts and crafts projects, games, and other materials for teaching K-12 students about Latin America. A major objective is to help students understand and appreciate the diverse Latin American culture. There are six chapters in this volume. Chapter one discusses key ideas that can…

  5. Four Topics in Latin American History: The People; Nation Building; Race, Class, and Identity; and Foreign Policy: U.S. and Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egginton, Everett; Gill, Barbara

    This curricular unit is intended for use at the secondary level. The understandings in Topic I are organized under four main heaings: The Indigenous Population or the pre-Columbian civilizations; The Immigrants from Europe and West Africa; Slavery In Latin America during the pre-colonial and colonial periods and, Race mixture including racial…

  6. Adolescent Literacies in Latin America and the Caribbean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartlett, Lesley; Lopez, Dina; Mein, Erika; Valdiviezo, Laura A.

    2011-01-01

    In 2000, approximately 36 million youth and adults living in Latin America and the Caribbean were reported to be unable to read or write basic texts. Of these, 20 million were women. According to official statistics, some countries in Central America (Guatemala, Nicaragua, El Salvador, and Honduras) have a youth and adult literacy rate of 80% or…

  7. Journalism Education's Roots in Latin America Are Traced.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knudson, Jerry W.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses a document recently discovered in Bolivia that has cast new light on the background of journalism education in Latin America. Indicates that the movement toward the licensing of journalists was present from the beginning. Describes early journalism education in Argentina, Mexico, Ecuador, Peru, and Central America. (JD)

  8. Latin America: Curriculum Materials for the Middle Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Virginia G., Ed.

    Self-contained activities that will help social studies or Spanish foreign language students in grades 6-8 learn about the history and culture of Latin America are provided. Following an introductory unit, the activities, ranging from easy to complex, are organized by the following countries and areas: Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean,…

  9. Endoscopic Ultrasound Practice Survey in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Drigo, Juliana Marques; Castillo, Cecilia; Wever, Wallia; Obaldía, José Ricardo Ruíz; Fillipi, Sheila; Ribeiro, Manoel C. S. A.; Rossini, Lucio G. B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has become an important imaging modality for the diagnosis, staging and treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. However, no official data exists regarding clinical EUS practice in Latin America (LA). This study assessed current EUS practice and training. Patients and Methods: A direct mail survey questionnaire was sent to 268 Capítulo Latino Americano de Ultrasonido Endoscópico members between August 2012 and January 2013. The questionnaire was sent out in English, Spanish and Portuguese languages and was available through the following site: http://www.cleus-encuesta.com. Responses were requested only from physicians who perform EUS. Results: A total of 70 LA physicians answered the questionnaire until January 2013. Most of the participants were under 42 years of age (53%) and 80% were men. Most participants (45.7%) perform EUS in Brazil, 53% work in a private hospital. The majority (70%) also perform endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. A total 42% had performed EUS for 2 years or less and 22.7% for 11 years or more. Only 10% performed more than 5000 EUS. The most common indication was an evaluation of pancreatic-biliary-ampullary lesions. Regarding training, 48.6% had more than 6 months of dedicated hands-on EUS and 37% think that at least 6 months of formal training is necessary to acquire competence. Furthermore, 64% think that more than 50 procedures for pancreatic-biliary lesions are necessary. Conclusion: This survey provides insight into the status of EUS in LA. EUS is performed mostly by young endoscopists in LA. Diagnostic upper EUS is the most common EUS procedure. Most endosonographers believe that formal training is necessary to acquire competence. PMID:24949398

  10. Arts Education Policy in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cristina De Couve, Alicia; Dal Pino, Claudia; Calvo, Diana Fernandez; Frega, Ana Lucia; Souza, Jusamara

    1998-01-01

    Highlights the various educational trends and policies in relation to arts education in the Latin American countries from the 16th to the 19th centuries. Summarizes the arts education policies in Latin American throughout the 20th century focusing on teaching in the arts and the role of educational research. (CMK)

  11. The challenges of organizing an international course in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Vairo, Filippo; López, Mónica Luján; Cruz, Carolina Uribe; Corrêa, Priscila Gomes; Baldo, Guilherme

    2014-03-01

    The Latin American School of Human and Medical Genetics (ELAG) is the main course of its kind in the genetics field in Latin America. Here we describe the main challenges regarding the organization of such event, including how we obtain funding and how we proceed with student selection. Thus, we aim to share our experience with other groups that intend to follow this format to create similar events in other areas in this region of the world. PMID:24764750

  12. The challenges of organizing an international course in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Vairo, Filippo; López, Mónica Luján; Cruz, Carolina Uribe; Corrêa, Priscila Gomes; Baldo, Guilherme

    2014-01-01

    The Latin American School of Human and Medical Genetics (ELAG) is the main course of its kind in the genetics field in Latin America. Here we describe the main challenges regarding the organization of such event, including how we obtain funding and how we proceed with student selection. Thus, we aim to share our experience with other groups that intend to follow this format to create similar events in other areas in this region of the world. PMID:24764750

  13. Prevalence and Social Determinants of Smoking in 15 Countries from North Africa, Central and Western Asia, Latin America and Caribbean: Secondary Data Analyses of Demographic and Health Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T.; Pradhan, Pranil Man Singh

    2015-01-01

    Background Article 20 of the World Health Organisation Framework Convention on Tobacco Control calls for a cross-country surveillance of tobacco use through population-based surveys. We aimed to provide country-level prevalence estimates for current smoking and current smokeless tobacco use and to assess social determinants of smoking. Methods Data from Demographic and Health Surveys done between 2005 and 2012, among men and women from nine North African, Central and West Asian countries and six Latin American and Caribbean countries were analyzed. Weighted country-level prevalence rates were estimated for ‘current smoking’ and ‘current use of smokeless tobacco (SLT) products’ among men and women. In each country, social determinants of smoking among men and women were assessed by binary logistic regression analyses by including men's and women's sampling weights to account for the complex survey design. Findings Prevalence of smoking among men was higher than 40% in Armenia (63.1%), Moldova (51.1%), Ukraine (52%), Azerbaijan (49.8 %), Kyrgyz Republic (44.3 %) and Albania (42.52%) but the prevalence of smoking among women was less than 10% in most countries except Ukraine (14.81%) and Jordan (17.96%). The prevalence of smokeless tobacco use among men and women was less than 5% in all countries except among men in the Kyrgyz Republic (10.6 %). Smoking was associated with older age, lower education and poverty among men and higher education and higher wealth among women. Smoking among both men and women was associated with unskilled work, living in urban areas and being single. Conclusion Smoking among men was very high in Central and West Asian countries. Social pattern of smoking among women that was different from men in education and wealth should be considered while formulating tobacco control policies in some Central and West Asian countries. PMID:26131888

  14. Outlook for hydropower in Latin America and the Caribbean

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez-Sierra, G. )

    1993-02-01

    In the last two decades, the Latin America/Carribean region has become increasingly dependent on electricity to meet growing demands for energy. Hydropower is the prevailing source for meeting this need. Hydroelectric generation increased at an annual average rate of nearly 9% between 1971 and 1989. HYdro now provides more than two-thirds of total electric power generated in Latin America and the Caribbean. The only other predominant source used for electric generation is fossil fuels. In this region there are several trends developing. They include: developing more small hydro facilities, opportunities for sharing water resources, an interest in changing the approach to water use regulation, and possibilities for more participation by the private sector. Overall, hydro appears to have a favorable competitive position in the power industry in the Latin America/Caribbean region.

  15. [Social capital and health promotion in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Sapag, Jaime C; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2007-02-01

    Latin America faces common development and health problems and equity and overcoming poverty are crucial in the search for comprehensive and high impact solutions. The article analyzes the definition of social capital, its relationship with health, its limitations and potentialities from a perspective of community development and health promotion in Latin America. High-priority challenges are also identified as well as possible ways to better measure and to strengthen social capital. Particularly, it is discussed how and why social capital may be critical in a global health promotion strategy, where empowerment and community participation, interdisciplinary and intersectorial work would help to achieve Public Health aims and a sustainable positive change for the global development. Also, some potential limitations of the social capital concept in the context of health promotion in Latin America are identified. PMID:17273645

  16. The first cataract surgeons in Latin America: 1611–1830

    PubMed Central

    Leffler, Christopher T; Wainsztein, Ricardo D

    2016-01-01

    We strove to identify the earliest cataract surgeons in Latin America. Probably by 1611, the Genovese oculist Francisco Drago was couching cataracts in Mexico City. The surgeon Melchor Vásquez de Valenzuela probably performed cataract couching in Lima by 1697. Juan Peré of France demonstrated cataract couching in Veracruz and Mexico City between 1779 and 1784. Juan Ablanedo of Spain performed couching in Veracruz in 1791. Cataract extraction might have been performed in Havana and Caracas by 1793 and in Mexico by 1797. The earliest contemporaneously documented cataract extractions in Latin America were performed in Guatemala City by Narciso Esparragosa in 1797. In addition to Esparragosa, surgeons born in the New World who established the academic teaching of cataract surgery included José Miguel Muñoz in Mexico and José María Vargas in Caracas. Although cataract surgery came quite early to Latin America, its availability was initially inconsistent and limited. PMID:27143845

  17. A snapshot of gene therapy in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Linden, Rafael; Matte, Ursula

    2014-03-01

    Gene therapy attempts the insertion and expression of exogenous genetic material in cells for therapeutic purposes. Conceived in the 1960s, gene therapy reached its first clinical trial at the end of the 1980s and by December 2013 around 600 genuine open clinical trials of gene therapy were registered at NIH Clinical Trials Database. Here, we summarize the current efforts towards the development of gene therapy in Latin America. Our survey shows that the number of scientists involved in the development of gene therapy and DNA vaccines in Latin America is still very low. Higher levels of investment in this technology are necessary to boost the advancement of innovation and intellectual property in this field in a way that would ease both the social and financial burden of various medical conditions in Latin America. PMID:24764763

  18. A snapshot of gene therapy in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Linden, Rafael; Matte, Ursula

    2014-01-01

    Gene therapy attempts the insertion and expression of exogenous genetic material in cells for therapeutic purposes. Conceived in the 1960s, gene therapy reached its first clinical trial at the end of the 1980s and by December 2013 around 600 genuine open clinical trials of gene therapy were registered at NIH Clinical Trials Database. Here, we summarize the current efforts towards the development of gene therapy in Latin America. Our survey shows that the number of scientists involved in the development of gene therapy and DNA vaccines in Latin America is still very low. Higher levels of investment in this technology are necessary to boost the advancement of innovation and intellectual property in this field in a way that would ease both the social and financial burden of various medical conditions in Latin America. PMID:24764763

  19. The meanings of universal health care in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Clark, Mary A

    2015-02-01

    In Latin America, competing definitions of universal health care are found. Variants include traditional universalism, basic universalism, and minimal or residual universalism. These definitions are informed by European traditions, a renewed emphasis on equity among Latin American social policy experts, and World Bank strategy. This essay explores these definitions as well as areas of overlap and points of difference between and among them using examples from several Latin American countries. The most important difference concerns the preventive and curative services not covered by the benefits packages of minimal universal programs, a gap expected to grow increasingly costly for patients. PMID:25480852

  20. Nitrogen Cycling In Latin America and : Drivers, Impacts And Vulnerabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ometto, J. P.; Bustamante, M.; Forti, M. C.; Peres, T.; Stein, A. F.; Jaramillo, V.; Perez, C.; Pinho, P. F.; Ascarrunz, N.; Austin, A.; Martinelli, L. A.

    2015-12-01

    Latin America is at a crossroads where a balance should be found between production of the major agricultural commodities, reasonable and planned urbanization and conservation of its natural ecosystems and associated goods and services. Most of the natural biological fixation of the globe occurs in forests of Latin America. On the other hand, Latin America has one of the highest rate of deforestation in the world, and one of the highest increases in the use of nitrogen fertilizers. A better understanding of the responses of the N cycle to human impacts will allow better conservation of biodiversity and natural resources, with an improvement in food security and more effective land use choices in biofuel development. Latin America is a unique region in multiple aspects, and particularly relevant for this proposal are the broad climatic gradient and economic patterns that include a diverse range of natural ecosystems and socio-economic development pathways. Additionally, the region is impaired by the lack of information on actual impacts of human activity on N cycling across this diverse range of ecosystems. Finally, the large expanse of tropical ecosystems and reservoirs of biodiversity juxtaposed with an intense economic incentive for development make our understanding of human impacts in this context particularly important for global change research in the region. An evaluation of current and predicted changes in climate and land use on nitrogen stocks and fluxes in the region what is being develop by the Nnet network (Nitrogen Cycling In Latin America: Drivers, Impacts And Vulnerabilities ). This presentation will bring the latest results of this integrative initiative in Latin America, focusing on the nitrogen budget associated to provision of ecosystem services and climate change.

  1. Cervical cancer control in Latin America: A call to action.

    PubMed

    Bychkovsky, Brittany L; Ferreyra, Mayra E; Strasser-Weippl, Kathrin; Herold, Christina I; de Lima Lopes, Gilberto; Dizon, Don S; Schmeler, Kathleen M; Del Carmen, Marcela; Randall, Tom C; Nogueira-Rodrigues, Angelica; de Carvalho Calabrich, Aknar Freire; St Louis, Jessica; Vail, Caroline M; Goss, Paul E

    2016-02-15

    Cervical cancer (CC) is second most common cause of cancer in Latin America and is a leading cause of cancer mortality among women. In 2015, an estimated 74,488 women will be diagnosed with CC in Latin America and 31,303 will die of the disease. CC mortality is projected to increase by 45% by 2030 despite human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and screening efforts. In this setting, the goal was of the current study was to examine CC control efforts in Latin America and identify deficiencies in these efforts that could be addressed to reduce CC incidence and mortality. The authors found that HPV vaccination has been introduced in the majority of Latin American countries, and there is now a need to monitor the success (or shortcomings) of these programs and to ensure that these programs are sustainable. This topic was also reviewed in light of emerging data demonstrating that visual inspection with acetic acid and HPV DNA testing without Papanicolaou tests have efficacy from a screening perspective and are good alternatives to cytology-based screening programs. Overall, there is a need to build capacity for CC control in Latin America and the best strategy will depend on the country/region and must be tailored to meet the needs of the population as well as available resources. PMID:26670695

  2. Geography, Resources, and Environment of Latin America: An Undergraduate Science Course focused on Attracting Hispanic students to Science and on Educating Non-Hispanics about Latin America.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujana, I.; Stern, R. J.; Ledbetter, C. E.

    2004-12-01

    With NSF-CCLI funding, we have developed, taught, and evaluated a new lower-division science course for non-majors, entitled "Geography, Resources, and Environment of Hispanic America" (GRELA). This is an adaptation of a similar course, "Geology and Development of Modern Africa" developed by Barbara Tewksbury (Hamilton College), to attract African American students to science by highlighting cultural ties with their ancestral lands. We think that a similar approach focusing on Latin America may attract Hispanic undergraduates, at the same time that it increases awareness among non-Hispanic students about challenges facing our neighbors to the south. GRELA is an interdisciplinary exploration of how the physical and biological environment of Mexico, Central America, and South America have influenced the people who live there. The course consists of 20 lectures and requires the student to present a report partnering with correspondents in Latin American universities. GRELA begins with an overview of Latin American physical and cultural geography and geologic evolution followed by a series of modules that relate the natural resources and environment of Latin America to the history, economy, and culture of the region. This is followed by an exploration of pre-Columbian cultures. The use of metals by pre-Columbian, colonial, and modern cultures is presented next. We then discuss hydrocarbon resources, geothermal energy, and natural hazards of volcanoes and earthquakes. The last half of the course focuses on Earth System Science themes, including El Nino, glaciers, the Amazon river and rainforest, and coral reefs. The final presentation concerns population growth and water resources along the US-Mexico border. Grades are based on two midterms, one final, and a project which requires that groups of students communicate with scientists in Latin America to explore some aspect of geography, natural resources, or the environment of a Latin American region of common interest

  3. Does Research on Education Fit the Development Needs of Latin America?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGinn, Noel; Tatto, Maria Teresa

    Fitting educational research to Latin America's developmental needs is a political issue involving differences in perspectives of Latin American and United States researchers, Latin American governments, and agencies concerned with development outside Latin America. A comparison of ERIC's "Current Index to Journals in Education" with the Latin…

  4. From upstream to downstream: Megatrends and latest developments in Latin America`s hydrocarbons sector

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Kang; Pezeshki, S.; McMahon, J.

    1995-08-01

    In recent years, Latin America`s hydrocarbons sector has been characterized by reorganization, revitalization, regional cooperation, environmental awakening, and steady expansion. The pattern of these changes, which appear to be the megatrends of the region`s hydrocarbons sector development, will continue during the rest of the 1990s. To further study the current situation and future prospects of Latin America`s hydrocarbons sector, we critically summarize in this short article the key issues in the region`s oil and gas development. These megatrends in Latin America`s hydrocarbons sector development will impact not only the future energy demand and supply in the region, but also global oil flows in the North American market and across the Pacific Ocean. Each country is individually discussed; pipelines to be constructed are discussed also.

  5. An investigation of MAGSAT and complementary data emphasizing precambrian shields and adjacent areas of West Africa and South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hastings, D. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Both MAGSAT data and preliminary results emphasizing Africa, Latin America, and the Caribbean were presented to geologists in Jamaica, Guyana, Brazil, and Argentina. Preliminary interpretations were discussed. A synopsis tectonic map of South America was completed. Semi-final modeling of northern South America was initiated.

  6. Education, Democracy, and Development in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomes, Candido

    1993-01-01

    Examines the historical context of the current Latin American educational crisis from the colonial era to the 1980s, comparing it to the educational investment undertaken by the Republic of Korea in a similar crisis. Calls for reform in state institutions, including a commitment to education, change in the economic model, and recognition of global…

  7. Educational Neuromyths among Teachers in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleichgerrcht, Ezequiel; Lira Luttges, Benjamin; Salvarezza, Florencia; Campos, Anna Lucia

    2015-01-01

    Neuroscientific knowledge has undeniably gained interest among educators worldwide. However, not all "brain facts" believed by teachers are supported by science. This study sought to evaluate the belief in these so-called "neuromyths" among 3,451 Latin American teachers. We found that, consistent with prior research among…

  8. Rethinking the University in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribeiro, Darcy

    1974-01-01

    Attempts are being made to break away from the old structural pattern of the Latin American university which has become distorted and dysfunctional from the point of view of the interest of the people. Some recent attempts at restructuring provide guidelines for future action and planning. (Author/JH)

  9. School Facility Projects in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berk, Jeffrey; de Cassia Alves Vaz, Rita; Honorio, Joao; Baza, Jadille; Origel, Ricardo; Gomez, Fredys

    2004-01-01

    Many Latin American countries are undertaking projects, in line with practices disseminated by PEB, to share school facilities with the local community, to adapt traditional schools for students with disabilities, and to collaborate with private companies to finance educational buildings. The articles below describe current initiatives in five…

  10. Teachers and Human Rights in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolmes, Jo-Ann

    1981-01-01

    Presents country-by-country information on teacher militancy and the repression and victimization of teachers by Latin American military regimes, as reported to the World Confederation of Organizations of the Teaching Profession (WCOTP). Condensed from "ATA Magazine," published by the Alberta (Canada) Teacher's Association, January 1981, pp4-9.…

  11. Periodontal disease in children and adolescents of Latin America.

    PubMed

    Botero, Javier E; Rösing, Cassiano Kuchenbecker; Duque, Andres; Jaramillo, Adriana; Contreras, Adolfo

    2015-02-01

    Periodontal diseases are a group of infectious diseases that mainly include gingivitis and periodontitis. Gingivitis is the most prevalent form of periodontal disease in subjects of all ages, including children and adolescents. Less frequent types of periodontal disease include aggressive periodontitis, acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis and various diseases of herpesviral and fungal origin. This review aimed to retrieve relevant information from Latin America on the prevalence of periodontal diseases among children and adolescents of the region. Gingivitis was detected in 35% of young Latin American subjects and showed the highest frequencies in Colombia (77%) and Bolivia (73%) and the lowest frequency in Mexico (23%). The frequency of gingivitis in subjects from other Latin American countries was between 31% and 56%. Periodontitis may affect <10% of the young population in Latin America, but the data are based on only a few studies. A more precise assessment of the distribution and severity of periodontal disease in children and adolescents of Latin America may help policy makers and dentists to institute more effective public health measures to prevent and treat the disease at an early age to avoid major damage to the permanent dentition. PMID:25494597

  12. Visceral Leishmaniasis and HIV Coinfection in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Lindoso, José Angelo; Cota, Gláucia Fernandes; da Cruz, Alda Maria; Goto, Hiro; Maia-Elkhoury, Ana Nilce Silveira; Romero, Gustavo Adolfo Sierra; de Sousa-Gomes, Márcia Leite; Santos-Oliveira, Joanna Reis; Rabello, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an endemic zoonotic disease in Latin America caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum, which is transmitted by sand flies from the genus Lutzomyia. VL occurs in 12 countries of Latin America, with 96% of cases reported in Brazil. Recently, an increase in VL, primarily affecting children and young adults, has been observed in urban areas of Latin America. The area in which this spread of VL is occurring overlaps regions with individuals living with HIV, the number of whom is estimated to be 1.4 million people by the World Health Organization. This overlap is suggested to be a leading cause of the increased number of reported VL-HIV coinfections. The clinical progression of HIV and L. infantum infections are both highly dependent on the specific immune response of an individual. Furthermore, the impact on the immune system caused by either pathogen and by VL-HIV coinfection can contribute to an accelerated progression of the diseases. Clinical presentation of VL in HIV positive patients is similar to patients without HIV, with symptoms characterized by fever, splenomegaly, and hepatomegaly, but diarrhea appears to be more common in coinfected patients. In addition, VL relapses are higher in coinfected patients, affecting 10% to 56.5% of cases and with a lethality ranging from 8.7% to 23.5% in Latin America, depending on the study. With regards to the diagnosis of VL, parasitological tests of bone marrow aspirates have proven to be the most sensitive test in HIV-infected patients. Serologic tests have demonstrated a variable sensitivity according to the method and antigens used, with the standard tests used for diagnosing VL in Latin America displaying lower sensitivity. For this review, few articles were identified that related to VL-HIV coinfections and originated from Latin America, highlighting the need for improving research within the regions most greatly affected. We strongly support the formation of a Latin American network for

  13. Mapping Latin America for Grades Six to Ten. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA. Stanford Program on International and Cross Cultural Education.

    This unit, to be used with students in grades 6-10, has been designed to serve three purposes. First, the unit acts as an introduction to, or review of, fundamental geographic concepts and vocabulary. Second, it teaches students about the basic physical and political geography of Latin America. Third, students learn to examine maps with a critical…

  14. Adult Education, Community Enterprises and Rural Development in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araujo, Jose Emilio G.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the need for and the difficulties in providing rural development and education programs for rural workers in Latin America and suggests linking adult education with community associative enterprises. Low income rural workers maintain membership by contributing their work to the enterprise and receive goods according to their…

  15. School Readiness Research in Latin America: Findings and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strasser, Katherine; Rolla, Andrea; Romero-Contreras, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Educational results in Latin America (LA) are well below those of developed countries. One factor that influences how well children do at school is school readiness. In this article, we review studies conducted in LA on the readiness skills of preschool children. We begin by discussing contextual factors that affect what is expected of children…

  16. Education in Latin America: A Selected Bibliography (1986-1995).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aedo-Richmond, Ruth

    1996-01-01

    Presents a selected bibliography of books, theses, articles, and dissertations concerning education in Latin America. Includes separate sections on Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Peru, Uruguay, and Venezuela. All selections are in…

  17. The Foundations of Telegraphy and Telephony in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baur, Cynthia

    1994-01-01

    Synthesizes empirical evidence on the participation of state and capital in the establishment of domestic telegraphic and telephonic communication in Latin America. Suggests that, in many ways, the contemporary period of telecommunication system organization in the region parallels the early years of telegraphy and telephony. Discusses these…

  18. Population and Family Planning in Latin America. Report Number 17.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piotrow, Phyllis T., Ed.

    Analysis of Latin America's demographic situation has led many to believe that the present rapid rates of population growth, the highest anywhere in the world, must be reduced in order to prevent catastrophe. Family planning associations, affiliated with the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), have been organized in 29 Latin…

  19. Reading Comprehension in Latin America: Difficulties and Possible Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lions, Séverin; Peña, Marcela

    2016-01-01

    Reading comprehension (RC) is below the international standard in many countries of Latin America (LA). Here we review factors that might be associated with failure in RC of the first language in LA. Then we present interventions reporting beneficial impact on RC in typically developing students from English-speaking countries and discuss their…

  20. ESD: Power, Politics, and Policy: "Tragic Optimism" from Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    González-Gaudiano, Edgar J.

    2016-01-01

    In light of the challenging developmental issues confronting the countries of Latin America, this response article analyzes the power and resistance of education for sustainable development from both theoretical and policy perspectives. Of particular concern are the neo-productivist strategies driving the latest stage of capitalist development.…

  1. Latin America Today: An Atlas of Reproducible Pages. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Eagle, Inc., Wellesley, MA.

    This document contains reproducible maps, charts and graphs of Latin America for use by teachers and students. The maps are divided into five categories (1) the land; (2) peoples, countries, cities, and governments; (3) the national economies, product, trade, agriculture, and resources; (4) energy, education, employment, illicit drugs, consumer…

  2. The Catholic Church, Moral Education and Citizenship in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klaiber, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    The Catholic Church, with deep roots in the history of Latin America, exercises considerable influence on all levels of society. Especially after the Second Vatican Council and the bishops' conference at Medellin (1968) the Church took up the banner of human rights and the cause of the poor. During the dictatorships and in the midst of the…

  3. The Growth of Communication Research in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez-Palacio, Carlos; Jara, J. Ruben

    This paper analyzes the origins, growth, and present state of communication research in Latin America. Based on empirical data, the paper identifies: (1) the factors that determined the kinds of studies that emerged in the region; (2) the major research topics; (3) the most influential scholars; and (4) the main currents of theoretical influence…

  4. Spanish Bilateral Initiatives for Education in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortina, Regina; Sanchez, Maria Teresa

    2007-01-01

    The research presented in this article concerns la Agencia Espanola de Cooperacion Internacional (Spanish Agency for International Cooperation--AECI) and its growing presence in Latin America since the late 1990s. The aim is to evaluate the transformative potential that bilateral funding can have on educational reform in the region. The article…

  5. Emergent Evaluation and Educational Reforms in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinic, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to characterize educational reforms in Latin America over the last 25 years, and the way they reflect the role, method, and use of evaluation processes. The main theoretical and methodological tensions that are created by the development of evaluations will be reviewed, concluding with the identification of some of the…

  6. The Reality and Future of Latin America: An Educational Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arias, Oscar

    1993-01-01

    Third World countries have lacked the resources to invest in economic and academic development. The source lies in gross inequities between industrialized and developing countries. Globalization of markets has not benefited Latin America. Militarism, corruption, poverty, and social injustice can only be eradicated by incorporating strong…

  7. Bringing Latin America to Life with Films in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanden, Harry E.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author points out that in this increasingly visual world, outstanding films can engage classes and lift the curtain on the cultures and modern history of Latin America. He recommends some of the most gripping and perceptive films on this topic, and offers advice on how teachers can provide the background to these dramas and…

  8. Ethnography and Critical Knowledge of Education in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockwell, Elsie

    1991-01-01

    Describes changes in the education systems of Latin America and the work of ethnographic researchers in the area. Examines thematic trends such as cultural reproduction, school failure, schools and the disadvantaged, teachers' protest movements, and what knowledge is really being acquired. Argues that critical attitudes have enhanced the status of…

  9. Strategies and Tactics for Community Mobilization. 1981 Latin America Seminars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobson, John R. A.

    Three seminars examined strategies and tactics for community mobilization in Latin America. The sessions--which were held in Bogota, Columbia; Quito, Ecuador; and Recife, Brazil--involved a total of 75 participants from 27 organizations. Addressed during the seminars were development, leadership, mobilization, and learning in the context of…

  10. Poverty in Latin America: A Critical Analysis of Three Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boltvinik, Julio

    1996-01-01

    Critically evaluates the methodologies used in three recent studies on poverty in Latin America. Maintains that some studies measure the relative nature of nutritional poverty while others record the absolute nature of nutritional poverty (physical survival). Includes a comparative analysis of the studies' results. (MJP)

  11. Midlife and Older Women in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Retired Persons, Washington, DC.

    Part I of this publication contains a background paper, "The Health and Socioeconomic Situation of Midlife and Older Women in Latin America and the Caribbean" (Sennott-Miller). Part II includes and introduction and the following presentations: "Opening Statement" (Crooks); "Empowering Older Women: An Agenda for the '90s" (de Alvarez);…

  12. Latin America Today: An Atlas of Reproducible Pages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Eagle, Inc., Wellesley, MA.

    A profile of Latin America (defined as consisting of the countries of Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Columbia, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, and Venezuela) emerges from this collection of black and white illustrative maps, tables, and…

  13. The distribution of leptospirosis in Latin America*†

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, A. D.

    1960-01-01

    Although many factors combine to make Latin America an apparently suitable region for the spread of the leptospiroses, the prevalence of these infections has been studied in relatively few areas of this part of the American continent. Of the 60 Leptospira serotypes described in the world, only seven have so far been definitively demonstrated in Middle America and five in South America. However, there is evidence to suggest that other and perhaps new serotypes may be found, and recent serological surveys indicate that there are loci of multiple leptospirosis affecting a large percentage of human or animal populations in at least five Latin American territories. The true prevalence of leptospirosis can only be ascertained by the proper application of reliable laboratory diagnostic methods. The limited value of certain techniques used heretofore makes a number of reports on the presence of this disease subject to question. PMID:13792576

  14. Africa, Asia, Europe, and Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loh, Eudora I.

    1991-01-01

    Includes annotations for 19 government publications from 17 countries: Bolivia, Botswana, Burundi, Chile, Costa Rica, Mali, Mexico, Morocco, Mozambique, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Niue, Peru, Rwanda, and the Soviet Union. Topics covered include pornography, poverty, food, and hunger. The effect of library budget pressures on…

  15. The HIV care continuum in Latin America: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Piñeirúa, Alicia; Sierra-Madero, Juan; Cahn, Pedro; Guevara Palmero, Rafael Napoleón; Martínez Buitrago, Ernesto; Young, Benjamin; Del Rio, Carlos

    2015-07-01

    Combination antiretroviral therapy (ART), also known as highly active antiretroviral therapy, provides clinical and immunological benefits for people living with HIV and is an effective strategy to prevent HIV transmission at the individual level. Early initiation of ART as part of a test and treat approach might decrease HIV transmission at the population level, but to do so the HIV continuum of care, from diagnosis to viral suppression, should be optimised. Access to ART has improved greatly in Latin America, and about 600,000 people are on treatment. However, health-care systems are deficient in different stages of the HIV continuum of care, and in some cases only a small proportion of individuals achieve the desired outcome of virological suppression. At present, data for most Latin American countries are not sufficient to build reliable metrics. Available data and estimates show that many people living with HIV in Latin America are unaware of their status, are diagnosed late, and enter into care late. Stigma, administrative barriers, and economic limitations seem to be important determinants of late diagnosis and failure to be linked to and retained in care. Policy makers need reliable data to optimise the HIV care continuum and improve individual-based and population-based outcomes of ART in Latin America. PMID:26122456

  16. Urban air pollution in Latin America and the Caribbean

    SciTech Connect

    Romieu, I.; Weitzenfeld, H.; Finkelman, J. )

    1991-09-01

    Urban air pollution has become an increasing problem in Latin America and the Caribbean. One reason is the rapid expansion in the size of the urban population. This phenomenon is associated with an increase in the number of vehicles and in energy utilization which, in addition to industrial processes often concentrated in the cities, are the primary sources of air pollution i n Latin American cities. The air quality standards established in such countries are frequently exceeded although control programs have been implemented. The urban areas more affected by anthropogenic pollutant emissions are Sao Paulo, Brazil; Santiago, Chile; and Mexico City. In Latin America, the population of cities with high priority air pollution problems include approximately 81 million people or 26.5 percent of the total urban population of Latin America, corresponding to 30 million children (<15 years), 47 million adults (15-59 years) and 4 million elderly people ({ge}60 years) who are exposed to air pollutant levels that exceed World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for adequate health protection.

  17. Current trends in Latin America and the Argentine perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Laredo, V.G.

    1992-12-31

    The authors discusses the changes that are taking place in Argentina as well as in all of Latin America today -- privatization, deregulation, and the modernization of the economy, changes which will serve to strengthen the governments and provide a better quality of life for all of them. He gives an insight into the factors which helped bring about these changes, the support they are receiving, the problems which persist, and the measures that still must be taken so that these positive changes remain in place. He offers some useful information that will perhaps contribute to their understanding of the vast area which he refers to as Latin America, and more specifically, gives a thumbnail sketch of what is happening today in the Republic of Argentina. For many years now, Latin American leaders have travelled to other parts of the world and spoken about the plans and expectations for the region`s future. When these well-intentioned projects and plans never materialized, partners and supporters in the United States and other countries were frustrated and disappointed by the failure to make things work. The author`s intention here today is to describe things as they are, not as they might be, to tell about what is already happening in the sphere of business and growth of the economies in Latin America.

  18. An epidemiological view of adolescent health in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Maddaleno, M; Silber, T J

    1993-12-01

    Only recently has attention been given to the condition and needs of adolescents in Latin America. Many assume that the low mortality rate among adolescents is an indication of their more than adequate health status. In reality, however, data on the health status of Latin American teens in lacking and those data which are available have been poorly synthesized and employed. In an effort to redress this oversight, the authors review and synthesize existing data on the subject from UNESCO, the World Bank, PAHO, the ILO, and other international organizations. From sections on the demography of adolescents, education, employment, economic and social conditions, mortality, morbidity, risk behaviors, and reproductive health, the authors find that adolescents in Latin America suffer traditional infectious illnesses and nutritional deficiencies; are increasingly exposed to alcohol, tobacco and drugs; and are experiencing new morbidities from violence, self-destructive behaviors, injuries, and addictions. While the level of educational attainment had increased for these youths and illiteracy has decreased across the board, poverty pervades much of the region and constrains the ability of adolescents to secure and maintain a decent quality of life. Health professionals and the general public need to dismiss the myth that adolescents in Latin America are overwhelmingly healthy and move proactively to provide them with the attention and services they so desperately need. PMID:8130230

  19. Latin America: native populations affected by early onset periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Nowzari, Hessam; Botero, Javier Enrique

    2011-06-01

    Millions of individuals are affected by early onset periodontal disease in Latin America, a continent that includes more than 20 countries. The decision-makers claim that the disease is not commonly encountered. In 2009, 280,919 authorized immigrants were registered in the United States versus 5,460,000 unauthorized (2,600,000 in California). The objective of the present article is to raise awareness about the high prevalence of the disease among Latin Americans and the good prognosis of preventive measures associated with minimal financial cost. PMID:21823496

  20. Musculoskeletal evaluation in severe haemophilia A patients from Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Ozelo, M C; Villaça, P R; Pérez-Bianco, R; Candela, M; Garcia-Chavez, J; Moreno-Rodriguez, B; Rodrigues, M B; Rodriguez-Grecco, I; Solano, M H; Chumpitaz, G; Morales-Gana, M M; Ruiz-Sáez, A

    2013-01-01

    Summary There is a paucity of literature on haemophilia treatment in Latin American countries, a region characterized by rapidly improving systems of care, but with substantial disparities in treatment between countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the musculoskeletal status of haemophilia patients from Latin America and to examine the relationship between musculoskeletal status and treatment practices across countries. The Committee of Latin America on the Therapeutics of Inhibitor Groups conducted a survey of its member country representatives on key aspects of haemophilia treatment in 10 countries. Musculoskeletal status of patients was obtained during routine comprehensive evaluations between March 2009 and March 2011. Eligible patients had severe haemophilia A (factor VIII <1%) without inhibitors (<0.6 BU mL−1) and were ≥5 years of age. Musculoskeletal status was compared between three groups of countries, based primarily on differences in the availability of long-term prophylaxis. Overall, 143 patients (5–66 years of age) were enrolled from nine countries. In countries where long-term prophylaxis had been available for at least 10 years (Group A), patients aged 5–10 years had significantly better mean World Federation of Hemophilia clinical scores, fewer target joints and fewer affected joints than patients from countries where long-term prophylaxis has been available for about 5 years (Group B) or was not available (Group C). In Latin America, the musculoskeletal status of patients with severe haemophilia without inhibitors has improved significantly in association with the provision of long-term prophylaxis. As more countries in Latin America institute this practice, further improvements are anticipated. PMID:24354487

  1. Human norovirus infection in Latin America.

    PubMed

    da Silva Poló, Tatiane; Peiró, Juliana R; Mendes, Luiz Cláudio Nogueira; Ludwig, Louisa F; de Oliveira-Filho, Edmilson F; Bucardo, Filemon; Huynen, Pascale; Melin, Pierrette; Thiry, Etienne; Mauroy, Axel

    2016-05-01

    Noroviruses are important enteric pathogens involved in non-bacterial gastroenteritis outbreaks worldwide. Noroviruses mainly occur from person to person via the fecal-oral route but also through contaminated food or water; indirect contamination is also possible due to the resistance of the virus in the environment. Latin American countries as a whole cover a vast North-to-South range, which is highly heterogeneous in terms of climate, ecosystem, human population distribution (urban areas with high human densities versus closed communities), economic development and genetic backgrounds resulting from each particular historical context. This review aims to present epidemiological and clinical patterns of human norovirus infections in Latin American countries. Divergent prevalences were observed depending on the country and the surveyed population. In particular, a shift in rotavirus/norovirus ratio in the etiologies of gastroenteritis was detected in some countries and could be attributed partly to rotavirus vaccine coverage in their infant population. While GII.4 noroviruses were seen to constitute the most common genotype, differences in genotype distribution were observed both in the environment (via sewage sampling proxy) and between genotypes circulating in healthy and diarrheic patients. Due to high climatic discrepancies, different patterns of seasonality were observed. Accordingly, this continent may condense the different particular epidemiological features encountered for HuNoV infections worldwide. PMID:27018574

  2. Overcoming social segregation in health care in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Cotlear, Daniel; Gómez-Dantés, Octavio; Knaul, Felicia; Atun, Rifat; Barreto, Ivana C H C; Cetrángolo, Oscar; Cueto, Marcos; Francke, Pedro; Frenz, Patricia; Guerrero, Ramiro; Lozano, Rafael; Marten, Robert; Sáenz, Rocío

    2015-03-28

    Latin America continues to segregate different social groups into separate health-system segments, including two separate public sector blocks: a well resourced social security for salaried workers and their families and a Ministry of Health serving poor and vulnerable people with low standards of quality and needing a frequently impoverishing payment at point of service. This segregation shows Latin America's longstanding economic and social inequality, cemented by an economic framework that predicted that economic growth would lead to rapid formalisation of the economy. Today, the institutional setup that organises the social segregation in health care is perceived, despite improved life expectancy and other advances, as a barrier to fulfilling the right to health, embodied in the legislation of many Latin American countries. This Series paper outlines four phases in the history of Latin American countries that explain the roots of segmentation in health care and describe three paths taken by countries seeking to overcome it: unification of the funds used to finance both social security and Ministry of Health services (one public payer); free choice of provider or insurer; and expansion of services to poor people and the non-salaried population by making explicit the health-care benefits to which all citizens are entitled. PMID:25458715

  3. An overview of raptor conservation in Latin America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, D.H.; Smith, D.G.

    1986-01-01

    Prior to the last decade, biological studies of raptorial birds in Latin America were almost nonexistent. For many species little more was known than their general range and habitat type. The last few years have seen the opening of a door to what will surely be a flood of scientific investigations. Ultimately, the survival of raptor communities in Latin America depends not only on research but also on several other equally significant conservation efforts. These typically appear in the following order: first, appropriate legislation must be enacted and enforced to provide legal protection; second, the public must be educated concerning the value of wildlife; third, substantial blocks of favourable habitat must be identified and preserved; fourth, economic incentives must be generated so that the local human populations actually benefit from the preservation of vulnerable wildlife and natural habitats; and finally, the long-term success of all of these efforts in each nation depends on the attainment of political, economic and social stability.

  4. An overview of raptor biology and conservation in Latin America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    Prior to the last decade, biological studies of raptorial birds in Latin America were, with a few exceptions, nonexistent. For many species all that was known was the general range and habitat type. While the logistical and political challenges are still present, the last few years has seen the opening of a door to what will almost surely be a flood of scientific investigations. From over 40,000 ground miles traveled in 16 countries, field contact with over two thirds of the raptor species, and interviews with conservation officers in 10 nations, I will report on some raptor concentration areas, identify topics for future research, and generalize on raptor conservation issues. I will also briefly mention some recent biological studies and touch briefly on the challenges awaiting the biologist who tries his or her hand at reaping the rewards that are present in abundance for those who engage in raptor studies in Latin America.

  5. Impact of Malaria in Pregnancy as Latin America Approaches Elimination.

    PubMed

    Yanow, Stephanie K; Gavina, Kenneth; Gnidehou, Sedami; Maestre, Amanda

    2016-05-01

    In Latin America, four million pregnancies are at risk of malaria annually, but malaria in pregnancy is largely overlooked. As countries progress toward malaria elimination, targeting reservoirs of transmission is a priority. Pregnant women are an important risk group because they harbor asymptomatic infections and dormant liver stages of Plasmodium vivax that cause relapses. Of significant concern is the discovery that most infections in pregnant women fail to be detected by routine diagnostics. We review here recent findings on malaria in pregnancy within Latin America. We focus on the Amazon basin and Northwest Colombia, areas that harbor the greatest burden of malaria, and propose that more sensitive diagnostics and active surveillance at antenatal clinics will be necessary to eliminate malaria from these final frontiers. PMID:26875608

  6. Snakebite-induced acute kidney injury in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Pinho, Fábia M Oliveira; Yu, Luis; Burdmann, Emmanuel A

    2008-07-01

    There are 4 genera of venomous snakes in Latin America: Bothrops, Crotalus, Lachesis, and Micrurus. Acute kidney injury (AKI) has been reported consistently after Bothrops and Crotalus envenomations. In fact, these 2 genera of snakes are responsible, along with the Russell's viper, for the majority of cases of snakebite-induced AKI reported worldwide. Although the Bothrops snakes are the leading cause of venomous snakebites in Latin America, the absolute number of AKI cases seen after Bothrops and Crotalus snakebites is similar. In this article the main characteristics of Bothrops and Crotalus snakes and their venoms, the clinical picture, and the pattern of accidents, risk factors, and mechanisms of renal injury are reviewed. PMID:18620958

  7. Curriculum changes in dental education in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Camara, V L

    1988-12-01

    In Latin America great emphasis has been placed upon relating dental education directly to community needs. Curricula are no longer defined solely by professionals, for society too is playing a greater part in curriculum design. Educational objectives are being met through the solution of community problems. Emphasis upon the tooth as the focus of dental education has been abandoned. The old approach of finding the right patient to satisfy the student's training in technique is being replaced by a philosophy of total dental care. In this way there is better integration of knowledge, skills and attitudes in dental education. An emphasis on primary care is now very much to the fore in Latin America. New categories of personnel have been brought into the teaching programmes and their contributions monitored. The physical facilities for dental care have been greatly modified in recent years. The importance of staff development programmes to the acceptance and implementation of new curriculum ideas is stressed. PMID:3215697

  8. Aquatic risk assessment of pesticides in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Carriquiriborde, Pedro; Mirabella, Paula; Waichman, Andrea; Solomon, Keith; Van den Brink, Paul J; Maund, Steve

    2014-10-01

    Latin America is anticipated to be a major growth market for agriculture and production is increasing with use of technologies such as pesticides. Reports of contamination of aquatic ecosystems by pesticides in Latin America have raised concerns about potential for adverse ecological effects. In the registration process of pesticides, all countries require significant data packages on aquatic toxicology and environmental fate. However, there are usually no specific requirements to conduct an aquatic risk assessment. To address this issue, the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry organized a workshop that brought together scientists from academia, government, and industry to review and elaborate on aquatic risk assessment frameworks that can be implemented into regulation of pesticides in Latin America. The workshop concluded that the international framework for risk assessments (protection goals, effects, and exposure assessments, risk characterization, and risk mitigation) is broadly applicable in Latin America but needs further refinement for the use in the region. Some of the challenges associated with these refinements are discussed in the article. It was recognized that there is potential for data sharing both within and outside of the region where conditions are similar. However, there is a need for research to compare local species and environmental conditions to those in other jurisdictions to be able to evaluate the applicability of data used in other countries. Development should also focus on human resources as there is a need to build local capacity and capability, and scientific collaboration and exchange between stakeholders in industry, government, and academia is also important. The meeting also emphasized that, although establishing a regionally relevant risk assessment framework is important, this also needs to be accompanied by enforcement of developed regulations and good management practices to help protect aquatic habitats

  9. EERE-Supported International Activities in Latin America (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-05-01

    The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) is involved in a variety of international initiatives, partnerships, and events that promote greater understanding and use of renewable energy (RE) and energy efficiency (EE) worldwide. In support of the Energy and Climate Partnership of the Americas (ECPA), EERE is working with several Latin American countries to advance EE and RE deployment for economic growth, energy security, poverty relief, and disaster recovery goals. This fact sheet highlights those activities.

  10. Advances(?) in mitigating volcano hazards in Latin America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, M.L.

    1991-01-01

    The 1980's were incredible years for volcanology. As a consequence of the Mount St. Helens and other eruptions, major advances in our understanding of volcanic processes and eruption dynamics were made. the decade also witnessed the greatest death toll caused by volcanism since 1902. Following Mount St. Helens, awareness of volcano hazards increased throughout the world; however, in Latin America, subsequent events showed that much was still to be learned. 

  11. Program for the elimination of urban rabies in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Escobar Cifuentes, E

    1988-01-01

    The status of rabies in Latin America and the Caribbean is described. The probable evolution of rabies is described. The probable evolution of rabies is analyzed, especially with respect to the effect of urbanization in the large cities of the hemisphere and its possible impact on the epidemiology of urban rabies. Several alternatives for the control of rabies are discussed, as are the strategies for their implementation at the continental, subregional, and country levels. PMID:3206081

  12. The Politics of Decentralisation in Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiefelbein, Ernesto

    2004-07-01

    Largely following the advice of and loans from the World Bank, many Latin American countries decentralised education to the state, municipal and local levels. Such decentralisation was part of an effort to provide universal access to primary education with massive investments near one billion dollars per year during the 1990s. The rationale was simple and appealing: The more local the decision, the greater the voice of the voter-consumer was supposed to be; while the larger number of suppliers was assumed to lead to greater variety. Research documented here shows that while authority and resources could be transferred downward in the system in a short amount of time, the so-called `autonomous schools programs' failed to generate significant improvement in pupils' achievement. Decentralisation could be successful, however, when combined with reliable strategies such as good initial teacher-training employing a wide set of teaching models; the use of well-tested scripts, guides or frameworks; and the systematic assignment of the best teachers to first grade.

  13. Declining suburbs in Europe and Latin America.

    PubMed

    Audirac, Ivonne; Cunningham-Sabot, Emmanuèle; Fol, Sylvie; Moraes, Sergio Torres

    2012-01-01

    Suburban shrinkage, understood as a degenerative urban process stemming from the demise of the Fordist mode of urbanism, is generally manifested in a decline in population, industry and employment. It is also intimately linked to the global restructuring of industrial organization associated with the rise of the post-Fordist mode of urbanism and, more recently, the thrust of Asian industrialization. Framed in the discourse of industrial urbanism, this article examines the first ring of industrial suburbs that developed around large cities in their most rapid Fordist urbanization phase. These industrial suburbs, although they were formed at different times, are today experiencing specific mutations and undergoing profound restructuring on account of their particular spatial position between the central area and the expanding peripheries of the post-Fordist metropolis. This article describes and compares suburban decline in two European cities (Glasgow and Paris) and two Latin American Cities (São Paulo, Brazil and Guadalajara, Mexico), as different instances of places asymmetrically and fragmentarily integrated into the geography of globalization. PMID:22518882

  14. Counting Child Domestic Servants in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Levison, Deborah; Langer, Anna

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes trends in the use of child domestic servants in six Latin American countries using IPUMS-International census samples for 1960 to 2000. Child domestics are among the most vulnerable of child workers, and the most invisible. They may be treated kindly and allowed to attend school, or they may be secluded in their employers’ home, overworked, verbally abused, beaten, and unable to leave or report their difficulties to kin. Estimates and imputations are based on labor force and relationship-to-head variables. We find that domestic service makes up a substantial fraction of girls’ employment in some countries. We also analyze trends in live-in versus live-out status and school enrollment of child domestic servants. While all child workers are disadvantaged in enrollment relative to non-workers, domestics are sometimes better off than non-domestic workers. In some samples, live-ins are more likely to go to school than live-out child domestics. In others, they are substantially worse off. PMID:22844164

  15. [Theoretical contributions to an interpretation of urbanization in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Quintero Cedeno, M A

    1993-04-01

    This work analyzes two essays by Anibal Quijano and Paul Singer on urbanization, dependency, social change, and marginality in Latin America and suggests some elements for a theoretical interpretation of urbanization in Latin America. The work is divided into three major sections, each of which examines a specific question. The first section explores whether urban phenomena in Latin America are or are not attributable to a situation of dependency or whether they are derived from capitalism. The second section discusses whether changes in urban society and in the urban profile are also derived from dependency or from capitalism. The third section discusses factors leading to urban concentration and suggests some policies that have not yet been developed for urbanization and development, to be analyzed in later articles. Throughout this work, the theoretical approaches of Quijano and Singer are contrasted, and additional commentary on the author's own views is supplied. It is suggested that a policy to add subsidiary or complementary activities to zones that are currently exclusively agricultural would help to retain some part of rural population growth and would have other desirable effects. PMID:12346306

  16. [Governance and political economy of PHC policies in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Báscolo, Ernesto

    2011-06-01

    The development of implementation processes of PHC policies in Latin America, is a challenge yet to be tackled. It is necessary to acknowledge the political economy related to the implementation processes of PHC policies in Latin America from a governance perspective, characterized by the regulatory strategies used and the political processes. The promotion of social values, organizational policies or the introduction of new financial incentives are components of different forms of governance used in health system reforms. The institutional factors of social protection systems in Latin America are considered. Their potential, redistribution limitations and the political economy disputes of the reform strategies are explained by the conflict between the economic and related interests and values of the actors involved. This dynamic of the political process influences regulatory modes inherent in the processes of implementation of PHC policies. The State's governing capacity and levels of health system segmentation impinge on the effectiveness of reform strategies for resolving the conflicts in the policies implemented. PMID:21709974

  17. [The demographic transition in Latin America and Europe].

    PubMed

    Zavala De Cosio, M E

    1992-12-01

    This work describes and analyzes the "European model of demographic transition" and compares it to the fertility transition in Latin America, arguing that two different types of demographic transition coexist in Latin America. Chesnais has defined 3 principal postulates of the theory of demographic transition that he believes are universally valid: the precedence in time of mortality decline; the occurrence of reproductive transition in 2 phases, limitation of marriages followed by limitation of births; and the influence of economic growth on the initiation of the secular fertiilty decline. This work is largely limited to discussion of the first 2 postulates. In all the European transitions analyzed, mortality has declined before the occurrence of fertility changes. Exceptions cited in the literature have probably been caused by omissions or other problems in the data. The level of mortality at the beginning of the transition and the rate of decline differ, giving unique character to each transition. Imbalances resulting from mortality decline are at the root of modern fertility transitions. The French demographic transition was distinguished by early appearance of birth limitation by married couples, as part of the regulation of population growth. In the rest of Europe, during the pretransitional period, the traditional system of reproduction was regulated primarily by control of nuptiality. Only at a second stage was marital fertiity controlled, when limitation of marriage was no longer sufficient or had exceeded the limits of social acceptability. All countries of Northern and Western Europe recorded increased proportions definitively single as the demographic situation began to change, until the moment when couples began to limit births. The demographic transition in Latin America began at the end of the 19th century, with mortality decline. Fertility increased initially in Latin America as it had in Europe and for the same reasons, but the impact was greater

  18. Abortion in Latin America is a matter of desperation.

    PubMed

    Martinez, D

    1990-01-01

    For North Americans, the abortion debate is one of rights: the fetus' right to be born versus the mother's right to control her body. But for Latin American women, debating rights is a luxury that has little to do with the brutal reality of becoming pregnant and knowing it will be impossible to feed yet another child, says Sylvia Marcos. A Mexican psychotherapist who has taught at Harvard University, Marcos works with women in squatters' camps throughout Mexico. "If you want to end abortion in Latin America, you will have to change the whole economic system," said Marcos in an interview. Unfortunately, Marcos said, abortion foes have failed to come up with answers to the poverty that drives Latin American women to have what she estimates are 12 million illegal abortions a year. Women in Latin America, most of them Catholic, are expected to marry young and have many children. Most women choose abortion only after having many children and deciding it would be impossible to feed another, Marcos said. The combination of Catholicism and culture--extolling the virtues of large families--and women's utter lack of means to provide is devastating psychologically and physically, she said. Furthermore, about 1/2 of all Latin American women are raising children alone. "It's so unjust," said Marcos. The 12 million abortions reflect desperation--not an anti-life orientation, she said. "When you are hungry, you do not debate the ethics of when life begins," said Marcos. "If we had enough to eat, then we could care." Women who have abortions continue to call themselves Catholic but often quit going to communion. "Not only do they have a hard time recovering physically from illegal abortions, but they are denied spiritual enjoyment," Marcos said. Trapped in desperate situations, women ignore church teachings about abortion--particularly if they are Indians who still identify strongly with traditions that uphold different ideas about when life begins. Both prochoice and prolife

  19. SCOOL: A NASA Geoscience Education Success in Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, L. H.; Fischer, J. D.; Moore, S. W.; Rogerson, T. M.

    2006-12-01

    are now registered S'COOL observers, including two thirds of Latin American countries. The spread of the project in Latin America has principally been through word of mouth, assisted by the efforts of several individuals who have developed in-country networks based on their own interests. Latin American participants have submitted nearly 9000 observations (constituting 40% of observations received from outside the US), and provide one of few sources of cloud observations during the summer months when northern hemisphere schools are mostly on vacation. Contributions from Latin American participants are also regularly featured in the S'COOL Cloud Photo of the Month. Over the course of eight years, S'COOL has amassed a wealth of knowledge pertaining to the implementation of collaborative projects in Latin America. This paper will report several key lessons learned.

  20. An investigation of MAGSAT and complementary data emphasizing precambrian shields and adjacent areas of West Africa and South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hastings, D. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Some MAGSAT data and preliminary results emphasizing Africa, Latin America, and the Caribbean were presented to geologists in Jamaica, Guyana, Brazil, and Argentina who then expressed interest in collaborating on linking computer modeling of MAGSAT data to tectionic and metallogenic interpretation for South America and in making the final interpretation. Modeling continues with the preparation of a synopsis tectonic map of South America and the initiation of semi-final modeling of northern South America.

  1. The cost of Latin American science Introduction for the second issue of CBP-Latin America.

    PubMed

    Zenteno-Savín, Tania; Beleboni, René Oliveira; Hermes-Lima, Marcelo

    2007-04-01

    Latin American researchers in science and engineering (S&E), including those in biology and biomedical sciences, are frequently exposed to unstable conditions of financial support, material and human resources, and a limited number of positions at public and private institutions. Such uncertainties impose continuous challenges for the scientific community which, in the best of cases, responds with careful planning and creativity, and in the worst scenario endures the migration of scientists to the USA or Europe. Still, the number of scientific publications from Latin American institutions in the last decade increased at a much faster rate than publications from the USA and Canada. A brief analysis per country of the gross domestic product (GDP) spent in research and development (R&D) and the S&E production reported by the Pascal bibliographic database suggests that the number and quality of S&E publications is directly proportional to the financial support for R&D. However, the investment in R&D in Latin America did not increase at the same rate (from 0.49 to 0.55% of GDP, from 1990 to 2003) at which S&E publications did in the same period (2.9-fold increase, from 1988 to 2001). In Latin America, the traditional financial support for scientific research continues to be from federal and state government funds, associated in some cases with institutional funds that are mostly directed towards administrative costs and infrastructure maintenance. The aim of this introduction is to briefly discuss the production cost of articles published in refereed S&E journals, including the cost of the scientific research behind them, and, at the same time, to increase the awareness of the high quality of scientific research in Latin American institutions despite the many challenges, especially financial constraints, faced by their scientists. The second issue of Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology dedicated to Latin America ("The Face of Latin American Comparative Biochemistry

  2. Where Does Human Plague Still Persist in Latin America?

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Maria Cristina; Najera, Patricia; Aldighieri, Sylvain; Galan, Deise I.; Bertherat, Eric; Ruiz, Alfonso; Dumit, Elsy; Gabastou, Jean Marc; Espinal, Marcos A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Plague is an epidemic-prone disease with a potential impact on public health, international trade, and tourism. It may emerge and re-emerge after decades of epidemiological silence. Today, in Latin America, human cases and foci are present in Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, and Peru. Aims The objective of this study is to identify where cases of human plague still persist in Latin America and map areas that may be at risk for emergence or re-emergence. This analysis will provide evidence-based information for countries to prioritize areas for intervention. Methods Evidence of the presence of plague was demonstrated using existing official information from WHO, PAHO, and Ministries of Health. A geo-referenced database was created to map the historical presence of plague by country between the first registered case in 1899 and 2012. Areas where plague still persists were mapped at the second level of the political/administrative divisions (counties). Selected demographic, socioeconomic, and environmental variables were described. Results Plague was found to be present for one or more years in 14 out of 25 countries in Latin America (1899–2012). Foci persisted in six countries, two of which have no report of current cases. There is evidence that human cases of plague still persist in 18 counties. Demographic and poverty patterns were observed in 11/18 counties. Four types of biomes are most commonly found. 12/18 have an average altitude higher than 1,300 meters above sea level. Discussion Even though human plague cases are very localized, the risk is present, and unexpected outbreaks could occur. Countries need to make the final push to eliminate plague as a public health problem for the Americas. A further disaggregated risk evaluation is recommended, including identification of foci and possible interactions among areas where plague could emerge or re-emerge. A closer geographical approach and environmental characterization are suggested. PMID:24516682

  3. [Peasant women and agrarian life in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Arizpe, L

    1985-01-01

    The great agrarian transformation in favor of capitalist agriculture that has occurred over the past few decades in the dependent countries of Latin America has modified the traditional production of foodstuffs, the mode of work, and the social reproduction of peasant women belonging to the social groups with the lowest levels of income. Policies of centralized industrialization which have excluded agricultural manpower have affected Latin American women, accounting for their greater tendency to migrate to cities. Migrant peasant women participate in 3 principal characteristics of the dependent development of Latin America: the rural exodus, the burgeoning of the tertiary sector, and marginality. The consequences of unequal capitalist agrarian development in the formation of a female rural proletariat have not been well studies, resulting in a tendency to disregard the heterogeneity of situations in which peasant women find themselves and to confuse 3 aspects of their condition as members of rural families, as workers, and as women. As family members, peasant women find family income declining, leading to increases in their unpaid labor time and declining standards of nutrition and health. The agrarian economies of Latin America and the Caribbean show a certain homogeneity in the sexual division of labor. Their historical development after their insertion as colonial regions in the world economy produced 3 well-defined forms of agricultural economy: haciendas, plantations, and peasant communities, each with its own forms of family and kinship relationships which reflected adjustments between sexual division of labor and production or manpower needs. Concerning the participation of women, there are curerntly 3 specific types of agricultural production characteristic of Latin America and the Caribbean: peasant family units usually belonging to communities in which women primarily perform the tasks of "reproduction", rural family units which rely on the external labor

  4. [Key points for the management of dermatitis in Latin America. The SLAAI Consensus].

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Jorge; Páez, Bruno; Macías-Weinmann, Alejandra; De Falco, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of atopic dermatitis in Latin America, as in other regions, has been increasing in recent years. The SLAAI consensus is based on a systematic search for articles related to dermatitis, with focus in the pathophysiology and treatment and its impact on Latin America, and reviewed using the Delphi methodology (Revista Alergia Mexico 2014;61:178-211). In this article we highlight the key points of consensus and particular considerations in Latin America. PMID:26239333

  5. Migratory peregrine falcons, Falco peregrinus, accumulate pesticides in Latin America during winter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henny, C.J.; Ward, F.P.; Riddle, K.E.; Prouty, R.M.

    1982-01-01

    Blood samples from 433 Peregrine Falcons (Falco peregrinus) during fall and spring migrations, 1976-80, indicated that most of their pesticide burden, primarily DDE, was accumulated on wintering grounds in Latin America. DDE in spring migrants returning from Latin America for the first time declined significantly from 1979 to 1980. Only about 10% of breeding-age females contained organochlorine residues likely to adversely affect reproduction. The organochlorine pesticide threat in Latin America may be diminishing.

  6. The legal status of emergency contraception in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Hevia, Martín

    2012-01-01

    Timely access to emergency contraception (EC) can contribute to reducing the number of unwanted pregnancies, and ultimately, the number of unsafe abortions and maternal fatalities. In Latin America, where all countries are parties to international human rights treaties that recognize the rights to autonomy, privacy, and health, and recognize sexual and reproductive rights including the right to family planning, the legal status of EC has been discussed in the courts. This article focuses on the analysis of the principal arguments voiced in the courts: the difference between contraceptives and abortifacients, the scientific status of available research on EC, and the age at which people develop a legal right to make decisions about their personal health. The conclusion is that Latin American countries whose laws or regulations ban access to EC in the public and/or the private sector fail to fulfill their obligations under international human rights law. PMID:22088410

  7. Geografia de America Latina. Grados Seis-Diez (Geography of Latin America. Grades Six-Ten).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA. Stanford Program on International and Cross Cultural Education.

    This publication, intended for Spanish-speaking students in grades 6-10, has three main objectives. First, it serves as an introduction (or refresher) to basic geographic concepts. Second, it is an examination of the physical and political geography of Latin America. Third, it is designed to help students examine maps in a critical manner. The…

  8. Arsenic in volcanic geothermal fluids of Latin America.

    PubMed

    López, Dina L; Bundschuh, Jochen; Birkle, Peter; Armienta, Maria Aurora; Cumbal, Luis; Sracek, Ondra; Cornejo, Lorena; Ormachea, Mauricio

    2012-07-01

    Numerous volcanoes, hot springs, fumaroles, and geothermal wells occur in the Pacific region of Latin America. These systems are characterized by high As concentrations and other typical geothermal elements such as Li and B. This paper presents a review of the available data on As concentrations in geothermal systems and their surficial discharges and As data on volcanic gases of Latin America. Data for geothermal systems in Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Bolivia, and Chile are presented. Two sources of As can be recognized in the investigated sites: Arsenic partitioned into volcanic gases and emitted in plumes and fumaroles, and arsenic in rocks of volcanic edifices that are leached by groundwaters enriched in volcanic gases. Water containing the most elevated concentrations of As are mature Na-Cl fluids with relatively low sulfate content and As concentrations reaching up to 73.6 mg L⁻¹ (Los Humeros geothermal field in Mexico), but more commonly ranging from a few mg L⁻¹ to tens of mg L⁻¹. Fluids derived from Na-Cl enriched waters formed through evaporation and condensation at shallower depths have As levels of only a few μg L⁻¹. Mixing of Na-Cl waters with shallower meteoric waters results in low to intermediate As concentrations (up to a few mg L⁻¹). After the waters are discharged at the ground surface, As(III) oxidizes to As(V) and attenuation of As concentration can occur due to sorption and co-precipitation processes with iron minerals and organic matter present in sediments. Understanding the mechanisms of As enrichment in geothermal waters and their fate upon mixing with shallower groundwater and surface waters is important for the protection of water resources in Latin America. PMID:22285066

  9. The future of urban water services in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Wade, Jeffry S

    2012-01-01

    In recent decades, problems with the provision of drinking water and sanitation services around the world have increasingly been addressed by attempts at privatisation, recasting clean water as an essentially economic, rather than public, good. This approach gained particular acceptance in Latin America, but with limited success. In order to address the full range of social, economic and environmental values necessary to sustain water resources over time, public and governmental involvement in establishing integrated water management, pursuing ‘soft path’ approaches, assuring stakeholder input and setting policy will be essential to the process. PMID:22530259

  10. Reading Comprehension in Latin America: Difficulties and Possible Interventions.

    PubMed

    Lions, Séverin; Peña, Marcela

    2016-06-01

    Reading comprehension (RC) is below the international standard in many countries of Latin America (LA). Here we review factors that might be associated with failure in RC of the first language in LA. Then we present interventions reporting beneficial impact on RC in typically developing students from English-speaking countries and discuss their possible applicability in LA. We conclude that research-based pedagogical interventions are currently available to promote RC at school and may be suitable to implement in LA in order to improve RC. PMID:27254828

  11. [Healthcare rights and conditional cash transfers in Latin America].

    PubMed

    da Fonseca, Ana Maria Medeiros; Viana, Ana Luiza d'Avila

    2007-01-01

    Conditional cash transfer programs in Latin America impose specific requirements and responsibilities on beneficiary households, in order to upgrade education levels, improve drop-out rates and eliminate child labor, while enhancing health and nutrition indicators. Although counterpart healthcare conditions are common to all these programs, government strategies differ in terms of reaching their goals, at times even undermining improvements in the living conditions of more vulnerable segments of the population. Instead of upholding rights to healthcare, such initiatives may well trigger a new cycle of tightly-focused basic care through provisional programs. PMID:18813487

  12. "Manana Is Soon Enough for Me": Latin America through Tin Pan Alley's Prism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiex, Nola Kortner

    In order to examine the vision of Latin America transmitted to the American public in Tin Pan Alley's popular songs in the first half of the twentieth century, a study analyzed nearly 50 songs. The songs were grouped into five categories: (1) songs which describe Latin locales; (2) songs which are constructed around a Latin woman's name; (3) songs…

  13. Social Medicine Then and Now: Lessons From Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Waitzkin, Howard; Iriart, Celia; Estrada, Alfredo; Lamadrid, Silvia

    2001-01-01

    The accomplishments of Latin American social medicine remain little known in the English-speaking world. In Latin America, social medicine differs from public health in its definitions of populations and social institutions, its dialectic vision of “health–illness,” and its stance on causal inference. A “golden age” occurred during the 1930s, when Salvador Allende, a pathologist and future president of Chile, played a key role. Later influences included the Cuban revolution, the failed peaceful transition to socialism in Chile, the Nicaraguan revolution, liberation theology, and empowerment strategies in education. Most of the leaders of Latin American social medicine have experienced political repression, partly because they have tried to combine theory and political practice—a combination known as “praxis.” Theoretic debates in social medicine take their bearings from historical materialism and recent trends in European philosophy. Methodologically, differing historical, quantitative, and qualitative approaches aim to avoid perceived problems of positivism and reductionism in traditional public health and clinical methods. Key themes emphasize the effects of broad social policies on health and health care; the social determinants of illness and death; the relationships between work, reproduction, and the environment; and the impact of violence and trauma. PMID:11574316

  14. Planning cancer control in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Goss, Paul E; Lee, Brittany L; Badovinac-Crnjevic, Tanja; Strasser-Weippl, Kathrin; Chavarri-Guerra, Yanin; St Louis, Jessica; Villarreal-Garza, Cynthia; Unger-Saldaña, Karla; Ferreyra, Mayra; Debiasi, Márcio; Liedke, Pedro E R; Touya, Diego; Werutsky, Gustavo; Higgins, Michaela; Fan, Lei; Vasconcelos, Claudia; Cazap, Eduardo; Vallejos, Carlos; Mohar, Alejandro; Knaul, Felicia; Arreola, Hector; Batura, Rekha; Luciani, Silvana; Sullivan, Richard; Finkelstein, Dianne; Simon, Sergio; Barrios, Carlos; Kightlinger, Rebecca; Gelrud, Andres; Bychkovsky, Vladimir; Lopes, Gilberto; Stefani, Stephen; Blaya, Marcelo; Souza, Fabiano Hahn; Santos, Franklin Santana; Kaemmerer, Alberto; de Azambuja, Evandro; Zorilla, Andres Felipe Cardona; Murillo, Raul; Jeronimo, Jose; Tsu, Vivien; Carvalho, Andre; Gil, Carlos Ferreira; Sternberg, Cinthya; Dueñas-Gonzalez, Alfonso; Sgroi, Dennis; Cuello, Mauricio; Fresco, Rodrigo; Reis, Rui Manuel; Masera, Guiseppe; Gabús, Raúl; Ribeiro, Raul; Knust, Renata; Ismael, Gustavo; Rosenblatt, Eduardo; Roth, Berta; Villa, Luisa; Solares, Argelia Lara; Leon, Marta Ximena; Torres-Vigil, Isabel; Covarrubias-Gomez, Alfredo; Hernández, Andrés; Bertolino, Mariela; Schwartsmann, Gilberto; Santillana, Sergio; Esteva, Francisco; Fein, Luis; Mano, Max; Gomez, Henry; Hurlbert, Marc; Durstine, Alessandra; Azenha, Gustavo

    2013-04-01

    Non-communicable diseases, including cancer, are overtaking infectious disease as the leading health-care threat in middle-income and low-income countries. Latin American and Caribbean countries are struggling to respond to increasing morbidity and death from advanced disease. Health ministries and health-care systems in these countries face many challenges caring for patients with advanced cancer: inadequate funding; inequitable distribution of resources and services; inadequate numbers, training, and distribution of health-care personnel and equipment; lack of adequate care for many populations based on socioeconomic, geographic, ethnic, and other factors; and current systems geared toward the needs of wealthy, urban minorities at a cost to the entire population. This burgeoning cancer problem threatens to cause widespread suffering and economic peril to the countries of Latin America. Prompt and deliberate actions must be taken to avoid this scenario. Increasing efforts towards prevention of cancer and avoidance of advanced, stage IV disease will reduce suffering and mortality and will make overall cancer care more affordable. We hope the findings of our Commission and our recommendations will inspire Latin American stakeholders to redouble their efforts to address this increasing cancer burden and to prevent it from worsening and threatening their societies. PMID:23628188

  15. Towards establishing MS prevalence in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Melcon, M O; Melcon, C M; Bartoloni, L; Cristiano, E; Duran, J C; Grzesiuk, A K; Fragoso, Y D; Brooks, J B Bidin; Díaz, V; Romero García, K M; Cabrera Gomez, J A; Abad, P; Islas, M A Macías; Gracia, F; Diaz de Bedoya, V F Hamuy; Ruiz, M E Córdova; Hackembruch, J H; Oehninger, C; Ketzoian, C N; Soto, A

    2013-02-01

    A very high prevalence of multiple sclerosis (MS) has been reported in some Western European and North American countries. The few surveys of MS epidemiology in South America reveal lower prevalence rates, implying that susceptibility varies between distinct ethnic groups, thus forming an important determinant of the geographic distribution of the disease. The objective of this study is to review MS prevalence estimates in different Latin American and Caribbean countries. We reviewed surveys of regional MS prevalence from 1991 to 2011. Sources included an online database, authors' reports and proceedings or specific lectures from regional conferences. We obtained a total of 30 prevalence surveys from 15 countries, showing low/medium MS prevalence rates. Both the number and the quality of prevalence surveys have greatly improved in this region over recent decades. This is the first collaborative study to map the regional frequency of MS. Establishment of standardized methods and joint epidemiological studies will advance future MS research in Latin America and the Caribbean. PMID:22492129

  16. Energy and sustainable development in Latin America and the Caribbean

    SciTech Connect

    Suding, P.H.

    1995-12-31

    There is a marked difference between the perception of the sustainable development problem in the industrialized countries and that prevailing in the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean (LA&C). Whereas the industrialized countries seem concerned about the sustainability of their development in view of global climate change, developing countries in LA&C are looking for a sustainable development course that will lead them out of poverty and away from the destruction of the local environment. The industrialized countries perspective is apparent in the titles of the papers being presented at the IAEE Conference under the topic: Harmonizing Energy Policy, Environment, and Sustainable Economic Growth. A great number of titles and sessions focus on the apparent antagonism between economic growth and the environment. By environment one seems to primarily mean emissions into the air, especially greenhouse gas emissions. Probably the majority of the energy community of the industrial countries regards Latin America, on the one hand, as a holder of a large CO{sub 2} sink in danger of extinction and, on the other hand, as a potential new large contributor to greenhouse gas emissions.

  17. Hepatitis E virus: An ancient hidden enemy in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Fierro, Nora A; Realpe, Mauricio; Meraz-Medina, Tzintli; Roman, Sonia; Panduro, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is a common cause of acute clinical hepatitis worldwide. HEV is an RNA-containing virus and the only member of the genus Hepevirus in the family Hepeviridae. Human HEV is classified into four genotypes widely distributed across the world. The virus is mainly transmitted via the fecal-oral route, and water-borne epidemics have become characteristic of hepatitis E in developing countries, including those in Latin America. The zoonotic potential of HEV is broadly recognized. Thus, there is an urgent need to re-evaluate virus transmission scenarios and to enforce epidemiological surveillance systems. Additionally, it is known that HEV infections, initially defined as self-limiting, can also take chronic courses in immunocompromised patients. Moreover, we recently reported a high seroprevalence of HEV in samples from cirrhotic patients with no other etiological agents present, suggesting the potential role of HEV in the development of chronic liver illness. In this review, HEV genomic variability, transmission, chronic infectious course, zoonotic potential and treatment are discussed. Focus is placed on the impact of HEV infection in Latin America, to support the development of specific control strategies and the handling of this important and typically imperceptible viral infection. PMID:26900289

  18. Commentary: improving the health of neglected populations in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Franco-Paredes, Carlos; Jones, Danielle; Rodríguez-Morales, Alfonso J; Santos-Preciado, José Ignacio

    2007-01-01

    Neglected diseases encompass a group of pathologies that disproportionally affect resource-constrained areas of the world. In tropical and subtropical areas in Latin America, the vicious cycle of poverty, disease and underdevelopment is widespread. The burden of disease associated to neglected diseases in this region is mainly expressed through diseases such as malaria, dengue, intestinal parasitic infections, Chagas' disease, and many others. These maladies have burdened Latin America throughout centuries and have directly influenced their ability to develop and become competitive societies in the current climate of globalization. Therefore, the need for a new paradigm that integrates various public health policies, programs, and a strategy with the collaboration of all responsible sectors is long overdue. In this regard, innovative approaches are required to ensure the availability of low-cost, simple, sustainable, and locally acceptable strategies to improve the health of neglected populations to prevent, control, and potentially eliminate neglected diseases. Improving the health of these forgotten populations will place them in an environment more conducive to development and will likely contribute significantly to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals in this area of the globe. PMID:17244369

  19. [Adolescent sexual and reproductive behavior in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Pick De Weiss, S; Vargas-trujillo, E

    1990-01-01

    The Latin American literature on adolescent sexual and reproductive behavior is reviewed to provide professionals in the area with more relevant findings. The data demonstrates that sexually active adolescents of both gender are increasing and starting sexual activity at an earlier age. For example in Panama one out of every 5 births is from an adolescent 15-19 with 25% of these out of wedlock; in Chile, 44% of live births are illegitimate. Factors that are affecting these changes are the media, peer groups and other sources of information competing with parental discipline (TV, movies, music). In spite of the high incidence of out-of-wedlock pregnancies, the majority of pregnancies among adolescents in Latin America and the Caribbean take place in marriage with the average age of marriage at 20, with variation between the rural and urban areas. In 1978 the total fertility rate of El Salvador's urban areas was 3.3 as against 8.4 in the rural. Young girls in developing countries have few options for education, retaining their virginity and marriage, so when presented with the change early on, they marry and get pregnant. Cuba remains the only Latin American Country where abortion is offered (up to 10 weeks) within the context of health services; while illegal abortion in the majority of Latin American countries continues to increase. The proportion of complications due to abortion for those under 20 ranges from 11-20% in the region. Illegal abortions has become a major cause of maternal mortality constituting from 12-53% of deaths among the majority of women 15-24. Significant data is given for pregnancy, factors that influence knowledge and use of contraception, and available sex education programs, an extensive bibliography in these areas is included. PMID:12283397

  20. Advances in volcano monitoring and risk reduction in Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCausland, W. A.; White, R. A.; Lockhart, A. B.; Marso, J. N.; Assitance Program, V. D.; Volcano Observatories, L. A.

    2014-12-01

    We describe results of cooperative work that advanced volcanic monitoring and risk reduction. The USGS-USAID Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (VDAP) was initiated in 1986 after disastrous lahars during the 1985 eruption of Nevado del Ruiz dramatizedthe need to advance international capabilities in volcanic monitoring, eruption forecasting and hazard communication. For the past 28 years, VDAP has worked with our partners to improve observatories, strengthen monitoring networks, and train observatory personnel. We highlight a few of the many accomplishments by Latin American volcano observatories. Advances in monitoring, assessment and communication, and lessons learned from the lahars of the 1985 Nevado del Ruiz eruption and the 1994 Paez earthquake enabled the Servicio Geológico Colombiano to issue timely, life-saving warnings for 3 large syn-eruptive lahars at Nevado del Huila in 2007 and 2008. In Chile, the 2008 eruption of Chaitén prompted SERNAGEOMIN to complete a national volcanic vulnerability assessment that led to a major increase in volcano monitoring. Throughout Latin America improved seismic networks now telemeter data to observatories where the decades-long background rates and types of seismicity have been characterized at over 50 volcanoes. Standardization of the Earthworm data acquisition system has enabled data sharing across international boundaries, of paramount importance during both regional tectonic earthquakes and during volcanic crises when vulnerabilities cross international borders. Sharing of seismic forecasting methods led to the formation of the international organization of Latin American Volcano Seismologists (LAVAS). LAVAS courses and other VDAP training sessions have led to international sharing of methods to forecast eruptions through recognition of precursors and to reduce vulnerabilities from all volcano hazards (flows, falls, surges, gas) through hazard assessment, mapping and modeling. Satellite remote sensing data

  1. Perceptions of Sexual Discrimination among College Women in Latin America and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espin, Oliva M.

    1980-01-01

    In a comparative analysis of 400 college women's perceptions of incidents of sexual discrimination in Latin America and the U.S., significant differences were noted. Most incidents from Latin America regarded social conventions, those from the U.S. involved personal advancement in such matters as jobs or educational opportunities. (DS)

  2. Research on Child and Adolescent Development and Public Policy in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narea, Marigen

    2016-01-01

    This commentary discusses the implication of child and adolescent development research for public policy in Latin America. As illustrated by the articles in this special issue, even though the research of child and adolescent development in Latin America is making significant progress, still more research is needed. Developmental research in the…

  3. Latin America's Emergence: Toward a U.S. Response. Headline Series 243.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowenthal, Abraham F.; Fishlow, Albert

    In order to provide a basis for improving United States policies toward Latin America in the 1980s, the document examines past U.S. policy and relations, evaluates recent U.S. approaches, and offers a reassessment of current U.S. interests in Latin America. The book is divided into five chapters. Chapter I discusses social, economic, and political…

  4. Folate and vitamin B12 status in Latin America and the Caribbean: An update

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: The current magnitude of folate and vitamin B12 deficiency in Latin America and the Caribbean is uncertain. Objective: To summarize data on plasma or serum vitamin B12 and folate concentrations in Latin America and the Caribbean reported since 1990, a period that covers the era before an...

  5. Stories from Afar: Using Children's and Young Adult Literature to Teach about Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruz, Barbara C.

    2007-01-01

    In teaching about Latin America and the Caribbean, bringing a human dimension to the study of the region is essential. Texts on the region can be dull and lifeless or even biased and skewed. Introducing students to the region by exploring prose, poetry, and picture books helps to illustrate the rich diversity found throughout Latin America and the…

  6. Competing Visions, Shifting Boundaries: The Construction of Latin America as a World Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Marie D.; Cooper, Catherine W.

    2007-01-01

    Latin America is a popularly accepted world region. A systematic review of geographic interpretations of Latin America reveals that the origin of the term goes back to the mid-nineteenth century and that the region's boundaries have shifted over time. This article argues that four basic principles operate in the formation of world regions such as…

  7. A Texas Company Sees Online Learning as Growth Industry in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Monica

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the growth of demand in online learning in Latin America and the expansion efforts made by Texas-based Whitney International to fill such niche. Whitney is a newcomer to a growing group of for-profit players that spot unmet demand for higher education in Latin America. Founded in 2005, it began its distance-learning courses…

  8. Human Rights and Curricular Policy in Latin America and the Caribbean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suarez, David F.

    2007-01-01

    Human rights have become increasingly salient for nations, organizations, and individuals since the end of World War II (Lauren 2003). Discussions of human rights now are common in formal education, including in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). A variety of indicators suggest that countries in Latin America have integrated human rights into…

  9. Poverty and Malnutrition in Latin America. Early Childhood Intervention Programs: A Report to the Ford Foundation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollitt, Ernesto; And Others

    This book presents a comprehensive review of empirical research on early childhood education and human development in Latin America. Commissioned in 1976 by the Office of Latin America and the Caribbean, part of the International Division of the Ford Foundation, New York, the study was two-faceted. First, researchers were instructed to review…

  10. Regional Plan of Action for Latin America and the Caribbean for the International Youth Year.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Economic and Social Council, New York, NY.

    The document outlines and defines the Regional Plan of Action for Latin America and the Caribbean for the International Youth Year: Participation, Development, Peace. The report is divided into two major parts and several subtopics. The first major part, "Towards a Regional Strategy for Latin America and the Caribbean for the International Youth…

  11. What Poverty Does to Girls' Education: The Intersection of Class, Gender, and Ethnicity in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stromquist, Nelly P.

    This essay examines poverty in Latin America and its effect on education. It focuses on sexual bias and emphasizes that poverty is inherent in the social and economic structure of the region. The text examines how states in Latin America view the role of education, and it describes the growing chasm between the poor and the gentrified in various…

  12. Latin America in a Contemporary Context. Grade Level: 9-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Forum for Global Education, New York, NY.

    Latin America's rapid change in recent years has prompted the American Forum for Global Education to take a closer look at this important and dynamic region. This booklet summarizes how Latin America should be viewed in today's global world and highlights strategies for teaching these ideas. The booklet consists of the following four sections. The…

  13. Functional Patterns in International Organizations for University Cooperation in Latin America and the Caribbean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Daniel A.; Lopez, Daniel C.; Andrade, Lorenzo I.; Lopez, Boris A.

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes the coverage, organizational patterns, problems and trends of international organizations for university cooperation in Latin America and the Caribbean. More than 30 international organizations for cooperation currently operating in Latin America and the Caribbean were identified. Two groups of institutions with more than 60%…

  14. Use of Third Line Antiretroviral Therapy in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Cesar, Carina; Shepherd, Bryan E.; Jenkins, Cathy A.; Ghidinelli, Massimo; Castro, Jose Luis; Veloso, Valdiléa Gonçalves; Cortes, Claudia P.; Padgett, Denis; Crabtree-Ramirez, Brenda; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Fink, Valeria; Duran, Adriana; Sued, Omar; McGowan, Catherine C.; Cahn, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Background Access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is expanding in Latin America. Many patients require second and third line therapy due to toxicity, tolerability, failure, or a combination of factors. The need for third line HAART, essential for program planning, is not known. Methods Antiretroviral-naïve patients ≥18 years who started first HAART after January 1, 2000 in Caribbean, Central and South America Network (CCASAnet) sites in Argentina, Brazil, Honduras, Mexico, and Peru were included. Clinical trials participants were excluded. Third line HAART was defined as use of darunavir, tipranavir, etravirine, enfuvirtide, maraviroc or raltegravir. Need for third line HAART was defined as virologic failure while on second line HAART. Results Of 5853 HAART initiators followed for a median of 3.5 years, 310 (5.3%) failed a second line regimen and 44 (0.8%) received a third line regimen. Cumulative incidence of failing a 2nd or starting a 3rd line regimen was 2.7% and 6.0% three and five years after HAART initiation, respectively. Predictors at HAART initiation for failing a second or starting a third line included female sex (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.54, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18–2.00, p = 0.001), younger age (HR = 2.76 for 20 vs. 40 years, 95% CI 1.86–4.10, p<0.001), and prior AIDS (HR = 2.17, 95% CI 1.62–2.90, p<0.001). Conclusions Third line regimens may be needed for at least 6% of patients in Latin America within 5 years of starting HAART, a substantial proportion given the large numbers of patients on HAART in the region. Improved accessibility to third line regimens is warranted. PMID:25221931

  15. [The demographic consequences of austerity in Latin America: methodological aspects].

    PubMed

    Hakkert, R

    1991-01-01

    This work reviews evidence in the literature of possible demographic effects of the austerity programs imposed on Latin American countries in the 1980s. The work focuses on methodological problems involved in assessing demographic changes and ascertaining that they were indeed attributable to the economic crisis. An introductory section describes the recession of the 1980s in Latin America, the declines in employment and living standards, and the health and social consequences of the deepening poverty. But the author argues that evaluation of health conditions, levels of nutrition, and especially factors such as infant mortality, fertility, marriage patterns, and migration as indicators of the impact of the economic depression is full of pitfalls that are not always obvious. Few Latin American countries have civil registration systems capable of providing accurate and up-to-date mortality and fertility data. Indirect methods currently in use were intended to analyze longterm levels and trends and are of little use for short-term fluctuations. Data on internal migration are scarce even in developed countries. Even when recent data are available it is often difficult or impossible to obtain data for comparison. Infant mortality and malnutrition levels, for example, are serious problems in many parts of Latin America, but series of data capable of demonstrating that they are truly consequences of the economic crisis are lacking. Another challenge is to separate the demographic effects of the debt crisis from longterm structural processes. The possibility of time lags and of different time frames may increase confusion. Almost a year must pass before effects on birth rates can be expected, for example. Neutralizing mechanisms may obscure the effects sought. Thus, the most impoverished urban sectors may return to the countryside to seek refuge in subsistence agriculture; their departure would in some measure diminish the consequences of recession in the urban economy

  16. The underestimated diversity of phytoplasmas in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Pérez-López, Edel; Luna-Rodríguez, Mauricio; Olivier, Chrystel Y; Dumonceaux, Tim J

    2016-01-01

    Phytoplasmas ('Candidatus Phytoplasma') are insect-transmitted, cell-wall-less, plant-pathogenic bacteria that cause economically important crop diseases. Because phytoplasmas are difficult or impossible to culture in vitro, they are classified taxonomically according to the convention used for unculturable micro-organisms. The first coherent scheme of classification of phytoplasmas, based on the RFLP pattern of the 16S rRNA-encoding gene generated with 17 restriction endonucleases, was updated several times until the development of the iPhyClassifier. iPhyClassifier is an interactive online tool capable of determining the species, group and subgroup of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma' of unknown samples using the 16S F2nR2 sequence. Latin America, an important geographical area in relation to food production, has a high incidence of plant diseases caused by phytoplasmas. However, many phytoplasmas associated with these diseases have not been properly classified. An extensive literature review and the use of iPhyClassifier allowed us to identify two new tentative groups (16SrXXXIII-A and 16SrXXXIV-A) and the following tentative new subgroups among Latin American strains that were either previously unclassified or misclassified: six in 16SrI, six in 16SrII, one in 16SrIII, one in 16SrVII, one in 16SrIX, one in 16SrXII and two in 16SrXIII. PMID:26519050

  17. The teaching of geophysics in Latin America: An updated assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valencio, Daniel A.; Schneider, Otto

    The situation of geophysics in developing countries has been the subject of discussions and analysis by diverse international organizations. It was also discussed in some articles in Eos [e.g., Lomnitz, 1982; Urrutia Fucugauchi, 1982; Bolt, 1982]. We have been requested to contribute a current evaluation of the problem, with particular reference to geophysical education in Latin America.In the following report on specialized training of geophysicists in Latin American countries, we consider the “exact earth sciences” in the broader sense, i.e., the mathematical and physical (and, to a certain extent, chemical) aspects of the planet earth as a whole, including its fluid portions, as opposed to the more restricted concept of just solid earth geophysics. In other words, our inquiry follows the scope of both AGU and the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG), so geodesy, although not explicitly covered, will still be mentioned occasionally. We will also consider the applied branches, especially exploration geophysics, since these areas furnish powerful motivation for fostering our sciences, both in the governmental circles of developing countries and among the young people looking for a promising professional future.

  18. Level of asthma control and healthcare utilization in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Gold, L S; Montealegre, F; Allen-Ramey, F C; Jardim, J; Smith, N; Sansores, R; Sullivan, S D

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether uncontrolled asthma was associated with healthcare outcomes among Latin American patients with asthma. We used data from 2168 patients with asthma who participated in the 2011 Latin America Asthma Insights and Management (AIM) survey. Using Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) guidelines, patients were categorized as having asthma that was well-controlled, partly controlled, or uncontrolled. Overall, 7% of the patients surveyed had asthma that was classified as well-controlled. Patients whose asthma was not well-controlled were significantly more likely to report use of asthma medications (ORs ranging from 1.6-41) and to have had emergency healthcare visits or hospitalizations for their asthma in the previous year (ORs ranging from 2.1 to 5.9). They also reported decreases in their productivity compared to patients with well-controlled asthma. These associations suggest that emphasis on improving asthma control could have substantial effects on patient productivity and utilization of healthcare resources. PMID:24117970

  19. Assessing Latin America's Progress Toward Achieving Universal Health Coverage.

    PubMed

    Wagstaff, Adam; Dmytraczenko, Tania; Almeida, Gisele; Buisman, Leander; Hoang-Vu Eozenou, Patrick; Bredenkamp, Caryn; Cercone, James A; Diaz, Yadira; Maceira, Daniel; Molina, Silvia; Paraje, Guillermo; Ruiz, Fernando; Sarti, Flavia; Scott, John; Valdivia, Martin; Werneck, Heitor

    2015-10-01

    Two commonly used metrics for assessing progress toward universal health coverage involve assessing citizens' rights to health care and counting the number of people who are in a financial protection scheme that safeguards them from high health care payments. On these metrics most countries in Latin America have already "reached" universal health coverage. Neither metric indicates, however, whether a country has achieved universal health coverage in the now commonly accepted sense of the term: that everyone--irrespective of their ability to pay--gets the health services they need without suffering undue financial hardship. We operationalized a framework proposed by the World Bank and the World Health Organization to monitor progress under this definition and then constructed an overall index of universal health coverage achievement. We applied the approach using data from 112 household surveys from 1990 to 2013 for all twenty Latin American countries. No country has achieved a perfect universal health coverage score, but some countries (including those with more integrated health systems) fare better than others. All countries except one improved in overall universal health coverage over the time period analyzed. PMID:26438747

  20. The growing burden of dengue in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Tapia-Conyer, Roberto; Méndez-Galván, Jorge F; Gallardo-Rincón, Héctor

    2009-10-01

    The re-emergence and subsequent failure to control dengue in Latin America provides a compelling illustration of the clinical, political and socio-economic challenges to eradicating dengue across the world. Insufficient political commitment, inadequate financial resources and increased urbanisation have contributed to the re-emergence and dramatic increase in dengue fever and dengue haemorrhagic fever in all 19 Latin American countries previously certified as free of Aedes aegypti. Difficulties with diagnosis, asymptomatic infection and the lack of effective surveillance systems account for the discrepancies between antibody prevalence against dengue and reported cases. Accurate incidence data and appreciation of the economic impact of dengue at regional, national and international levels are essential to securing political and economic commitment for dengue control efforts as well as increased scientific and social awareness. Environmental control efforts require an integrated and systematic approach at both the national and community level, while successful introduction of a dengue vaccine will require an educational programme that clearly communicates the cost-effectiveness and desirability of this interventional measure. In addition, countries must anticipate their national regulatory requirements, and vaccination strategies should be optimised according to the dengue epidemiology of each country. A broad scope is required to finance vaccination programmes to ensure individual countries' monetary shortcomings are addressed. PMID:19800563

  1. Health expenditures in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Govindaraj, R; Chellaraj, G; Murray, C J

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study commissioned by the Latin American and Caribbean Technical Department of the World Bank to document and analyze health expenditures in Latin America and the Caribbean. In 1990, the countries of this region spent US$ 69 billion on health, with an average per capita health expenditure of US$ 162. On average, the countries spent 6.2% of their GDP on health, with the expenditures divided about equally between the public and private sectors. In both the public and private sectors, per capita health expenditures were positively and significantly correlated with per capita income. However, this relationship holds only for the public sector, when health expenditures are measured as a proportion of GDP. While several poorer countries were dependent on external assistance, with increasing income, the countries relied more on public expenditures to finance health care. Based on the limited time series data, it is evident that there was a considerable variation among countries regarding the proportion spent on capital investments, primary health care, and drugs, but not on salaries. Looking ahead, with increasing economic development, the proportion of GDP spent on health, along with public health expenditure as a proportion of total health expenditure, is likely to increase rapidly, while aid dependency is likely to decline. PMID:9015869

  2. The looming threat of AIDS and HIV in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Snell, J

    1999-10-01

    A conference, organized by the International HIV/AIDS Alliance and Glaxo Wellcome's Positive Action Program, was held in Ecuador to address the growing number of HIV cases in Latin America. It recognized the high prevalence rates of HIV infections in Brazil and Mexico, and the potential increase in HIV infections in Ecuador due to its changing demographics and lack of government action. Community workers from Ecuador were eager to listen to how Brazil and Mexico had dealt with the AIDS issue. The HIV/AIDS situation in Ecuador is further worsened by its economic crisis. Several speakers in the conference also asked for more HIV positive counselors that will work with other infected individuals and to complement the role of doctors and nurses. In addition, details of numerous projects, including that of an HIV program in a Quito young offenders' institution, were discussed. PMID:10513724

  3. [Control of diarrheal diseases in Mexico and Latin America].

    PubMed

    Mota, F; Pérez-Ricárdez, M L

    1989-05-01

    Oral rehydration therapy (ORT), has been considered the major advance in the treatment of the diarrheal diseases, and has been the single most important factor in the decrease of mortality and decreased morbidity in childhood diarrheal. ORT, is not limited to the administration of oral rehydration solution; it also includes feeding techniques and community education and participation. In order to promote ORT, national programs have been developed and promoted in educational centers in strategic areas of the Latin America countries, where medical and paramedical staff attend. In México there have been two national surveys to evaluate the ORT program. This policy has allowed for participating countries to reduce the cost of treatment of diarrheal disease. PMID:2757780

  4. Cardiovascular disease in Latin America: the growing epidemic.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Lanas; Pamela, Serón; Alejandra, Lanas

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) produce almost a million deaths a year in Latin America (LA), becoming the main cause of death in the last years, and it is estimated that the number of deaths in the region attributable to CVD will increase in the near future. This new epidemic is a consequence of the demographic, economic and social changes observed in LA in recent years. Coronary heart disease and stroke causes 42.5% and 28.8%, respectively of the CVD mortality in the region. Chagas heart involvement and rheumatic heart disease, once a major health problem, are responsible of only 1% of the mortality each. Improving in socioeconomic status, increased life expectancy and high prevalence of risk factors for atherosclerosis have been the major determinants of this marked epidemiologic change. PMID:25443823

  5. [Innovative initiative in nursing teaching in Latin America].

    PubMed

    de Sena, R R; Brant, M J

    1999-01-01

    The study describes a set of nine projects which are initiatives in the innovation of the teaching twelve country of Nursing in Latin America. It discusses the purpose of these projects so as to incorporate pedagogical concepts which are critical and provoke reflection, and active methods of teaching and analysis of conceptual aspects, the management, strategies and models which are adopted. It describes the common features of the courses in the semi-present and distance forms and analyzes the teaching methods which focus on the teacher-student relation, as strengthening group and independent learning, as well as the use of adequate teaching materials. It also analyzes the communication system established by the projects, which seeks to strengthen horizontal relations, incorporating technology and distance education. It concludes by suggesting that this initiative is a suitable strategy to contribute to build new models for training nursing personnel. PMID:12138467

  6. The role of natural selection in human evolution – insights from Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Salzano, Francisco M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A brief introduction considering Darwin's work, the evolutionary synthesis, and the scientific biological field around the 1970s and subsequently, with the molecular revolution, was followed by selected examples of recent investigations dealing with the selection-drift controversy. The studies surveyed included the comparison between essential genes in humans and mice, selection in Africa and Europe, and the possible reasons why females in humans remain healthy and productive after menopause, in contrast with what happens in the great apes. At the end, selected examples of investigations performed in Latin America, related to the action of selection for muscle performance, acetylation of xenobiotics, high altitude and tropical forest adaptations were considered. Despite dissenting views, the influence of positive selection in a considerable portion of the human genome cannot presently be dismissed. PMID:27561111

  7. The First Report on the Medicinal Use of Fossils in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Moura, Geraldo Jorge Barbosa; Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

    2012-01-01

    There have been very few ethnopharmacological studies performed on the traditional use of fossil species, although a few records have been conducted in Asia, Africa, and Europe. This study is the first ever to be performed on the use of Testudine (turtle) fossils for folk medicine in Latin America. An investigation was conducted in the Araripe Basin, which is one of the most important fossil-bearing reserves in the world due to the diversity, endemism, and quality of preservation of its fossils. We propose the formalization of a new discipline called ethnopaleontology, which will involve the study of the dynamic relationship between humans and fossils, from human perception to direct use. PMID:21969843

  8. The role of natural selection in human evolution - insights from Latin America.

    PubMed

    Salzano, Francisco M

    2016-01-01

    A brief introduction considering Darwin's work, the evolutionary synthesis, and the scientific biological field around the 1970s and subsequently, with the molecular revolution, was followed by selected examples of recent investigations dealing with the selection-drift controversy. The studies surveyed included the comparison between essential genes in humans and mice, selection in Africa and Europe, and the possible reasons why females in humans remain healthy and productive after menopause, in contrast with what happens in the great apes. At the end, selected examples of investigations performed in Latin America, related to the action of selection for muscle performance, acetylation of xenobiotics, high altitude and tropical forest adaptations were considered. Despite dissenting views, the influence of positive selection in a considerable portion of the human genome cannot presently be dismissed. PMID:27561111

  9. The role of natural selection in human evolution - insights from Latin America.

    PubMed

    Salzano, Francisco M

    2016-08-01

    A brief introduction considering Darwin's work, the evolutionary synthesis, and the scientific biological field around the 1970s and subsequently, with the molecular revolution, was followed by selected examples of recent investigations dealing with the selection-drift controversy. The studies surveyed included the comparison between essential genes in humans and mice, selection in Africa and Europe, and the possible reasons why females in humans remain healthy and productive after menopause, in contrast with what happens in the great apes. At the end, selected examples of investigations performed in Latin America, related to the action of selection for muscle performance, acetylation of xenobiotics, high altitude and tropical forest adaptations were considered. Despite dissenting views, the influence of positive selection in a considerable portion of the human genome cannot presently be dismissed. PMID:27494200

  10. Pandemic influenza preparedness in Latin America: analysis of national strategic plans.

    PubMed

    Mensua, Ana; Mounier-Jack, Sandra; Coker, Richard

    2009-07-01

    The threat of a human pandemic of influenza has prompted the development of national influenza pandemic preparedness plans over the last 4 years. Analyses have been carried out to assess preparedness in Europe, Asia and Africa. We assessed plans to evaluate the national strategic pandemic influenza preparedness in the countries of Latin America. Published national pandemic influenza preparedness plans from Latin American countries were evaluated against criteria drawn from the World Health Organization checklist. Plans were eligible for inclusion if formally published before 16 November 2007. Fifteen national plans were identified and retrieved from the 17 Latin American countries surveyed. Latin American countries demonstrated different degrees of preparedness, and that a high level of completeness of plans was correlated to a country's wealth to a certain extent. Plans were judged strong in addressing surveillance requirements, and provided appropriate communication strategies directed to the general public and health care personnel. However, gaps remained, including the organization of health care services' response; planning and maintenance of essential services; and the provision of containment measures such as the stockpiling of necessary medical supplies including vaccines and antiviral medications. In addition, some inconsistencies and variations which may be important, such as in border control measures and the capacity to contain outbreaks, exist between country plans-issues that could result in confusion in the event of a pandemic. A number of plans remain developmental in nature and, as elsewhere, more emphasis should be placed on strengthening the operability of plans, and in testing them. Whilst taking account of resources constraints, plans should be further developed in a coherent manner with both regional and international imperatives. PMID:19411447

  11. Cuanto vale Estudiar un Postgrado en America Latina? (How Much do Post-Graduate Studies Cost in Latin America?).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franco Arbelaez, Augusto

    This study, conducted by the Panamerican Association of Educational Credit Institutions (APICE), examined the cost of graduate education in nine Latin American countries. The study was intended to promote graduate and educational exchange within the region, as opposed to exchanges between Latin America and the United States or Europe. Institutions…

  12. Subseasonal teleconnections South America - South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimm, Alice; Reason, Chris

    2016-04-01

    There is marked subseasonal variability over South America and southern Africa. Based on previous work showing that a teleconnection exists between the South American monsoon system and interannual summer rainfall variability over southern Africa, this study shows teleconnections between subseasonal variability over these landmasses. Observed daily gauge precipitation data for 1970-1999 are gridded to 1° resolution for South America and 2.5° for South Africa. At each grid point, anomalies of daily precipitation are calculated and submitted to a bandpass Lanczos filter to isolate subseasonal oscillations in the 20-90 day band. For each season, the filtered precipitation anomalies for the South African grid boxes are correlated with filtered precipitation anomalies in the grid boxes over South America. Lags from 0 up to 12 days are applied to the South African data, in order to investigate convection anomalies over South America that could produce atmospheric perturbations associated with South African precipitation anomalies. The significance of correlation between the filtered data takes autocorrelation into account and uses effective sample sizes. The results shown represent the best correlations for different climatic regimes such as the winter-rainfall dominated southwestern Cape, the all season rainfall South Coast and the summer-rainfall dominated Limpopo region. NCEP re-analyses are used to composite subseasonal anomalies in OLR, 200 hPa streamfunction, and vertically integrated moisture flux associated with precipitation anomaly above one standard deviation in the filtered series (positive phases) of the South African selected regions. The possible origin of the atmospheric circulation anomalies associated with those positive phases is determined using influence functions (IFs) of a vorticity equation model with a divergence source. The model is linearized about a realistic basic state and includes the divergence of the basic state and the advection of

  13. Sport in Latin America from past to present: a European perspective.

    PubMed

    Chappell, R

    2001-01-01

    This chapter examines sport in Latin America in its social, cultural, and political contexts. An analysis of the development of sport in Latin America suggests that there have been a number of distinct phases influenced by the cultures of the Spanish, British and French. More recently, the games and pastimes of the United States have made a significant impact. It is suggested that the further development of sport in Latin America is hindered by a number of significant problems. It concludes that the problems faced by some countries are immense and that governments and international organizations in the developed world should offer help where appropriate. PMID:18592683

  14. The later evolution of modern sport in Latin America: the North American influence.

    PubMed

    Arbena, J L

    2001-01-01

    American impact on modern sports in Latin America overlaps geographically and chronologically with the European, especially British, impact. Principally baseball in the Caribbean basin, more recently basketball and volleyball across the hemisphere and occasionally American football in more limited areas illustrate a north-to-south movement executed by businessmen, educators, missionaries, military personnel, returning travelers (often students), sports entrepreneurs and television. Often initially supported by promoters of development within Latin America, this transfer has altered local recreational patterns and attracted Latin athletes to pursue careers in North America, provoking accusations of cultural imperialism and exploitation. PMID:18592684

  15. Outline of Education Systems and School Conditions in Latin America. Bulletin, 1923, No. 44

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luckey, George W. A.

    1923-01-01

    This bulletin is divided into two parts: (1) South America; and (2) Mexico, Cuba, and Central America. The countries included under the term "Latin America" are so extensive and important, and the effects of the World War, direct and indirect, on all systems of education have been so disturbing, that one is at a loss to know how best to treat the…

  16. Applicability of the current hypertension guidelines in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Alcocer, Luis; Meaney, Eduardo; Hernandez-Hernandez, Hector

    2015-08-01

    Recent research has focused on the development of evidence-based guidelines that are intended to regulate the conduct of physicians in the diagnosis and control of hypertension, with the goal of achieving greater effectiveness and equity at the lowest possible cost. In Latin America, guidelines are available for the management of hypertension at three levels: national, regional and international. The national and regional Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) guidelines are in fact adaptations of the international guidelines. The potential benefit of applying guidelines developed in other regions to local healthcare decision making is that it will enable decision makers to take advantage of existing analyses and transfer or adapt them to their local contexts. However, this adaptation precludes the assessment of their generalizability and potential transferability. In addition, this region is characterized by wide socioeconomic differences between its inhabitants, both among and within nations. Therefore, new guidelines for the LAC region must include recommendations that are common to all hypertensive patients in the region. Moreover, we advocate the inclusion of a specific section that makes comprehensive recommendations and provides strategies for implementation according to the socioeconomic conditions of particular groups. In addition to developing guidelines that are truly applicable to the LAC region, it seems sensible to consider information that is specific to this region. Furthermore, developing evidence-based guidelines is not enough to affect positively the burden of disease caused by hypertension. Therefore, professional programs are required for the implementation of such guidelines as well as the auditing of their results. Achieving these ambitious goals will require collaborative efforts by many groups including policymakers, international organizations, healthcare providers, universities and society. PMID:26088410

  17. Economic and demographic effects on working women in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Psaharopoulos, G; Tzannatos, Z

    1993-01-01

    This analysis of women's work conditions in Latin America includes a description of general trends in female labor force participation in 15 Latin American countries based on census data between 1950 and 1990. Also examined are pay differentials by gender and whether gender alone or individual characteristics of women workers accounted for the sex-wage gap. More extensive treatment is available in the author's other 1992 publications. Trends indicate that marriage and children were important factors determining whether women were in the labor force or not. The probability of being in the labor force was reduced by 50% for married women, and each child reduced the probability by 5%. When marriage and children were controlled for, age had a positive effect on probability of participation. Urban female heads of household had a positive effect on women's labor force participation. The higher a woman's educational qualification, the greater the probability of being in the work force. Earnings increased with increased educational level. An increase of 1 year of schooling for women contributed to an increase in female earnings of 13.1. Investment in education for women has a higher yield for women than for men. Policies that directly or indirectly improve women's employment opportunities, particularly when families are being formed, can have wide distributional effects. Also unresolved was an explanation for why female participation increased during periods of recession and why women are rewarded more for educational effort than men. The suggestion was that public sector employment, which included many women in the labor force, is distorting results. PMID:12286863

  18. In vitro assessment of commercial sunscreens available in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Castanedo-Cázares, Juan Pablo; Martínez-Rosales, Karla; Hernández-Blanco, Diana; Valdés-Rodríguez, Guillermo; Torres-Alvarez, Bertha

    2014-06-01

    In Latin America, people have largely abandoned the practice of wearing hats and traditional clothing that provided skin protection. Sunscreen application has therefore become essential to protect against the increased sun exposure. The physician-prescribed medical-grade sunscreens provide sufficient sun protection but the requirement for regular use puts a financial burden on the patient that is often not sustainable. An appropriate sunscreen should provide a high and broad ultraviolet (UV) protection against UVB and UVA. Several over-the-counter (OTC) sunscreens have been developed for sale at affordable prices and are available for purchase in convenient locations, such as local grocery stores. The aim of this study was to assess the in vitro UV protection of 34 popular OTC sunscreens found in the Latin American market. UV absorbance/transmittance was quantified by diffusion transmission spectroscopy using coarse silica plaques. Photostability was tested by irradiating them with simulated solar light and calculating the sun protection factor (SPF), critical length of absorption (C lambda ), UVA/UVB ratio, and the spectral uniformity index (SUI). The results indicated that the in vitro SPFs were significantly lower than the value declared on the labels, particularly for those claiming high SPF values; however, the majority of these sunscreens offered high levels of UV protection. Considering the advantages of low cost and ample accessibility, we concluded that this sample of OTC sunscreens can be beneficial to the general public by providing some level of skin protection from solar radiation, and may be promoted to improve compliance with recommended photoprotection behavior. PMID:24974630

  19. The cost of diabetes in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    PubMed Central

    Barceló, Alberto; Aedo, Cristian; Rajpathak, Swapnil; Robles, Sylvia

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To measure the economic burden associated with diabetes mellitus in Latin America and the Caribbean. METHODS: Prevalence estimates of diabetes for the year 2000 were used to calculated direct and indirect costs of diabetes mellitus. Direct costs included costs due to drugs, hospitalizations, consultations and management of complications. The human capital approach was used to calculate indirect costs and included calculations of forgone earnings due to premature mortality and disability attributed to diabetes mellitus. Mortality and disability attributed to causes other than diabetes were subtracted from estimates to consider only the excess burden due to diabetes. A 3% discount rate was used to convert future earnings to current value. FINDINGS: The annual number of deaths in 2000 caused by diabetes mellitus was estimated at 339,035. This represented a loss of 757,096 discounted years of productive life among persons younger than 65 years (> billion US dollars). Permanent disability caused a loss of 12,699,087 years and over 50 billion US dollars, and temporary disability caused a loss of 136,701 years in the working population and over 763 million US dollars. Costs associated with insulin and oral medications were 4720 million US dollars, hospitalizations 1012 million US dollars, consultations 2508 million US dollars and care for complications 2,480 million US dollars. The total annual cost associated with diabetes was estimated as 65,216 million US dollars (direct 10,721 US dollars; indirect 54,496 US dollars). CONCLUSION: Despite limitations of the data, diabetes imposes a high economic burden to individuals and society in all countries and to Latin American and the Caribbean as whole. PMID:12640472

  20. Latin America's present and future challenges in toxicology education

    SciTech Connect

    Rojas, M. . E-mail: martini@telcel.net.ve

    2005-09-01

    Industrialization that Latin America has experienced during the past 50 years, the increase of population and the growth of chemical-related industries has generated a variety of environmental problems that must be addressed. After assessing these profound changes, greater emphasis should be placed on the study of environmental health and toxicology. Latin American countries face many problems that are common to other developing nations. Therefore, there is a demand for safety assessment and regulatory control of chemicals that create a need for increasing numbers of toxicologists. To meet this demand, educational programs in toxicology have to be designed. This paper utilizes a consultation questionnaire that includes toxicology-network members, scientists and educational institutions where toxicology is taught. An analysis of the information collected is made, with an emphasis on what we currently lack and on future challenges for toxicology professionals. Although the response from the study institutions was 65% (13 countries out of 20), the paper aims to assess the present situation of toxicology. The convenience for a certification/recognition for toxicologists is also evaluated. Action needs to be taken to promote scientific development based on regional specific needs that require increasing at the number of toxicology programs, and promoting of cooperation between academics and researchers. Among the limitations we have are the variability of curricula, objectives and priorities. The increasing globalization of markets and regulations requires the harmonization of graduate/postgraduate programs to ensure that risk assessment and management are dealt with uniformly. Cooperation among our countries and international assistance should play a more prominent role in the promotion of regional integration and the more efficient utilization of international experience in defining educational policies.

  1. Indigenous People and Development in Latin America: A Literature Survey and Recommendations. Latin American Monograph & Document Series 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roper, J. Montgomery; Frechione, John; DeWalt, Billie R.

    This report presents findings and conclusions gleaned from a review of 42 cases of indigenous development in Latin America. Findings indicate that the lack of a legal framework for indigenous rights presents a basic obstacle to indigenous self-development; the most common aspect of successful indigenous development was involvement of indigenous…

  2. The Impact of Neoliberal Restructuring on Education and Poverty in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boron, Atilio Alberto; Torres, Carlos Alberto

    1996-01-01

    Examines the widening gap between rich and poor in Latin America, and the troubling performance of new Latin American democracies. Reviews human-capital, neoconservative, neoliberal, functionalist, and social democratic theories about education and poverty. Presents eight theses about the state, poverty, and education, and calls for education to…

  3. Constrasting Ways of Life in Latin America; Sample Lessons for the Intermediate Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Clark C.; Conroy, William B.

    This is one of several sequential units developed by the Latin American Curriculum Project. The primary objective was to promote pupil understanding of the social and cultural patterns (ways of living) of Latin America. Appreciation of the diversity in the area is developed by comparing four different families, and contrasting these with life in…

  4. The Rural Woman in Latin America: A Social Actor in the Past Decade (1975-1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Economic and Social Council, New York, NY.

    The status of women viewed against the background of the United Nations Decade for Women is examined with emphasis on the world context, the Latin American context, and the context of rural women in the region. It describes attempts at categorization of rural women in Latin America based on the main types of agricultural economy in the region and…

  5. Critical Perspectives on Women's Literacy Education in Latin America. Essay Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prins, Esther

    2001-01-01

    Reviews works on women's literacy education in Latin America by Fink (1992), Purcell-Gates and Waterman (2000), Stromquist (1995, 1997), and van der Westen (1994). Discusses the Latin American context, critical feminist approach to literacy, implementation of Freirean pedagogy, outcomes and benefits, and gaps in the literature. (Contains 17…

  6. Educational and Psychological Perspectives on Hispanic Children from Hispanic Journals: A View from Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakland, Thomas D.; Ramos-Cancel, Maria L.

    1985-01-01

    Reviews the literature on educational research and development on Spanish-speaking Latin American children and the contributions of psychology to these two activities. Contends that many practices that influence this research were developed in Western Europe and Latin America and do not adequately consider cultural and social differences in pupil…

  7. From Proposal to Policy: Social Movements and Teachers' Unions in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finger, Leslie; Gindin, Julián

    2015-01-01

    Latin American teachers' unions have stepped into the policymaking sphere and shaped education policies unrelated to regular workplace priorities like salaries and class sizes at notable moments. The literature on teachers' unions in Latin America has not addressed this, tending to focus instead on those unions' history and role in social…

  8. Indigenous People and Poverty in Latin America: An Empirical Analysis. World Bank Regional and Sectoral Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Psacharopoulos, George, Ed.; Patrinos, Harry Anthony, Ed.

    The indigenous peoples of Latin America live in conditions of extreme poverty. This book uses empirical data from national survey sources to determine the extent of poverty among Latin American indigenous populations; to compare indigenous and nonindigenous populations with regard to socioeconomic status, living conditions, educational attainment,…

  9. First case of Mycobacterium heckeshornense cavitary lung disease in the Latin America and Caribbean region

    PubMed Central

    Coitinho, C.; Greif, G.; van Ingen, J.; Laserra, P.; Robello, C.; Rivas, C.

    2015-01-01

    A case of cavitary pulmonary disease caused by Mycobacterium heckeshornense in Uruguay is described. This is the first case reported in the Latin America and Caribbean region, showing that this species is a worldwide opportunistic human pathogen. PMID:26909156

  10. Requests for Abortion in Latin America Related to Concern about Zika Virus Exposure.

    PubMed

    Aiken, Abigail R A; Scott, James G; Gomperts, Rebecca; Trussell, James; Worrell, Marc; Aiken, Catherine E

    2016-07-28

    With the rapid emergence of Zika virus throughout Latin America and its association with microcephaly, requests for access to abortion medications through online telemedicine have increased in countries where access to safe abortion is not universally available. PMID:27331661

  11. Considerations for Integrating Technology in Developing Communities in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponte, Daniela Núñez; Cullen, Theresa A.

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses issues related to introducing new information and communication technologies (ICT) into Latin American countries. Latin American countries are gaining world focus with political changes such as the death of Hugo Chavez in Venezuela and the election of the first Latin American Pope. This region will host the World Cup,…

  12. Meetings of Experts on Book Development in Latin America (Bogota, 9-15 September 1969). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    The meeting of experts on book development in Latin America examined the present situation in the region and drew up a programme of action to promote book production and distribution. Experts from 23 Latin American countries participated. One of their major recommendations was that a Book Development Centre for Latin America be established at…

  13. Participatory Research in North America; A Perspective on Participatory Research in Latin America; Participatory Research in Southern Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaventa, John; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The authors present perspectives on the employment of participatory research techniques in three areas: (1) North America (Gaventa); (2) Latin America (de Souza); and (3) Southern Europe (Orefice). Discussion focuses on participatory research strategies for popular groups, purposes and considerations regarding participatory research, and the role…

  14. Improving mental and neurological health research in Latin America: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Fiestas, Fabián; Gallo, Carla; Poletti, Giovanni; Bustamante, Inés; Alarcón, Renato D; Mari, Jair J; Razzouk, Denise; Olifson, Sylvie; Mazzotti, Guido

    2009-01-01

    Background Research evidence is essential to inform policies, interventions and programs, and yet research activities in mental and neurological (MN) health have been largely neglected, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Many challenges have been identified in the production and utilization of research evidence in Latin American countries, and more work is needed to overcome this disadvantageous situation. This study aims to address the situation by identifying initiatives that could improve MN health research activities and implementation of their results in the Latin American region. Methods Thirty-four MN health actors from 13 Latin American countries were interviewed as part of an initiative by the Global Forum for Health Research and the World Health Organization to explore the status of MN health research in low- and middle-income countries in Africa, Asia and Latin-America. Results A variety of recommendations to increase MN health research activities and implementation of their results emerged in the interviews. These included increasing skilled human resources in MN health interventions and research, fostering greater participation of stakeholders in the generation of research topics and projects, and engendering the interest of national and international institutions in important MN health issues and research methodologies. In the view of most participants, government agencies should strive to have research results inform the decision-making process in which they are involved. Thus these agencies would play a key role in facilitating and funding research. Participants also pointed to the importance of academic recognition and financial rewards in attracting professionals to primary and translational research in MN health. In addition, they suggested that institutions should create intramural resources to provide researchers with technical support in designing, carrying out and disseminating research, including resources to improve

  15. Dengue: an escalating public health problem in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Tapia-Conyer, Roberto; Betancourt-Cravioto, Miguel; Méndez-Galván, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Dengue infection is a significant and escalating public health problem in Latin America. Its re-emergence and subsequent rise in the region over the past 50 years has largely been caused by a combination of a lack of political will, the radical growth of urban populations, migration flow and insufficient financial resources. Its increased incidence has been compounded by climate change, poor sanitation and extreme poverty, which lead to more breeding sites of the mosquito vector Aedes aegypti. In order to control dengue effectively, an integrated approach incorporating vector management and environmental and social solutions is required. To achieve success, these programmes require commitment and responses at both national and community level. The development of a vaccine is a vital tool in the fight against dengue. For successful introduction, those implementing vaccination need to be educated on the value of such a strategy. Effective political leadership, innovative financial mechanisms and co-operation across all disciplines, sectors and national borders are essential to eradication of the disease. PMID:22668444

  16. Spent sealed radium sources conditioning in Latin America

    SciTech Connect

    Mourao, R.P.

    1999-06-01

    The management of spent sealed sources is considered by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) one of the greatest challenges faced by nuclear authorities today, especially in developing countries. One of the Agency`s initiatives to tackle this problem is the Spent Radium Sources Conditioning Project, a worldwide project relying on the regional co-operation between countries. A team from the Brazilian nuclear research institute Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN) was chosen as the expert team to carry out the operations in Latin America; since December 1996 radium sources have been safely conditioned in Uruguay, Nicaragua, Guatemala, Ecuador and Paraguay. A Quality Assurance Program was established, encompassing the qualification of the capsule welding process, written operational procedures referring to all major steps of the operation, calibration of monitors and information retrievability. A 200L carbon steel drum-based packaging concept was used to condition the sources, its cavity being designed to receive the lead shield device containing stainless steel capsules with the radium sources. As a result of these operations, a total amount of 2,897 mg of needles, tubes, medical applicators, standard sources for calibration, lightning rods, secondary wastes and contaminated objects were stored in proper conditions and are now under control of the nuclear authorities of the visited countries.

  17. Investigation of Remotely Triggered Tremor and Earthquakes in Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Huizar, H.; Velasco, A. A.

    2014-12-01

    It has been shown that non-volcanic tremor (NVT) as well as small to moderate size earthquakes can be triggered by the seismic waves from distant earthquakes; however, little is understood about the triggering mechanisms. Investigating cases of remote triggering offers the opportunity to improve our knowledge about the physical mechanisms of earthquake interaction and nucleation. Furthermore, the similarities observed between remotely triggered NVT and those related to slow slip events, suggest that investigating triggered NVT may give us important insights into the mechanisms involved in slow slip events and their potential role in the earthquake cycle. In this work we present new results and the techniques we employ in identifying, locating and modeling cases of triggered earthquakes and NVT in Latin America and the Caribbean. In particular, we use global and regional seismic networks to perform an intensive search for triggered seismicity in Mexico, Cuba, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, and Chile. Our results suggest that seismicity can be triggered in a broad variety of tectonic environments, depending strongly on the triggering dynamic stress amplitude and orientation. This investigation will help to define the regions where remote triggering occurs and their susceptibility to undergo an important increase in seismicity after the occurrence of a distant large earthquake.

  18. Human rights and the right to abortion in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Zúñiga-Fajuri, Alejandra

    2014-03-01

    The scope of this study is to question the fact that in some countries in Latin America (Chile, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Honduras and the Dominican Republic) abortion is still forbidden in all situations. Even after all the debate on this thorny issue, the theory of human rights is not often used in the defense of abortion. This is clearly related to the pervasive, albeit unspoken belief that, due to their condition, pregnant women inherently lose their full human rights and should surrender and even give up their lives in favor of the unborn child. This article seeks to show that an adequate reading of the theory of human rights should include abortion rights through the first two trimesters of pregnancy, based on the fact that basic liberties can only be limited for the sake of liberty itself. It also seeks to respond to those who maintain that the abortion issue cannot be resolved since the exact point in the development of the embryo that distinguishes legitimate from illegitimate abortion cannot be determined. There are strong moral and scientific arguments for an approach capable of reducing uncertainty and establishing the basis for criminal law reforms that focus on the moral importance of trimester laws. PMID:24714897

  19. Global Warming and Food Insecurity in Rural Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, T. R.; Byrne, J. M.; McDaniel, S.

    2012-12-01

    Food insecurity is one of the most important challenges facing humanity in the 21st century - a challenge that will be further exacerbated by the changing climate. The effects of human induced climate change will be most disproportionate and severe in the developing world, where a stable food supply, decreased purchasing power, and adequate nutrition are often already a daily struggle. This study will build on work done by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations (UN), and will assess how vulnerability to household food insecurity will be affected by global warming in various rural parts of Latin America. Temperature data from downscaled Global Circulation Models (GCM) will be used in conjunction with the results of national household surveys to generate information on each rural farming household's probability of falling below a food poverty threshold in the near future. The results of the study will allow us to distinguish between households that are likely to experience chronic food insecurity and those that are likely to experience transitory food insecurity, permitting for improved targeting of policy responses.

  20. Gaining a clearer picture of youth behavior. Latin America.

    PubMed

    1994-04-01

    A two-day seminar/workshop on the Behavior of Young People in the Dominican Republic was organized by Profamilia, the Mexican Family Planning Foundation (MEXFAM), the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and JOICFP. The seminar was attended by more than 200 people including government officials and representatives of international organizations, youth groups, and nongovernmental organizations. Results were presented from the first national survey of adolescent behavior in the Dominican Republic. The survey was conducted by Profamilia and the CDC from 1992, and documented the early initiation of sexual activity, a high proportion of unwanted pregnancies, and the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases. Similar issues affect youths throughout Latin America and the Caribbean. International Planned Parenthood Federation statistics indicate that 5-10% of all girls aged 15-19 become pregnant. Participants were accordingly urged to more realistically accept that youth people are already sexually active. Mexico's experiences in the adolescent health field were presented during the second day of the seminar. Animated, educational adolescent health films produced by MEXFAM and JOICFP were discussed along with insights on how lessons learned may be used in other countries. Feedback from politicians suggests that survey findings may be called upon during the development of related policy. PMID:12287645

  1. Safety of the Blood Supply in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Schmunis, Gabriel A.; Cruz, Jose R.

    2005-01-01

    Appropriate selection of donors, use of sensitive screening tests, and the application of a mandatory quality assurance system are essential to maintain the safety of the blood supply. Laws, decrees, norms, and/or regulations covering most of these aspects of blood transfusion exist in 16 of the 17 countries in Latin America that are the subject of this review. In 17 countries, there is an information system that, although still incomplete (there are no official reports on adverse events and incidents), allows us to establish progress made on the status of the blood supply since 1993. Most advances originated in increased screening coverage for infectious diseases and better quality assurance. However, in 2001 to 2002, tainted blood may have caused infections in 12 of the 17 countries; no country reached the number of donors considered adequate, i.e., 5% of the population, to avoid blood shortages, or decreased significantly the number of blood banks, although larger blood banks are more efficient and take advantage of economies of scale. In those years, paid donors still existed in four countries and replacement donors made up >75% of the blood donors in another eight countries. In addition, countries did not report the number of voluntary donors who were repeat donors, i.e., the healthiest category. In spite of progress made, more improvements are needed. PMID:15653816

  2. John Wheatley Award Talk: Building bridges instead of fences. Renewed Science cooperation with Latin America.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ordonez, Carlos

    2009-05-01

    International collaborations are a hallmark of modern science. In the USA, most of this activity has been with other developed countries. Collaborations with Latin America have been of a limited scope. In light of the current challenges that demand international scientific collaborations, the establishment of closer links with Latin America will bring manifold benefits to the USA and its Latin partners. Expansion upon these statements and discussions of some examples -- Pan-American Association for Physics, World Laboratory, National Society of Hispanic Physicists, Monterrey Tech -- will be presented, as well as some suggestions for the future.

  3. Training the biomedical informatics workforce in Latin America: results of a needs assessment

    PubMed Central

    Blas, Magaly M; Curioso, Walter H; Zimic, Mirko; Carcamo, Cesar P; Castagnetto, Jesus M; Lescano, Andres G; Lopez, Diego M

    2011-01-01

    Objective To report the results of a needs assessment of research and training in Medical Informatics (MI) and Bioinformatics (BI) in Latin America. Methods and results This assessment was conducted by QUIPU: The Andean Global Health Informatics Research and Training Center. After sending email invitations to MI–BI related professionals from Latin America, 142 surveys were received from 11 Latin American countries. The following were the top four ranked MI-related courses that a training programme should include: introduction to biomedical informatics; data representation and databases; mobile health; and courses that address issues of security, confidentiality and privacy. Several new courses and topics for research were suggested by survey participants. The information collected is guiding the development of curricula and a research agenda for the MI and BI QUIPU multidisciplinary programme for the Andean Region and Latin America. PMID:22080537

  4. Internationalisation in Higher Education in Latin America: Policies and Practice in Colombia and Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Caroline; Taylor, John

    2014-01-01

    There is now an extensive literature about internationalisation in higher education. However, much of the research relates to North America and Europe. This paper is concerned with internationalisation in Latin America and seeks to consider perceptions and experiences in Colombia and Mexico, and to compare practice in the public and private…

  5. Some Phases of Educational Progress in Latin America. Bulletin, 1919, No. 59

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Walter A.

    1920-01-01

    This bulletin discusses the phases of educational progress in Latin America. The following topic areas are covered: (1) Central America (practical education; Guatemala; Salvador; Honduras; Costa Rica; Nicaragua; Panama); (2) British Guiana (new school regulation); (3) Argentina (preliminary; illiteracy; report of National Council of Education;…

  6. The Major Project of Education in Latin America and the Caribbean. Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Santiago (Chile). Regional Office for Education in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    This bulletin contains information about important educational strategies that have had an impact in South America. In "Current Trends in Educational Reforms," Juan Carlos Tedesco examines the major lessons that educational reforms have produced. "Education and Changes in the Latin America's Social Structure" (German Rama) starts out by…

  7. Inborn errors of metabolism in Latin America: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Giugliani, Roberto

    2010-10-01

    Latin America includes more than 40 countries and possessions, and its population of 570 million has an important representation of the three main human races. The area is experiencing an economic improvement, progressively bringing the inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) to a higher level among health priorities. Challenges to the progress of the IEM field include the huge disparities, the high prevalence of malnutrition and infections, the co-existence of very different models of public health services, the unstable socio-economic and political conditions, and the difficulties in integrating the countries. However, a rapidly changing social and economic environment is presenting many opportunities to the IEM field, like the improvements in infrastructure, the concentration of the population in urban areas, the continuous growth of neonatal screening, the use of filter paper samples, the availability of internet communication, and the interest in IEM by the new population medical genetics discipline. Analyzing this picture, several proposals are presented, such as the development of activities of provision of health services, education and research as an integrated package, the increase in training of human resources, the expansion of access to diagnostic tests, and the use the neonatal screening framework to expand the provision of services. In a continent with few IEM centers, there is a major need for such groups to work in collaboration, complementing each other's capabilities, providing training of human resources, and developing joint projects. The integration of these groups into a large transnational network of reference centers would be a major task for the coming years. PMID:20454860

  8. Improvement of IDC/CTBTO Event Locations in Latin America and the Caribbean Using a Regional Seismic Travel Time Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Given, J. W.; Guendel, F.

    2013-05-01

    The International Data Centre is a vital element of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) verification mechanism. The fundamental mission of the International Data Centre (IDC) is to collect, process, and analyze monitoring data and to present results as event bulletins to Member States. For the IDC and in particular for waveform technologies, a key measure of the quality of its products is the accuracy by which every detected event is located. Accurate event location is crucial for purposes of an On Site Inspection (OSI), which would confirm the conduct of a nuclear test. Thus it is important for the IDC monitoring and data analysis to adopt new processing algorithms that improve the accuracy of event location. Among them the development of new algorithms to compute regional seismic travel times through 3-dimensional models have greatly increased IDC's location precision, the reduction of computational time, allowing forward and inverse modeling of large data sets. One of these algorithms has been the Regional Seismic Travel Time model (RSTT) of Myers et al., (2011). The RSTT model is nominally a global model; however, it currently covers only North America and Eurasia in sufficient detail. It is the intention CTBTO's Provisional Technical Secretariat and the IDC to extend the RSTT model to other regions of the earth, e.g. Latin America-Caribbean, Africa and Asia. This is particularly important for the IDC location procedure, as there are regions of the earth for which crustal models are not well constrained. For this purpose IDC has launched a RSTT initiative. In May 2012, a technical meeting was held in Vienna under the auspices of the CTBTO. The purpose of this meeting was to invite National Data Centre experts as well as network operators from Africa, Europe, the Middle East, Asia, Australia, Latin and North America to discuss the context under which a project to extend the RSTT model would be implemented. A total of 41 participants from 32 Member States

  9. Regionalism and the Musical Heritage of Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arbena, Joseph; And Others

    This essay presents background information and suggests teaching stragegies to aid community and junior college classroom teachers of history and civilization as they develop and implement educational programs on Latin American music. It is based on the premise that Latin American music can best be understood as a reflection of other historical…

  10. Communication in Latin America: An Analysis of Guatemalan Business Letters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conaway, Roger N.; Wardrope, William J.

    2004-01-01

    The format and structure of 150 Spanish-language letters written by business administrators in Guatemalan firms were analyzed to help determine how Latin American business writers organize and present information in various types of routine letters. Findings suggest that Latin American businesspeople follow some, but not all, of the format…

  11. Educational Research in Latin America: A Twelve-Year Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egginton, Everett

    By reviewing the content of education items in the Handbook of Latin American Studies during the last 12 years, this paper traces and documents trends in research on Latin American education. Analysis of the items revealed the changing emphasis of educational topics from volume to volume. Judgments are made on type, geographical focus and topics…

  12. Spread of epidemic Clostridium difficile NAP1/027 in Latin America: case reports in Panama.

    PubMed

    López-Ureña, Diana; Quesada-Gómez, Carlos; Miranda, Erick; Fonseca, Mercedes; Rodríguez-Cavallini, Evelyn

    2014-02-01

    The rate and severity of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) have been linked to the emergence and spread of the hypervirulent toxigenic strain NAP1/027. This strain has been responsible for large outbreaks in healthcare facilities in North America and Europe and most recently in Latin America. This is the first report of the NAP1 strain in Panama. It suggests that the spread of C. difficile NAP1 throughout Latin America could be a possibility as evidenced in the following case reports. Five isolates typed as NAP1 had tcdA, tcdB, binary toxin gene cdtB and tcdC deletion. All isolates were resistant to clindamycin, fluoroquinolones and rifampicin. Under this scenario, surveillance programmes for CDI should be implemented in public health facilities in Latin America and diagnosis of CDI should be considered, especially in patients with predisposing factors. PMID:24287669

  13. The 1992 conference on Latin America`s Energy Industry: New opportunities for growth through international investment and trade

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    Liberal economic and political reforms in Latin America, a declining oil market in the US, and world events such as last year`s Persian Gulf Crisis are making foreign investment in Latin America`s energy sector increasingly attractive. The Persian Gulf crisis indicated the US must diversify oil sources; increased competition and deregulation in electric power generation and gas production are providing more opportunities for independent power producers at home and abroad; and Latin America`s need for foreign financial and technical assistance are providing an important ``pull`` factor. Electricity needs in the developing world wig be huge in the years to come. In Latin America and the Caribbean, 66,500 mg of new capacity will be required by 1999. The developing world will require US $100 billion in energy investment a year. But Latin American countries will have trouble obtaining funds. The region will need to rely heavily on private international sources to finance future energy requirements. Multilateral development bank participation win remain critical, however, serving as a catalyst for government reform and private investment in the sector. In particular, World Bank lending will be focused on countries with a clear commitment to pricing reform, regulatory reform, competitive markets, non-market barriers, and technology transfer. Opportunities for foreign participation in the Latin American oil sector are particularly large in Ecuador, Peru, Argentina, and Venezuela. Mexico`s plans for reform in the oil sector, a delicate issue in that country, appear to be less defined and likely to occur farther into the future. The conference made clear that a regulatory entity is needed even when the sector is owned by the government. Regulatory processes must be fair and transparent in order to ensure adequate financial and technical performance.

  14. Between the national and the universal: natural history networks in Latin America in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Regina Horta

    2013-12-01

    This essay examines contemporary Latin American historical writing about natural history from the nineteenth through the twentieth centuries. Natural history is a "network science," woven out of connections and communications between diverse people and centers of scholarship, all against a backdrop of complex political and economic changes. Latin American naturalists navigated a tension between promoting national science and participating in "universal" science. These tensions between the national and the universal have also been reflected in historical writing on Latin America. Since the 1980s, narratives that recognize Latin Americans' active role have become more notable within the renewal of the history of Latin American science. However, the nationalist slant of these approaches has kept Latin American historiography on the margins. The networked nature of natural history and Latin America's active role in it afford an opportunity to end the historiographic isolation of Latin America and situate it within world history. PMID:24783494

  15. Overcoming the challenges of conducting physical activity and built environment research in Latin America: IPEN Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Salvo, Deborah; Reis, Rodrigo S.; Sarmiento, Olga L.; Pratt, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Objective There is evidence linking the built environment (BE) with physical activity (PA), but few studies have been conducted in Latin America (LA). State-of-the-art methods and protocols have been designed in and applied in high-income countries (HIC). In this paper we identify key challenges and potential solutions to conducting high quality PA and BE research in LA. Methods The experience of implementing the IPEN data collection protocol (IPEN: International Physical Activity Environment Network) in Curitiba, Brazil; Bogotá, Colombia; and Cuernavaca, Mexico (2010-2011); is described to identify challenges for conducting PA and BE research in LA. Results Five challenges were identified: Lack of academic capacity (implemented solutions (IS): building a strong international collaborative network); limited data availability, access and quality (IS: partnering with influential local institutions, and crafting creative solutions to use the best-available data); socio-political, socio-cultural and socio-economic context (IS: in-person recruitment and data collection, alternative incentives); safety (IS: strict rules for data collection procedures, and specific measures to increase trust); appropriateness of instruments and measures (IS: survey adaptation, use of standardized additional survey components, and employing a context-based approach to understanding the relationship between PA and the BE). Advantages of conducting PA and BE research in LA were also identified. Conclusions Conducting high quality PA and BE research in LA is challenging but feasible. Networks of institutions and researchers from both HIC and LMIC play a key role. The lessons learnt from the IPEN LA study may be applicable to other LMIC. PMID:25456800

  16. [A decade of Italian Studies on emigration to Latin America].

    PubMed

    Albonico, A

    1981-01-01

    The author critically examines essays on Italian emigration to Latin Amrica that have been published during the past 10 years. Sources evaluated include scientific congresses, specialized journals, research centers, and cultural institutions (SUMMARY IN ENG, FRE) PMID:12338507

  17. Pedagogy and Politics: Adult Education in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, D'Arcy

    1983-01-01

    Adult education has drawn relatively small amounts of money and skill away from the Latin American government's obsessive concern with primary schooling. But its share of educational resources is increasing rapidly, particularly in literacy and agricultural extension. (SSH)

  18. Treatment of mucosal leishmaniasis in Latin America: systematic review.

    PubMed

    Amato, Valdir Sabbaga; Tuon, Felipe Francisco; Siqueira, Andre Machado; Nicodemo, Antonio Carlos; Neto, Vicente Amato

    2007-08-01

    Mucosal leishmaniasis (ML) is an important endemic disease and public-health problem in underdeveloped countries because of its significant morbidity and mortality. Increases in ecological tourism have extended this problem to developed countries. This form of leishmaniasis, caused by reactivation after primary cutaneous lesion, has a natural history of progressive destruction of the nasal septa and soft and hard palates, causing facial disfiguration and leading to respiratory disturbances. Treatment of ML, based on several therapies, depends on use of toxic compounds, and few drugs have emerged over the past 40 years. Drug resistance has increased, and the cure rate is no better than 70% in the largest studies. Despite these data, there has been no systematic review of therapies used to treat this important tropical disease. The aim of this study is to determine the best drug management for treatment of ML in Latin America based on the best studies offered by the medical literature. The MEDLINE, LILACS, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases were searched to identify articles related to ML and therapy. The studies were independently selected by 2 authors. Articles with sufficient data for cure and treatment failures, internal and external validity information, and > 4 patients in each treatment were included. Validation of this systematic review was based on guidelines to guarantee quality; 22 articles met our inclusion criteria. Stibogluconate achieved a 51% cure rate (76/150 patients), and 88% of patients treated with meglumine were cured (121 patients). Pentamidine and amphotericin were as effective as meglumine. Use of itraconazole and other therapies (pentoxifylline, allopurinol, or interferon-gamma) was controversial, and numbers of patients in some studies were insufficient for statistical analysis. Meglumine may be the drug of choice in the treatment of ML, as it offers similar cure rates when compared with amphotericin B and pentamidine

  19. Policy for Research and Innovation in Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguirre-Bastos, Carlos

    2010-02-01

    Latin America (LAC) is renewing efforts to build-up research and innovation (R&I) capacities, guided by policies that consider the need to transform the traditional science system into a more dynamic entity. Policies permitted the generation of new spaces to develop science, strengthen scientific communities, improve university-enterprise linkages, establish common agendas between public and private sectors, earmark special budgets, build new infrastructure, and improve the number and quality of scientific publications. In spite of much progress, LAC lags much behind developed countries, their universities rank lower than their international counterparts, the number of researchers is small and funding is below an appropriate threshold. Some countries have innovated in few economic sectors, while others remain technologically underdeveloped and much of the countries' innovative capacities remain untapped. It is believed that policies still have little influence on social and economic development and there exists dissatisfaction in the academic and entrepreneurial sectors with their quality and relevance or with the political will of governments to execute them. On the other hand, in the past decades, the complexity of innovation systems has increased considerably, and has yet to be taken fully into account in LAC policy definitions. The situation calls for decision makers to shape new framework conditions for R&I in a way that both processes co-evolve and are stimulated and guided on solutions to the major problems of society. Considering the main features of complex systems, self- organization, emergence and non-linearity, R&I policy measures need to be seen as interventions in such a system, as the use of traditional leverage effects used in the past for policy decisions are more and more obsolete. Policies must now use ``weak coordination mechanisms,'' foresight, mission statements, and visions. It is obvious that due to nonlinearities in the system, adaptive

  20. Overall evaluation of Skylab imagery for mapping of Latin America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staples, J. E.; Eoldan, J. J. M.; Fernandez, O. W.; Alves, M.; Mutis, J.; Fletcher, A. G.; Ferrero, M. B.; Morell, J. J. H.; Romero, L. E.; Garcia, J. A. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Skylab imagery is both desired and needed by the Latin American catographic agencies. The imagery is cost beneficial for the production of new mapping and maintenance of existing maps at national topographic series scales. If this information was available on a near time routine coverage basis, it would provide an excellent additional data base to the Latin American cartographic community, specifically Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Guatemala, Paraguay, and Venezuela.

  1. Venous thromboembolism in Latin America: a review and guide to diagnosis and treatment for primary care

    PubMed Central

    Ceresetto, Jose Manuel

    2016-01-01

    There are various region-specific challenges to the diagnosis and effective treatment of venous thromboembolism in Latin America. Clear guidance for physicians and patient education could improve adherence to existing guidelines. This review examines available information on the burden of pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis in Latin America and the regional issues surrounding the diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis. Potential barriers to appropriate care, as well as treatment options and limitations on their use, are discussed. Finally, an algorithmic approach to the diagnosis and treatment of venous thromboembolism in ambulatory patients is proposed and care pathways for patients with pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis are outlined for primary care providers in Latin America. PMID:26872082

  2. Venous thromboembolism in Latin America: a review and guide to diagnosis and treatment for primary care.

    PubMed

    Ceresetto, Jose Manuel

    2016-01-01

    There are various region-specific challenges to the diagnosis and effective treatment of venous thromboembolism in Latin America. Clear guidance for physicians and patient education could improve adherence to existing guidelines. This review examines available information on the burden of pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis in Latin America and the regional issues surrounding the diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis. Potential barriers to appropriate care, as well as treatment options and limitations on their use, are discussed. Finally, an algorithmic approach to the diagnosis and treatment of venous thromboembolism in ambulatory patients is proposed and care pathways for patients with pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis are outlined for primary care providers in Latin America. PMID:26872082

  3. Educacion en Poblaciones Indigenas: Politicas y Estrategias en America Latina. (Education for Indigenous Populations: Policies and Strategies in Latin America).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuniga, Madeleine, Ed.; And Others

    This document is a compilation of 20 papers from a seminar on educational policy and strategy for educating the indigenous peoples of Latin America and Mexico. There is a growing awareness among linguistics and anthropology specialists and educators of the necessity to validate education that respects the values of an indigenous culture. This…

  4. Publicaciones Periodicas de Educacion de America Latina y el Caribe (Educational Publications of Latin America and the Caribbean).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oficina Regional de Educacion de la Unesco para America Latina y el Caribe, Santiago (Chile).

    The periodicals listed in this bibliography are those published in Latin America and the Caribbean that deal exclusively with educational themes. Information for each entry, when available, includes the title, subtitle, name and address of publisher, frequency of publication, year the publication began and/or terminated, any previous title, and…

  5. Lecturas sobre educacion de adultos en America latina (Readings on Adult Education in Latin America). Serie: Retablo de Papel 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latapi, Pablo, Comp.; Castillo, Alfonso, Comp.

    Twelve essays written in Spanish on the state of adult education in Latin America are presented. The essays are organized into three main sections, including: "Concepto y evolucion historica de la educacion de adultos" (Conception and Historical Evolution of Adult Education); "Aspectos particulares" (Specific Subjects); and "Tendencias y…

  6. Arsenic Exposure in Latin America: Biomarkers, Risk Assessments and Related Health Effects

    PubMed Central

    McClintock, Tyler R.; Chen, Yu; Bundschuh, Jochen; Oliver, John T.; Navoni, Julio; Olmos, Valentina; Lepori, Edda Villaamil; Ahsan, Habibul; Parvez, Faruque

    2013-01-01

    In Latin America, several regions have a long history of widespread arsenic (As) contamination from both natural and anthropological sources. Yet, relatively little is known about the extent of As exposure from drinking water and its related health consequences in these countries. It has been estimated that at least 4.5 million people in Latin America are chronically exposed to high levels of As (>50µg/L), some to as high as 2000 µg/L - 200 times higher than the World Health Organization (WHO) provisional standard for drinking water. We conducted a systematic review of 82 peer reviewed papers and reports to fully explore the current understanding of As exposure and its health effects, as well as the influence of genetic factors that modulate those effects in the populations of Latin America. Despite some methodological limitations, these studies suggested important links between high levels of chronic As exposure and elevated risks of numerous adverse health outcomes in Latin America - including internal and external cancers, reproductive outcomes, and childhood cognitive function. Several studies demonstrated genetic polymorphisms that influence susceptibility to these and other disease states through their modulation of As metabolism, with As methyltransferase (AS3MT), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and genes of one-carbon metabolism being specifically implicated. While the full extent and nature of the health burden are yet to be known in Latin America, these studies have significantly enriched knowledge of As toxicity and led to subsequent research. Targeted future studies will not only yield a better understanding of the public health impact of As in Latin America populations, but also allow for effective and timely mitigation efforts. PMID:22119448

  7. Consensus, Dilemmas, and Challenges in Living Donor Liver Transplantation in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Salvalaggio, Paolo R; Seda Neto, João; Alves, Jefferson Andre; Fonseca, Eduardo A; Carneiro de Albuquerque, Luiz; Andraus, Wellington; Massarollo, Paulo B; Duro Garcia, Valter; Maurette, Rafael J; Ruf, Andrés E; Pacheco-Moreira, Lucio F; Caicedo Rusca, Luis A; Osorio, Veronica Botero; Matamoros, Maria Amalia; Varela-Fascinetto, Gustavo; Jarufe, Nicolas P

    2016-06-01

    We reviewed the history, volume, outcomes, uniqueness, and challenges of living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) in Latin America. We used the data from the Latin American and Caribbean Transplant Society, local transplant societies, and opinions from local transplant experts. There are more than 160 active liver transplant teams in Latin America, but only 30 centers have used LDLT in the past 2 years. In 2014, 226 LDLTs were done in the region (8.5% of liver transplant activities). Living donor liver transplantation is mainly restricted to pediatric patients. Adult-to-adult LDLT activities decreased after the implementation of the model for end-stage liver disease score and a concomitant increase on the rate of deceased donors per million population. Posttransplant outcome analysis is not mandatory, transparent or regulated in most countries. More experienced teams have outcomes comparable to international expert centers, but donor and recipient morbidity might be underreported. Latin America lags behind in terms of the number of adult LDLT and the rate of living donor utilization in comparison with other continents with similar donation rates. Local alliances and collaborations with major transplant centers in the developed world will contribute to the development of LDLT in Latin America. PMID:27203583

  8. National working conditions surveys in Latin America: comparison of methodological characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Merino-Salazar, Pamela; Artazcoz, Lucía; Campos-Serna, Javier; Gimeno, David; Benavides, Fernando G.

    2015-01-01

    Background: High-quality and comparable data to monitor working conditions and health in Latin America are not currently available. In 2007, multiple Latin American countries started implementing national working conditions surveys. However, little is known about their methodological characteristics. Objective: To identify commonalities and differences in the methodologies of working conditions surveys (WCSs) conducted in Latin America through 2013. Methods: The study critically examined WCSs in Latin America between 2007 and 2013. Sampling design, data collection, and questionnaire content were compared. Results: Two types of surveys were identified: (1) surveys covering the entire working population and administered at the respondent's home and (2) surveys administered at the workplace. There was considerable overlap in the topics covered by the dimensions of employment and working conditions measured, but less overlap in terms of health outcomes, prevention resources, and activities. Conclusions: Although WCSs from Latin America are similar, there was heterogeneity across surveyed populations and location of the interview. Reducing differences in surveys between countries will increase comparability and allow for a more comprehensive understanding of occupational health in the region. PMID:26079314

  9. La Educacion en America Latina y El Caribe Durante Los Proximos 25 Anos. (Education in Latin America and the Caribbean during the Next 25 Years.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roggi, Luis Osvaldo, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    The nine papers appearing in this document review both limitations and progress in education in Latin America, study the future of education in Latin America and the Caribbean, and make recommendations to the Regional Program for Educational Development (PREDE). There is, in addition, a lengthy transcription of a discussion, among eight of the…

  10. Women and Politics in Latin America: Perspectives and Limits of the Institutional Aspects of Women's Political Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Campo, Esther

    2005-01-01

    This article attempts to offer a general panorama of some issues related to political representation of women in Latin America. Specifically, it analyzes the advances made in the representation of women in politics during the 1990s. It offers a descriptive analysis of national cases in Latin America from an institutional focus. In spite of the…

  11. Five Studies on the Situation of Women in Latin America. Estudios e Informes de la CEPAL. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economic Commission for Latin America (UN), Santiago (Chile).

    Five studies on the situation of women in Latin America focus on (1) the integration of women in development, (2) the family as the immediate social framework of children and women, (3) some types of poor women in Latin America, (4) the educational situation of women, and (5) women in development and housework. An introductory section outlining…

  12. Latin America and the Caribbean: A Survey of Distance Education 1991. New Papers on Higher Education: Studies and Research 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carty, Joan

    Country profiles compiled through a survey of distance education in Latin America and the Caribbean form the contents of this document. Seventeen countries were surveyed in Latin America: Argentina; Bolivia; Brazil; Chile; Colombia; Costa Rica; Ecuador; French Guiana; Guatemala; Guyana; Honduras; Mexico; Nicaragua; Panama; Peru; Uruguay; and…

  13. Secondary Education in Latin America and the Caribbean: The Challenge of Growth and Reform. Sustainable Development Department Technical Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, Laurence; Castro, Claudio de Moura

    This paper synthesizes the issues, problems, research, and current best practice in secondary education in Latin America and the Caribbean. Overall, Latin America and the Caribbean enroll much lower percentages of school age children in secondary education than the region's chief competitors, and the region's secondary education is inadequate by…

  14. Impact of EMS Outreach: Successful Developments in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Olivero, Ofelia A.; Larramendy, Marcelo; Soloneski, Sonia; Menck, Carlos F.M.; Matta, Jaime; Folle, Gustavo A.; Zamorano-Ponce, Enrique; Spivak, Graciela

    2014-01-01

    This collection of articles was inspired by the long-standing relationship between the Environmental Mutagen Society and Latin American scientists, and by the program for the 39th Environmental Mutagen Society meeting in Puerto Rico in 2008, which included a symposium featuring “South of the border” scientists. This collection, compiled by Graciela Spivak and Ofelia Olivero, both originally from Argentina, highlights scientists who work in or were trained in Latin American countries and in Puerto Rico in a variety of scientific specialties related to DNA repair and cancer susceptibility, genomic organization and stability, genetic diversity, and environmental contaminants. PMID:20213840

  15. SIRGAS: ITRF densification in Latin America and the Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunini, C.; Costa, S.; Mackern, V.; Martínez, W.; Sánchez, L.; Seemüller, W.; da Silva, A.

    2009-04-01

    The continental reference frame of SIRGAS (Sistema de Referencia Geocéntrico para las Américas) is at present realized by the SIRGAS Continuously Operating Network (SIRGAS-CON) composed by about 200 stations distributed over all Latin America and the Caribbean. SIRGAS member countries are qualifying their national reference frames by installing continuously operating GNSS stations, which have to be consistently integrated into the continental network. As the number of these stations is rapidly increasing, the processing strategy of the SIRGAS-CON network was redefined during the SIRGAS 2008 General Meeting in May 2008. The new strategy relies upon the definition of two hierarchy levels: a) A core network (SIRGAS-CON-C) with homogeneous continental coverage and stabile site locations ensures the long-term stability of the reference frame and provides the primary link to the ITRS. Stations belonging to this network have been selected so that each country contributes with a number of stations defined according to its surface and guarantying that the selected stations are the best in operability, continuity, reliability, and geographical coverage. b) Several densification sub-networks (SIRGAS-CON-D) improve the accessibility to the reference frame. The SIRGAS-CON-D sub-networks shall correspond to the national reference frames, i.e., as an optimum there shall be as many sub-networks as countries in the region. The goal is that each country processes its own continuously stations following the SIRGAS processing guidelines, which are defined in accordance with the IERS and IGS standards and conventions. Since at present not all of the countries are operating a processing centre, the existing stations are classified in three densification networks (a Northern, a middle, and a Southern one), which are processed by three local processing centres until new ones are installed. As SIRGAS is defined as a densification of the ITRS, stations included in the core network, as

  16. Illiteracy and Educational Wastage in Latin America. Literacy Lessons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tedesco, Juan Carlos

    Despite guaranteed access to primary education and seemingly comprehensive enrollment, many Latin American countries have high rates of illiteracy. Four sets of factors affecting academic performance have been identified as contributors to the situation. External material factors include: the impact of malnutrition on intellectual development; the…

  17. An Overview of Educational Technology in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chadwick, Clifton

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the findings of a survey of 474 Latin American projects which used educational technology at all educational levels. The successes and failures of projects using television, radio, audio-visual materials, film, computers, and printed materials are described. Future trends in the use of educational technology are considered. (AM)

  18. The Demography of Urban Poverty: North and Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farkas, George

    The similar structure of present-day North American cities makes it impossible to study urban poverty as anything other than a concomitant of the possession of certain demographic characteristics the penalty for which is imposed on a society-wide level. By shifting our focus, however, to incorporate both Latin American cities and North American…

  19. Latin America: Books for High Schools. An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Robert V., Comp.; Hohenstein, John F., Comp.

    This bibliography, intended for use as a selection tool for social studies programs and libraries in order to supply secondary students and teachers with recent Latin American books, contains 171 annotated bibliographic citations prepared by the center for Inter-American Relations after examination of more than 1200 books for comprehensiveness,…

  20. Nonverbal Communication: Proxemics and Tactility in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuter, Robert

    1976-01-01

    Deals with a study conducted in Costa Rica, Panama, and Columbia to determine whether Latin Americans have similar distance and contact orientations regardless of sex and nationality. Concludes that the differences in behavior between the Central and South Americans are significant enough to warrant further research. (MH)

  1. Promising Practices in Drug Treatment: Findings from Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nemes, Susanna; Libretto, Salvatore; Garrett, Gerald; Johansson, Anna Carin; Hess, Lauren

    2005-01-01

    In a study to evaluate the drug treatment and aftercare efforts sponsored by the State Department's International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs Bureau, residential Therapeutic Community (TC) treatment programs in three Latin American countries--Brazil, Peru and Argentina--were examined to identify promising practices and to assess lessons…

  2. Analysis of the Library Situation in Latin America 1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organization of American States, Washington, DC. Library Development Program.

    The modern library is an institution that supplies many information services by efficiently organizing universal knowledge that has been reduced to the printed word. Unfortunately, the Latin American countries have not developed centralized services and programs with respect to bibliography, cataloging, exchange, reprography, production of library…

  3. Telecom Privatization in Latin America: Trends in Competition & Regulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerner, Norman C.

    1998-01-01

    Presents a country-by-country analysis of investment opportunities in Latin American telecommunications. Concludes: Brazil and Mexico are the major focus of interest and expectations; wireless and cellular are expanding rapidly; the expansion of regulatory reform, as promised to the World Trade Organization (WTO) should foster necessary monopolies…

  4. Latin America Curriculum. World Neighbors in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Neighbors, Inc., Oklahoma City, OK.

    This collection of lessons about the geography, languages, and social issues of several Latin American countries is intended for use with students in grades 6-12. The collection contains five lesson plans: (1) "Cold in the Tropics?" (Marilyn Kesler); (2) "Going beyond the Map: Comparing Geographic Characteristics and Related Social Issues in…

  5. Cultural Penetration in Latin America through Multinational Advertising Agencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Toro, Wanda

    Few studies have addressed the issue of cultural penetration of Latin American countries by multinational corporations (MNCs) and multinational advertising agencies (MAAs). Whether they are considered multinational or transnational, MAAs have expanded as a form of international communication in the global market, forming the backbone of MNCs.…

  6. Situation and Prospects of Youth in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Economic and Social Council, New York, NY.

    The report examines the situation, prospects, and needs of Latin American youth in the context of changes which the region has undergone in recent decades and in the face of difficulties of the present and future. The report is divided into 11 sections, each containing 2 to 4 subtopics. The sections include: "Demographic Structure and Youth"; "The…

  7. Education Reform in Latin America: Equal Educational Opportunity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noel, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the general developments and challenges of Latin American public education systems from the 1970s to the late 1990s. A framework using five stages of equal educational opportunity is used to organize the findings: (1) Enrollment--Involves the mechanisms needed to enroll children in school; (2) Quality--Great disparities in…

  8. Latin America Initiates a New Approach to Rural Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bordenave, Juan E. Diaz

    1980-01-01

    The agricultural information programs which were meant to familiarize Latin American farmers with new technologies are being gradually replaced by rural communication programs which will be of benefit to much wider audiences, including the previously excluded small farmers. Brief descriptions of 17 programs in nine countries provide examples of…

  9. Beyond prejudice and pride: The human sciences in nineteenth- and twentieth-century Latin America.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Julia

    2013-12-01

    Grappling with problematics of status and hierarchy, recent literature on the history of the human sciences in Latin America has gone through three overlapping phases. First, the scholarship has reflected a dialogue between Latin American scientists and their European colleagues, characterized by the "center/periphery" model of scientific diffusion. Next, scholars drew on postcolonial theory to undermine the power of the "center" and to recover the role of local agents, including both elites and subalterns. In the wake of numerous studies embracing both models, the way has been cleared to look at multiple dimensions simultaneously. Histories of the human sciences in the complex multicultural societies of Latin America provide an unusually direct path to integration. Moreover, this dynamic and multilayered approach has the potential to address ambivalences about authority and power that have characterized previous analyses of the production and application of knowledge about the human condition. PMID:24783497

  10. Adolescent Peer Relations and Socioemotional Development in Latin America: Translating International Theory into Local Research.

    PubMed

    Berger, Christian; Lisboa, Carolina; Cuadros, Olga; de Tezanos-Pinto, Pablo

    2016-06-01

    Peer relations constitute a main developmental context for adolescents. Peers offer an instance for identity definition and set the norms of acceptable and valued characteristics, behaviors, and attitudes, representing a societal model that allows and restrains avenues for adolescents' socioemotional development. The present article departs from these considerations to review research on adolescents' peer relations in Latin America from a socioemotional perspective. First, approaches to adolescence are discussed, with a main focus on attachment and identity theories, based on a bioecological framework. Then, a review of research in Latin America on friendships, school climate, and intergroup relations is presented. The discussion addresses the tension between theories and evidence generated in developed societies and highlights the particularities of Latin American youth, stressing the need for collecting local data. PMID:27254826

  11. The current status of abortion laws in Latin America: prospects and strategies for change.

    PubMed

    Boland, Reed

    1993-01-01

    In order to explore ways of dealing with this phenomenon of illegal abortions and restrictive abortion laws in Latin America, several special sessions were held at last summer's international conference in Toronto, sponsored by the American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics. The sessions brought together lawyers, health professionals, and reproductive rights advocates from a number of Latin American countries; their counterparts in the developed world; and representatives of non-governmental agencies concerned with this issue, including Catholics for a Free Choice. The goal of the sessions was to share information on the status of abortion in various countries and to try to devise strategies to make abortion law reform more palatable to Latin American governments and public opinion. One major component of the sessions was a series of papers prepared by some of the Latin American representatives describing and analyzing the situations in their countries. The papers illustrate some of the issues facing women in this part of the world. PMID:11652125

  12. Current status and future perspectives for psychiatry/mental health research in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Carla; Tohen, Mauricio

    2010-01-01

    Working towards mentally healthy societies is fundamental for Latin American countries, in order to keep the pace of development. Although awareness about the importance of mental health research is increasing in Latin America, the mismatch between needs and investment (the 10/90 gap) is still present. During recent years, many initiatives have been fostered to promote mental health research in the region. This paper summarizes the information collected through those efforts, in addition to presenting the current state of research in the field of psychiatry and mental health in Latin American countries. Future perspectives for the field in the region are discussed in terms of funding, research priorities and research resources, as well as the potential of Latin American countries to insert themselves within global psychiatry/mental health research efforts. PMID:20874069

  13. Interdisciplinary Collaboration in Gerontology and Geriatrics in Latin America: Conceptual Approaches and Health Care Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Fernando; Curcio, Carmen Lucia

    2013-01-01

    The underlying rationale to support interdisciplinary collaboration in geriatrics and gerontology is based on the complexity of elderly care. The most important characteristic about interdisciplinary health care teams for older people in Latin America is their subjective-basis framework. In other regions, teams are organized according to a…

  14. Latin America Books: An Annotated Bibliography for High School and Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilgus, Karna S., Comp.

    This annotated bibliography citing 479 books on Latin America is a revised and updated version of a 1969 edition available as ED 059 120. The emergence of independent nations in the English-speaking Caribbean and other realignments in hemisphere affairs, as well as the appearance of new materials, indicated the need for a new edition. The revision…

  15. Improving the Precollegiate Curriculum on Latin America, Grades 6-12. Final Performance Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wirth, John D.

    The Latin America Project, which developed print and nonprint materials for use in grades 6-12, is described. The two-year effort was conducted in five phases: survey of existing materials; the development of curriculum units; review of curriculum by teachers attending summer institutes; field testing and evaluation; and dissemination. Titles of…

  16. Childhood Poverty and Cognitive Development in Latin America in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segretin, M. Soledad; Hermida, M. Julia; Prats, Lucía M.; Fracchia, Carolina S.; Ruetti, Eliana; Lipina, Sebastián J.

    2016-01-01

    For at least eight decades, researchers have analyzed the association between childhood poverty and cognitive development in different societies worldwide, but few of such studies have been carried out in Latin America. The aim of the present paper is to systematically review the empirical studies that have analyzed the associations between…

  17. Immigrant Children from Latin America at Japanese Schools: Homogeneity, Ethnicity, Gender and Language in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro-Vazquez, Genaro

    2009-01-01

    An ethnographic study conducted between 2003 and 2006 followed three children from Latin America attending three different public Japanese primary schools. The investigation concerned a Japanese-language tutoring programme for foreign children, which was evaluated by participant observation and a set of in-depth interviews with officials, school…

  18. The Recognition of Effective Teaching in Latin America: Awards to Excellence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaillant, Denise; Rossel, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    The main goal of this article is to review recent experience of effective teaching recognition policies in Latin America. The article examines the main issues related to the recognition of teaching by summarizing experiences of awards to teachers in the region, describing their results and limitations. The article outlines the most important…

  19. Re-Bordering Comparative Education in Latin America: Between Global Limits and Local Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acosta, Felicitas; Perez Centeno, Cristian G.

    2011-01-01

    Conceived for presentation at the XIV WCCES conference in Istanbul in 2010, the topic of which was "Bordering Comparative Education", this paper, within that framework, aims to present the current state of the discipline in Latin America in relation to a quick overview of its present-day situation at a global level. After providing an overview of…

  20. Latin America and the Caribbean: A Major Project for Literacy. Literacy Lessons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivero, Jose

    The overall illiteracy rate has been in sharp decline in Latin America, falling from 27.3 percent in 1970 to 17.3 percent in 1985. However, the total number of illiterate people has remained practically stable over the same period. Overall literacy rates tend to increase with the rurality of the population, the proportion of women, the absence of…

  1. Dynamics of Private Sector Support for Education: Experiences in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Kristin; Galisson, Kirsten

    2008-01-01

    Recognizing the diversity of models and strategies for private sector participation in education that have emerged in Latin America, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) requested the Academy for Educational Development (AED) to conduct research with leaders in the public and private sectors in several countries. While…

  2. An Insider's Look at the Development and Current State of Community Psychology in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montero, Maritza

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the rich history of community psychology in Latin America, describing how the field was systematically built during the second half of the 20th century. Discussed are social and political influences such as the critique of individualistic emphasis dominant at that moment, Paulo Freire's popular education, critical sociology…

  3. The Structure of Educational Costs: Multiproduct Cost Functions for Primary and Secondary Schools in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez, Emmanuel

    1986-01-01

    Relying heavily on equations and tabular data, this paper analyzes the educational cost functions of primary and secondary schooling levels in Latin America. Economies of scale are found for both levels in Bolivian and Paraguayan urban schools; schools combining primary and secondary school services are shown to be less cost effective. (23…

  4. The Major Project in the Field of Education in Latin America and the Caribbean. Bulletin #12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Santiago (Chile). Regional Office for Education in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    The first segment of this bulletin is a summary presentation of the Second Meeting of the Regional Intergovernmental Committee of the Major Project in the Field of Education and the Sixth Regional Conference of Ministers of Education and Ministers Responsible for Economic Planning of the Member States in Latin America and the Caribbean (Bogota,…

  5. Teaching Modern Latin America in the Social Science Curriculum: An Interdisciplinary Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novoa, Adriana

    2007-01-01

    It can be a challenge to introduce students to a world region with the cultural diversity and rich history of Latin America. In this article, the author suggests four thematic units that enable teachers to identify both general trends and important differences in the region: (1) race/ethnicity; (2) progress and civilization; (3) conflict and…

  6. Chagas disease: an impediment in achieving the Millennium Development Goals in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Franco-Paredes, Carlos; Von, Anna; Hidron, Alicia; Rodríguez-Morales, Alfonso J; Tellez, Ildefonso; Barragán, Maribel; Jones, Danielle; Náquira, Cesar G; Mendez, Jorge

    2007-01-01

    Background Achieving sustainable economic and social growth through advances in health is crucial in Latin America within the framework of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals. Discussion Health-related Millennium Development Goals need to incorporate a multidimensional approach addressing the specific epidemiologic profile for each region of the globe. In this regard, addressing the cycle of destitution and suffering associated with infection with Trypanosoma cruzi, the causal agent of Chagas disease of American trypanosomiasis, will play a key role to enable the most impoverished populations in Latin America the opportunity to achieve their full potential. Most cases of Chagas disease occur among forgotten populations because these diseases persist exclusively in the poorest and the most marginalized communities in Latin America. Summary Addressing the cycle of destitution and suffering associated with T. cruzi infection will contribute to improve the health of the most impoverished populations in Latin America and will ultimately grant them with the opportunity to achieve their full economic potential. PMID:17725836

  7. A Study of Public Library Users in Some Countries of Latin America and the Caribbean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guevara, Alvaro Agudo

    This user survey was part of a three-part diagnostic study that sought to obtain information on how public libraries operate in Latin America (Argentina, Colombia, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Panama, and Venezuela) and the Caribbean (Barbados, Grenada, Jamaica, and Surinam) and the social role performed by this type of service in the region.…

  8. Maintaining and Revitalising Indigenous Languages in Latin America: State Planning vs. Grassroots Initiatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornberger, Nancy H.

    1999-01-01

    Introduces a collection of papers that address issues related to the maintenance and revitalization of indigenous languages in Latin and Central America. Two papers focus on the case of Quechua, another considers bilingual intercultural education to help sustain the Harakmbut languages in Peru, and the last considers one of three native language…

  9. Promoting Visual Literacy among Undergraduate Students in Geography: Teaching a Visualized Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollman, Verónica

    2014-01-01

    This study offers a discussion of the role of the visual in the professional training of geographers arguing that visual literacy is not necessarily promoted during geography undergraduate studies. It then analyzes an experience of teaching a visualized Latin America developed in Argentina, as an illustrative example: on the one hand, it reveals…

  10. Latin America: Introduction and Summary. Grade Five (Unit 7). Resource Unit. Project Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Project Social Studies Curriculum Center.

    The last of three main parts designed for fifth grade students, resource unit seven provides an overview of patterns of Latin America and a system of regionalization for the total area on the basis of population composition. Following the overview, a series of case studies arranged in separate sub-units on Buenos Aires, Manaus, Sao Paulo, Chile,…

  11. The Social Condition of Higher Education: Globalisation and (beyond) Regionalisation in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomes, Alfredo M.; Robertson, Susan L.; Dale, Roger

    2012-01-01

    This article aims to discuss the relationship between higher education (HE), globalisation and regionalism projects focusing on HE in Latin America and Brazil. It is claimed that HE has predominantly taken the diverse, yet concerted and co-ordinated routes of globalisation and regionalisation and, by doing so, been profoundly transformed. The…

  12. Teaching Beyond the Borders: A Review of the Global Studies Latin America Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Julian

    The New York City Board of Education's unit on Latin America (Global Studies Grade 9) is a welcome and useful aid to teachers seeking to develop a social studies curriculum with a global perspective. Besides the contemporary relevance, the methodology of the curriculum closely adheres to current thinking on teaching social studies. The lessons and…

  13. Gender Delusions and Exclusions in the Democratization of Schooling in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stromquist, Nelly P.

    1996-01-01

    Examines how democratization of schooling is being shaped in Latin America and how dangerous delusions and exclusions affect the treatment of gender in this process. Focuses on initiatives and development policies of international aid agencies, their research projects, and international conferences. Suggests that democratization requires a larger…

  14. Drugs in Latin America. Studies in Third World Societies, Publication Number Thirty-seven.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morales, Edmundo, Ed.

    The eight papers presented in this document discuss the link between substance and human life in Latin America and help readers uncover some of the myths surrounding drugs, especially cocaine. Contributions range from extensive research to field work and observation. Enrique Mayer demonstrates that the coca leaf is a vital Andean cultural element…

  15. Urban sprawl and fragmentation in Latin America: a dynamic quantification and characterization of spatial patterns.

    PubMed

    Inostroza, Luis; Baur, Rolf; Csaplovics, Elmar

    2013-01-30

    South America is one of the most urbanized continents in the world, where almost 84% of the total population lives in cities, more urbanized than North America (82%) and Europe (73%). Spatial dynamics, their structure, main features, land consumption rates, spatial arrangement, fragmentation degrees and comparability, remain mostly unknown for most Latin American cities. Using satellite imagery the main parameters of sprawl are quantified for 10 Latin American cities over a period of 20 years by monitoring growth patterns and identifying spatial metrics to characterize urban development and sprawling features measured with GIS tools. This quantification contributes to a better understanding of urban form in Latin America. A pervasive spatial expansion has been observed, where most of the studied cities are expanding at fast rates with falling densities trend. Although important differences in the rates of land consumption and densities exist, there is an underlying fragmentation trend towards increasing sprawl. These trends of spatial discontinuity may eventually be intensified by further economic development. Urban Sprawl/Latin America/GIS metrics/spatial development. PMID:23246769

  16. REVIEW OF CONTEMPORARY RESEARCH ON LITERACY AND ADULT EDUCATION IN LATIN AMERICA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MARQUARDT, WILLIAM F.

    A REVIEW OF RESEARCH CATEGORIZES LITERACY AND ADULT BASIC EDUCATION IN LATIN AMERICA AS FOLLOWS--(1) GENERAL REPORTS OF THE NUMBERS AND OCCUPATIONAL TYPES OF ILLITERATES IN EACH COUNTRY--(2) REPORTS OF THE ACTIVITIES AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF PUBLIC, PRIVATE, AND INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND GROUPS IN PROMOTING LITERACY AND ADULT BASIC…

  17. Financing of Vocational Training in Latin America. Discussion Paper No. 71.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ducci, Maria A.

    This paper presents an overview of the financing of vocational training in Latin America. The paper is organized in six sections. The first section discusses diversification of vocational education funding as a response to crisis, as well as to a more favorable climate within businesses. In the second section, factors of change in funding of…

  18. John F. Kennedy and Constitutionalism, Democracy and Human Rights in Latin America: Promise and Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabe, Stephen G.

    1995-01-01

    Summarizes the sometimes confusing and contradictory efforts of the John F. Kennedy administration to encourage the development of democratic political processes in Latin America. Although sincere, Kennedy's efforts often were stymied by resistance from the local power structure and his own Central Intelligence Agency. Eventually, anti-communist…

  19. An Overview of Psychology in Latin America. Report No. ONR-35.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertin, Morton A.

    This report is the third of a series covering the status of psychological research and activity in foreign schools and laboratories. It covers discussions with prominent psychologists in Latin America and provides information about representative work in process. Information on the following countries is reported: Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador,…

  20. Research on Child and Adolescent Development and Public Policy in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Narea, Marigen

    2016-06-01

    This commentary discusses the implication of child and adolescent development research for public policy in Latin America. As illustrated by the articles in this special issue, even though the research of child and adolescent development in Latin America is making significant progress, still more research is needed. Developmental research in the region faces the challenge of uncovering the mechanisms that affect child development in a context of high levels of poverty and inequality. In addition, researchers in the region should be particularly careful in using appropriate and rigorous methods, improving the design and adaptation of instruments that measure child and adolescent development, developing longitudinal datasets, and looking for causal evidence. Children and adolescents in Latin America will benefit from a further expansion of developmental research. Research in child and adolescent development using data from Latin America can advise policy makers and help improve the design and evaluation of interventions and public policies that promote child and adolescent well-being in the region. PMID:27254830

  1. On Global Absences: Reflections on the Failings in the Education and Poverty Relationship in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonal, Xavier

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores some of the aspects of the relationship between education and poverty as it has been constructed by international organisations and national governments in Latin America. The analysis is carried out from two separate angles. On the one hand, the paper highlights the main failings that underlie the positive and hoped-for…

  2. The Spread of Targeted Educational Policies in Latin America: Global Thesis and Local Impacts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemente, Aina Tarabini-Castellani

    2007-01-01

    This article analyses the new educational mandate for Latin America, exploring its repercussions on the design and development of certain educational policies. In particular, it concentrates both on the anti-poverty educational agenda (at a global level) and on targeted educational policies (at a regional, national and local level), analyzing, on…

  3. Early Child Development in Latin America and the Caribbean: List of Projects with World Bank Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Bank, Washington, DC. Human Development Network.

    In recent years the World Bank, currently the largest single funding source for education and health programs in the world, has put new emphasis on reaching children in the years before they enter school. Despite the acknowledged benefits to be gained from investing in education, schooling in Latin America has failed to keep pace with the…

  4. Opportunities and challenges from the use of genomic selection for beef cattle breeding in Latin America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The beef cattle production in Latin America in very important on a worldwide scale and for several regional countries. The region accounts for 29% of the world cattle population and beef production. Genomic selection allows the estimation of breeding values in animals for young animals from DNA samp...

  5. The "New Cooperativism" in Latin America: Worker-Recuperated Enterprises and Socialist Production Units

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larrabure, Manuel; Vieta, Marcelo; Schugurensky, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    In the first decade of the 21st century, efforts to create alternatives to neoliberalism emerged in many parts of Latin America. Social movements across the region took to the streets, occupied abandoned factories, and started to create new democratic spaces, solidarity networks, and social economy initiatives. In one country after another,…

  6. Accounting for Poverty in Infrastructure Reform: Learning from Latin America's Experience. WBI Development Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estache, Antonio; Foster, Vivien; Wodon, Quentin

    This book explores the connections between infrastructure reform and poverty alleviation in Latin America based on a detailed analysis of the effects of a decade of reforms. The book demonstrates that because the access to, and affordability of, basic services is still a major problem, infrastructure investment will be a core component of poverty…

  7. Interrelationships Between Landscape Art and Geography in Latin America: First Response to a Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinson, Tom L.

    Interrelationships between geography and art are explored and ways of integrating an appreciation of landscape art in Latin America into geography instruction are suggested. That geographers have long recognized the usefulness of landscape painting in the study of places is exemplified by the remark by geographer John Leighly in 1937 that "art…

  8. Mosquito Vector Control and Biology in Latin America - A 17th Symposium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 17th Annual Latin America American symposium presented by the American Mosquito Control Association (AMCA) was held as part of the 73rd Annual Meeting in Orlando, FL, in April 2007. The principal objective, as for the previous 16 symposia, was to promote participation in the AMCA by vector cont...

  9. Our Neglected Neighbors: How the U.S. News Magazines Covered Latin America in 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cline, Carolyn Garrett

    An examination of the coverage of Latin America during 1977 by "Newsweek,""Time," and "U.S. News and World Report" was undertaken to compare the number of stories and the amount of space devoted to that region with that afforded other areas of the world. The results showed that of the major areas of the world, only Canada and Australia received…

  10. Medical Response to Radiological Accidents in Latin America and International Assistance.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Eduardo Herrera; Baciu, Florian; Benderitter, Marc; Lataillade, Jean Jacques; Bey, Eric; Trompier, Francois; Tamarat, Radia

    2016-04-01

    This article provides an overview of four radiological accidents in Latin America, and includes a history of the events, the clinical manifestations and health consequences for the exposed individuals, the medical response based on preclinical studies and the role of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in coordinating medical response assistance. PMID:27018777

  11. Lagging Behind: A Report Card on Education in Latin America, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    A review of efforts to improve education in Latin America during the years since 1998 suggests that only limited progress has been made to remedy the following problems: a failure to set standards for student learning and to evaluate performance, the absence of authority and accountability, poor teaching, and insufficient investment in primary and…

  12. Adverse Factors in the Development of an Open University in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Escotet, Miguel Angel

    1980-01-01

    Discusses variables such as financial resources, political determinants, resistance to innovation, learning styles, student population, organizational and institutional structures, human resources, and communication, as possible factors which detain adequate development of the open university in Latin America. Nineteen references are listed.…

  13. Forms of Bullying Reported by Middle-School Students in Latin America and the Caribbean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClanahan, Molly; McCoy, Stephanie M.; Jacobsen, Kathryn H.

    2015-01-01

    Nationally representative data from more than 25,000 middle-school students in 15 countries in Latin America and the Caribbean who participated in the Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS) between 2004 and 2009 were analyzed. The proportion of students by country who reported being the victim of a bully in the past month ranged from 17%…

  14. Empowering Indigenous Languages and Cultures: The Impact of German Bilateral Assistance in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortina, Regina

    2010-01-01

    Working in Latin America for several decades to address the educational needs of poor and indigenous groups, the GTZ (Gesellschaft fur Technische Zusammenarbeit) has helped to develop the knowledge base of intercultural bilingual education. The goal of this article is to analyze Germany's impact from the mid-1970s to the present as the GTZ has…

  15. Introduction to Latin America, Manual for an Interdisciplinary Course: An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamison, Edward A., Comp.

    This teacher's manual is an annotated bibliography of basic and supplementary books in English on topics which can be used to form the basis of an interdisciplinary college introductory course on Latin America. Topics presented include: the land and the physical environment; the Indian heritage; history; the people; the social structure; politics…

  16. Wilderness Medicine: Considerations of Adventure Travel in Tropical Areas of Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Brent

    Adventure travel to Latin America requires careful planning, implementation, and followup to ensure safe, healthy experiences. This paper provides an overview of basic principles of prevention, assessment, and treatment of medical problems common to adventure travel in tropical areas. A brief introduction defines the vegetation and climatic…

  17. Donkeys and Superteachers: Structural Adjustment and Popular Education in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischman, Gustavo

    1998-01-01

    Explores the challenges and possibilities of popular education by examining the educational field after the application of structural adjustment programs in Latin America. Presents a critique of Gramsci's model of the organic intellectual as understood by many within popular education. Offers the specific example of a popular-education workshop in…

  18. Neural tube defects in Latin America and the impact of fortification: a literature review

    PubMed Central

    Rosenthal, Jorge; Casas, Jessica; Taren, Douglas; Alverson, Clinton J; Flores, Alina; Frias, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Objective Data on the prevalence of birth defects and neural tube defects (NTD) in Latin America are limited. The present review summarizes NTD prevalence and time trends in Latin American countries and compares pre- and post-fortification periods to assess the impact of folic acid fortification in these countries. Design We carried out a literature review of studies and institutional reports published between 1990 and 2010 that contained information on NTD prevalence in Latin America. Results NTD prevalence in Latin American countries varied from 0.2 to 9.6 per 1000 live births and was influenced by methods of ascertainment. Time trends from Bogota, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Guatemala City, México and Puerto Rico showed average annual declines of 2.5% to 21.8%. Pre- and post-fortification comparisons were available for Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Puerto Rico and México. The aggregate percentage decline in NTD prevalence ranged from 33% to 59%. Conclusions The present publication is the first to review data on time trends and the impact of folic acid fortification on NTD prevalence in Latin America. Reported NTD prevalence varied markedly by geographic region and in some areas of Latin America was among the lowest in the world, while in other areas it was among the highest. For countries with available information, time trends showed significant declines in NTD prevalence and these declines were greater in countries where folic acid fortification of staples reached the majority of the population at risk, such as Chile and Costa Rica. PMID:23464652

  19. Children’s Health in Latin America: The Influence of Environmental Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Laborde, Amalia; Tomasina, Fernando; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Bruné, Marie-Noel; Buka, Irena; Comba, Pietro; Corra, Lilian; Cori, Liliana; Duffert, Christin Maria; Harari, Raul; Iavarone, Ivano; McDiarmid, Melissa A.; Gray, Kimberly A.; Sly, Peter D.; Soares, Agnes; Suk, William A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic diseases are increasing among children in Latin America. Objective and Methods To examine environmental risk factors for chronic disease in Latin American children and to develop a strategic initiative for control of these exposures, the World Health Organization (WHO) including the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), the Collegium Ramazzini, and Latin American scientists reviewed regional and relevant global data. Results Industrial development and urbanization are proceeding rapidly in Latin America, and environmental pollution has become widespread. Environmental threats to children’s health include traditional hazards such as indoor air pollution and drinking-water contamination; the newer hazards of urban air pollution; toxic chemicals such as lead, asbestos, mercury, arsenic, and pesticides; hazardous and electronic waste; and climate change. The mix of traditional and modern hazards varies greatly across and within countries reflecting industrialization, urbanization, and socioeconomic forces. Conclusions To control environmental threats to children’s health in Latin America, WHO, including PAHO, will focus on the most highly prevalent and serious hazards—indoor and outdoor air pollution, water pollution, and toxic chemicals. Strategies for controlling these hazards include developing tracking data on regional trends in children’s environmental health (CEH), building a network of Collaborating Centres, promoting biomedical research in CEH, building regional capacity, supporting development of evidence-based prevention policies, studying the economic costs of chronic diseases in children, and developing platforms for dialogue with relevant stakeholders. Citation Laborde A, Tomasina F, Bianchi F, Bruné MN, Buka I, Comba P, Corra L, Cori L, Duffert CM, Harari R, Iavarone I, McDiarmid MA, Gray KA, Sly PD, Soares A, Suk WA, Landrigan PJ. 2015. Children’s health in Latin America: the influence of environmental exposures. Environ

  20. Demographic growth and health needs in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Behm, H

    1979-01-01

    The net effect of the rapid population growth in Latin American countries is an increase in the needs for health services. Nevertheless, the demographic factor is not the only nor the most important consideration in determining how to satisfy these demands in the region. The main contradiction lies between the magnitude of needs for services generated by the adverse living conditions prevalling among the majority of the population, together with a restricted supply of health services, the availability of which varies according to social class. The problem of the increasing demand for medical care, generated by the rapid population growth, should be recognized as originating in the socioeconomic structural conditions prevailing in Latin American countries today which determine, simultaneously, low health levels, deficiencies in the provision of health services, and rapid population growth. PMID:422299

  1. Latin America's Presentation of "World Year of Physics 2005"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Margarete B.

    2006-12-01

    I attended the Inter-American Physics Educators Conference in Costa Rica in July 2006. Several Latin countries gave presentations on how they celebrated the 2005 Worl Year of Physics. They were very inventive in involving the general public. I believe that raising the general publics interest and understanding of physics is cruicial, so I was very impressed with their efforts. I would like to share the creative method's used by these countries at the AAPT meeting.

  2. Ecological study of effect of breast feeding on infant mortality in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Betrán, Ana P; de Onís, Mercedes; Lauer, Jeremy A; Villar, José

    2001-01-01

    Objective To estimate the effect of exclusive breast feeding and partial breast feeding on infant mortality from diarrhoeal disease and acute respiratory infections in Latin America. Design Attributable fraction analysis of national data on infant mortality and breast feeding. Setting Latin America and the Caribbean. Main outcome measures Mortality from diarrhoeal disease and acute respiratory infections and nationally representative breastfeeding rates. Results 55% of infant deaths from diarrhoeal disease and acute respiratory infections in Latin America are preventable by exclusive breast feeding among infants aged 0-3 months and partial breast feeding throughout the remainder of infancy. Among infants aged 0-3 months, 66% of deaths from these causes are preventable by exclusive breast feeding; among infants aged 4-11 months, 32% of such deaths are preventable by partial breast feeding. 13.9% of infant deaths from all causes are preventable by these breastfeeding patterns. The annual number of preventable deaths is about 52 000 for the region. Conclusions Exclusive breast feeding of infants aged 0-3 months and partial breast feeding throughout the remainder of infancy could substantially reduce infant mortality in Latin America. Interventions to promote breast feeding should target younger infants. What is already known on this topicInfant mortality is lower among breast fed than non-breast fed infantsThe reductions are greatest for deaths from diarrhoeal disease and acute respiratory infectionsWhat this study addsExclusive breast feeding of infants aged 0-3 months and partial breast feeding for the remainder of the first year would prevent about 52 000 infant deaths a year in Latin AmericaThis corresponds to 13.9% of infant deaths from all causesPromotion of breast feeding has an important role in increasing survival of infants PMID:11498485

  3. From Marianism to terrorism: the many faces of violence against women in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Rondon, M B

    2003-08-01

    Violence against women is widespread and highly tolerated in Latin America. In this paper, I will argue that this is because violence stems from deep cultural roots and because women are brought up in a patriarchal familial organization which promotes passivity and dependence. Traditional religious culture, which poses the Virgin Mary figure as role model, is ambivalent and distorted, repressing sex while overvaluing motherhood and self denial and demeaning women who do not conform to the established stereotypes. Patriarchal violence has serious emotional consequences for women. The stressful violent circumstances in women's lives lead to increased drug abuse that further exposes them to police and institutional violence. Political instability and civil wars in South America have caused many deaths, and have left many women with traumatic sequelae. Efforts at improving quality of life and diminishing violent conditions for women and girls in Latin America should include consideration of local cultural, political and economic peculiarities. PMID:12920613

  4. [Women and work. Panorama in Latin America 1960-1990].

    PubMed

    Espinosa, G

    1994-01-01

    Significant increases have occurred over the past 40 years in the labor force participation of Latin American women. The changes have been caused primarily by transformations in the economic system, but also in part by changes of attitude regarding the role of women in economic development and household survival. Average female labor force participation rates are difficult to compare over time and between countries because of differing cultural patterns concerning work, use of differing concepts of productive work and labor force, and different time periods of coverage. Some common trends can be observed in labor force participation despite the data limitations. A decline occurred in overall participation rates, at least until 1980, while female participation rates increased continually over the entire period. Several factors have been suggested to explain the overall decline, among them longer school attendance by young people. The Latin American Economic Commission classified Latin American countries into four groups according to their level of economic and social modernization. The role of women in the labor market and in domestic work is associated with the level of modernization. In all four groups, female activity rates have systematically increased in all countries. The distribution of women in the different productive sectors varied in the four groups. The two most developed groups concentrate a large part of the urban population, and in these groups the increase in female economic participation has been most pronounced. Establishment of maquiladora industries has been particularly associated with growth of female labor force participation in the past 15 years. The work of maquiladoras is associated with such problems of the informal sector as poor hygiene and exploitation. The informal sector is known to have grown considerably and to have permitted survival of many families during the economic crisis of the 1980s, but sufficient data is not yet available

  5. Preface: Space and geophysical research related to Latin America - Part 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, Blanca

    2016-03-01

    For the last 25 years, every two to three years the Conferencia Latinoamericana de Geofísica Espacial (COLAGE) is held in one of the Latin American countries for the purpose of promoting scientific exchange among scientists of the region and to encourage continued research that is unique to this area of the world. At the more recent conference, the community realized that many individuals both within and outside Latin America have contributed greatly to the understanding of the space sciences in this area of the world. It was therefore decided to assemble a Special Issue Space and Geophysical Physics related to Latin America, presenting recent results and where submissions would be accepted from the world wide community of scientists involved in research appropriate to Latin America. Because of the large number of submissions, these papers will be printed in two separate issues; this is Part 1. These papers show the wide variety of research, both theoretical and applied, that is currently being developed in the Sub-Continent.

  6. Photodynamic therapy: Progress toward a scientific and clinical network in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Buzzá, Hilde H; Silva, Ana Paula da; Vollet Filho, José Dirceu; Ramirez, Dora Patricia; Trujillo, José Roberto; Inada, Natalia M; Moriyama, Lilian T; Kurachi, Cristina; Bagnato, Vanderlei S

    2016-03-01

    Cancer is one of the major challenges for Latin America health services, since the skin cancer is the most frequent lesion. This manuscript addresses an initiative for the treatment of basal cell carcinomas (BCC) by photodynamic therapy (PDT) based on a government-funded national program in Brazil. The program provides clinical training and facilitates access to drugs/equipment and significantly reduces PDT costs. It also lays foundations for the establishment of a Latin American research network to improve prevention, early detection and treatment of diseases. Centers have been established by direct contact (conferences, visits to healthcare facilities and official departments). A local training was divided into complementary theoretical and practical parts. This is an ongoing project that has involved 10 countries: Brazil, Bolivia Chile, Ecuador, El Salvador, Colombia, Cuba, Mexico, Peru and Venezuela, The initial results are encouraging and have provided assessment of Latin America patients relating, for example, the most common skin phototypes with incidence of BCC in such countries. The network is expected to produce relevant scientific information for PDT introduction in many countries. The experience acquired by local teams shall enable them to innovate PDT protocols and increase the number of skilled contributors/researchers to broaden knowledge on the ever-crescent PDT field in Latin America. The establishment of a collaboration network and introduction of other projects and experience exchange shall become an easier process with time. This PDT clinical research network is a start for the strengthening of Science in South Hemisphere countries. PMID:26296697

  7. Breast Cancer in Young Women in Latin America: An Unmet, Growing Burden

    PubMed Central

    Aguila, Christian; Magallanes-Hoyos, Maria C.; Mohar, Alejandro; Bargalló, Enrique; Meneses, Abelardo; Cazap, Eduardo; Gomez, Henry; López-Carrillo, Lizbeth; Chávarri-Guerra, Yanin; Murillo, Raúl; Barrios, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Background. Breast cancer (BC) is the leading cause of malignancy-related deaths among women aged ≤45 years. There are unexplored and uncertain issues for BC in this particular group in Latin America. The aim of this study is to evaluate BC incidence and mortality among young women and related clinicopathological and survivorship aspects in this region. Materials and Methods. Data were obtained from Globocan 2008 and the International Agency for Research on Cancer's Cancer Incidence in Five Continents series plus databases. We requested collaboration from the 12 different national cancer institutes in Latin America through SLACOM, the Latin American and Caribbean Society of Medical Oncology, and conducted a systematic literature review to obtain local data regarding the prevalence of BC among young women and their characteristics, outcomes, and survivorship-related issues. Results. BC incidence and mortality proportions for Latin American women aged <44 years were higher when compared with those of developed countries (20% vs. 12% and 14% vs. 7%, respectively). We found only a few Latin American series addressing this topic, and prevalence varied between 8% and 14%. Stage II and III disease, high histological grade, and triple-negative and HER2 BC were features frequently observed among young Latin American BC patients. Conclusion. The rising incidence and mortality of BC in young Latin American women is a call to action in the region. It is necessary to monitor the epidemiological and clinical data through reliable cancer registries and to consider the implementation of protocols for education of patients and health professionals. This unmet, growing burden must be considered as a top priority of the national programs in the fight against BC, and models of specialized units should be implemented for this particular group of patients to provide better care for this emergent challenge. PMID:24277771

  8. The establishment of an attachment research network in Latin America: goals, accomplishments, and challenges.

    PubMed

    Causadias, José M; Sroufe, L Alan; Herreros, Francisca

    2011-03-01

    In the face of a pressing need for expanded attachment research programs and attachment informed interventions in Latin America, a research network was established: Red Iberoamericana de Apego: RIA (Iberian-American Attachment Network). The purpose of RIA is to promote human development and well being, informed by attachment theory, centering on research, and with implications for public policies, education, and intervention. We report the proceedings of the second meeting of RIA held in Panama City, Panama, in February 2010. As part of this meeting, RIA sponsored the first Latin-American attachment conference. Proceedings of the conference are described, as are future goals of this new organization. PMID:21390910

  9. Union Formation Implications of Race and Gender Gaps in Educational Attainment: The Case of Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Esteve, Albert; López, Luis Ángel

    2012-01-01

    We use census microdata to assess the levels of educational homogamy in six Latin American countries: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Ecuador and Mexico. This paper contributes to the literature on homogamy in three ways. First, by conducting a comparative analysis between countries belonging to the still little-studied region of Latin America, which is still undergoing intense and varied processes of demographic, economic, social, and political modernization. Second, by simultaneously including variables of structural and individual nature. Finally, by making progress with respect to the interactions between educational homogamy and other important variables associated with high levels of social inequality in the region: race, ethnicity and birthplace. PMID:23172982

  10. TP53 mutations as biomarkers for cancer epidemiology in Latin America: current knowledge and perspectives.

    PubMed

    de Moura Gallo, Claudia Vitória; Azevedo E Silva Mendonça, Gulnar; de Moraes, Emanuela; Olivier, Magali; Hainaut, Pierre

    2005-05-01

    Due to particular social and economical development, and to the impact of globalization of lifestyles, Latin America shows a superposition of cancers that are frequent in low resource countries (gastric, oesophageal squamous cell and cervical cancers) and high resource countries (cancers of breast, colon and rectum, lung and prostate). Latin America thus offers opportunities for investigating the impact on changing lifestyle patterns on the occurrence of cancer. At the molecular level, mutations in the tumor suppressor gene TP53 are common in many cancers and their distribution can be informative of the nature of the mutagenic mechanisms, thus giving clues to cancer etiology and molecular pathogenesis. However most of the data available are derived from studies in industrialized countries. In this review, we discuss current trends on cancer occurrence in Latin American countries, and we review the literature available on TP53 mutations and polymorphisms in patients from Latin America. Overall, a total of 285 mutations have been described in 1213 patients in 20 publications, representing 1.5% of the total number of mutations reported world-wide. Except for hematological cancers, TP53 mutation frequencies are similar to those reported in other regions of the world. The only tumor site presenting significant differences in mutation pattern as compared to other parts of the world is colon and rectum. However, this difference is based on a single study with 35 patients. Recently, a characteristic TP53 mutation at codon 337 (R337H) has been identified in the germline of children with adrenocortical carcinoma in Southern Brazil. Further and better focused analyses of TP53 mutation patterns in the context of epidemiological studies, should help to improve our understanding of cancer etiology in order to develop appropriate health policies and public health programs in Latin America. PMID:15878142

  11. Regional trends and controlling factors of fatal landslides in Latin America and the Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sepúlveda, S. A.; Petley, D. N.

    2015-04-01

    A database of landslides that caused loss of life in Latin America and the Caribbean in the period from 2004 and 2013 inclusive has been compiled using established techniques. This database indicates that in the ten year period a total of 11 631 people lost their lives across the region in 611 landslides. The geographical distribution of the landslides is very heterogeneous, with areas of high incidence in parts of the Caribbean (most notably Haiti), Central America, Colombia, and SE. Brazil. The number of landslides varies considerably between years; the El Niño/La Niña cycle emerges as a major factor controlling this variation, although the study period did not capture a large event. Analysis suggests that on a continental scale the mapped factors that best explain the observed distribution are topography, annual precipitation and population density. On a national basis we have compared the occurrence of fatality-inducing landslide occurrence with the production of research articles with a local author, which shows that there is a landslide research deficit in Latin America and the Caribbean. Understanding better the mechanisms, distributions causes and triggers of landslides in Latin America and the Caribbean must be an essential first step towards managing the hazard.

  12. Regional trends and controlling factors of fatal landslides in Latin America and the Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sepúlveda, S. A.; Petley, D. N.

    2015-08-01

    A new data set of landslides that caused loss of life in Latin America and the Caribbean in the 10-year period from 2004 and 2013 inclusive has been compiled, providing new insight into the impact of landslides in this key part of the world. This data set indicates that in the 10-year period a total of 11 631 people lost their lives across the region in 611 landslides. The geographical distribution of the landslides is highly heterogeneous, with areas of high incidence in parts of the Caribbean (most notably Haiti), Central America, Colombia, and southeast Brazil. There is significant interannual variation in the number of landslides, with the El Niño/La Niña cycle emerging as a key control. Our analysis suggests that on a continental scale the mapped factors that best explain the observed distribution are topography, annual precipitation and population density. On a national basis we have compared the occurrence of fatality-inducing landslide occurrence with the production of locally authored research articles, demonstrating that there is a landslide research deficit in Latin America and the Caribbean. Understanding better the mechanisms, distribution causes and triggers of landslides in Latin America and the Caribbean must be an essential first step towards managing the hazard.

  13. Clostridium difficile: a problem of concern in developed countries and still a mystery in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Balassiano, I T; Yates, E A; Domingues, R M C P; Ferreira, E O

    2012-02-01

    Clostridium difficile-associated disease (CDAD) is caused by a spore-forming bacterium and can result in highly variable disease, ranging from mild diarrhoea to severe clinical manifestations. Infections are most commonly seen in hospital settings and are often associated with on-going antibiotic therapy. Incidences of CDAD have shown a sustained increase worldwide over the last ten years and a hypervirulent C. difficile strain, PCR ribotype 027/REA type BI/North American pulsed-field (NAP) type 1 (027/BI/NAP-1), has caused outbreaks in North America and Europe. In contrast, only a few reports of cases in Latin America have been published and the hypervirulent strain 027/BI/NAP-1 has, so far, only been reported in Costa Rica. The potential worldwide spread of this infection calls for epidemiological studies to characterize currently circulating strains and also highlights the need for increased awareness and vigilance among healthcare professionals in currently unaffected areas, such as Latin America. This review attempts to summarize reports of C. difficile infection worldwide, especially in Latin America, and aims to provide an introduction to the problems associated with this pathogen for those countries that might face outbreaks of epidemic strains of C. difficile for the first time in the near future. PMID:22116982

  14. Hepatitis B virus infection in Latin America: A genomic medicine approach

    PubMed Central

    Roman, Sonia; Jose-Abrego, Alexis; Fierro, Nora Alma; Escobedo-Melendez, Griselda; Ojeda-Granados, Claudia; Martinez-Lopez, Erika; Panduro, Arturo

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is the leading cause of severe chronic liver disease. This article provides a critical view of the importance of genomic medicine for the study of HBV infection and its clinical outcomes in Latin America. Three levels of evolutionary adaptation may correlate with the clinical outcomes of HBV infection. Infections in Latin America are predominantly of genotype H in Mexico and genotype F in Central and South America; these strains have historically circulated among the indigenous population. Both genotypes appear to be linked to a benign course of disease among the native and mestizo Mexicans and native South Americans. In contrast, genotypes F, A and D are common in acute and chronic infections among mestizos with Caucasian ancestry. Hepatocellular carcinoma is rare in Mexicans, but it has been associated with genotype F1b among Argentineans. This observation illustrates the significance of ascertaining the genetic and environmental factors involved in the development of HBV-related liver disease in Latin America, which contrast with those reported in other regions of the world. PMID:24966588

  15. Existing Instrumentation and Scientific Drivers for a Subduction Zone Observatory in Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frassetto, A.; Woodward, R.; Detrick, R. S.

    2015-12-01

    The subduction zones along the western shore of the Americas provide numerous societally relevant scientific questions that have yet to be fully explored and would make an excellent target for a comprehensive, integrated Subduction Zone Observatory (SZO). Further, recent discussions in Latin America indicate that there are a large number of existing stations that could serve as a backbone for an SZO. Such preexisting geophysical infrastructure commonly plays a vital role in new science initiatives, from small PI-led experiments to the establishment of the USArray Transportable Array, Reference Network, Cascadia Amphibious Array, and the redeployment of EarthScope Transportable Array stations to Alaska. Creating an SZO along the western coast of the Americas could strongly leverage the portfolio of existing seismic and geodetic stations across regions of interest. In this presentation, we will discuss the concept and experience of leveraging existing infrastructure in major new observational programs, outline the state of geophysical networks in the Americas (emphasizing current seismic networks but also looking back on historical temporary deployments), and provide an overview of potential scientific targets in the Americas that encompass a sampling of recently produced research results and datasets. Additionally, we will reflect on strategies for establishing meaningful collaborations across Latin America, an aspect that will be critical to the international partnerships, and associated capacity building, needed for a successful SZO initiative.

  16. Multisource drug policies in Latin America: survey of 10 countries.

    PubMed Central

    Homedes, Núria; Ugalde, Antonio

    2005-01-01

    Essential drug lists and generic drug policies have been promoted as strategies to improve access to pharmaceuticals and control their rapidly escalating costs. This article reports the results of a preliminary survey conducted in 10 Latin American countries. The study aimed to document the experiences of different countries in defining and implementing generic drug policies, determine the cost of registering different types of pharmaceutical products and the time needed to register them, and uncover the incentives governments have developed to promote the use of multisource drugs. The survey instrument was administered in person in Chile, Ecuador and Peru and by email in Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Costa Rica, Nicaragua and Uruguay. There was a total of 22 respondents. Survey responses indicated that countries use the terms generic and bioequivalence differently. We suggest there is a need to harmonize definitions and technical concepts. PMID:15682251

  17. Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in Latin America. A public health problem?

    PubMed

    Calderón, Enrique J; de Armas, Yaxsier; Panizo, Maria Mercedes; Wissmann, Gustavo

    2013-06-01

    Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PcP) is a well-recognized major opportunistic infection in HIV-infected patients. During the 1980s, the HIV pandemic turned PcP into a major worldwide medical and public health problem. With the introduction of Pneumocystis chemoprophylaxis and the development of highly active antiretroviral therapy (ART) for the treatment of HIV infection, there has been a decrease in PcP incidence in developed countries. However, the prevalence of AIDS-related PcP in developing countries remains high because a lot of people do not have access to ART or ignore their HIV infection status. This article discusses the information available about PcP among Latin American countries where there is a great regional heterogeneity in the prevalence of HIV infection and in ART coverage, as well as in the observed frequencies of PcP that range from 5.9 to 55% in this area. PMID:23750728

  18. Interethnic variability and admixture in Latin America--social implications.

    PubMed

    Salzano, Francisco M

    2004-09-01

    Past and present attempts to classify and characterize the human biological variability are examined, considering the race concept, ethnic identification problems, assortative mating based on ethnicity, and historical genetics. In relation to the latter, a review is made of the methods presently available for admixture quantification and of previous studies aimed at the characterization of the parental continental contributions to Latin American populations, with emphasis in global evaluations of the Costa Rican and Brazilian gene pools. Finally, the question of racism and discrimination is considered, including the relation between human rights and affirmative actions. The right to equal opportunity should be strictly respected. Biological inequality has nothing to do with the ethical principle that someone's position in a given society should be an accurate reflection of her/his individual ability. PMID:17361535

  19. Smokefree Policies in Latin America and the Caribbean: Making Progress

    PubMed Central

    Sebrié, Ernesto M.; Schoj, Verónica; Travers, Mark J.; McGaw, Barbara; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2012-01-01

    We reviewed the adoption and implementation of smokefree policies in all Latin American and the Caribbean (LAC) countries. Significant progress has been achieved among LAC countries since the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) was adopted in 2005. Both national and sub-national legislation have provided effective mechanisms to increase the fraction of the population protected from secondhand tobacco smoke. Civil society has actively promoted these policies and played a main role in enacting them and monitoring their enforcement. The tobacco industry, while continuing to oppose the approval and regulation of the laws at legislative and executive levels, has gone a step further by litigating against them in the Courts. As in the US and elsewhere, this litigation has failed to stop the legislation. PMID:22754484

  20. Experience of disused source management in Latin America

    SciTech Connect

    Pimenta Mourao, R.

    2008-07-01

    The Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (Center for the Development of Nuclear Technology) - CDTN - has been actively engaged in cooperation programs for disused source management throughout the Latin American and the Caribbean region since 1996. The CDTN source conditioning team participated in the preparation of the technical procedures established for the different tasks involved in the radium sources conditioning operations, like preparation of the packaging for conditioning; sources conditioning; capsule welding; leak test in radium-containing capsule; and radiation protection planning for the conditioning of disused radium sources. The team also carried out twelve radium sources conditioning operation in the region, besides in-house operations, which resulted in a total conditioned activity of approximately 525 GBq, or 14,200 mg of radium. Additionally, one operation was carried out in Nicaragua to safely condition three Cobalt teletherapy heads stored under very precarious conditions in the premises of an old hospital. More recently, the team started its participation in an IAEA- and US State Department-sponsored program for the repatriation of disused or excess transuranic sources presently stored at users' premises or under regulatory control in different countries in the region. In September 2007 the team attended a theoretical and practical training in transuranic sources management, including the participation in the conditioning of different neutron sources in certified packages. It is expected that the trained team will carry out similar operations in other Latin American countries. Finally, the team is expected be involved in the near future in the repatriation of US-origin teletherapy heads and industrial gauges. (authors)

  1. Management of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis in Latin America: practical recommendations for treatment optimization.

    PubMed

    Correale, Jorge; Abad, Patricio; Alvarenga, Regina; Alves-Leon, Soniza; Armas, Elizabeth; Barahona, Jorge; Buzó, Ricardo; Corona, Teresa; Cristiano, Edgardo; Gracia, Fernando; Bonitto, Juan García; Macías, Miguel Angel; Soto, Arnoldo; Vizcarra, Darwin; Freedman, Mark S

    2014-04-15

    The Latin American MS Experts' Forum has developed practical recommendations on the initiation and optimization of disease-modifying therapies in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). The recommendations reflect the unique epidemiology of MS and the clinical practice environment in Latin American countries. Treatment response may be evaluated according to changes in relapses; progression, as assessed by the Expanded Disability Status Scale and the Timed 25-foot Walk; and lesion number on magnetic resonance imaging. Follow-up assessments are recommended every six months, or annually for stable patients. Cognitive function should be evaluated in all RRMS patients at baseline and annually thereafter. These recommendations are intended to assist clinicians in Latin America in developing a rational approach to treatment selection and sequencing for their RRMS patients. PMID:24607335

  2. Undocumented Migration from Latin America in an Era of Rising U.S. Enforcement.

    PubMed

    Massey, Douglas S; Riosmena, Fernando

    2010-07-01

    Available data have consistently pointed up the failure of U.S. policies to reduce undocumented migration from Latin America. To shed light on the reasons for this failure, we estimated a series of dynamic models of undocumented entry into and exit from the United States. Our estimates suggest that undocumented migration is grounded more in mechanisms posited by social capital theory and the new economics of labor migration rather than neoclassical economics. As a result, U.S. efforts to increase the costs of undocumented entry and reduce the benefits of undocumented labor have proven unsuccessful given the widespread access of Latin Americans to migrant networks. The main effect of U.S. enforcement efforts has been to reduce the circularity of Latin American migration. PMID:20824109

  3. Socioeconomic and environmental determinants of adolescent asthma in urban Latin America: an ecological analysis.

    PubMed

    Fattore, Gisel Lorena; Santos, Carlos Antonio de Souza Teles; Barreto, Mauricio Lima

    2015-11-01

    The prevalence of asthma is high in urban areas of many Latin-American countries where societies show high levels of inequality and different levels of development. This study aimed to examine the relationship between asthma symptoms prevalence in adolescents living in Latin American urban centers and socioeconomic and environmental determinants measured at the ecological level. Asthma prevalence symptoms were obtained from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) phase III. A hierarchical conceptual framework was defined and the explanatory variables were organized in three levels: distal, intermediate, proximal. Linear regression models weighed by sample size were undertaken between asthma prevalence and the selected variables. Asthma prevalence was positively associated with Gini index, water supply and homicide rate, and inversely associated with the Human Development Index, crowding and adequate sanitation. This study provides evidence of the potential influence of poverty and social inequalities on current wheezing in adolescents in a complex social context like Latin America. PMID:26840816

  4. Undocumented Migration from Latin America in an Era of Rising U.S. Enforcement

    PubMed Central

    MASSEY, DOUGLAS S.; RIOSMENA, FERNANDO

    2010-01-01

    Available data have consistently pointed up the failure of U.S. policies to reduce undocumented migration from Latin America. To shed light on the reasons for this failure, we estimated a series of dynamic models of undocumented entry into and exit from the United States. Our estimates suggest that undocumented migration is grounded more in mechanisms posited by social capital theory and the new economics of labor migration rather than neoclassical economics. As a result, U.S. efforts to increase the costs of undocumented entry and reduce the benefits of undocumented labor have proven unsuccessful given the widespread access of Latin Americans to migrant networks. The main effect of U.S. enforcement efforts has been to reduce the circularity of Latin American migration. PMID:20824109

  5. Strengthening vaccination policies in Latin America: an evidence-based approach.

    PubMed

    Tapia-Conyer, Roberto; Betancourt-Cravioto, Miguel; Saucedo-Martínez, Rodrigo; Motta-Murguía, Lourdes; Gallardo-Rincón, Héctor

    2013-08-20

    Despite many successes in the region, Latin American vaccination policies have significant shortcomings, and further work is needed to maintain progress and prepare for the introduction of newly available vaccines. In order to address the challenges facing Latin America, the Commission for the Future of Vaccines in Latin America (COFVAL) has made recommendations for strengthening evidence-based policy-making and reducing regional inequalities in immunisation. We have conducted a comprehensive literature review to assess the feasibility of these recommendations. Standardisation of performance indicators for disease burden, vaccine coverage, epidemiological surveillance and national health resourcing can ensure comparability of the data used to assess vaccination programmes, allowing deeper analysis of how best to provide services. Regional vaccination reference schemes, as used in Europe, can be used to develop best practice models for vaccine introduction and scheduling. Successful models exist for the continuous training of vaccination providers and decision-makers, with a new Latin American diploma aiming to contribute to the successful implementation of vaccination programmes. Permanent, independent vaccine advisory committees, based on the US Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), could facilitate the uptake of new vaccines and support evidence-based decision-making in the administration of national immunisation programmes. Innovative financing mechanisms for the purchase of new vaccines, such as advance market commitments and cost front-loading, have shown potential for improving vaccine coverage. A common regulatory framework for vaccine approval is needed to accelerate delivery and pool human, technological and scientific resources in the region. Finally, public-private partnerships between industry, government, academia and non-profit sectors could provide new investment to stimulate vaccine development in the region, reducing prices in the

  6. The current status of ethnobiological research in Latin America: gaps and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent reviews have demonstrated an increase in the number of papers on ethnobiology in Latin America. Among factors that have influenced this increase are the biological and cultural diversity of these countries and the general scientific situation in some countries. This study aims to assess the panorama of ethnobiological research in Latin America by analyzing its evolution, trends, and future prospects. Methods To conduct this study, we searched for papers in the Scopus (http://www.scopus.com) and Web of Science (http://www.isiknowledge.com) databases. The search was performed using combinations of keywords and the name of each Latin American country. The following countries were included in this study: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Venezuela, and Uruguay. Results and conclusions According to our inclusion criteria, 679 ethnobiological studies conducted in Latin America were found for the period between 1963 and 2012. Of these studies, 289 (41%) were conducted in Brazil, 153 in Mexico (22%), 61 in Peru (9%), 58 in Argentina (8%), 45 in Bolivia (6%), and 97 (14%) in other Latin American countries. The increased number of publications related to this area of knowledge in recent years demonstrates the remarkable growth of ethnobiology as a science. Ethnobiological research may be stimulated by an increase in the number of scientific events and journals for study dissemination and by the creation of undergraduate courses and graduate programs to train ethnoscientists who will produce high-quality studies, especially in certain countries. PMID:24131758

  7. Bibliometric analysis of regional Latin America's scientific output in Public Health through SCImago Journal & Country Rank

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In the greater framework of the essential functions of Public Health, our focus is on a systematic, objective, external evaluation of Latin American scientific output, to compare its publications in the area of Public Health with those of other major geographic zones. We aim to describe the regional distribution of output in Public Health, and the level of visibility and specialization, for Latin America; it can then be characterized and compared in the international context. Methods The primary source of information was the Scopus database, using the category “Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health”, in the period 1996–2011. Data were obtained through the portal of SCImago Journal and Country Rank. Using a set of qualitative (citation-based), quantitative (document recount) and collaborative (authors from more than one country) indicators, we derived complementary data. The methodology serves as an analytical tool for researchers and scientific policy-makers. Results The contribution of Latin America to the arsenal of world science lies more or less midway on the international scale in terms of its output and visibility. Revealed as its greatest strengths are the high level of specialization in Public Health and the sustained growth of output. The main limitations identified were a relative decrease in collaboration and low visibility. Conclusions Collaboration is a key factor behind the development of scientific activity in Latin America. Although this finding can be useful for formulating research policy in Latin American countries, it also underlines the need for further research into patterns of scientific communication in this region, to arrive at more specific recommendations. PMID:24950735

  8. The American Library Association in Latin America: American Librarianship as a "Modern" Model during the Good Neighbor Policy Era.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maymi-Sugranes, Hector J.

    2002-01-01

    Through American Library Association (ALA) projects in Latin America, American librarianship progressed from conceptualization to implementation as the model in modernizing Latin American library practices and societies. Development of library practices was fundamental to pursuit of a "modern" society. In fighting fascist propaganda, the United…

  9. Making the Past Relevant to Future Generations. The Work of the Anne Frank House in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chyrikins, Mariela; Vieyra, Magdalena

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides the context and outlines the barriers and opportunities for developing promising Holocaust education programmes in Latin America, especially working with diverse communities and societies. In particular, the conflictual history of Latin American and recent democratization processes present opportunities for educational work. It…

  10. Anaphylaxis in Latin America: a report of the online Latin American survey on anaphylaxis (OLASA)

    PubMed Central

    Solé, Dirceu; Ivancevich, Juan Carlos; Borges, Mario Sánchez; Coelho, Magna Adaci; Rosário, Nelson A; Ardusso, Ledit Ramón Francisco; Bernd, Luis Antônio Guerra

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aims of the Online Latin American Survey of Anaphylaxis (OLASA) were to identify the main clinical manifestations, triggers, and treatments of severe allergic reactions in patients who were seen by allergists from July 2008 to June 2010 in 15 Latin American countries and Portugal (n = 634). RESULTS: Of all patients, 68.5% were older than 18 years, 41.6% were male, and 65.4% experienced the allergic reaction at home. The etiologic agent was identified in 87.4% of cases and predominantly consisted of drugs (31.2%), foods (23.3%), and insect stings (14.9%). The main symptom categories observed during the acute episodes were cutaneous (94.0%) and respiratory (79.0%). The majority of patients (71.6%) were treated initially by a physician (office/emergency room) within the first hour after the reaction occurred (60.2%), and 43.5% recovered in the first hour after treatment. Most patients were treated in an emergency setting, but only 37.3% received parenteral epinephrine alone or associated with other medication. However, 80.5% and 70.2% were treated with corticosteroids or antihistamines (alone or in association), respectively. A total of 12.9% of the patients underwent reanimation maneuvers, and 15.2% were hospitalized. Only 5.8% of the patients returned to the emergency room after discharge, with 21.7% returning in the first 6 hours after initial treatment. CONCLUSION: The main clinical manifestations of severe allergic reactions were cutaneous. The etiologic agents that were identified as causing these acute episodes differed according to age group. Following in order: drugs (31.2%), foods (23.3% and insect stings (14.9%) in adults with foods predominance in children. Treatment provided for acute anaphylactic reactions was not appropriate. It is necessary to improve educational programs in order to enhance the knowledge on this potentially fatal emergency. PMID:21808856

  11. Ethical challenges in transplant practice in Latin America: the Aguascalientes Document.

    PubMed

    Baquero, A; Alberú, J

    2011-01-01

    Organ transplants are currently an alternative treatment for a growing number of diseases, which were previously considered terminal. Bioethics has played an important role since the advent of this surgical technique, mainly in defining death criteria and the optimum transplantation conditions. This issue continues being a universal focal point, mainly concerning the equity of access to transplantation, criteria for assigning deceased-donor organs, living-donor safety, risk of commercial trade, fair access to high-quality immunosuppressive drugs and organ transplant legislation. These problems are characteristic of Latin America and the Caribbean, and were the driving force behind the First Latin American Bioethics and Transplant Forum, sponsored by the Latin American and Caribbean Transplant Society (STALYC), and all the transplant societies from subsidiary countries. The "Document of Aguascalientes" is a collection of all the ideas and opinions that were proposed during round tables and analyses. The document is divided into four sections: 1) living donor; 2) organ trading and transplant tourism; 3) the state role in legislation, transplant distribution and coverage; and 4) access to and quality of immunosuppression. The Bioethics and Transplant Forum was created to analyse and find solutions for this complex issue. The "Document of Aguascalientes" aims to serve as an instrument of expression and a vehicle for the ideas put forward during the Forum, so that they can act as transplant practice guidelines in Latin America. PMID:21464832

  12. Indigenous Women of Latin America: Unintended Pregnancy, Unsafe Abortion, and Reproductive Health Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Wurtz, Heather

    2013-01-01

    Indigenous women in Latin America have poorer reproductive health outcomes than the general population and face considerable barriers in accessing adequate health services. Indigenous women have high rates of adolescent fertility and unintended pregnancy and may face increased risks for morbidity and mortality related to unsafe abortion. However, research among this population, particularly focusing on social and cultural implications of unwanted pregnancy and unsafe abortion, is significantly limited. This article reviews the literature on unsafe abortion in Latin America and describes successful interventions to ameliorate reproductive health outcomes within Indigenous communities. It also explores important implications for future research. Shedding light on the circumstances, perspectives, and lived realities of Indigenous women of childbearing age, could encourage further qualitative investigation and mitigate negative outcomes through improved understanding of the topic, targeted culturally appropriate interventions, and recommendations for future policy and programming reformations. PMID:23772229

  13. Report on the First PANLAR Rheumatology Review Course Rheumatoid Arthritis: Challenges and Solutions in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Pineda, Carlos; Caballero-Uribe, Carlo V; Gutiérrez, Marwin; Cazenave, Tomás; Cardiel, Mario H; Levy, Roger; Espada, Graciela; Rose, Carlos; Santos-Moreno, Pedro; Pons-Estel, Bernardo A; Muñoz-Louis, Roberto; Soriano, Enrique R; Reveille, John D

    2015-12-01

    The First PANLAR Rheumatology Review Course was held in Barranquilla, Colombia, in April 2015. Researchers, rheumatologists, epidemiologists, and a variety of allied professionals and patients attended the meeting. The scientific program included plenary sessions and symposia delivered by renowned experts in the field, followed by an interactive forum of discussion during 2 days.A broad spectrum of topics was discussed, reflecting the current challenges and opportunities for diagnosis and treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in Latin America. The scientific program included not only traditional disease aspects, but also social implications, research projects, and educational characteristics, patient perspectives, and novel care models, emphasizing the need for training human resources and proposing unique approaches to RA health care in Latin America, therefore helping us to increase and improve the knowledge and understanding of the characteristics of this health condition in the region, thus promoting and encouraging equity, quality, and efficiency of RA health care. PMID:26513305

  14. [Zika virus outbreak in Latin America: what are the challenges for French Guiana in April 2016?].

    PubMed

    Epelboin, L; Douine, M; Carles, G; Villemant, N; Nacher, M; Rousset, D; Djossou, F; Mosnier, E

    2016-05-01

    Started in 2015 in Brazil, an outbreak linked to a little known arbovirus, Zika virus spread throughout Latin America. This virus, considered until recently as responsible of only mild symptoms, made mention of previously unsuspected complications, with severe neurological manifestations in adults and malformations of the central nervous system, including microcephaly, in newborns of mother infected during the pregnancy. While the continent is more accustomed to the succession of arbovirus epidemics, suspected complications and the many unknowns keys of the latter arriving raise many public health issues. French Guiana, a French territory located in the north-east of the continent, combines both European level of resources and climate and issues specific to the Amazon region and Latin America. We discuss here the issues for 2016 Zika virus epidemic in our region, many of them are generalizable to neighboring countries. PMID:27167975

  15. Variability of geographically distinct isolates of maize rayado fino virus in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Hammond, R W; Kogel, R; Ramirez, P

    1997-12-01

    We have examined the molecular epidemiology of the leafhopper-borne maize rayado fino virus (MRFV) in Latin America. The coat protein gene and 3' non-translated region of 14 isolates of MRFV collected from Latin America and the United States were sequenced and phylogenetic relationships examined. The nucleotide sequence revealed remarkable conservation, with a sequence similarity of 88-99%. Phylogenetic analysis of sequence data obtained from a 633 bp fragment showed that MRFV has diverged into three main clusters, i.e. the geographically distinct northern and southern isolates and the Colombian isolates. Significant differences between the isolates collected from Colombia, previously named maize rayado colombiana virus, based upon differences in symptomatology and serological relationships to MRFV, and the other MRFV isolates, provides additional evidence supporting its designation as a unique strain of MRFV. PMID:9400964

  16. Abortion in Latin America: changes in practice, growing conflict, and recent policy developments.

    PubMed

    Kulczycki, Andrzej

    2011-09-01

    Latin America is undergoing profound social, economic, political, demographic, and epidemiologic change. Reproductive health indicators have generally improved over the past two decades, but most pregnancies are still unintended and more than 4 million are terminated annually. Clandestine abortions necessitated by restrictive legal and social structures cause more than 1,000 deaths and 500,000 hospitalizations per year, primarily among poor and marginalized women. Abortions are becoming safer and less frequent, however, as a consequence of increased modern contraceptive use, misoprostol adoption, emergency contraception availability, and postabortion care provision, notwithstanding many impediments to these changes. Advocacy and conflict over abortion have grown. The contested policy shifts include Mexico City's 2007 legalization of first-trimester abortion. Drawing on numerous sources of evidence, this article provides a regional analysis of the rapidly changing practice and context of abortion in Latin America, and examines emerging issues, legal and policy developments, and contrasting country situations. PMID:21972673

  17. [Decriminalization of abortion: a common purpose in Latin America].

    PubMed

    1993-12-01

    In the conviction that abortion is a fundamental right of women and that its illegal practice constitutes a serious threat to life, several Latin American women's groups have united to work for decriminalization. The groups have been attempting to increase public awareness of the consequences of illegal abortion. Official silence on the topic appears to deny the existence of a problem. Proposals in the different Latin American countries are adapted to their political and legal circumstances. In Argentina, a campaign has been underway for nearly two years to collect signatures for a petition for a law concerning contraception and abortion. The National Network for Women's Health and other groups have held regional and national workshops on the issue. In Bolivia, radio and television programs have been broadcast in Spanish and indigenous languages on the right to choose, reproductive health, and sex education. Abortion was debated in Brazil during the process of constitutional reform, but it remains illegal. Illegal abortion continues to be a reality and women's groups are lobbying for decriminalization. Abortion is considered a crime in Colombia's penal code. Attempts to legalize abortion have been rejected by the legislature without debate. The practice of abortion under the circumstances has become a lucrative business whose lack of regulation has resulted in a growing number of maternal deaths. Attempts are underway in Costa Rica to legalize abortion in cases of rape or incest. Studies show that illegal abortion is the third most important cause of maternal death. A bill to legalize abortion is under study in Chile's Parliament but has not been approved. Abortion is illegal but common in Ecuador. Efforts are underway in Mexico and Nicaragua to encourage debate on abortion. Peru's Health Commission was recently prevented from classifying abortion for any reason other than grave congenital anomaly as homicide. Abortion has been legal in Puerto Rico since 1974, but

  18. Opportunities for Small Geothermal Projects: Rural Power for Latin America, the Caribbean, and the Philippines

    SciTech Connect

    Vimmerstedt, L.

    1998-11-30

    The objective of this report is to provide information on small geothermal project (less than 5 MW) opportunities in Latin America, the Caribbean, and the Philippines. This overview of issues facing small geothermal projects is intended especially for those who are not already familiar with small geothermal opportunities. This is a summary of issues and opportunities and serves as a starting point in determining next steps to develop this market.

  19. A Review of Breast Cancer Care and Outcomes in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Wilking, Nils; Jönsson, Bengt; Luciani, Silvana; Cazap, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    This review presents an overview of breast cancer care, burden, and outcomes in Latin America, as well as the challenges and opportunities for improvement. Information was gleaned through a review of the literature, public databases, and conference presentations, in addition to a survey of clinical experts and patient organizations from the region. Breast cancer annual incidence (114,900 cases) and mortality (37,000 deaths) are the highest of all women's cancers in Latin America, and they are increasing. Twice as many breast cancer deaths are expected by 2030. In Peru, Mexico, Colombia, and Brazil, diagnosis and death at younger ages deprives society of numerous productive years, as does high disease occurrence in Argentina and Uruguay. Approximately 30%–40% of diagnoses are metastatic disease. High mortality-to-incidence ratios (MIRs) in Latin America indicate poor survival, partly because of the late stage at diagnosis and poorer access to treatment. Between 2002 and 2008, MIRs decreased in all countries, albeit unevenly. Costa Rica's change in MIR outpaced incidence growth, indicating impressive progress in breast cancer survival. The situation is similar, although to a lesser extent, in Colombia and Ecuador. The marginal drops of MIRs in Brazil and Mexico mainly reflect incidence growth rather than progress in outcomes. Panama's MIR is still high. Epidemiological data are scattered and of varying quality in Latin America. However, one could ascertain that the burden of breast cancer in the region is considerable and growing due to demographic changes, particularly the aging population, and socioeconomic development. Early diagnosis and population-wide access to evidence-based treatment remain unresolved problems, despite progress achieved by some countries. PMID:23442305

  20. Cropland/pastureland dynamics and the slowdown of deforestation in Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graesser, Jordan; Aide, T. Mitchell; Grau, H. Ricardo; Ramankutty, Navin

    2015-03-01

    Latin America has the planet’s largest land reserves for agriculture and had the most rapid agricultural expansion during the twenty-first century. A large portion of the expansion replaced forests, as shown by many local and regional studies. However, expansion varied regionally and also replaced other land covers. Further, it is important to distinguish between changes in cropland and pastureland as they produce food at different levels of efficiency and intensity. We used thirteen years (2001-2013) of MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer satellite imagery to characterize cropland and pastureland expansion at multiple scales across Latin America. From 2001 to 2013, 17% of new cropland and 57% of new pastureland replaced forests throughout Latin America. Cropland expansion from 2001 to 2013 was less (44.27 Mha) than pastureland (96.9 Mha), but 44% of the 2013 cropland total was new cropland, versus 27% of the 2013 pastureland total, revealing higher regional expansion rates of row crop agriculture. The majority of cropland expansion was into pastureland within core agricultural regions of Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay, and Uruguay. On the contrary, pastureland largely expanded at frontiers, such as central Brazil, western Paraguay, and northern Guatemala. As others have suggested, regional agriculture is strongly influenced by globalization. Indeed, we find an overall decrease in agricultural expansion after 2007, coinciding with the global economic slowdown. The results illustrate agricultural cropland and pastureland expansion across Latin America is largely segregated, and emphasize the importance of distinguishing between the two agricultural systems, as they vary in land use intensity and efficiency.

  1. Some thoughts about the IAU Strategic Plan in Latin America and the Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Peimbert, Silvia

    2015-03-01

    The distribution of overall education and culture among the population in Latin America and the Caribbean has a very wide range; this is also the case for astronomical engagement. The route to follow in the strategic plan needs to address this situation, for the different levels of development. In particular, guidelines should be established for the regional node(s) where achievable goals should be set up and evaluated periodically. I present a set of ideas on this subject.

  2. The role of the Organization of American States in the development of seismology in Latin America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quesada, A.

    1982-01-01

    Seismological studies in Latin America were initiated at the beginning of the 20th century, when the first seismological stations were deployed by certain scientific associations. These efforts provided an incentive to the professional community for further activites. Until this date, the only seismic records that existed were historical accounts of catastrophes caused by earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. This type of information of course, leads to "fantasy" and incorrect descriptions of what has taken place. 

  3. Ultrasonography in pediatric rheumatology in Latin America. Expanding the frontiers.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Díaz, Cristina; Ventura-Ríos, Lucio; Gutiérrez, Marwin; Roth, Johannes

    2016-04-01

    For the past two decades, musculoskeletal ultrasonography (MSKUS) has developed exponentially and has become an essential tool in rheumatology practice. This development has been far more limited in pediatric rheumatology which is partially related to deficits in the evidence base. Many studies have shown that MSKUS is more sensitive than the clinical examination for detecting synovitis and enthesitis in adults. At the same time, there is a lack of studies demonstrating its validity, reliability, and reproducibility in pediatric rheumatology. In addition, clear definitions for the normal pediatric joint and enthesis as well as various findings in pathology associated with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and juvenile spondyloarthritis (JSpA) have only started to emerge. Most of this work is being done through the Outcome Measurement in Rheumatology Clinical Trials (OMERACT) ultrasound pediatric task force but the Pan American League of Associations for Rheumatology (PANLAR) US Pediatric Task Force is also working on validating MSKUS in children. In addition, several MSKUS courses for pediatric rheumatologists have been offered in Latin American countries; these will not only complement the scientific work pediatric-specific ultrasonography training, but also represents an essential component for the successful implementation of this technique into daily practice as well. PMID:26971255

  4. [The political context for community participation in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Briceño-León, R

    1998-01-01

    This article reviews the overall significance of the concept of community participation in health with respect to endemic diseases. It also observes how changes in Latin American society during the past forty years have forced radical changes in the notion of participation. The article describes changes in society and analyzes participation in the Cold War context, with four modalities of participation: as ideological manipulation, as cheap labor, as medical care facilitation, and as subversion. It then reviews participation in the context of the crisis of ideologies and describes two modalities: participation as a grassroots movement and as popular promotion. Finally, it interprets the forms participation takes in the context of economic adjustment programs, and from there it describes participation as both a complement to the State and a form of privatization. The article concludes with a proposal for participation as a mechanism to expand and extend democracy; in this sense, it highlights participation as a means of criticism of power, a fomenter of democratic organization, and a mechanism of transformation for the health sector. PMID:9700233

  5. Institutions and national development in Latin America: a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Portes, Alejandro; Smith, Lori D.

    2013-01-01

    We review the theoretical and empirical literatures on the role of institutions on national development as a prelude to present a more rigorous and measurable definition of the concept and a methodology to study this relationship at the national and subnational levels. The existing research literature features conflicting definitions of the concept of “institutions” and empirical tests based mostly on reputational indices, with countries as units of analysis. The present study’s methodology is based on a set of five strategic organizations studied comparatively in five Latin American countries. These include key federal agencies, public administrative organizations, and stock exchanges. Systematic analysis of results show a pattern of differences between economically-oriented institutions and those entrusted with providing basic services to the general population. Consistent differences in institutional quality also emerge across countries, despite similar levels of economic development. Using the algebraic methods developed by Ragin, we test six hypotheses about factors determining the developmental character of particular institutions. Implications of results for theory and for methodological practices of future studies in this field are discussed. PMID:26543407

  6. International Migration and Gender in Latin America: A Comparative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Massey, Douglas S.; Fischer, Mary J.; Capoferro, Chiara

    2010-01-01

    We review census data to assess the standing of five Latin American nations on a gender continuum ranging from patriarchal to matrifocal. We show that Mexico and Costa Rica lie close to one another with a highly patriarchal system of gender relations whereas Nicaragua and the Dominican Republic are similar in having a matrifocal system. Puerto Rico occupies a middle position, blending characteristics of both systems. These differences yield different patterns of female relative to male migration. Female householders in the two patriarchal settings displayed low rates of out-migration compared with males, whereas in the two matrifocal countries the ratio of female to male migration was much higher, in some case exceeding their male counterparts. Multivariate analyses showed that in patriarchal societies, a formal or informal union with a male dramatically lowers the odds of female out-migration, whereas in matrifocal societies marriage and cohabitation have no real effect. The most important determinants of female migration from patriarchal settings are the migrant status of the husband or partner, having relatives in the United States, and the possession of legal documents. In matrifocal settings, however, female migration is less related to the possession of documents, partner’s migrant status, or having relatives in the United States and more strongly related to the woman’s own migratory experience. Whereas the process of cumulative causation appears to be driven largely by men in patriarchal societies, it is women who dominate the process in matrifocal settings. PMID:21399742

  7. Voluntary reduction of trans-fatty acids in Latin America and the Caribbean: current situation.

    PubMed

    Monge-Rojas, Rafael; Colón-Ramos, Uriyoán; Jacoby, Enrique; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2011-02-01

    As part of the Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization Trans-Fat-Free Americas initiative, 12 representatives from food industries in Latin America and the Caribbean signed a declaration stating their intention to voluntarily eliminate industrially produced trans-fatty acids (TFA) from the Americas. A year later, in order to document the extent of the voluntary reduction, each declarant was asked to describe all reformulations and reductions in the TFA content of their products. After up to six requests for data, only three declarants provided such information in detail, and three others offered an overall summary of their reformulations. Additionally, three declarants reported the barriers that limit this process: availability of oil substitutes, cost, and consumers' sensory acceptance. The content of TFA and saturated fat in the food supply in the Americas should be regulated and strictly monitored in order to adequately evaluate a reduction of TFA in the region. PMID:21437370

  8. West Nile Virus and its Theories, a Big Puzzle in Mexico and Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Elizondo-Quiroga, Darwin; Elizondo-Quiroga, Armando

    2013-01-01

    It has been 13 years since the first outbreak of West Nile Virus (WNV) occurred in the Americas. Since then, thousands of human cases have been reported in the United States. In contrast, there has not yet been an outbreak of WNV in any Latin American countries, including Mexico where <20 cases have been reported. We aimed to review publications to gather the main theories related to the fact that not all the countries of the continent reported human cases or that they have reported few cases since the introduction of WNV in the Western Hemisphere. We identified relevant publications using the PubMed database. Furthermore, we present on-line published information from Mexico. We found that researchers have tried to explain this phenomenon using several theories, like pre-existing antibodies against a heterotypical virus that have conferred cross protection in the population. Another explanation is that the strains circulating in Latin America are attenuated or that they came from a different origin of introduction in the continent. Another theory is that a conclusive diagnostic in regions where more than one Flavivirus is circulating results in cross-reaction in serological tests. Probably the sum of factors described by researchers in these theories in order to explain the behavior of the virus has resulted in the low number of reported cases in Latin America. PMID:24672180

  9. Interdisciplinary collaboration in gerontology and geriatrics in Latin America: conceptual approaches and health care teams.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Fernando; Curcio, Carmen Lucia

    2013-01-01

    The underlying rationale to support interdisciplinary collaboration in geriatrics and gerontology is based on the complexity of elderly care. The most important characteristic about interdisciplinary health care teams for older people in Latin America is their subjective-basis framework. In other regions, teams are organized according to a theoretical knowledge basis with well-justified priorities, functions, and long-term goals, in Latin America teams are arranged according to subjective interests on solving their problems. Three distinct approaches of interdisciplinary collaboration in gerontology are proposed. The first approach is grounded in the scientific rationalism of European origin. Denominated "logical-rational approach," its core is to identify the significance of knowledge. The second approach is grounded in pragmatism and is more associated with a North American tradition. The core of this approach consists in enhancing the skills and competences of each participant; denominated "logical-instrumental approach." The third approach denominated "logical-subjective approach" has a Latin America origin. Its core consists in taking into account the internal and emotional dimensions of the team. These conceptual frameworks based in geographical contexts will permit establishing the differences and shared characteristics of interdisciplinary collaboration in geriatrics and gerontology to look for operational answers to solve the "complex problems" of older adults. PMID:23384004

  10. “Accommodating” smoke‐free policies: tobacco industry's Courtesy of Choice programme in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Sebrié, Ernesto M; Glantz, Stanton A

    2007-01-01

    Objective To understand the implementation and effects of the Courtesy of Choice programme designed to “accommodate” smokers as an alternative to smoke‐free polices developed by Philip Morris International (PMI) and supported by RJ Reynolds (RJR) and British American Tobacco (BAT) since the mid‐1990s in Latin America. Methods Analysis of internal tobacco industry documents, BAT “social reports”, news reports and tobacco control legislation. Results Since the mid‐1990s, PMI, BAT and RJR promoted Accommodation Programs to maintain the social acceptability of smoking. As in other parts of the world, multinational tobacco companies partnered with third party allies from the hospitality industry in Latin America. The campaign was extended from the hospitality industry (bars, restaurants and hotels) to other venues such as workplaces and airport lounges. A local public relations agency, as well as a network of engineers and other experts in ventilation systems, was hired to promote the tobacco industry's programme. The most important outcome of these campaigns in several countries was the prevention of meaningful smoke‐free policies, both in public places and in workplaces. Conclusions Courtesy of Choice remains an effective public relations campaign to undermine smoke‐free policies in Latin America. The tobacco companies' accommodation campaign undermines the implementation of measures to protect people from second‐hand smoke called for by the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, perpetuating the exposure to tobacco smoke in indoor enclosed environments. PMID:17897975

  11. Getting REDD-y: conservation and climate change in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Hall, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Deforestation in Latin America, especially in the Amazon basin, is a major source of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide that contribute to global warming. Protected areas play a vital role in minimizing forest loss and in supplying key environmental services, including carbon sequestration and rainfall regulation, which mitigate the adverse impacts of climate change amid a rising tide of economic development in the region. The area of protected forest has expanded rapidly since 1980 to cover one-fifth of Latin America and more than two-fifths of Amazonia, a region whose rain forest captures some 40 percent of Latin America's carbon emissions. The reserve sector has traditionally suffered from severe underfunding, but the possibility of new resources being generated through financial compensation for "reduced emissions from deforestation and forest degradation" (REDD) or "avoided deforestation" under a new Kyoto protocol after 2012 could help strengthen the environmental and social roles of protected areas. However, a number of major implementation and governance challenges will need to be addressed. PMID:22180932

  12. Re-bordering comparative education in Latin America: Between global limits and local characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acosta, Felicitas; Perez Centeno, Cristian G.

    2011-08-01

    Conceived for presentation at the XIV WCCES conference in Istanbul in 2010, the topic of which was "Bordering Comparative Education", this paper, within that framework, aims to present the current state of the discipline in Latin America in relation to a quick overview of its present-day situation at a global level. After providing an overview of the current debates on comparative education, with special emphasis on what the authors refer to as motor nuclei (a series of milestones or episodes which have become transdiscursive as the discipline has evolved), as well as pinpointing current challenges in the field, this paper looks into the development of the discipline in Latin America and how it has contributed to the understanding of the region's educational systems. The paper also examines the unique relationship between comparative studies and the field of educational planning in Latin America. The authors then go on to provide a thematic analysis, categorising the papers presented at three conferences held by the Sociedad Argentina de Estudios Comparados en Educación (SAECE, the Argentine Society for Comparative Education Studies) in 2005, 2007 and 2009. The paper closes with several conclusions regarding the current debate on the discipline in the region and its possibilities for the future.

  13. Regional integration and south-south cooperation in health in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Carrillo Roa, Alejandra; Santana, José Paranaguá de

    2012-11-01

    This paper analyzes whether south-south cooperation is legitimately a recent practice or merely an improved version of previous regional integration processes in Latin America and the Caribbean. The authors reviewed and systematized the historic development of subregional integration processes in Latin America and the Caribbean and focused on health cooperation in the following contexts: the Central American Integration System, the Andean Community of Nations, the Caribbean Community, the Amazon Cooperation Treaty Organization, the Southern Common Market, and the Union of South American Nations. The study concludes that the conceptual and methodologic foundations of south-south cooperation in health were born from and nurtured by the processes of regional integration in Latin America and the Caribbean. This paper posits that regional political and economic integration initiatives bring potential benefits to the health sector and act as an important mechanism to develop south-south cooperation in this domain. The study recommends furthering this type of research to provide information that will allow national and multilateral agencies, or other stakeholders, to formulate and implement better policies for international health cooperation that target reducing inequities and promoting health and well-being for all people. PMID:23338694

  14. Characterization of individuals at high risk of developing melanoma in Latin America: bases for genetic counseling in melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Puig, Susana; Potrony, Miriam; Cuellar, Francisco; Puig-Butille, Joan Anton; Carrera, Cristina; Aguilera, Paula; Nagore, Eduardo; Garcia-Casado, Zaida; Requena, Celia; Kumar, Rajiv; Landman, Gilles; Costa Soares de Sá, Bianca; Gargantini Rezze, Gisele; Facure, Luciana; de Avila, Alexandre Leon Ribeiro; Achatz, Maria Isabel; Carraro, Dirce Maria; Duprat Neto, João Pedreira; Grazziotin, Thais C.; Bonamigo, Renan R.; Rey, Maria Carolina W.; Balestrini, Claudia; Morales, Enrique; Molgo, Montserrat; Bakos, Renato Marchiori; Ashton-Prolla, Patricia; Giugliani, Roberto; Larre Borges, Alejandra; Barquet, Virginia; Pérez, Javiera; Martínez, Miguel; Cabo, Horacio; Cohen Sabban, Emilia; Latorre, Clara; Carlos-Ortega, Blanca; Salas-Alanis, Julio C; Gonzalez, Roger; Olazaran, Zulema; Malvehy, Josep; Badenas, Celia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: CDKN2A is the main high-risk melanoma-susceptibility gene, but it has been poorly assessed in Latin America. We sought to analyze CDKN2A and MC1R in patients from Latin America with familial and sporadic multiple primary melanoma (SMP) and compare the data with those for patients from Spain to establish bases for melanoma genetic counseling in Latin America. Genet Med 18 7, 727–736. Methods: CDKN2A and MC1R were sequenced in 186 Latin American patients from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico, and Uruguay, and in 904 Spanish patients. Clinical and phenotypic data were obtained. Genet Med 18 7, 727–736. Results: Overall, 24 and 14% of melanoma-prone families in Latin America and Spain, respectively, had mutations in CDKN2A. Latin American families had CDKN2A mutations more frequently (P = 0.014) than Spanish ones. Of patients with SMP, 10% of those from Latin America and 8.5% of those from Spain had mutations in CDKN2A (P = 0.623). The most recurrent CDKN2A mutations were c.-34G>T and p.G101W. Latin American patients had fairer hair (P = 0.016) and skin (P < 0.001) and a higher prevalence of MC1R variants (P = 0.003) compared with Spanish patients. Genet Med 18 7, 727–736. Conclusion: The inclusion criteria for genetic counseling of melanoma in Latin America may be the same criteria used in Spain, as suggested in areas with low to medium incidence, SMP with at least two melanomas, or families with at least two cases among first- or second-degree relatives. Genet Med 18 7, 727–736. PMID:26681309

  15. Psychiatrists’ approach to vascular risk assessment in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Richly, Pablo; López, Pablo; Gleichgerrcht, Ezequiel; Flichtentrei, Daniel; Prats, María; Mastandueno, Ricardo; Bustin, Julián; Cetkovich-Bakmas, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To explore the way in which Latin American psychiatrists approach the screening of vascular risk factors in patients receiving antipsychotic medication. METHODS: This was a descriptive, cross sectional study that surveyed Latin-American physicians to evaluate differences between groups divided in three main sections. The first section included demographic and professional data. The second section asked about the available medical resources: weighing scales, sphygmomanometer and measuring tape. Finally, the third section aimed at looking into the attitudes towards cardiovascular prevention. The latter was also divided into two subsections. In the first one, the questions were about weight, blood pressure and waist perimeter. In the second subsection the questions asked about the proportion of patients: (1) that suffered from overweight and/or obesity; (2) whose lipids and glycemia were controlled by the physician; (3) that were questioned by, and received information from the physician about smoking; and (4) that received recommendations from the physician to engage in regular physical activity. The participants were physicians, users of the medical website Intramed. The visitors were recruited by a banner that invited them to voluntarily access an online self-reported structured questionnaire with multiple options. RESULTS: We surveyed 1185 general physicians and 792 psychiatrists. Regarding basic medical resources, a significantly higher proportion of general physicians claimed to have weighing scales (χ2 = 404.9; P < 0.001), sphygmomanometers (χ2 = 419.3; P < 0.001), and measuring tapes (χ2 = 336.5; P < 0.001). While general physicians measured overweight and metabolic indexes in the general population in a higher proportion than in patients treated with antipsychotics (Z = -11.91; P < 0.001), psychiatrists claimed to measure them in patients medicated with antipsychotics in a higher proportion than in the general population (Z = -3.26; P < 0.001). Also

  16. Assisted reproductive techniques in Latin America: The Latin American Registry, 2013.

    PubMed

    Zegers-Hochschild, Fernando; Schwarze, Juan Enrique; Crosby, Javier A; Musri, Carolina; Urbina, Maria Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Multinational data on assisted reproduction techniques undertaken in 2013 were collected from 158 institutions in 15 Latin American countries. Individualized cycle-based data included 57,456 initiated cycles. Treatments included autologous IVF and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), frozen embryo transfers, oocyte donations. In autologous reproduction, 29.22% of women were younger than 35 years, 40.1% were 35-39 years and 30.6% were 40 years or older. Overall delivery rate per oocyte retrieval was 20.6% for ICSI and 25.4% for IVF. Multiple births included 20.7% for twins and 1.1% for triplets and over. In oocyte donations, twins reached 30% and triplets 1.4%. In singletons, pre-term births were 7.5%: 36.58% in twins and 65.52% in triplets. The relative risk for prematurity was 4.9 (95% CI 4.5 to 5.3) in twins and 8.7 (95% CI 7.6 to 10.0) in triplets and above. Perinatal mortality was 29.4 per 1000 in singletons, 39.9 per 1000 in twins and 71.6 per 1000 in high order multiples. Elective single embryo transfer represented only 2% of cycles, with delivery rate of 39.1% in women aged 34 years or less. Given the effect of multiple births and prematurity, it is mandatory to reduce the number of embryos transferred in the region. PMID:27244761

  17. Assisted reproductive techniques in Latin America: the Latin American Registry, 2013.

    PubMed

    Zegers-Hochschild, Fernando; Schwarze, Juan Enrique; Crosby, Javier A; Musri, Carolina; Urbina, Maria Teresa

    2016-06-01

    Multinational data on assisted reproduction techniques undertaken in 2013 were collected from 158 institutions in 15 Latin American countries. Individualized cycle-based data included 57,456 initiated cycles. Treatments included autologous IVF and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), frozen embryo transfers, oocyte donations. In autologous reproduction, 29.22% of women were younger than 35 years, 40.1% were 35-39 years and 30.6% were 40 years or older. Overall delivery rate per oocyte retrieval was 20.6% for ICSI and 25.4% for IVF. Multiple births included 20.7% for twins and 1.1% for triplets and over. In oocyte donations, twins reached 30% and triplets 1.4%. In singletons, pre-term births were 7.5%: 36.58% in twins and 65.52% in triplets. The relative risk for prematurity was 4.9 (95% CI 4.5 to 5.3) in twins and 8.7 (95% CI 7.6 to 10.0) in triplets and above. Perinatal mortality was 29.4 per 1000 in singletons, 39.9 per 1000 in twins and 71.6 per 1000 in high order multiples. Elective single embryo transfer represented only 2% of cycles, with delivery rate of 39.1% in women aged 34 years or less. Given the effect of multiple births and prematurity, it is mandatory to reduce the number of embryos transferred in the region. PMID:26997476

  18. Malaria in selected non-Amazonian countries of Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Arevalo-Herrera, Myriam; Quiñones, Martha Lucia; Guerra, Carlos; Céspedes, Nora; Giron, Sandra; Ahumada, Martha; Piñeros, Juan Gabriel; Padilla, Norma; Terrientes, Zilka; Rosas, Ángel; Padilla, Julio Cesar; Escalante, Ananias A.; Beier, John C.; Herrera, Socrates

    2011-01-01

    Approximately 170 million inhabitants of the American continent live at risk of malaria transmission. Although the continent’s contribution to the global malaria burden is small, at least 1 to 1.2 million malaria cases are reported annually. Sixty per cent of the malaria cases occur in Brazil and the other 40% are distributed in 20 other countries of Central and South America. Plasmodium vivax is the predominant species (74.2 %) followed by P. falciparum (25.7 %) and P. malariae (0.1%), and no less than 10 Anopheles species have been identified as primary or secondary malaria vectors. Rapid deforestation and agricultural practices are directly related to increases in Anopheles species diversity and abundance, as well as in the number of malaria cases. Additionally, climate changes profoundly affect malaria transmission and are responsible for malaria epidemics in some regions of South America. Parasite drug resistance is increasing, but due to bio-geographic barriers there is extraordinary genetic differentiation of parasites with limited dispersion. Although the clinical spectrum ranges from uncomplicated to severe malaria cases, due to the generally low to middle transmission intensity, features such as severe anemia, cerebral malaria and other complications appear to be less frequent than in other endemic regions and asymptomatic infections are a common feature. Although the National Malaria Control Programs (NMCP) of different countries differ in their control activities these are all directed to reduce morbidity and mortality by using strategies like health promotion, vector control and impregnate bed nets among others. Recently, international initiatives such as the Malaria Control Program in Andean-country Border Regions (PAMAFRO) (implemented by the Andean Organism for Health (ORAS) and sponsored by The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM)) and The Amazon Network for the Surveillance of Antimalarial Drug Resistance (RAVREDA

  19. [The population of Latin America: population dynamics from 1990 to 2050].

    PubMed

    Chackiel, J

    1992-01-01

    Past population projections have proven deficient in predicting demographic changes and their intensity. Projections did not envision a decline of nearly 40% in Latin American fertility in two decades. The projections in this work are cautious and based primarily on past trends and the expected continuation of a process leading eventually to replacement level fertility. The economic crisis of the 1980s has generated pessimism regarding the continuation of fertility declines based on economic progress. For the projection, the Latin American countries were classified into four stages of demographic transition. Most Latin American countries, including the three most populated, were considered to be in the third stage, characterized by fertility and mortality in full transition. A table of demographic indicators contains projections for the years 2010, 2025, and 2050 for all of Latin America and for Bolivia, Guatemala, Mexico, Brazil, and Argentina, which are considered to represent the four stages of transition. Latin America as a whole in 1990 had a population of 430,182,000, with a total fertility rate of 3.1, life expectancy at birth of 69 years, and natural increase rate of 2.1%. 36% of the population was under 15 years old. In 2010, 2025, and 2050, respectively, the population is projected to increase to 587 million, 686 million, and 785 million; the total fertility rate to decline to 2.3, 2.1, and 2.1; life expectancy at birth to increase to 72 years, 74 years, and 74 years, and the natural increase rate to decline to 1.2, 0.8, and 0.3%. The proportion of the population under 15 will decline to 28% in 2010, 24% in 2025, and 21% in 2050. PMID:12158077

  20. [Trends of and prospects for sustainable development in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Rattner, H

    1992-01-01

    integration of production processes, better techniques of quality control, reduced energy consumption and raw material inputs, and continuous training and recycling of the labor force will be required. The progressive deterioration of living conditions for the great majority of Latin Americans under the current system of development encouraging environmental destruction makes the need for a new development strategy obvious. The priority objectives of an endogenous development model include satisfaction of basic needs, greater social equality, and economic practices acceptable for the environment requiring less consumption of energy and raw materials per unit of product. PMID:12343876

  1. Habitat constraints on the distribution of passerine residents and neotropical migrants in Latin America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, C.S.; Dowell, B.A.; Dawson, D.K.

    1994-01-01

    With continuing tropical deforestation, there is increased concern for birds that depend on forest habitats in Latin America. During the past 10 northern winters, we have conducted quantitative studies of habitat use by wintering migrant songbirds and by residents in the Greater Antilles, Mexico, Central America, and northern South America. Many migrants, but few residents, winter in forest fragments and in certain arboreal agricultural habitats (citrus, cacao, shade coffee). Many other agricultural habitats (sun coffee, mango, commercial banana plantations, and heavily grazed pasture) are avoided by most birds. Some species, such as thrushes and ground-feeding warblers, depend on closed-canopy forest. Some, such as Northern Waterthrush (Seiurus noveboracensis) and Prothonotary Warbler (Protonotaria citrea), winter primarily in mangroves or other swamp forests. The majority of neotropical migrant passerines winter in forest fragments and certain agricultural habitats, as well as mature forest; but many resident species, especially suboscines (Furnariidae, Dendrocolaptidae, Formicariidae, Papridae), are heavily impacted by loss and fragmentation of the forest.

  2. Epidemiology of Candidemia in Latin America: A Laboratory-Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Nucci, Marcio; Queiroz-Telles, Flavio; Alvarado-Matute, Tito; Tiraboschi, Iris Nora; Cortes, Jorge; Zurita, Jeannete; Guzman-Blanco, Manuel; Santolaya, Maria Elena; Thompson, Luis; Sifuentes-Osornio, Jose; Echevarria, Juan I.; Colombo, Arnaldo L.

    2013-01-01

    Background The epidemiology of candidemia varies depending on the geographic region. Little is known about the epidemiology of candidemia in Latin America. Methods We conducted a 24-month laboratory-based survey of candidemia in 20 centers of seven Latin American countries. Incidence rates were calculated and the epidemiology of candidemia was characterized. Results Among 672 episodes of candidemia, 297 (44.2%) occurred in children (23.7% younger than 1 year), 36.2% in adults between 19 and 60 years old and 19.6% in elderly patients. The overall incidence was 1.18 cases per 1,000 admissions, and varied across countries, with the highest incidence in Colombia and the lowest in Chile. Candida albicans (37.6%), C. parapsilosis (26.5%) and C. tropicalis (17.6%) were the leading agents, with great variability in species distribution in the different countries. Most isolates were highly susceptible to fluconazole, voriconazole, amphotericin B and anidulafungin. Fluconazole was the most frequent agent used as primary treatment (65.8%), and the overall 30-day survival was 59.3%. Conclusions This first large epidemiologic study of candidemia in Latin America showed a high incidence of candidemia, high percentage of children, typical species distribution, with C. albicans, C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis accounting for the majority of episodes, and low resistance rates. PMID:23527176

  3. Human rhinoviruses and enteroviruses in influenza-like illness in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Human rhinoviruses (HRVs) belong to the Picornaviridae family with high similarity to human enteroviruses (HEVs). Limited data is available from Latin America regarding the clinical presentation and strains of these viruses in respiratory disease. Methods We collected nasopharyngeal swabs at clinics located in eight Latin American countries from 3,375 subjects aged 25 years or younger who presented with influenza-like illness. Results Our subjects had a median age of 3 years and a 1.2:1.0 male:female ratio. HRV was identified in 16% and HEV was identified in 3%. HRVs accounted for a higher frequency of isolates in those of younger age, in particular children < 1 years old. HRV-C accounted for 38% of all HRVs detected. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a high proportion of recombinant strains between HRV-A/HRV-C and between HEV-A/HEV-B. In addition, both EV-D68 and EV-A71 were identified. Conclusions In Latin America as in other regions, HRVs and HEVs account for a substantial proportion of respiratory viruses identified in young people with ILI, a finding that provides additional support for the development of pharmaceuticals and vaccines targeting these pathogens. PMID:24119298

  4. Tuberculosis in HIV-infected infants, children, and adolescents in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Krauss, Margot R; Harris, D Robert; Abreu, Thalita; Ferreira, Fabiana G; Ruz, Noris Pavia; Worrell, Carol; Hazra, Rohan

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the occurrence, clinical presentations and diagnostic methods for tuberculosis (TB) in a cohort of HIV-infected infants, children and adolescents from Latin America. Methods A retrospective analysis of children with TB and HIV was performed within a prospective observational cohort study conducted at multiple clinical sites in Latin America. Results Of 1114 HIV-infected infants, children, and adolescents followed from 2002-2011, 69 that could be classified as having confirmed or presumed TB were included in this case series; 52.2% (95% CI: 39.8-64.4%) had laboratory-confirmed TB, 15.9% (95% CI: 8.2-26.7%) had clinically-confirmed disease and 31.9% (95% CI: 21.2-44.2%) had presumed TB. Sixty-six were perinatally HIV-infected. Thirty-two (61.5%) children had a history of contact with an adult TB case; however information on exposure to active TB was missing for 17 participants. At the time of TB diagnosis, 39 were receiving antiretroviral therapy. Sixteen of these cases may have represented immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. Conclusions Our study emphasizes the need for adequate contact tracing of adult TB cases and screening for HIV or TB in Latin American children diagnosed with either condition. Preventive strategies in TB-exposed, HIV-infected children should be optimized. PMID:25307683

  5. Smokefree environments in Latin America: on the road to real change?

    PubMed Central

    Sebrié, Ernesto M.; Schoj, Verónica; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2009-01-01

    Latin American countries are experiencing an increasing burden of tobacco-related diseases. Smoke free policies are cost-effective interventions to control both exposure of nonsmokers to the toxic chemicals in secondhand tobacco smoke and to reduce the prevalence of smoking and its consequent morbidity and mortality. The World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control has created momentum in Latin America to implement meaningful tobacco control policies. As of August 2007, Uruguay, two provinces and three cities in Argentina, and one state in Venezuela, had passed, regulated, and enforced 100% smokefree legislation. The tobacco industry, working through local subsidiaries, has been the strongest obstacle in achieving this goal and has prevented progress elsewhere in the region. During the 1990s, transnational tobacco companies Philip Morris International and British American Tobacco developed voluntary initiatives (“Courtesy of Choice” and “Environmental Tobacco Smoke Consultancy” programs) to prevent effective smokefree policies. Another important barrier in the region has often been a weak and fragmented local civil society. Opportunities in the region that should be taken into account are a high public support for smokefree environments and increasing capacity building available from international collaboration on tobacco control. Policymakers and tobacco control advocates should prioritize the implementation of smokefree policies in Latin America to protect nonsmokers, reduce smoking prevalence with its economic and disease burden in the region. PMID:19578527

  6. Smokefree environments in Latin America: on the road to real change?

    PubMed

    Sebrié, Ernesto M; Schoj, Verónica; Glantz, Stanton A

    2008-01-01

    Latin American countries are experiencing an increasing burden of tobacco-related diseases. Smoke free policies are cost-effective interventions to control both exposure of nonsmokers to the toxic chemicals in secondhand tobacco smoke and to reduce the prevalence of smoking and its consequent morbidity and mortality. The World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control has created momentum in Latin America to implement meaningful tobacco control policies. As of August 2007, Uruguay, two provinces and three cities in Argentina, and one state in Venezuela, had passed, regulated, and enforced 100% smokefree legislation. The tobacco industry, working through local subsidiaries, has been the strongest obstacle in achieving this goal and has prevented progress elsewhere in the region. During the 1990s, transnational tobacco companies Philip Morris International and British American Tobacco developed voluntary initiatives ("Courtesy of Choice" and "Environmental Tobacco Smoke Consultancy" programs) to prevent effective smokefree policies. Another important barrier in the region has often been a weak and fragmented local civil society. Opportunities in the region that should be taken into account are a high public support for smokefree environments and increasing capacity building available from international collaboration on tobacco control. Policymakers and tobacco control advocates should prioritize the implementation of smokefree policies in Latin America to protect nonsmokers, reduce smoking prevalence with its economic and disease burden in the region. PMID:19578527

  7. Current clinical advances and future perspectives in the psychiatry/mental health field of Latin America.

    PubMed

    Cía, Alfredo H; Rojas, Rodrigo Córdoba; Adad, Miguel Abib

    2010-01-01

    The history of Mental Health in Latin America is relatively young. It dates back to the mid nineteenth century and widely developed during the twentieth century, with formidable scientific, social, political, and ethical challenges. Latin American psychiatry has contributed in the fields of epidemiology, phenomenology, social psychiatry, psychiatric and epistemological research, and clinical genetics as well. More recent advances can also be seen in clinical psychotherapy and psychopharmacology. Now, there is a formal and informal recognition of various areas of expertise, such as children and adolescents, addictions, anxiety disorders, among others. However, we need to solve the health problems resulting from mental illnesses as well as the disorders related to the social, environmental, political, and economic factors of a continent marked by the precariousness of underdevelopment, which have a high impact on population health. Therefore, considering and trying to minimize the impact of those factors, contributing to the destigmatization of mental illnesses and their consequences, together with the growing number of non-governmental organizations (NGOs), human rights defenders, public figures, etc., and collaborating in building a society that guarantees the right to mental health and adequate treatment and rehabilitation are part of our present challenges in Latin America. PMID:20874063

  8. Solar-Based Rural Electrification and Micro-Enterprise Development in Latin America: A Gender Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.

    2000-11-16

    Worldwide, an estimated 1.5 to 2 billion people do not have access to electricity, including 100 million in the Latin America region. Depending on the country, 30 to 90% of this unelectrified Latin American population lives in rural areas where geographic remoteness and low energy consumption patterns may preclude the extension of the conventional electricity grid. Women are heavily impacted by the energy scarcity given their role as primary energy procurers and users for the household, agricultural and small industrial subsectors in developing countries. As a result, women spend disproportionately more time engaged in energy-related activities like carrying water and searching for cooking fuel. This paper describes the use of decentralized renewable energy systems as one approach to meet the energy needs of rural areas in Latin America. It outlines the advantages of a decentralized energy paradigm to achieve international development goals, especially as they relate to women. The paper studies Enersol Associates, Inc.'s Solar-Based Rural Electrification model as an example of a decentralized energy program which has merged energy and development needs through the local involvement of energy entrepreneurs, non-governmental organizations and community members.

  9. Research on aging in Latin America: Present status and future directions.

    PubMed

    Sennott-Miller, L

    1994-01-01

    This essay examines the status of aging research in Latin America. It presents a profile of the aging population in the Region in relation to societal institutions, illustrating how the aged are only marginally served by them. Most of the available information is derived from secondary sources and comes from international and national agencies, and private organizations. Data-based research includes small-sample studies of specific issues and country-specific investigations by both U.S. and Latin American researchers. Paradigms used emphasize successful/productive aging, functional ability, and, to a lesser extent, work focused on health conditions or specific situations such as poverty. The best sources of contextual information are often unpublished or not published in the mainstream literature. Future directions recommended include organizing existing data to inform policy, identifying, with Latin American researchers, the most critical research questions, formalizing collaborative relationships, and holding a working conference of those involved in Latin American aging research to develop a future agenda. PMID:24390003

  10. Housing, urban development and health in Latin America: contrasts, inequalities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Comarú, Francisco de Assis; Westphal, Marcia Faria

    2004-01-01

    Since the outset of the 20th century, growing urbanization and its contingent waxing populations in Latin America, including Brazil, have come to have alarming effects on the conditions of life, especially in the areas of housing and healthcare for such populations. In this paper, we present data describing and qualifying the process of urbanization and its consequences for Latin American countries and certain Brazilian cities. Arguments are presented about the effects of the urbanization process and the development of low-income human settlements (slums known as favelas and squatting in tenement housing) on health conditions, diseases, and the death rate. The first part of the paper is based on secondary and quantitative data about urbanization, housing, and health in Brazilian and other Latin American cities. Governmental and nongovernmental data are used to structure the problematic landscape of the Latin American region. In the second part of the paper, we focus on a case study of a Brazilian coast city that has registered an intense population growth. This study demonstrates that urban policy (housing, environmental, sanitation, and urban transportation) requires an integration of health and environmental public policy and demonstrates the importance of the role of popular participation in urban public policy-making, and the potential importance of the Bertiioga Healthy City Project from the perspective of a better integration of actions, policies, and programs. PMID:15742677

  11. RELAGH - The challenge of having a scientific network in Latin America: An account from the presidents

    PubMed Central

    Rojas-Martínez, Augusto; Giraldo-Ríos, Alejandro; Jiménez-Arce, Gerardo; de Vargas, Aída Falcón; Giugliani, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Latin America and the Caribbean region make up one of the largest areas of the world, and this region is characterized by a complex mixture of ethnic groups sharing Iberian languages. The area is comprised of nations and regions with different levels of social development. This region has experienced historical advances in the last decades to increase the minimal standards of quality of life; however, several factors, such as concentrated populations in large urban centers and isolated and poor communities, still have an important impact on medical services, particularly genetics services. Latin American researchers have greatly contributed to the development of human genetics and historic inter-ethnic diversity, and the multiplicity of geographic areas are unique for the study of gene-environment interactions. As a result of regional developments in the fields of human and medical genetics, the Latin American Network of Human Genetics (Red Latinoamericana de Genética Humana - RELAGH) was created in 2001 to foster the networking of national associations and societies dedicated to these scientific disciplines. RELAGH has developed important educational activities, such as the Latin American School of Human and Medical Genetics (ELAG), and has held three biannual meetings to encourage international research cooperation among the member countries and international organizations. Since its foundation, RELAGH has been admitted as a full regional member to the International Federation of Human Genetics Societies. This article describes the historical aspects, activities, developments, and challenges that are still faced by the Network. PMID:24764765

  12. Cartographic experiment for Latin America. [Santa Cruz, Bolivia and Concepcion, Paraguay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staples, J. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The two experiments clearly demonstrate the practical application of the Skylab photography to update existing maps at an optimum scale of 1:100,000. The photography can even be used, by employing first order photogrammetric instruments, for updating the cultural features in 1:50,000 scale mapping. The S190A imagery has also shown itself to be most economical in preparing new photomap products over previously unmapped areas, such as Concepcion, Paraguay. These maps indicate that Skylab quality imagery is invaluable to the Latin American cartographers in their efforts to provide the mapping products required to develop their countries. In Latin America, where over 5,000 people are employed in map production and where the Latin American governments are expending over $20 million in this effort, the use of such systems to maintain existing mapping and publish new mapping over previously unmapped areas, is of great economic value and could release the conventional Latin American mapping resources to be utilized to produce large scale 1:25,000 and 1:1,000 scale mapping that is needed for specific development projects.

  13. Mosquito Vector Biology and Control in Latin America-A 25TH Symposium.

    PubMed

    2015-09-01

    The 25th Annual Latin American Symposium presented by the American Mosquito Control Association (AMCA) was held as part of the 81st Annual Meeting in New Orleans, LA, in March 2015. The principal objective, as for the previous 24 symposia, was to promote participation in the AMCA by vector control specialists, public health workers, and academicians from Latin America. This publication includes summaries of 24 presentations that were given orally in Spanish by participants from Colombia, Mexico, and the USA. Topics addressed in the symposium included: surveillance, operations, ecology, chemical control, studies of dengue viruses, and insecticide resistance. Insect vectors included Aedes, Culex, and Anopheles mosquitoes in addition to phlebotomine sand flies and triatomine bugs. PMID:26375913

  14. Claiming Rosa Parks: conservative Catholic bids for 'rights' in contemporary Latin America.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Lynn M

    2014-01-01

    When the Rosa Parks Prize was awarded to a conservative Argentine senator in 2009 for her outspoken opposition to contraception, sterilisation and abortion, it was clear that something odd was happening. This paper documents the appropriation of 'human rights' discourses by conservative Catholics in Latin America, where the recent success of reproductive and sexual rights social movements has generated a significant backlash. It specifically traces an effort by Catholic legal scholars to justify what they term 'a distinctively Latin American approach to human rights' while ignoring decades of human rights activism by others. Opponents of reproductive and sexual rights are deploying rights-talk selectively and strategically, it is argued, using this as secular cover to advance pro-life and pro-family policies. PMID:24592819

  15. [Managed care in Latin America: transnationalization of the health sector in the context of reform].

    PubMed

    Iriart, C; Merhy, E E; Waitzkin, H

    2000-01-01

    This article presents the results of the comparative research project "Managed Care in Latin America: Its Role in Health Reform". The project was conducted by teams in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Ecuador, and the United States. The study's objective was to analyze the process by which managed care is exported, especially from the United States, and how managed care is adopted in Latin American countries. Our research methods included qualitative and quantitative techniques. Adoption of managed care reflects transnationalization of the health sector. Our findings demonstrate the entrance of large multinational financial capital into the private insurance and health services sectors and their intention of participating in the administration of government institutions and medical/social security funds. We conclude that this basic change involving the slow adoption of managed care is facilitated by ideological changes with discourses accepting the inexorable nature of public sector reform. PMID:10738154

  16. Childhood Poverty and Cognitive Development in Latin America in the 21st Century.

    PubMed

    Segretin, M Soledad; Hermida, M Julia; Prats, Lucía M; Fracchia, Carolina S; Ruetti, Eliana; Lipina, Sebastián J

    2016-06-01

    For at least eight decades, researchers have analyzed the association between childhood poverty and cognitive development in different societies worldwide, but few of such studies have been carried out in Latin America. The aim of the present paper is to systematically review the empirical studies that have analyzed the associations between poverty and cognitive development in children under 18 years of age from Latin American and Caribbean countries between 2000 and 2015. This analysis takes into consideration the country where the work was conducted, the experimental and analytical design, sample size and composition, cognitive and poverty paradigms implemented, levels of analysis, and the inclusion of mediation analyses. Through these, we identify common patterns in the negative impact of poverty that have been repeatedly verified in the literature in other continents; we also call attention to a set of issues regarding sample, design, paradigms, impact, and mediation analyses that should be considered in future studies in the region. PMID:27254824

  17. Mosquito vector biology and control in latin america-a 24th symposium.

    PubMed

    Clark, Gary G; Fernández-Salas, Ildefonso

    2014-09-01

    The 24th Annual Latin American Symposium presented by the American Mosquito Control Association (AMCA) was held as part of the 80th Annual Meeting in Seattle, WA, in February 2014. The principal objective, for the previous 23 symposia, was to promote participation in the AMCA by vector control specialists, public health workers, and academicians from Latin America. This publication includes summaries of 26 presentations that were given orally in Spanish or presented as posters by participants from Colombia, Mexico, and the USA. Topics addressed in the symposium included: surveillance, ecology, chemical control, studies of dengue viruses, and insecticide resistance associated with Aedes aegypti; Anopheles vectors of malaria; essential oils; and ethnic groups and vector-borne diseases. PMID:25843096

  18. Genomic research, publics and experts in Latin America: Nation, race and body

    PubMed Central

    Wade, Peter; López-Beltrán, Carlos; Restrepo, Eduardo; Santos, Ricardo Ventura

    2015-01-01

    The articles in this issue highlight contributions that studies of Latin America can make to wider debates about the effects of genomic science on public ideas about race and nation. We argue that current ideas about the power of genomics to transfigure and transform existing ways of thinking about human diversity are often overstated. If a range of social contexts are examined, the effects are uneven. Our data show that genomic knowledge can unsettle and reinforce ideas of nation and race; it can be both banal and highly politicized. In this introduction, we outline concepts of genetic knowledge in society; theories of genetics, nation and race; approaches to public understandings of science; and the Latin American contexts of transnational ideas of nation and race. PMID:27479996

  19. eHealth in Latin America and the Caribbean: Development and Policy Issues

    PubMed Central

    Risk, Ahmad

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews trends and issues in health and in the information and communication technologies (ICT) market as they relate to the deployment of eHealth solutions in Latin America and the Caribbean. Heretofore designed for industrialized countries and large organizations, eHealth solutions are being proposed as an answer to a variety of health-system management problems and health care demands faced by all health organizations including those in developing societies. Particularly, eHealth is seen as especially useful in the operational support of the new health care models being implemented in many countries. The authors examine those developments vis-à-vis the characteristics of the Latin American and the Caribbean health-sector organizational preparedness and technological infrastructure, and propose policy and organizational actions to foster the development of eHealth solutions in the region. PMID:12746209

  20. Development and enhancement of agricultural biotechnology in some countries in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Glick, B R; Pasternak, J J; Downer, R G; Dumbroff, E B; Winter, K A

    1991-03-01

    A number of research institutions and both local and international agencles in Latin America are using biotechnology as part of an effort to enhance agricultural productivity. However, it is very much an open question as to whether all of these various organizations can provide the best means of realizing this goal. Latin American countries vary dramatically in their knowledge base and current use of modern biotechnology. Thus, while some countries lack the ability to develop, or possibly even implement, many aspects of modern biotechnology, others are quite advanced in this regard. This review provides a somewhat selective overview of current research in the area of agricultural biotechnology in Mexico, Costa Rica and Ecuador, with emphasis on how the existing agencies and institutions have responded to the challenge of biotechnology. In addition, general strategies for the development of agricultural biotechnology in these countries are presented and discussed. PMID:24424928

  1. Genomic research, publics and experts in Latin America: Nation, race and body.

    PubMed

    Wade, Peter; López-Beltrán, Carlos; Restrepo, Eduardo; Santos, Ricardo Ventura

    2015-12-01

    The articles in this issue highlight contributions that studies of Latin America can make to wider debates about the effects of genomic science on public ideas about race and nation. We argue that current ideas about the power of genomics to transfigure and transform existing ways of thinking about human diversity are often overstated. If a range of social contexts are examined, the effects are uneven. Our data show that genomic knowledge can unsettle and reinforce ideas of nation and race; it can be both banal and highly politicized. In this introduction, we outline concepts of genetic knowledge in society; theories of genetics, nation and race; approaches to public understandings of science; and the Latin American contexts of transnational ideas of nation and race. PMID:27479996

  2. Scientific research in Latin America: experiences of collaborative projects on craniofacial anomalies.

    PubMed

    Trindade, Inge Elly Kiemle

    2006-11-01

    Scientists based in Latin America, particularly in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Mexico, substantially increased their rate of scientific publications during the past decades. Brazil experienced the most growth with the implementation of an efficient postgraduate system that is tripling the number of doctors every 10 years. Research on craniofacial anomalies is similarly increasing in Latin American countries. A PUBMED search using the key word "cleft" and a particular country's name showed that Brazil has published the most articles in that field during the past few years, many of which were published by research groups linked to the Hospital for Rehabilitation of Craniofacial Anomalies located in Bauru, which provides cleft and craniofacial care for more than 2500 new patients every year. Based on experiences with international collaboration, this report discusses obstacles to collaborative research and presents recommendations to enhance the possibility of creating successful partnerships among international research teams. PMID:17105326

  3. Current situation of pests targeted by Bt crops in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Blanco, C A; Chiaravalle, W; Dalla-Rizza, M; Farias, J R; García-Degano, M F; Gastaminza, G; Mota-Sánchez, D; Murúa, M G; Omoto, C; Pieralisi, B K; Rodríguez, J; Rodríguez-Maciel, J C; Terán-Santofimio, H; Terán-Vargas, A P; Valencia, S J; Willink, E

    2016-06-01

    Transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis- (Bt) insecticidal proteins (Bt crops) have provided useful pest management tools to growers for the past 20 years. Planting Bt crops has reduced the use of synthetic insecticides on cotton, maize and soybean fields in 11 countries throughout Latin America. One of the threats that could jeopardize the sustainability of Bt crops is the development of resistance by targeted pests. Governments of many countries require vigilance in measuring changes in Bt-susceptibility in order to proactively implement corrective measures before Bt-resistance is widespread, thus prolonging the usefulness of Bt crops. A pragmatic approach to obtain information on the effectiveness of Bt-crops is directly asking growers, crop consultants and academics about Bt-resistance problems in agricultural fields, first-hand information that not necessarily relies on susceptibility screens performed in laboratories. This type of information is presented in this report. Problematic pests of cotton and soybeans in five Latin American countries currently are effectively controlled by Bt crops. Growers that plant conventional (non-Bt) cotton or soybeans have to spray synthetic insecticides against multiple pests that otherwise are controlled by these Bt crops. A similar situation has been observed in six Latin American countries where Bt maize is planted. No synthetic insecticide applications are used to control corn pests because they are controlled by Bt maize, with the exception of Spodoptera frugiperda. While this insect in some countries is still effectively controlled by Bt maize, in others resistance has evolved and necessitates supplemental insecticide applications and/or the use of Bt maize cultivars that express multiple Bt proteins. Partial control of S. frugiperda in certain countries is due to its natural tolerance to the Bt bacterium. Of the 31 pests targeted and controlled by Bt crops in Latin America, only S. frugiperda has shown

  4. The current situation of meningococcal disease in Latin America and updated Global Meningococcal Initiative (GMI) recommendations.

    PubMed

    Sáfadi, Marco Aurélio P; O'Ryan, Miguel; Valenzuela Bravo, Maria Teresa; Brandileone, Maria Cristina C; Gorla, Maria Cecília O; de Lemos, Ana Paula S; Moreno, Gabriela; Vazquez, Julio A; López, Eduardo L; Taha, Muhamed-Kheir; Borrow, Ray

    2015-11-27

    The Global Meningococcal Initiative (GMI) was established in 2009 and comprises an international team of scientists, clinicians, and public health officials with expertise in meningococcal disease (MD). Its primary goal is to promote global prevention of MD through education, research, international cooperation, and developing recommendations that include decreasing the burden of severe disease. The group held its first roundtable meeting with experts from Latin American countries in 2011, and subsequently proposed several recommendations to reduce the regional burden of MD. A second roundtable meeting was convened with Latin American representatives in June 2013 to reassess MD epidemiology, vaccination strategies, and unmet needs in the region, as well as to update the earlier recommendations. Special emphasis was placed on the emergence and spread of serogroup W disease in Argentina and Chile, and the control measures put in place in Chile were a particular focus of discussions. The impact of routine meningococcal vaccination programs, notably in Brazil, was also evaluated. There have been considerable improvements in MD surveillance systems and diagnostic techniques in some countries (e.g., Brazil and Chile), but the lack of adequate infrastructure, trained personnel, and equipment/reagents remains a major barrier to progress in resource-poor countries. The Pan American Health Organization's Revolving Fund is likely to play an important role in improving access to meningococcal vaccines in Latin America. Additional innovative approaches are needed to redress the imbalance in expertise and resources between countries, and thereby improve the control of MD. In Latin America, the GMI recommends establishment of a detailed and comprehensive national/regional surveillance system, standardization of laboratory procedures, adoption of a uniform MD case definition, maintaining laboratory-based surveillance, replacement of polysaccharide vaccines with conjugate

  5. [Regional initiative on health care reform in Latin America and the Caribbean].

    PubMed

    Crocco, P; Schroeder, P; Villen, M T; Yen, E

    2000-01-01

    Many countries throughout Latin America and the Caribbean are introducing reforms that can profoundly influence how health services are provided and who receives them. Governments in the region identified the need for a network to support health reform by building capacity in analysis and training, both at the Summit of the Americas in 1994 and at the Special Meeting on Health Sector Reform, which was convened in 1995 by an interagency committee of the Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization, the Inter-American Development Bank, the World Bank, and other multilateral and bilateral agencies. In response, in 1997 the Pan American Health Organization and the United States Agency for the International Development launched the Latin America and Caribbean Regional Health Sector Reform Initiative. The Initiative has approximately US$ 10 million in funding through the year 2002 to support activities in Bolivia, Brazil, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Paraguay, and Peru. Now in its third year of implementation, the Initiative supports regional activities seeking to promote more equitable and effective delivery of basic health services. PMID:11026784

  6. [Toward constructing a research agenda: the threat posed by induced abortion in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Mundigo, A

    1994-01-01

    This work calls attention to the need for constructing a research agenda on induced abortion, which constitutes a serious pubic health problem in Latin America because of its illegality, clandestine practice, and ramifications for women's health, their families, and the health services. The incidence of abortion in Latin America is estimated, in the absence of reliable statistics, at 4-6 million annually. Over half the women in some countries are believed to resort to abortion during their reproductive lives. The concept of reproductive health emerged in the past decade from two distinct sources, the field of health and the feminist movement, as contraception became an increasingly accepted component of primary care. Reproductive aspects acquired a central role in the expanded concept of women's health, and reproductive health was converted into a new objective of service programs. The World Health Organization in 1988 for the first time unofficially defined reproductive health, and in 1994 an official definition was proposed. The definition did not mention abortion directly. Abortion is increasingly a topic of political debate in Latin America, where it is legal only in Cuba. The resolute opposition of the Catholic Church undoubtedly affects health policies. The feminist movement is perhaps alone in raising the issue and seeking means of legalizing abortion, based on human rights and public health considerations. The new definition of reproductive health challenges researchers from many disciplines to provide reliable information on poorly known aspects of abortion. The ultimate goal of the research is to reduce the frequency of abortion and eliminate morbidity and mortality caused by illegal abortions. Recommended topics for research include the incidence of abortion, undesired adolescent pregnancy and abortion, abortion and working women, the influence of cultural and social patterns on abortion, the role of men in reproductive decisions and abortion, the

  7. Methods and challenges for the health impact assessment of vaccination programs in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Sartori, Ana Marli Christovam; Nascimento, Andréia de Fátima; Yuba, Tânia Yuka; de Soárez, Patrícia Coelho; Novaes, Hillegonda Maria Dutilh

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe methods and challenges faced in the health impact assessment of vaccination programs, focusing on the pneumococcal conjugate and rotavirus vaccines in Latin America and the Caribbean. METHODS For this narrative review, we searched for the terms “rotavirus”, “pneumococcal”, “conjugate vaccine”, “vaccination”, “program”, and “impact” in the databases Medline and LILACS. The search was extended to the grey literature in Google Scholar. No limits were defined for publication year. Original articles on the health impact assessment of pneumococcal and rotavirus vaccination programs in Latin America and the Caribbean in English, Spanish or Portuguese were included. RESULTS We identified 207 articles. After removing duplicates and assessing eligibility, we reviewed 33 studies, 25 focusing on rotavirus and eight on pneumococcal vaccination programs. The most frequent studies were ecological, with time series analysis or comparing pre- and post-vaccination periods. The main data sources were: health information systems; population-, sentinel- or laboratory-based surveillance systems; statistics reports; and medical records from one or few health care services. Few studies used primary data. Hospitalization and death were the main outcomes assessed. CONCLUSIONS Over the last years, a significant number of health impact assessments of pneumococcal and rotavirus vaccination programs have been conducted in Latin America and the Caribbean. These studies were carried out few years after the programs were implemented, meet the basic methodological requirements and suggest positive health impact. Future assessments should consider methodological issues and challenges arisen in these first studies conducted in the region. PMID:26759964

  8. [Latin America and the crisis (points for the balance of a decade)].

    PubMed

    Lopez Maya, M

    1990-01-01

    The decade of the 1980s was catastrophic for the countries of Latin America because of profound transformations in the world economy, which started in the 1970s, the wilting of the state development programs that were imposed after World War II, and the collapse of socialism with the incipient transition to market economies. The crisis started because of the erosion of the world economic system as constituted under the Bretton Woods agreement; the drastic drop in the economic growth of market economies; the increased costs of living and the deterioration of the environment; the decrease in industrial capacity; and the emergence of transnationalization of production. In Latin America, the economic models that had been in place without solving underdevelopment became even more obsolete (import substitution, internal trade, and the role of the state). The crisis of socialism and the rapprochement of eastern European countries to western Europe also affected Latin America (e.g., Germany cancelled 30 mine exploration projects in Bolivia due to investments in East Germany). The structural readjustment policies of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank resulted in currency devaluations, redistribution of government funds, elimination of various subsidies, reduction of public debt and social expenditures, reduction of public employment, and payment of external debt. The result was more inflation (in Bolivia, Brazil, Peru, and Argentina, inflation rates were 683.7%, 157.1%, 100.1%, and 326.2%, respectively, between 1980 and 1986), unemployment, and poverty in the lost decade of the 1980s. After 1982, state expenditures on roads, education, hospitals, and nutrition declined by 40% in Mexico. Even though most countries returned to democracy in the region, this was at the cost of the increased role of the military and the transnationals. The grand parties collapsed and in Venezuela, Mexico, and Colombia authoritarian tendencies survived into the 1970s degrading

  9. Geographic Information System in Bolivia: a Case Study for Latin America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adrien, P. M.

    1982-01-01

    Bolivia's Geological Service is concluding a successful project designed to give the Department of Oruro the capability to evaluate its natural resources using data generated by three United States satellites. A permanent integrated geographic information system was created for preparing base maps of soil characteristics, land use, geomorphology, geology, water resources and hydrology. The information compiled through the project was stored on magnetic disks and tapes to permit periodic updating, retrieval of data on specific aspects of development projects, and obtaining various data mixes to analyze aspects of prospective development projects. This is the first digital information system developed in Latin America.

  10. Food sovereignty: an alternative paradigm for poverty reduction and biodiversity conservation in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Chappell, M Jahi

    2013-01-01

    Strong feedback between global biodiversity loss and persistent, extreme rural poverty are major challenges in the face of concurrent food, energy, and environmental crises. This paper examines the role of industrial agricultural intensification and market integration as exogenous socio-ecological drivers of biodiversity loss and poverty traps in Latin America. We then analyze the potential of a food sovereignty framework, based on protecting the viability of a diverse agroecological matrix while supporting rural livelihoods and global food production. We review several successful examples of this approach, including ecological land reform in Brazil, agroforestry, milpa, and the uses of wild varieties in smallholder systems in Mexico and Central America. We highlight emergent research directions that will be necessary to assess the potential of the food sovereignty model to promote both biodiversity conservation and poverty reduction. PMID:24555109

  11. Food sovereignty: an alternative paradigm for poverty reduction and biodiversity conservation in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Chappell, M Jahi; Wittman, Hannah; Bacon, Christopher M; Ferguson, Bruce G; Barrios, Luis García; Barrios, Raúl García; Jaffee, Daniel; Lima, Jefferson; Méndez, V Ernesto; Morales, Helda; Soto-Pinto, Lorena; Vandermeer, John; Perfecto, Ivette

    2013-01-01

    Strong feedback between global biodiversity loss and persistent, extreme rural poverty are major challenges in the face of concurrent food, energy, and environmental crises. This paper examines the role of industrial agricultural intensification and market integration as exogenous socio-ecological drivers of biodiversity loss and poverty traps in Latin America. We then analyze the potential of a food sovereignty framework, based on protecting the viability of a diverse agroecological matrix while supporting rural livelihoods and global food production. We review several successful examples of this approach, including ecological land reform in Brazil, agroforestry, milpa, and the uses of wild varieties in smallholder systems in Mexico and Central America. We highlight emergent research directions that will be necessary to assess the potential of the food sovereignty model to promote both biodiversity conservation and poverty reduction. PMID:24555109

  12. [Demographic dynamics in the food-nutrition problem: the search for effective strategies in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Teller, C H; Culagovski, M; del Canto, J; Sáenz, L; Aranda-Pastor, J

    1982-09-01

    This paper addresses the interrelationship between the food and nutrition problem and population problems in Latin America within a global focus. A basic framework is presented which defines four demographic problems highly related with the food and nutrition situation: The underutilization of the labor force; the accelerated growth of the marginal population; the poor geographic distribution and rapid urbanization; and the high rates of infant and child mortality. Findings from the recent experience of demography in food and nutrition planning in the last four years in Central America and Panama are outlined, and strategies are recommended for the development of different types of programs and projects in population-nutrition. Finally, a list of applied research, basic information and direct action projects in population-nutrition that have been detected as needed by most of the Central American countries, is presented. PMID:6820623

  13. Optimizing outcomes in multiple sclerosis: consensus guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of multiple sclerosis in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Macías-Islas, Miguel Ángel; Gabbai, Alberto Alan; Correale, Jorge; Bolaña, Carlos; Sotelo, Eduardo Duriez; Bonitto, Juan García; Vergara-Edwards, Fernando; Vizcarra-Escobar, Darwin

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The prevalence of multiple sclerosis (MS) in Latin America varies across different studies but an intermediate risk and increased frequency of the disease have been reported in recent years. The circumstances of Latin American countries are different from those of Europe and North America, both in terms of differential diagnoses and disease management. Methods: An online survey on MS was sent to 855 neurologists in nine Latin American countries. A panel of nine experts in MS analyzed the results. Results: Diagnostic and therapeutic recommendations were outlined with special emphasis on the specific needs and circumstances of Latin America. The experts proposed guidelines for MS diagnosis, treatment, and follow up, highlighting the importance of considering endemic infectious diseases in the differential diagnoses of MS, the identification of patients at high risk of developing MS in order to maximize therapeutic opportunities, early treatment initiation, and cost-effective control of treatment efficacy, as well as global assessment of disability. Conclusions: The experts recommended that healthcare systems allocate a longer consultation time for patients with MS, which must be conducted by neurologists trained in the management of the disease. All drugs currently approved must be available in all Latin American countries and must be covered by healthcare plans. The expert panel supported the creation of a permanent forum to discuss future clinical and therapeutic recommendations that may be useful in Latin American countries. PMID:22164189

  14. Oil discoveries and basin resource prediction in Latin America: Past, present, and future

    SciTech Connect

    Kronman, G.E.; Aleman, A.M.; Rushworth, S.W. )

    1993-02-01

    Over 350 oil discoveries were made in Latin America during the 1980s. About 12% are estimated to contain reserves greater than 100 MMBO. Several of the larger finds (>500 MMBO), such as Cusiana (Colombia), Furrial/Musipan (Venezuela), Cano Lima (Colombia) and Marlim (Brazil) represent an important part of the giant field found worldwide since 1980. Most of the larger discoveries were made by national oil companies in Venezuela, Mexico and Brazil. Undiscovered oil resources of 40-80 BBO are estimated to remain in the highest potential Latin American basins, including those in Mexico, based on historical field size data and current geological knowledge. Over 150 BBO of produced oil and proven reserves has been found in the same group of basins. The probability of finding large undiscovered oil and gas fields (>100 MMBOE) in selected established and mature Latin American basins is high. The Campos (Brazil), Llanos (Colombia), Magadalena (Colombia), Maracaibo (Venezuela), Marahon-Oriente-Putomayo (Peru-Ecuador-Colombia), Maturin (Venezuela), Reforma-Campeche (Mexico) and Ucayali (Peru) basins have the best possibility for such accumulations. Another tier of frontier and emerging basins may also contain significant resources, but limited data makes it difficult to estimate their undiscovered resources. Some of the higher potential basins in this group include the Sierra de Chiapas (Mexico/Guatemala), Huallaga (Peru), Yucatan (Mexico), Sabinas, and Burgos (Mexico) basins.

  15. Attitudes towards reproduction in Latin America. Teachings from the use of modern reproductive technologies.

    PubMed

    Zegers-Hochschild, F

    1999-01-01

    The use of modern reproductive technology, such as in-vitro fertilization and its related procedures, has opened new areas of legal, religious and public concern. Thirty years ago, the development of effective methods to control procreation generated a debate on whether couples had the right to enjoy sex in the absence of its procreative effect. Today, assisted reproductive technology (ART) allows couples to have their own children in the absence of a direct intermediation of sex. The Catholic Church has reacted against both contraception and ART, and specific instructions have been directed to the public, the medical profession and legislators. In a recent survey, 88.4% of the population in Latin America claims to be Catholic; therefore, bioethical considerations and legal implications concerning intervention in reproduction are strongly permeated by the moral teachings of Catholicism. In 1996, 83 medical doctors and scientists, participating in the Latin American Network of Assisted Reproduction, produced a consensus document on ethical aspects and legal implications of ART. The document contains minimal ethical guidelines that Latin American professionals have decided to adhere to, even in the absence of legal regulations. This article examines how the medical profession, legislators and the public react to religious influence when confronted by difficult bioethical decisions such as the right to procreate. PMID:10333366

  16. Colombia and Cuba, contrasting models in Latin America's health sector reform.

    PubMed

    De Vos, Pol; De Ceukelaire, Wim; Van der Stuyft, Patrick

    2006-10-01

    Latin American national health systems were drastically overhauled by the health sector reforms the 1990s. Governments were urged by donors and by the international financial institutions to make major institutional changes, including the separation of purchaser and provider functions and privatization. This article first analyses a striking paradox of the far-reaching reform measures: contrary to what is imposed on public health services, after privatization purchaser and provider functions are reunited. Then we compare two contrasting examples: Colombia, which is internationally promoted as a successful--and radical--example of 'market-oriented' health care reform, and Cuba, which followed a highly 'conservative' path to adapt its public system to the new conditions since the 1990s, going against the model of the international institutions. The Colombian reform has not been able to materialize its promises of universality, improved equity, efficiency and better quality, while Cuban health care remains free, accessible for everybody and of good quality. Finally, we argue that the basic premises of the ongoing health sector reforms in Latin America are not based on the people's needs, but are strongly influenced by the needs of foreign--especially North American--corporations. However, an alternative model of health sector reform, such as the Cuban one, can probably not be pursued without fundamental changes in the economic and political foundations of Latin American societies. PMID:17002735

  17. Mental health services development in Latin America and the Caribbean: achievements, barriers and facilitating factors.

    PubMed

    Caldas de Almeida, J M

    2013-03-01

    Mental health services reforms in Latin America and the Caribbean in the last 20 years have led to a significant improvement of mental health services. They also contributed to the development of new evidence that may help the implementation of future reforms. These advances, however, were clearly insufficient to respond to the huge challenges countries of Latin American and the Caribbean face to improve mental health services. Insufficient funding, one of the most important barriers to mental health services development found in most countries, was related to the absence of a strong consensus among all stakeholders and the weakness of user and family associations. Other barriers were the lack of technical capacity of the coordination unit responsible for development of services in the ministries of health, resistance from professionals towards changing to new models of care and lack of human resources. Transition to democracy in some countries and natural disasters proved to be windows of opportunity for mental health services reform. Facilitating factors included alliance with the human rights defence movement, development of research capacity in Latin American and the Caribbean countries, and international cooperation. PMID:24029840

  18. Health-system reform and universal health coverage in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Atun, Rifat; de Andrade, Luiz Odorico Monteiro; Almeida, Gisele; Cotlear, Daniel; Dmytraczenko, T; Frenz, Patricia; Garcia, Patrícia; Gómez-Dantés, Octavio; Knaul, Felicia M; Muntaner, Carles; de Paula, Juliana Braga; Rígoli, Felix; Serrate, Pastor Castell-Florit; Wagstaff, Adam

    2015-03-28

    Starting in the late 1980s, many Latin American countries began social sector reforms to alleviate poverty, reduce socioeconomic inequalities, improve health outcomes, and provide financial risk protection. In particular, starting in the 1990s, reforms aimed at strengthening health systems to reduce inequalities in health access and outcomes focused on expansion of universal health coverage, especially for poor citizens. In Latin America, health-system reforms have produced a distinct approach to universal health coverage, underpinned by the principles of equity, solidarity, and collective action to overcome social inequalities. In most of the countries studied, government financing enabled the introduction of supply-side interventions to expand insurance coverage for uninsured citizens--with defined and enlarged benefits packages--and to scale up delivery of health services. Countries such as Brazil and Cuba introduced tax-financed universal health systems. These changes were combined with demand-side interventions aimed at alleviating poverty (targeting many social determinants of health) and improving access of the most disadvantaged populations. Hence, the distinguishing features of health-system strengthening for universal health coverage and lessons from the Latin American experience are relevant for countries advancing universal health coverage. PMID:25458725

  19. Prevalence of Celiac Disease in Latin America: A Systematic Review and Meta-Regression

    PubMed Central

    Parra-Medina, Rafael; Molano-Gonzalez, Nicolás; Rojas-Villarraga, Adriana; Agmon-Levin, Nancy; Arango, Maria-Teresa; Shoenfeld, Yehuda; Anaya, Juan-Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Background Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated enteropathy triggered by the ingestion of gluten in susceptible individuals, and its prevalence varies depending on the studied population. Given that information on CD in Latin America is scarce, we aimed to investigate the prevalence of CD in this region of the world through a systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods and Findings This was a two-phase study. First, a cross-sectional analysis from 981 individuals of the Colombian population was made. Second, a systematic review and meta-regression analysis were performed following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Meta- Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Our results disclosed a lack of celiac autoimmunity in the studied Colombian population (i.e., anti-tissue transglutaminase (tTG) and IgA anti-endomysium (EMA)). In the systematic review, 72 studies were considered. The estimated prevalence of CD in Latin Americans ranged between 0.46% and 0.64%. The prevalence of CD in first-degree relatives of CD probands was 5.5%. The coexistence of CD and type 1 diabetes mellitus varied from 4.6% to 8.7%, depending on the diagnosis methods (i.e., autoantibodies and/or biopsies). Conclusions Although CD seems to be a rare condition in Colombians; the general prevalence of the disease in Latin Americans seemingly corresponds to a similar scenario observed in Europeans. PMID:25942408

  20. HIV prevention among transgender women in Latin America: implementation, gaps and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Silva-Santisteban, Alfonso; Eng, Shirley; de la Iglesia, Gabriela; Falistocco, Carlos; Mazin, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Transgender women are the population most vulnerable to HIV in Latin America, with prevalence between 18 and 38%. Although the region has improved antiretroviral coverage, there is an urgent need to strengthen HIV prevention for key populations to meet regional targets set by governments. We conducted an assessment on the state of HIV prevention among transgender women in Latin America. Methods We conducted a desk review of Global AIDS Response Progress Reports, national strategic plans, technical reports and peer-reviewed articles from 17 Latin American countries published through January 2015. The review was preceded by 12 semi-structured interviews with UNAIDS and Pan American Health Organization officers and a discussion group with transgender women regional leaders, to guide the identification of documents. We assessed access to, implementation and coverage of programmes; legal frameworks; community participation; inclusion of new strategies; and alignment with international recommendations. Results and discussion Overall, prevention activities in the region focus on condom distribution, diagnosis of sexually transmitted infections and peer education, mostly delivered at health facilities, with limited community involvement. Argentina and Uruguay have implemented structural interventions to address social inclusion. Argentina, Brazil and Mexico have adopted early initiation of antiretroviral therapy and treatment as prevention strategies. The other countries do not have substantial tailored interventions and consider the trans population a sub-population of men who have sex with men in data collection and programme implementation. Limited coverage of services, discrimination and a deep-seated mistrust of the health system among transgender women are the main barriers to accessing HIV prevention services. Promising interventions include health services adapted to transgender women in Mexico; LGBT-friendly clinics in Argentina that incorporate

  1. A systematic review on the microscopic agglutination test seroepidemiology of bovine leptospirosis in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Priscila da Silva; Libonati, Hugo; Penna, Bruno; Lilenbaum, Walter

    2016-02-01

    The diagnosis of leptospirosis commonly relies on serology, which has three issues that are referred: the sampling, the antigen panel, and the cutoff point. We propose a systematic review of the bovine leptospirosis in Latin America, in order to provide a better understanding of the evolution of the research and of the seroepidemiology of bovine leptospirosis in that region. Internet databases were consulted over the year of 2014. Inclusion criteria for analysis included serosurvey using microscopic agglutination test (MAT), a relevant number of animals, the presence in the antigen panel of at least one representant of serogroup Sejroe, and a cutoff point of ≥100. A total of 242 articles that referred to cattle, leptospir*, and one region of Latin America was found. Only 105 articles regarding to serosurveys using MAT were found in several countries, and 61 (58.1 %) met all the inclusion criteria. In conclusion, this systematic review demonstrated a high prevalence of the infection (75.0 % at herd level and 44.2 % at animal level), with predominance of strains of serogroup Sejroe (80.3 %). It was evident that there is the necessity of more studies in several countries, as well as the need for greater standardization in studies, especially with regard to the adopted cutoff point at serological tests. PMID:26581437

  2. Emergency contraception under attack in Latin America: response of the medical establishment and civil society.

    PubMed

    Faúndes, Aníbal; Távara, Luis; Brache, Vivian; Alvarez, Frank

    2007-05-01

    The concept that it is possible to prevent a pregnancy after coitus is not new, but has gained prominence over the last 10-15 years. It provides a second chance to women who do not want to get pregnant and who, voluntarily or not, have had unprotected intercourse. Emergency contraception has been under strong attack by the Catholic church and anti-choice organisations in Latin America, who claim that the interference with implantation of the fertilised ovum is equivalent to an early abortion. The accumulation of evidence, however, is that the mechanism of action of emergency contraception is to prevent ovulation and that it does not interfere with implantation. This has been ignored by the anti-choice movement. The pattern of opposition to emergency contraception has been the same all over the Latin America region. The medical establishment and civil society, including the International Consortium for Emergency Contraception, have played a key role in defending access to emergency contraception throughout the region. A positive consequence of the public opposition of the Catholic church is that the concept and the method have become better known, and emergency contraception has become widely used. The cases of Peru, Brazil and Chile are described as examples. PMID:17512384

  3. [The organisation and future development of Veterinary Services in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Gimeno, E

    2003-08-01

    Latin America undoubtedly has comparative advantages in the fields of animal production, animal health and the production of food of animal origin. However, countries in Latin America must build on these strengths if the continent is to become more competitive and be able to deal with the complexities of world markets. To do this, Veterinary Services must define their objectives and establish quality standards on which to base their work. For this to occur, the State must create well-defined regulations, establish systems of audit and find ways of working which allow for a high degree of coordination and collaboration between the public and private sectors. This should be done within a framework of a quality assurance system, which allows for responsible accreditation and independent audit and evaluation. The author discusses the approaches of the different countries in the region to animal health, zoonosis, food safety, veterinary drugs control, animal welfare and export-import control. All programmes relating to these issues must be based on technical information gained through epidemiological surveillance, the network of diagnostic laboratories, quarantine systems, risk analysis, identification and traceability of animals and animal products, registration and control of veterinary drugs, and food safety research. In some countries these systems are already being developed. Maintaining good international relations and cooperating with neighbouring countries is always a challenge for official Veterinary Services and international organisations such as the OIE (World organisation for animal health) have a key role to play in facilitating these relationships. PMID:15884581

  4. Prospects for malaria elimination in non-Amazonian regions of Latin America.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Sócrates; Quiñones, Martha Lucia; Quintero, Juan Pablo; Corredor, Vladimir; Fuller, Douglas O; Mateus, Julio Cesar; Calzada, Jose E; Gutierrez, Juan B; Llanos, Alejandro; Soto, Edison; Menendez, Clara; Wu, Yimin; Alonso, Pedro; Carrasquilla, Gabriel; Galinski, Mary; Beier, John C; Arévalo-Herrera, Myriam

    2012-03-01

    Latin America contributes 1-1.2 million clinical malaria cases to the global malaria burden of about 300 million per year. In 21 malaria endemic countries, the population at risk in this region represents less than 10% of the total population exposed worldwide. Factors such as rapid deforestation, inadequate agricultural practices, climate change, political instability, and both increasing parasite drug resistance and vector resistance to insecticides contribute to malaria transmission. Recently, several malaria endemic countries have experienced a significant reduction in numbers of malaria cases. This is most likely due to actions taken by National Malaria Control Programs (NMCP) with the support from international funding agencies. We describe here the research strategies and activities to be undertaken by the Centro Latino Americano de Investigación en Malaria (CLAIM), a new research center established for the non-Amazonian region of Latin America by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID). Throughout a network of countries in the region, initially including Colombia, Guatemala, Panama, and Peru, CLAIM will address major gaps in our understanding of changing malaria epidemiology, vector biology and control, and clinical malaria mainly due to Plasmodium vivax. In close partnership with NMCPs, CLAIM seeks to conduct research on how and why malaria is decreasing in many countries of the region as a basis for developing and implementing new strategies that will accelerate malaria elimination. PMID:21781953

  5. [Intellectual development disorders in Latin America: a framework for setting policy priorities for research and care].

    PubMed

    Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Katz, Gregorio; Allen-Leigh, Betania; Magaña Valladares, Laura; Rangel-Eudave, Guillermina; Minoletti, Alberto; Wahlberg, Ernesto; Vásquez, Armando; Salvador-Carulla, Luis

    2013-09-01

    Intellectual development disorders (IDDs) are a set of development disorders characterized by significantly limited cognitive functioning, learning disorders, and disorders related to adaptive skills and behavior. Previously grouped under the term "intellectual disability," this problem has not been widely studied or quantified in Latin America. Those affected are absent from public policy and do not benefit from government social development and poverty reduction strategies. This article offers a critical look at IDDs and describes a new taxonomy; it also proposes recognizing IDDs as a public health issue and promoting the professionalization of care, and suggests an agenda for research and regional action. In Latin America there is no consensus on the diagnostic criteria for IDDs. A small number of rehabilitation programs cover a significant proportion of the people who suffer from IDDs, evidence-based services are not offered, and health care guidelines have not been evaluated. Manuals on psychiatric diagnosis focus heavily on identifying serious IDDs and contribute to underreporting and erroneous classification. The study of these disorders has not been a legal, social science, or public health priority, resulting in a dearth of scientific evidence on them. Specific competencies and professionalization of care for these persons are needed, and interventions must be carried out with a view to prevention, rehabilitation, community integration, and inclusion in the work force. PMID:24233114

  6. Association between the perceived environment and physical activity among adults in Latin America: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Activity friendly environments have been identified as promising strategies to increase physical activity levels in the population. Associations between perceived environmental attributes and physical activity in Latin America may vary from those observed in high income countries. The objective of this systematic review is to identify which perceived environmental attributes are associated with physical activity in Latin America. Methods Systematic literature search of articles published in English, Portuguese, and Spanish in four databases was conducted (PubMed, Virtual Health Library, EBSCO, and Web of Science). Associations with environmental attributes were analyzed separately for physical activity domains. Fifteen articles were included in the analysis. Results All studies had cross-sectional designs. The majority of associations were statistically non-significant, and only four associations were found in the unexpected direction. Leisure-time and transport-related physical activity were the domains most frequently included in the studies and had higher number of associations in the expected direction. Leisure-time physical activity showed a convincing association in the expected direction with safety during the day. Transport-related physical activity had a convincing association with presence of street lighting. Conclusions This study shows that perceived environmental attributes and their relationship with physical activity appears to be domain, and context specific. In addition, findings from this study show inconsistencies with the information gathered from high-income countries. PMID:24171897

  7. Cancer in indigenous people in Latin America and the Caribbean: a review

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Suzanne P; Forman, David; Piñeros, Marion; Fernández, Sdenka M; Oliveira Santos, Marceli; Bray, Freddie

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death in Latin America but there have been few assessments of the cancer burden for the 10% of the population who are indigenous. Evidence from other world regions suggests cancer survival is poorer for indigenous people than for others due to a greater incidence of case-fatal cancers, later stage at diagnosis, and less cancer treatment. A status report on the cancer profile of indigenous people in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) is therefore clearly warranted. We undertook a systematic review of the peer-reviewed literature in academic databases, and considered evidence from cancer registries from 1980, to assess cancer epidemiology among indigenous people in LAC. We identified 35 peer-reviewed articles pertaining to cancer in indigenous people. Rates of cervical cancer in parts of Brazil, Ecuador, and Guyana, stomach cancer rates in regions of Chile and gallbladder rates in Chile and Bolivia, were higher for indigenous compared to others. Breast cancer rates were lower in Ecuador, Brazil, and Chile. Six cancer registries in Brazil provided incidence data but no other reports of incidence, mortality, or survival were identified. There was a paucity of data surrounding the cancer burden of indigenous people in LAC. In view of predicted increases in cancer rates in ensuing decades, and the disparities in burden already experienced by indigenous people in the region, it is imperative that cancer profiles are obtained and cancer control measures identified and prioritized. PMID:24403278

  8. The faunal drugstore: Animal-based remedies used in traditional medicines in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Zootherapy is the treatment of human ailments with remedies made from animals and their products. Despite its prevalence in traditional medical practices worldwide, research on this phenomenon has often been neglected in comparison to medicinal plant research. This review discusses some related aspects of the use of animal-based remedies in Latin America, identifies those species used as folk remedies, and discusses the implications of zootherapy for public health and biological conservation. The review of literature revealed that at least 584 animal species, distributed in 13 taxonomic categories, have been used in traditional medicine in region. The number of medicinal species catalogued was quite expansive and demonstrates the importance of zootherapy as an alternative mode of therapy in Latin America. Nevertheless, this number is certainly underestimated since the number of studies on the theme are very limited. Animals provide the raw materials for remedies prescribed clinically and are also used in the form of amulets and charms in magic-religious rituals and ceremonies. Zootherapeutic resources were used to treat different diseases. The medicinal fauna is largely based on wild animals, including some endangered species. Besides being influenced by cultural aspects, the relations between humans and biodiversity in the form of zootherapeutic practices are conditioned by the social and economic relations between humans themselves. Further ethnopharmacological studies are necessary to increase our understanding of the links between traditional uses of faunistic resources and conservation biology, public health policies, sustainable management of natural resources and bio-prospecting. PMID:21385357

  9. Islands of knowledge: science and agriculture in the history of Latin America and the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Fernández Prieto, Leida

    2013-12-01

    This essay explores the participation of Latin America and the Caribbean in the construction and circulation of tropical agricultural science during the nineteenth century and the first half of the twentieth century. It uses the term "islands of knowledge" to underscore the idea that each producing region across the global tropics, including Latin America and the Caribbean, was instrumental in the creation, adoption, and application of scientific procedures. At the same time, it emphasizes the value of interchange and interconnection between these regions, as well as the many and heterogeneous local areas, for analyzing what it calls "global archipelago agricultural scientific knowledge." This focus challenges the traditional center/periphery hierarchy and opens it to a wider vision of science and practice in agriculture. This essay shows how writing in related areas of research--specifically, commodity histories, biological exchange studies, and knowledge exchange studies--introduces approaches and case studies that are useful for the history of tropical agricultural science. In particular, this work provides analytical frameworks for developing studies of exchanges across the Global South. PMID:24783495

  10. Prevalence of Frailty in Latin America and the Caribbean: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Priscilla Perez da Silva; de Andrade, Keitty Regina Cordeiro; Figueiredo, Ana Claudia Morais Godoy

    2016-01-01

    Background Countries in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) have experienced a rapid increase in their proportion of older people. This region is marked by a high prevalence of chronic diseases and disabilities among aging adults. Frailty appears in the context of LAC negatively affecting quality of life among many older people. Aim To investigate the prevalence of frailty among community-dwelling older people in LAC through a systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods A literature search was performed in indexed databases and in the grey literature. Studies investigating the prevalence of frailty with representative samples of community-dwelling older people in Latin America and the Caribbean were retrieved. Independent investigators carried out the study selection process and the data extraction. A meta-analysis and meta-regression were performed using STATA 11 software. The systematic review was registered at the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews under the number CRD42014015203. Results A total of 29 studies and 43,083 individuals were included in the systematic review. The prevalence of frailty was 19.6% (95% CI: 15.4–24.3%) in the investigated region, with a range of 7.7% to 42.6% in the studies reviewed. The year of data collection influenced the heterogeneity between the studies. Conclusion Frailty is very common among older people in LAC. As a result, countries in the region need to adapt their health and social care systems to demands of an older population. PMID:27500953

  11. Prospects for malaria elimination in non-Amazonian regions of Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Sócrates; Quiñones, Martha Lucia; Quintero, Juan Pablo; Corredor, Vladimir; Fuller, Douglas O.; Mateus, Julio Cesar; Calzada, Jose E.; Gutierrez, Juan B.; Llanos, Alejandro; Soto, Edison; Menendez, Clara; Wu, Yimin; Alonso, Pedro; Carrasquilla, Gabriel; Galinski, Mary; Beier, John C.; Arevalo-Herrera, Myriam

    2011-01-01

    Latin America contributes 1 to 1.2 million clinical malaria cases to the global malaria burden of about 300 million per year. In 21 malaria endemic countries, the population at risk in this region represents less than 10% of the total population exposed worldwide. Factors such as rapid deforestation, inadequate agricultural practices, climate change, political instability, and both increasing parasite drug resistance and vector resistance to insecticides contribute to malaria transmission. Recently, several malaria endemic countries have experienced a significant reduction in numbers of malaria cases. This is most likely due to actions taken by National Malaria Control Programs (NMCP) with the support from international funding agencies. We describe here the research strategies and activities to be undertaken by the Centro Latino Americano de Investigación en Malaria (CLAIM), a new research center established for the non-Amazonian region of Latin America by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID). Throughout a network of countries in the region, initially including Colombia, Guatemala, Panama, and Peru, CLAIM will address major gaps in our understanding of changing malaria epidemiology, vector biology and control, and clinical malaria mainly due to Plasmodium vivax. In close partnership with NMCPs, CLAIM seeks to conduct research on how and why malaria is decreasing in many countries of the region as a basis for developing and implementing new strategies that will accelerate malaria elimination. PMID:21781953

  12. Newborn screening in Latin America at the beginning of the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Borrajo, G J C

    2007-08-01

    Newborn screening (NBS) in Latin America took its first steps in the mid-1970s. Nevertheless, many years elapsed before it achieved its integration within the public health care system and its systematic and continuous implementation under a programme structure. Latin American countries can be characterized not only by their great geographic, demographic, ethnic, economic and health system diversity, but also by their heterogeneity in NBS activities, which gives rise to variation in degree of organization: countries with optimal fulfilment (Cuba, Costa Rica, Chile, Uruguay); others rapidly expanding their coverage (Brazil, Mexico, Argentina); some others in a recent implementation phase (Colombia, Paraguay, Venezuela, Nicaragua, Peru); others with minimal, isolated and non-organized activities (Guatemala, Dominican Republic, Bolivia, Panama, Ecuador); and finally others without any NBS activities at all (El Salvador, Honduras, Haiti). Despite this disparity, a sustained and significant growth in NBS activities has become evident during the last decade, highlighted by implementation of new programmes, increase in coverage, expansion of NBS panels, increasing involvement of governmental and public health authorities, and integration of NBS teams through scientific societies and External Quality Assurance Schemes. Currently, congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is the most widely screened disease, followed by phenylketonuria, with organized NBS programmes for CH in 14 countries. Other diseases usually included in NBS programmes are screened in a lower rate. Every year, around 11.2 million infants are born in Latin America. During 2005, 49.3% of newborns were screened for CH, indicating that around 5.7 million newborns still did not have access to the benefits of NBS. PMID:17701285

  13. Community Mental Health Services in Latin America for People with Severe Mental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Minoletti, Alberto; Galea, Sandro; Susser, Ezra

    2013-01-01

    Mental disorders are highly prevalent in Latin American countries and exact a serious emotional toll, yet investment in public mental health remains insufficient. Most countries of the region have developed national and local initiatives to improve delivery of mental health services over the last 22 years, following the technical leadership of the Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization (PAHO/WHO). It is especially notable that PAHO/WHO facilitated the development of national policies and plans, as well as local programs, to deliver specialized community care for persons with severe mental disorders. Nevertheless, at present, the majority of Latin American countries maintain a model of services for severe mental disorders based primarily on psychiatric hospitals that consume most of the national mental health budget. To accelerate the pace of change, this article emphasizes the need to develop cross-country regional initiatives that promote mental health service development, focusing on severe mental disorders. As one specific example, the authors describe work with RedeAmericas, which has brought together an interdisciplinary group of international investigators to research regional approaches and train a new generation of leaders in public mental health. More generally, four regional strategies are proposed to complement the work of PAHO/ WHO in Latin America: 1) to develop multi-country studies on community services, 2) to study new strategies and interventions in countries with more advanced mental health services, 3) to strengthen advocacy groups by cross-country interchange, and 4) to develop a network of well-trained leaders to catalyze progress across the region. PMID:25339792

  14. Training physicians for community-oriented primary care in Latin America: model programs in Mexico, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica.

    PubMed Central

    Braveman, P A; Mora, F

    1987-01-01

    Under the rubrics of preventive and social medicine, public health, and family and community medicine, medical educators in Latin America have developed programs to train physicians for community-oriented health care (COPC). The historical background for such programs in Latin America is reviewed. Three relevant examples of programs in Mexico, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica are highlighted, drawing on the author's direct experience with and in these faculties. The paper addresses the relation between these programs and national and regional trends in education and services. PMID:3826469

  15. School-Based Programs Aimed at the Prevention and Treatment of Obesity: Evidence-Based Interventions for Youth in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobelo, Felipe; Garcia de Quevedo, Isabel; Holub, Christina K.; Nagle, Brian J.; Arredondo, Elva M.; Barquera, Simon; Elder, John P.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Rapidly rising childhood obesity rates constitute a public health priority in Latin America which makes it imperative to develop evidence-based strategies. Schools are a promising setting but to date it is unclear how many school-based obesity interventions have been documented in Latin America and what level of evidence can be…

  16. Qualitative Description of Global Health Nursing Competencies by Nursing Faculty in Africa and the Americas

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Lynda; Moran, Laura; Zarate, Rosa; Warren, Nicole; Ventura, Carla Aparecida Arena; Tamí-Maury, Irene; Mendes, Isabel Amélia Costa

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to analyze qualitative comments from four surveys asking nursing faculty to rate the importance of 30 global health competencies for undergraduate nursing programs. Method: qualitative descriptive study that included 591 individuals who responded to the survey in English (49 from Africa and 542 from the Americas), 163 who responded to the survey in Spanish (all from Latin America), and 222 Brazilian faculty who responded to the survey in Portuguese. Qualitative comments were recorded at the end of the surveys by 175 respondents to the English survey, 75 to the Spanish survey, and 70 to the Portuguese survey. Qualitative description and a committee approach guided data analysis. Results: ten new categories of global health competencies emerged from the analysis. Faculty also demonstrated concern about how and when these competencies could be integrated into nursing curricula. Conclusion: the additional categories should be considered for addition to the previously identified global health competencies. These, in addition to the guidance about integration into existing curricula, can be used to guide refinement of the original list of global health competencies. Further research is needed to seek consensus about these competencies and to develop recommendations and standards to guide nursing curriculum development. PMID:27276020

  17. Politicas y Gobierno de la Educacion Superior En American Latina. (Policies and Governance of Higher Education in Latin America). Texas Papers on Latin America. Paper No. 99-02.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardiel, Hugo Casanova

    Higher education is undergoing a complex process of transformation at the international level. This transformation is based especially in the fields of policies and governance of higher education institutions. In Latin America this trend has been growing since the 1980s, and higher education is undergoing a strong modification in its processes and…

  18. Proyecto Principal de Educacion en America Latina y El Caribe. UNESCO Boletin 14 (Major Project for Education in Latin America and the Caribbean. UNESCO Bulletin 14).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Santiago (Chile). Regional Office for Education in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    This document begins by describing the technological revolution and the impact of computers, and their role in education in Latin America and the Caribbean. Some educators believe that computer literacy can provide young people with access to better jobs in the society of the future and upgrade the level of education in general. An article by…

  19. 1990: Ano Internacional de la alfabetizacion: Acciones sugeridas para America Latina y el Caribe = 1990 International Literacy Year: Suggested Actions for Latin America and the Caribbean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Michoacan (Mexico). Regional Office for Educ. in Latin America & Caribbean.

    This booklet discusses the needs for literacy education in Latin America and the Caribbean during International Literacy Year. Particular focus is on the objectives of International Literacy Year and suggested actions are provided in the four following areas: (1) operative strategies for the realization of the International Literacy Year,…

  20. Educacion de Adultos en America Latina. Estudio Bibliografico. Serie Bibliografica # 3 (Adult Education in Latin America: Bibliographical Study. Bibliographical Series # 3).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlaen, Norah

    This analytical bibliography describes a group of selected documents that examine the current status and extent of development of adult education in Latin America. Documents were selected for inclusion based upon their focus on and concern for international and national goals and needs of adult education programs and for distribution to countries…

  1. Patterns of Mitochondrial DNA Variation in Indigenous Maize Races of Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Weissinger, A. K.; Timothy, D. H.; Levings, C. S.; Goodman, M. M.

    1983-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs) were isolated from 93 diverse races of maize from Latin America. DNAs were examined by agarose gel electrophoresis of undigested DNA and by BamHI and EcoRI cleavage fragment analysis. Eighteen races contained plasmid-like mtDNAs. One race contained the S-1 and S-2 molecules associated with the S cytoplasmic male-sterile, and 17 were found to have the R-1 and R-2 plasmid-like DNAs. BamHI digestion of mtDNAs generated ten distinct electrophoretograms, and Eco RI digestion produced eight different fragment patterns. Races were assigned to one of 18 groups according to EcoRI and BamHI fragment patterns and whether or not they contained plasmid-like DNAs. Eight races produced restriction patterns similar to one of the characterized cytoplasmic male-steriles C, T, or S. Races from Meso-America and some from South America with Meso-American affinities were separated from other South American races. South American races were placed in three general classes of related groups. There was considerable agreement among the groupings here and those based on morphological and cytological affinities. PMID:17246141

  2. Respondent driven sampling for HIV biological and behavioral surveillance in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Montealegre, Jane R; Johnston, Lisa G; Murrill, Christopher; Monterroso, Edgar

    2013-09-01

    Since 2005, respondent driven sampling (RDS) has been widely used for HIV biological and behavioral surveillance surveys (BBSS) in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). In this manuscript, we provide a focused review of RDS among hard-to-reach high-risk populations in LAC and describe their principal operational, design, and analytical considerations. We reviewed published and unpublished reports, protocols, and manuscripts for RDS studies conducted in LAC between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2011. We abstracted key operational information and generated summary statistics across all studies. Between 2005 and 2011, 87 RDS studies were conducted in 15 countries in LAC (68 % in South America, 18 % in Mexico and Central America, and 14 % in the Caribbean). The target populations were primarily men who have sex with men (43 %), sex workers (29 %), and drug users (26 %). Study considerations included establishing clear eligibility criteria, measuring social network sizes, collecting specimens for biological testing, among others. Most of the reviewed studies are the first in their respective countries to collect data on hard-to-reach populations and the first attempt to use a probability-based sampling method. These RDS studies allowed researchers and public health practitioners in LAC to access hard-to-reach HIV high-risk populations and collect valuable data on the prevalence of HIV and other infections, as well as related risk behaviors. PMID:23568227

  3. Attempts to undermine tobacco control: tobacco industry "youth smoking prevention" programs to undermine meaningful tobacco control in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Sebrié, Ernesto M; Glantz, Stanton A

    2007-08-01

    We sought to understand how the tobacco industry uses "youth smoking prevention" programs in Latin America. We analyzed tobacco industry documents, so-called "social reports," media reports, and material provided by Latin American public health advocates. Since the early 1990s, multinational tobacco companies have promoted "youth smoking prevention" programs as part of their "Corporate Social Responsibility" campaigns. The companies also partnered with third-party allies in Latin America, most notably nonprofit educational organizations and education and health ministries. Even though there is no evidence that these programs reduce smoking among youths, they have met the industry's goal of portraying the companies as concerned corporate citizens and undermining effective tobacco control interventions that are required by the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. PMID:17600260

  4. Information Competence of Doctoral Students in Information Science in Spain and Latin America: A Self-Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, Maria; Fernandez-Ramos, Andres; Sanchez, Gerardo; Meneses, Grizly

    2013-01-01

    The study was carried out with students of official doctoral programs of Information Science in four universities in Spain and Latin America with the purpose of finding out, through self-assessments, student perceptions of their own information competence. A survey was designed to determine self-perceptions of knowledge, skills and attitudes…

  5. Child Labour and Basic Education in Latin America and the Caribbean: A Proposed UNICEF Initiative. Innocenti Essays No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Himes, James R.; And Others

    Following background information on primary school completion rates in Latin America and the Caribbean, this report discusses: (1) the problems of child labor in these regions; (2) a proposed action program for UNICEF and its partners; (3) an analysis of the child labor situation, including research and evaluation; and (4) possible solution…

  6. Development of Guidelines and Resource Materials on Latin America for Use in Grades 1-12. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Clark C.; Conroy, William B.

    The Latin America Project (1966-69) consisted of two phases: (1) completion of background studies and (2) preparation, field testing, and evaluation of instructional materials. Five background bulletins were prepared and distributed (See ED 012 832, ED 012 833, ED 012 365, ED 013 342, ED 022 781) and instructional materials organized around…

  7. The Status of Archivists in Relation to Other Information Professionals in the Public Service in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanodi, Aurelio

    This study is intended to promote the development of the archival and records management professions in Latin America by providing basic data on the status of professionals in this area in relation to other information professionals in the public service, particularly librarians and documentalists. It deals with the basic issues of recruitment,…

  8. Collective Memory: The African Presence in Latin America. A Study Guide on the Maroon Community of Esmeraldas, Ecuador.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belkin, Allen; And Others

    In this brief study guide, the focus is on the "maroons," those Africans who bravely threw off the chains of slavery and established independent communities within colonial Latin America. The specific study is of the history and culture of Esmeraldas, a province in northwestern Ecuador and home to one of the most interesting maroon communities,…

  9. First Case of Fungemia Due to Pseudozyma aphidis in a Pediatric Patient with Osteosarcoma in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Olmos, Eugenia; Taverna, Constanza Giselle; Murisengo, Omar Alejandro; Szuzs, Wanda; Vivot, Walter; Córdoba, Susana; Montanaro, Patricia Cristina

    2015-01-01

    We report the first case of blood infection due to Pseudozyma aphidis in Latin America. We contribute evidence showing this organism to be a potential human pathogen, and we provide new data about its identification, drug susceptibility, and treatment outcome. PMID:26292313

  10. First Case of Fungemia Due to Pseudozyma aphidis in a Pediatric Patient with Osteosarcoma in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Orecchini, Luisa Alejandra; Olmos, Eugenia; Taverna, Constanza Giselle; Murisengo, Omar Alejandro; Szuzs, Wanda; Vivot, Walter; Córdoba, Susana; Bosco-Borgeat, María Eugenia; Montanaro, Patricia Cristina

    2015-11-01

    We report the first case of blood infection due to Pseudozyma aphidis in Latin America. We contribute evidence showing this organism to be a potential human pathogen, and we provide new data about its identification, drug susceptibility, and treatment outcome. PMID:26292313

  11. The World of Work between the Personal and the Collective: A Demand for Social Justice and Guidance for Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bello, Julio Gonzalez; Chacón, Omaira

    2015-01-01

    The struggle for justice has been permanent for a very long period of time. In this sense, it could be said that since Plato conceived it as one of the fundamental virtues, justice has constituted a goal to achieve for any society. In the case of justice, related to social aspects, the situation has been overwhelming in Latin America. Based on a…

  12. An overview on the Space Weather in Latin America: from Space Research to Space Weather and its Forecast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Nardin, C. M.; Gonzalez-Esparza, A.; Dasso, S.

    2015-12-01

    We present an overview on the Space Weather in Latin America, highlighting the main findings from our review the recent advances in the space science investigations in Latin America focusing in the solar-terrestrial interactions, modernly named space weather, which leaded to the creation of forecast centers. Despite recognizing advances in the space research over the whole Latin America, this review is restricted to the evolution observed in three countries (Argentina, Brazil and Mexico) only, due to the fact that these countries have recently developed operational center for monitoring the space weather. The work starts with briefly mentioning the first groups that started the space science in Latin America. The current status and research interest of such groups are then described together with the most referenced works and the challenges for the next decade to solve space weather puzzles. A small inventory of the networks and collaborations being built is also described. Finally, the decision process for spinning off the space weather prediction centers from the space science groups is reported with an interpretation of the reason/opportunities that lead to it. Lastly, the constraints for the progress in the space weather monitoring, research, and forecast are listed with recommendations to overcome them.

  13. Assessment of Past Achievements and Future Perspectives of Educational Planning and Management in Latin America and the Caribbean. Regional Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bustos, Fabio M.

    Educational planning in Latin America is about three decades old. In the 1960s and 1970s educational systems in the region expanded dramatically. During this time countries institutionalized educational planning processes and allocated to them considerable human and financial resources. Educational management, however, did not receive sufficient…

  14. Planning National Parks for Ecodevelopment. Methods and Cases from Latin America. Volumes I and II. Reprint R073.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Kenton R.

    This book deals with methods for planning national parks to enable them to provide the greatest benefit to human activity. Chapters included are: (1) "A Conceptual Framework for the Management of Wildland Resources"; (2) "The Growth and Development of National Parks in Latin America"; (3) "Planning National Parks for Ecodevelopment in Latin…

  15. The Major Project in the Field of Education in Latin America and the Caribbean Region. Bulletin 16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Santiago (Chile). Regional Office for Education in Latin America and Caribbean.

    This bulletin is concerned with the efficiency and effectiveness of educational systems in Latin America and the Caribbean. "Adult Education between Two Models" (H. R. Lovisolo) investigates the concept of popular emancipatory education in Brazil and the transformation of MOBRAL (Brazilian Movement of Literacy) into the Fundacion EDUCAR.…

  16. The 1992 conference on Latin America's Energy Industry: New opportunities for growth through international investment and trade

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Liberal economic and political reforms in Latin America, a declining oil market in the US, and world events such as last year's Persian Gulf Crisis are making foreign investment in Latin America's energy sector increasingly attractive. The Persian Gulf crisis indicated the US must diversify oil sources; increased competition and deregulation in electric power generation and gas production are providing more opportunities for independent power producers at home and abroad; and Latin America's need for foreign financial and technical assistance are providing an important pull'' factor. Electricity needs in the developing world wig be huge in the years to come. In Latin America and the Caribbean, 66,500 mg of new capacity will be required by 1999. The developing world will require US $100 billion in energy investment a year. But Latin American countries will have trouble obtaining funds. The region will need to rely heavily on private international sources to finance future energy requirements. Multilateral development bank participation win remain critical, however, serving as a catalyst for government reform and private investment in the sector. In particular, World Bank lending will be focused on countries with a clear commitment to pricing reform, regulatory reform, competitive markets, non-market barriers, and technology transfer. Opportunities for foreign participation in the Latin American oil sector are particularly large in Ecuador, Peru, Argentina, and Venezuela. Mexico's plans for reform in the oil sector, a delicate issue in that country, appear to be less defined and likely to occur farther into the future. The conference made clear that a regulatory entity is needed even when the sector is owned by the government. Regulatory processes must be fair and transparent in order to ensure adequate financial and technical performance.

  17. The urgent need to change the current medical approach on tobacco cessation in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Ponciano-Rodríguez, Guadalupe

    2010-01-01

    Despite of the accumulation of scientific evidence confirming the health consequences of smoking and the new paradigm of smoking as a disease where nicotine is the drug that modifies the functional and morphological characteristics of the brain in dependent smokers, tobacco smoking continues as an important public health problem in many Latin American countries. In contrast with big advances in the tobacco control area, as an example the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control signed by 168 countries, the role of health professional in the fight against tobacco is still less than ideal. In many Latin American schools of medicine, deficiencies in medical education has led to insecure physicians when they have to motivate their patients to stop smoking or to prevent young people to begin tobacco consumption. If each general practitioner or specialist during their daily medical assistance could talk to their smoker patients about the big benefits of stop smoking and support them to get free of tobacco, we would be winning a battle against smoking. Also if we could achieve generations of young non smoking doctors, who could be a real example for patients, this could also impact the prevalence of smokers. In this article we analyze the neurobiological bases of nicotine addiction, which we think are missing in the medical curriculum and could help doctors to understand tobacco smoking as a disease rather than a risk factor, and discuss the main reasons supporting an urgent change in the medical approach of tobacco cessation in Latin America as well as the need to actualize the medical curriculum in order to give physicians the skills needed to intervene successfully with their smoker patients and to be themselves non smokers. PMID:21243210

  18. Perception of the usefulness of drug/gene pairs and barriers for pharmacogenomics in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Quinones, Luis Abel; Lavanderos, Maria Alejandra; Cayun, Juan Pablo; Garcia-Martin, Elena; Agundez, Jose Augusto; Caceres, Dante Daniel; Roco, Angela Margarita; Morales, Jorge E; Herrera, Luisa; Encina, Gonzalo; Isaza, Carlos Alberto; Redal, Maria Ana; Larovere, Laura; Soria, Nestor Walter; Eslava-Schmalbach, Javier; Castaneda-Hernandez, Gilberto; Lopez-Cortes, Andres; Magno, Luiz Alexandre; Lopez, Marisol; Chiurillo, Miguel Angel; Rodeiro, Idania; Castro de Guerra, Dinorah; Teran, Enrique; Estevez-Carrizo, Francisco; Lares-Assef, Ismael

    2014-02-01

    Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics areas are currently emerging fields focused to manage pharmacotherapy that may prevent undertreatment while avoiding associated drug toxicity in patients. Large international differences in the awareness and in the use of pharmacogenomic testing are presumed, but not well assessed to date. In the present study we review the awareness of Latin American scientific community about pharmacogenomic testing and the perceived barriers for their clinical application. In order to that, we have compiled information from 9 countries of the region using a structured survey which is compared with surveys previously performed in USA and Spain. The most relevant group of barriers was related to the need for clear guidelines for the use of pharmacogenomics in clinical practice, followed by insufficient awareness about pharmacogenomics among clinicians and the absence of regulatory institutions that facilitate the use of pharmacogenetic tests. The higher ranked pairs were TPMT/thioguanine, TPMT/azathioprine, CYP2C9/warfarin, UGT1A1/irinotecan, CYP2D6/amitriptiline, CYP2C19/citalopram and CYP2D6/clozapine. The lower ranked pairs were SLCO1B1/simvastatin, CYP2D6/metoprolol and GP6D/chloroquine. Compared with USA and Spanish surveys, 25 pairs were of lower importance for Latin American respondents. Only CYP2C19/esomeprazole, CYP2C19/omeprazole, CYP2C19/celecoxib and G6PD/dapsone were ranked higher or similarly to the USA and Spanish surveys. Integration of pharmacogenomics in clinical practice needs training of healthcare professionals and citizens, but in addition legal and regulatory guidelines and safeguards will be needed. We propose that the approach offered by pharmacogenomics should be incorporated into the decision-making plans in Latin America. PMID:24524664

  19. Use of antenatal corticosteroids for preterm birth in Latin America: providers knowledge, attitudes and practices

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Antenatal corticosteroids administered to women at risk of preterm birth is an intervention which has been proved to reduce the risk of respiratory distress syndrome, intraventricular hemorrhage, and neonatal mortality. There is a significant gap in the literature regarding the prevalence of the use of antenatal corticosteroids in Latin American countries and the attitudes and opinions of providers regarding this practice. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices of health care providers regarding the use of antenatal corticosteroids in women at risk of preterm birth in Latin America. Methods This was a multicenter, prospective, descriptive study conducted in maternity hospitals in Ecuador, El Salvador, Mexico and Uruguay. Physicians and midwives who provide prenatal care or intrapartum care for women delivering in the selected hospitals were approached using a self-administered questionnaire. Descriptive statistics was used. Results The percentage of use of ACT in threatened preterm labour (TPL) reported by providers varies from 70% in Mexico to 97% in Ecuador. However, 60% to 20% of the providers mentioned that they would not use this medication in women at risk and would limit its use when there was a threatened preterm labour. In only one country recommended regimens of antenatal corticosteroids are followed by around 90% of providers whereas in the other three countries recommended regimens are followed by only 21%, 61%, 69% of providers. Around 40% of providers mentioned that they would administer a new dose of corticosteroids again, regardless the patient already receiving an entire regimen. Between 11% and 35% of providers, according to the countries, mentioned that they do not have adequate information on the correct use of this medication. Conclusions This study shows that the use of this intervention could be improved by increasing the knowledge of Latin American providers on its indications, benefits, and

  20. Mineralogical maturity in dunefields of North America, Africa and Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhs, D.R.

    2004-01-01

    Studies of dunefields in central and western North America show that mineralogical maturity can provide new insights into the origin and evolution of aeolian sand bodies. Many of the world's great sand seas in Africa, Asia and Australia are quartz-dominated and thus can be considered to be mineralogically mature. The Algodones (California) and Parker (Arizona) dunes in the southwestern United States are also mature, but have inherited a high degree of mineralogical maturity from quartz-rich sedimentary rocks drained by the Colorado River. In Libya, sediments of the Zallaf sand sea, which are almost pure quartz, may have originated in a similar fashion. The Fort Morgan (Colorado) and Casper (Wyoming) dunefields in the central Great Plains of North America, and the Namib sand sea of southern Africa have an intermediate degree of mineralogical maturity because their sources are large rivers that drained both unweathered plutonic and metamorphic rocks and mature sedimentary rocks. Mojave Desert dunefields in the southwestern United States are quite immature because they are in basins adjacent to plutonic rocks that were their sources. Other dunefields in the Great Plains of North America (those in Nebraska and Texas) are more mature than any possible source sediments and therefore reflect mineralogical evolution over time. Such changes in composition can occur because of either of two opposing long-term states of the dunefield. In one state, dunes are stable for long periods of time and chemical weathering depletes feldspars and other weatherable minerals in the sediment body. In the other state, which is most likely for the Great Plains, abrasion and ballistic impacts deplete the carbonate minerals and feldspars because the dunes are active for longer periods than they are stable. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.